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Sample records for salivary amylase induction

  1. Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F; Andersen, J; Sales Baptista, E; Coelho, A V

    2008-03-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole saliva from animals fed on three experimental diets: tannin-free diet, diet with the incorporation of 5% hydrolyzable tannins (tannic acid), or diet with 5% condensed tannins (quebracho). Protein analysis was performed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry to allow the dynamic study of interactions between diet and saliva. Since abundant salivary proteins obscure the purification and identification of medium and low expressed salivary proteins, we used centrifugation to obtain saliva samples free from proteins that precipitate after tannin binding. Data from Peptide Mass Fingerprinting allowed us to identify ten different proteins, some of them showing more than one isoform. Tannin-enriched diets were observed to change the salivary protein profile. One isoform of alpha-amylase was overexpressed with both types of tannins. Aldehyde reductase was only identified in saliva of the quebracho group. Additionally, a hypertrophy of parotid salivary gland acini was observed by histology, along with a decrease in body mass in the first 4 days of the experimental period.

  2. Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F

    2008-01-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The ...

  3. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload.

  4. Salivary Amylase as a Marker of Salivary Gland Function in Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy for Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam, V K Vaishnavi; Boaz, Karen; Natarajan, Srikant; Ganapathy, Sivadas

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary amylase in patients with primary oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy as the main modality of treatment. The study was conducted on ten histologically proven cases of oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Stimulated whole saliva was collected at three stages of radiotherapy-0, 3, and 6 weeks. Salivary amylase was estimated using Henry-Chiamori method and comparison was made with appropriate age- and gender-matched controls. Salivary amylase levels showed significant decrease in healthy subjects when compared to oral cancer patients (P salivary amylase could be used as a surrogate marker of salivary gland function in patients with oral cancer undergoing radiotherapy as primary treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Salivary amylase - The enzyme of unspecialized euryphagous animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlke, Carolin; Zierau, Oliver; Hannig, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) is the most abundant enzyme in the saliva of man and of several vertebrates. In humans, salivary amylase is mainly formed in the parotid gland; its activity is of high inter-individual and intra-individual variability. The physiological functions of α-amylase have not yet been explored completely. It is well known that the enzyme cleaves the α-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds of polysaccharides. Furthermore it plays an important role in initial bioadhesion in man, facilitating carbohydrate metabolism and bacterial adherence at the tooth surface and therewith caries initiation. Nevertheless, it is still a matter of interest why humans have such high amounts of salivary amylase. The review presents an evolutionary approach by considering salivary amylase in the animal kingdom with special focus on mammalians divided into the three main nutritional types carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores; it was postulated that for most mammalian animals salivary α-amylase is essential. The enzyme has been detected in saliva of some herbivores and many omnivorous animals, but not in pure carnivores. Focusing on ruminants, negligible levels or an absence of α-amylase was determined. Presence and activity probably differ depending on the species-specific diet. Animals feeding on unripe fruits, seeds, roots and bulbs exhibit higher activity of salivary α-amylase than species consuming ripe fruits, insects, and vertebrates. In contrast to carnivores and most herbivores, omnivores have considerable amounts of amylase in their saliva. Though, the starch-digesting enzyme has been investigated well, the physiological function of amylase in saliva has not yet been explored completely. It can be hypothesized that nutritional habits affect expression of enzymes in the saliva of animals. It has to be verified, whether α-amylase is genetically or epigenetically determined. As a consequence of the development of agriculture, and following dietary changes, amylase can be

  6. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  7. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  8. Clinical Performance of a Salivary Amylase Activity Monitor During Hemodialysis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shimazaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemodialysis procedure is thought to be a physical stressor in the majority of hemodialyzed patients. Previous studies suggest that elevated salivary amylase level may correlate with increased plasma norepinephrine level under psychological and physical stress conditions. In this study, we investigated biological stress reactivity during hemodialysis treatment using salivary amylase activity as a biomarker. Seven patients (male/female = 5/2, age:67.7+ /− 5.9 years who had been receiving regular 4 h hemodialysis were recruited. Salivary amylase activity was measured using a portable analyzer every hour during the hemodialysis session. Salivary amylase activity was shown to be relatively stable and constant throughout hemodialysis, whereas there were significant changes in systolic blood pressure and pulse rate associated with blood volume reduction. Our results show that hemodialysis treatment per se dose not affect salivary amylase activity.

  9. Role of amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin on salivary protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been suggested that proteins serve as major salivary buffers below pH5. It remains unclear, however, which salivary proteins are responsible for these buffering properties. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the correlation between salivary concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, immunoglobulin A (IgA), ...

  10. Role of amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin on salivary protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-03-15

    Mar 15, 2013 ... It has been suggested that proteins serve as major salivary buffers below pH5. It remains unclear, however, which salivary proteins are responsible for these buffering properties. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the correlation between salivary concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, ...

  11. Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Sapra; Yogesh Kumar Vyas; Rahul Agarwal; Ashish Aggarwal; K T Chandrashekar; Kanika Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Background: Salivary amylase is an enzyme, which plays a vital role in formation of dental plaque. It has the ability to bind on the bacterial surfaces and to hydrolyze starch, giving rise to products that are transformed into acids leading to dental caries. Suppression of salivary amylase activity can lead to decrease in risk of dental caries and plaque associated periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an herb, Spilanthes calva (in form of a test dentifrice...

  12. Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly. The res...

  13. Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Gaurav; Vyas, Yogesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rahul; Aggarwal, Ashish; Chandrashekar, K T; Sharma, Kanika

    2013-07-01

    Salivary amylase is an enzyme, which plays a vital role in formation of dental plaque. It has the ability to bind on the bacterial surfaces and to hydrolyze starch, giving rise to products that are transformed into acids leading to dental caries. Suppression of salivary amylase activity can lead to decrease in risk of dental caries and plaque associated periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an herb, Spilanthes calva (in form of a test dentifrice) on human salivary amylase activity and to compare it with other dentifrices. A total of 80 subjects of age 18-35 years were randomly selected and divided equally into 4 groups. Group 1 subjects were assigned to use Test Dentifrice (with S. calva root extract), while Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 subjects were assigned to use Herbal Dentifrice (Arodent(™)), Synthetic Dentifrice (Colgate(®)), and Control Dentifrice respectively. Salivary amylase activity was determined by Bernfeld method in each group, before and after using the given dentifrices. Maximum inhibition of salivary amylase activity was found in the group using test dentifrice as compared to others. The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations.

  14. Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Gaurav; Vyas, Yogesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rahul; Aggarwal, Ashish; Chandrashekar, K T; Sharma, Kanika

    2013-01-01

    Background: Salivary amylase is an enzyme, which plays a vital role in formation of dental plaque. It has the ability to bind on the bacterial surfaces and to hydrolyze starch, giving rise to products that are transformed into acids leading to dental caries. Suppression of salivary amylase activity can lead to decrease in risk of dental caries and plaque associated periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an herb, Spilanthes calva (in form of a test dentifrice) on human salivary amylase activity and to compare it with other dentifrices. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of age 18-35 years were randomly selected and divided equally into 4 groups. Group 1 subjects were assigned to use Test Dentifrice (with S. calva root extract), while Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 subjects were assigned to use Herbal Dentifrice (Arodent™), Synthetic Dentifrice (Colgate®), and Control Dentifrice respectively. Salivary amylase activity was determined by Bernfeld method in each group, before and after using the given dentifrices. Results: Maximum inhibition of salivary amylase activity was found in the group using test dentifrice as compared to others. Conclusion: The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations. PMID:24130585

  15. Individual differences in AMY1 gene copy number, salivary α-amylase levels, and the perception of oral starch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L Mandel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The digestion of dietary starch in humans is initiated by salivary α-amylase, an endo-enzyme that hydrolyzes starch into maltose, maltotriose and larger oligosaccharides. Salivary amylase accounts for 40 to 50% of protein in human saliva and rapidly alters the physical properties of starch. Importantly, the quantity and enzymatic activity of salivary amylase show significant individual variation. However, linking variation in salivary amylase levels with the oral perception of starch has proven difficult. Furthermore, the relationship between copy number variations (CNVs in the AMY1 gene, which influence salivary amylase levels, and starch viscosity perception has not been explored. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that saliva containing high levels of amylase has sufficient activity to rapidly hydrolyze a viscous starch solution in vitro. Furthermore, we show with time-intensity ratings, which track the digestion of starch during oral manipulation, that individuals with high amylase levels report faster and more significant decreases in perceived starch viscosity than people with low salivary amylase levels. Finally, we demonstrate that AMY1 CNVs predict an individual's amount and activity of salivary amylase and thereby, ultimately determine their perceived rate of oral starch viscosity thinning. CONCLUSIONS: By linking genetic variation and its consequent salivary enzymatic differences to the perceptual sequellae of these variations, we show that AMY1 copy number relates to salivary amylase concentration and enzymatic activity level, which, in turn, account for individual variation in the oral perception of starch viscosity. The profound individual differences in salivary amylase levels and salivary activity may contribute significantly to individual differences in dietary starch intake and, consequently, to overall nutritional status.

  16. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase: subclinical indicators of stress as cardiometabolic risk

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    S. Cozma

    Full Text Available Currently, the potential for cardiovascular (CV stress-induced risk is primarily based on the theoretical (obvious side effects of stress on the CV system. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase, produced respectively by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM system during stress response, are still not included in the routine evaluation of CV risk and require additional and definitive validation. Therefore, this article overviews studies published between 2010 and 2015, in which salivary cortisol and α-amylase were measured as stress biomarkers to examine their associations with CV/CMR (cardiometabolic risk clinical and subclinical indicators. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases was performed, and 54 key articles related to the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as subclinical indicators of stress and CV/CMR factors, including studies that emphasized methodological biases that could influence the accuracy of study outcomes, were ultimately identified. Overall, the biological impact of stress measured by salivary cortisol and α-amylase was associated with CV/CMR factors. Results supported the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as potential diagnostic tools for detecting stress-induced cardiac diseases and especially to describe the mechanisms by which stress potentially contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of CV diseases.

  17. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase: subclinical indicators of stress as cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, S; Dima-Cozma, L C; Ghiciuc, C M; Pasquali, V; Saponaro, A; Patacchioli, F R

    2017-02-06

    Currently, the potential for cardiovascular (CV) stress-induced risk is primarily based on the theoretical (obvious) side effects of stress on the CV system. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase, produced respectively by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system during stress response, are still not included in the routine evaluation of CV risk and require additional and definitive validation. Therefore, this article overviews studies published between 2010 and 2015, in which salivary cortisol and α-amylase were measured as stress biomarkers to examine their associations with CV/CMR (cardiometabolic risk) clinical and subclinical indicators. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases was performed, and 54 key articles related to the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as subclinical indicators of stress and CV/CMR factors, including studies that emphasized methodological biases that could influence the accuracy of study outcomes, were ultimately identified. Overall, the biological impact of stress measured by salivary cortisol and α-amylase was associated with CV/CMR factors. Results supported the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as potential diagnostic tools for detecting stress-induced cardiac diseases and especially to describe the mechanisms by which stress potentially contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of CV diseases.

  18. Stress affects salivary alpha-Amylase activity in bonobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Verena; Deschner, Tobias; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2012-01-18

    Salivary alpha-Amylase (sAA) is a starch digesting enzyme. In addition to its function in the context of nutrition, sAA has also turned out to be useful for monitoring sympathetic nervous system activity. Recent studies on humans have found a relationship between intra-individual changes in sAA activity and physical and psychological stress. In studies on primates and other vertebrates, non-invasive monitoring of short-term stress responses is usually based on measurements of cortisol levels, which are indicative of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. The few studies that have used both cortisol levels and sAA activity indicate that these two markers may respond differently and independently to different types of stress such that variation in the degree of the activation of different stress response systems might reflect alternative coping mechanisms or individual traits. Here, we present the first data on intra- and inter-individual variation of sAA activity in captive bonobos and compare the results with information from other ape species and humans. Our results indicate that sAA activity in the bonobo samples was significantly lower than in the human samples but within the range of other great ape species. In addition, sAA activity was significantly higher in samples collected at times when subjects had been exposed to stressors (judged by changes in behavioral patterns and cortisol levels) than in samples collected at other times. Our results indicate that bonobos possess functioning sAA and, as in other species, sAA activity is influenced by autonomic nervous system activity. Monitoring sAA activity could therefore be a useful tool for evaluating stress in bonobos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes

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    TP Backes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise protocol was identical for both fluid conditions using absolute exercise intensities ranging from moderate to high. Saliva was collected prior to exercise, post moderate and post high intensities and analyzed by Salimetrics assays. Exercise was significant for sAA with values different between pre-exercise (85 ± 10 U • ml-1 and high intensity (284 ± 30 U • ml-1 as well as between moderate intensity (204 ± 32 U • ml-1 and high intensity. There was no difference in sAA values between fluid conditions at either intensity. Exercise intensity and fluid condition were each significant for cortisol. Cortisol values were different between pre-exercise (0.30 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 and high intensity (0.45 ± 0.05 ug • dL -1 as well as between moderate intensity (0.33 ± 0.04 ug • dL -1 and high intensity. Moderate exercise intensity cortisol was lower in the 500 ml condition (0.33 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 compared with the 150 ml condition (0.38 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 . This altered physiological response due to fluid consumption could influence sport performance and should be considered. In addition, future sport and exercise studies should control for fluid consumption.

  20. Obesity, starch digestion and amylase: association between copy number variants at human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) amylase genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpenter, Danielle; Dhar, Sugandha; Mitchell, Laura M; Fu, Beiyuan; Tyson, Jess; Shwan, Nzar A A; Yang, Fengtang; Thomas, Mark G; Armour, John A L

    2015-01-01

    The human salivary amylase genes display extensive copy number variation (CNV), and recent work has implicated this variation in adaptation to starch-rich diets, and in association with body mass index...

  1. Are salivary amylase and pH - Prognostic indicators of cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, Atmakuri Shanmukha; Uppala, Divya; Majumdar, Sumit; Surekha, Ch; Deepak, K G K

    2015-01-01

    Saliva, "Mirror of body's health" has long been of particular interest as a substitute for blood for disease diagnosis and monitoring. The radiation effects on salivary glands are of particular interest in which salivary amylase is a good indicator of salivary glands function. Thus, estimation of these parameters represents a reasonable approach in evaluation of patient's risk for disease occurrence, intensity and prognosis. To evaluate and compare the pH and amylase levels in saliva of cancer patients prior to treatment, patients during treatment. Saliva samples of 90 individuals were taken which were divided into 3 groups - 30 individuals without cancer, 30 cancer patients prior treatment and 30 cancer patients during treatment. Materials used were pH strips and pH meter, Salivary Amylase assay. Statistical analysis - ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey's test. 1) Significant decrease in salivary amylase levels - in cancer patients, during treatment when compared to others. 2) Significant decrease in salivary pH levels in newly diagnosed cancer patients prior to treatment. To conclude, pH strips and pH meter showed to be a useful tool in the measurement of pH of saliva in individuals with and without cancer. This study showed that cancer patients without treatment have a lower pH of saliva. Treatment increased the pH of the saliva to a more alkaline level whereas amylase levels decreased in those subjects. Therefore those parameters can be an area of further research with an increased sample size, which in-turn may help in opening the doors for new dimension in non invasive prognostic markers.

  2. Are salivary amylase and pH – Prognostic indicators of cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, Atmakuri Shanmukha; Uppala, Divya; Majumdar, Sumit; Surekha, Ch.; Deepak, K.G.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saliva, “Mirror of body's health” has long been of particular interest as a substitute for blood for disease diagnosis and monitoring. The radiation effects on salivary glands are of particular interest in which salivary amylase is a good indicator of salivary glands function. Thus, estimation of these parameters represents a reasonable approach in evaluation of patient's risk for disease occurrence, intensity and prognosis. Aim of study To evaluate and compare the pH and amylase levels in saliva of cancer patients prior to treatment, patients during treatment. Materials and methods Saliva samples of 90 individuals were taken which were divided into 3 groups - 30 individuals without cancer, 30 cancer patients prior treatment and 30 cancer patients during treatment. Materials used were pH strips and pH meter, Salivary Amylase assay. Results Statistical analysis – ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey's test. 1) Significant decrease in salivary amylase levels – in cancer patients, during treatment when compared to others. 2) Significant decrease in salivary pH levels in newly diagnosed cancer patients prior to treatment. Conclusion To conclude, pH strips and pH meter showed to be a useful tool in the measurement of pH of saliva in individuals with and without cancer. This study showed that cancer patients without treatment have a lower pH of saliva. Treatment increased the pH of the saliva to a more alkaline level whereas amylase levels decreased in those subjects. Therefore those parameters can be an area of further research with an increased sample size, which in-turn may help in opening the doors for new dimension in non invasive prognostic markers. PMID:26258019

  3. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  4. SALIVARY ALPHA-AMYLASE AS A BIOMARKER OF DENTAL FEAR AND ANXIETY IN CHILDREN

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    Réka GYERGYAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental treatment represents a stress factor for most children. The aim of the study was to analyse the variation of salivary alpha-amylase concentration in children after a video viewing on dental treatments. In this study, 7 to 10 year-old school children were evaluated (n=119. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected before and after viewing a 15 min video on dental treatments performed on children. Changes in salivary alpha-amylase levels have been assessed. Video viewing on dental procedures led to a significant increase of the alpha-amylase level in the whole sample group. This was noticeable in terms of gender as well as age groups. From the viewpoint of age and gender, girls displayed significantly higher levels of amylase in all age groups, while this could be observed only in younger boys. In conclusion, analysis of salivary alpha-amylase revealed that the sight of dental treatment represents a significant source of stress among children.

  5. Determinants of salivary evening alpha-amylase in a large sample free of psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Gerthe; Giltay, Erik J.; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a suitable index for sympathetic activity and dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Although determinants of sAA have been described, they have not been studied within the same study with a large sample size

  6. Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sapra

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations.

  7. Salivary α-amylase and cortisol after exercise in menopause: influence of long-term HRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patacchioli, F R; Ghiciuc, C M; Bernardi, M; Dima-Cozma, L C; Fattorini, L; Squeo, M R; Galoppi, P; Brunelli, R; Ferrante, F; Pasquali, V; Perrone, G

    2015-01-01

    This observational prospective study analyzed the effect of an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on the secretion of salivary biomarkers of the adrenergic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity by measuring salivary α-amylase and cortisol diurnal trajectories in the setting of long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Fifteen healthy sedentary postmenopausal women who were current HRT users and 15 women who had never used HRT were consecutively recruited. α-Amylase and cortisol were measured in salivary samples collected on the CPET day and on a rest day. Cardiovascular and respiratory fitness parameters were recorded during the CPET challenge. The participants had very homogeneous somatic characteristics, and they were all in generally good health. The postmenopausal never-HRT users presented an abnormal diurnal pattern of α-amylase at baseline and a flattened response to CPET. In contrast, women on HRT had a physiological α-amylase diurnal pattern and increased salivary α-amylase production during the CPET-induced challenge. The CPET challenge physiologically activated the HPA axis activity, as shown by the increase in the concentration of salivary cortisol during the effort test. HPA axis activity was not affected by long-term HRT. Postmenopausal women using HRT exhibited a cardiorespiratory functional capacity that was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of non-users. Our findings show that healthy postmenopausal women present an asymmetry between adrenergic nervous system and HPA axis activities under both basal and stress conditions. HRT was able to modify the abnormal adrenergic nervous system activity, most likely by reducing the sympathetic hyperactivity that characterizes menopause.

  8. Aerobic Fitness Level Affects Cardiovascular and Salivary Alpha Amylase Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Thomas; Boesch, Maria; Roos, Lilian; Tschopp, Céline; Frei, Klaus M; Annen, Hubert; La Marca, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training. Heart rate was measured continuously, and salivary alpha amylase was measured twice, before and after the stress intervention. In the same week, all volunteers participated in a physical fitness test and they responded to questionnaires on lifestyle factors and personal traits. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine ANS responses to acute psychosocial stress from physical fitness test performances, controlling for personal traits, behavioural factors, and socioeconomic data. Multiple linear regression revealed three variables predicting 15 % of the variance in heart rate response (area under the individual heart rate response curve during TSST-G) and four variables predicting 12 % of the variance in salivary alpha amylase response (salivary alpha amylase level immediately after the TSST-G) to acute psychosocial stress. A strong performance at the progressive endurance run (high maximal oxygen consumption) was a significant predictor of ANS response in both models: low area under the heart rate response curve during TSST-G as well as low salivary alpha amylase level after TSST-G. Further, high muscle power, non-smoking, high extraversion, and low agreeableness were predictors of a favourable ANS response in either one of the two dependent variables. Good physical fitness, especially good aerobic endurance capacity, is an important protective factor against health

  9. Evaluation of salivary glucose, amylase, and total protein in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indira, M; Chandrashekar, P; Kattappagari, Kiran Kumar; Chandra, Lalith Prakash K; Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Bv, Ramana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by a deficit in the production of insulin. The oral complications of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus are devastating. Saliva is an organic fluid that can be collected noninvasively and by individuals with limited training. These reasons create an interest in evaluating the possibility of using saliva as a diagnostic tool. The aim of this study was to determine, if saliva can be used as a noninvasive tool to monitor glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes. Comparative assessment of salivary (glucose, amylase, total protein levels) in patients with Type 2 diabetes and controls. A total of 40 individuals, 20 with Type 2 diabetes and 20 controls of age group 40-60 years were selected for the study. Diabetic status was assessed by estimating random blood glucose levels. Unstimulated saliva was collected from each participant and investigated for glucose, amylase, and total protein levels. Salivary glucose estimation was performed using glucose-oxidase method, amylase by the direct substrate kinetic enzymatic method, and total protein by pyrogallol red dye end point method. All the parameters were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 20.0. Significantly higher salivary glucose, lower amylase, and total proteins were observed in patients with Type 2 diabetes than controls. There was no significant correlation between salivary and blood glucose levels. These results suggest that diabetes influences the composition of saliva. Since a significant correlation was not observed between salivary and blood glucose levels, further research is needed to determine salivary glucose estimation as a diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus.

  10. The effect of a brief salivary α-amylase exposure during chewing on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolnough, James W; Bird, Anthony R; Monro, John A; Brennan, Charles S

    2010-07-26

    There is inconsistency between current in vitro digestion methods with regard to accommodation of a (salivary) α-amylase exposure during the oral phase. The effect of a salivary α-amylase pre-exposure on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles for various foods was investigated. Foods were chewed, expectorated and the boluses left to rest for 0-15 min. During pancreatic digestion, aliquots were taken and hydrolysis curves constructed for comparison against those of the same foods comminuted with a manually-operated chopper, hence spared exposure to saliva. Hydrolysate aliquots taken at T(0) (time zero) of the digestion of chewed samples contained higher levels of glucose and dextrins compared with chopped samples. Pancreatin activity immediately overwhelmed differences in sugar released due to salivary amylase activity. Within 10 min no differences were detectable between hydrolysis curves for chewed and chopped foods. Salivary amylase pretreatment does not contribute to the robustness or relative accuracy of in vitro methods.

  11. Immunohistochemical and quantitative changes in salivary EGF, amylase and haptocorrin following radiotherapy for oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Hansen, H S; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), amylase and haptocorrin are molecules produced in the salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to determine immunohistochemical and quantitative alterations in EGF as compared with haptocorrin and amylase following radiotherapy for oral cancer. Changes...... a reduction in the mitogenic peptide EGF both immunohistochemically and quantitatively following irradiation for oral cancer, results which may contribute to the understanding of the clinical signs of mucositis........ The concentration of EGF in saliva before treatment was significantly higher in patients than in the control group (p oral tumors contribute with EGF to the saliva. In conclusion we have demonstrated...

  12. The relationship between the level of salivary alpha amylase activity and pain severity in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Assessment of dental pain severity is very challenging in dentistry. Previous studies have suggested that elevated salivary alpha amylase may contribute to increased physical stresses. There is a close association between salivary alpha amylase and plasma norepinephrine under stressful physical conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain severity and salivary alpha amylase levels in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients (20 females and 16 males with severe tooth pain due to symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were selected. The visual analogue scale (VAS score was used to assess the pain severity in each patient. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, and the level of alpha amylase activity was assessed by the spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13. Results The level of alpha amylase was significantly increased in the saliva in association with pain severity assessed by VAS. The salivary alpha amylase was also elevated with increased age and in males. Conclusions There was a significant correlation between the VAS pain scale and salivary alpha amylase level, which indicates this biomarker may be a good index for the objective assessment of pain intensity.

  13. Normative references of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase in a healthy young male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiromitsu; Park, Bum-Jin; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-04-20

    This study aimed to present normative reference values of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase in a healthy young male population with a particular focus on their distribution and reproducibility. The short-term heart rate variability of 417 young healthy Japanese men was studied. Furthermore, salivary alpha-amylase was measured in 430 men. The average age of the subjects were 21.9 years with standard deviation of 1.6 years. Interindividual variations in heart rate variability indices and salivary alpha-amylase levels were plotted as histograms. Data are presented as the mean, median, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, skewness, kurtosis, and fifth and 95th percentiles of each physiological index. Mean recorded values were heart period 945.85 ms, log-transformed high frequency component 9.84 ln-ms2, log-transformed low frequency component 10.42 ln-ms2, log-transformed low frequency to high frequency ratio 0.58 ln-ratio, standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval 27.17 ms and root mean square of successive difference 37.49 ms. The mean value of raw salivary alpha-amylase was 17.48 U/mL, square root salivary alpha-amylase 3.96 sqrt[U/mL] and log-transformed salivary alpha-amylase 2.65 ln[U/mL]. Log-transformed heart rate variability indices exhibited almost symmetrical distributions; however, time-domain indices of heart rate variability (standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval and root mean square of successive difference) exhibited right-skewed (positive skewness) distributions. A considerable right-skewed distribution was observed for raw salivary alpha-amylase. Logarithmic transformation improved the distribution of salivary alpha-amylase, although square root transformation was insufficient. The day-to-day reproducibility of these indices was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Intraclass correlation coefficients of most heart rate variability and salivary indices were approximately 0.5 to 0.6. Intraclass correlation

  14. Diurnal trajectories of salivary cortisol, salivary α-amylase and psychological profiles in oral lichen planus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippi, R; Patini, R; Ghiciuc, C M; Sandu, R B; Pasquali, V; Scaccianoce, S; Dima-Cozma, L C; Patacchioli, F R

    2014-01-01

    Although many reports have been published on the link between oral lichen planus (OLP) and the stress-related neuro-psycho-endocrine clinical features of the disease over the last 20 years, the data still remain controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the personality traits of OLP subjects and assess the subjects' capability of coping with stress challenges. Cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured as reliable markers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activities in salivary samples collected by the participants at their home during the sampling day (07:30, 12:00, and 19:30). Compared with the healthy controls, the OLP patients demonstrated a less effective coping ability, had higher scores in stress perception and loneliness, and had no significant variation in their anxiety and depressive symptoms. The OLP patients also showed dysregulation of the HPA axis activity with a significant reduction of diurnal salivary cortisol production, which was particularly significant in the morning hours. No significant variation was found in the OLP salivary alpha-amylase diurnal fluctuation and production, which was measured at the same time point as that for cortisol. In conclusion, we report that OLP subjects had a reduced capability of coping with stress events and presented a dysregulation of HPA axis activity with hypocortisolism detected in the morning hours.

  15. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase: subclinical indicators of stress as cardiometabolic risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cozma, S.; Dima-Cozma, L.C.; Ghiciuc, C.M.; Pasquali, V.; Saponaro, A.; Patacchioli, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the potential for cardiovascular (CV) stress-induced risk is primarily based on the theoretical (obvious) side effects of stress on the CV system. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase, produced respectively by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system during stress response, are still not included in the routine evaluation of CV risk and require additional and definitive validation. Therefore, this article overviews studies published ...

  16. Estimation of salivary amylase and total proteins in leukemia patients and its correlation with clinical feature and radiographic finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukemia is a fatal disease. The oral manifestations of the leukemias occur early in the course of the disease and these oral features can at times act as a diagnostic indicator. Saliva has been used as a diagnostic aid in a number of systemic diseases. Materials and Methods: In our study, samples of unstimulated saliva of 30 leukemia patients who were not on chemotherapy were collected and analyzed for salivary amylase and total protein. The oral manifestations and radiographic changes (OPG were recorded. The correlation between the oral manifestations and the salivary components (salivary amylase and total protein was assessed for prognostic significance. Results: In the present study when the mean values of salivary amylase (1280±754 U/ml and total protein (647.2±320.7 mg% were compared with that in control subjects. There was a statistically significant difference for amylase levels (P<.05. On intraoral examination the study subjects showed pallor, gingivitis, gingival enlargement, petechiae, and ecchymosis. On the OPG, the radiographic features included generalized rarefaction of bone (20%, thinning of lamina dura (3.4%, generalized alveolar crest bone resorption (30%, thinning of walls of alveolar crypts (6.7%, besides others, e.g., periapical abscess (10%. Conclusions: The saliva of leukemic patients demonstrated obvious changes in composition. A rise in salivary amylase and total protein levels was evident, with the increase in amylase levels being statistically significant.

  17. Estimation of salivary amylase and total proteins in leukemia patients and its correlation with clinical feature and radiographic finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, L; Sujatha, G P; Hema, G

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia is a fatal disease. The oral manifestations of the leukemias occur early in the course of the disease and these oral features can at times act as a diagnostic indicator. Saliva has been used as a diagnostic aid in a number of systemic diseases. In our study, samples of unstimulated saliva of 30 leukemia patients who were not on chemotherapy were collected and analyzed for salivary amylase and total protein. The oral manifestations and radiographic changes (OPG) were recorded. The correlation between the oral manifestations and the salivary components (salivary amylase and total protein) was assessed for prognostic significance. In the present study when the mean values of salivary amylase (1280±754 U/ml) and total protein (647.2±320.7 mg%) were compared with that in control subjects. There was a statistically significant difference for amylase levels (P<.05). On intraoral examination the study subjects showed pallor, gingivitis, gingival enlargement, petechiae, and ecchymosis. On the OPG, the radiographic features included generalized rarefaction of bone (20%), thinning of lamina dura (3.4%), generalized alveolar crest bone resorption (30%), thinning of walls of alveolar crypts (6.7%), besides others, e.g., periapical abscess (10%). The saliva of leukemic patients demonstrated obvious changes in composition. A rise in salivary amylase and total protein levels was evident, with the increase in amylase levels being statistically significant.

  18. Comparing Dental Stress in New Child Patients and Returning Patients Using Salivary Cortisol, Immunoglobulin-A and Alpha- Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaki, Sumer M; Safi, Ayman; Ouda, Soliman; Nadhreen, Alaa

    this study was aimed at comparing dental stress in children having their first dental visit to those returning for dental treatment using salivary biomarkers of stress including salivary cortisol (s-cortisol), Immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) and alpha-amylase (s-α-amylase). Additionally, the study was aimed at monitoring the change in stress in new patients as they progressed from the waiting to the clinical areas. salivary samples were collected from 40 children who had not been to a dentist before and similar samples were collected from 40 children who were returning for completion of dental treatment. Salivary cortisol, s-IgA and s-α-amylase concentrations were obtained by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). salivary cortisol levels were higher for new patients at the waiting area compared to that at the dental chair (p=0.05). Salivary alpha-amylase significantly increased in new patients while being seated in the dental chair. Returning patients had higher s-α-amylase (p=0.001) and s-IgA (p=0.016) compared to new patients. Returning patients had the lowest level of s-cortisol when providers were faculty pediatric dentists than with students and interns (p=0.035). children coming in for their first dental visit may experience dental stress at the waiting area before being seated for dental examination. Returning children may experience higher levels of stress compared to new child patients possibly due to previous dental exposure.

  19. HPLC method for measurement of human salivary α-amylase inhibition by aqueous plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, István; Takács, Ákos; Pósa, Anikó; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi

    2017-06-01

    Control of hyperglycemia is an important treatment in metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes and obesity. α-Amylase, as the first enzyme of glucose release from dietary polysaccharides, is a potential target to identify new sources of novel anti-obesity and anti-diabetic drugs. In this work, different herbal extracts as α-amylase inhibitors were studied by measuring the rate of the cleavage of a maltooligomer substrate 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-β-D-maltoheptoside. Measurement of chromophore containing products after reversed phase HPLC separation was used for α-amylase activity measurement. Rates of hydrolysis catalysed by human salivary α-amylase were determined in the presence and absence of lyophilised water extracts of eleven herbs. Remarkable bioactivities were found for extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (bark), Camellia sinensis L. (leaf), Ribes nigrum L. (leaf), Laurus nobilis L. (leaf), Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton (fruit) and Syzygium aromaticum L. (bud). Determined IC50 values were in 0.017-41 μg/ml range for these six selected plant extracts. Our results confirm the applicability of this HPLC-based method for the quick and reliable comparison of plants as α-amylase inhibitors.

  20. Awakening responses and diurnal fluctuations of salivary cortisol, DHEA-S and α-amylase in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Cozma-Dima, Corina Lucia; Pasquali, Vittorio; Renzi, Paolo; Simeoni, Simona; Lupusoru, Catalina Elena; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2011-01-01

    Because the cortisol awakening response (CAR) has received increasing attention as a useful index of adrenocortical activity, the primary objective of this study was to investigate the presence of an awakening response for various salivary biomarkers of adrenocortical activity, including dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), which acts as a cortisol antagonist, and α-amylase, which is a predictor of circulating catecholamine activity. Salivary biological indicators are considered to be valuable markers of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis diurnal activity. In an attempt to overcome problems associated with non-adherence to the requested sampling protocol, only young, healthy males with a physiological CAR value (defined as a 50% increase in salivary cortisol within 30 min after waking) were included in the study (67 out of 102 who initially enrolled met this criterion). Our results suggested that, as is already known for cortisol, DHEA-S and α-amylase have significant awakening responses. In addition, daily profile of salivary cortisol, α-amylase and DHEA-S fluctuations were analysed. Significant correlations were found between salivary cortisol, DHEA-S and α-amylase levels. The results showed that cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations were inversely correlated with α-amylase levels. This correlation confirmed the distinctiveness of the two regulatory systems: salivary cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations reflect the activity of the HPA axis, whereas α-amylase activity is more closely related to sympathetic activity. In addition, the present study emphasizes the potential value of saliva collection (which is both easy and stress-free) in monitoring changes of adrenal function, confirming that multiple sampling (especially within 1 h after awakening) is necessary to reliably characterise biomarker activity when investigating neuroendocrine changes under various conditions.

  1. Cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase and children's perceptions of their social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, Davide; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Geary, David C; Flinn, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of social network analysis in biobehavioral research. Despite the well-established importance of social relationships in influencing human behavior and health, little is known about how children's perception of their immediate social relationships correlates with biological parameters of stress. In this study we explore the association between two measures of children's personal social networks, perceived network size and perceived network density, with two biomarkers of stress, cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase. Forty children (mean age = 8.30, min age = 5, and max age = 12) were interviewed to collect information about their friendships and three samples of saliva were collected. Our results show that children characterized by a lower pre-interview cortisol concentration and a lower salivary alpha-amylase reactivity to the interview reported the highest density of friendships. We discuss this result in light of the multisystem approach to the study of children's behavioral outcomes, emphasizing that future work of this kind is needed in order to understand the cognitive and biological mechanisms underlying children's and adolescents' social perceptual biases.

  2. Oral Digestion and Perception of Starch: Effects of Cooking, Tasting Time, and Salivary α-Amylase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Penner, Michael H; Balto, Amy S; Lim, Juyun

    2017-10-01

    Since starch is a significant part of human diet, its oral detection would be highly beneficial. This study was designed to determine whether starch or its degradation products can be tasted and what factors influence its perception. Subjects were asked 1) to taste 8% raw and cooked starch samples for 5, 15, and 35 s and rate perceived intensities of sweetness and "other" taste (i.e., other than sweet), 2) to donate saliva to obtain salivary flow rate (mg/s) and salivary α-amylase activity (per mg saliva), and 3) to fill out a carbohydrate consumption survey. Subsequently, in vitro hydrolysis of starch was performed; saliva was collected from 5 subjects with low and high amylase activities and reacted with 8% raw and cooked starch at 2, 15, and 30 s. Hydrolysis products were then quantified using a High performance liquid chromatography. The results showed cooking increased the digestibility of starch such that the amount of hydrolysis products increased with reaction time. However, cooking did not influence taste ratings, nor were they influenced by tasting time. Subjects' salivary amylase activities were associated with the efficacy of their saliva to degrade starch, in particular cooked starch, and thus the amount of maltooligosaccharide products generated. Effective α-amylase activity [i.e. α-amylase activity (per mg saliva) × salivary flow rate (mg/s)] and carbohydrate consumption score (i.e. consumption frequency × number of servings) were also independently associated with sensory taste ratings. Human perception of starch is undoubtedly complex as shown in this study; the data herein point to the potential roles of salivary α-amylase activity and carbohydrate consumption in the perception of cooked starch. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Effect of a Brief Salivary α-Amylase Exposure During Chewing on Subsequent in Vitro Starch Digestion Curve Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolnough, James W.; Bird, Anthony R.; Monro, John A.; Brennan, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    There is inconsistency between current in vitro digestion methods with regard to accommodation of a (salivary) α-amylase exposure during the oral phase. The effect of a salivary α-amylase pre-exposure on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles for various foods was investigated. Foods were chewed, expectorated and the boluses left to rest for 0–15 min. During pancreatic digestion, aliquots were taken and hydrolysis curves constructed for comparison against those of the same foods comminuted with a manually-operated chopper, hence spared exposure to saliva. Hydrolysate aliquots taken at T0 (time zero) of the digestion of chewed samples contained higher levels of glucose and dextrins compared with chopped samples. Pancreatin activity immediately overwhelmed differences in sugar released due to salivary amylase activity. Within 10 min no differences were detectable between hydrolysis curves for chewed and chopped foods. Salivary amylase pretreatment does not contribute to the robustness or relative accuracy of in vitro methods. PMID:21152272

  4. The Effect of a Brief Salivary α-Amylase Exposure During Chewing on Subsequent in Vitro Starch Digestion Curve Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Brennan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is inconsistency between current in vitro digestion methods with regard to accommodation of a (salivary α-amylase exposure during the oral phase. The effect of a salivary α-amylase pre-exposure on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles for various foods was investigated. Foods were chewed, expectorated and the boluses left to rest for 0–15 min. During pancreatic digestion, aliquots were taken and hydrolysis curves constructed for comparison against those of the same foods comminuted with a manually-operated chopper, hence spared exposure to saliva. Hydrolysate aliquots taken at T0 (time zero of the digestion of chewed samples contained higher levels of glucose and dextrins compared with chopped samples. Pancreatin activity immediately overwhelmed differences in sugar released due to salivary amylase activity. Within 10 min no differences were detectable between hydrolysis curves for chewed and chopped foods. Salivary amylase pretreatment does not contribute to the robustness or relative accuracy of in vitro methods.

  5. Reducing of salivary α-amylase inhibition by using bovine serum albumin and calcium chloride for forensic saliva screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Jun; Ohmura, Masako

    2017-09-01

    Inhibiting salivary α-amylase is a critical issue of forensic saliva identification using the catalytic method. This study aims to identify human α-amylase inhibitors in forensic saliva screening by using a blue starch amylase test and to measure the extent of enzyme inhibition. Thus, in order to demonstrate the presence of inhibitors, we prepared positively charged metal ion sources or chelators that were mixed into the saliva stains. The results of this study show that ferric chloride (FeCl3), magnesium chloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and citric acid significantly decrease the α-amylase activity of saliva stains. We also verified this approach using blood, a magnesium-containing liquid supplement, and two citric acid-containing soft drinks that were contaminated with saliva stains as forensic mock samples; these samples also showed a significant reduction in salivary α-amylase activity. To establish an inhibitor-resistant blue starch amylase test, we applied bovine serum albumin (BSA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) to the reaction system. The results show that salivary α-amylase inhibition of the forensic mock samples occurred under normal test conditions (i.e., 300ng/µL BSA, 0mM CaCl2), and that inhibition was significantly relieved under the BSA+CaCl2 conditions (i.e., 1000ng/µL BSA, 5mM CaCl2). Therefore, the results of this study demonstrate that both BSA and CaCl2 can be utilized as reaction stabilizers in forensic saliva screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Salivary α-Amylase And Chromogranin A In Anxiety-Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tananska Valeria T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salivary α-amylase (sAA and chromogranin A (sCgA are at the forefront of current biochemical research on anxiety. Their use is being driven by the sudden surge of interest in “salivaomics,” a new field in medicine studying saliva’s genetic code, proteome and methabolom. Interestingly, it is not the primary functions of the enzyme and the protein, but the ingenious capture of their secondary ones (maintenance of the acid-alkaline balance and bactericidal / antifungal action that allows for a swift, precise and pain-free measurement under physical and mental duress. Upon stimulation, sAA and sCgA are almost simultaneously released. Studying them allows a closer look at the autonomic nervous system (ANS as opposed to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA, which involves a long cascade of complex, hard to measure and interpret bio-chemical reactions.

  7. Salivary alpha amylase in on-call from home fire and emergency service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of working on-call from home on the sympatho-adrenal medullary system activity is currently unknown. This study had two aims, Aim 1: examine salivary alpha amylase awakening response (AAR and diurnal salivary alpha amylase (sAA profile in fire and emergency service workers who operate on-call from home following a night on-call with a call (NIGHT-CALL, a night on-call without a call (NO-CALL and an off-call night (OFF-CALL, and Aim 2: explore whether there was an anticipatory effect of working on-call from home (ON compared to when there was an off-call (OFF on the diurnal sAA profile. Participants wore activity monitors, completed sleep and work diaries and collected seven saliva samples a day for one week. AAR area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCG, AAR area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCI, AAR reactivity, diurnal sAA slope, diurnal sAA AUCG and mean 12-h sAA concentrations were calculated. Separate generalised estimating equation models were constructed for each variable of interest for each aim. For Aim 1, there were no differences between NIGHT-CALL or NO-CALL and OFF-CALL for any response variable. For Aim 2, there was no difference between any response variable of interest when ON the following night compared to when OFF the following night (n = 14. These findings suggest that there is no effect of working on-call from home on sAA, but should be interpreted with caution, as overnight data were not collected. Future research, using overnight heart rate monitoring, could help confirm these findings.

  8. Cognitive Performance and Morning Levels of Salivary Cortisol and [alpha]-Amylase in Children Reporting High vs. Low Daily Stress Perception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique F Maldonado; Francisco J Fernandez; M Victoria Trianes; Keith Wesnes; Orlando Petrini; Andrea Zangara; Alfredo Enguix; Lara Ambrosetti

    2008-01-01

      The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of daily stress perception on cognitive performance and morning basal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels in healthy children aged 9-12...

  9. Longitudinal and immediate effect of Kundalini Yoga on salivary levels of cortisol and activity of alpha-amylase and its effect on perceived stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jocelyn García-Sesnich; Mauricio Flores; Marcela Ríos; Jorge Aravena

    2017-01-01

    ...: To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY) effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity...

  10. Comparison of salivary levels of mucin and amylase and their relation with clinical parameters obtained from patients with aggressive and chronic periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    ACQUIER, Andrea Beatriz; PITA, Alejandra Karina De Couto; BUSCH, Lucila; S?NCHEZ, Gabriel Antonio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salivary mucin and amylase levels are increased in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Due to the fact that aggressive periodontitis (AgP) not only differs from chronic periodontitis in terms of its clinical manifestation, the aim of this study was to compare salivary mucin and amylase levels and their relation to the clinical parameters of patients with aggressive periodontitis with that of patients with chronic periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty subjects were divid...

  11. Lactase persistence and augmented salivary alpha-amylase gene copy numbers might have been selected by the combined toxic effects of gluten and (food born) pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruimboom, Leo; Fox, Tom; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    Various positively selected adaptations to new nutrients have been identified. Lactase persistence is among the best known, conferring the ability for drinking milk at post weaning age. An augmented number of amylase gene (AMY1) copies, giving rise to higher salivary amylase activity, has been

  12. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Pvalue, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (P0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  13. Obesity, starch digestion and amylase: association between copy number variants at human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) amylase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Danielle; Dhar, Sugandha; Mitchell, Laura M; Fu, Beiyuan; Tyson, Jess; Shwan, Nzar A A; Yang, Fengtang; Thomas, Mark G; Armour, John A L

    2015-06-15

    The human salivary amylase genes display extensive copy number variation (CNV), and recent work has implicated this variation in adaptation to starch-rich diets, and in association with body mass index. In this work, we use paralogue ratio tests, microsatellite analysis, read depth and fibre-FISH to demonstrate that human amylase CNV is not a smooth continuum, but is instead partitioned into distinct haplotype classes. There is a fundamental structural distinction between haplotypes containing odd or even numbers of AMY1 gene units, in turn coupled to CNV in pancreatic amylase genes AMY2A and AMY2B. Most haplotypes have one copy each of AMY2A and AMY2B and contain an odd number of copies of AMY1; consequently, most individuals have an even total number of AMY1. In contrast, haplotypes carrying an even number of AMY1 genes have rearrangements leading to CNVs of AMY2A/AMY2B. Read-depth and experimental data show that different populations harbour different proportions of these basic haplotype classes. In Europeans, the copy numbers of AMY1 and AMY2A are correlated, so that phenotypic associations caused by variation in pancreatic amylase copy number could be detected indirectly as weak association with AMY1 copy number. We show that the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay previously applied to the high-throughput measurement of AMY1 copy number is less accurate than the measures we use and that qPCR data in other studies have been further compromised by systematic miscalibration. Our results uncover new patterns in human amylase variation and imply a potential role for AMY2 CNV in functional associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

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    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  15. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Enzyme, Psychological Disorders, and Life Quality in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

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    Juliana Andrade Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate stress, anxiety, and salivary alpha-amylase (SAA activity in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS. The impact of this disease on the life quality was also evaluated. Design. Twenty-two patients with RAS and controls, matched by sex and age, were selected. Stress and anxiety were assessed using Lipp’s Inventory of Stress Symptoms and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Life quality was assessed through the World Health Organization Quality of Life-bref (WHOQOL-BREF and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14. Saliva samples were collected in the morning and afternoon and the SAA activity was analyzed by enzymatic kinetic method. Results. No significant difference was observed between the groups regarding the SAA activity (p=0.306. Patients with RAS had higher scores of anxiety (p=0.016. The scores of WHOQOL-BREF were significantly lower in patients with RAS. The values obtained through OHIP-14 were significantly higher in these patients (p=0.002. Conclusion. RAS negatively affects the life quality. Patients with the disease have higher levels of anxiety, suggesting its association with the etiopathogenesis of RAS.

  16. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Enzyme, Psychological Disorders, and Life Quality in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juliana Andrade; dos Santos Junior, André Avelino; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate stress, anxiety, and salivary alpha-amylase (SAA) activity in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). The impact of this disease on the life quality was also evaluated. Design. Twenty-two patients with RAS and controls, matched by sex and age, were selected. Stress and anxiety were assessed using Lipp's Inventory of Stress Symptoms and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Life quality was assessed through the World Health Organization Quality of Life-bref (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). Saliva samples were collected in the morning and afternoon and the SAA activity was analyzed by enzymatic kinetic method. Results. No significant difference was observed between the groups regarding the SAA activity (p = 0.306). Patients with RAS had higher scores of anxiety (p = 0.016). The scores of WHOQOL-BREF were significantly lower in patients with RAS. The values obtained through OHIP-14 were significantly higher in these patients (p = 0.002). Conclusion. RAS negatively affects the life quality. Patients with the disease have higher levels of anxiety, suggesting its association with the etiopathogenesis of RAS. PMID:28408928

  17. Effects of methamphetamine on the noradrenergic activity biomarker salivary alpha-amylase.

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    Haile, Colin N; De La Garza, Richard; Mahoney, James J; Newton, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) potently activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) by increasing central and peripheral norepinephrine (NE). Salivary α-amylase (sAA) is a biomarker of SNS activation that correlates with plasma NE levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of METH on sAA activity and whether changes in sAA activity were correlated with subjective effects ratings. Non-treatment seeking METH-dependent volunteers (N=8) participated in this within-subjects laboratory-based study. Volunteers received randomly administered intravenous METH (0mg, 30 mg) and sAA activity, cardiovascular measures and subjective ratings were assessed at baseline (-15 min) and five post-METH time points (10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 min). METH (30 mg) increased sAA activity over time. sAA activity significantly correlated with diastolic blood pressure following 0mg METH and systolic blood pressure following 30 mg METH. Subjective ratings (ANY EFFECT, HIGH, GOOD, STIMULATED, LIKE, WLLING TO PAY) highly correlated with sAA over five post-METH time points (N=40; r's=0.543-0.684, p'sbiomarker sAA activity is associated with METH's subjective effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Discovering an accessible enzyme: Salivary α-amylase : Prima digestio fit in ore: A didactic approach for high school students.

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    Marini, Isabella

    2005-03-01

    Human salivary α-amylase is used in this experimental approach to introduce biology high school students to the concept of enzyme activity in a dynamic way. Through a series of five easy, rapid, and inexpensive laboratory experiments students learn what the activity of an enzyme consists of: first in a qualitative then in a semi-quantitative way. They also learn how some environmental effectors can influence it. The choice of a "human body" enzyme and not an anonymous commercial enzyme is a very attractive one for students. This laboratory approach will be integrated with theoretical knowledge about α-amylase, starch, their physiological meaning, and biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2005 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Effects of methamphetamine on the noradrenergic activity biomarker salivary alpha-amylase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Colin N.; De La Garza, Richard; Mahoney, James J.; Newton, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (METH) potently activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) by increasing central and peripheral norepinephrine (NE). Salivary α-amylase (sAA) is a biomarker of SNS activation that correlates with plasma NE levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of METH on sAA activity and whether changes in sAA activity were correlated with subjective effects ratings. Methods Non-treatment seeking METH-dependent volunteers (N=8) participated in this within-subjects laboratory-based study. Volunteers received randomly administered intravenous METH (0mg, 30mg) and sAA activity, cardiovascular measures and subjective ratings were assessed at baseline (−15 min) and five post-METH time points (10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 min). Results METH (30mg) increased sAA activity over time. sAA activity significantly correlated with diastolic blood pressure following 0mg METH and systolic blood pressure following 30mg METH. Subjective ratings (ANY EFFECT, HIGH, GOOD, STIMULATED, LIKE, WLLING TO PAY) highly correlated with sAA over five post-METH time points (N=40; r’s=0.543–0.684, p’s <0.001). Age, body mass index and METH amount received on a mg/kg basis were significantly associated with sAA activity. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated sAA activity remained a significant predictor of subjective ratings following METH after controlling for these factors. Conclusions The NE peripheral biomarker sAA activity is associated with METH’s subjective effects. PMID:23968815

  20. Relationship Between Meditation Depth and Waking Salivary Alpha-Amylase Secretion Among Long-Term MBSR Instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Wirth, Michael D; Robb, Sara Wagner

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize sympathetic activity by using waking salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) concentrations in a group of long-term meditation instructors and to examine the association between meditation (depth, dose and duration) and the waking alpha-amylase response. Salivary alpha-amylase samples were collected (immediately upon waking and at 15-min, 30-min and 45-min intervals after waking) from mindfulness-based stress reduction instructors to determine both the area under the curve and the awakening slope (difference in alpha-amylase concentrations between waking and 30-min post-waking). It was determined through general linear models that neither years of meditation nor meditation dose were associated with the awakening sAA slope, but higher scores for meditation depth (greater depth) was associated with a more negative (or steeper) awakening slope [Quartile (Q)1: -7 versus Q4: -21 U/mL; p = 0.06], in fully adjusted models. Older age (p = 0.04) and a later time of waking (p < 0.01) also were associated with less negative awakening slope values. Smoking was associated with lower area under the curve values (smokers: 1716 U/mL versus nonsmokers: 2107 U/mL; p = 0.05) in fully adjusted models. The results suggest a 'healthy' sAA waking slope among individuals who meditate more deeply. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Beneficial effect of a high number of copies of salivary amylase AMY1 gene on obesity risk in Mexican children.

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    Mejía-Benítez, María A; Bonnefond, Amélie; Yengo, Loïc; Huyvaert, Marlène; Dechaume, Aurélie; Peralta-Romero, Jesús; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; García Mena, Jaime; El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S; Falchi, Mario; Cruz, Miguel; Froguel, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in Mexico, affecting one in every three children. Genome-wide association studies identified genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, but a large missing heritability remains to be elucidated. We have recently shown a strong association between a highly polymorphic copy number variant encompassing the salivary amylase gene (AMY1 also known as AMY1A) and obesity in European and Asian adults. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the association between AMY1 copy number and obesity in Mexican children. We evaluated the number of AMY1 copies in 597 Mexican children (293 obese children and 304 normal weight controls) through highly sensitive digital PCR. The effect of AMY1 copy number on obesity status was assessed using a logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex. We identified a marked effect of AMY1 copy number on reduced risk of obesity (OR per estimated copy 0.84, with the number of copies ranging from one to 16 in this population; p = 4.25 × 10(-6)). The global association between AMY1 copy number and reduced risk of obesity seemed to be mostly driven by the contribution of the highest AMY1 copy number. Strikingly, all children with >10 AMY1 copies were normal weight controls. Salivary amylase initiates the digestion of dietary starch, which is highly consumed in Mexico. Our current study suggests putative benefits of high number of AMY1 copies (and related production of salivary amylase) on energy metabolism in Mexican children.

  2. Comparison of salivary levels of mucin and amylase and their relation with clinical parameters obtained from patients with aggressive and chronic periodontal disease

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    Andrea Beatriz ACQUIER

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective Salivary mucin and amylase levels are increased in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP. Due to the fact that aggressive periodontitis (AgP not only differs from chronic periodontitis in terms of its clinical manifestation, the aim of this study was to compare salivary mucin and amylase levels and their relation to the clinical parameters of patients with aggressive periodontitis with that of patients with chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods Eighty subjects were divided into two groups: 20 patients with AgP and their 20 matched controls and 20 patients with CP and their 20 matched controls, based on clinical attachment loss (CAL, probing pocket depth (PPD and bleeding on probing (BOP. Whole unstimulated saliva was obtained and mucin, amylase and protein were determined by colorimetric methods. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between salivary mucin, amylase and protein levels and the clinical parameters. Results Salivary mucin, amylase and protein levels were increased in patients with AgP and CP but there were no differences between them or between control groups. Pearson's correlation analysis, determined in the entire subjects studied, showed a positive and significant correlation of mucin, amylase and proteins with CAL and PPD and a negative correlation with the flow rate. When Pearson's correlation analysis was carried out in each group separately, Fisher's z transformation showed no significant difference between both groups. Conclusion Comparison of the salivary levels of mucin, amylase and protein and their relationship with clinical parameters of AgP patients with that of CP patients revealed no differences between both groups.

  3. Evaluation of salivary glucose, amylase, and total protein in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

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    M Indira

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that diabetes influences the composition of saliva. Since a significant correlation was not observed between salivary and blood glucose levels, further research is needed to determine salivary glucose estimation as a diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus.

  4. Measurements of salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol in hominoid primates reveal within-species consistency and between-species differences.

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    Verena Behringer

    Full Text Available Salivary alpha amylase (sAA is the most abundant enzyme in saliva. Studies in humans found variation in enzymatic activity of sAA across populations that could be linked to the copy number of loci for salivary amylase (AMY1, which was seen as an adaptive response to the intake of dietary starch. In addition to diet dependent variation, differences in sAA activity have been related to social stress. In a previous study, we found evidence for stress-induced variation in sAA activity in the bonobos, a hominoid primate that is closely related to humans. In this study, we explored patterns of variation in sAA activity in bonobos and three other hominoid primates, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan to (a examine if within-species differences in sAA activity found in bonobos are characteristic for hominoids and (b assess the extent of variation in sAA activity between different species. The results revealed species-differences in sAA activity with gorillas and orangutans having higher basal sAA activity when compared to Pan. To assess the impact of stress, sAA values were related to cortisol levels measured in the same saliva samples. Gorillas and orangutans had low salivary cortisol concentrations and the highest cortisol concentration was found in samples from male bonobos, the group that also showed the highest sAA activity. Considering published information, the differences in sAA activity correspond with differences in AMY1 copy numbers and match with general features of natural diet. Studies on sAA activity have the potential to complement molecular studies and may contribute to research on feeding ecology and nutrition.

  5. Diurnal patterns and associations among salivary cortisol, DHEA and alpha-amylase in older adults☆

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    Wilcox, Rand R.; Granger, Douglas A.; Szanton, Sarah; Clark, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Background Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are considered to be valuable markers of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, while salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reflects the autonomic nervous system. Past studies have found certain diurnal patterns among these biomarkers, with some studies reporting results that differ from others. Also, some past studies have found an association among these three biomarkers while other studies have not. This study investigates these patterns and associations in older adults by taking advantage of modern statistical methods for dealing with non-normality, outliers and curvature. Basic characteristics of the data are reported as well, which are relevant to understanding the nature of any patterns and associations. Methods Boxplots were used to check on the skewness and presence of outliers, including the impact of using simple transformations for dealing with non-normality. Diurnal patterns were investigated using recent advances aimed at comparing medians. When studying associations, the initial step was to check for curvature using a non-parametric regression estimator. Based on the resulting fit, a robust regression estimator was used that is designed to deal with skewed distributions and outliers. Results Boxplots indicated highly skewed distributions with outliers. Simple transformations (such as taking logs) did not deal with this issue in an effective manner. Consequently, diurnal patterns were investigated using medians and found to be consistent with some previous studies but not others. A positive association between awakening cortisol levels and DHEA was found when DHEA is relatively low; otherwise no association was found. The nature of the association between cortisol and DHEA was found to change during the course of the day. Upon awakening, cortisol was found to have no association with sAA when DHEA levels are relatively low, but otherwise there is a negative association. DHEA was found to have a

  6. Diurnal patterns and associations among salivary cortisol, DHEA and alpha-amylase in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Rand R; Granger, Douglas A; Szanton, Sarah; Clark, Florence

    2014-04-22

    Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are considered to be valuable markers of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, while salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reflects the autonomic nervous system. Past studies have found certain diurnal patterns among these biomarkers, with some studies reporting results that differ from others. Also, some past studies have found an association among these three biomarkers while other studies have not. This study investigates these patterns and associations in older adults by taking advantage of modern statistical methods for dealing with non-normality, outliers and curvature. Basic characteristics of the data are reported as well, which are relevant to understanding the nature of any patterns and associations. Boxplots were used to check on the skewness and presence of outliers, including the impact of using simple transformations for dealing with non-normality. Diurnal patterns were investigated using recent advances aimed at comparing medians. When studying associations, the initial step was to check for curvature using a non-parametric regression estimator. Based on the resulting fit, a robust regression estimator was used that is designed to deal with skewed distributions and outliers. Boxplots indicated highly skewed distributions with outliers. Simple transformations (such as taking logs) did not deal with this issue in an effective manner. Consequently, diurnal patterns were investigated using medians and found to be consistent with some previous studies but not others. A positive association between awakening cortisol levels and DHEA was found when DHEA is relatively low; otherwise no association was found. The nature of the association between cortisol and DHEA was found to change during the course of the day. Upon awakening, cortisol was found to have no association with sAA when DHEA levels are relatively low, but otherwise there is a negative association. DHEA was found to have a positive association with s

  7. Discovering an Accessible Enzyme: Salivary [alpha]-Amylase--"Prima Digestio Fit in Ore"--A Didactic Approach for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Isabella

    2005-01-01

    Human salivary [alpha]-amylase is used in this experimental approach to introduce biology high school students to the concept of enzyme activity in a dynamic way. Through a series of five easy, rapid, and inexpensive laboratory experiments students learn what the activity of an enzyme consists of: first in a qualitative then in a semi-quantitative…

  8. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

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    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  9. The diurnal course of salivary alpha-amylase in nurses: an investigation of potential confounders and associations with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Schulz, Michael; Damkroeger, Annika; Philippsen, Christine; Rose, Matthias; Driessen, Martin

    2010-09-01

    In psychoneuroendocrinology research, salivary measures have become increasingly important. While several studies focus on determinants of salivary cortisol such as age, gender, and gynaecological variables, less research has focused on confounding variables of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA). In a large sample of nurses (N=215) we analyzed the impact of age, gender, intake of oral contraceptives, smoking, coffee consumption as well as psychological parameters, such as work stress and burnout, on basal diurnal sAA release. Saliva was collected at 07:00 h, 11:30 h, 17:30 h, and 20:00 h on a working day during early shift. Only gender could be identified to have an impact on sAA, with females having a more pronounced sAA increase over the course of the day. Whereas depression, anxiety, work stress and burnout were not associated with sAA, a small negative correlation between social difficulties, measured with the Chronic Stress Screening Scale, and sAA could be identified. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Food restriction alters salivary cortisol and α-amylase responses to a simulated weightlifting competition without significant performance modification.

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    Durguerian, Alexandre; Filaire, Edith; Drogou, Catherine; Bougard, Clément; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a 6-day food restriction period on the physiological responses and performance of 11 high-level weightlifters. After a period of weight maintenance (T 2 ), they were assigned into two groups depending on whether they lost (Diet group, n = 6) or maintained their body weight (Control group, n = 5) during the course of those 6 days. An evaluation of performance and the measurement of salivary cortisol concentrations and salivary α-amylase (sAA) activity were performed during a simulated weightlifting competition which took place at T 2 , after a 6-day period of food restriction (T 3 ). Dietary data were collected using a 6-day diet record. We noted a 41.8% decrease in mean energy intake during the dietary restriction period, leading to a 4.34% weight loss for the Diet group. Dietary restriction did not modify absolute performance levels, whilst a significant improvement was noted for the Control group. Furthermore, we noted a response of decreased salivary cortisol and increased sAA activity to the simulated competition stress at T 3 for the Diet group. These results may indicate that dietary reduction led to a dissociation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympatho-adreno-medullary system, which could impair training adaptations and absolute performance development.

  11. Salivary cortisol, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and α-amylase in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-Il; Kim, Y-Y; Chang, J-Y; Ko, J-Y; Kho, H-S

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate salivary markers related with burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Thirty female patients with BMS and twenty female control subjects were included. Unstimulated (UWS) and stimulated whole saliva samples (SWS) were collected, and their flow rates were determined. Salivary levels of cortisol, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and enzymatic activity of α-amylase were determined. Salivary transferrin level was measured to determine the level of blood contamination in saliva samples.   The levels of all analytes in UWS were significantly correlated with those of SWS. The levels of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, and DHEA in UWS were significantly correlated with age. Age-matched comparisons revealed that the patient group had significantly higher levels of cortisol in UWS and of 17β-estradiol in SWS. When the patients were divided into older (≥60years) and younger (cortisol in UWS and of 17β-estradiol in SWS compared with controls. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Longitudinal and Immediate Effect of Kundalini Yoga on Salivary Levels of Cortisol and Activity of Alpha-Amylase and Its Effect on Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sesnich, Jocelyn N; Flores, Mauricio Garrido; Ríos, Marcela Hernández; Aravena, Jorge Gamonal

    2017-01-01

    Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY) effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T-test or Mann-Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P < 0.05. KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  13. Longitudinal and immediate effect of Kundalini Yoga on salivary levels of cortisol and activity of alpha-amylase and its effect on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn N García-Sesnich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. Aims: To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. Settings and Design: To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. Subjects and Methods: The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro–Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T-test or Mann–Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P< 0.05. Results: KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. Conclusions: KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  14. Dietary starch intake modifies the relation between copy number variation in the salivary amylase gene and BMI.

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    Rukh, Gull; Ericson, Ulrika; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna; Orho-Melander, Marju; Sonestedt, Emily

    2017-07-01

    Background: Studies have shown conflicting associations between the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) copy number and obesity. Salivary amylase initiates starch digestion in the oral cavity; starch is a major source of energy in the diet.Objective: We investigated the association between AMY1 copy number and obesity traits, and the effect of the interaction between AMY1 copy number and starch intake on these obesity traits.Design: We first assessed the association between AMY1 copy number (genotyped by digital droplet polymerase chain reaction) and obesity traits in 4800 individuals without diabetes (mean age: 57 y; 60% female) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort. Then we analyzed interactions between AMY1 copy number and energy-adjusted starch intake (obtained by a modified diet history method) on body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage.Results:AMY1 copy number was not associated with BMI (P = 0.80) or body fat percentage (P = 0.38). We observed a significant effect of the interaction between AMY1 copy number and starch intake on BMI (P-interaction = 0.007) and body fat percentage (P-interaction = 0.03). Upon stratification by dietary starch intake, BMI tended to decrease with increasing AMY1 copy numbers in the low-starch intake group (P = 0.07) and tended to increase with increasing AMY1 copy numbers in the high-starch intake group (P = 0.08). The lowest mean BMI was observed in the group of participants with a low AMY1 copy number and a high dietary intake of starch.Conclusions: Our findings suggest an effect of the interaction between starch intake and AMY1 copy number on obesity. Individuals with high starch intake but low genetic capacity to digest starch had the lowest BMI, potentially because larger amounts of undigested starch are transported through the gastrointestinal tract, contributing to fewer calories extracted from ingested starch. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Salivary Secretory IgA and Alpha-Amylase in South African Children.

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    Starzak, Dorota E; Konkol, Kristen F; McKune, Andrew J

    2016-07-30

    This study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body composition are associated with salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), a mucosal immunity marker, and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of stress-related sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, in South African children. Morning (7:30-8:00 a.m.) saliva samples were collected from 132 children (10.05 ± 1.68 years old, 74 females, 58 males). Body composition, resting blood pressure, and predicted maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) were determined, and SIgA and sAA were quantified. Obese children had significantly higher sAA compared with overweight and normal weight children (p < 0.01). SIgA secretion rate was significantly lower in obese and overweight vs. normal weight children (p < 0.01). Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.05) were independent predictors of sAA with CRF acting as a mitigator. Age and BMI predicted SIgA secretion rate (p < 0.05) with BMI (p < 0.001) found to be an independent predictor of SIgA secretion rate. Obesity, based on BMI, was associated with elevated SNS activity and lowered mucosal immunity. CRF-mitigated sympathetic activation was not associated with mucosal immunity.

  16. Interactions between salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase as predictors of children's cognitive functioning and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peggy S; El-Sheikh, Mona; Granger, Douglas A; Buckhalt, Joseph A

    2012-02-28

    We examined relations between salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase (sAA), and children's cognitive and academic functioning. Of interest were curvilinear and interactive effects of these salivary measures on cognitive and academic performance. Data were based on a sample of 28 boys and 36 girls (ages 8 and 9) in the Southeastern U.S.A. Children provided resting afternoon saliva samples. Children completed standardized tests of Intellectual Ability and schools provided academic achievement information. Regression analyses demonstrated significant curvilinear relations and interactions between cortisol and sAA in the prediction of child functioning. Contrary to current models of interactions among biological systems, findings indicated some of the highest and lowest scores were predicted at moderate levels of physiological arousal. For example, children with moderate sAA and either higher or lower cortisol had low predicted scores for Reading Ability. Children with moderate cortisol and lower sAA had the highest predicted scores for Intellectual Ability. Findings suggest that the study of interactions between biological stress response systems should not be based on models of rectilinear interactions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Salivary chromogranin A, but not α-amylase, correlates with cardiovascular parameters during high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Sabina; Di Mauro, Michele; D'Amico, Maria Angela; D'Angelo, Emanuele; Sablone, Andrea; Di Fonso, Alessia; Bascelli, Adriana; Izzicupo, Pascal; Di Baldassarre, Angela

    2011-12-01

    Several studies have shown that activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in the increased secretion of α-amylase (sAA), an enzyme produced by salivary glands. Recently, chromogranin A (CgA), a soluble protein costored and coreleased with catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerve endings, has been proposed as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of salivary chromogranin A (sCgA) and sAA during high-intensity exercise and to analyse their possible correlation with cardiovascular and psychological parameters. Before and during a standardized treadmill stress test, and at 5, 15 and 30 min during the recovery phase, sCgA and sAA were monitored in 21 healthy men. The double product (DP) of blood pressure and heart rate responses, and the product of the subjective ratings of perceived exertion recorded at the final step (RPE) and the exercise duration were used as indices of cardiovascular and exercise intensity, respectively. With respect to baseline, significant (P exercise. During the recovery phase, sAA levels fell abruptly, whereas sCgA remained elevated (P exercise intensity highlights the potential use of this noninvasive parameter in monitoring the adrenergic response during intense physical stress. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. A small randomized pilot study of a workplace mindfulness-based intervention for surgical intensive care unit personnel: effects on salivary α-amylase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, Anne-Marie; Steinberg, Beth A; Marks, Donald R; Vanover, Kristin; Klatt, Maryanna

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether a workplace stress-reduction intervention decreases reactivity to stress among personnel exposed to a highly stressful occupational environment. Personnel from a surgical intensive care unit were randomized to a stress-reduction intervention or a waitlist control group. The 8-week group mindfulness-based intervention included mindfulness, gentle yoga, and music. Psychological and biological markers of stress were measured 1 week before and 1 week after the intervention. Levels of salivary α-amylase, an index of sympathetic activation, were significantly decreased between the first and second assessments in the intervention group with no changes in the control group. There was a positive correlation between salivary α-amylase levels and burnout scores. These data suggest that this type of intervention could decrease not only reactivity to stress but also the risk of burnout.

  19. A Small Randomized Pilot Study of a Workplace Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Surgical Intensive Care Unit Personnel: Effects on Salivary α-Amylase Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, Anne-Marie; Steinberg, Beth A.; Marks, Donald R.; Vanover, Kristin; Klatt, Maryanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if a workplace stress-reduction intervention decreases reactivity to stress among personnel exposed to a highly stressful occupational environment. Methods Personnel from a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) were randomized to a stress reduction intervention or a wait-list control group. The 8-week group mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) included mindfulness, gentle yoga and music. Psychological and biological markers of stress were measured one week before and one week after the intervention. Results Levels of salivary α-amylase, an index of sympathetic activation, were significantly decreased between the 1st and 2nd assessments in the intervention group with no changes in the control group. There was a positive correlation between salivary α-amylase levels and burnout scores. Conclusions These data suggest that this type of intervention could not only decrease reactivity to stress, but also decrease the risk of burnout. PMID:25629803

  20. Sex Differences in Salivary Cortisol, Alpha-Amylase, and Psychological Functioning Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Flinn, Mark V.

    2010-01-01

    The study examines group and individual differences in psychological functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity among adolescents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and living in a U.S. government relocation camp (n = 62, ages 12-19 years) 2 months postdisaster. Levels of salivary cortisol, salivary…

  1. Effect of the parotid salivary gland on calcium and amylase enzyme levels in blood and its influence on bone healing in albino rats (Histological and radiographic study)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Zainy, Medhat A.; Ahmed Mahmoud Halawa; Radwa Taher Elsharkawy

    2017-01-01

    The healing potential of bone is influenced by a variety of biochemical, cellular, hormonal and pathological mechanisms. As previous studies stated that parotid salivary glands may have endocrinal role, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of parotidectomy on bone healing and on calcium and amylase enzyme levels in blood. The rats were divided into two groups; control and experimental group. The control group was subjected to unilateral surgical mandibular defects, while the exper...

  2. Heart rate, salivary α-amylase activity, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhakis, Aristidis; Menexes, George; Coolidge, Trilby; Kalfas, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Psychosomatic indicators, such as heart rate (HR), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) activity, and behavior, can be used to determine stress. This study's aim was to assess the pattern of changes of salivary alpha amylase, heart rate, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental treatment under local anesthesia. Included were 30 children with no prior dental experience who needed 4 or more sessions of dental treatment involving local anesthesia. In each session, sAA, HR, and behavior were assessed before and during the application of local anesthesia and at the end of the treatment. The highest sAA value was always observed at the end of each session; overall, the value was lower in the fourth session. HR always increased during the local anesthesia, and did not vary across sessions. No significant relationship was found between child cooperation and either sAA or HR. In this sample, child cooperation may not be an accurate indicator of stress. Based on salivary alpha amylase activity changes, dental treatment involving local anesthesia in naïve children appeared to be less stressful after 3 sessions.

  3. The impact of attentional training on the salivary cortisol and alpha amylase response to psychosocial stress: importance of attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Kamala; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Paquin, Karine

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effects of three consecutive days of attentional training on the salivary alpha amylase (sAA), cortisol, and mood response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The training was designed to elicit faster disengagement of attention away from threatening facial expressions and faster shifts of attention toward positive ones. Fifty-six healthy participants between the ages of 18 and 30 participated in a double-blind, within-subject experiment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three attentional training conditions - supraliminal training: pictures shown with full conscious awareness, masked training: stimuli presented with limited conscious awareness, or control training: both supraliminal and masked pictures shown but no shifting of attention required. Following training, participants underwent the TSST. Self-reported mood and saliva samples were collected for the determination of emotional reactivity, cortisol, and sAA in response to stress post-training. Unexpectedly, participants in both attentional training groups exhibited a higher salivary cortisol response to the TSST relative to participants who underwent the control training, F (4, 86)=4.07, p=.005, ηp(2)=.16. Supraliminal training was also associated with enhanced sAA reactivity, F (2, 44)=13.90, p=.000, ηp(2)=.38, and a more hostile mood response (p=.021), to the TSST. Interestingly, the effect of attention training on the cortisol response to stress was more robust in those with high attentional control than those with low attentional control (β=-0.134; t=-2.24, p=.03). This is among the first experimental manipulations to demonstrate that attentional training can elicit a paradoxical increase in three different markers of stress reactivity. These findings suggest that attentional training, in certain individuals, can have iatrogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stilbene Glucoside, a Putative Sleep Promoting Constituent from Polygonum multiflorum Affects Sleep Homeostasis by Affecting the Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Salivary Alpha Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qian; Ta, Guang; He, Wenjing; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiucheng

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for treating insomnia for centuries. The most used CHM for insomnia was Polygonum multiflorum. However, the molecular mechanism for CHM preventing insomnia is unknown. Stilbene glucoside (THSG), an important active component of P. multiflorum, may play an important role for treating insomnia. To test the hypothesis, Kunming mice were treated with different dosages of THSG. To examine the sleep duration, a computer-controlled sleep-wake detection system was implemented. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) electrodes were implanted to determine sleep-wake state. RT-PCR and Western blot was used to measure the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and saliva alpha amylase. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to identify the strength of correlation between the variables. The results showed that THSG significantly prolonged the sleep time of the mice (p<0.01). THSG changed sleep profile by reducing wake and rapid eye movement (REM) period, and increasing non-REM period. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that THSG could down-regulate the levels of LDH and saliva alpha amylase (p<0.05). The level of lactate and glucose was positively related with the activity of LDH and saliva alpha amylase (p<0.05), respectively. On the other hand, the activities of LDH and amylase were negatively associated with sleep duration (p<0.05). The levels of lactate and glucose affect sleep homeostasis. Thus, THSG may prevent insomnia by regulating sleep duration via LDH and salivary alpha amylase.

  5. The feasibility of ambulatory biosensor measurement of salivary alpha amylase: Relationships with self-reported and naturalistic psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Theodore F; Shetty, Vivek; Zigler, Corwin M; Glover, Dorie A; Elashoff, David; Murphy, Debra; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in biosensor technology allow point-of-use reporting of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels while approaching the precision and accuracy of conventional laboratory-based testing. We deployed a portable prototype sAA biosensor in 54 healthy, male dental students during a low stress baseline and during final exams. At baseline, participants completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). At baseline and the exam week, participants provided saliva samples at 10 AM, 1 PM, and 5 PM, and rated concurrent subjective distress. Although subjective distress was higher during exams compared to baseline, sAA levels did not differ between baseline and exams. Higher sAA levels were related to higher concurrent subjective distress, and higher depressive and social isolation symptoms on the BSI were related to lower sAA during exams. Results from this study, in combination with previous validation data, suggest that the sAA biosensor is a promising tool for point-of-use measures of exposure to stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic performance of initial salivary alpha-amylase activity for acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Lung; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Kuo, Hung-Yi; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chu, Hsin

    2012-10-01

    To rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in chest pain patients constitutes a diagnostic challenge to emergency department (ED) physicians. To evaluate the diagnostic value of measuring salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity for detecting AMI in patients presenting to the ED with acute chest pain. sAA activity was measured in a prospective cohort of 473 consecutive adult patients within 4 h of onset of chest pain. Comparisons were made between patients with a final diagnosis of AMI and those with non-AMI. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression model were used to identify independent clinical predictors of AMI. Initial sAA activity in the AMI group (n = 85; 266 ± 127.6 U/mL) was significantly higher than in the non-AMI group (n = 388; 130 ± 92.8 U/mL, p acute chest pain was 0.826 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.782-0.869), with diagnostic odds ratio 10.87 (95% CI 6.16-19.18). With a best cutoff value of 197.7 U/mL, the sAA activity revealed moderate sensitivity and specificity as an independent predictor of AMI (78.8% and 74.5%). High initial sAA activity is an independent predictor of AMI in patients presenting to the ED with chest pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influência do fumo na atividade da amilase salivar e na curva glicêmica Influence of smoking on salivary amylase activity and glycemic curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moriel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a atividade da amilase salivar e a relação com a glicemia, antes e após a ingestão de carboidratos em fumantes e não fumantes, uma vez que in vitro a exposição da saliva à fumaça do cigarro induz à redução da atividade da amilase salivar e poderia influenciar na absorção dos carboidratos da dieta. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados voluntários fumantes (n=10 e não fumantes (n=10. Realizou-se coletas da saliva antes e após o fumo e determinou-se a glicemia antes e após a ingestão de 72g de carboidratos. Para glicemia usaram-se tempos de 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 minutos. A determinação da atividade da amilase salivar foi realizada por meio de kits comerciais. A glicemia foi determinada utilizando o aparelho Glicomiter (Accu-Chek-Roche. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas no software Sigmastat, utilizou-se o método Teste t pareado (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine salivary amylase activity and its relationship with glycemia before and after smokers and nonsmokers ingested carbohydrates. Since cigarette smoke reduces salivary amylase activity in vitro, it may affect dietary carbohydrate absorption. METHODS: Twenty volunteers participated in this study, 10 smokers and 10 nonsmokers. Samples of saliva were collected before and after the smokers had a cigarette and glycemia was determined before and after the ingestion of 72g of carbohydrates. Glycemia was measured 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after carbohydrate intake. Salivary amylase activity was determined by commercial kits. Glycemia was determined by a glucometer (Accu-Chek-Roche. The paired t-test was used for the statistical analyses, done by the software Sigmastat, with p<0.05. RESULTS: Glycemia 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes after carbohydrate intake rose 3.9%, 11.9%, 34.8% and 22.7% in nonsmokers and 4.9%, 6.5%, 13.8% and 9.7% in smokers, respectively. The peak glucose absorption in nonsmokers was 21.0% greater than in smokers. Salivary

  8. Optimization of Auto-induction Conditions for the Heterologous Expression of a Maltogenic Amylase in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Goudarzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Auto-induction is usually employed to achieve high cell density and overproduction of proteins with a simple and low-cost operation. The efficiency of heterologous protein expression in Escherichia coli is determined by different parameters. Interactions between these parameters usually complicate the identification of those that contribute more to the improvement of protein expression. As optimal implementation of the auto-induction considerably relies on both the composition of the auto-induction medium and induction conditions, the present study focused on the optimization of related culture parameters through response surface methodology. Materials and Methods: In the first step, the optimum culture temperature and auto-induction duration were determined with the aim of achieving the highest specific activity. Then the culture composition was optimized through response surface methodology considering the concentration of carbon sources, glucose and lactose, as the variables for the simultaneous maximizing of the Maltogenic Amylase volumetric yield and specific activity. Results and Conclusion: Expression of recombinant Maltogenic Amylase under optimum conditions in the shake-flask cultures of Escherichia coli harboring pET 28a increased by 1.7 folds in comparison with an un-optimized auto-induction culture. The Maltogenic Amylase specific activity and volumetric yield were found to be 34.93 U mg-1 and 390.78 U ml-1 at optimum conditions, respectively.

  9. Blunted cortisol response to psychosocial stress in atopic patients is associated with decrease in salivary alpha-amylase and aldosterone: Focus on sex and menstrual cycle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacova, N; Solarikova, P; Marko, M; Brezina, I; Jezova, D

    2017-04-01

    A decreased responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis to stress stimuli in patients with atopy is well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate personality traits, salivary alpha-amylase activity and the aldosterone response to psychosocial stress procedure based on public speech in atopic patients with respect to sex and the menstrual cycle (MC) phase. The study was performed in 106 subjects of both sexes, 53 atopic patients suffering from allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis and 53 age-, sex-, the MC phase- and BMI- matched healthy controls. Substantially attenuated activity of alpha-amylase and reduced secretion of aldosterone during the psychosocial stress were observed in the whole sample of patients with atopy. Higher activity of alpha-amylase observed in the follicular compared to the luteal phase in healthy women was not present in atopic patients. In both males and females, atopy was associated with blunted cortisol response but no changes in the heart rate. Psychological characterization revealed a significantly higher trait anxiety and higher preference for avoidance-oriented coping strategy in female but not male atopic patients. These findings provide evidence that patients with atopy exhibit insufficient alpha-amylase and aldosterone responsiveness to psychosocial stress, thus suggesting decreased sympathetic activity. Potential disturbances in sex hormone status during the MC in female patients with atopy have to be considered in future research. Changes in personality traits were demonstrated in female atopic patients, but not in male patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Examining multiple sleep behaviors and diurnal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase: Within- and between-person associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lenten, Scott A; Doane, Leah D

    2016-06-01

    Sleep has been linked to the daily patterns of stress-responsive physiological systems, specifically the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, extant research examining sleep and diurnal patterns of cortisol, the primary end product of the HPA axis, has primarily focused on sleep duration with limited attention on other facets of sleep. For example, it is not clear how specific aspects of sleep (e.g., sleep quality, sleep duration variability) are related to specific components of diurnal cortisol rhythms. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been recognized as a surrogate marker of ANS activity, but limited research has explored relations between sleep and sAA diurnal rhythms. The current study utilized an ecological momentary assessment protocol to examine within- and between-person relations between several facets of sleep behavior using multiple methods (e.g., subjective report, actigraphy) and salivary cortisol and sAA. Older adolescents (N=76) provided saliva samples and diary entries five times per day over the course of three days. Sleep was assessed via questionnaire, through daily diaries, and monitored objectively using actigraphy over a four day period. Between-person results revealed that shorter average objective sleep duration and greater sleep duration variability were related to lower levels of waking cortisol and flatter diurnal slopes across the day. Within-person results revealed that on nights when individuals slept for shorter durations than usual they also had lower levels of waking cortisol the next day. Sleep was not related to the cortisol awakening response (CAR) or diurnal patterns of sAA, in either between-person or within-person analyses. However, typical sleep behaviors measured via questionnaire were related to waking levels of sAA. Overall, this study provides a greater understanding of how multiple components of sleep, measured in naturalistic environments, are related to cortisol and s

  11. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend

    Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were not iden......Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were...... not identified. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify the proteins responsible. Methods: Sour taste stimulated parotid saliva was collected from 20 subjects (23±1 years) comprising ten Scandinavians (Sc) and ten non-Scandinavians (NSc) including two Arabs, two Persians, four Pakistanis, one Indian...... min along with measurements of surface microhardness (SMH). Changes in SMH from before to after exposure were used to calculate the protective effect of each saliva sample. Quantification and identification of salivary proteins was performed by dual wavelength HPLC at various conditions and MALDI...

  12. Immediate Effects of Traditional Thai Massage on Psychological Stress as Indicated by Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels in Healthy Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripongngam, Thanarat; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Sirivongs, Dhavee; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Tangvoraphonkchai, Kamonwan; Chanaboon, Sutin

    2015-10-05

    BACKGROUND Stress can cause psychological and physiological changes. Many studies revealed that massage can decrease stress. However, traditional Thai massage has not been well researched in this regard. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of traditional Thai massage (TTM) on salivary alpha-amylase levels (sAA), heart rate variability (HRV), autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, and plasma renin activity (PRA). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-nine healthy participants were randomly allocated into either a traditional Thai massage (TTM) group or Control (C) group, after which they were switched to the other group with a 2-week wash-out period. Each of them was given a 10-minute mental arithmetic test to induce psychological stress before a 1-hour session of TTM or rest. RESULTS Within-groups comparison revealed that sAA was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the TTM group but not in the C group. HRV and ANS function were significantly increased (p<0.05) and PRA was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in both groups. However, low frequency per high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) and ANS balance status were not changed. Only sAA was found to be significantly different between groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS We conclude that both TTM and rest can reduce psychological stress, as indicated by decreased sAA levels, increased parasympathetic activity, decreased sympathetic activity, and decreased PRA. However, TTM may have a modest effect on stress reduction as indicated by a reduced sAA.

  13. Salivary alpha-amylase during pregnancy: diurnal course and associations with obstetric history, maternal demographics, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Granger, Douglas A; Campbell, Tavis; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) in pregnant women have not previously been described. The current study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine the association between the diurnal sAA, obstetric history, maternal demographics, and mood during pregnancy. Saliva was self-collected by 83 pregnant women (89% White, age 25.3-43.0 years; mean gestational age 21.9 weeks, range 6-37 weeks; gravida 1-6) at home over three days. Results indicated that current pregnancy (gestational age and fetal sex) and maternal demographics were not related to diurnal sAA. In contrast, a history of previous miscarriage (Parameter = -.17; SE = .05; p associated with an atypical diurnal pattern. Even after accounting for obstetric history, trait anxiety (Parameter = .16; SE = .04; p associated with increased sAA over the day while chronic levels of fatigue (Parameter = -.06; SE = .03; p associated with decreased sAA. In a separate model, we also tested the time varying covariation of sAA and mood. The effects of momentary mood were in contrast to those for trait mood. Both momentary depression (Parameter = .22; SE = .09; p associated with momentary increases in sAA while momentary anxiety and fatigue were not related to sAA. The findings suggest that basal sAA during pregnancy is sensitive to emotional arousal. Evaluating diurnal patterns of sAA holds promise for advancing understanding of how emotional arousal during pregnancy may affect fetal development. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Biochemical characterization of digestive amylase of wheat bug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Biochemical characterization of α-amylase in the midgut and salivary glands of Eurygaster maura was conducted. Results showed that α-amylase activities were present in the salivary glands and gut. The activity of α-amylase in the midgut and in the salivary glands was 0.098 and 0.057 U/ml, respectively.

  15. Dopamine-induced amylase secretion from rat parotid salivary gland in vitro: an effect mediated via noradrenergic and cholinergic nerves.

    OpenAIRE

    Hata, F.; Ishida, H.; Kondo, E

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dopamine on amylase secretion by rat parotid tissue was examined in vitro. Dopamine induced marked amylase secretion from the tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Its EC50 value was about 4 microM and the maximal response was obtained at a concentration of 100 microM. The dopamine-induced secretion was inhibited by the dopamine-antagonists haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol and spiroperidol. Atropine reduced the dopamine-induced secretion significantly, and physostigmine enhanced the sec...

  16. Effect of the parotid salivary gland on calcium and amylase enzyme levels in blood and its influence on bone healing in albino rats (Histological and radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat A. El-Zainy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The healing potential of bone is influenced by a variety of biochemical, cellular, hormonal and pathological mechanisms. As previous studies stated that parotid salivary glands may have endocrinal role, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of parotidectomy on bone healing and on calcium and amylase enzyme levels in blood. The rats were divided into two groups; control and experimental group. The control group was subjected to unilateral surgical mandibular defects, while the experimental group was subjected to the same procedure in addition to bilateral surgical removal of the parotid glands. Each of the control and experimental groups was further subdivided into 3 subgroups, A, B and C according to the time of termination corresponding to 4, 8 and 12 weeks respectively. Blood samples were obtained in order to determine calcium and amylase levels in blood. The surgically defected mandibles of each subgroup were analyzed postoperative to determine the radiographic bone density of the surgical defect throughout the healing process, then processed and examined histologically. Examination of the H & E stained sections of the mandibles at 4 weeks showed minimal bone formation from the defect margin of the experimental group in comparison with the control group. At 8 weeks, the experimental group showed increase of bone formation from the defect margin. At 12 weeks, the center of the defect was filled by a considerable amount of spongy bone and a definite reversal line between new and old bone. The Masson trichrome stained sections of the experimental group at 12 weeks presented a considerable amount of green collagen fibers. The average (mean percentage of radiographic bone densities of the surgical defect of the experimental group slightly raised to 82.06 at 12 weeks. The serum amylase level at 4 weeks was less than the normal value then was slightly increased at 8 weeks and finally at 12 weeks increased more than the normal value

  17. Influences of AMY1 gene copy number and protein expression on salivary alpha-amylase activity before and after citric acid stimulation in splenic asthenia children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zemin; Lin, Jing; Chen, Longhui; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiaorong; Chen, Weiwen

    2015-06-01

    To compare the correlations between salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity and amylase, alpha 1 (salivary) gene (AMYl) copy number or its gene expression between splenic asthenia and healthy children, and investigate the reasons of attenuated sAA activity ratio before and after citric acid stimulation in splenic asthenia children. Saliva samples from 20 splenic asthenia children and 29 healthy children were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. AMYl copy number, sAA activity, and total sAA and glycosylated sAA contents were determined, and their correlations were analyzed. Although splenic asthenia and healthy children had no differences in AMY1 copy number, splenic asthenia children had positive correlations between AMY1 copy number and sAA activity before or after citric acid stimulation. Splenic asthenia children had a higher sAA glycosylated proportion ratio and glycosylated sAA content ratio, while their total sAA content ratio and sAA activity ratio were lower compared with healthy children. The glycosylated sAA content ratio was higher than the total sAA content ratio in both groups. Splenic asthenia and healthy children had positive correlations between total sAA or glycosylated sAA content and sAA activity. However, the role played by glycosylated sAA content in sAA activity in healthy children increased after citric acid stimulation, while it decreased in splenic asthenia children. Genetic factors like AMY1 copy number variations, and more importantly, sAA glycosylation abnormalities leading to attenuated sAA activity after citric acid stimulation, which were the main reasons of the attenuated sAA activity ratio in splenic asthenia children compared with healthy children.

  18. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels during an assessment procedure correlate differently with risk-taking measures in male and female police recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud eVan Den Bos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent laboratory studies have shown that men display more risk-taking behaviour in decision-making tasks following stress, whilst women are more risk-aversive or become more task-focussed. In addition, these studies have shown that sex differences are related to levels of the stress hormone cortisol (indicative of activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis: the higher the levels of cortisol the more risk-taking behaviour is shown by men, whereas women generally display more risk-aversive or task-focussed behaviour following higher levels of cortisol. Here, we assessed whether such relationships hold outside the laboratory, correlating levels of cortisol obtained during a job-related assessment procedure with decision-making parameters in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT in male and female police recruits. The CGT allows for discriminating different aspects of reward-based decision-making. In addition, we correlated levels of alpha-amylase (indicative for activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis and decision-making parameters. In line with earlier studies men and women only differed in risk-adjustment in the CGT. Salivary cortisol levels correlated positively and strongly with risk-taking measures in men, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation in women. In contrast, and less strongly so, salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with risk-taking in women, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation with risk-taking in men. Collectively, these data support and extend data of earlier studies indicating that risky decision-making in men and women is differently affected by stress hormones. The data are briefly discussed in relation to the effects of stress on gambling.

  19. Salivary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie Aldeen Abd Alzaher Khalifa

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of dental caries was higher in asthmatics than controls. High caries incidence in asthmatics related to salivary acidic pH, increase S. mutans, Lactobacilli count and medication. There is a need to create awareness among dental practitioners and pulmonologists regarding the increased caries risk in asthmatics.

  20. Dietary Intake, Eating Behaviors, and Diurnal Patterns of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Secretion Among Professional Young Adult Female Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaire, Edith; Massart, Alain; Hua, Jiewen; Le Scanff, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The aims of study were to examine the eating behaviors among 26 professional female tennis players and to assess the diurnal patterns of stress hormones through the measurement of awakening and diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations. Eating behaviors were assessed through three questionnaires (Eating Attitudes Test-26; Eating Disorders Inventory 2; and Body Shape Questionnaire), food intake by a 7-day diet record, and menstrual status by questionnaire. Perceived stress scale and anxiety state were also evaluated. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min, 60 min, and 12 hr post awakening after 6-days' rest. Forty-six percent of tennis players presented Disordered Eating attitudes (DE) (n = 12) with a lower body mass index, and higher state anxiety as compared with the group without DE. No differences in the Perceived Stress Scale scores were noted. Mean energy intake, protein and carbohydrates intakes were lower (p < .05) in the DE group as compared with the group without DE. Although in both groups, sAA concentrations presented a decrease in the first 30 min after awakening, and then progressively rose toward the afternoon, DE players exhibited reduced concentrations of the sAA with a decrease in its overall day secretion. Moreover, they showed a higher overall day secretion of salivary cortisol and a higher Cortisol Awakening Response. These results suggest that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system is impaired whereas the cortisol awakening response is enhanced. The long-term consequences of these modifications on health remain to be elucidated.

  1. Salivary α-amylase as a marker of stress reduction in individuals with intellectual disability and autism in response to occupational and music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquérusse, J; Azhari, A; Setoh, P; Cainelli, S; Ripoli, C; Venuti, P; Esposito, G

    2018-02-01

    Although the benefits of a range of disability-centric therapies have been well studied, little remains known about how they work, let alone how to monitor these benefits in a precise and reliable way. Here, in two independent studies, we examine how sessions consisting of occupational or music therapy, both widely recognised for their effectiveness, modulate levels of salivary α-amylase (sAA), a now time- and cost-efficient marker of stress, in individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Pre-session and post-session levels of sAA were compared in both groups in response to therapy and control sessions. In comparison to control sessions, occupational therapy significantly dampened rises in sAA levels while music therapy significantly decreased baseline sAA levels, highlighting the ability of both types of therapy to reduce stress and by proxy contribute to enhancing overall well-being. Not only do these results confirm the stress-reducing nature of two types of multisensory therapy, but they support the use of sAA as a potential tool for evaluating stress levels in individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, providing an important physiological lens that may guide strategies in clinical and non-clinical care for individuals with disabilities. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. May Salivary Alpha-Amylase Level Be a Useful Tool for Assessment of the Severity of Schizophrenia and Evaluation of Therapy? A Case Report

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    Masa Ieda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies suggested dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in schizophrenia patients, but the mechanism remains unclear. Recently, the measurement of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA has been considered a useful tool for evaluating ANS, especially the sympathoadrenal medullary system. Furthermore, there was a report that patients with schizophrenia showed much higher sAA level than normal controls. Methods. We present the case of a 51-year-old female with catatonic schizophrenia. She needed the treatment of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. We evaluated her sAA level and her psychiatric symptoms during the treatment. Results. Before ECT treatment, she showed high sAA level. Her sAA level decreased during the course of ECT, and this attenuation was accompanied by improvement of schizophrenic symptoms. Conclusion. We consider that measurement of the sAA level may be one of the useful biological markers for assessment of psychotic state and efficacy of treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  3. submitter Metabolomic Profile of Low–Copy Number Carriers at the Salivary α-Amylase Gene Suggests a Metabolic Shift Toward Lipid-Based Energy Production

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    Arredouani, Abdelilah; Culeddu, Nicola; Moustafa, Julia El-Sayed; Tichet, Jean; Balkau, Beverley; Brousseau, Thierry; Manca, Marco; Falchi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Low serum salivary amylase levels have been associated with a range of metabolic abnormalities, including obesity and insulin resistance. We recently suggested that a low copy number at the AMY1 gene, associated with lower enzyme levels, also increases susceptibility to obesity. To advance our understanding of the effect of AMY1 copy number variation on metabolism, we compared the metabolomic signatures of high– and low–copy number carriers. We analyzed, using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the sera of healthy normal-weight women carrying either low–AMY1 copies (LAs: four or fewer copies; n = 50) or high–AMY1 copies (HAs: eight or more copies; n = 50). Best-fitting multivariate models (empirical P < 1 × $10^{−3})$ of mass spectrometry and NMR data were concordant in showing differences in lipid metabolism between the two groups. In particular, LA carriers showed lower levels of long- and medium-chain fatty acids, and higher levels of dicarboxylic fatty acids and 2-hydrox...

  4. Salivary glands act as mucosal inductive sites via the formation of ectopic germinal centers after site-restricted MCMV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Jasvir S.; Pilgrim, Mark J.; Grewal, Suman; Kasman, Laura; Werner, Phillip; Bruorton, Mary E.; London, Steven D.; London, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that salivary gland inoculation stimulates formation of ectopic germinal centers (GCs), transforming the gland into a mucosal inductive site. Intraglandular infection of mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV; control: UV-inactivated MCMV) induces salivary gland ectopic follicles comprising cognate interactions between CD4+ and B220+ lymphocytes, IgM+ and isotype-switched IgG+ and IgA+ B cells, antigen presenting cells, and follicular dendritic cells. B cells coexpressed the GC markers GCT (57%) and GL7 (52%), and bound the lectin peanut agglutinin. Lymphoid follicles were characterized by a 2- to 3-fold increase in mRNA for CXCL13 (lymphoid neogenesis), syndecan-1 (plasma cells), Blimp-1 (plasma cell development/differentiation), and a 2- to 6-fold increase for activation-induced cytidine deaminase, PAX5, and the nonexcised rearranged DNA of an IgA class-switch event, supporting somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination within the salivary follicles. Intraglandular inoculation also provided protection against a systemic MCMV challenge, as evidenced by decreased viral titers (105 plaque-forming units to undetectable), and restoration of normal salivary flow rates from a 6-fold decrease. Therefore, these features suggest that the salivary gland participates in oral mucosal immunity via generation of ectopic GCs, which function as ectopic mucosal inductive sites.—Grewal, J. S., Pilgrim, M. J., Grewal, S., Kasman, L., Werner, P., Bruorton, M. E., London, S. D., London, L. Salivary glands act as mucosal inductive sites via the formation of ectopic germinal centers after site-restricted MCMV infection. PMID:21307334

  5. Anti-stress effect of theanine on students during pharmacy practice: positive correlation among salivary α-amylase activity, trait anxiety and subjective stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Tanida, Naoki; Ishii, Naoto; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Hoshino, Minoru; Takeda, Atsushi; Ozawa, Hayato; Ohkubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effect on experimental animals under psychosocial stress. Anti-stress effect of theanine on humans was evaluated in 5th-year university students during pharmacy practice. The study design was a single-blind group comparison and participants (n=20) were randomly assigned to theanine or placebo groups. Theanine or placebo (lactose) tablets (200 mg, twice a day, after breakfast and lunch) were taken from 1 week prior to the pharmacy practice and continued for 10 days in the practice period. To assess the anxiety of the participants, the state-trait anxiety inventory test was carried out before the pharmacy practice. Salivary α-amylase activity (sAA) was measured as a marker of sympathetic nervous system activity. In the placebo-group, sAA in the morning (pre-practice sAA) was higher than in theanine-group during the pharmacy practice (p=0.032). Subjective stress was significantly lower in the theanine-group than in the placebo-group (p=0.020). These results suggest that theanine intake had anti-stress effect on students. Furthermore, students with higher pre-practice sAA showed significantly higher trait anxiety in both groups (p=0.015). Similarly, higher pre-practice sAA was correlated to shorter sleeping time in both groups (p=0.41×10(-3)). Stressful condition increased the level of sAA that was essentially affected by individual trait anxiety. The low levels of pre-practice sAA and subjective stress in the theanine-group suggest that theanine intake suppressed initial stress response of students assigned for a long-term commitment of pharmacy practice. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Salivary alpha amylase diurnal pattern and stress response are associated with body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    Physiological stress responses are proposed as a pathway through which stress can "get under the skin" and lead to health problems, specifically obesity. We tested associations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) diurnal patterns and stress responses with body mass index (BMI) in young, low-income children (51% male; 54% non-Hispanic white). Diurnal saliva samples were collected three times per day across three days for 269 children (M age 50.8 months, SD 6.3). Individual sAA intercept and slope values were calculated using random effect models to represent morning sAA levels and rate of sAA change across the day. A subset of children (n=195; M age 56.6 months, SD 6.9) participated in a lab-based behavioral stress protocol. Area under the curve increase (AUCI) across four timepoints was calculated to represent increase in sAA output during stress elicitation. Children were weighed and height measured and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations of sAA intercept, sAA slope, and sAA AUCI with BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity; maternal weight status; and family income-to-needs ratio. Diurnal and stress-response sAA patterns were related to child adiposity: for each 1-standard deviation unit (SDU) decrease in morning sAA level, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.11 (SE 0.05) SDU's (pdevelop very early in the lifespan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of alpha-amylase in the perception of oral texture and flavour in custards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.; Engelen, L.; Weenen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The role of salivary a-amylase in odour, flavour, and oral texture sensations was investigated in two studies in which the activity of salivary amylase present in the mouth of human subjects was either increased by presenting custards with added alpha-amylase or decreased by presenting custards with

  8. The role of α-amylase in the perception of oral texture and flavour in custards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A.de; Prinz, J.F.; Engelen, L.; Weenen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The role of salivary α-amylase in odour, flavour, and oral texture sensations was investigated in two studies in which the activity of salivary amylase present in the mouth of human subjects was either increased by presenting custards with added α-amylase or decreased by presenting custards with

  9. Artificial Induction of Native Aquaporin-1 Expression in Human Salivary Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Pradhan-Bhatt, S; Farach-Carson, M C; Passineau, M J

    2017-04-01

    Gene therapy for dry mouth disorders has transitioned in recent years from theoretical to clinical proof of principle with the publication of a first-in-man phase I/II dose escalation clinical trial in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. This trial used a prototype adenoviral vector to express aquaporin-1 (AQP1), presumably in the ductal cell layer and/or in surviving acinar cells, to drive transcellular flux of interstitial fluid into the labyrinth of the salivary duct. As the development of this promising gene therapy continues, safety considerations are a high priority, particularly those that remove nonhuman agents (i.e., viral vectors and genetic sequences of bacterial origin). In this study, we applied 2 emerging technologies, artificial transcriptional complexes and epigenetic editing, to explore whether AQP1 expression could be achieved by activating the native gene locus in a human salivary ductal cell line and primary salivary human stem/progenitor cells (hS/PCs), as opposed to the conventional approach of cytomegalovirus promoter-driven expression from an episomal vector. In our first study, we used a cotransfection strategy to express the components of the dCas9-SAM system to create an artificial transcriptional complex at the AQP1 locus in A253 and hS/PCs. We found that AQP1 expression was induced at a magnitude comparable to adenoviral infection, suggesting that AQP1 is primarily silenced through pretranscriptional mechanisms. Because earlier literature suggested that pretranscriptional silencing of AQP1 in salivary glands is mediated by methylation of the promoter, in our second study, we performed global, chemical demethylation of A253 cells and found that demethylation alone induced robust AQP1 expression. These results suggest the potential for success by inducing AQP1 expression in human salivary ductal cells through epigenetic editing of the native promoter.

  10. Amylase - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine amylase levels may be a sign of: Acute pancreatitis Alcohol consumption Cancer of the pancreas , ovaries, or lungs Cholecystitis Ectopic or ruptured tubal pregnancy Gallbladder disease Infection ...

  11. Amylase - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased blood amylase levels may occur due to: Acute pancreatitis Cancer of the pancreas , ovaries, or lungs Cholecystitis Gallbladder attack caused by disease Gastroenteritis (severe) Infection ...

  12. Salivary glucose oxidase from caterpillars mediates the induction of rapid and delayed-induced defenses in the tomato plant.

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    Donglan Tian

    Full Text Available Caterpillars produce oral secretions that may serve as cues to elicit plant defenses, but in other cases these secretions have been shown to suppress plant defenses. Ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on the salivary secretions of the tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea. In previous studies we have shown that saliva and its principal component glucose oxidase acts as an effector by suppressing defenses in tobacco. In this current study, we report that saliva elicits a burst of jasmonic acid (JA and the induction of late responding defense genes such as proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2. Transcripts encoding early response genes associated with the JA pathway were not affected by saliva. We also observed a delayed response to saliva with increased densities of Type VI glandular trichomes in newly emerged leaves. Proteomic analysis of saliva revealed glucose oxidase (GOX was the most abundant protein identified and we confirmed that it plays a primary role in the induction of defenses in tomato. These results suggest that the recognition of GOX in tomato may represent a case for effector-triggered immunity. Examination of saliva from other caterpillar species indicates that saliva from the noctuids Spodoptera exigua and Heliothis virescens also induced Pin2 transcripts.

  13. Salivary glucose oxidase from caterpillars mediates the induction of rapid and delayed-induced defenses in the tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Donglan; Peiffer, Michelle; Shoemaker, Erica; Tooker, John; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Caterpillars produce oral secretions that may serve as cues to elicit plant defenses, but in other cases these secretions have been shown to suppress plant defenses. Ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on the salivary secretions of the tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea. In previous studies we have shown that saliva and its principal component glucose oxidase acts as an effector by suppressing defenses in tobacco. In this current study, we report that saliva elicits a burst of jasmonic acid (JA) and the induction of late responding defense genes such as proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2). Transcripts encoding early response genes associated with the JA pathway were not affected by saliva. We also observed a delayed response to saliva with increased densities of Type VI glandular trichomes in newly emerged leaves. Proteomic analysis of saliva revealed glucose oxidase (GOX) was the most abundant protein identified and we confirmed that it plays a primary role in the induction of defenses in tomato. These results suggest that the recognition of GOX in tomato may represent a case for effector-triggered immunity. Examination of saliva from other caterpillar species indicates that saliva from the noctuids Spodoptera exigua and Heliothis virescens also induced Pin2 transcripts.

  14. Salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and immunoglobulin a responses to a morning session of basketball or volleyball training in boys aged 14-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzda-Zwiech, A; Konieczka, M; Hilt, A; Daszkowska, M; Grzegorczyk, J; Szczepańska, J

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether a single session of routine morning basketball or volleyball training affects saliva levels of cortisol, alpha-amylase (sAA) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in boys aged 14–18 years. Twenty-nine boys who participate in basketball or volleyball training, recruited from the Marcin Gortat’s Athletic Championship School in Lodz, were enrolled in the study. The 90-minute routine exercise program included 15 minutes of warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected prior to and immediately after the exercise, and were analysed using ELISA. One training session resulted in a significant increase of sAA concentration in all participants, as well as in the volleyball and basketball subgroups (p=0.00022; p=0.0029; p=0.0011; respectively). Post-exercise cortisol levels were significantly lower than pre-exercise levels (p=0.00002) throughout the group, as well as in the volleyball and basketball subgroups (p=0.0048; p=0.0019; p=0.0048; respectively). The exercise protocol did not significantly affect sIgA level, either in the whole examined group or the volleyball subgroup, however a weak significant increase of sIgA was observed in the basketball subgroup (p=0.046). The routine morning training session comprising a warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice seems to activate the sympatho-adrenal-medullary system, with a subsequent increase of alpha-amylase, but does not affect oral immunity in 14-18-year-old boys.

  15. Low subjective social status in the police is linked to health-relevant changes in diurnal salivary alpha-amylase activity in Swiss police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersaat, Stéphanie; Abdellaoui, Sid; Geiger, Ashley M; Urben, Sébastien; Wolf, Jutta M

    2017-10-16

    The objective of this study was to assess basal autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity as a pathway linking subjective social status to health in a high-demand work environment. It was hypothesized that officers with a lower status experienced more chronic stress (higher basal ANS activity) and that chronic stress was related to more health problems. Fifty-six male and female Swiss police officers self-reported on subjective social status (country, community, friends, police) and their health (depression, post-traumatic stress, physical symptoms) and collected 12 saliva samples over two days for basal α-amylase activation (sAA) assessment. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that subjective social status in the police and physical symptoms explained a significant part of the variance in diurnal sAA activity patterns. The current findings support the idea that more narrowly defined subjective social status may be more closely linked to biological stress mechanisms. Additionally, sAA activity was specifically related to physical, but not mental health problems. These results suggest that subjective social status referencing one's work environment may be a promising early indicator of health-relevant changes in stress-related physiological systems.

  16. The hyporeactivity of salivary cortisol at stress test (TSST-C) in children with internalizing or externalizing disorders is contrastively associated with α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yoon Ju; Stadelmann, Stephanie; Klein, Annette Maria; Jaeger, Sonia; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta; Gaudl, Alexander; Schaab, Michael; von Klitzing, Kai; Thiery, Joachim; Kratzsch, Juergen; Döhnert, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Stress biomarkers of the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) can be measured via alpha-amylase (AA) and cortisol and cortisone in saliva. Objectives were to determine 1) the response patterns of cortisol, cortisone, and AA under both circadian conditions and the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C), 2) which reactivity index is most suitable to differentiate internalizing or externalizing disorders from controls, and to explore 3) the interaction between AA and cortisol in the presence of internalizing or externalizing disorders. Saliva samples (n = 2893) from children with internalizing (n = 55) or externalizing disorders (n = 33) and healthy children (n = 81) were analyzed for cortisol, cortisone, and AA under circadian conditions and TSST-C. Circadian rhythm of three biomarkers did not differ between diagnostic groups. Age and gender were significant predictors for cortisol and awakening time influenced all three biomarkers significantly. TSST-C responses appeared sequentially in the order of AA, cortisol, and cortisone. Trajectories of cortisol and cortisone responses, not in AA, were significantly lower in children with internalizing or externalizing disorders than in healthy children. Cortisol percentage increase appeared to be the most suitable reactivity index to detect the difference between the diagnostic groups. Internalizing disorders had a negative association between AA decrease and cortisol increase (β = -.199, p disorders had a positive association between AA baseline and cortisol increase (β = .229, p internalizing disorders and underaroused stress response system in externalizing disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An experimental study of the job demand-control model with measures of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase: Evidence of increased stress responses to increased break autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Landolt, Kathleen; Hazi, Agnes; Dragano, Nico; Wright, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    We assessed in an experimental design whether the stress response towards a work task was moderated by the autonomy to choose a break during the assigned time to complete the task. This setting is defined in accordance with the theoretical framework of the job-demand-control (JDC) model of work related stress. The findings from naturalistic investigations of a stress-buffering effect of autonomy (or 'buffer hypothesis') are equivocal and the experimental evidence is limited, especially with relation to physiological indices of stress. Our objective was to investigate if increased autonomy in a particular domain (break time control) was related with adaptive physiology using objective physiological markers of stress; heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary alpha amylase (sAA). We used a within-subject design and the 60 female participants were randomly assigned to an autonomy (free timing of break) and standard conditions (fixed timing of break) of a word processing task in a simulated office environment in a random order. Participants reported increased perceptions of autonomy, no difference in demand and performed worse in the task in the break-time autonomy versus the standard condition. The results revealed support for the manipulation of increased autonomy, but in the opposing direction. Increased autonomy was related with dysregulated physiological reactivity, synonymous with typical increased stress responses. Potentially, our findings may indicate that autonomy is not necessary a resource but could become an additional stressor when it adds additional complexity while the amount of work (demands) remains unchanged. Further, our findings underscore the need to collect objective physiological evidence of stress to supplement self-reported information. Self-report biases may partially explain the inconsistent findings with the buffer hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremi, Beata; Beck, Anita; Fabian, Tibor Karoly; Fabian, Gabor; Szabo, Geza; Nagy, Akos; Varga, Gabor

    2017-10-30

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion are primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Induction of salivary proteins modifies measures of both orosensory and postingestive feedback during exposure to a tannic acid diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Marie Torregrossa

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of proteins in saliva. Although it has long been hypothesized that these proteins modulate taste by interacting with taste receptors or taste stimuli, the functional impact of these proteins on feeding remains relatively unexplored. We have developed a new technique for saliva collection that does not interfere with daily behavioral testing and allows us to explore the relationship between feeding behavior and salivary protein expression. First, we monitored the alterations in salivary protein expression while simultaneously monitoring the animals' feeding behavior and meal patterns on a custom control diet or on the same diet mixed with 3% tannic acid. We demonstrated that six protein bands increased in density with dietary tannic acid exposure. Several of these bands were significantly correlated with behaviors thought to represent both orosensory and postingestive signaling. In a follow-up experiment, unconditioned licking to 0.01-3% tannic acid solutions was measured during a brief-access taste test before and after exposure to the tannic acid diet. In this experiment, rats with salivary proteins upregulated found the tannin solution less aversive (i.e., licked more than those in the control condition. These data suggest a role for salivary proteins in mediating changes in both orosensory and postingestive feedback.

  20. Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Salivary Glands Salivary Glands Patient Health Information News media interested ... staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Where Are Your Salivary Glands? The glands are found in and around your ...

  1. Salivary digestive enzymes of the wheat bug, Eurygaster integriceps (Insecta: Hemiptera: Scutelleridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali Reza; Dastranj, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    The digestive enzymes from salivary gland complexes (SGC) of Eurygaster integriceps, and their response to starvation and feeding were studied. Moreover, digestive amylases were partially purified and characterized by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The SGC are composed of two sections, the principal glands and accessory glands. The principal glands are further divided into the anterior lobes and posterior lobes. The SGC main enzyme was α-amylase, which hydrolyzed starch better than glycogen. The other carbohydrases were also present in the SGC complexes. Enzymatic activities toward mannose (α/β-mannosidases) were little in comparison to activities against glucose (α/β-glucosidases) and galactose (α/β-galactosidases), the latter being the greatest. Acid phosphatase showed higher activity than alkaline phosphatase. There was no measurable activity for lipase and aminopeptidase. Proteolytic activity was detected against general and specific protease substrates. Activities of all enzymes were increased in response to feeding in comparison to starved insects, revealing their induction and secretion in response to feeding pulse. The SGC amylases eluted in four major peaks and post-electrophoretic detection of the α-amylases demonstrated the existence of at least five isoamylases in the SGC. The physiological implication of these findings in pre-oral digestion of E. integriceps is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Salivary pellicles on titanium and their effect on metabolic activity in Streptococcus oralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Titanium implants in the oral cavity are covered with a saliva-derived pellicle to which early colonizing microorganisms such as Streptococcus oralis can bind. The protein profiles of salivary pellicles on titanium have not been well characterized and the proteins of importance for binding are thus unknown. Biofilm bacteria exhibit different phenotypes from their planktonic counterparts and contact with salivary proteins may be one factor contributing to the induction of changes in physiology. We have characterized salivary pellicles from titanium surfaces and investigated how contact with uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces affects metabolic activity in adherent cells of S. oralis. Methods Salivary pellicles on smooth titanium surfaces were desorbed and these, as well as purified human saliva, were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. A parallel plate flow-cell model was used to study binding of a fresh isolate of S. oralis to uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces. Metabolic activity was assessed using the BacLight CTC Vitality Kit and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Experiments were carried out in triplicate and the results analyzed using Student’s t-test or ANOVA. Results Secretory IgA, α-amylase and cystatins were identified as dominant proteins in the salivary pellicles. Selective adsorption of proteins was demonstrated by the enrichment of prolactin-inducible protein and absence of zinc-α2-glycoprotein relative to saliva. Adherence of S. oralis to titanium led to an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the population after 2 hours. In the presence of a salivary pellicle, this effect was enhanced and sustained over the following 22 hour period. Conclusions We have shown that adherence to smooth titanium surfaces under flow causes an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the early oral colonizer S. oralis, most likely as part of an adaptation to the biofilm mode of life. The effect was

  3. Inhibitory effects of silibinin on proliferation and lung metastasis of human high metastasis cell line of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma via autophagy induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Canhua Jiang,1 Shufang Jin,1 Zhisheng Jiang,1 Jie Wang2 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, 2Department of Immunology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the possible mechanisms and effects of silibinin (SIL on the proliferation and lung metastasis of human lung high metastasis cell line of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC-M.Methods: A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was performed to detect the inhibitory effects of SIL on the proliferation of ACC-M cells in vitro. Fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the autophagic process. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of microtube-related protein 1 light-chain 3 (LC3. An experimental adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC lung metastasis model was established in nude mice to detect the impacts of SIL on lung weight and lung cancer nodules. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expressions of LC3 in human ACC samples and normal salivary gland tissue samples.Results: SIL inhibited the proliferation of ACC-M cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and inductively increased the autophagic bodies in ACC-M cells. Furthermore, SIL could increase the expression of LC3 in ACC-M cells and promote the conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the ACC lung metastasis model, the lung weight and left and right lung nodules in the SIL-treated group were significantly less than those in the control group (P<0.05. The expressions of LC3-I and LC3-II as well as the positive expression rate of LC3 (80% significantly increased, but the positive expression of LC3 in human ACC (42.22% reduced significantly.Conclusion: SIL could inhibit the proliferation and lung metastasis of ACC-M cells by possibly inducing tumor cells autophagy. Keywords: silibinin, adenoid cystic carcinoma, ACC-M cells, autophagy

  4. Green tea consumption after intense taekwondo training enhances salivary defense factors and antibacterial capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuan-Pey Lin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg or an equal volume of water (W. Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W, immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W, and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W. Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA, lactoferrin, α-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and α-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, α-amylase activity and the ratio of α-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of α-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity.

  5. Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Elkjaer, Bente

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how induction of newcomers can be understood as both organizational renewal and the maintenance of status quo, and to develop ways of describing this in terms of learning.......The purpose of this paper is to explore how induction of newcomers can be understood as both organizational renewal and the maintenance of status quo, and to develop ways of describing this in terms of learning....

  6. False-positive results with amylase testing of citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Ugo; Carboni, Ilaria; Torricelli, Francesca

    2014-09-01

    In a case of robbery in which the criminals passed through the garden adorned with calamondin trees (Citrus madurensis), the investigators found in the grass six calamondin fruits, some undamaged, while others apparently bitten. The fruits were collected and sent to the laboratory for DNA analysis to verify the presence of saliva and robbers' DNA profile. A specific immunochromatographic strip test for saliva confirmed the presence of human salivary α-amylase, but similar positive results were also observed for intact calamondin and other citrus fruits. Further analysis with a specific automated amylase test confirmed the absence of amylase activity. DNA quantification and typing using a specific forensic kit revealed no human DNA presence in any fruits. This case report demonstrates for the first time the occurrence of false positives when human saliva is sought on citrus fruits. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Alpha-Amylase Reactivity in Relation to Psychopathic Traits in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, Andrea L.; Remmel, Rheanna J.; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.; Gao, Yu; Granger, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations of the psychobiology of stress in antisocial youth have benefited from a multi-system measurement model. The inclusion of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a surrogate marker of autonomic/sympathetic nervous system (ANS) activity, in addition to salivary cortisol, a biomarker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, has helped define a more complete picture of individual differences and potential dysfunction in the stress response system of these individ...

  8. Despite sequence homologies to gluten, salivary proline-rich proteins do not elicit immune responses central to the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciaran P; Hansen, Joshua; Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A; Schuppan, Detlef; Helmerhorst, Eva J

    2015-12-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder triggered by ingested gluten, causing immune-mediated damage to the small-intestinal mucosa. Gluten proteins are strikingly similar in amino acid composition and sequence to proline-rich proteins (PRPs) in human saliva. On the basis of this feature and their shared destination in the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that salivary PRPs may modulate gluten-mediated immune responses in CD. Parotid salivary secretions were collected from CD patients, refractory CD patients, non-CD patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, and healthy controls. Structural similarities of PRPs with gluten were probed with anti-gliadin antibodies. Immune responses to PRPs were investigated toward CD patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in a humanized transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model for CD. Anti-gliadin antibodies weakly cross-reacted with the abundant salivary amylase but not with PRPs. Likewise, the R5 antibody, recognizing potential antigenic gluten epitopes, showed negligible reactivity to salivary proteins from all groups. Inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were provoked by gliadins whereas responses to PRPs were similar to control levels, and PRPs did not compete with gliadins in immune stimulation. In vivo, PRP peptides were well tolerated and nonimmunogenic in the transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model. Collectively, although structurally similar to dietary gluten, salivary PRPs were nonimmunogenic in CD patients and in a transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model for CD. It is possible that salivary PRPs play a role in tolerance induction to gluten early in life. Deciphering the structural basis for the lack of immunogenicity of salivary PRPs may further our understanding of the toxicity of gluten. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Differential effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on salivary factors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (psleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Salivary parameters and oral health in the Moebius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Mussi, Maria Carolina; Moffa, Eduardo; Castro, Talita; Lira Ortega, Adriana; Freitas, Gabrielle; Braga, Mariana; Siqueira, Walter L; Cury Gallottini, Marina Helena

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate salivary characteristics, such as flow rate, buffering capacity and amylase activity, and associate these parameters with oral health in individuals with Moebius syndrome (MS) and controls. The researchers assessed caries (ICDAS), periodontal disease (PSR), and plaque (Silness Löe) indexes in both groups. Unstimulated, stimulated, and bilateral parotid saliva were also collected. The salivary flow (milliliters/minute) and α-amylase activity were measured in all samples. The α-amylase activity was determined by maltose production. The buffering capacity was measured in stimulated saliva by titration of 0.01N HCl. The occurrence of carious lesions, related to cut-off 2, as well as the occurrence of periodontal disease, was significantly higher (p > 0.05) in participants with MS when compared to the control group. Also, MS individuals presented decreased salivary flow, decreased buffering capacity, and amylase activity. MS individuals present salivary alterations, which can be related to higher risk for caries. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Chewing bread: impact on alpha-amylase secretion and oral digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Marianne; Septier, Chantal; Brignot, Hélène; Salles, Christian; Panouillé, Maud; Feron, Gilles; Tournier, Carole

    2017-02-22

    During chewing, saliva helps in preparing the food bolus by agglomerating the formed particles, and it initiates enzymatic food breakdown. However, limited information is actually available on the adaptation of saliva composition during the oral processing of complex foods, especially for foods that are sensitive to salivary enzymes. We addressed this question in the context of starch-based products and salivary alpha-amylase. The objectives were two-fold: (1) to determine if salivary alpha-amylase secretion can be modulated by the bread type and (2) to evaluate the contribution of the oral phase in bread enzymatic breakdown. Mouthfuls of three different wheat breads (industrial, artisan and whole-meal breads) were chewed by twelve subjects. Saliva samples were collected at rest and at different times corresponding to 33, 66 and 100% of the individual's chewing sequence. Alpha-amylase activity and total protein content were determined for all saliva samples that were collected. Additionally, the salivary maltose concentration was measured as a marker of bread enzymatic digestion. Boluses were collected at the swallowing time to evaluate the saliva uptake. Chewing industrial bread induced higher saliva uptake than the other breads despite a similar chewing duration. The evolution of salivary amylase activity tended to depend on the type of bread and was highly influenced by a large degree of inter- and intra-subject variability. The protein and maltose concentration steadily increased during chewing as a result of bread breakdown. The salivary protein concentration was mainly affected by the release of the water-soluble proteins of the bread. The salivary maltose concentration was found to be significantly lower for the whole-meal bread. When considering the weight of the mouthful, enzymatic breakdown was found to be most efficient for the breads ranking from industrial > artisan > whole-meal.

  12. Phlebotomus papatasi and Leishmania major parasites express alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R L; Schlein, Y

    2001-01-15

    Alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase activities were found in homogenates of young, unfed male and female Phlebotomus papatasi and in gut and salivary gland preparations. A significant increase in both enzyme activities in females and of alpha-amylase in males was recorded for flies that had fed overnight on a plant (Capparis spinosa). After plant feeding, alpha-amylase activity was relatively lower in female salivary glands and higher in guts, while in the males the activity in the salivary glands had increased. Alpha-glucosidase activity increased in guts of both sexes and in the salivary glands of the females. In addition, alpha-amylase activity was found in preparations of Leishmania major and L. infantum promastigotes, but not in those of L. donovani or L. tropica. Alpha-glucosidase activity was present in promastigote preparations of L. major, L. infantum, L. donovani, L. braziliensis, Crithidia fasciculata and Herpetomonas muscarum. It was lacking in similar preparations of L. tropica, Sauroleishmania agamae or Leptomonas seymouri. The growth rate of L. major promastigotes in medium supplemented with starch or with glucose was similar and it was significantly higher than in glucose poor medium. In this study, we demonstrate that P. papatasi and L. major possess the enzymes for hydrolyzing starch grains that are included in the plant tissue-diet of the sand flies.

  13. AMYLASE FROM Alternaria alternata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A local isolate of Alternaria alternata isolated from soil under the decaying cassava peels heap was screened for the production of a-amylase and hydrolysis of starch. The maximal dextrinizing amylolytic activity of the partially purified enzyme was obtained at temperature of 600C and pH 7.0. Apart from glucose, sucrose and ...

  14. Salivary biomarkers of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patacchioli, Francesca R; Tabarrini, Alessandra; Ghiciuc, Cristina M; Dima-Cozma, Lucia Corina; Prete, Anna; Bianchini, Carlotta; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Gozal, David; Villa, Maria P

    2014-11-01

    The present pilot study was performed to evaluate the HPA axis and ANS activity by measuring salivary cortisol and α-amylase diurnal trajectory and production, respectively, in mild or moderate-to-severe (MS) OSA-affected, but otherwise healthy, children. Moreover, a correlative analysis was performed between the salivary biomarker concentrations and the PSG variables characterizing the OSA severity. We studied 27 consecutive OSA patients (13 mild OSA; 14 MS OSA) and seven healthy children who were enrolled as controls by collecting salivary samples and measuring cortisol and α-amylase levels using enzyme-linked bioassays. Compared with controls, both mild and MS OSA children showed: (1) increased salivary cortisol diurnal production, (2) maintenance of the physiological circadian activity of the HPA axis, and (3) no changes in α-amylase diurnal trajectory and production. In addition, morning salivary cortisol concentrations was negatively associated with the disease severity in the MS OSA group. OSA is associated with dysregulation of the HPA axis activity in children, the latter potentially underlying some of the adverse consequences of the disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A comparison of ghrelin, glucose, alpha-amylase and protein levels in saliva from diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Suleyman

    2007-01-31

    During the past decade, many salivary parameters have been used to characterize disease states. Ghrelin (GAH) is recently-discovered peptide hormone secreted mainly from the stomach but also produced in a number of other tissues including salivary glands. The aim of this work was to examine the relationship between active (aGAH) and inactive (dGAH) ghrelin in the saliva and other salivary parameters in type II diabetic patients and healthy controls. Salivary parameters were assessed in a single measurement of unstimulated whole saliva from 20 obese and 20 non-obese type II diabetes patients, and in 22 healthy controls. Total protein and alpha-amylase were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose by the glucose-oxidase method. Saliva aGAH and dGAH levels were measured using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. Salivary concentrations of aGAH and dGAH ghrelin were more markedly decreased in obese diabetic subjects than in the two other groups. Glucose and alpha-amylase levels were higher in diabetic subjects than in controls. Furthermore, there were correlations between GAH levels and BMI, and between GAH and blood pressure. However, there was no marked variability in saliva flow rates among the groups. These results indicate that measurement of salivary GAH and its relationship to other salivary parameters might help to provide insight into the role of ghrelin in diabetes.

  16. Psychological stress as a determinant of protein levels and salivary-induced aggregation of Streptococcus gordonii in human whole saliva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J.A.; Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, T.J.M.; Bermond, B.; Hoogstraten, J.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    Several pathologies of the oral cavity have been associated with stress, so we investigated salivary-induced aggregation during psychological stress. In addition, salivary total protein, alpha-amylase, and secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) were assessed. In this longitudinal study, 28 dental

  17. Induction of a peptide with activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens in the Aedes aegypti salivary gland, following Infection with Dengue Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthanej Luplertlop

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate stage of the transmission of Dengue Virus (DENV to man is strongly dependent on crosstalk between the virus and the immune system of its vector Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. Infection of the mosquito's salivary glands by DENV is the final step prior to viral transmission. Therefore, in the present study, we have determined the modulatory effects of DENV infection on the immune response in this organ by carrying out a functional genomic analysis of uninfected salivary glands and salivary glands of female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes infected with DENV. We have shown that DENV infection of salivary glands strongly up-regulates the expression of genes that encode proteins involved in the vector's innate immune response, including the immune deficiency (IMD and Toll signalling pathways, and that it induces the expression of the gene encoding a putative anti-bacterial, cecropin-like, peptide (AAEL000598. Both the chemically synthesized non-cleaved, signal peptide-containing gene product of AAEL000598, and the cleaved, mature form, were found to exert, in addition to antibacterial activity, anti-DENV and anti-Chikungunya viral activity. However, in contrast to the mature form, the immature cecropin peptide was far more effective against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and, furthermore, had strong anti-parasite activity as shown by its ability to kill Leishmania spp. Results from circular dichroism analysis showed that the immature form more readily adopts a helical conformation which would help it to cause membrane permeabilization, thus permitting its transfer across hydrophobic cell surfaces, which may explain the difference in the anti-pathogenic activity between the two forms. The present study underscores not only the importance of DENV-induced cecropin in the innate immune response of Ae. aegypti, but also emphasizes the broad-spectrum anti-pathogenic activity of the immature, signal peptide-containing form of this peptide.

  18. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López María Elena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  19. A comparison between amylase levels from peritonsillar, dental and neck abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saied, S; Kaplan, D M; Zlotnik, A; Abu Tailakh, M; Kordeluk, S; Joshua, B-Z

    2014-12-01

    Pus of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) contains very high amylase levels in some patients. The objective of this study was to further test this finding and to check whether high amylase levels in peritonsillar abscess originate from contamination by saliva during aspiration. Prospective study. Tertiary care university hospital. The study includes 64 patients with PTA, 8 patients with a neck abscess and 12 patients with a dental abscess. Amylase levels of pus and serum were compared between the groups. Clinical data regarding hospitalisation length, recurrence rate and previous antibiotic treatment were also collected. Mean amylase levels in the pus of the PTA group were 3045 U/L (median 59 U/L), 13 U/L in the neck abscess group (P = 0.001) and 22 U/L in the dental abscess group (P = 0.001). Mean serum amylase was higher in the PTA group; PTA - 50 U/L, neck abscess - 37 U/L (P = 0.002) and dental abscess - 26 U/L (P levels above 65 U/L had a first episode of PTA. In contrast, 40% of patients with amylase lower than 65 U/L had recurrent PTA (P = 0.003). A clear association is seen between minor salivary glands and peritonsillar abscess. The high amylase level in peritonsillar pus is not from contamination with saliva. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A glycoprotein α-amylase inhibitor from Withania somnifera differentially inhibits various α-amylases and affects the growth and development of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Sainath S; Marathe, Kiran R; Bhide, Amey J; Herwade, Abhijeet P; Giri, Ashok P; Maheshwari, Vijay L; Pawar, Pankaj K

    2017-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of plant defensive molecules enrich our resources to design crop protection strategies. In particular, plant-derived proteinaceous inhibitor(s) of insect digestive enzymes appear to be a safe, sustainable and attractive option. A glycoprotein having non-competitive α-amylase inhibitory activity with a molecular weight of 8.3 kDa was isolated and purified from seeds of Withania somnifera α-amylase inhibitor (WSAI). Its mass spectrometry analysis revealed 59% sequence coverage with Wrightide II-type α-amylase inhibitor from Wrightia religiosa. A dose-dependent inhibition of α-amylases from Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, Helicoverpa armigera and Tribolium castaneum was recorded. Interestingly, WSAI did not inhibit human salivary α-amylase significantly. When adults of T. castaneum were fed with WSAI (1.6 mg g-1 ), decrease in consumption, growth and efficiency of conversion of ingested food was evident, along with over fourfold increases in feeding deterrence index. A decline in larval residual α-amylase activity after feeding of WSAI resulted in a reduction in longevity of T. castaneum. The study reflects the significance of WSAI in affecting the overall growth and development of T. castaneum. Pre- and post-harvest pest resistive capability makes WSAI a potential candidate for insect pest management. Further, the effectiveness of this inhibitor could be explored either in formulations or through a transgenic approach. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Enhancement of amylase production by Aspergillus sp. using carbohydrates mixtures from triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojnov Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of finding a suitable available inducer in combination with starvation, carbohydrate mixtures from triticale was used as inducers and compared with well-known amylase inducers in fungi. Carbohydrate mixtures from triticale induced production of amylase cocktail (α-amylase and glucoamylase in Aspergillus niger, unlike induction with well-known inducers which induce only glucoamylase, showed by zymogram and TLC analysis of carbohydrates mixtures before and after fermentations. Glucoamylase production by A. niger was highest in the presence of extract obtained after autohydrolysis of starch from triticale (95.88 U/mL. Carbohydrate mixtures from triticale induced production of α-amylase in A. oryzae. More α-amylase isoforms were detected upon using complex carbohydrate mixture, compared to induction with maltose or starch. The 48 h induction was the most efficient by using triticale extract (101.35 U/mL. Carbohydrates from triticale extracts can be used as very good cheap amylase inducers. Triticale, still not fully utilized, could be taken into consideration as the inducer in amylase production by Aspergillus sp, such a way it could be used as sole substrate in fermentation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172048

  2. Amylase-Binding Protein B of Streptococcus gordonii Is an Extracellular Dipeptidyl-Peptidase▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Biswendu; Paju, Susanna; Haase, Elaine M.; Vickerman, M. Margaret; Tanzer, Jason M.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    The oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii interacts with salivary amylase via two amylase-binding proteins, AbpA and AbpB. Based on sequence analysis, the 20-kDa AbpA protein is unique to S. gordonii, whereas the 82-kDa AbpB protein appears to share sequence homology with other bacterial dipeptidases. The aim of this study was to verify the peptidase activity of AbpB and further explore its potential functions. The abpB gene was cloned, and histidine-tagged AbpB (His-AbpB) was expre...

  3. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  4. Recurrent Rearrangements of Human Amylase Genes Create Multiple Independent CNV Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwan, Nzar A A; Louzada, Sandra; Yang, Fengtang; Armour, John A L

    2017-05-01

    The human amylase gene cluster includes the human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B), and is a highly variable and dynamic region of the genome. Copy number variation (CNV) of AMY1 has been implicated in human dietary adaptation, and in population association with obesity, but neither of these findings has been independently replicated. Despite these functional implications, the structural genomic basis of CNV has only been defined in detail very recently. In this work, we use high-resolution analysis of copy number, and analysis of segregation in trios, to define new, independent allelic series of amylase CNVs in sub-Saharan Africans, including a series of higher-order expansions of a unit consisting of one copy each of AMY1, AMY2A, and AMY2B. We use fiber-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) to define unexpected complexity in the accompanying rearrangements. These findings demonstrate recurrent involvement of the amylase gene region in genomic instability, involving at least five independent rearrangements of the pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B). Structural features shared by fundamentally distinct lineages strongly suggest that the common ancestral state for the human amylase cluster contained more than one, and probably three, copies of AMY1. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. Alpha-amylase serum levels in professional soccer players are not related with physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Alis, Rafael; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bosio, Andrea; Romagnoli, Marco; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Recent evidence has showed that serum or salivary values of α-amylase predict endurance running performance. In this study we investigate whether serum α-amylase concentration may be associated with training status during a competitive season and after a detraining period in professional soccer players. The study population consisted in 15 male professional soccer players from an Italian major league team (age [mean±SD] 27±5 years, weight 76.9±4.1 kg, height 1.82±0.05 m). Serum α-amylase levels were measured 3 times during the last part of a competitive season (January, March and May) and just before preseason training (July). Metabolic and cardiovascular fitness of soccer players was improved during the last part of the season. The levels of α-amylase did not change significantly throughout the study period (χ2=7.331, P=0.062), nor they were found to be associated with variation of physical fitness and training status. The α-amylase fluctuations throughout a competitive season and after vacation time were meaningless in professional soccer players. No significant associations with physical fitness variations could be observed. These results suggest that α-amylase concentration may be a useful parameter for identifying individual inclination to endurance exercise, but not for predicting actual training status.

  6. Salivary flow rate and biochemical composition analysis in stimulated whole saliva of children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Modesto, Karine Barros; de Godói Simões, Jéssica Bueno; de Souza, Amanda Ferreira; Damaceno, Neiva; Duarte, Danilo Antonio; Leite, Mariana Ferreira; de Almeida, Eliete Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    It is recognized that cystic fibrosis (CF) patients present a risk for oral diseases, since it affects exocrine glands, and the treatment consists of a carbohydrate-rich diet. Recognizing the protective function of saliva on maintaining oral health, the aim of the study was to evaluate salivary parameters in stimulated whole saliva from children with CF. A case-control study was conducted comparing stimulated whole saliva of healthy (n=28; control group) and CF children (n=21; experimental group). Salivary flow rate, initial pH, buffer capacity (total and in each range of pH), total protein and sialic acid (total, free, and conjugated) concentration, α-amylase and salivary peroxidase activities were evaluated. Data were compared by two-tailed Student t test (95% CI; p ≤ 0.05). CF patients presented a significant reduction in salivary parameters compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05): salivary flow rate (36%), buffer capacity (pH range from 6.9 to 6.0), sialic acid concentration (total 75%, free 61%, and conjugated 83%); α-amylase and salivary peroxidase activities (55%). Additionally, a significant increase in total protein concentration (180%) of stimulated whole saliva from CF patients was verified compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05). Children with CF presented significant changes in salivary composition, including salivary flow rate, buffering capacity and protective proteins of the oral cavity, compared with children without CF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of a starch-hydrolyzing α-amylase produced by Aspergillus niger WLB42 mutated by ethyl methanesulfonate treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihui; Lin, Chaoyang; Liu, Yun; Shen, Zhicheng; Jeyaseelan, Jenasia; Qin, Wensheng

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is the most commonly used fungus for commercial amylase production, the increase of amylase activity will be beneficial to the amylase industry. Herein we report a high α-amylase producing (HAP) A. niger WLB42 mutated from A. niger A4 by ethyl methanesulfonate treatment. The fermentation conditions for the amylase production were optimized. The results showed that both the amylase activity and total protein content reached highest after 48-h incubation in liquid medium using starch as the sole carbon source. The enzyme production reached maximum at temperature of 30°C, pH 7, with 40 g/L starch in the medium inoculated with 1.4% v/v spore. When 0.3% w/v urea was added to the liquid medium as a nitrogen source, the amylase activity was elevated by 20%. Nine monosaccharides and derivatives were tested for α-amylase induction, glucose was the best inducer. Furthermore, the enzymology characterization of amylase was conducted. The molecular weight of amylase was determined to be 50 kD by SDS-PAGE. The amylase had maximum activity at 45°C and pH 7. The activity could be dramatically triggered by adding 1 mM Co2+, increased to 250%. The activity was inhibited by detergents SDS and Triton X-100. Six different brands of starch were tested for amylase activity, the results demonstrated that the more soluble of the starch, the higher hydrolyzability of the substrate by amylase. PMID:27335681

  8. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer ...

  9. Effects of radiation and α-tocopherol on saliva flow rate, amylase activity, total protein and electrolyte levels in oral cavity cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate early and late effects of radiation and a-tocopherol on the secretion rate of saliva and on selected saliva salivary parameters in oral cavity cancer patients. Patients & Methods: Eighty-nine histologically confirmed oral cavity cancer patients (OCC were enrolled in the study. Resting whole saliva was collected before, during and at the end of the radiation therapy (RT and simultaneous supplementation with α - tocopherol to the radiation treated patients (RT + AT. Results: Salivary flow rate, pH, amylase activity, total protein, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Increased pH, potassium and decreased flow rate, amylase activity, protein content and sodium were observed in 6 weeks of radiation treated patients when compared to OCC patients. A significant improvement of those parameters was observed on α - tocopherol supplementation in RT + AT patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with α - tocopherol improves the salivary flow rate thereby, maintains salivary parameters.

  10. Salivary film expresses a complex, macromolecular binding site for Streptococcus sanguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, K; Mailloux, L; Herzberg, M C

    2000-03-24

    Teeth in the oral cavity are coated with a salivary film or pellicle, which lacks apparent intermolecular organization. This heterogeneous film facilitates binding of early commensal colonizing bacteria, including Streptococcus sanguis. To test the hypothesis that sufficient intermolecular organization exists in salivary films to form binding sites for S. sanguis, an in vitro model of saliva-coated teeth was probed with murine anti-idiotypical monoclonal antibodies (mAb2, anti-ids). The anti-ids were harvested from hybridomas that were developed in response to first generation murine hybridomas that produced anti-S. sanguis adhesin monoclonal antibodies (mAb1). The anti-ids (i) reacted with experimental salivary films and inhibited S. sanguis adhesion in a dose-dependent fashion. In Western blots, the anti-ids (ii) recognized a high molecular weight salivary antigen and (iii) secretory IgA (sIgA) light chain and alpha-amylase. After isolation by gel filtration from whole saliva or mixed secretory IgA and alpha-amylase, the high molecular weight component, containing amylase activity and sIgA, bound to hydroxyapatite to promote adhesion of S. sanguis. Therefore, a complex enriched in secretory immunoglobulin A and alpha-amylase forms a S. sanguis-binding site.

  11. Salivary enzymes in peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Mojdeh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Vesal, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Peptic ulcer, the common disease of the upper gastro-intestinal tract, occurs in about 5-10% of the world's population. Therefore, diagnosis of trace disease progression with a noninvasive method is of prime importance in the field of healthcare research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of salivary enzymes as noninvasive biomarkers for peptic ulcer. In practice, 34 peptic ulcer patients and 30 healthy subjects donated their un-stimulated saliva samples after 8 h of fasting. The activity of some selected enzymes was measured using appropriate enzymatic assay methods. The results indicated an overall alternation in enzymatic activity of saliva in patients suffering from peptic ulcer. Biological activity of a-amylase, peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase, showed significantly higher values in almost all patients as compared to control subjects. Based on the results of salivary enzyme activity, it was concluded that besides the influence of their peptic ulcer on enzyme activity of saliva, the considerably higher activity of a-amylase could also be related to the major role of the enzyme on physiological oxidative stress.

  12. Salivary enzymes in peptic ulcer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Mojdeh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Vesal, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Aim Peptic ulcer, the common disease of the upper gastro-intestinal tract, occurs in about 5–10% of the world's population. Therefore, diagnosis of trace disease progression with a noninvasive method is of prime importance in the field of healthcare research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of salivary enzymes as noninvasive biomarkers for peptic ulcer. Materials and methods In practice, 34 peptic ulcer patients and 30 healthy subjects donated their un-stimulated saliva samples after 8 h of fasting. The activity of some selected enzymes was measured using appropriate enzymatic assay methods. Results The results indicated an overall alternation in enzymatic activity of saliva in patients suffering from peptic ulcer. Biological activity of a-amylase, peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase, showed significantly higher values in almost all patients as compared to control subjects. Conclusions Based on the results of salivary enzyme activity, it was concluded that besides the influence of their peptic ulcer on enzyme activity of saliva, the considerably higher activity of a-amylase could also be related to the major role of the enzyme on physiological oxidative stress. PMID:25737890

  13. Amylase Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/amylasetest.html Amylase Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Amylase Test? An amylase test measures the amount of amylase ...

  14. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001041.htm Salivary gland infections To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit (saliva). ...

  15. Salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001040.htm Salivary gland tumors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the gland ...

  16. Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coca-Pelaz, A.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Triantafyllou, A.; Hunt, J.L.; Rinaldo, A.; Strojan, P.; Haigentz, M., Jr.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Takes, R.P.; Poorten, V. Van der; Ferlito, A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicopathological features, prognosis and therapeutic strategies for mucoepidermoid carcinoma originating in salivary and salivary-type glands of the head and neck are reviewed. We emphasise histopathological aspects, appraise the value of histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry

  17. Salivary Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your salivary glands are in your mouth. You have three pairs of major salivary glands and hundreds of small (minor) glands. They make ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause them to become irritated and swollen. ...

  18. Amylase activity is associated with AMY2B copy numbers in dog: implications for dog domestication, diet and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Maja; Fall, Tove; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Axelsson, Erik

    2014-10-01

    High amylase activity in dogs is associated with a drastic increase in copy numbers of the gene coding for pancreatic amylase, AMY2B, that likely allowed dogs to thrive on a relatively starch-rich diet during early dog domestication. Although most dogs thus probably digest starch more efficiently than do wolves, AMY2B copy numbers vary widely within the dog population, and it is not clear how this variation affects the individual ability to handle starch nor how it affects dog health. In humans, copy numbers of the gene coding for salivary amylase, AMY1, correlate with both salivary amylase levels and enzyme activity, and high amylase activity is related to improved glycemic homeostasis and lower frequencies of metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigate the relationship between AMY2B copy numbers and serum amylase activity in dogs and show that amylase activity correlates with AMY2B copy numbers. We then describe how AMY2B copy numbers vary in individuals from 20 dog breeds and find strong breed-dependent patterns, indicating that the ability to digest starch varies both at the breed and individual level. Finally, to test whether AMY2B copy number is strongly associated with the risk of developing diabetes mellitus, we compare copy numbers in cases and controls as well as in breeds with varying diabetes susceptibility. Although we see no such association here, future studies using larger cohorts are needed before excluding a possible link between AMY2B and diabetes mellitus. © 2014 The Authors. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  19. amylase producing thermophile Bacillus sphaericus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the -amylase-producing thermophilic bacterium isolated and identified from a hot spring in Jordan and designated as Bacillus sphaericus were carried out in a laboratory scale fermenter. The growth and enzyme production optimum conditions were pH 7 and 50oC. The kinetic study of cellular growth indicates ...

  20. The response of salivary protein levels and S-IgA to an academic examination are associated with daily stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J.A.; Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Bermond, B.; Hoogstraten, J.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    Acute real-life stress is capable of altering several aspects of the oral defense system, such as the salivary levels of S-IgA, alpha-amylase, total protein, and the capacity of saliva to aggregate streptococcal bacteria. In this study, we further explored whether these acute changes are influenced

  1. [Regulation of alpha-amylase biosynthesis in Bacillus diastaticus mutants with various levels of enzyme synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murygina, V P

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of alpha-amylase biosynthesis was studied in Bacillus diastaticus mutants with different levels of the enzyme synthesis (by two orders of magnitude). The enzyme biosynthesis was shown to be regulated by induction and catabolite repression. Maltose, starch and methyl-alpha,D-glucoside (which cannot be metabolised) induced the synthesis while glucose and fructose acted as catabolite repressors.

  2. Expression and Characterization of Geobacillus stearothermophilus SR74 Recombinant α-Amylase in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivasangkary Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geobacillus stearothermophilus SR74 is a locally isolated thermophilic bacteria producing thermostable and thermoactive α-amylase. Increased production and commercialization of thermostable α-amylase strongly warrant the need of a suitable expression system. In this study, the gene encoding the thermostable α-amylase in G. stearothermophilus SR74 was amplified, sequenced, and subcloned into P. pastoris GS115 strain under the control of a methanol inducible promoter, alcohol oxidase (AOX. Methanol induced recombinant expression and secretion of the protein resulted in high levels of extracellular amylase production. YPTM medium supplemented with methanol (1% v/v was the best medium and once optimized, the maximum recombinant α-amylase SR74 achieved in shake flask was 28.6 U mL−1 at 120 h after induction. The recombinant 59 kDa α-amylase SR74 was purified 1.9-fold using affinity chromatography with a product yield of 52.6% and a specific activity of 151.8 U mg−1. The optimum pH of α-amylase SR74 was 7.0 and the enzyme was stable between pH 6.0–8.0. The purified enzyme was thermostable and thermoactive, exhibiting maximum activity at 65°C with a half-life (t1/2 of 88 min at 60°C. In conclusion, thermostable α-amylase SR74 from G. stearothermophilus SR74 would be beneficial for industrial applications, especially in liquefying saccrification.

  3. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  4. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Amylase Gene from the Rice Pest Walker and its Inhibitor from Wheat (Variety MP Sehore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scirpophaga incertulas Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralideae, commonly known as yellow stem borer, is a predominant monophagous pest of rice, which causes 5% to 30% loss of the rice crop. We report for the first time, the cloning and sequence analysis of the amylase gene of this pest. The cloned gene translates into a protein of 487 amino acids having a predicted molecular weight of 54,955 daltons and a theoretical pI of 5.9. The 3D structure of the amylase is predicted from its amino acid sequence by homology modeling using the structure of the amylase from Tenebrio molitor L (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. We also report the purification of a dimeric α-amylase inhibitor from a local variety of wheat MP Sehore that is specific for the amylase of this pest and does not inhibit human salivary amylase or porcine pancreatic amylase. The gene encoding this inhibitor has been cloned and its sequence has been analysed to find a possible explanation for this specificity.

  5. Salivary protein changes in response to acute stress in medical residents performing advanced clinical simulations: a pilot proteomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Rachel K; Saepoo, Muncharie B; Ye, Simiao; White, Donald B; Liu, Rong; Hensley, Kenneth; Rega, Paul; Kazan, Viviane; Giovannucci, David R; Isailovic, Dragan

    Quantitative changes of salivary proteins due to acute stress were detected. To explore protein markers of stress in saliva of eight medical residents who performed emergency medicine simulations. Saliva was collected before the simulations, after the simulations, and following morning upon waking. Proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), identified by mass spectrometry (MS), and relatively quantified by densitometry. Salivary alpha-amylase and S-type cystatins significantly increased, while the ∼26 kDa and low-molecular weight (MW) (<10 kDa) SDS-PAGE bands exhibited changes after stress. Alpha-amylase and cystatins are potential salivary markers of acute stress, but further validation should be performed using larger sample populations.

  6. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Soares Teixeira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25; and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25. Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p<0.05; there was also an increase in glucose, amylase and protein concentrations in the saliva of the Experimental Group, but the differences were insignificant. There was insignificant correlation between calcium ion concentration and salivary flow or between buffering capacity and salivary flow. CONCLUSION: The saliva of individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances had lower pH, buffering capacity and calcium concentration than that of individuals without any type of orthodontic appliance. These oral changes are enough to cause tooth demineralization. Patients with orthodontic appliances should adopt additional oral hygiene procedures.

  7. Salivary glands and human selection: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, E D; Mann, R W

    1996-01-01

    Stafne static bone defect (SSBD) of the mandible is the only described destructive bone lesion that is highly localized, nonprogressive, but nonhealing. This common defect in male is found in the region of the major salivary glands that produce a cornucopia of biologically active factors. We describe rare phenocopies caused by mandibular immobility that hold the gland in a constant position thus implicating a localized chronic "leak" of an osteoclast induction factor from the major salivary glands as the pathologic agent. This finding suggests that increased salivary gland size could simulate immobility by apposing the gland to bone, thus allowing the "leaked" factor's gradient to have an effect. In one step, the putative genetic enlargement of a critical gland that produces many factors important for survival, a broad biological vista would be available to the massive potential for both positive and negative selection. Positive selection was identified by observing a correlation between the prevalence of enhanced androgen-induced enlarge salivary glands (SSBD) as a marker, with a great preponderance of males) and the conjectured resulting increased production of immunoreactive factors, with pole-to-equator isotherm and broad ranged infection clines. Negative selection was observed among the slave ancestors of African Americans for a potential embryonic homeotic mutation causing larger salivary glands in both sexes (decreased prevalence of SSBD, with an equal sex ratio). The decreased production of saliva and electrolytes diminished the salt and water depletive effects of severe diarrhea and vomiting induced by enteric diseases, which killed many slaves. Data presented suggests that SSBD is a polymorphism and a marker of selection processes that cause variation in size, or structure, of the major salivary glands.

  8. Assessment of stress associated with an oral public speech in veterinary students by salivary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecles, Fernando; Fuentes-Rubio, María; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Fatjó, Jaume; Cerón, José J

    2014-01-01

    In this report, salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase activity, and testosterone were measured to assess stress associated with a public oral presentation in Veterinary Clinical Pathology students. Stimulated saliva samples were collected before and directly after a 5-minute oral presentation and at 20 and 35 minutes after the beginning of the presentation. Cortisol peaked 20 minutes after the beginning of the presentation, whereas salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) peaked at 5 minutes, just at the end of the speech. These changes were not related to the level of stress that was indicated by the student in a questionnaire, the student's sex, or the quality of the presentation. No changes were detected in testosterone levels during the study. Saliva biomarkers evaluated in this research could be extended to other stress-producing situations in the university life of veterinary students.

  9. Purification and physicochemical properties of - amylase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presence of maltose and maltodextrin but not glucose in the starch hydrolysate (2 h of reaction). This result indicated that the amylolytic enzyme of P. americana is an -amylase (an endoamylase). The purified -amylase hydrolysed maltopentose, maltohexose and maltoheptose. Maltose, maltotriose and maltotetrose were not ...

  10. Simvastatin attenuates radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liping Xu,* Xi Yang,* Jiayan Chen, Xiaolin Ge, Qin Qin, Hongcheng Zhu, Chi Zhang, Xinchen Sun Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammation, and vascular protection. In our study, we investigated the radioprotective potential of simvastatin (SIM in a murine model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Design: Ninety-six Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into four groups: solvent + sham irradiation (IR (Group I, SIM + sham IR (Group II, IR + solvent (Group III, and IR + SIM (Group IV. SIM (10 mg/kg body weight, three times per week was administered intraperitoneally 1 week prior to IR through to the end of the experiment. Saliva and submandibular gland tissues were obtained for biochemical, morphological (hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome, and Western blot analysis at 8 hours, 24 hours, and 4 weeks after head and neck IR. Results: IR caused a significant reduction of salivary secretion and amylase activity but elevation of malondialdehyde. SIM remitted the reduction of saliva secretion and restored salivary amylase activity. The protective benefits of SIM may be attributed to scavenging malondialdehyde, remitting collagen deposition, and reducing and delaying the elevation of transforming growth factor β1 expression induced by radiation. Conclusion: SIM may be clinically useful to alleviate side effects of radiotherapy on salivary gland. Keywords: simvastatin, radiation protection, submandibular gland, transforming growth factor-β1, mice

  11. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they

  12. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice A Stafford-Banks

    Full Text Available Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (the western flower thrips is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6 to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24% of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the

  13. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  14. Effect of selenium supplementation for protection of salivary glands from iodine-131 radiation damage in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Haiyoung; Lee, Sang Mi; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Lee, Hakmin; Lee, Ilkyun; Kim, Soon; Chung, Woong Youn; Lee, Jeong Won

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we examined whether selenium supplementation during iodine-131 ((131)I) treatment had a radio-protective effect on salivary glands. Sixteen patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients after total thyroidectomy, before (131)I treatment, were divided into two groups; 8 patients in the selenium group and 8 patients in the control group. Patients in the selenium group received 300νg of selenium orally for 10 days, from 3 days before to 6 days after (131)I treatment. The control group received a placebo over the same period. To assess salivary gland function, salivary gland scintigraphy was performed before and 6 months after (131)I treatment. Serum amylase and whole blood selenium levels were measured before and 2 days and 6 months after (131)I treatment. Using salivary gland scintigraphy, maximum uptake ratio (MUR), maximum secretion percentage (MSP), and ejection fraction (EF) of each salivary gland were calculated. Baseline clinical characteristics, baseline amylase and selenium levels, and parameters of baseline salivary gland scintigraphy were not significantly different between selenium and control groups (P>0.05). On a blood test performed 2 days after (131)I treatment, the selenium group showed a significantly higher whole blood selenium level (P=0.008) and significantly lower serum amylase level (P=0.009) than the control group. On follow-up salivary gland scintigraphy, the control group showed significantly decreased, MUR of the bilateral parotid and left submandibular glands, MSP of the bilateral parotid and submandibular glands, and EF of the left submandibular glands (Pgland and EF of the left submandibular gland (Psalivary glands damage by (131)I radiation in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

  15. SALIVARY GLANDS - AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aero-digestive submucosa. Saliva is the watery substance produced in the mouths of humans and other animals. Saliva is a component of oral fluid. Human saliva is composed of 98% water, while the other 2% consists of other compounds such as electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various e...

  16. [The possible mechanisms of alkaline phosphatase and alpha-amylase immobilization in dental enamel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkov, M Iu; Leont'ev, V K

    1997-01-01

    The kinetic method revealed that by the rate of adsorption on apatite, serum alkaline phosphatase (AlP) is homologous and salivary AlP consists of two fractions: "slow" with the constant of adsorption rate approximating that of serum AlP and "fast" with 5-6 times greater constant. A mechanism of phosphatase immobilization on apatite by two-stage sequential reaction is proposed. The constants of rates of both stages for the serum phosphatase and fast salivary fraction are determined. Difference of the products of both stages by the Michaelis constant (KM) is demonstrated for the fast fraction. The KM of the second-stage immobilization product is close to that of AlP immobilized on dental enamel, which confirms the hypothesis about their identity. In contrast to AlP, both serum and salivary alpha-amylase react with apatite at the same rate and, probably, by the same mechanism as the bulk of salivary and serum protein.

  17. Effect of saliva collection methods and oral hygiene on salivary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justino, Allisson Benatti; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Jaramillo, Olga Lucia Bocanegra; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of unstimulated and stimulated saliva collection methods, as well as tooth brushing, on the secretion rate of salivary total protein, nitrite, total antioxidant capacity and alpha-amylase. Saliva of 14 healthy individuals were collected with stimulation using Salivette®, Parafilm® and chewing gum and without stimulation from spit with and without fluid accumulation, before and after oral hygiene. Total protein, nitrite, total antioxidant capacity and alpha-amylase concentration (sAA) were evaluated. The collection of saliva stimulated with Parafilm® and chewing gum increased the salivary flow (1.5 ± 0.4 and 3.4 ± 0.7 mL/min, respectively) and the secretion rate of salivary total protein (1.0 ± 0.2 and 2.3 ± 0.5 mg/min, respectively). Also, chewing gum increases the salivary nitrite secretion (213 ± 58 nmol/min) and total antioxidant capacity (410 ± 47 nmol trolox eq/min). Interestingly, the unstimulated method without saliva accumulation prior to collection resulted in low sAA levels (23,531 ± 7979 pixel density). Furthermore, oral hygiene decreased salivary flow (1.3 ± 0.5 to 1.0 ± 0.4 mL/min), reduced the secretion rate of total protein (1.0 ± 0.5 to 0.6 ± 0.2 mg/min, p saliva. Therefore, the evaluation of saliva collection methods and oral hygiene on salivary biomarkers is important for understanding and standardizing variations in salivary composition to strengthen the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

  18. Salivary lipids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Saliva is produced by both large and small salivary glands and may be considered one of the most important factors influencing the behavior of oral cavity homeostasis. Secretion of saliva plays an important role in numerous significant biological processes. Saliva facilitates chewing and bolus formation as well as performs protective functions and determines the buffering and antibacterial prosperities of the oral environment. Salivary lipids appear to be a very important component of saliva, as their qualitative and quantitative composition can be changed in various pathological states and human diseases. It has been shown that disturbances in salivary lipid homeostasis are involved in periodontal diseases as well as various systemic disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, diabetes and Sjögren's syndrome). However, little is known about the role and composition of salivary lipids and their interaction with other important ingredients of human saliva, including proteins, glycoproteins and salivary mucins. The purpose of this review paper is to present the latest knowledge on salivary lipids in healthy conditions and in oral and systemic diseases.

  19. Macroamylasemia attributable to gluten-related amylase autoantibodies: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barera, G; Bazzigaluppi, E; Viscardi, M; Renzetti, F; Bianchi, C; Chiumello, G; Bosi, E

    2001-06-01

    Macroamylasemia (MA) is a benign condition caused by circulating macroamylase complexes of pancreatic or salivary amylase bound to plasma proteins, which cannot be cleared by the renal glomeruli. In most cases, the macromolecular amylase represents a complex of normal amylase and either immunoglobulin A or G and may be a specific antigen-antibody complex. Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent intolerance to ingested gluten that results in immunologically mediated inflammatory damage of the small intestinal mucosa. Several recent population-based serologic surveys have shown CD to be a common disorder, possibly affecting 1 in 200 to 250 individuals in most countries studied, including the United States, where overt CD is rare, indicating a high proportion of subclinical disease. The diagnosis of CD currently rests on the histological demonstration of the characteristic lesion in the small intestine and the subsequent clinical response to the introduction of a gluten-free diet. MA associated with CD has been described in adult patients, and in a few cases, MA decreased or resolved after a strict gluten-free diet. A few single cases of MA have been described in childhood, but no association with CD has been reported so far. We report a girl with CD, autoimmune thyroiditis, and MA, in whom CD-related antibodies to amylase and to exocrine pancreas tissue resolved with a gluten-free diet. An 11-year-old girl was referred for chronic abdominal pain and growth retardation associated with persistent hyperamylasemia and suspected chronic pancreatitis. We confirmed elevated serum amylase, normal serum lipase, and very low 24-hour urine amylase and amylase clearance/creatinine clearance ratio, consistent with MA. Serologic tests for CD were positive, and the diagnosis was confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing subtotal villous atrophy. Thyroid function tests showed a pronounced hypothyroidism, associated with high titers of thyroid microsomal and thyroglobulin antibodies

  20. Biotechnological Processes in Microbial Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash C. B. Gopinath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.

  1. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  2. Beta-Amylases from Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Roots 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlert, Douglas C.; Duke, Stanley H.; Anderson, Laurens

    1982-01-01

    Amylase was found in high activity (193 international units per milligram protein) in the tap root of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Sonora). The activity was separated by gel filtration chromatography into two fractions with molecular weights of 65,700 (heavy amylase) and 41,700 (light amylase). Activity staining of electrophoretic gels indicated the presence of one isozyme in the heavy amylase fraction and two in the light amylase fraction. Three amylase isozymes with electrophoretic mobilities identical to those in the heavy and the light amylase fractions were the only amylases identified in crude root preparations. Both heavy and light amylases hydrolyzed amylopectin, soluble starch, and amylose but did not hydrolyze pullulan or β-limit dextrin. The ratio of viscosity change to reducing power production during starch hydrolysis was identical for both alfalfa amylase fractions and sweet potato β-amylase, while that of bacterial α-amylase was considerably higher. The identification of maltose and β-limit dextrin as hydrolytic end-products confirmed that these alfalfa root amylases are all β-amylases. The pH optimum for both β-amylase fractions was 6.0. Both light and heavy β-amylases showed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with soluble starch as substrate, and had respectively Km values of 5.9 and 6.8 milligrams starch per milliliter and Vmax of 640 and 130 international units per milligram protein. Arrhenius plots indicated that the energy of activation for the heavy β-amylase remained relatively unchanged (12.7 to 13.0 kilocalories per mole) from 0 to 30°C, whereas the energy of activation for the light amylase increased from 12.0 to about 28.0 kilocalories per mole at 8.7°C as temperature was lowered. The light amylase was shown to be inhibited by maltose. Images PMID:16662350

  3. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rajul Rastogi; Sumeet Bhargava; Govindarajan Janardan Mallarajapatna; Sudhir Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain ra...

  4. Three-dimensional organotypic culture of human salivary glands: the slice culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X; Fang, D; Liu, Y; Ramamoorthi, M; Zeitouni, A; Chen, W; Tran, S D

    2016-10-01

    A challenge in studying human salivary glands is to maintain the cells ex vivo in their three-dimensional (3D) morphology with an intact native extracellular matrix (ECM) environment. This paper established a human salivary 3D organotypic slice culture model that could maintain its physiological functions as well as allowing a direct visualization of the cells. Human salivary biopsies from six patients were embedded in agarose and submerged in cold buffer for thin (50 μm) sectioning using a vibratome. 'Salivary slices' were mechanically supported by a porous membrane insert that allowed an air-liquid interface and cultured in serum-free culture media. Cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, physiological functions, and gene expression were assessed during 14 days of culture. Human salivary slices maintained cell survival (70-40%) and proliferation (6-17%) for 14 days ex vivo. The protein secretory (amylase) function decreased, but fluid (intracellular calcium mobilization) function was maintained. Acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cell populations survived and maintained their 3D organization within the slice culture model. The human salivary slice culture model kept cells alive ex vivo for 14 days as well as maintaining their 3D morphology and physiological functions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Optimisation of amylase and xylanase addition in dependance of white flour amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Davor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of different quantities of added amylase to white wheat flours characterized with different activities of naturally existing amylases is tested. Response surface methodology is chosen to test the effects of main applied technological parameters on bread quality responses. Independent variables are chosen to be: quantity of added amylase and bulk fermentation time, while analysed responses are: specific volume, grain structure, bulk fermentation. Bread quality responses are statistically significant, while predicted and observed responses correspond very well, which allows good prediction of bread quality parameters based on applied technological parameters and flour characteristics. Score analysis shows that optimum quantity of amylase addition regarding bread quality depends on the activity of naturally existing amylases. Optimal quantity of added xylanase in bread samples made from both flour types is 0.004%. Xylanase improved properties of white wheat bread and higher effect is experienced with flour that has more active naturally existing amylases. Addition of amylase has statistically significantly increased a* values of crust. Addition of xylanase has statistically significantly decreased values of b* in comparison to the respective bread sample with only added amylase.

  6. Lower immunglobulin A levels but not lower cortisol or α-amylase activity in children with chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel M; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Rivas-Martínez, Inés; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-03-01

    The study was designed to investigate the differences in salivary cortisol (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical [HPA] axis), immunoglobulin A (IgA) (immune system) concentrations and α-amylase (sympathetic nervous system [SNS]) activity between children with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and healthy children. Thirty-six children, 10 boys and 26 girls (age: 9 ± 2 years) with CTTH and 36 age- and sex-matched healthy children were recruited. Salivary cortisol, α-amylase activity, salivary flow rate, IgA concentration and IgA rate were collected from non-stimulated saliva. A headache diary was used for collecting data on intensity, frequency and duration of headache for four weeks. Children with CTTH showed lower IgA concentration (p = .008) and IgA rate (p = .039), but not lower cortisol concentration (p = .447), salivary flow rate (p = .289) or α-amylase activity (p = .559), as compared to healthy children. Neither age (p > .582) nor gender (p > .227) influenced salivary markers. A significant association between the number of years with headache and IgA concentration (r(s) = - 0.385; p = .023) was found: the greater the number of years with headache, the lower the IgA concentration. These results suggest that children with CTTH present with deficits in the immune system, but not dysfunction in the HPA axis or SNS. Future studies are needed to elucidate the direction of these relationships.

  7. Gender differences in automatic thoughts and cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute psychosocial stress in patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehisa, Masayuki; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Okamoto, Kana; Oshita, Harumi; Masuda, Koji; Takita, Fuku; Izumi, Toshihiko; Inoue, Ayako; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2017-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between OCPD and psychological stress and psychological tests. We evaluated 63 OCPD patients and 107 healthy controls (HCs). We collected saliva samples from patients and controls before and after a social stress procedure, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), to measure the concentrations of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Profile of Mood State (POMS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS), and Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to patients and HCs. Following TSST exposure, the salivary amylase and cortisol levels were significantly decreased in male patients compared with controls. Additionally, OCPD patients had higher CTQ, POMS, STAI, and BDI scores than HCs and exhibited significantly higher anxiety and depressive states. OCPD patients scored higher on future denial and threat prediction as per the DACS tool. According to a stepwise regression analysis, STAI, POMS, and salivary cortisol responses were independent predictors of OCPD. Our results suggested that attenuated sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity in male OCPD patients occurs along with attenuated salivary amylase and cortisol responses to the TSST. In addition, there was a significant difference between OCPD patients and HCs in child trauma, mood, anxiety, and cognition. The finding support the modeling role of cortisol (20min) on the relationships between STAI trait and depression among OCPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...

  9. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  10. Self-compassion training modulates alpha-amylase, heart rate variability, and subjective responses to social evaluative threat in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J; Brown, Kirk Warren; Dean, Derek J; Landy, Lauren N; Brown, Kimberley D; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of research has revealed that social evaluative stressors trigger biological and psychological responses that in chronic forms have been linked to aging and disease. Recent research suggests that self-compassion may protect the self from typical defensive responses to evaluation. We investigated whether brief training in self-compassion moderated biopsychological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in women. Compared to attention (placebo) and no-training control conditions, brief self-compassion training diminished sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase), cardiac parasympathetic, and subjective anxiety responses, though not HPA-axis (salivary cortisol) responses to the TSST. Self-compassion training also led to greater self-compassion under threat relative to the control groups. In that social stress pervades modern life, self-compassion represents a promising approach to diminishing its potentially negative psychological and biological effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of extracellular amylase from agricultural residues by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Supplementation of carbon (starch) and nitrogen source (peptone) showed an increase in amylase production and the highest amount of amylase production obtained under all optimized conditions was 164 U/g. Key words: Solid state fermentation, optimization, Aspergillus, fermentation, amylases.

  12. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... (Moreira et al., 2001), fungi (Tani et al., 1986) and plants. (Mahmona, 1993). Frangui (2001) reported that amylases of plant origin have the highest productivity followed by that of fungi while amylases from bacteria have relatively less productivity. Plants and fungi have formed the basis of important amylase ...

  13. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds ( Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the ...

  14. Hydrolysis of raw tuber starches by amylase of Aspergillus niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrolysis of raw tuber starches by amylase of Aspergillus niger AM07 isolated from the soil. ... The crude amylase preparation of A. niger AM07 had temperature and pH optima activities at 60oC and 4.0 respectively. The optimum substrate concentration was 3 %. The action of the crude amylase of A. niger on raw tuber ...

  15. Pasta cooking water as medium of amylase production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    α-Amylases (EC 3.2.1.1; 1,4-α-D-glucanglucanohydrolase) are enzymes that are widely studied and used in industries. Their major source is microorganisms. This study aimed to prepare a readily available medium for industrial amylase production. An optimization of amylase production conditions by. Bacillus sp. R2 and ...

  16. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  17. Heat activation and stability of amylases from Bacillus species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... of enzyme. Starch enzymes, alpha amylase, catalyse the. *Corresponding authors E-mail: jidet02@yahoo.com. random hydrolysis of α-1,4-glycosidic bounds in starch, while saccharogenic amylase that is, β-amylase is the enzyme that catalyze the sequential hydrolysis of α-1,4- glucans (Matsui et al., 1977) ...

  18. Purification and Some Properties of a Thermostable α-Amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work reports the isolation, purification and some properties of a thermostable α-amylase producing Bacillus subtilis isolated from the soil. Soil samples were collected and screened for thermophilic bacterial strains with amylase activity and to examine the amylase heat tolerance potentiality. The isolate was Gram ...

  19. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available isozyme of pI approximately 4.4-4.5, unlike the many isozymes all of higher pI in barley. However, like barley, sorghum beta-amylase was more temperature-labile than its alpha-amylase. Beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt was increased by germination time...

  20. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  1. [Salivary calculi in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerena, J; Sancho, M A; Cáceres, F; Krauel, L; Parri, F; Morales, L

    2007-04-01

    The main salivary glands are the submaxillary, sublingual and parotid glands. Infectious and tumoral conditions are prominent in the parotid gland whilst calculi are in submaxillary and sublingual glands. METHODS. Medical record review of 18 cases with a diagnosis of salivary calculi over a 13 year period. Data collected consisted in, clinical presentation, ultrasound (US), sialography (SG) and computarized tomography (CT), and treatment. 13 male and 5 female. Mean age was 7.2 years. All of them presented with pain and tenderness. Parotid gland was affected in 10 cases. An infectious cause for calculi was found in 7 while 3 presented calculi with no underlying infectious cause. Submaxillary gland was affected in 6 and sublingual in 2. No infectious condition was associated to submaxillary and sublingual calculi. Surgical treatment consisted in duct canalization for calculi removal and was performed in all patients after initial treatment with antibiotics. Neither complications nor relapse was found after surgical removal. Diagnosis of salivary calculi is made by clinical symptoms and imaging exams. Treatment is surgical and has to be performed after medical treatment for infection and inflamation.

  2. Salivary enzyme activity in anorexic persons—a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszynska, Elżbieta; Schlueter, Nadine; Slopien, Agnieszka; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Dyszkiewicz-Konwinska, Marta; Hannig, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa are at high risk for general and oral diseases. However, not all anorexic patients suffer from them, irrespective of the severity of their eating disorder. It is often speculated that differences in the saliva are important; however, little is known about salivary parameters in anorexic patients. The aim of the clinical trial was to evaluate stimulated and resting salivary flow rate and the activity of the following enzymes in both types of saliva: amylase, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), collagenase, lysozyme, peroxidase, serine and acidic proteases, and trypsin in persons with anorexia nervosa (AN) and to compare them with those of healthy controls. Sixty-six subjects participated (28 patients with anorexia nervosa, 38 matched healthy controls). Regarding flow rate, stimulated and unstimulated levels were significantly lower in the AN group than in the controls. Activities of collagenase and AST in stimulated saliva were significantly higher in anorexic participants. In the AN group, changes due to salivary stimulation were found for the activity of acidic proteases, AST, and lysozyme. Reduced salivary flow might be one indicator of anorexia. Despite starvation and anorexia development, salivary key enzymes show physiological activity. This indicates a partial adaptation of the organism to severe condition during malnutrition. Further research is needed into possible role of reduced collagenase and transaminase activities in maintaining protection against external noxae and bacteria which might have impact on general oral health among patients with anorexia nervosa.

  3. Assessment of sleep bruxism, orthodontic treatment need, orofacial dysfunctions and salivary biomarkers in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Juliana Neide; Tuon, Rogério Antônio; Castelo, Paula Midori; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Barbosa, Taís de Souza

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the sleep bruxism, malocclusions, orofacial dysfunctions and salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase in asthmatic children. 108 7-9-yr-old children were selected from Policlinic Santa Teresinha Doutor Antonio Haddad Dib (asthmatics, n=53) and from public schools (controls, n=55), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was confirmed by parental report of grinding sounds and the presence of shiny and polish facets on incisors and/or first permanent molars. The index of orthodontic treatment need was used for occlusion evaluation. Orofacial dysfunctions were evaluated using the nordic orofacial test-screening (NOT-S). Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were expressed as "awakening response" (AR), calculated as the difference between levels immediately after awakening and 30 min after waking, and "diurnal decline" (DD), calculated as the difference between levels at 30 min after waking and at bedtime. Data were analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk/Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square, unpaired t test/Mann-Whitney and paired t/Wilcoxon tests. Sleep bruxism was more prevalent in children with asthma than controls (47.2% vs. 27.3%, pbruxism, negative perception of sensory, chewing and swallowing functions, and higher concentrations of salivary cortisol on weekend. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biosynthesis of rice seed alpha-amylase: two pathways of amylase secretion by the scutellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, T; Akazawa, T; Christeller, J T; Tartakoff, A M

    1985-08-15

    The alpha-amylase molecule secreted from the scutellar tissues of rice seedlings bears asparagine-linked oligosaccharides which include both (modified) complex-type and high-mannose-type structures. On the basis of their sensitivity to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Endo-beta-H), they are designated as R and S types. When labeled with [3H]fucose a typical R-type alpha-amylase is labeled. By contrast, [3H]mannose-labeled alpha-amylase can be partly digested by Endo-beta-H; hence, it contains both R and S molecules. The role of the Golgi complex in the post-translational oligosaccharide maturation of alpha-amylase was explored by use of the carboxylic ionophore, monensin (10(-7)M), a known perturbant of the structure and function of the Golgi complex. The monensin sensitivity of alpha-amylase transport and acquisition of terminal sugars as well as the morphologic consequences of monensin treatment point to a similarity between the Golgi complex of plant and animal cells. In order to elucidate the relationship between the secretion of two different forms of alpha-amylase and the partial inhibitory effect exerted by monensin, the possible role of Ca2+ in the secretory pathway was examined. The secretion of the R form was stimulated by Ca2+, whereas that of the S form was not affected by the external concentration of Ca2+. In pulse-chase experiments, we found that R-type alpha-amylase accumulates intracellularly under Ca2+-free conditions. These results indicate that there is both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent secretion of alpha-amylase in the rice scutellar epithelium cells.

  5. Characteristics of salivary secretion in normal-weight, overweight and obese children: a preliminary study: salivary composition and excessive fat tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Milene Mazuchi; Kobayashi, Fernanda Yukie; Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Costa, Simone da Silva; Lucas, Bárbara de Lima; Castelo, Paula Midori

    2014-07-01

    Information on salivary characteristics of young subjects with different body composition is scarce. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess salivary characteristics of normal-weight, overweight and obese children. This is a basic research design in which 68 children (5-12 years) were recruited and anthropometric measurements consisted of body mass index (BMI = Kg/m(2)), body perimeters (waist/arm circumferences) and subcutaneous fat tissue (triceps/subscapular thicknesses). Stimulated (SS) and unstimulated morning saliva (US) were collected to determine flow rate, pH and triglycerides, urea, alpha-amylase, total protein, phosphate and calcium concentrations. Data were analyzed using normality tests, t test/Wilcoxon, one-way ANOVA/Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's/Spearman's correlation tests, where appropriate. Age, household income, parents' education, saliva flow and pH did not differ among groups. Waist circumference and subscapular skinfold differed significantly between normal-weight and obese groups; only waist circumference showed significant correlation with BMI in all groups. pH increased significantly from US to SS in all groups; but flow rate increased from US to SS only in normal-weight and overweight groups. Total protein, amylase, urea, phosphate, triglyceride and calcium concentrations did not differ among groups. However, urea, phosphate and calcium concentrations differed significantly between US and SS in the normal-weight and overweight groups, with the lowest values for SS. In the overweight group, total protein also differed between saliva samples and obese group showed no difference in biochemical parameters between US and SS. Finally, some salivary characteristics may vary among normal-weight, overweight and obese children; thus, future studies in a larger sample are needed to fully understand salivary secretion and composition of these subjects.

  6. Salivary gland diseases in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  7. Dynamics of Salivary Gland Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Harunaga, J.; Hsu, J. C.; Yamada, K M

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands form during embryonic development by a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The architecture of these glands is generated by branching morphogenesis, revealed by recent research to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, ...

  8. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic Recurrent Major or Minor Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  9. Screening of marine actinobacteria for amylase enzymes inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, S; Ganesan, S; Sivakumar, K; Thangaradjou, T

    2010-06-01

    Amylase inhibitor producing actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from terrestrial environment and there is no much report found from marine environment, hence in the present study, 17 strains isolated from the rhizosphere sediments of mangroves were tested for their amylase inhibition ability. Seawater requirement test for the growth of actinobacteria found that the strains SSR-3, SSR-12 and SSR-16 requires at least 50% and SSR-6 requires at least 25% seawater for their growth. The inhibition activity of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic amylase was tested by using Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. The maximum amylase activity (40mm) produced by the A. niger was taken as positive control, when the test actinobacteria strains grown in the medium they inhibited amylase activity and was evidenced by the reduction in inhibition zone (14-37 mm) similarly the amylase produced by the Bacillus subtilis was also recorded maximum (35 mm) amylase activity and was taken as positive control, and the test atinobacterial strains reduced enzyme action(12-33 mm) it varied levals. This indicates that the actinobacteria strains were controlled amylase enzyme activity in both the cases. The strain SSR-10 was highly effective and SSR-8 was less effective in inhibiting eukaryotic amylase produced by A. niger. The strain SSR-2 was effective and SSR-6 showed very less effect in inhibiting the prokaryotic amylase produced by the B subtilis.

  10. Salivary gland diseases : infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K; Spijkervet, FK; Vissink, A.

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary

  11. Salivary oncocytic cystadenoma with intraluminal crystalloids: a case report with review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezić, Joško; Glavina-Durdov, Merica

    2011-12-01

    Oncocytic cystadenoma is a rare benign tumor of major salivary glands that in rare occasions may present histologically with intraluminal crystalloids. We report a case of 53-year-old man with a progressively enlarging lump in the left submandibular region. Ultrasound examination revealed a cystic mass with an intraluminal fluid collection. The tumor was surgically removed. Histologic examination yielded a diagnosis of oncocytic cystadenoma with a high concentration of intraluminal crystalloids. The microscopic features of the crystalloids were compatible with nontyrosine (alpha-amylase) crystalloids. When compared with previously published cases in the literature, this is the first report of oncocytic cystadenoma with intraluminal crystalloids arising in the submandibular gland, and the second reported case of the nontyrosine type of crystalloids occurring in association with this tumor. The nontyrosine crystalloids may be highly characteristic to salivary gland tumors with oncocytic differentiation.

  12. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Vinayachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features.

  13. Functional spheroid organization of human salivary gland cells cultured on hydrogel-micropatterned nanofibrous microwells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Soo; Kook, Yun-Min; Hong, Hye Jin; Kim, Young-Mo; Koh, Won-Gun; Lim, Jae-Yol

    2016-11-01

    Development of a tissue-engineered, salivary bio-gland will benefit patients suffering from xerostomia due to loss of fluid-secreting acinar cells. This study was conducted to develop a bioengineering system to induce self-assembly of human parotid epithelial cells (hPECs) cultured on poly ethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel-micropatterned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous microwells. Microwells were fabricated by photopatterning of PEG hydrogel in the presence of an electrospun PCL nanofibrous scaffold. hPECs were plated on plastic dishes, Matrigel, PCL nanofibers, or PCL nanofibrous microwells. When the cells were plated onto plastic, they did not form spheres, but aggregated to form 3D acinar-like spheroids when cultured on Matrigel, PCL, and PCL microwells, with the greatest aggregating potency being observed on the PCL microwells. The 3D-assembled spheroids in the PCL microwells expressed higher levels of salivary epithelial markers (α-amylase and AQP5), tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin), adherence protein (E-cadherin), and cytoskeletal protein (F-actin) than those on the Matrigel and PCL. Furthermore, the 3D-assembled spheroids in the PCL microwells showed higher levels of α-amylase secretion and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) than those on the Matrigel and PCL nanofibers, suggesting more functional organization of hPECs. We established a bioengineering 3D culture system to promote robust and functional acinar-like organoids from hPECs. PCL nanofibrous microwells can be applied in the future for bioengineering of an artificial bio-salivary gland for restoration of salivary function. Three dimensional (3D) cultures of salivary glandular epithelial cells using nanofibrous bottom facilitate the formation of acinar-like organoids. In this study, we adapted a PEG hydrogel-micropatterned PCL nanofibrous microwell for the efficient bioengineering of human salivary gland organoids, in which we could easily produce uniform size of 3D organoids

  14. Changes in the salivary protein profile of morbidly obese women either previously subjected to bariatric surgery or not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Elsa; Simões, Carla; Rodrigues, Lénia; Costa, Ana Rodrigues; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Antunes, Célia; do Carmo, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is a non-invasive source of biomarkers useful in the study of physiological mechanisms. Moreover, this fluid has diverse functions, among which food perception and ingestion, making it particularly suitable for the study of obesity. The aims of this study were to assess changes in salivary proteome among morbidly obese women, with a view to provide information about mechanisms potentially related to the development of obesity, and to evaluate whether these changes persist after weight loss. Mixed saliva samples from morbidly obese women (N = 18) who had been either subjected (group O-BS) or not (group O) to bariatric surgery and women with normal weight (N = 14; group C) were compared for protein profiles, alpha-amylase abundance and enzymatic activity, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI abundance. Differences in salivary obese profiles were observed for 23 different spots. Zinc-alpha-2 glycoprotein-containing spots showed higher abundance in group O only, whereas cystatin S-containing spots presented higher abundance in the two groups of obese subjects. Most of the spots identified as salivary amylase were present at lower levels in group O-BS. With regard to the amylase enzymatic activity, increases were observed for group O and decreases for group O-BS. One interesting finding was the high correlation between levels of CA VI and body mass index in group O, which was not observed for groups O-BS or C. The differences between groups, mainly regarding salivary proteins involved in taste sensitivity and metabolism, point to the potential of using saliva in the study of obesity development.

  15. Physical and nutritional factors affecting the production of amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amylase producing Bacillus sp. was isolated from spoiled food waste, which yielded 30 U ml-1 of amylase in medium containing 4% starch and 2% yeast extract at 37°C, pH 7.0 after 20 h of incubation. Maximum amylase activity was at pH 7.0 and 37°C. The enzyme retained 70% activity at pH 9.0. It exhibited 77% activity at ...

  16. Carbodiimide for Covalent α-Amylase Immobilization onto Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Zeinab Mortazavi; Jalal, Razieh; Goharshadi, Elaheh K.

    Covalent cross-linking of enzymes to magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs) is one of the useful enzyme immobilization methods which provides repeated use of the catalyst, facilitates enzyme separation from the reaction mixture, and sometimes improves biocatalysts stability. The aim of this study was to immobilize α-amylase onto MNPs via covalent attachment using carbodiimide (CDI) molecules. MNPs were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The size and the structure of the particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of different operational conditions of direct α-amylase binding on MNPs in the presence of CDI were investigated by using the shaking method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the success of immobilization. The optimum conditions and catalytic properties of immobilized α-amylase were also evaluated. The efficiency of immobilization and the residual activity of the immobilized α-amylase were dependent on the mass ratio of MNPs: CDI: α-amylase and the immobilization temperature. The optimum pH for the free and immobilized amylase was 6. The free and immobilized α-amylase showed maximum activity at 20∘C and 35∘C, respectively. The immobilized α-amylase was more thermostable than the free one. The retained activity for free α-amylase after 19 storage days was 57.7% whereas it was 100% for the immobilized α-amylase. In repeated batch experiments, the immobilized α-amylase retained a residual activity of 45% after 11 repeated uses. The Km and Vmax values for the immobilized enzyme were larger than those of the free enzyme. The immobilization of α-amylase on MNPs using CDI improves its stability and reusability.

  17. Salivary hormones response to preparation and pre-competitive training of world-class level athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël eGuilhem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A, chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while immunoglobulin A (+61% and creatine kinase activity (+43% increased, and chromogranin A decreased (-27% during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15% and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05. None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training.

  18. Immunoassay or LC-MS/MS for the measurement of salivary cortisol in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yoon Ju; Gaudl, Alexander; Jaeger, Sonia; Stadelmann, Stephanie; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland; Willenberg, Anja; Schaab, Michael; von Klitzing, Kai; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Döhnert, Mirko; Kratzsch, Juergen

    2016-05-01

    Dysregulation of the adrenal cortex has been assessed with measurement of salivary cortisol. So far salivary cortisol is routinely measured with immunoassay (IA). However, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) is known to offer better specificity. We compared the concentrations of salivary cortisol measured by MS and IA at basal and stress induced conditions and evaluated reasons for the difference in method-dependent cortisol results. Saliva samples (n=2703) were collected from 169 children (age range: 8-14 years; 81 healthy children; 55 with internalizing and 33 with externalizing disorders) under circadian conditions and during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Biochemical analyses were performed with MS for cortisol and cortisone, IA (IBL, RE62011) for cortisol, and enzyme kinetic assay for α-amylase. MS and IA showed mostly comparable results for circadian activity and TSST-C response with similar statistical power. However, IA measured cortisol concentrations about 2.39-fold higher than MS. We found that this difference in measured values between MS and IA was mainly due to different standardization of IA compared to MS. In addition, at cortisol IA concentration below 5 nmol/L, cross-reactivity with cortisone was found to contribute to the lower concordance between MS and IA. Immunoassay and LC-MS/MS were largely comparable in the interpretation of salivary cortisol dynamics in stress research. But the IA method revealed a restricted accuracy in the measuring range below 5 nmol/L.

  19. Salivary Surrogates of Plasma Nitrite and Catecholamines during a 21-Week Training Season in Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Gómez, Miguel Mauricio; Bocanegra Jaramillo, Olga Lucia; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2013-01-01

    The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA), chromogranin A (sCgA), and the concentration of total protein (sTP) as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2) in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2), respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of training during a 21-week training season in 12 elite swimmers. Overall, the salivary proteins tracked the concentration of plasma adrenaline and were inversely correlated with the training outcomes. No correlations were observed between sNO2 and pNO2. However, sNO2 correlated positively with the intensity and load of training. We argue that the decrease in sympathetic activity is responsible for the decrease in the concentration of proteins throughout the training season. Furthermore, the increase in nitrite is likely to reflect changes in hemodynamics and regulation of vascular tone. The association of the salivary markers with the training outcomes underlines their potential as noninvasive markers of training status in professional athletes. PMID:23700456

  20. Salivary surrogates of plasma nitrite and catecholamines during a 21-week training season in swimmers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mauricio Díaz Gómez

    Full Text Available The collection of samples of saliva is noninvasive and straightforward, which turns saliva into an ideal fluid for monitoring the adaptive response to training. Here, we investigated the response of the salivary proteins alpha-amylase (sAA, chromogranin A (sCgA, and the concentration of total protein (sTP as well as salivary nitrite (sNO2 in relation to plasma catecholamines and plasma nitrite (pNO2, respectively. The variation in these markers was compared to the intensity and load of training during a 21-week training season in 12 elite swimmers. Overall, the salivary proteins tracked the concentration of plasma adrenaline and were inversely correlated with the training outcomes. No correlations were observed between sNO2 and pNO2. However, sNO2 correlated positively with the intensity and load of training. We argue that the decrease in sympathetic activity is responsible for the decrease in the concentration of proteins throughout the training season. Furthermore, the increase in nitrite is likely to reflect changes in hemodynamics and regulation of vascular tone. The association of the salivary markers with the training outcomes underlines their potential as noninvasive markers of training status in professional athletes.

  1. Bottleneck in secretion of α-amylase in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2017-07-19

    Amylase plays an important role in biotechnology industries, and Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a major host to produce heterogeneous α-amylases. However, the secretion stress limits the high yield of α-amylase in B. subtilis although huge efforts have been made to address this secretion bottleneck. In this question-oriented review, every effort is made to answer the following questions, which look simple but are long-standing, through reviewing of literature: (1) Does α-amylase need a specific and dedicated chaperone? (2) What signal sequence does CsaA recognize? (3) Does CsaA require ATP for its operation? (4) Does an unfolded α-amylase is less soluble than a folded one? (5) Does α-amylase aggregate before transporting through Sec secretion system? (6) Is α-amylase sufficient stable to prevent itself from misfolding? (7) Does α-amylase need more disulfide bonds to be stabilized? (8) Which secretion system does PrsA pass through? (9) Is PrsA ATP-dependent? (10) Is PrsA reused after folding of α-amylase? (11) What is the fate of PrsA? (12) Is trigger factor (TF) ATP-dependent? The literature review suggests that not only the most of those questions are still open to answers but also it is necessary to calculate ATP budget in order to better understand how B. subtilis uses its energy for production and secretion.

  2. Salivary cortisol in panic attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D; Pauls, J; Broocks, A; Hajak, G; Ruther, E

    Objective: Documentation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbance in panic disorder has been inconsistent. Increased cortisol levels have been associated with altered HPA function due to stress. The authors examined salivary cortisol levels in spontaneously occurring, unprovoked

  3. Salivary alpha-amylase, heart rate and heart-rate variability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HRavg and HRmax increased (p<0.001) during warm-up by 33% and by12.9% and during the experimental game by 21.2% and by 24% compared to baseline values (HRavg 99.8 ± 12.97bpm; HRmax 123 ± 14.71 bpm, respectively). sAA activity was lower (p<0.001) by 13.8% after warm-up and lower by 5% after the ...

  4. Alpha-amylase reactivity in relation to psychopathic traits in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Remmel, Rheanna J; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A; Gao, Yu; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-04-01

    Recent investigations of the psychobiology of stress in antisocial youth have benefited from a multi-system measurement model. The inclusion of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a surrogate marker of autonomic/sympathetic nervous system (ANS) activity, in addition to salivary cortisol, a biomarker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, has helped define a more complete picture of individual differences and potential dysfunction in the stress response system of these individuals. To the authors' knowledge, no studies have examined sAA in relation to antisocial behavior in adults or in relation to psychopathic traits specifically. In the present study, we examined sAA, in addition to salivary cortisol, in a relatively large sample (n=158) of adult males (M age=36.81, range=22-67 years; 44% African-American, 34% Caucasian, 16% Hispanic) recruited from temporary employment agencies with varying levels of psychopathic traits. Males scoring highest in psychopathy were found to have attenuated sAA reactivity to social stress compared to those scoring lower in psychopathy. No differential relationships with the different factors of psychopathy were observed. In contrast to studies of antisocial youth, there were no interactions between sAA and cortisol levels in relation to psychopathy, but there was a significant interaction between pre-stressor levels of sAA and cortisol. Findings reveal potential regulatory deficits in the fast-acting, 'fight or flight', component of the stress response in adult males with psychopathic traits, as well as abnormalities in how this system may interact with the HPA axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α-Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis, the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use.

  6. Purification and medium optimization of α-amylase from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... Chemical characterization of the purified α-amylase revealed optimum ... Key words: Bacillus, α-amylase, optimization, Plackett-Burman design, response surface methodology. INTRODUCTION. Microbial enzymes ... production of enzymes by medium handling considered as advanced approach (Li et al., ...

  7. Nitrogen supplements effect on amylase production by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of amylase by Aspergillus niger on three cassava whey media in liquid shake culture was compared. The supplemented cassava whey (SCW) medium exhibited gave amylase activity of 495 U/ml. Biomass cropped was 1.63 g/l in the SCW medium. Yeast extract employed as a nitrogen supplement increased ...

  8. Amylase activity of a yellow pigmented bacterium isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the amylase activity of a yellow pigmented bacterium isolated from cassava wastes obtained from a dumpsite near a gari processing factory in Ibadan, Nigeria. Isolate was grown in nutrient broth containing 1% starch and then centrifuged at 5,000 rpm. Amylase activity was assayed using the DNSA ...

  9. Production and Partial characterization of a thermostable amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calis

    2012-05-24

    May 24, 2012 ... Key words: Amylase, bacteria, amylase activity, pH sensitivity, estuarine soil. ... bacteria capable of carrying out the degradation of dead .... Cellulose. -. Mannose. +. - = None; + = poor, ++ = good, +++ = very good. strain isolated from soil receiving kitchen waste and authors suggest that this could be due to ...

  10. Expression and characterization of α-Amylases from penicillium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to enhance the industrial production of α-amylases in the tropics, sterile fresh bread was inoculated with spore suspensions of Penicillium citrinum at 25 oC. Extracellular α-amylases were produced and subjected to partial purification by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. Further purification by gel ...

  11. Application of microbial α-amylase in industry - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Such enzymes hydrolyze the starch molecules into polymers composed of glucose units. Amylases have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. α-Amylases can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganisms. However, enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. The production of α-amylase is essential for conversion of starches into oligosaccharides. Starch is an important constituent of the human diet and is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. Starch-converting enzymes are used in the production of maltodextrin, modified starches, or glucose and fructose syrups. A large number of microbial α-amylases has applications in different industrial sectors such as food, textile, paper and detergent industries. The production of α-amylases has generally been carried out using submerged fermentation, but solid state fermentation systems appear as a promising technology. The properties of each α-amylase such as thermostability, pH profile, pH stability, and Ca-independency are important in the development of fermentation process. This review focuses on the production of bacterial and fungal α-amylases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  12. Characterization of a thermostable Bacillus subtilis β-amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    β-Amylase (á-1, 4 glucan maltohydrolase; E.C:3.2.1.2) is used in the food processing, brewing and distilling industries due to its capacity to produce maltose syrup from starch. Here, we report the purification and characterization of â-amylase from Bacillus subtilis isolated from cassava peel waste obtained from a ...

  13. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase activity ... mL of starch broth were inoculated with a loop full of cells from a 24 h slant and kept in a rotary ..... be stimulated or inhibited by the type of amino acids present in the growth ...

  14. Purification and characterization of α-amylase from Ganoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to purify and characterize the α-amylase for industrial perspective. The production of α-amylase through solid-state fermentation by Ganoderma tsuage was investigated by using waste bread as substrates. Production parameters were optimized as 2 mL of inoculum size, moisture 50%, ...

  15. Imaging of salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk

    2008-06-15

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

  16. Salivary duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'heygere, Emmanuel; Meulemans, Jeroen; Vander Poorten, Vincent

    2018-01-25

    The review puts new information on geno- and phenotype of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the perspective of the updated 2017 WHO classification. The proportion of SDC is increasing. This may be because of a true rise in incidence, but certainly to better diagnostic tests and changed WHO definitions. In this light, a substantial proportion of carcinoma expleomorphic adenoma is now attributed to the category of SDC. 'Low-grade SDC' and 'SDC in-situ' of the former WHO classification, are now named low-grade and high-grade intraductal carcinoma (IDC), respectively. Recent series quantify biologic aggressiveness: perineural growth, vascular invasion, and extracapsular extension in lymph node metastasis are each observed in two out of three patients with SDC. Most patients die within 3 years, but once 5-year disease-free survival is reached, further disease activity is exceptional. The typical molecular biological profile with high human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and androgen receptor expression is increasingly successfully exploited in clinical trials for advanced SDC. The aggressive SDC is increasingly diagnosed. Despite intensive combined surgery and radiation therapy, many patients recur, for whom new bullets, targeting the molecular biological mechanisms, are the subject of ongoing clinical trials.

  17. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma Mimicking Salivary Adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid g...

  18. Structural features, substrate specificity, kinetic properties of insect α-amylase and specificity of plant α-amylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rimaljeet; Kaur, Narinder; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2014-11-01

    α-Amylase is an important digestive enzyme required for the optimal growth and development of insects. Several insect α-amylases had been purified and their physical and chemical properties were characterized. Insect α-amylases of different orders display variability in structure, properties and substrate specificity. Such diverse properties of amylases could be due to different feeding habits and gut environment of insects. In this review, structural features and properties of several insect α-amylases were compared. This could be helpful in exploring the diversity in characteristics of α-amylase between the members of the same class (insecta). Properties like pH optima are reflected in enzyme structural features. In plants, α-amylase inhibitors (α-AIs) occur as part of natural defense mechanisms against pests by interfering in their digestion process and thus could also provide access to new pest management strategies. AIs are quite specific in their action; therefore, these could be employed according to their effectiveness against target amylases. Potential of transgenics with α-AIs has also been discussed for insect resistance and controlling infestation. The differences in structural features of insect α-amylases provided reasons for their efficient functioning at different pH and the specificity towards various substrates. Various proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous inhibitors discussed could be helpful in controlling pest infestation. In depth detailed studies are required on proteinaceous α-AI-α-amylase interaction at different pH's as well as the insect proteinase action on these inhibitors before selecting the α-AI for making transgenics resistant to particular insect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multilocular developmental salivary gland defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Oral Biology Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Developmental salivary gland defect is a bone depression on the lingual surface of the mandible containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. This defect also appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although it is not uncommon for this defect to appear as a round or ovoid radiolucency, multilocular radiolucency of these defects is relatively rare. This report presents a case of a developmental salivary gland defect with multilocular radiolucency in a male patient.

  20. Labor Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop ... oxytocin? • What are the risks associated with labor induction? • Is labor induction always effective? •Glossary What is ...

  1. Serum amylase and lipase and urinary trypsinogen and amylase for diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompianesi, Gianluca; Hann, Angus; Komolafe, Oluyemi; Pereira, Stephen P; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2017-04-21

    The treatment of people with acute abdominal pain differs if they have acute pancreatitis. It is important to know the diagnostic accuracy of serum amylase, serum lipase, urinary trypsinogen-2, and urinary amylase for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, so that an informed decision can be made as to whether the person with abdominal pain has acute pancreatitis. There is currently no Cochrane review of the diagnostic test accuracy of serum amylase, serum lipase, urinary trypsinogen-2, and urinary amylase for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of serum amylase, serum lipase, urinary trypsinogen-2, and urinary amylase, either alone or in combination, in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in people with acute onset of a persistent, severe epigastric pain or diffuse abdominal pain. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR HTA and DARE), and other databases until March 2017. We searched the references of the included studies to identify additional studies. We did not restrict studies based on language or publication status, or whether data were collected prospectively or retrospectively. We also performed a 'related search' and 'citing reference' search in MEDLINE and Embase. We included all studies that evaluated the diagnostic test accuracy of serum amylase, serum lipase, urinary trypsinogen-2, and urinary amylase for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. We excluded case-control studies because these studies are prone to bias. We accepted any of the following reference standards: biopsy, consensus conference definition, radiological features of acute pancreatitis, diagnosis of acute pancreatitis during laparotomy or autopsy, and organ failure. At least two review authors independently searched and screened the references located by the search to identify relevant studies. Two review authors independently extracted data from the included studies. The thresholds used

  2. Change of salivary IgA secretion and caries development in irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, T; Aono, W; Nagashima, S; Yoshida, T; Hashida, T; Sobue, S; Ooshima, T

    1994-09-01

    Xerostomia is a serious side-effect of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and often enhances caries activity. However, the relationship between caries induction and the IgA level in saliva in rats subjected to irradiation of the salivary glands is unclear. The effect of salivary gland irradiation on salivary function was examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats infected with or without Streptococcus mutans MT8148R (serotype c). The flow rate of saliva and the protein concentration in saliva were significantly reduced in irradiated rats, regardless of infection of S. mutans. The caries activity was enhanced in these rats, and and irradiation level of 50 Gy significantly increased the caries score. However, longitudinal study indicated that the salivary concentration of IgA reactive with S. mutans whole cells maintained similar or significantly higher levels in irradiated rats, when compared with those of nonirradiated rats. In addition, there was no negative correlation between the caries score and the salivary concentration of IgA reactive with S. mutans. These findings suggest that the secreted IgA against S. mutans may not play a significant role in the caries induction of hyposalivated rats.

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis HCB6 Amylase Immobilization by Chitosan Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusfahair; Ningsih, D. R.; Kartika, D.; Fatoni, A.; Zuliana, A. L.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize the amylase immobilization using a chitosan bead and to characterize immobilized amylase of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteria HCB6. This study was started of amylase production, continued by immobilization optimization including ratio of chitosan:enzymes, enzyme-matrix contact time, substrate concentration, pH effect, incubation temperature effect, reaction time, and stability of immobilized enzyme. Amylase activity assay was dinitro salicylic (DNS) method. The results showed the optimum chitosan:enzyme ratio was 2.5: 1 (v/v), immobilization contact time of 18 hours and immobilization efficiency of 87.93%. Furthermore, immobilized amylase of B. thuringiensis HCB6 showed optimum substrate concentration of 1.5%, optimum pH of 6, optimum incubation temperature of 37 ° C, and the reaction time of 30 minutes. The Michaelis-Menten constant KM value for free and immobilized amylase were 5.30% and 1.33% respectively. Immobilized amylase can be used up to five times with the remaining activity of 43.3%.

  4. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  5. Anopheles Gambiae PRS1 Modulates Plasmodium Development at Both Midgut and Salivary Gland Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Sylvie; Sautereau, Jean; Jacques, Jean-Claude; Thiery, Isabelle; Bourgouin, Catherine; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Background Invasion of the mosquito salivary glands by Plasmodium is a critical step for malaria transmission. From a SAGE analysis, we previously identified several genes whose expression in salivary glands was regulated coincident with sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. To get insights into the consequences of these salivary gland responses, here we have studied one of the genes, PRS1 (Plasmodium responsive salivary 1), whose expression was upregulated in infected glands, using immunolocalization and functional inactivation approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings PRS1 belongs to a novel insect superfamily of genes encoding proteins with DM9 repeat motifs of uncharacterized function. We show that PRS1 is induced in response to Plasmodium, not only in the salivary glands but also in the midgut, the other epithelial barrier that Plasmodium has to cross to develop in the mosquito. Furthermore, this induction is observed using either the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei or the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. In the midgut, PRS1 overexpression is associated with a relocalization of the protein at the periphery of invaded cells. We also find that sporozoite invasion of salivary gland cells occurs sequentially and induces intra-cellular modifications that include an increase in PRS1 expression and a relocalization of the corresponding protein into vesicle-like structures. Importantly, PRS1 knockdown during the onset of midgut and salivary gland invasion demonstrates that PRS1 acts as an agonist for the development of both parasite species in the two epithelia, highlighting shared vector/parasite interactions in both tissues. Conclusions/Significance While providing insights into potential functions of DM9 proteins, our results reveal that PRS1 likely contributes to fundamental interactions between Plasmodium and mosquito epithelia, which do not depend on the specific Anopheles/P. falciparum coevolutionary history. PMID:20634948

  6. Anopheles gambiae PRS1 modulates Plasmodium development at both midgut and salivary gland steps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chertemps

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasion of the mosquito salivary glands by Plasmodium is a critical step for malaria transmission. From a SAGE analysis, we previously identified several genes whose expression in salivary glands was regulated coincident with sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. To get insights into the consequences of these salivary gland responses, here we have studied one of the genes, PRS1 (Plasmodium responsive salivary 1, whose expression was upregulated in infected glands, using immunolocalization and functional inactivation approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PRS1 belongs to a novel insect superfamily of genes encoding proteins with DM9 repeat motifs of uncharacterized function. We show that PRS1 is induced in response to Plasmodium, not only in the salivary glands but also in the midgut, the other epithelial barrier that Plasmodium has to cross to develop in the mosquito. Furthermore, this induction is observed using either the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei or the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. In the midgut, PRS1 overexpression is associated with a relocalization of the protein at the periphery of invaded cells. We also find that sporozoite invasion of salivary gland cells occurs sequentially and induces intra-cellular modifications that include an increase in PRS1 expression and a relocalization of the corresponding protein into vesicle-like structures. Importantly, PRS1 knockdown during the onset of midgut and salivary gland invasion demonstrates that PRS1 acts as an agonist for the development of both parasite species in the two epithelia, highlighting shared vector/parasite interactions in both tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While providing insights into potential functions of DM9 proteins, our results reveal that PRS1 likely contributes to fundamental interactions between Plasmodium and mosquito epithelia, which do not depend on the specific Anopheles/P. falciparum coevolutionary history.

  7. Adsorption of amylase enzyme on ultrafiltration membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2007-01-01

    A method to measure the static adsorption on membrane surfaces has been developed and described. The static adsorption of an amylase-F has been measured on two different ultrafiltration membranes, both with a cut-off value of 10 kDa (a PES membrane and the ETNA10PP membrane, which is a surface......-modified PVDF membrane). The adsorption follows the Langmuir adsorption theory. Thus, the static adsorption consists of monolayer coverage. The static adsorption is expressed both as a permeability drop and an adsorption resistance. From the adsorption isotherms the maximum static permeability drops...... and the maximum static adsorption resistances are determined. The maximum static permeability drop for the hydrophobic PES membrane is 75 % and the maximum static adsorption resistance is 0.014 m2hbar/L. The maximum static permeability drop for the hydrophilic surface-modified PVDF membrane (ETNA10PP) is 23...

  8. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  9. Salivary IgA is a weak stress marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, C; Fillion, L; Tawadros, E; Tessier, R

    1989-01-01

    Several studies support the hypothesis that psychological stress may negatively affect immunocompetence. The present study sought to determine whether a relationship can be established between a measure of psychological state of stress and level of immunoglobulin of the A class (IgA) in saliva. To this end, 44 dentistry students were tested on four occasions; two occasions were stress inductive (examination situation), and two occasions were free of any academic stressor. At each session, the participants were asked to fill out the stress rating instrument, and unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained. Salivary IgA was measured by a microplate Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A significant difference in the level of salivary IgA was observed only for the most polarized contrast, ie, between final exam and end of summer vacation (p less than .01). A weak negative correlation between the level of salivary IgA and the stress rating was observed (r = -0.25) only at the final exam. Our results suggest that assaying immunoglobulin A in saliva to measure stress may not be as useful in psychophysiological research as expected.

  10. Bioprospecting of yeasts for amylase production in solid state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioprospecting of yeasts for amylase production in solid state fermentation and evaluation of the catalytic properties of enzymatic extracts. APA de Oliveira, MA Silvestre, HF Alves-Prado, A Rodrigues, MF da Paz, GG Fonseca, RSR Leite ...

  11. Production of α-amylase from some thermophilic Aspergillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Subsequently, the α-amylase activity of the microorganism was researched. In the measurements made on the 7th day of production on respectively Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus terreus cultures produced at mycological, ...

  12. [Amylase test in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehesa, M; Segovia, E

    1979-01-01

    The determination of serum and urinary amylase are methods used in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, however there are many abdominal problems that can cause hyperamylasemia, in the absence of pancreatic disease, for this reason in 1969 Levitt and col. signaled the possible advantages of amylase/creatinine clearence ratio, in the clinical diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. This test was used in cases with acute pancreatitis, as in other diseases, in correlation with levels in normal subjects, with the objective of evaluating its clinica utility, in relation to the formentioned paragraph. Results concluded that the amylase/creatinine ratio is not of greater diagnostic utility than the determination of urinary amylase, in acute pancreatitis.

  13. Purification and characterization of peptides from Capsicum annuum fruits which are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit high antimicrobial activity against fungi of agronomic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Layrana de Azevedo; Taveira, Gabriel Bonan; Ribeiro, Suzanna de Fátima Ferreira; Pereira, Lídia da Silva; Carvalho, André de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rosana; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Araújo, Jucélia da Silva; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira

    2017-04-01

    Proteins extracted from Capsicum annuum L. fruits were initially subjected to reversed-phase chromatography on HPLC, resulting in eight peptide-rich fractions. All the fractions obtained were tested for their ability to inhibit porcine trypsin and amylase from both human saliva and from larval insect in vitro. All fractions were also tested for their ability to inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungi. Several fractions inhibited the activity of human salivary amylase and larval insect amylase, especially fraction Fa5. No fraction tested was found to inhibit trypsin activity, being Fa2 fraction an exception. Interestingly fraction Fa5 also displayed high antimicrobial activity against the species of the Fusarium genus. Fraction Fa5 was found to have two major protein bands of 17 and 6.5 kDa, and these were sequenced by mass spectrometry. Two peptides were obtained from the 6.5-kDa band, which showed similarity to antimicrobial peptides. Fraction Fa5 was also tested for its ability to permeabilize membranes and induce ROS. Fraction Fa5 was able to permeabilize the membranes of all the fungi tested. Fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium also showed an increase in the endogenous production of ROS when treated with this fraction. Antimicrobial peptides were also identified in the fruits from other Capsicum species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening of marine actinobacteria for amylase enzymes inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Raja, S.; Ganesan, S.; K. SIVAKUMAR; Thangaradjou, T.

    2010-01-01

    Amylase inhibitor producing actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from terrestrial environment and there is no much report found from marine environment, hence in the present study, 17 strains isolated from the rhizosphere sediments of mangroves were tested for their amylase inhibition ability. Seawater requirement test for the growth of actinobacteria found that the strains SSR-3, SSR-12 and SSR-16 requires at least 50% and SSR-6 requires at least 25% seawater for their growth. The ...

  15. Improved production, purification and some properties of α-amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-10-04

    Oct 4, 2012 ... Effect of different organic nitrogen sources on the growth and α-amylase productivity by S. clavifer in LS medium at. 30°C and 96 .... bacterial suspension to UV rays (256 nm) at a distance of .... Kinetics of cellular growth and α-amylase productivity by the selected S. clavifer mutant (AM-7-1-4) along 120 h at.

  16. Canine Salivary Glands: Analysis of Rab and SNARE Protein Expression and SNARE Complex Formation With Diverse Tissue Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, Hiroshi; Osawa, Hiromi; Uno, Rie; Yasui, Tadashi; Hosaka, Masahiro; Torii, Seiji; Tsukise, Azuma

    2017-11-01

    The comparative structure and expression of salivary components and vesicular transport proteins in the canine major salivary glands were investigated. Histochemical analysis revealed that the morphology of the five major salivary glands-parotid, submandibular, polystomatic sublingual, monostomatic sublingual, and zygomatic glands-was greatly diverse. Immunoblot analysis revealed that expression levels of α-amylase and antimicrobial proteins, such as lysozyme, lactoperoxidase, and lactoferrin, differed among the different glands. Similarly, Rab proteins (Rab3d, Rab11a, Rab11b, Rab27a, and Rab27b) and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins VAMP4, VAMP8, syntaxin-2, syntaxin-3, syntaxin-4, and syntaxin-6 were expressed at various levels in individual glands. mmunohistochemistry of Rab3d, Rab11b, Rab27b, VAMP4, VAMP8, syntaxin-4, and syntaxin-6 revealed their predominant expression in serous acinar cells, demilunes, and ductal cells. The VAMP4/syntaxin-6 SNARE complex, which is thought to be involved in the maturation of secretory granules in the Golgi field, was found more predominantly in the monostomatic sublingual gland than in the parotid gland. These results suggest that protein expression profiles in canine salivary glands differ among individual glands and reflect the properties of their specialized functions.

  17. Tactics for modeling multiple salivary analyte data in relation to behavior problems: Additive, ratio, and interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in the psychobiology of the stress response have been linked to behavior problems in youth yet most research has focused on single signaling molecules released by either the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or the autonomic nervous system. As our understanding about biobehavioral relationships develops it is clear that multiple signals from the biological stress systems work in coordination to affect behavior problems. Questions are raised as to whether coordinated effects should be statistically represented as ratio or interactive terms. We address this knowledge gap by providing a theoretical overview of the concepts and rationales, and illustrating the analytical tactics. Salivary samples collected from 446 youth aged 11-12 were assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-s) and cortisol. Coordinated effect of DHEA-s and cortisol, and coordinated effect of sAA and cortisol on externalizing and internalizing problems (Child Behavior Checklist) were tested with the ratio and the interaction approaches using multi-group path analysis. Findings consistent with previous studies include a positive association between cortisol/DHEA-s ratio and internalizing problems; and a negative association between cortisol and externalizing problems conditional on low levels of sAA. This study highlights the importance of matching analytical strategy with research hypothesis when integrating salivary bioscience into research in behavior problems. Recommendations are made for investigating multiple salivary analytes in relation to behavior problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  19. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  20. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  1. Levels of Salivary Enzymes of Apolygus Lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae), From 1st Instar Nymph to Adult, and Their Potential Relation to Bug Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiumei; Xu, Xiuping; Gao, Yong; Yang, Qinmin; Zhu, Yunsheng; Wang, Jiqing; Wan, Fanghao; Zhou, Hongxu

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Apolygus lucorum has caused increasing damage to cotton and fruit trees in China. The salivary enzymes secreted by A. lucorum when sucking on host plants induce a series of biochemical reactions in plants, and the pre-oral digestion benefits the bug feeding. In this study, the food intake of A. lucorum from 1st instar nymphs to adults was measured, and the corresponding salivary activity of pectinase, amylase, cellulase, protease, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase was determined. Daily food intake varied with developmental stage, peaking in 3rd and 4th instar nymphs. Pectinase, amylase, cellulase and protease were detected in both nymphal and adult saliva of A. lucorum, while neither polyphenol oxidase nor peroxidase was detected. Protease activity varied with food intake peaking at the 3rd-4th instar, and then slightly decreasing at the 5th instar. Levels of pectinase, amylase and cellulase increased significantly with the daily feeding level until the 3rd instar, corresponding with increasing damage to host plants. The activity of both cellulase and protease had a significant linear relationship with the average daily food intake. The increasing activity of enzymes in saliva explain stage-specific impacts of A. lucorum on the host plants, and suggest that optimal management of A. lucorum would be confined to its control threshold prior to the peak of daily feeding in the 3rd instar.

  2. Salivary and pellicle proteome: A datamining analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigel, Hardy; Wicht, Michael; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-12-14

    We aimed to comprehensively compare two compartmented oral proteomes, the salivary and the dental pellicle proteome. Systematic review and datamining was used to obtain the physico-chemical, structural, functional and interactional properties of 1,515 salivary and 60 identified pellicle proteins. Salivary and pellicle proteins did not differ significantly in their aliphatic index, hydrophaty, instability index, or isoelectric point. Pellicle proteins were significantly more charged at low and high pH and were significantly smaller (10-20 kDa) than salivary proteins. Protein structure and solvent accessible molecular surface did not differ significantly. Proteins of the pellicle were more phosphorylated and glycosylated than salivary proteins. Ion binding and enzymatic activities also differed significantly. Protein-protein-ligand interaction networks relied on few key proteins. The identified differences between salivary and pellicle proteins could guide proteome compartmentalization and result in specialized functionality. Key proteins could be potential targets for diagnostic or therapeutic application.

  3. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  4. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  5. Development of a workflow for screening and identification of α-amylase inhibitory peptides from food source using an integrated Bioinformatics-phage display approach: Case study - Cumin seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siow, Hwee-Leng; Lim, Theam Soon; Gan, Chee-Yuen

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop an efficient workflow to discover α-amylase inhibitory peptides from cumin seed. A total of 56 unknown peptides was initially found in the cumin seed protein hydrolysate. They were subjected to 2 different in silico screenings and 6 peptides were shortlisted. The peptides were then subjected to in vitro selection using phage display technique and 3 clones (CSP3, CSP4 and CSP6) showed high affinity in binding α-amylase. These clones were subjected to the inhibitory test and only CSP4 and CSP6 exhibited high inhibitory activity. Therefore, these peptides were chemically synthesized for validation purposes. CSP4 exhibited inhibition of bacterial and human salivary α-amylases with IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.04μmol, respectively, whereas CSP6 was about 0.10 and 0.15μmol, respectively. Results showed that the strength of each protocol has been successfully combined as deemed fit to enhance the α-amylase inhibitor peptide discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Salivary function after pediatric bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bågesund, Mats

    2000-01-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the oral long-term complications that most affect the quality of life among long-term survivors after treatment for malignant diseases. The aims of the studies in this thesis were to examine the effect of pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) conditioning regimens on salivary function, caries-associated microflora, and development of dental caries; define risk factors of salivary dysfunction; evaluate subjective xerostomia; and ...

  7. Salivary Biomarkers and Training Load during Training and Competition in Paralympic Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott-O'Connor, Ciara; Comyns, Tom; Nevill, Alan M; Warrington, Giles

    2017-11-28

    Stress responses in athletes can be attributed to training and also competition, where increased physiological and psychological stress may negatively impact on performance and recovery. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between training load and salivary biomarkers IgA, alpha-amylase (AA) and cortisol across a 16-week preparation phase and 10-day competition phase in Paralympic swimmers. Four Paralympic swimmers provided bi-weekly saliva samples during three training phases - 1) normal training, 2) intensified training and 3) taper as well as daily saliva samples in the 10 day Paralympic competition (2016 Paralympic Games). Training load (TL) was measured using session-RPE. Multi-level analysis identified a significant increase in sIgA (94.98 (27.69) μg.ml -1 ), sAA (45.78 (19.07) μg.ml -1 ) and salivary cortisol (7.92 (2.17) ng.ml) during intensified training concurrent with a 38.3% increase in TL. During taper phase, a 49.5% decrease in TL from the intensified training phase resulted in decrease in sIgA, sAA and salivary cortisol; however, all three remained higher than baseline levels. A further significant increase was observed during competition in sIgA (168.69(24.19) μg.ml -1 ), sAA (35.86(16.67) μg.ml -1 ) and salivary cortisol (10.49(1.89) ng.ml) despite a continued decrease (77.8%) in TL from taper phase. Results demonstrate performance in major competition such as Paralympic Games despite a noticeable reduction in TL induces a stress response in athletes. Due to elevated stress response observed, modifications to individual post-race recovery protocols may be required to enable athletes to maximise performance across all ten days of competition.

  8. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide

    2011-01-01

    as donor. 4-Methylumbelliferyl-α-d-maltoside, -maltotrioside, -maltotetraoside and -maltopentaoside have been synthesized. Products were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that AMY1 V47F preserved the stereo- and regioselectivity. The produced MU-α-d-MOSs of degree of polymerization......The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... play important role in substrate binding at subsites at −3 through −5. Although mutation increases the transglycosylation activity of enzymes, in the presence of acceptors the difference between wild type and mutants is not so significant. Oligomer transfer reactions of AMY1 wild type and its mutants...

  9. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...... chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days. Plaque and gingival indexes were measured......, and saliva samples were collected at days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 24. Salivary cytokines were detected with Luminex®-xMAP™. Salivary IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and VEGF levels decreased after 10 days' development of experimental gingivitis and reached baseline levels at the end of the 2-week resolution period. Salivary IL-8...

  10. [Are amylases in bakery products and flour potential food allergens?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Sander, I; Jansen, A; Czuppon, A B

    1994-05-21

    The enzyme alpha-amylase from the mould Aspergillus oryzae (Asp o II) routinely used for the production of bread, cakes and pastries has in recent years been identified as an inhalative allergen for occupational diseases (bakers' asthma). It is doubtful whether this amylase in the final product, i.e. after the baking procedure, can still be regarded as an allergen. To clarify this question, detailed case histories on 138 subjects were recorded (98 allergics, 20 patients suffering form chronic intestinal diseases, 20 healthy controls). The clinical examinations included prick skin test and IgE antibody determination using one of the customary enzyme preparations. EAST showed a few of these 138 bread consumers to be weakly sensitized to the enzyme. One of the subjects displayed a significant reaction to alpha-amylase heated to 200 degrees C. As expected, eleven bakers sensitized to alpha-amylase by inhaling it in the workplace (positive prick test, positive case history) predominantly exhibited specific IgE antibodies to the native enzyme. Apart from one weakly positive finding, heated alpha-amylase yielded negative results in this collective. Baking conditions vary widely, especially with regard to single components, temperature and duration. Thus, further investigations as to residual allergenicity or the feasible occurrence of new antigenic determinants during the production of bread, cake and pastries are required. 27% of bakers examined and 9% of atopics showed antibodies to a flour inherent enzyme, a beta-amylase. On the whole, the selected conditions hinted at a weakly sensitizing potential inherent in baking flour and in added amylase.

  11. Lipase or amylase for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ola Z; Bhayana, Vipin

    2017-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rapid onset of inflammation of the pancreas causing mild to severe life threatening conditions [1, 2]. In Canada, acute pancreatitis is the 5th most expensive digestive disease in Canada with a considerable economic burden on the health care system [3]. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is usually based on the presence of abdominal pain and elevated levels of serum amylase and/or lipase. Many health care centers use either serum amylase, lipase or both to diagnose acute pancreatitis without considering which one could provide a better diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this review is to investigate whether serum lipase alone is a sufficient biomarker for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. We have examined various studies looking at the utilization, sensitivity, specificity and cost associated savings of lipase and amylase in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. When comparing different studies, serum lipase offers a higher sensitivity than serum amylase in diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Lipase also offers a larger diagnostic window than amylase since it is elevated for a longer time, thus allowing it to be a useful diagnostic biomarker in early and late stages of acute pancreatitis. Several recent evidence-based guidelines recommend the use of lipase over amylase. Nevertheless, both lipase and amylase alone lack the ability to determine the severity and etiology of acute pancreatitis. The co-ordering of both tests has shown little to no increase in the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Thus, unnecessary testing and laboratory expenditures can be reduced by testing lipase alone. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Salivary alterations in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients: Salivary glucose could be noninvasive tool for monitoring diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: There are definite changes in salivary composition with increased levels of salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in T1DM patients compared with healthy controls. Salivary glucose could be used for monitoring of DM.

  13. High-level expression of the native barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Pernille Ollendorff; Ostergaard, Peter Rahbek; Lange, Lene

    2008-01-01

    An expression system for high-level expression of the native Hordeum vulgare alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) has been developed in Pichia pastoris, using the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. To optimize expression, two codon-optimized coding regions have been designed...... and expressed alongside the wild-type coding region. To ensure secretion of the native mature protein, a truncated version of the alpha mating factor secretion signal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. In order to be able to compare expression levels from different clones, single insertion transformants...... generated by gene replacement of the AOX1 gene was selected by PCR screening. Following methanol induction, expression levels reached 125 mgL(-1) from the wild-type coding region while expression from the two codon-optimized variants reached 65 and 125 mgL(-1), respectively. The protein was purified...

  14. Effect of chemicals on fungal alpha-amylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, F S; Abdel-Moneim, A A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 8 growth regulators at concentrations of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 ppm on the activity of fungal (Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris) alpha-amylase was studied. Indol acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) inhibited alpha-amylase activity by 2% and 7% at 1,000 ppm. The other 6 growth regulators, indol butyric acid (IBA), gibberellic acid, cumarin, cycocel (CCC), atonik-G and kylar, did not inhibit but stimulated alpha-amylase activity (0 to 9%) at 1,000 ppm. All growth regulators studied inhibited alpha-amylase activity at 5,000 and 10,000 ppm concentration except kylar. The effect of organic acids and formaldehyde at 0.01, 0.005, and 0.001 M was studied. Acetic acid stimulated alpha-amylase at all concentrations, but formic acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid and citric acid inhibited alpha-amylase activity by 91, 100, 100 and 79%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.01 M, while by 31, 100, 15 and 20%, respectively, at 0.005 M. Formaldehyde induced 7, 3 and 2% inhibition at 0.01, 0.005 and 0.001 M, respectively. At 0.01 M either sorbitol or fructose inhibited alpha-amylase by 8%, Maltose 7%, sucrose 6%, phenol, glucose and galactose each by 5%, ethanol, glycerol, arabinose and sodium benzoate each by 4%, isopropanol and mannitol 1%, but methanol and ammonium citrate dibasic did not inhibit alpha-amylase. The results indicate that CuCl2, SnCl2, AgNO3 and Fe2(SO4)3 were the strongest inhibitors, followed by Cd(C2H3O2), HgCl2, Na2-EDTA, Na2HPO4, and CaCl2 in decreasing order. NaCl, NaBr and Mn SO4 did not inhibit alpha-amylase at concentrations from 10 mM to 0.01 mM.

  15. Alpha-amylase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus thioreducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsdotter, E. C. M. J.; Pusey, M. L.; Ng, M. L.; Garriott, O. K.

    2003-01-01

    Extremophiles are microorganisms that thrive in, from an anthropocentric view, extreme environments such as hot springs. The ability of survival at extreme conditions has rendered enzymes from extremophiles to be of interest in industrial applications. One approach to producing these extremozymes entails the expression of the enzyme-encoding gene in a mesophilic host such as E.coli. This method has been employed in the effort to produce an alpha-amylase from a hyperthermophile (an organism that displays optimal growth above 80 C) isolated from a hydrothermal vent at the Rainbow vent site in the Atlantic Ocean. alpha-amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to produce smaller sugars and constitute a class of industrial enzymes having approximately 25% of the enzyme market. One application for thermostable alpha-amylases is the starch liquefaction process in which starch is converted into fructose and glucose syrups. The a-amylase encoding gene from the hyperthermophile Thermococcus thioreducens was cloned and sequenced, revealing high similarity with other archaeal hyperthermophilic a-amylases. The gene encoding the mature protein was expressed in E.coli. Initial characterization of this enzyme has revealed an optimal amylolytic activity between 85-90 C and around pH 5.3-6.0.

  16. Structure and enzyme properties of Zabrotes subfasciatus alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, Patrícia B; Murad, André M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mello, Luciane V; Romeiro, Luiz A S; Noronha, Eliane F; Caldas, Ruy A; Franco, Octávio L

    2006-02-01

    Digestive alpha-amylases play an essential role in insect carbohydrate metabolism. These enzymes belong to an endo-type group. They catalyse starch hydrolysis, and are involved in energy production. Larvae of Zabrotes subfasciatus, the Mexican bean weevil, are able to infest stored common beans Phaseolus vulgaris, causing severe crop losses in Latin America and Africa. Their alpha-amylase (ZSA) is a well-studied but not completely understood enzyme, having specific characteristics when compared to other insect alpha-amylases. This report provides more knowledge about its chemical nature, including a description of its optimum pH (6.0 to 7.0) and temperature (20-30 degrees C). Furthermore, ion effects on ZSA activity were also determined, showing that three divalent ions (Mn2+, Ca2+, and Ba2+) were able to enhance starch hydrolysis. Fe2+ appeared to decrease alpha-amylase activity by half. ZSA kinetic parameters were also determined and compared to other insect alpha-amylases. A three-dimensional model is proposed in order to indicate probable residues involved in catalysis (Asp204, Glu240, and Asp305) as well other important residues related to starch binding (His118, Ala206, Lys207, and His304).

  17. Salivary exoglycosidases in the detection of early onset of salivary gland involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Anna; Szulimowska, Julita; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Knaś, Małgorzata

    2013-12-03

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of making use of the specific activity of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzymes and β-glucuronidase--potential indicators of salivary gland damage--in the detection of early onset of salivary gland impairment in RA, which is also demonstrated by xerostomia. For this purpose RA xerostomic salivary patients (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min) were compared with RA xerostomic hyposalivary patients (unstimulated salivary flow ≤0.1 mL/min), RA patients without xerostomia (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min) and generally healthy controls (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min, without xerostomia). Salivary N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzymes A and B, and β-glucuronidase specific activity were determined according to the Marciniak et al. method. The protein content in the unstimulated saliva was determined by the bicinchoninic acid method. In xerostomic rheumatoid arthritis patients, the specific activity of salivary β-glucuronidase and isoenzyme A was significantly higher than in the healthy controls but the specific activity of salivary N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzyme B and β-glucuronidase was significantly lower than in xerostomic hyposalivary rheumatoid arthritis patients. We suggest a simple, safe and cheap method for the determination of exoglycosidases as a useful tool for the diagnosis of early stages of salivary gland involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. Optimization of α-amylase production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens using response surfaces methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hami Kaboosi

    2014-11-01

    α-amylase. The results showed that the RSM applied for optimizing parameters of submerged fermentation condition aimed at producing maximum quantities of α-amylase by B. amyloliquefaciens acts with high efficiency.

  19. Salivary function after radioiodine therapy: poor correlation between symptoms and salivary scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline eJonklaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between salivary symptoms and salivary functioning following radioiodine therapy. Fifteen patients receiving radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer completed a questionnaire assessing their salivary and nasal symptoms and underwent salivary scanning prior to therapy and 3 and 12 months after therapy. Measures of salivary gland accumulation and secretion were correlated with scores of salivary and nasal symptomatology. The mean number of salivary, nasal, and total symptoms at 3 months increased significantly over the number of symptoms at baseline by 3.7, 2.7, and 6.3 symptoms respectively (p values 0.001, 0.0046, and <0.001. The mean right parotid gland accumulation and secretion of radioisotope declined significantly at 3 months, compared with baseline. There was no association between the increase in salivary, nasal, or total symptoms and the change in scintigraphy measures. The increases in nasal and total symptoms were significant in those with co-existent Hashimoto’s disease, compared with those without this condition (p values 0.01 and 0.04. Nasal symptoms decreased (p value 0.04 in those who used sour candies, compared with those who did not. Increasing body mass index was significantly associated with increasing nasal symptoms (p value 0.05. Greater decline in salivary parameters at 3 months compared with baseline was generally associated with heavier body weight, decreased thyroid cancer stage, absence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and pre-menopausal status. Although salivary and nasal symptoms increased and salivary scintigraphy parameters decreased after radioiodine therapy, the variables associated with symptoms and changes in salivary scan parameters differed. A better understanding of the relationship between salivary gland symptoms and functioning, and the factors affecting susceptibility to salivary and nasal damage after radioiodine

  20. Salivary Cortisol: A Psychophysiological Marker for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    by oral contraceptives so women taking birth control pills can still participate in the study. Summary Salivary cortisol is an effective...in cortisol binding globulin (found in oral contraceptives ). Salivary cortisol is not influenced by saliva flow rate and there are obvious

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the salivary glands. The salivary glands make saliva and release it into the mouth. Saliva has enzymes that help digest food and antibodies ... in the body. A small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into a vein. The PET ...

  2. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe...

  3. Culture medium for amylase production by toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueira Edson Luiz Zangrando

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycelial growth and amylase production by a mycotoxigenic strain of Fusarium moniliforme and Aspergillus flavus were evaluated in a culture medium containing starch, glycerol, wheat bran or corn. With emphasis on corn, different fractions composed by germ, degermed seed, starch, milky stage corn and the respective starch or supernatant fraction were analyzed for F. moniliforme growth . The medium composed of milky stage corn supernatant promoted the best mycelial growth (p<0.05, and it was used to prepare amylase production medium in the next step. The medium composed with 2% ground corn in milky stage corn supernatant (350g of milky stage corn blended with 250mL water and centrifuged promoted the highest amylase production, which was at the 10th day of fermentation, both for F. moniliforme (42.32U/mL and A. flavus (4,745.54U/mL.

  4. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Misk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases, parotid duct fistula (15 cases and sialocele (3 cases. Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side.

  5. The Effects of Curcumin on Alpha Amylase in Diabetics Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Najafian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the therapeutic approaches to lower postprandial blood glucose is to inhibition breakdown of starch by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Alpha-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-(1, 4-D-glycosidic linkages of starch and other glucose polymers. Inhibitors of this enzyme could be used in the treatment of diabetes. Objectives Based on this purpose we examined the effect of curcumin on alpha amylase and its IC50 and Ki. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 60 rats were divided into two major groups, normal and diabetic, and each was subsequently divided into five subgroups. One of them as control group that received grape seed oil and four of them as experimental groups that received curcumin at 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg (each group include six rats. Blood glucose levels were measured every three days. Serum insulin levels were measured three times, in the first day, middle and end of the experimental period. The activity of serum alpha amylase was measured in the end of experimental period. Results The results showed that curcumin is a competitive inhibitor for alpha amylase with IC50 = 51.32 µM and Ki = 20.17 µM. In both diabetic and normal groups in all doses nearly dose dependent manner reduced blood glucose and insulin levels. In both diabetic and normal groups decreased levels of serum alpha amylase activity. Conclusions It may be concluded that curcumin is a potent inhibitor of alpha amylase and has beneficial effects in the treatment of overweight and diabetes

  6. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  7. Chemical synthesis of a dual branched malto-decaose: A potential substrate for alpha-amylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damager, Iben; Jensen, Morten; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2005-01-01

    . Using this chemically defined branched oligosaccharide as a substrate, the cleavage pattern of seven different alpha-amylases were investigated. alpha-Amylases from human saliva, porcine pancreas, barley alpha-amylose 2 and recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 all hydrolysed the decasaccharide selectively...

  8. Bacillus sp. R2 α-amylase production optimization: Pasta cooking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    α-Amylases (EC 3.2.1.1; 1,4-α-D-glucanglucanohydrolase) are enzymes that are widely studied and used in industries. Their major source is microorganisms. This study aimed to prepare a readily available medium for industrial amylase production. An optimization of amylase production conditions by Bacillussp. R2 and ...

  9. In Vitro Screening of α-Amylase Inhibition by Selected Terpenes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    from 0.39 – 5.50 µmol cm-3. Commercial sera (with normal-N and high-H enzyme activity) were used as a source of α-amylase. α-Amylase activity was determined by standard methods using an automated analyzer. Results: All the selected terpenes at their maximal concentrations inhibited α-amylase in N-sera in the.

  10. Effect of C:N ratio on alpha amylase production by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -) amylase exhibiting activity at a wide pH range and was relatively stable. The B. lichenformis isolate, however, produces low yields of the amylase. Our results show that the amylase production is higher in the presence of starch, with ...

  11. Kinetics of alpha-amylase secretion in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anne Laurence Santerre; Carlsen, Morten; Bang de, H.

    1999-01-01

    Pulse and pulse-chase experiments have been performed to study L-[S-35] methionine incorporation and protein secretion kinetics in Aspergillus oryzae. Pulse experiments confirmed the mechanism of methionine uptake reported previously for Penicillium chrysogenum (Benko et al., 1967). Pulse......-chase experiments were carried out to investigate the alpha-amylase secretion kinetics in A. oryzae. No unglycosylated alpha-amylase was detected neither intracellularly nor extracellularly demonstrating that glycosylation was not the rate controlling step in the secretory pathway. The pulse chase experiments...

  12. Comparison of a-amylase activity in some sprouting Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    2004-11-16

    Nov 16, 2004 ... a-amylase from sprouting maize, rice, acha, and sorghum were exhibited at 6.5, 5.5, 6.5 and 5.8 respectively. ... and 0.23; 12.5x10-2 and 0.56; 7.0x10-2 and 0.29; 12.5x10-2 and 0.50 for a-amylase from sprouting maize, acha, rice ... cultivation of barley in Nigeria has however met with little success. As such ...

  13. Mango starch degradation. II. The binding of alpha-amylase and beta-amylase to the starch granule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Koike, Claudia; Louro, Ricardo Pereira; Purgatto, Eduardo; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2008-08-27

    During mango ripening, soluble sugars that account for mango sweetening are accumulated through carbon supplied by both photosynthesis and starch degradation. The cultivar Keitt has a characteristic dependence on sugar accumulation during starch degradation, which takes place during ripening, only a few days after detachment from the tree. Most knowledge about starch degradation is based on seeds and leaves currently used as models. However, information about the mango fruit is scarce. This work presents the evaluation of alpha- and beta-amylases in the starch granule surface during fruit development and ripening. Extractable proteins were assayed for amylase activity and detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and correlated to gene expression. The results suggest that both amylases are involved in starch degradation during mango ripening, probably under the dependence of another signal triggered by the detachment from the mother-plant.

  14. Comparison and characterization of α-amylase inducers in Aspergillus nidulans based on nuclear localization of AmyR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Yuriko; Makita, Tomohiro; Kato, Masashi; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2012-06-01

    AmyR, a fungal transcriptional activator responsible for induction of amylolytic genes in Aspergillus nidulans, localizes to the nucleus in response to the physiological inducer isomaltose. Maltose, kojibiose, and D: -glucose were also found to trigger the nuclear localization of GFP-AmyR. Isomaltose- and kojibiose-triggered nuclear localization was not inhibited by the glucosidase inhibitor, castanospermine, while maltose-triggered localization was inhibited. Thus, maltose itself does not appear to be an direct inducer, but its degraded or transglycosylated product does. Non-metabolizable D: -glucose analogues were also able to trigger the nuclear localization, implying that these sugars, except maltose, directly function as the inducers of AmyR nuclear entry. The inducing activity of D: -glucose was 4 orders-of-magnitude weaker compared with isomaltose. Although D: -glucose has the ability to induce α-amylase production, this activity would generally be masked by CreA-dependent carbon catabolite repression. Significant induction of α-amylase by D: -glucose was observed in creA-defective A. nidulans.

  15. Practicing induction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Rohde, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We claim that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and organization, what we call a generative dance, ignites both kinds of learning....

  16. Determination of salivary glucose in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Maria-Sueli-Marques; Batista-Filho, Mário-Márcio-Vasconcelos; Pimentel, Marcele-Jardim; Passos, Isabela-Albuquerque; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo

    2009-10-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the concentration of salivary glucose in healthy individuals and to compare it with the capillary glycemia. Samples of unstimulated whole saliva were collected from 63 non-diabetic patients. The concentration of salivary glucose and capillary blood was measured in all of the patients. The salivary glucose was determined by enzymatic method and spectrophotometry. The data was then analyzed using the Spearman correlation test, considering values of pglucose among the males studied was 100.05+/-13.51 mg/dL, and among females, it was 99.5+/-13.9 mg/dL. The average salivary glucose for the whole sample was 5.97+/-1.87 mg/dL, with 5.91+/-2.19 mg/dL among males and 5.97+/-1.56 mg/dL among females, respectively, without presenting any significant differences (p=0.908). The concentration of salivary glucose did not present any statistically significant correlation with the capillary glycemia (p=0.732). The results suggest that the concentration of salivary glucose is not dependent on capillary glycemia and that the concentration of salivary glucose does not present significant differences between the measurements for males and females.

  17. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  18. Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis — Recent Progress and Future Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands provide saliva to maintain oral health, and a loss of salivary gland function substantially decreases quality-of-life. Understanding the biological mechanisms that generate salivary glands during embryonic development may identify novel ways to regenerate function or design artificial salivary glands. This review article summarizes current research on the process of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands, which creates gland structure during development. We highlight excit...

  19. Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

  20. Using Sweet Potato Amylase Extracts forthe Determination of Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the possibility of quantitative determination of starch in starchy ... producing country in Africa and the fourth in .... Total amylase assay. Extraction. Three medium-sized sweet potato storage roots were thoroughly washed in water and sliced, 100 g were then homogenized in a Waring blender.

  1. Alternative method for quantification of alfa-amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF. Farias

    Full Text Available A modification of the sensitive agar diffusion method was developed for macro-scale determination of alfa-amylase. The proposed modifications lower costs with the utilisation of starch as substrate and agar as supporting medium. Thus, a standard curve was built using alfa-amylase solution from Aspergillus oryzae, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1. Clear radial diffusion zones were measured after 4 hours of incubation at 20 °C. A linear relationship between the logarithm of enzyme activities and the area of clear zones was obtained. The method was validated by testing α-amylase from barley at the concentrations of 2.4; 60; 300 and 1,500 U.mL-1. The proposed method turned out to be simpler, faster, less expensive and able to determine on a macro-scale α-amylase over a wide range (2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1 in scientific investigation as well as in teaching laboratory activities.

  2. Thermal stability of -amylase in aqueous cosolvent systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The activity and thermal stability of -amylase were studied in the presence of different concentrations of trehalose, sorbitol, sucrose and glycerol. ... Department of Protein Chemistry and Technology, Central Food Technological Research Institute (A constituent laboratory of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), ...

  3. Variations in Amylase and Invertase activities in Solanum species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum species (eggplants) are edible, highly valued constituents of the Nigerian food and indigenous medicines. In this study, the activities of enzymes involved in carbohydrate degradation such as amylase and invertase were evaluated in two Solanum species viz Solanum melongena (round and oval varieties) and ...

  4. Optimization of the industrial production of bacterial alpha amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    Hayashida et al., 1988). RESULTS. Alpha amylase production in a fermentor. Production was carried out by both strains using the res-. El-Tayeb et al. 4523. Figure 2. Time course of residual starch and/or its degradation intermediates and soluble ...

  5. Production and properties of alpha-amylase from Citrobacter species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebuta N. Etim-Osowo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amylase production by Citrobacter sp. isolated from potato was optimized in batch culture studies under shake flask conditions. Effects and interactions of best sources and levels of carbon and nitrogen estimated by 4 x 5 and 4 x 4 factorial experimental arrangements were significant (P < 0.01 on amylase production. Optimal alpha-amylase yield was obtained in a medium containing sorghum flour (2.0 % w/v and a mixture of (NH42SO4 + soybean meal (1.5% w/v with an initial medium pH of 8.0. Under optimum conditions, amylase yield was maximal (0.499 U/ml after 60h incubation at room temperature (28oC ± 2oC. Characterization studies showed that the enzyme had maximum activity at 60oC, retained 100% of its original activities at 60oC for 2h, was maximally active at pH 7.0 and retained 100% of original activities at pH 9.0 for 2h. Enzyme activity was stimulated by urea, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+ but inhibited by Hg2+.

  6. Using Sweet Potato Amylase Extracts for the Determination of Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the possibility of quantitative determination of starch in starchy foodstuffs using crude amylase extracts from Ugandan sweet potato cultivars. Amylolytic activity in 18 sweet potato cultivars grown at Namulonge was evaluated and there was a significant variation of activity among cultivars ...

  7. Improved production, purification and some properties of α-amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of the α-amylase productivity of Streptomyces clavifer was achieved through studying the effect of some nutritional factors and ultra violet (UV) mutagenesis. Modification in the formula of liquid starch medium by decreasing the concentration of soluble starch to 1%, increasing the corn steep liquor to 2%, and ...

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea with -amylase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chickpea is the world's third most important pulse crop and India produces 75% of the world's supply. Chickpea seeds are attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis which cause extensive damage. The -amylase inhibitor gene isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was introduced into chickpea cultivar ...

  9. Interaction of europium and curium with alpha-amylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements; Heller, Anne [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. for Zoology, Molecular Cell Physiology and Endocrinology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biogeochemistry

    2016-07-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) revealed that Eu(III) and Cm(III) form two dominant species with the protein α-amylase (Amy): one with the coordination of a single carboxylate group of the protein and the other with three coordinating carboxylate groups.

  10. Production and Partial Characterization of Alpha-Amylase from Corn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn pomace, a by-product of corn from “ogi” production was used as a substrate for the production of alpha-amylase by a corn fermenting strain of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 4527. The corn pomace was fortified with potassium phosphate, magnesium sulphate and 2% w/v glucose to produce corn pomace basal medium, ...

  11. Purification and characterization of camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Serour, Ehab A; Abdelrahman, Aref M; Haroun, Bakry M; Redwan, El-Rashdy M

    2009-01-01

    Skimmed camel milk contains 59,900 U/L amylase, which is 39,363 times less than serum and plasma amylase. Camel milk beta-amylase was purified as a 61 KDa band using DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 and yielded 561 U/mg. The optimum working pH, Km and temperature were 7.0, 13.6 mg/Lstarch, 30-40 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme has been shown higher affinity toward amylose and soluble starch than glycogen, amylopectin, dextrin, or pullulan. Magnesium chloride, CaCl(2) and NaCl activated the amylase, while EDTA and EGTA decreased its activity. While its activity was increased in the presence of Triton X-100 and Triton X-114. Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride did not show any effect on enzyme activity. However, the enzyme activity was inhibited by urea, SDS, DTNB, iodoacetamide, N-ethylmalimide, aprotinin, and trypsin inhibitor. It worked on starch to yield a maltose. Scanning electron microscope images demonstrated a nano-degrading ability on starch granules from various sources (potato, corn, cassava, and rice).

  12. Cloning and expression of an amylase gene from Bacillus sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The host cell harboring the recombinant plasmid was grown in the presence of potato starch and incubated for many days to obtained cellular lysate and the liquid biomass might be used as bio-fertilizer. Keywords: Amylolytic bacteria, amylase, bio-molecules, bio-fertilizer, single cell fertilizer. African Journal of Biotechnolo, ...

  13. Nitrogen supplements effect on amylase production by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... 2Green Consultants Ltd, Edo State Environmental Laboratory, House Annex, Sapele Road, Benin City, Nigeria. Accepted 27 April, 2009. The production of amylase by ... Fermentation was carried out in an orbital shaker at 120 rpm using three trial media. The first medium, supplemented cassava whey.

  14. Production of α-amylase from some thermophilic Aspergillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarla Bitkileri

    medium and microorganisms for α-amylase synthesis were selected. ... Many processes which have significance in industrial terms take place much .... obtained by filtration was used in enzyme activity tests (Saleem and. Mohsen, 2014). Effect of temperature. Effect of temperature was determined after 7 days of incubation at.

  15. Amylase activity of a starch degrading bacteria isolated from soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Starch degrading bacteria are most important for industries such as food, fermentation, textile and ... Nowadays amylase from these sources is vastly used in ... Soil receiving the kitchen wastes is one of the rich sources of starch degrading microorganism as it contains mostly starchy substrate. The present ...

  16. Calcium-induced stabilization of -amylase against guanidine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) denaturation of native and Ca- depleted Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA) was investigated both in the absence and presence of 2 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and biological activity. In both states (Cadepleted and native form), ...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1070 - Amylase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amylase test system. 862.1070 Section 862.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  18. High drain amylase and lipase values predict post-operative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Post-operative pancreatitis is a severe complication after cyst excision with hepaticoenterostomy (CEHE) for choledochal cysts. The aim of this study was to examine the dynamic post-operative changes in drain amylase and lipase values after CEHE for choledochal cysts, and then compare these values with ...

  19. Pasta cooking water as medium of amylase production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    may be a promising medium for industrial amylase production due to its availability. .... medium. The flasks were then cooled and inoculated with the culture seed and maintained under the following operational conditions: a) Starch concentration: 25, 50 and 100% ; b) ..... cocultured with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Enzyme ...

  20. Production of amylase enzyme from mangrove fungal isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amylase enzyme activity of MSF-9 was maximum at pH-5.0, 1% NaCl, 1% substrate and Inositol as carbon source. The most potent fungi was identified through morphological, microscopical and 18S rDNA sequence methods and identified as Penicillium citrinum-JQ249898. This strain can be better utilized in large ...

  1. Production of extracellular amylase from agricultural residues by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of extracellular amylases by solid state fermentation (SSF) was investigated employing our laboratory isolate Aspergillus sp.MK07. Various agricultural residual substrates like wheat bran, rice bran and green gram husk were studied for enzyme production. Highest enzyme production was obtained with ...

  2. Production of amylase enzyme from mangrove fungal isolates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Table 2. Identification of fungal Isolates showing maximum amylase enzyme activity. Given names. ID No. Identified strains. MSF-3. Aspergillus niger. MSF-7. 3724.10. Trichoderma viride. MSF-9. 3728.10. Penicillium citrinum. MSF-13. 3731.10. Paecilomyces variotii. MSF-28. 4108.10. Eurotium amstelodmi.

  3. Secretory expression of Rhizopus oryzae α-amylase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kluyveromyces lactis is a non-conventional yeast species extensively used in the expression of heterologous genes. In this study, a genetically modified K. lactis with high-level expression of α- amylase from Rhizopus oryzae was obtained, which could successfully hydrolyze and use starch for growth very well. Shake flask ...

  4. Optimization of alkaline α-amylase production by thermophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Phylogenetic analysis of 16 S rRNA sequence for the strain revealed that the strain have the same sequence of Bacillus subtilis. Maximum amylase production was observed, when B. subtilis cultured in medium containing starch at concentration 0.5%, and 10 g/L peptones as nitrogen source at pH 8.5 in when it ...

  5. Amylase catalyzed synthesis of glycosyl acrylates and their polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M.J.; Jovanovic, Danijela; Brouwer, Sander; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of novel (di)saccharide acrylates from starch and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (2-HEA, 2-HEMA and 4-HBA) catalyzed by various commercially available amylase preparations is demonstrated. Both liquefaction and

  6. Characterization of the activity and stability of amylase from saliva and detergent: Laboratory practicals for studying the activity and stability of amylase from saliva and various commercial detergents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia‐Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    ...) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative...

  7. Salivary duct carcinoma of the palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponniah I

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare high-grade neoplasm that more frequently affects the parotid gland. Though neoplasms of this type are infrequent in minor salivary glands, they are less aggressive and may lead to early diagnosis before distant metastases could occur. Salivary duct carcinoma is also the most frequent epithelial component of carcinosarcoma. The present article reports a case of SDC of the palate in a 26-year-old male and discusses SDC as a malignant epithelial component in carcinosarcoma.

  8. Scientific frontiers: emerging technologies for salivary diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, B J; Yates, J R; Srivastava, S; Wong, D T W; Melvin, J E

    2011-10-01

    Saliva, a biofluid historically well-studied biochemically and physiologically, has entered the post-genomic 'omics' era, where its proteomic, genomic, and microbiome constituents have been comprehensively deciphered. The translational path of these salivary constituents has begun toward a variety of personalized individual medical applications, including early detection of cancer. Salivary diagnostics is a late-comer, but it is catching up where dedicated resources, like the Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB), now have taken center stage in the dissemination of the diagnostic potentials of salivary biomarkers and other translational and clinical utilities. © International & American Associations for Dental Research

  9. Salivary duct carcinoma of accessory parotid

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hashim, Mohammed A.; Al-Jazan, Nasser A.

    2017-01-01

    Accessory parotid gland (APG) is seen in around 21%?56% of individuals. Tumors of accessory parotid are uncommon with an incidence rate of 1%?8% of all parotid tumors. Ductal carcinoma of APG is rare, so no reported incidence was seen in the literature. However, salivary gland ductal carcinoma is reported to be 1% of all salivary gland neoplasms. We report here a case of salivary duct carcinoma of APG. Clinical presentation, investigation, and management are discussed. A 69-year-old female pr...

  10. Drosophila melanogaster larvae control amylase secretion according to the hardness of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honami eSakaguchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster larvae excrete amylase and perform external digestion of their food. In this study, to investigate whether their external digestion ability varies in response to changes in the external environment, we measured the relative amount of amylase excreted by larvae using a new method: the iodine starch agar method (ISAM. Analysis using this method revealed that the amount of amylase excreted by larvae increased in accordance with the increase in the agar concentration. In addition, we investigated the effect on the larval growth rate of adding amylase to the diet. Pupation occurred 24 h later in food containing 1% amylase than in food containing no amylase. These results suggest that the larvae adjust their amylase excretion in response to changes in the external environment, and that its level has a marked influence on the larval growth rate.

  11. Salivary

    OpenAIRE

    Mohie Aldeen Abd Alzaher Khalifa; Hassan Mohamed Abouelkheir; Shaban El-Fadly Khodiar; Mohamed, Gamal Aldeen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Asthma patients can be effectively treated and controlled with currently available medications, inhaled ß2-agonists and corticosteroids have harmful effects on dentition. Therefore we aimed to investigate the influence of exposure to inhaled ß2-agonists and corticosteroids on the composition of saliva as a risk factor to increase the incidence of dental caries among children aged 8–14 years old. The study group is compared with a control group of healthy children of ...

  12. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  13. Amylase α-1A (AMY1A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sarika; Roy, Somak; Amin, Milon; Acquafondata, Marie; Yin, Ming; LaFramboise, William; Bastacky, Sheldon; Pantanowitz, Liron; Dhir, Rajiv; Parwani, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) and oncocytoma present with a perplexing overlap of morphologic and immunohistochemical features. ChRCC have deletions in the 1p21.1 region including the amylase α-1A gene (AMY1A). No such deletions are found in oncocytoma. Instead, oncocytomas shared other deletions on chromosome 1: 1p31.3, 1q25.2, and 1q44. We performed AMY1A immunostaining on 75 oncocytomas (57 tissue microarray [TMA] cores, 18 whole slides) and 54 ChRCCs (20 TMA cores, 34 whole slides). Staining was assessed using the H-score method. The intensity was graded as follows: no staining=0, weak=1, moderate=2, and strong=3. The AMY1A immunostain preferentially stained the distal tubules and collecting ducts of normal kidney. All oncocytomas (100%) expressed AMY1A with an H-score that varied from 100 to 300 (mean 205). Mild to moderate heterogeneity in staining intensity was noted within a given oncocytoma. For oncocytomas, 87% (65/75) cases had H-scores of at least 120 with a mean score of 221. Notably, the 13% (10/75) of oncocytoma cases that had an H-score of 100 were derived from the TMA. A total of 87% (47/54) of the ChRCC cases were negative for the AMY1A immunostain. Of the ChRCC cases, 4% (2/54) showed very weak cytoplasmic staining (H-score of 70 each), which was less than the lowest H-score of oncocytoma cases. All 5 cases of ChRCC, which showed an H-score of 100 or more, were referred to as eosinophilic variants of ChRCC. Three of these 5 cases showed a very nondescript, diffuse staining of the cytoplasm. Two of these 5 cases showed an H-score of 130. We think that as the staining pattern of these 2 cases is similar to that of oncocytoma, they should be put in a category of renal oncocytic neoplasms favoring oncocytoma. This result shows that AMY1A staining could be very helpful in further classifying even a subset of the eosinophilic variants of ChRCC. The difference between ChRCC and oncocytoma was statistically significant (χ2 test, Poncocytoma

  14. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S C H; Wu, V W C; Kwong, D L W; Ying, M T C

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are different methods for the assessment of salivary gland hypofunction; however, none of them are considered to be standard procedure. This article reviews the value of common methods in the assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands. PMID:21511748

  16. Imaging of the major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bloch, Klaus Poulsen

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), salivary gland scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). We present an overview of the modalities in relation to common salivary gland disease. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Salivary Gland Biopsy for Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome (SS), lymphoma accompanying SS, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and other connective tissue disorders. SS has characteristic microscopic findings involving lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts

  18. Salivary exoglycosidases in gestational diabetes 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zalewska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As exoglycosidases have been described as potential markers of salivary gland pathology, we decided to check the possibility of the use of these enzymes in the detection of salivary gland involvement in gestational diabetes.Materials and methods: For this purpose diabetic pregnant women were compared to pregnant and non-pregnant healthy women. The activities of total HEX as well as GLU in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Marciniak et al. The activities of GAL, FUC, and MAN in the saliva were determined in duplicate according to Zwierz et al.Results: It was found that the specific activities of exoglycosidases in the saliva of diabetic pregnant women significantly increased in comparison to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.Conclusion: Increased specific activity of exoglycosidases suggests that gestational diabetes provokes structural/functional alterations in salivary glands and changes in the salivary glycoconjugates metabolism.

  19. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a national series of laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma patients and to bring a review of recent literature. METHODS: By merging The Danish Cancer Registry, The National Pathology Registry...... and The National Patient Registry all registered patients with laryngeal salivary carcinomas diagnosed from 1990 to 2007 were identified. The histological slides were reviewed and data concerning age, sex, symptoms, topography, histology, treatment and outcome were registered. Based on a supplemented PubMed search....... female ratio was 2:1, the most common location was the supraglottic region (52%) and the most predominant histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (46%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (35%) and adenocarcinoma NOS (12%). CONCLUSION: Laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma is a rare disease with a male...

  20. Neuroscience meets salivary bioscience: An integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Sabrina K

    2016-04-01

    Advances in salivary bioscience enable unique opportunities to explore individual differences in biological mechanisms related to learning and memory, psychiatric disorders, and more recently neurodegenerative diseases, neurotrauma/stroke, pain, and sleep. Sampling oral fluid is not only minimally invasive, but specimens can be collected easily and quickly in clinical and field settings. Salivary analytes allow neuroscientists to index endocrine, autonomic, immune, metabolic, and inflammatory processes within close proximity of discrete behavioral, biological, and social events, which is particularly important to advancing our understanding of human neuroscience. This review provides an update on the advances in salivary bioscience for specialty fields within neuroscience, presents novel salivary analytes of interest to neuroscience and the status of their development, and outlines a procedural framework to facilitate integration of these concepts and methods into neuroscience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Psychosocial determinants of diurnal alpha-amylase among healthy Quebec workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J; Durand, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is a stress-sensitive biomarker the shows promise as an indirect proxy of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis activities that are otherwise difficult to discern non-invasively. This comprehensive study investigated diurnal sAA in association with numerous psychosocial characteristics related to mental health, work stress, and non-work stress. Participants included 395 workers (56.1% women, age: M=41.3, SD=10.81) from across 34 distinct workplaces. Diurnal sAA was sampled over two non-consecutive work days at awakening, 30 min after awakening, 14h00, 16h00, and bedtime. Well-validated psychometrics and survey items were used to measure mental health (psychological distress, depression, burnout, work characteristics) (task design, demands, social relations, gratifications), and non-work characteristics (marital/parental status, economic statuses, marital and parental stress, work-family conflicts). Preliminary results revealed that men showed occasionally higher sAA concentrations than women. Multilevel regressions were used to analyze sAA concentrations nested according to levels (i) for each time-point, (ii) between workers, and (iii) across workplaces while covarying for time of awakening, sex, age, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, psychotropic drug use, and body mass index. Main results revealed that psychological demands, support from colleagues, interpersonal conflicts, job recognition and job insecurity appear to be associated with diurnal sAA, while non-work factors did not. Our findings showing a distinct diurnal profile for sAA replicate and expand those of Nater et al. (2007, Psychoneuroendocrinology 32, 392-401), providing further evidence that sAA is associated to subjective psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Salivary Gland Nocardiosis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth V. Shetty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of nocardiosis in an immunocompetent patient who presented with pain and multiple swellings in the face. Nocardia asteroides was isolated from the parotid and submandibular salivary glands. The patient was successfully treated by surgical drainage and oral administration of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case from India on N. asteroides affecting the salivary gland.

  3. Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmila Baliga; Sangeeta Muglikar; Rahul Kale

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Study D...

  4. Induction Brazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul

    Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...... materials has large influence on the heating time and temperature distribution in induction heating. In order to ensure high and uniform temperature distribution near the interface of a joint between dissimilar materials the precise coil geometry and position is of great importance. The present report...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for determination of appropriate/optimiged coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper...

  5. Induction accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  6. Aquaporins in salivary glands and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Salivary glands and pancreas are involved in saliva secretion, pancreatic fluid secretion and insulin secretion. These functions are essential for proper oral, pancreatic and glucose homeostasis. Aquaporins are water-permeable transmembrane protein involved in the physiology of these secretory gland functions. This review gives an overview of the morphology of salivary glands and pancreas, the expression and localization of aquaporins, the secretion roles and mechanisms, the physiological roles of aquaporins, and the role of aquaporins in pathophysiological conditions. Several aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and pancreas, and some play important physiological roles. Modulation of aquaporin expression and/or trafficking may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases affecting salivary glands and pancreas glands such as xerostomic conditions, pancreatic insufficiencies and diabetes. Aquaporins are involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes in salivary glands and pancreas. They could represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases affecting the salivary glands and pancreas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. © 2013.

  7. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems.

  8. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...... chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days. Plaque and gingival indexes were measured...... levels decreased and remained low during development and resolution of experimental gingivitis. Initial inflammation in gingival tissues is associated with a decrease in inflammatory cytokines in saliva. Further studies are needed to evaluate if inflammatory cytokines bind to their functional receptors...

  9. Investigation of an Immediate Effect of Bright Light on Oxygen Consumption, Heart Rate, Cortisol, and α-Amylase in Seasonal Affective Disorder Subjects and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Iana A; Danilenko, Konstantin V; Aftanas, Lyubomir I

    2016-01-01

    Body (fat) mass has been shown to decrease following bright light treatment for overweight women, irrespective of their seasonal (light) dependence. It is not known if this is due to an (immediate) increase of metabolism. Ten women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and 10 non-SAD women matched by age, body mass index, and menopausal status participated in a laboratory study in the morning, twice within 1-5 days. During one session, bright light (4,300 lx) was presented for 30 min, and during the other session, red light (250 lx "placebo") was used. After an initial 15 min of sitting quietly in an experimental chamber, 10-min measurements were done before, at the end, and 15 min after light exposure; the subjects remained seated for 80 min in total. The measurements included 5-min oxyspirography (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide emission, and heart rate), saliva sampling for the estimation of cortisol and α-amylase concentrations, and self-rating of mood, energy, and sleepiness. There was no light-specific effect on the measured variables, except that sleepiness was reduced more with bright light than with red light in the combined group. α-Amylase values were lower in the SAD patients than in the non-SAD controls. Morning artificial bright light, in comparison with dim red light, had no immediate effect on metabolism and resting sympathetic tone, though subjective sleepiness decreased more with bright light. SAD patients have low salivary α-amylase levels, indicating lower sympathetic tone. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Inhibitory specificity and insecticidal selectivity of alpha-amylase inhibitor from Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluh, Ivan; Horn, Martin; Hýblová, Jana; Hubert, Jan; Dolecková-Maresová, Lucie; Voburka, Zdenek; Kudlíková, Iva; Kocourek, Frantisek; Mares, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The primary structure and proteolytic processing of the alpha-amylase isoinhibitor alpha AI-1 from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Magna) was determined by protein chemistry techniques. The inhibitory specificity of alphaAI-1 was screened with a panel of the digestive alpha-amylases from 30 species of insects, mites, gastropod, annelid worm, nematode and fungal phytopathogens with a focus on agricultural pests and important model species. This in vitro analysis showed a selective inhibition of alpha-amylases from three orders of insect (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera) and an inhibition of alpha-amylases of the annelid worm. The inhibitory potential of alphaAI-1 against several alpha-amylases was found to be modulated by pH. To understand how alphaAI-1 discriminates among closely related alpha-amylases, the sequences of the alpha-amylases sensitive, respectively, insensitive to alphaAI-1 were compared, and the critical determinants were localized on the spatial alpha-amylase model. Based on the in vitro analysis of the inhibitory specificity of alphaAI-1, the in vivo activity of the ingested alphaAI-1 was demonstrated by suppression of the development of the insect larvae that expressed the sensitive digestive alpha-amylases. The first comprehensive mapping of alphaAI-1 specificity significantly broadens the spectrum of targets that can be regulated by alpha-amylase inhibitors of plant origin, and points to potential application of these protein insecticides in plant biotechnologies.

  11. Amylase Production from Thermophilic Bacillus sp. BCC 021-50 Isolated from a Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Ahmed Simair

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of fermentation media is one of the technical barriers in amylase production from microbial sources. Amylase is used in several industrial processes or industries, for example, in the food industry, the saccharification of starchy materials, and in the detergent and textile industry. In this study, marine microorganisms were isolated to identify unique amylase-producing microbes in starch agar medium. More than 50 bacterial strains with positive amylase activity, isolated from marine water and soil, were screened for amylase production in starch agar medium. Bacillus sp. BCC 021-50 was found to be the best amylase-producing strain in starch agar medium and under submerged fermentation conditions. Next, fermentation conditions were optimized for bacterial growth and enzyme production. The highest amylase concentration of 5211 U/mL was obtained after 36 h of incubation at 50 °C, pH 8.0, using 20 g/L molasses as an energy source and 10 g/L peptone as a nitrogen source. From an application perspective, crude amylase was characterized in terms of temperature and pH. Maximum amylase activity was noted at 70 °C and pH 7.50. However, our results show clear advantages for enzyme stability in alkaline pH, high-temperature, and stability in the presence of surfactant, oxidizing, and bleaching agents. This research contributes towards the development of an economical amylase production process using agro-industrial residues.

  12. Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

  13. Exposure to intimate partner violence in utero and infant internalizing behaviors: Moderation by salivary cortisol-alpha amylase asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Bogat, G Anne; Lonstein, Joseph S; Granger, Douglas A; Levendosky, Alytia A

    2017-10-01

    Guided by the main tenets of contemporary models of the developmental origins of health and disease, this study evaluated whether individual differences in reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) moderate the effect of prenatal exposure to trauma on internalizing and externalizing behaviors during infancy. Participants were a community sample of 182 mothers (M age=25years, 43% Caucasian, 33% Black/African American, 24% Biracial/Other) and their infants (59% girls; M age=11.8months). Each mother completed questionnaires that assessed IPV experienced during pregnancy and also reported on her infant's behavior problems. Infant saliva samples (later assayed for cortisol and sAA) were collected before and after a frustrating task (i.e., arm restraint). Results revealed that the association between in utero IPV and infant internalizing behaviors was most pronounced for infants with asymmetrical HPA-SNS (i.e., high-cortisol and low-sAA) reactivity to frustration, and least pronounced for infants with symmetrical HPA-SNS (i.e., low-cortisol and low-sAA or high-cortisol and high-sAA) reactivity to frustration. Higher levels of externalizing behavior, in contrast, were associated with higher levels of prenatal IPV but unrelated to either cortisol or sAA reactivity to stress. Findings replicate documented associations between maternal IPV exposure during pregnancy and offspring risk. Moreover, findings advance our understanding of individual differences in the developmental origins of health and disease and provide additional evidence that assessing multiple stress biomarkers contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of individual vulnerability to adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Salivary a-Amylase Reflects Change in Attentional Demands during Postural Control: Comparison with Probe Reaction Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of attention on postural control and the relationship between attention and falling has been reported in previous studies. Although a dual-task procedure is commonly used to measure attentional demand, such procedures are affected by allocation policy, which is a mental strategy to divide attention between simultaneous…

  15. A study on the changing of the irradiated mice salivary glands and it's influence to the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funahara, Takayuki; Nasu, Masanori; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-02-01

    X-ray irradiation (10 Gy) was given to the salivary gland in mice. Protein and glycoprotein syntheses in the salivary glands and pancreas were examined by using {sup 3}H-leucine and {sup 14}C-acetylglucosamine as tracers. Quantitative analysis of serum amylase and histochemical examination were also conducted. Uptake of {sup 3}H-leucine was low in the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands 3 and 7 days after irradiation, which were close to those in the non-irradiated group 21 days after irradiation. Uptake of {sup 14}C-acetylglucosamine in the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands varied with time, which was similar to that of {sup 3}H-leucine uptake. The uptake of both {sup 14}C-acetylglucosamine and {sup 3}H-leucine in the pancreas, as opposed to that in the salivary glands, varied with time, with the highest levels on Days 3 and 7, respectively. Serum amylase level, determined by the maltopentaose method, was 5,341+-772 mU/ml in the non-irradiated group. On Day 3, it was 6,706+-583 mU/ml. This was slightly higher than the level in the non-irradiated group on Days 7 and 21, with no statistically significant difference. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed hypertrophy of the glandular cells on Day 3, atrophy of the glandular cells on Day 7, and irregular cell arrangement on Day 21 for the parotid gland; and atrophied granular ampulla on Day 3, and hypertrophy on Day 7 for the submandibular gland. No marked changes were observed in either the sublingual gland or pancreas. Ninhydrin staining revealed a decreased stainability in the submandibular gland on Day 3; and an increased stainability in the pancreas on Day 7. In conclusion, protein and glycoprotein syntheses in the salivary glands after X-ray irradiation of 10 Gy decreased on Days 3 and 7, respectively. This seemed to be associated with compensatory function of the pancreas. (N.K.).

  16. Screening and partial purification of amylase from Aspergillus Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ammonium. L'activité enzymatique a été déterminée et des conditions optimales ont été obtenues. Les poids moléculaires de l'Amylase brut et partiellement purifiée ont été déterminés par un procédé SDS PAGE. Au total, cinq isolats ont été ...

  17. Growth and α-amylase production by strains of Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cassava starch medium was used to analyse the dynamics of batch growth and α-amylase production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Rhizopus oryzae isolated from cassava dried chips. The strains displayed a growth of 0.5h-1 and 0.55 h-1, a biomass yield on cassava starch of 0.49g/g and 0.5g/g, a maximum ...

  18. Complete starch hydrolysis by the synergistic action of amylase and glucoamylase: impact of calcium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presečki, Ana Vrsalović; Blažević, Zvjezdana Findrik; Vasić-Rački, Durđa

    2013-11-01

    Starch hydrolysis was performed by the synergistic action of amylase and glucoamylase. For that purpose glucoamylase (Dextrozyme) and two amylases (Liquozyme and Termamyl) in different combinations were investigated. Experiments were carried out in the repetitive- and fed-batch modes at 65 °C and pH 5.5 with and without the addition of Ca(2+) ions. 100 % conversion of starch to glucose was achieved in batch experiments. Calcium ions significantly enhanced stability of the amylase Termamyl. The intensity of synergism between amylase Termamyl and glucoamylase Dextrozyme was higher than in the experiments carried out with amylase Liquozyme and Dextrozyme. Mathematical model of the complete reaction system was developed. Using the model, a possible explanation of the synergism between the amylase and glucoamylase was provided.

  19. A novel reusable PAni-PVA-Amylase film: activity and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susmita; Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Buragohain, Alak Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Alpha-amylase was immobilized onto polyaniline-polyvinyl alcohol (PAni-PVA) film by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. The activity yield and immobilization efficiency was calculated as 13.58% and 30.60% respectively. The PAni-PVA-Amylase films were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and amylase activity assay. The immobilized α-amylase had its optimum activity at pH 7.0 and 25°C. The immobilization of α-amylase onto the PAni-PVA films protected the enzyme from Fe(2+) inhibition. The PAni-PVA-Amylase films could be used effectively for 30 cycles with 60% retention of the activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of α-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, S.; Østergaard, O.

    2007-01-01

    spectrometry. Mass spectrometric analysis confirmed that the 29 alpha-amylase positive 2D gel spots contained products of one (GenBank accession gi|113765) and two (gi|4699831 and gi|166985) genes encoding alpha-amylase 1 and 2, respectively, but lacked products from seven other genes. Eleven spots were....... Assessing the fragment minimum chain length by peptide mass fingerprinting suggested that alpha-amylase 2 (gi|4699831) initially was cleaved just prior to domain B that protrudes from the (betaalpha)(8)-barrel between beta-strand 3 and alpha-helix 3, followed by cleavage on the C-terminal side of domain B...... and near the C-terminus. Only two shorter fragments were identified of the other alpha-amylase 2 (gi|166985). The 2D gels of dissected tissues showed alpha-amylase degradation to be confined to endosperm. In contrast, the aleurone layer contained essentially only full-length alpha-amylase forms. While only...

  1. Kinetic studies of amylase and biomass production by Calvatia gigantea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekos, D.; Macris, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Production of alpha-amylase (alpha-4, glucan 4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) by microorganisms has been practiced for many years in small and large scale operations and the literature on this enzyme is voluminous. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae have been reported as the main fungal species used for commercial production of the enzyme. On the other hand, large volumes of low-cost agricultural products such as acorn (the perisperm-free dry seed contains approximately 60% starch) are wasted in many countries and provide a challenge to biotechnology to efficiently utilize these rich sources of starch for the production of high added value products like enzymes. C. gigantea is an edible puffball excreting high levels of alpha-amylase when cultivated on different sources of starch containing elevated quantities of toxic tannic compounds. This fungus has been employed for the production of microbial protein from wastes and acorns containing high levels of toxic tannic compounds. The same fungus was also reported to grow on both hydrolyzable and condensed tannins as sole carbon sources. The present work was undertaken to investigate certain kinetic characteristics of alpha-amylase and biomass production by C. gigantea grown on soluble and acorn starch in a lab fermenter. (Refs. 18).

  2. α-Amylases from Microbial Sources – An Overview on Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Sivaramakrishnan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the progress made in research on microbial α-amylase, a highly demanded industrial enzyme in various sectors such as food, pharmaceuticals, textiles, detergents, etc. Amylases are of ubiquitous occurrence and hold the maximum market share of enzyme sales. The article surveys the α-amylase family and the major characteristics, microbial sources, production aspects, downstream processing, salient biochemical properties, industrial applications, enzyme engineering and some recent research developments.

  3. A hyper-thermostable ?-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus accumulates in Nicotiana tabacum as functional aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hong; Reynolds, L. Bruce; Menassa, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Background Alpha amylase hydrolyzes ?-bonds of polysaccharides such as starch and produces malto-oligosaccharides. Its starch saccharification applications make it an essential enzyme in the textile, food and brewing industries. Commercially available ?-amylase is mostly produced from Bacillus or Aspergillus. A hyper-thermostable and Ca 2++ independent ?-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PFA) expressed in E.coli forms insoluble inclusion bodies and thus is not feasible for industrial applicat...

  4. Production of Fungal Amylases Using Cheap, Readily Available Agriresidues, for Potential Application in Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at isolation and screening of fungal amylase producer, optimization of solid state fermentation conditions for maximum amylase production by the best amylase producer, and characterization of the crude amylases, so produced. Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 showed the highest amylase activity (164.1 U/mL in secondary screening under SSF conditions and was selected for further studies. The test strain showed maximum amylase production (341.7 U/mL and supernatant protein concentration (9.7 mg/mL for incubation period (6 days, temperature (35°C, initial pH (6.0, nutrient salt solution as moistening agent, and beef extract as nitrogen source. Pomegranate peel produced maximum amylase activity, but wheat bran (only slightly lesser amylase activity as compared to that of pomegranate peel was chosen for further studies, keeping in mind the seasonal availability of pomegranate peel. TLC confirmed the amylase produced to be α-type and 60 kDa was the molecular weight of the partially purified amylase. The enzyme showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 6.0, temperature of 55°C, and incubation time of 60 minutes. UV (616.0 U/mL and chemical (814.2 U/mL mutation enhanced amylase activity as compared to wild test strain. The study indicates that Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 can be an important source of amylase and the crude enzyme, hence obtained, can be cost effectively applied in multiple sections of textile wet processing.

  5. Induction practice -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Nicolas; Sprogøe, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    of learning. We focus on and describe the interplay that takes place in particular induction events and analyze the "dance" through the lens of learning. The paper concludes with a brief discussion about the implications for practitioners and the challenges and future research prospects we have encountered....... We draw on an empirical enquiry in two organizational settings, a Danish management consulting company and a German retail bank....

  6. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Giovanna; Modica, Maria Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies.

  7. Pleomorphic Adenoma Of Minor Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Raza, Syed Shahmeer; Hussain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Haq, Ihtisham Ul; Hussain, Amer Kamal; Nadeem, Muhammad Daniyal; Farid, Khayyam

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumour of salivary glands which is Known for its wide pleomorphic architecture. It accounts for 45-75% of all salivary gland neoplasm. It can involve major as well as minor salivary glands. Among minor salivary glands (5-10% of cases) the palate lip, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea are the most common sites. Diagnosis is made with biopsy along with histopathology. Wide excision with biopsy and removal of underlying extension of tumour is the treatment of choice. Sixty years old farmer presented with painless swelling in the upper lip for the last 8 years. History revealed recurrent mass in the midline of upper lip with no other complaints. He was operated 3 times for this complaint in the past. Belonging to poor socioeconomic status no biopsy records were found. On examination 3×4 cm hard and mobile mass was found. Lymph nodes of head and neck and parotid gland revealed no enlargement. Surgery by wide excision was planned. After baseline investigation surgery was done and the mass sent for histopathology. Biopsy reports showed pleomorphic adenoma on unusual site. Dissection of salivary gland tumour is important as they have propensity to metastasize. Wide local excision along with biopsy is the method of choice. Proper surgical techniques are required to avoid recurrence.

  8. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Ponte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies.

  9. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Giovanna; Modica, Maria Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies. PMID:28848453

  10. Production and characterization of amylases from Zea mays malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the α and β-amylase enzymes were obtained from maize (Zea mays malt and were biochemistry characterized. A germination study to obtain the maize malt with good amylase activity was made. The maize seeds were germinated in laboratory and the enzymatic activity was measured daily. Activity dependence to germination time were fitted to an exponential model (A=A0eµt, which showed that the behaviour of enzymatic activity in the germination process was similar to the growth of the microorganism. Its model could be applied to describe the mechanism of α-amylase production for each maize varieties and others cereals. Maize malt characterization showed that α and β-amylase had optimal pH between 4-6.5, optimal temperature 50 and 90ºC, and molecular weight of 67.4 and 47.5kDa, respectively. This work contributed with the advances in biotechnology generating of conditions for application of a new and of low price amylases source.Neste trabalho as enzimas α e β-amilases foram obtidas de malte de milho e depois foram caracterizadas bioquimicamente. Um estudo da germinação foi feito para obtenção do malte com boa atividade amilásica. A germinação ocorreu em escala laboratorial e a atividade enzimática foi medida diariamente. Um modelo exponencial do tipo A=A0eµt foi ajustado a dependência do tempo de germinação com a atividade, mostrando que o comportamento da atividade enzimática no processo de germinação é semelhante ao crescimento de microorganismos. Este modelo pode ser aplicado para descrever o mecanismo de produção da α-amilase para cada variedade de milho e de outros cereais. A caracterização do malte de milho mostrou que as α e β-amilase têm pH ótimo entre 4,0-6,5, temperatura ótima de 50 e 90ºC, e massa molar de 67,4 e 47,5 kDa, respectivamente. Este trabalho contribuiu com os avanços da biotecnologia gerando condições de emprego de uma nova e barata fonte de amilases.

  11. Salivary Glucose Concentration and Excretion in Normal and Diabetic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M.; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and gluco...

  12. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose – A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh R. Khairnar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19–21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p < 0.05 levels as well as levels of salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p < 0.05 and in increasing the overall levels as well as levels of salivary pH (p < 0.05 from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval. Herbal toothpastes were effective in reducing salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva.

  13. Does salivary duct repositioning prevent complications after tumor resection or salivary gland surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Hasegawa, Takumi; Akashi, Masaya; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-05-01

    Tissue that is resected for the treatment of oral tumors often includes salivary gland ducts. At their institution, the authors conserve and transfer as much of the salivary duct as possible during these procedures to avoid obstructive complications. Differentiating these obstructive complications from a metastatic node can be challenging and can confound subsequent oncologic management. This study compared and examined the effectiveness of salivary duct repositioning in decreasing the incidence of obstructive complications. Cases of oromandibular disease treated with salivary duct resection at Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine from 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-two cases (25 patients) of Wharton duct resection and 31 cases (31 patients) of Stensen duct resection were included. The incidence of complications after salivary duct repositioning, duct ligation, and retention of the sublingual gland around the Wharton duct was compared. Wharton ducts were repositioned in 30 cases and ligated in 2 cases. Complications, including oral swelling at the Wharton duct, were observed in 5 cases of repositioning and 2 cases of ligation. Stensen ducts were repositioned in 9 cases and ligated in 22 cases. The only complication reported was a single case of salivary fistula after ligation. Salivary duct repositioning is performed to prevent blockage of physiologic salivary discharge. Complications were more frequently associated with Wharton ducts than with Stensen ducts because of the unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics of the Wharton duct. Repositioning of the salivary duct is a suitable method for preventing complications associated with the Wharton duct. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R. Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  15. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  16. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of

  17. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken Saavedra, Juan; Rojas Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes Coloma, Andrea; Reyes Rojas, Montserrat; Viera Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca Martínez, Claudia; Morales Bozo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and ...

  18. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......-five patients with a primary salivary gland carcinoma diagnosed from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2005 were identified in the local pathology register, Odense University Hospital. Criteria as documented by Allred et al. were used to assess OPN immunostaining that was performed on surgical specimens. Results......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  19. Salivary and plasma insulin levels in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Z; Korec, R; Feketeova, E; Murty, V L; Piotrowski, J; Slomiany, A; Slomiany, B L

    1993-07-01

    Changes in plasma and salivary immunoreactive insulin were studied in saliva and blood of 9 healthy subjects following either oral glucose or a test meal ingestion at 30 min intervals for up to 3h. The levels of plasma immunoreactive insulin reached maximum at 60 min with a value of 62.77 +/- 6.52 microU/ml after the glucose load and 62.62 +/- 6.52 microU/ml after the test meal. In the case of salivary immunoreactive insulin levels, the maximum was attained at 90 min with a value of 18.47 +/- 2.68 microU/min after the glucose load and 22.40 +/- 2.01 microU/min after the test meal. Positive linear correlation (r = 0.74) was found between the salivary and plasma immunoreactive insulin levels.

  20. Detecting viruses by using salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L.A.M.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnostics that involve the use of oral fluids have become increasingly available commercially in recent years and are of particular interest because of their relative ease of use, low cost and noninvasive collection of oral fluid for testing. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors discuss the use of salivary diagnostics for virus detection with an emphasis on rapid detection of infection by using point-of-care devices. In particular, they review salivary diagnostics for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and human papillomavirus. Oral mucosal transudate contains secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A, as well as IgM and IgG, which makes it a good source for immunodiagnostic-based devices. Clinical Implications Because patients often visit a dentist more regularly than they do a physician, there is increased discussion in the dental community regarding the need for practitioners to be aware of salivary diagnostics and to be willing and able to administer these tests to their patients. PMID:23034833

  1. RNA Sequencing Analysis of Salivary Extracellular RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majem, Blanca; Li, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wong, David T W

    2017-01-01

    Salivary biomarkers for disease detection, diagnostic and prognostic assessments have become increasingly well established in recent years. In this chapter we explain the current leading technology that has been used to characterize salivary non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) from the extracellular RNA (exRNA) fraction: HiSeq from Illumina® platform for RNA sequencing. Therefore, the chapter is divided into two main sections regarding the type of the library constructed (small and long ncRNA libraries), from saliva collection, RNA extraction and quantification to cDNA library generation and corresponding QCs. Using these invaluable technical tools, one can identify thousands of ncRNA species in saliva. These methods indicate that salivary exRNA provides an efficient medium for biomarker discovery of oral and systemic diseases.

  2. Salivary diagnostics: moving to the next level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Ole; Spielmann, Nadine; Wong, David T W

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of salivary diagnostics has reached a new level toward the goal of using saliva as a powerful fluid for early detection and the first line of diagnosis for life-threatening diseases such as cancer, metabolic disorders, infections, and inflammatory diseases. Newly developed tools such as the novel saliva-based POCT and the SKB are helping to realize the goal of making salivary diagnostics available to clinicians worldwide. This is a unique moment where dentistry may be paving a new path for primary healthcare.

  3. Purification and characterization of α-Amylase from Miswak Salvadora persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Almulaiky, Yaaser Q; Ahmed, Youssri M; Al-Bar, Omar A M; Ibrahim, Ibrahim H

    2014-04-01

    The miswak (Salvadora persica) is a natural toothbrush. It is well known that very little information has been reported on enzymes in miswak as medicinal plant. Recently, we study peroxidase in miswak. In the present study, the main goal of this work is to purify and characterize α-amylase from miswak. The second goal is to study the storage stability of α-amylase in toothpaste. The purification method included chromatography of miswak α-amylase on DEAE-Sepharose column and Sephacryl S-200 column. Molecular weight was determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. Five α-amylases A1, A4a, A4b, A5a and A5b from miswak were purified and they had molecular weights of 14, 74, 16, 30 and 20 kDa, respectively. α-Amylases had optimum pH from 6 to 8. Affinity of the substrates toward all enzymes was studied. Miswak α-amylases A1, A4a, A4b, A5a and A5b had Km values for starch and glycogen of 3.7, 3.7, 7.1, 0.52, 4.3 mg/ml and 5.95, 5.9 4.16, 6.3, 6.49 mg/ml, respectively. The optimum temperature for five enzymes ranged 40°C- 60°C. Miswak α-amylases were stable up to 40°C- 60°C after incubation for 30 min. Ca+2 activated all the miswak α-amylases, while Ni2+, Co+2 and Zn+2 activated or inhibited some of these enzymes. The metal chelators, EDTA, sodium citrate and sodium oxalate had inhibitory effects on miswak α-amylases. PMSF, p-HMB, DTNB and 1,10 phenanthroline caused inhibitory effect on α-amylases. The analysis of hydrolytic products after starch hydrolysis by miswak α-amylases on paper chromatography revealed that glucose, maltose, maltotriose and oligosaccharide were the major products. Crude miswak α-amylase in the toothpaste retained 55% of its original activity after 10 months of storage at room temperature. From these findings, α-amylases from miswak can be considered as beneficial enzymes for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, we study the storage stability of the crude α-amylase of miswak, which contained the five α-amylases, in toothpaste. The enzyme in

  4. Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S

    2010-04-01

    alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing.

  5. Amylolytic Microorganism from São Paulo Zoo Composting: Isolation, Identification, and Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Pascon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a way of transforming the organic waste into fertilizer, minimizing the use of inorganic compounds that may contaminate the environment. This transformation is the result of the microorganism action, converting complex carbon sources into energy. Enzymes that are exported by the microorganisms to the surrounding environment mediate this process. The aiming of the present work is to prospect the compost produced by the organic composting unit (OCU of the Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo (FPZSP to find novel starch hydrolyzing organisms (SHO that secrete large amounts of amylases under harsh conditions, such as high temperature. We found five bacterial isolates that have amylolytic activity induced by soluble starch and 39°C temperature of growth. These bacterial strains were identified by MALDI-TOF (Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Time of Flight analysis, a rapid and efficient methodology for microbe identification in large scale. Our results present amylolytic strains that belong to diverse taxonomic groups (Solibacillus silvestris, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Isoptericola variabilis, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus; some of them have never been associated with this kind of hydrolytic activity before. The information regarding enzyme induction will be important to optimize the production by the bacterial isolates, which may be a great value for biotechnological applications.

  6. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Jackson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA. To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  7. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B S; Pratt, T L; Van Rooyen, A

    2017-03-29

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA). To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  8. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

    2013-01-01

    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4?5 weeks)...

  9. Kinetic studies of acid inactivation of alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1996-01-01

    The stability of alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae has been studied at different pH. The enzyme is extremely stable at neutral pH (pH 5-8), whereas outside this pH-range a substantial loss of activity is observed. The acid-inactivation of alpha-amylase from A. oryzae was monitored on...

  10. Production and Partial Purification of Alpha Amylase from Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121 Using Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyangana Raul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of starch into sugars and plays a pivotal role in a variety of areas like use as digestives, for the production of ethanol and high fructose corn syrup, detergents, desiring of textiles, modified starches, hydrolysis of oil-field drilling fluids, and paper recycling. In the present work, solid state fermentation (SSF for α-amylase production has been used in lieu of submerged fermentation (SmF due to its simple technique, low capital investment, lower levels of catabolite repression, and better product recovery. Bacillus subtilis has been well known as producer of alpha amylase and was tested using solid state fermentation for 48 hours at 37°C with wheat bran as substrate. Comparison between different fermentation hours demonstrated high yield of alpha amylase after 48 hours. This alpha amylase has optimum pH and temperature at 7.1 and 40°C, respectively. With the goal to purify alpha amylase, 30–70% (NH42SO4 cut concentrated the amylase activity threefold with respect to crude fermented extract. This was verified in quantitative DNS assay method as well as in zymogram gel profile. The exact molecular weight of the amylase is yet to be determined with the aid of other protein purification techniques.

  11. Use of activated carbons to remove undesirable residual amylase from factory and refinery streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increased world-wide concern over residual (carry-over) activity of mostly high temperature (HT) and very high temperature (VHT) stable amylases in white, refined sugars from refineries to various food and end-user industries. HT and VHT stable amylases were develope...

  12. Use of activated carbon to remove undesirable residual amylase from refinery streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increased world-wide concern over residual (carry-over)activity of mostly high temperature (HT) and very high temperature (VHT) stable amylases in white, refined sugars from refineries to various food and end-user industries. HT and VHT stable amylases were developed ...

  13. A novel alpha-amylase gene is transiently upregulated during low temperature exposure in apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, T; Reilly, K; Cipriani, G; Murphy, P; Newcomb, R; Gardner, R; MacRae, E

    2000-03-01

    An alpha-amylase gene product was isolated from apple fruit by reverse-transcriptase PCR using redundant primers, followed by 5' and 3' RACE. The gene is a member of a small gene family. It encodes a putative 46.9 kDa protein that is most similar to an alpha-amylase gene from potato (GenBank accession M79328). In apple fruit this new gene was expressed at low levels, as detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR, in a number of plant tissues and during fruit development. Highest levels of mRNA for this transcript were observed 3 to 9 days after placing apple fruit at 0.5 degrees C. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequence places the potato and apple proteins as a distinct and separate new subgroup within the plant alpha-amylases, which appears to have diverged prior to the split between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. These two divergent alpha-amylases lack the standard signal peptide structures found in all other plant alpha-amylases, and have sequence differences within the B-domain and C-domain. However, comparisons with structures of known starch hydrolases suggest that these differences are unlikely to affect the enzymatic alpha-1,4-amylase function of the protein. This is the first report of upregulation of a dicotyledonous alpha-amylase in response to low temperature, and confirms the presence of a new family of alpha-amylases in plants.

  14. α-Amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to control post-prandial hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In vitro inhibitory effects of crude Sclerocarya birrea stem bark (SBSB) extracts against human urinary α-amylase and Bacillus steatothermophilus α-glucosidase were ...

  15. In Vitro study on α-amylase inhibitory activities of Digitaria exilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... value of 408.17±2.945. α-amylase inhibitors from herbal sources offer an attractive therapeutic approach to the treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia by decreasing glucose release from starch and may have potential for use in the treatment/management of diabetes mellitus and obesity. Keywords: α-amylase inhibition, ...

  16. Predictive value of serum amylase level in outcome of multiple trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezu Nejabatian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The early detection of injury in multiple trauma patients can lead to decreased mortality, length of stay, and improved clinical status of the patient. It is shown that there is a relation between increased level of serum amylase and pancreatic injury in trauma patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum amylase level in hospital outcomes of patients with abdominal blunt trauma. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey that was conducted at the emergency room of Imam Reza (AS Medical and Educational Center in Tabriz, Iran, during a year (April 2014-April 2015 on 101 patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Serum amylase levels were measured 6 hours after injury. The outcome of patients during hospitalization including the need for laparotomy and mortality were followed. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. P < 0.050 was considered significant. Results: A significant relationship between elevated serum amylase level by laparotomy and mortality was observed (P < 0.001. 15 patients had serum amylase higher than 100 U/L. All patients with abnormal serum amylase died. Conclusion: Determination of serum amylase level can be valuable in the prognosis of patients with blunt abdominal trauma, especially in determining mortality and proceed to laparotomy. However, studies with larger research community are required to investigate the precise role of amylase in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with blunt abdominal trauma.

  17. Phylogenetic and biochemical characterization of a novel cluster of intracellular fungal α-amylase enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, R.M. van der; Janeček, Š.; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2007-01-01

    Currently known fungal α-amylases are well-characterized extracellular enzymes that are classified into glycoside hydrolase subfamily GH13_1. This study describes the identification, and phylogenetic and biochemical analysis of novel intracellular fungal α-amylases. The phylogenetic analysis shows

  18. NMR-based metabolomics for identification of α-amylase inhibitors in rowan berries (Sorbus spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Sofie L.; Gramsbergen, Simone; Nyberg, Nils

    glucose levels. A study from 2011 shows that berries from Sorbus spp (rowan berries) effectively inhibit α-amylase activity and suggests that the active compounds are proanthocyanidins.3 The aim of this project is to identify the rowan berry species with highest α-amylase inhibitory activity - and to find...

  19. Halophiles as a source of polyextremophilic α-amylase for industrial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Halophiles are perceived as an excellent source of novel enzymes possessing inherent ability to function under saline and hypersaline environment conditions. The article covers and puts in perspective the structural and biocatalytic features of α-amylases from halophilic sources. The choice of α-amylase as the target enzyme is based on the fact that this is among the largest selling enzymes. Oligosaccharide synthesis is favored in presence of organic solvents and at high temperature. For this reason, the demand for α-amylases that are functional at high temperature and salt as well as stable towards organic solvents, is on the rise in recent years. Halophilic α-amylases are deemed to possess all the above characteristics. They are generally salt stable. In terms of water activity, saline environments are similar to non-aqueous systems. Therefore halophilic α-amylases also exhibit stability in organic solvents. In this context, the review encompasses α-amylase producing predominant halophilic microorganisms from saline habitats; strategies adopted for purification of halophilic α-amylase; their salient structural features and unique functional characteristics. Halophilic α-amylase applications and future aspects in research are also analyzed.

  20. Horizontal gene transfer from Eukarya to bacteria and domain shuffling: the alpha-amylase model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Lage, J-L; Feller, G; Janecek, S

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are present in all kingdoms of the living world. Despite strong conservation of the tertiary structure, only a few amino acids are conserved in interkingdom comparisons. Animal alpha-amylases are characterized by several typical motifs and biochemical properties. A few cases of such alpha-amylases have been previously reported in some eubacterial species. We screened the bacterial genomes available in the sequence databases for new occurrences of animal-like alpha-amylases. Three novel cases were found, which belong to unrelated bacterial phyla: Chloroflexus aurantiacus, Microbulbifer degradans, and Thermobifida fusca. All the animal-like alpha-amylases in Bacteria probably result from repeated horizontal gene transfer from animals. The M. degradans genome also contains bacterial-type and plant-type alpha-amylases in addition to the animal-type one. Thus, this species exhibits alpha-amylases of animal, plant, and bacterial origins. Moreover, the similarities in the extra C-terminal domains (different from both the alpha-amylase domain C and the starch-binding domain), when present, also suggest interkingdom as well as intragenomic shuffling.

  1. Evaluation of a new urinary amylase test strip in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, J; Svens, E; Kenkimäki, P; Kemppainen, E; Puolakkainen, P; Haapiainen, R; Stenman, U H

    1998-12-01

    We have developed a novel rapid test strip for detecting pancreatic amylase in urine and prospectively evaluated its accuracy in screening for acute pancreatitis (AP). The test strip is based on the immunochromatography principle and uses two monoclonal antibodies specific for pancreatic amylase. Urine samples were collected from 500 consecutive patients with acute abdominal disease (52 with AP) and prospectively tested with the strip. The accuracy of the test strip was compared with that of two quantitative urine amylase determinations and a urinary dipstick test for amylase (Rapignost). Sensitivity of the test was 69% and specificity was 97% in differentiating patients with AP from those with acute abdominal extrapancreatic disease at admission. The negative predictive value was 0.986. The test showed moderate agreement both with an assay measuring total amylase activity and with another measuring pancreatic amylase immunoreactivity. At similar high specificity (97%), quantitative determination of total amylase activity (cut-off 3960 U/L) and pancreatic amylase (cut-off 2180 micrograms/L) showed lower sensitivity (54% and 41%) than the test strip (69%). The test is specific and rapid to perform, and it rules out AP with high probability. It could therefore be useful in an emergency setting without laboratory facilities in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.

  2. Further Experiments on Gibberellin-Stimulated Amylase Production in Cereal Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppage, Jo; Hill, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments conducted on wheat and barley grains to analyze activities of alpha- and beta-amylase enzymes. Gibberellins were used exogenously. Techniques are described in detail. Results on different cultivars revealed that beta-amylase was not an invariable result of imbibition. Techniques employed can be used by school students. (PS)

  3. Effect of gibberrelic acid on á-amylase activity in heat stressed mung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High temperature is a serious threat that can alter the number of biochemical processes in plants, which may lead to reduce crop yield. Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a plant growth hormone, responsible for growth, stress tolerance and regulation of many enzymes like amylase. Amylase is responsible for growth by hydrolyzing ...

  4. Binding of carbohydrates and protein inhibitors to the surface of alpha-amylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozonnet, Sophie; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Kramhoft, B.

    2005-01-01

    This review on barley alpha-amylases 1 (AMY1) and 2 (AMY2) addresses rational mutations at distal subsites to the catalytic site, polysaccharide hydrolysis, and interactions with proteinaceous inhibitors. Subsite mapping of barley alpha-amylases revealed 6 glycone and 4 aglycone substrate subsite...

  5. Partial purification and characterization of amylase enzyme under solid state fermentation from Monascus sanguineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathi Tallapragada

    2017-06-01

    It can be concluded that the fungus M. sanguineus is a good source of amylase production under solid state fermentation. Application of amylase produced by M. sanguineus in detergent industry was also carried out and it was proven very effective in stain removal from the fabrics.

  6. Molecular cues for development and regeneration of salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    The hypofunction of salivary glands caused by Sjögren’s Syndrome or radiotherapy for head and neck cancer significantly compromises the quality of life of millions patients. Currently no curative treatment is available for the irreversible hyposalivation, whereas regenerative strategies targeting salivary stem/progenitor cells are promising. However, the success of these strategies is constrained by the lack of insights on the molecular cues of salivary gland regeneration. Recent advances in the molecular controls of salivary gland morphogenesis provided valuable clues for identifying potential regenerative cues. A complicated network of signaling molecules between epithelia, mesenchyme, endothelia, extracellular matrix and innervating nerves orchestrate the salivary gland organogenesis. Here we discuss the roles of several cross-talking intercellular signaling pathways, i.e., FGF, Wnt, Hedgehog, Eda, Notch, Chrm1/HB-EGF and Laminin/Integrin pathways, in the development of salivary glands and their potentials to promote salivary regeneration. PMID:24189993

  7. Salivary Cytokines as a Minimally-Invasive Measure of Immune Functioning in Young Children: Correlates of Individual Differences and Sensitivity to Laboratory Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Jenna L.; Granger, Douglas A.; DiPietro, Janet A.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Johnson, Sara B.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in minimally-invasive measures of environmentally-responsive biological systems in developmental science. Contributing to that endeavor, this study explores the intercorrelations, correlates, and task-sensitivity of proinflammatory salivary cytokines in childhood. Saliva was sampled from 125 healthy five-year old children (49% male) across a series of cognitive and emotional challenge laboratory tasks. Samples were assayed for cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα), and markers of hypothalamic–pituitary– adrenal (HPA) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activation (salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase [sAA]). Cytokines were positively intercorrelated and task-sensitivity varied. Except IL-8, cytokines were elevated in children with oral health issues and tobacco smoke exposure. Among boys, cytokines were positively related to sAA and negatively related to cortisol. The findings suggest that in healthy children, salivary cytokine levels reflect compartmentalized oral immune activity. Associations between ANS and HPA activity and cytokines in saliva may present opportunities for minimally-invasive methods to explore neuroendocrine-immune interactions during development. PMID:25604242

  8. Polygalacturonase isozymes in Lygus hesperus Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feeding strategy of mirids has been referred to as “lacerate or macerate and flush feeding” which supports high rates of food intake. In other words, plant bugs digest the plant tissue extra-orally, producing a liquefied brew rich in simple nutrient molecules. The insect's salivary polygalacturo...

  9. Relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High androgenic activity in adolescent girls and adult women is associated with adiposity and metabolic disturbances. This study examined the relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body composition, and physical activity levels in young girls. Method: Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years), nine ...

  10. Current concepts of salivary gland tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Badam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryonic development of salivary glands is a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The development is an example of branching morphogenesis, recent research found to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility, and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, but local gene regulation and morphological changes appear to play particularly notable roles. Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare groups of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to the heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. Frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms makes us sometimes even to differentiate benign and malignant lesions leading to a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we review and summarize the current concepts regarding the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  11. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location.In Cameroon, existing studies give ...

  12. Isolation of Mouse salivary gland stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pringle, Sarah; Nanduri, Lalitha; van der Zwaag, Marianne; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Mature salivary glands of both human and mouse origin comprise a minimum of five cell types, each of which facilitates the production and excretion of saliva into the oral cavity. Serous and mucous acinar cells are the protein and mucous producing factories of the gland respectively, and represent

  13. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engeland, C.G.; Hugo, F.N.; Hilgert, J.B.; Nascimento, G.G.; Junges, R.; Lim, H.-J.; Marucha, P.T.; Bosch, J.A.

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and

  14. The effect of exercise on salivary viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Liem, E.H.S.; Brand, H.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2016-01-01

    A common experience after exercise is the presence of a thick and sticky saliva layer on the oral surfaces, which causes a feeling of a dry mouth. Since the salivary mucin MUC5B is responsible for the visco-elastic behavior of saliva, in the present study we explored the effect of exercise on both

  15. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP; Vissink, A

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to

  16. An exceptionally cold-adapted alpha-amylase from a metagenomic library of a cold and alkaline environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A cold-active α-amylase, AmyI3C6, identified by a functional metagenomics approach was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Sequence analysis showed that the AmyI3C6 amylase was similar to α-amylases from the class Clostridia and revealed classical characteristics of cold...

  17. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    -type trypsin inhibitor family of the beta-trefoil fold proteins. Diverse approaches including site-directed mutagenesis, hybrid constructions, and crystallography have been used to characterise the structures and contact residues in the AMY2/BASI complex. The three-dimensional structure of the AMY2/BASI......Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunitz...... Ca2+-modulated kinetics of the AMY2/BASl interaction and found that the complex formation involves minimal structural changes. The modulation of the interaction by calcium ions makes it unique among the currently known binding mechanisms of proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors....

  18. Amylase production by endophytic fungi Cylindrocephalum sp. isolated from medicinal plant Alpinia calcarata (Haw. Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Sunitha.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Amylases are among the most important enzymes used in modern biotechnology particularly in the process involving starch hydrolysis. Fungal amylase has large applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Considering these facts, endophytic fungi isolated from the plant Alpinia calcarata (Haw. Roscoe were screened for amylolytic activity on glucose yeast extract peptone agar (GYP medium. Among thirty isolates of endophytic fungi, isolate number seven identified as Cylindrocephalum sp. (Ac-7 showed highest amylolytic activity and was taken for further study. Influence of various physical and chemical factors such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources on amylase production in liquid media were studied. The maximal amylase production was found to be at 30ºC and at pH 7.0 of the growth medium. Among the various carbon and nitrogen sources tested, maltose at 1.5% and Sodium nitrate at 0.3% respectively gave optimum amylase production.

  19. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of alpha-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina; Østergaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    spectrometry. Mass spectrometric analysis confirmed that the 29 alpha-amylase positive 2D gel spots contained products of one ( GenBank accession gi| 113765) and two ( gi vertical bar 4699831 and gi vertical bar 166985) genes encoding alpha-amylase 1 and 2, respectively, but lacked products from seven other...... increased during germination. Assessing the fragment minimum chain length by peptide mass fingerprinting suggested that alpha-amylase 2 ( gi vertical bar 4699831) initially was cleaved just prior to domain B that protrudes from the (beta alpha)(8)-barrel between beta-strand 3 and alpha-helix 3, followed...... by cleavage on the C-terminal side of domain B and near the C-terminus. Only two shorter fragments were identified of the other alpha-amylase 2 (gi vertical bar 166985). The 2D gels of dissected tissues showed alpha-amylase degradation to be confined to endosperm. In contrast, the aleurone layer contained...

  20. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J. Białek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related, similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  1. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Ewa J; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  2. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AMYLASE PRODUCING YEASTS IN ‘TELLA’ (ETHIOPIAN LOCAL BEER AND THEIR AMYLASE CONTRIBUTION FOR ‘TELLA’ PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Andualem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Tella’ is local beer which is used in most part of Ethiopia. It is made from cereals, such as barley, wheat, maize and other crops. Rhamnus prinoides is also used to provide a special aroma and flavor as well as antiseptic agent. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of amylases from tella yeast isolates and compare with the role of amylase from malt. House hold ‘tella’ samples were collected and plated on starch agar and then amylase positive isolates of yeast were identified by folding iodine solution over the starch agar. Amylase assay and activities were investigated by standard methods and compared with amylase from malt. According to this study, the activity of amylases which was extracted from yeast isolates was very low and may have no contribution in the conversion of starch into fermentable sugars. Thus, it is better to avoid such organisms from ‘tella’ fermentation in order to discriminate unwanted bio-products. In conclusion, the substrates and ingredients should be sterilized and introduced into the fermentation system aseptically.

  3. Study of conformation and thermodynamics of α-amylase interaction with ethylene in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yiwei; Zhang, Guangxian; Zhang, Fengxiu

    2016-10-01

    In this article, the conformation and thermodynamics of α-amylase interaction with ethylene in vitro were investigated. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption showed a strong peak of α-amylase treated with 6.04, 29.32 and 262.11μmolL(-1) ethylene appears at ~222nm and a weak peak at 278nm blue-shifted 1nm. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that the conformations of α-amylase treated with 29.32 and 262.11μmolL(-1) ethylene were obviously changed in which α-helix content were decreased by 20 and 31% respectively, and β-sheet, β-turn and random coil contents were increased by contrast. Fluorescence spectra suggested that the peak intensities of α-amylase at 342nm were obviously increased with the ethylene increase from 6.04 to 525.75μmolL(-1) and more than control group. The binding constants K between ethylene and α-amylase were 3.318×10(6), 4.407×10(6) and 5.125×10(6)Lmol(-1) at 288, 298 and 308K, respectively. And the calculated values of ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) are positive, which suggests that the interaction between ethylene and α-amylase is an endothermic reaction. The negative ΔG(0) values implied that the direct effect of ethylene on α-amylase conformation was spontaneous. The possible reason is that ethylene molecules were easily embedded into the interior of α-amylase in term of the hydrophobic force between α-amylase and ethylene, causing the conformation and thermodynamics changes of α-amylase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antidiabetic Indian Plants: A Good Source of Potent Amylase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Menakshi; Zinjarde, Smita S.; Bhargava, Shobha Y.; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Joshi, Bimba N.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II) is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG). Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly α-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L.) (syn: Sanctum); Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana); Linum usitatissimum (L.) and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant α-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor. PMID:18955350

  5. Antidiabetic Indian Plants: A Good Source of Potent Amylase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG. Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly α-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L. Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L. (syn: Sanctum; Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana; Linum usitatissimum (L. and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant α-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor.

  6. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    an induction principle that combines the comfort of structural induction with the expressive strength of transfinite induction. Using lexicographic path induction, we give a consistency proof of Martin-Löf’s intuitionistic theory of inductive definitions. The consistency of Heyting arithmetic follows directly...

  7. The activity of selected glycosidases in salivary gland tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chojnowska

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the patients after salivary gland tumors surgery is an important clinical issue. Still imperfect diagnostic procedures also remain a challenge for searching new sensitive and specific biomarkers of neoplastic processes in salivary glands. The aim of the presented study was an the assessment of the activity of HEX, with its isoforms HEX-A and HEX-B, GLU, GAL, MAN and FUC in salivary gland tumor tissues in comparison to a healthy salivary gland tissues taken during autopsy. A group of 42 patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, aged 25-65 were examined. Fragments of salivary gland tumor tissue, fragments of healthy tissue removed during autopsy, blood serum and saliva were collected from patients with salivary gland tumors and healthy volunteers. In salivary gland tumor tissue the activity of HEX, HEX-A, HEX-B, GAL, FUC was considerably higher than in comparison to healthy salivary gland tissue and ascending trend of activity of GLU, MAN was also noticed. The activity of all lysosomal exoglycosidases in blood serum in patients with salivary gland tumors was considerably higher in comparison to healthy volunteers blood serum. The considerably higher activity of HEX, HEX-A, GLU, GAL, MAN, FUC and descending trend of activity of HEX-B were noticed in saliva of patients with salivary gland tumors in comparison to healthy volunteers. The assessment of HEX in blood serum and saliva of patients with salivary gland tumor can be possibly used in diagnostics and monitoring of salivary glands tumors.

  8. Host plant driven transcriptome plasticity in the salivary glands of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J; Galbraith, David A; Grozinger, Christina M; Felton, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    Generalist herbivores feed on a wide array of plants and need to adapt to varying host qualities and defenses. One of the first insect derived secretions to come in contact with the plant is the saliva. Insect saliva is potentially involved in both the pre-digestion of the host plant as well as induction/suppression of plant defenses, yet how the salivary glands respond to changes in host plant at the transcriptional level is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine how the labial salivary gland transcriptome varies according to the host plant on which the insect is feeding. In order to determine this, cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) larvae were reared on cabbage, tomato, and pinto bean artificial diet. Labial glands were dissected from fifth instar larvae and used to extract RNA for RNASeq analysis. Assembly of the resulting sequencing reads resulted in a transcriptome library for T. ni salivary glands consisting of 14,037 expressed genes. Feeding on different host plant diets resulted in substantial remodeling of the gland transcriptomes, with 4,501 transcripts significantly differentially expressed across the three treatment groups. Gene expression profiles were most similar between cabbage and artificial diet, which corresponded to the two diets on which larvae perform best. Expression of several transcripts involved in detoxification processes were differentially expressed, and transcripts involved in the spliceosome pathway were significantly downregulated in tomato-reared larvae. Overall, this study demonstrates that the transcriptomes of the salivary glands of the cabbage looper are strongly responsive to diet. It also provides a foundation for future functional studies that can help us understand the role of saliva of chewing insects in plant-herbivore interactions.

  9. Salivary stress biomarkers and anxiety symptoms in children with and without temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fernanda Yukie; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Marquezin, Maria Carolina Salomé; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Montes, Ana Bheatriz Marangoni; Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Castelo, Paula Midori

    2017-09-28

    The etiology of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), which are considered as a heterogeneous group of psychophysiological disturbances, remains a controversial issue in clinical dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate whether the salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), cortisol levels, and anxiety symptoms differ between children with and without TMD. Initially, 316 young subjects were screened in public schools (nonreferred sample); 76 subjects aged 7-14 years were selected and comprised the TMD and control groups with 38 subjects each matched by sex, age, and the presence/absence of sleep bruxism. Four saliva samples were collected: upon waking, 30 min and 1 h after awakening (fasting), and at night (at 8 PM) on 2 alternate days to examine the diurnal profiles of cortisol and sAA. Anxiety symptoms were screened using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-Brazilian version). Shapiro-Wilk test, Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, and correlation tests were used for data analysis. No significant differences were observed in the salivary cortisol area under the curve (AUCG mean ± SD = 90.22 ± 63.36 × 94.21 ± 63.13 µg/dL/min) and sAA AUCG (mean ± SD = 2544.52 ± 2142.00 × 2054.03 ± 1046.89 U/mL/min) between the TMD and control groups, respectively (p > 0.05); however, the clinical groups differed in social anxiety domain (t = 3.759; CI = 2.609, 8.496), separation/panic (t = 2.243; CI = 0.309, 5.217), physical symptoms (U = 433.500), and MASC total score (t = -3.527; CI = -23.062, -6.412), with a power of the test >80% and large effect size (d = 0.80), with no significant correlation between the MASC total score, cortisol, and sAA levels. Although children with TMD scored higher in anxiety symptoms, no difference was observed in the salivary stress biomarkers between children with and without TMD.

  10. Addition of Amylase from Aspergillus Awamori to the Diet of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HS Morgado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were performed to evaluate the hematological and blood biochemistry parameters, biometry of digestive organs, enzyme activities, protein content and absolute weight of the pancreas of broilers fed pre-starter and pre-starter diets supplemented or not with amylase from Aspergillus awamori. In total, 120 male Cobb chicks were housed in heated cages in each experiment. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (feed with and without amylase and six replicates per treatment of 10 birds each was applied. The data were subjected to analysis of variance using the F-test at 5% probability level. The dietary amylase addition did not affect hematological and blood biochemistry parameters and the biometry of the gastrointestinal tract of 7- and 21-d-old broilers, nor the absolute weight, enzyme activities or protein concentration of the pancreas of 7-d-old broilers. However, the inclusion of amylase in the diet reduced amylase activity and pancreatic protein concentration in 21-d-old broilers. The application of amylase to broiler chicken pre-starter and starter feeds is not justified given the pancreatic amylase activity and protein concentrations.

  11. Effects of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Treatment on Enhancing Activity and Conformation of α-Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei-ling; Fang, Ting; Du, Mu-ying; Zhang, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    To explore an efficient, safe, and speedy application of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology for enzymatic modification, effects of PEF treatment on the enzymatic activity, property and kinetic parameters of α-amylase were investigated. Conformational transitions were also studied with the aid of circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectra. The maximum enzymatic activity of α-amylase was obtained under 15 kV/cm electric field intensity and 100 mL/min flow velocity PEF treatment, in which the enzymatic activity increased by 22.13 ± 1.14% compared with control. The activation effect could last for 18 h at 4 °C. PEF treatment could widen the range of optimum temperature for α-amylase, however, it barely exerted any effect on the optimum pH. On the other hand, α-amylase treated by PEF showed an increase of Vmax, t1/2 and ΔG, whereas a decrease of Km and k were observed. Furthermore, it can be observed from fluorescence and CD spectra that PEF treatment had increased the number of amino acid residues, especially that of tryptophan, on α-amylase surface with enhanced α-helices by 34.76% and decreased random coil by 12.04% on α-amylase when compared with that of untreated. These changes in structure had positive effect on enhancing α-amylase activity and property.

  12. [Comparison between alpha-amylase from B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, A

    1991-01-01

    Two sequence-homologous alpha-amylases from B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis were studied with respect to their stability against heat denaturation and were compared with respect to common structure-stabilizing principles. The investigated alpha-amylases were isolated from culture broth of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis. The molecular parameters (molecular weight and isoelectric point) are similar. The thermostability was determined by changes of the protein structure (changes of the fluorescence emission spectra). At pH 5.0 the thermostable alpha-amylase from B. licheniformis showed a rate of denaturation which was achieved by the thermolabile alpha-amylase from B. amyloliquefaciens at a temperature 15 degrees lower. The alpha-amylase from B. licheniformis exhibits a marked stability also at the alkaline pH-range in contrast to the alpha-amylase from B. amyloliquefaciens. From measurements in the presence of EDTA and Ca2+ follows that both enzymes are stabilized by binding of calcium ions. An analysis of preferred amino acid exchanges between the two sequence-homologous alpha-amylases showed correspondences and differences to the well-known diagram of ARGOS. Possibly an increased thermic stability can already be achieved by special amino acid exchanges without significant changes in the protein structure.

  13. Correlation between Levels of Serum Amylase, Lipase and Triglyceride in Acute Pancreatitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunalan Govindarajan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammation of pancreas associated with reversible pancreatic parenchymal injury. Studies in several countries indicate that the levels of amylase and lipase are usually elevated among patients with acute pancreatitis. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia, mainly high levels of triglycerides, may present in acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of serum amylase and lipase as well as their correlation with serum triglyceride level in acute pancreatitis patients. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on medical records of 48 acute pancreatitis patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia from 2007to 2011. Data collected from the medical records were age, sex, levels of serum amylase, lipase and triglyceride. The distribution of data was determined using Shapiro-Wilk test. The correlation between serum pancreatic enzyme and triglyceride was analyzed using Spearman-rank test. Results: Most patients had increased levels of serum amylase and lipase in this study. However, no correlation between serum amylase and triglyceride (p-value = 0.312 was found. Furthermore, there was no correlation between serum lipase and triglyceride (p-value = 0.241. Conclusions: The levels of serum amylase and lipase increase in most patients with acute pancreatitis with no significant correlation between serum pancreatic enzymes (amylase and lipase and triglyceride.

  14. Repeated fermentation from raw starch using Saccharomyces cerevisiae displaying both glucoamylase and α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Syun-ichi; Yamada, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-05-10

    A diploid yeast strain displaying both α-amylase and glucoamylase was developed for repeated fermentation from raw starch. First, the construct of α-amylase was optimized for cell surface display, as there have been no reports of α-amylase-displaying yeast. The modified yeast displaying both glucoamylase and α-amylase produced 46.5 g/l of ethanol from 200 g/l of raw corn starch after 120 h of fermentation, and this was 1.5-fold higher when compared to native α-amylase-displaying yeast. Using the glucoamylase and modified α-amylase co-displaying diploid strain, we repeated fermentation from 100g/l of raw starch for 23 cycles without the loss of α-amylase or glucoamylase activity. The average ethanol productivity and yield during repeated fermentation were 1.61 g/l/h and 76.6% of the theoretical yield, respectively. This novel yeast may be useful for reducing the cost of bio-ethanol production and may be suitable for industrial-scale bio-ethanol production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. alpha-Amylase of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1: nucleotide sequence of the gene, processing of the enzyme, and comparison of other alpha-amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, H; Burchhardt, G; Spreinat, A; Haeckel, K; Wienecke, A; Schmidt, B; Antranikian, G

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the alpha-amylase gene (amyA) from Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1 cloned in Escherichia coli was determined. The reading frame of the gene consisted of 2,121 bp. Comparison of the DNA sequence data with the amino acid sequence of the N terminus of the purified secreted protein of C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 suggested that the alpha-amylase is translated from mRNA as a secretory precursor with a signal peptide of 27 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature alpha-amylase contained 679 residues, resulting in a protein with a molecular mass of 75,112 Da. In E. coli the enzyme was transported to the periplasmic space and the signal peptide was cleaved at exactly the same site between two alanine residues. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 alpha-amylase with those from other bacterial and eucaryotic alpha-amylases showed several homologous regions, probably in the enzymatically functioning regions. The tentative Ca(2+)-binding site (consensus region I) of this Ca(2+)-independent enzyme showed only limited homology. The deduced amino acid sequence of a second obviously truncated open reading frame showed significant homology to the malG gene product of E. coli. Comparison of the alpha-amylase gene region of C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 (DSM3896) with the beta-amylase gene region of C. thermosulfurogenes (ATCC 33743) indicated that both genes have been exchanged with each other at identical sites in the chromosomes of these strains. PMID:1854207

  16. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Minor Salivary Glands in Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedi, Jehona Reçica; Ahmedi, Enis; Perjuci, Ferjall; Ademi, Resmije; Gashi, Ali; Agani, Zana; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Reçica, Bylbyl

    2017-10-01

    Tumors of salivary glands are very rare in children overall, and rarely in minor salivary glands. Among them pleoomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of salivary glands in children and it acounts 60% of all salivary neoplasms, frequently found in major salivary glands (85 %) and rarely in minor salivary glands (10-15%). PA appears as painless oval mass, elastic consistency and smooth surface. It characterized by slow evolution of growing. The diagnosis can be confirmed only by histopathological features, after total excision of the lesion. This case report present the uncommon case of the formation well circumscribed in upper lip region, nearby the frenulum labii oris superior in 10 years old school girl. After clinical intraoral examination of the formation approximately 2cm in size the surgical treatment has been done and histopathologic analysis resulted as PA. Long term follow-up examination is necessary due to possible recurence or malignancy alteration.

  17. Congenital absence of salivary glands in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Marwan; Hershkovits, Miriyam; Bornstein, Jacob; Loberant, Norman; Blumenthal, Monique; Ophir, Ella

    2013-10-01

    Children with Down syndrome have different saliva composition compared to normal children. The presence or absence of the salivary glands has not been previously reported. To examine the presence or absence of the salivary glands in children with Down syndrome. 15 children with Down syndrome underwent an ultrasound examination of the salivary glands. The control group consisted of 31 healthy children. The areas of the parotid and submandibular glands on both sides were scanned in an attempt to demonstrate all four glands. The result was reported as 'present' or 'absent'. In four children out of 15 with Down syndrome, one or more salivary glands were absent (26.7%), while in the controls all salivary glands were present. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p=0.008). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age and sex. At least one salivary gland is undetected by ultrasound in some children with Down syndrome.

  18. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  19. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  20. Oral mucosa biology and salivary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rosie; Steel, Andrea; Fazel, Nasim

    Although the surfaces of both the skin and oral mucosa are protected by squamous epithelial cells and fall within the scope of dermatologic practice, the oral cavity contains highly specialized structures and functions distinct from other skin biology and pathologic conditions and are also the purview of clinicians who care for patients with skin and mucosal diseases. We describe the distinct features of the tongue, mucosa, and salivary glands. In particular, we examine the composition and function of the saliva, with special focus on salivary biomarkers. Within the oral cavity, saliva shows great promise as a noninvasive and sensitive marker for many systemic diseases. Biomarkers are being used as diagnostic or monitoring tools for a wide variety of diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren disease, Behçet disease, and autoimmune blistering disorders, as well as premalignant and malignant lesions of the mouth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. File list: Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 Unclassified Larvae Salivary glands SRX450799 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 Unclassified Larvae Salivary glands SRX450799 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Salivary_glands.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 Unclassified Larvae Salivary glands SRX450799 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Salivary_glands.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 Unclassified Larvae Salivary glands SRX450799 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Salivary_glands.bed ...

  5. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeya PatiI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumour of the salivary glands. It is an unusual type of a tumour in that it varies in its aggressiveness from a low-grade slow growing to high-grade rapidly growing behaviour. Low grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas maybe masqueraded in their clinical presentation, thus need to be looked at with a suspicious eye. We present two intraoral cases of this unique tumour.

  6. α-Amylase: an enzyme specificity found in various families of glycoside hydrolases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janeček, Štefan; Svensson, Birte; MacGregor, E. Ann

    2014-01-01

    of all carbohydrate-active enzymes, it is one of the most frequently occurring glycoside hydrolases (GH). α-Amylase is the main representative of family GH13, but it is probably also present in the families GH57 and GH119, and possibly even in GH126. Family GH13, known generally as the main α...... five CSRs and catalytic machinery, and adopt a (β/α)7-barrel fold. These family GH57 attributes are likely to be characteristic of α-amylases from the family GH119, too. With regard to family GH126, confirmation of the unambiguous presence of the α-amylase specificity may need more biochemical...

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana AMY3 Is a Unique Redox-regulated Chloroplastic α-Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seung, David; Thalmann, Matthias; Sparla, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    α-Amylases are glucan hydrolases that cleave α-1,4-glucosidic bonds in starch. In vascular plants, α-amylases can be classified into three subfamilies. Arabidopsis has one member of each subfamily. Among them, only AtAMY3 is localized in the chloroplast. We expressed and purified AtAMY3 from...... to be dependent on a conserved aspartic acid residue (Asp666), identified as the catalytic nucleophile in other plant α-amylases such as the barley AMY1. AtAMY3 released small linear and branched glucans from Arabidopsis starch granules, and the proportion of branched glucans increased after the predigestion...

  8. Chemical synthesis of a dual branched malto-decaose: A potential substrate for alpha-amylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damager, Iben; Jensen, Morten; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2005-01-01

    A convergent block strategy for general use in efficient synthesis of complex alpha-(1 -> 4)- and alpha-(1 -> 6)-malto-oligosaccharides is demonstrated with the first chemical synthesis of a malto-oligosaccharide, the decasoccharide 6,6""-bis(alpha-maltosyl)-maltohexaose, with two branch points....... Using this chemically defined branched oligosaccharide as a substrate, the cleavage pattern of seven different alpha-amylases were investigated. alpha-Amylases from human saliva, porcine pancreas, barley alpha-amylose 2 and recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 all hydrolysed the decasaccharide selectively...

  9. The Role Of Salivary Glands In Phosphate Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Mukai

    2012-06-01

    In Npt2b+/- mice, the salivary Pi concentrations were significantly increased compared with those in Npt2b+/+ mice. Npt2b+/- mice with adenine-induced renal failure had low plasma and salivary Pi levels, and plasma creatinine and BUN levels compared with Npt2b+/+ mice treated with adenine. In conclusion, Npt2b is involved in Pi secretion by salivary glands.

  10. Acinic Cell Carcinoma in Minor Salivary Glands of Retromolar

    OpenAIRE

    KOYUNCU, Mehmet; Atmaca, Sinan; Bedri KANDEMİR; ÇAKIL, Bünyamin

    2009-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of the salivary glands. ACC of the minor salivary glands is very rare. In the oral cavity, minor salivary gland tumors are rarely seen in the inferior anatomic regions like the retromolar trigone and the floor of mouth compared to the superior regions like the palate. We present a retromolar trigone ACC, a rare location in the oral cavity and discuss the relevant reports in the literature. Key words: Acinic cell carcinoma, minor salivar...

  11. Significance of Interleukin-6/STAT Pathway for the Gene Expression of REG Iα, a New Autoantigen in Sjögren's Syndrome Patients, in Salivary Duct Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Takanori; Fujimoto, Takashi; Itaya-Hironaka, Asako; Miyaoka, Tomoko; Yoshimoto, Kiyomi; Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Sumiyo; Yamauchi, Akiyo; Takeda, Maiko; Tsujinaka, Hiroki; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takasawa, Shin

    2017-06-01

    The regenerating gene, Reg, was originally isolated from a rat regenerating islet complementary DNA (cDNA) library, and its human homologue was named REG Iα. Recently, we reported that REG Iα messenger RNA (mRNA), as well as its product, was overexpressed in ductal epithelial cells in the salivary glands of Sjögren's syndrome patients. Furthermore, autoantibodies against REG Iα were found in the sera of Sjögren's syndrome patients, and the patients who were positive for the anti-REG Iα antibody showed significantly lower saliva secretion than antibody-negative patients. We found the mechanism of REG Iα induction in salivary ductal epithelial cells. Reporter plasmid containing REG Iα promoter (-1190/+26) upstream of a luciferase gene was introduced into human NS-SV-DC and rat A5 salivary ductal cells. The cells were treated with several cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, etc.), upregulated in Sjögren's syndrome salivary ducts, and the transcriptional activity was measured. IL-6 stimulation significantly enhanced the REG Iα promoter activity in both cells. Deletion analysis revealed that the -141∼-117 region of the REG Iα gene was responsible for the promoter activation by IL-6, which contains a consensus sequence for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) binding. The introduction of small interfering RNA for human STAT3 abolished IL-6-induced REG Iα transcription. These results indicated that IL-6 stimulation induced REG Iα transcription through STAT3 activation and binding to the REG Iα promoter in salivary ductal cells. This dependence of REG Iα induction upon IL-6/STAT in salivary duct epithelial cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis/progression of Sjögren's syndrome.

  12. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  13. Salivary gland surgery and medical malpractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Steven S; Yheulon, Christopher G; Sniezek, Joseph C

    2013-04-01

    To better understand the causes and outcomes of lawsuits involving salivary gland surgery by analyzing malpractice litigation trends to prevent future litigation and improve physician education. Analysis of a national database. All US civil trials. The WESTLAW database was reviewed from January 1987 to March 2011. Data were compiled on the demographics of the defendant, anatomic site of injury, initial pathology, nature of injury, legal allegations, verdicts, and indemnities. Twenty-six cases met inclusion criteria and were selected for review. Verdicts/settlements for the plaintiffs predominated (58%), and the average sum of the plaintiff's monetary award was $933,235. Sixteen cases (62%) involved injury to the parotid gland/duct, with 10 cases involving injury to the facial nerve. No cases were filed on the grounds of failure to use facial nerve monitoring. Nine cases (35%) involved injury to the submandibular gland/duct. The most common legal allegations listed were improper performance followed by unnecessary procedures. If failure or inadequate consent was a component of the legal allegations, the verdict outcome significantly favored the defendants. Our study reveals that the plaintiffs in litigations involving salivary gland surgery have a slight advantage in outcomes with a fairly substantial award. Our litigation review reiterates the importance of detailed anatomic knowledge of the lingual and facial nerve to avoid the pitfalls of surgical error and consequent litigation. In addition, thorough preoperative evaluation of salivary gland pathology, including radiographic studies and needle biopsy, may help avoid errors in diagnosis and subsequent litigations.

  14. Salivary Biomarkers in Pediatric Metabolic Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J Max; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders is now considered a global pandemic. The main goal of the pediatric obesity research community is to identify children who are at risk of becoming obese before their body mass index rises above age norms. To do so, we must identify biomarkers of metabolic health and immunometabolism that can be used for large-scale screening and diagnosis initiatives among at-risk children. Because blood sampling is often unacceptable to both parents and children when there is no direct benefit to the child, as in a community-based research study, there is a clear need for a low-risk, non-invasive sampling strategy. Salivary analysis is now well recognized as a likely candidate for this purpose. In this review, we discuss the physiologic role of saliva and its strengths and limitations as a fluid for biomarker discovery, obesity screening, metabolic disease diagnosis, and response monitoring after interventions. We also describe the current state of the salivary biomarker field as it pertains to metabolic research, with a special emphasis on studies conducted in children and adolescents. Finally, we look forward to technological developments, such as salivary "omics" and point of service diagnostic devices, which have the potential to accelerate the pace of research and discovery in this vitally important field.

  15. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  16. Developmental Regulation of Amylase Activity During Fruiting of Schizophyllum commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalb, Marvin N.

    1971-01-01

    During the development of fruit bodies of Schizophyllum commune there is a minimum 10- to 15-fold increase in amylase activity. There is little or no activity in homokaryons or dikaryons. The activity is found early after the onset of morphogenesis and increases until the fruit bodies are mature. Inhibition studies with CO2 indicate that the activity is directly associated with fruiting, as a change from fruiting to vegetative growth of the dikaryotic mycelium leads to a loss in activity, whereas the already formed fruit bodies show no loss. The activity is unaffected by the level of glucose in the medium. Evidence is presented, based on the mode of starch degradation and on yield and inhibition studies, that the enzyme is a glucoamylase. PMID:5167808

  17. Solid Culturing of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for α-Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Gangadharan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen different agroresidues were screened for alpha amylase production using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ATCC 23842. Among them, wheat bran (WB and groundnut oil cake (GOC in mass ratio of 1:1 was proved as the best substrate source. Supplementation with 0.01 M KH2PO4 and 1 % soluble starch enhanced the enzyme yield considerably. Maximum enzyme recovery from the solid mass was obtained when extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH=5.0. Maximum enzyme titer expressed as units per mass of dry substrate obtained was 62 470 U/g after 72 hours of fermentation at 37 °C by using the above solid substrate mixture (5 g with the initial moisture of 85 % and inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of 2·109 CFU/mL.

  18. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-27

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.

  19. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delporte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.

  20. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  1. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Max Goodson

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes (T2D has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects.We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175 and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration < 0.1 mg/dL n = 2,537.HSG was associated with dental caries and gingivitis in the study population. The overall salivary bacterial load in saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83% of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64% were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness.HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence of hyperglycemia.

  2. The influence of alcohol on the oral cavity, salivary glands and saliva

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    .... Within 30 minutes, salivary ethanol concentration equilibrates with the plasma level, thus suggesting that ethanol easily penetrates the whole body, including oral cavity tissues and salivary glands...

  3. Relationship between salivary glucosa levels and salivary pH with candidiasis oral in diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumintarti Sumintarti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease which is characterized by increased blood glucose level and also increased salivary glucose level. The disease is characterized by decreasing pH of the saliva. The decrease pH of saliva can the high risk of oral infection. Candidiasis is the most common infection of patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between salivary glucose level and salivary pH to the occurrence of oral candidiasis in patients with DM. This type of research is analytic observational study on 30 sample with diabetes mellitus. The determination of salivary glucose level with “GOD PAP test enzymatic calorimetric” and salivary pH with lacmus paper. Oral candidiasis was determined in presenting candida albicans with seeding Saboround agar and gram staining. The result showed r 0'573, which is higher salivary glucose levels, followed by decreasing salivary pH and microscopic examination of candida found in the whole sample of the study. This finding demonstrates that an increased salivary glucose levels and increase salivary pH affect the occurrence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients.

  4. Biochemical features and kinetic properties of α-amylases from marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaei, Ahmad; Ghanbarzadeh, Mehri; Monsef, Ferial

    2016-02-01

    Marine organisms have the ability of producing enzymes with unique properties compared to those of the same enzymes from terrestrial organisms. α-Amylases are among the most important extracellular enzymes found in various groups of organisms such as plants, animals and microorganisms. They play important roles in their carbohydrates metabolism of each organism. Microbial production of α-amylases is more effective than other sources of the enzyme. Many microorganisms are known to produce α-amylase including bacteria, yeasts, fungi and actinomycetes. However, enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. This review deals with what is known about the kinetics, biochemical properties and applications of these enzymes that have only been found in them and not in other α-amylases, and discussing their mechanistic and regulatory implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel biosensor based on glucose oxidase for activity determination of α - amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altug, Cagrı; Mengulluoglu, Umut; Kurt, Elif; Kaya, Secil; Dinckaya, Erhan

    2011-10-01

    A glucose oxidase-based biosensor was developed for the determination of α-amylase activity. The determination method is based on monitoring the decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration related to the starch concentration, for which starch gives a reaction with α-amylase. Optimization parameters, including glucose oxidase amount, gelatin amount, and glutaraldehyde percentage for cross-linking, were investigated. The effects of pH, buffer system, and temperature on the biosensor system were also investigated. The biosensor had a linear relation to α-amylase activity and good measurement correlation between 0.66 and 9.83 U/ml. In sample analysis studies, α-amylase activity in baker's yeast was determined by the biosensor.

  6. Pigment and amylase production in Penicillium sp NIOM-02 and its radical scavenging activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhale, M.A.; VijayRaj, A.S.

    enzymatic hydrolysis are used as nutrients in microbial fermentation (Stewart and Russel 1978) for ethanol production (Matsumoto et al., 1982). The major markets for amylases are food industries for the preparation of sweeteners and syrups (Nigam...

  7. amylase in Egypt. V. Analysis of kinetic data for enzyme production by

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... Key words: Production kinetics, process modeling, fermentation, bacterial amylase, biotechnology. INTRODUCTION ..... caseinate as nitrogen source and starch as carbon source. Appl. ... the cell cycle population distribution.

  8. The Effects of Red and Blue Lights on Circadian Variations in Cortisol, Alpha Amylase, and Melatonin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Rea, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    .... Results showed-that, as expected, only the blue light reduced nocturnal melatonin. In contrast, both blue and red lights affected cortisol levels and, although less clear, alpha amylase levels...

  9. Production of fungal alpha-amylase by Saccharomyces kluyveri in glucose-limited cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Sharif, M.Z.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    Heterologous protein production by the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri was investigated under aerobic glucose-limited conditions. alpha-Amylase from Aspergillus oryzae was used as model protein and the gene was expressed from a S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid. For comparison, strains of both S. kluyveri...... and S. cerevisiae were transformed with the same plasmid, which led to secretion of active alpha-amylase in both cases. The S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid was found to be stable in S. kluyveri as evaluated by a constant alpha-amylase productivity in a continuous cultivation for more than 40 generations. S....... kluyveri and S. cerevisiae secreted alpha-amylase with similar yields during continuous cultivations at dilution rates of 0.1 and 0.2 h(-1) (4.8-5.7 mg (g dry weight)(-1)). At a dilution rate of 0.3 h(-1) the metabolism of S. kluyveri was fully respiratory, whereas S. cerevisiae produced significant...

  10. Pattern of serum amylase activity in HIV seropositive subjects on anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ART) combinations of Nevirepine, Lamivudine and stavudine on the pancrease using serum amylase activity as indicator for pancreatic impairment. For this study 20 symptomatic HIV subjects (female =12, male=8) were recruited prior to ART and ...

  11. New perspectives on the role of α- and β-amylases in transient starch synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Chi Wu

    Full Text Available Transient starch in leaves is synthesized by various biosynthetic enzymes in the chloroplasts during the light period. This paper presents the first mathematical model for the (biosynthesis of the chain-length distribution (CLD of transient starch to aid the understanding of this synthesis. The model expresses the rate of change of the CLD in terms of the actions of the enzymes involved. Using this to simulate the experimental CLD with different enzyme combinations is a new means to test for enzymes that are significant to the rate of change of the CLD during synthesis. Comparison between the simulated CLD from different enzyme combinations and the experimental CLD in the leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana indicate α-amylase, in addition to the core starch biosynthetic enzymes, is also involved in the modification of glucans for the synthesis of insoluble starch granules. The simulations suggest involvement of β-amylase, in the absence of α-amylase in mutants, slows the rate of attaining a crystalline-competent CLD for crystallization of glucans to form insoluble starch. This suggests a minor role of β-amylase in shaping normal starch synthesis. The model simulation predicts that debranching of glucans is an efficient mechanism for the attainment of crystalline-competent CLD; however, attaining this is still possible, albeit slower, through combinations of α- and β-amylase in the absence of isoamylase-type debranching enzyme. In Arabidopsis defective in one of the isoamylase-type debranching enzymes, the impact of α-amylase in starch synthesis is reduced, while β-amylase becomes significantly involved, slowing the rate of synthesis in this mutant. Modeling of transient starch CLD brings to light previously unrecognized but significant effects of α- and β-amylase on the rate of transient starch synthesis.

  12. [Preparation of an active strain of Bacillus licheniformis--producer of thermostable alpha-amylase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurikova, N V; Nefedova, L I; Kostyleva, E V; Zvenigorodskiĭ, V I; Iasinovskiĭ, V G; Voeĭkova, T A; Sinitsyn, A P

    2002-01-01

    A highly potent strain of Bacillus licheniformis 103 that synthesized thermostable alpha-amylase with temperature and pH optima of 90-95 degrees C and 6.0-8.5, respectively, was obtained by mutagenesis and selection. The composition of fermentation media and conditions for submerged cultivation of the producer were optimized. alpha-Amylase whose activity reached 260 U/ml was obtained in laboratory fermenters.

  13. Systemic transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the regeneration of irradiation-induced salivary gland damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yol Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cell-based therapy has been reported to repair or restore damaged salivary gland (SG tissue after irradiation. This study was aimed at determining whether systemic administration of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs can ameliorate radiation-induced SG damage. METHODS: hAdMSCs (1 × 10(6 were administered through a tail vein of C3H mice immediately after local irradiation, and then this infusion was repeated once a week for 3 consecutive weeks. At 12 weeks after irradiation, functional evaluations were conducted by measuring salivary flow rates (SFRs and salivation lag times, and histopathologic and immunofluorescence histochemistry studies were performed to assay microstructural changes, apoptosis, and proliferation indices. The engraftment and in vivo differentiation of infused hAdMSCs were also investigated, and the transdifferentiation of hAdMSCs into amylase-producing SG epithelial cells (SGCs was observed in vitro using a co-culture system. RESULTS: The systemic administration of hAdMSCs exhibited improved SFRs at 12 weeks after irradiation. hAdMSC-transplanted SGs showed fewer damaged and atrophied acinar cells and higher mucin and amylase production levels than untreated irradiated SGs. Immunofluorescence TUNEL assays revealed fewer apoptotic cells in the hAdMSC group than in the untreated group. Infused hAdMSCs were detected in transplanted SGs at 4 weeks after irradiation and some cells were found to have differentiated into SGCs. In vitro, a low number of co-cultured hAdMSCs (13%-18% were observed to transdifferentiate into SGCs. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that hAdMSCs have the potential to protect against irradiation-induced cell loss and to transdifferentiate into SGCs, and suggest that hAdMSC administration should be viewed as a candidate therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced SG damage.

  14. High-resolution α-amylase assay combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for expedited identification of α-amylase inhibitors: proof of concept and α-amylase inhibitor in cinnamon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutan, Leyla; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2014-11-26

    Type 2 diabetes affects millions of people worldwide, and new improved drugs or functional foods containing selective α-amylase inhibitors are needed for improved management of blood glucose. In this article the development of a microplate-based high-resolution α-amylase inhibition assay with direct photometric measurement of α-amylase activity is described. The inhibition assay is based on porcine pancreatic α-amylase with 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotriose as substrate, which this gives a stable, sensitive, and cheap inhibition assay as requested for high-resolution purposes. In combination with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR, this provides an analytical platform that allows simultaneous chemical and biological profiling of α-amylase inhibitors in plant extracts. Proof-of-concept with an artificial mixture of six compounds-of which three are known α-amylase inhibitors-showed that the high-resolution α-amylase inhibition profiles allowed detection of sub-microgram amounts of the α-amylase inhibitors. Furthermore, the high-resolution α-amylase inhibition assay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR platform allowed identification of cinnamaldehyde as the α-amylase inhibitor in cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl.).

  15. POTENTIAL USE OF AN EXTRACELLULAR ENZYME OF a-AMYLASE FROM INDIGENOUS INDONESIAN MESOPHILIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Lestari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amylase enzyme has a great significance for industrial usages in  Indonesia. However, this enzyme is still imported. The use of bacteria in biotechnological process of industrial products such as enzyme production has stimulated the exploration of extracellular amylase producing  bacteria. This study aimed to identify and analyze the potential use of amylolytic bacterial enzymes for hydrolyzing cassava starch. Two bacterial isolates, i.e. MII-10 and DKW-8 originated from Indonesia soil were identified based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical properties according to the standard protocol. The isolates were then  cultivated on fermentation medium and their growth pattern and  enzymatic assays were observed. The acetone-precipitated crude enzyme harvested based on predetermined cultivation time was used for  enzymatic hydrolysis product characterization on cassava starch using thin layer chromatography (TLC. The results showed that the mesophilicbacteria isolates (MII-10 and DKW-8 were belonged to Bacillus licheniformis. The maximum bacterial cell growth and enzyme activity were reached at 48 hours after incubation. The MII-10 isolate was found more stable than DKW-8 in producing amylase enzyme. Amylase produced by the MII-10 and DKW- 8 isolates was identified to be an endo-a-amylase as confirmed by oligosaccharides and dextrin of the random hydrolysisproducts. Relatively high dextrose equivalence (DE value of a-amylase of MII-10 (DE of 9.96 suggests that the enzyme is prospective for  saccharification of starchy material in glucose syrup industry.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF BETA AMYLASE ON THE DOUGH OBTAINED FROM WHITE FLOURE TYPE 650

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan DAVID

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are presenting the enzymatic activity of β-amylase used in different concentrations, in the bread dough. The rheological characteristics of the dough have been obtained by alveographic method. Together with α-amylase and limited dextrinase, β-amylases act on the degradetion of starch, the result being the production of carbohydrates. β-amylase acts on non-reducing end of the polysaccharide chain cleaving maltose residues. Maltose coming from the hydrolysis of starch is the main fermentable sugar which is fermented and therefore provides necessary gas volume in the final part of the technological process. An insuficient fermentation results in a smaller increase of bread. Addition of β-amylase modifies the rheological characteristics of dough. Dough extensibility increases and the resistance and specific mechanical work consumption also decreases proportionally with increasing doses of enzyme. Due to the fact that the enzyme is active in the finished product, the enzyme activity is likely to go too far. Furthermore maintain freshness, the core may become sticky. The initial dosage of the enzyme is very important to prevent this.The influence of amylase enzyme in the dough for bread can help evaluate and improve the insufficiently developed technology and the nutritive value of the products.

  17. Production of Amylase by Bacillus polymyxa NCIM No. 2539 from Agroindustrial Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Dutt Tripathi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: In the present study, Bacillus polymyxa NCIM No. 2539 was selected to utilize agro-industrial byproduct (orange peel for amylase production under submergedfermentation conditions.Material and Methods: Different agro-industrial byproducts like cane molasses, wheat bran, rice bran and orange peel were screened for maximum amylase production. Amylase activitiy of Bacillus polymyxa was studied using starch-agar plate method. MINITAB software Version 17 and central composite design were applied to evaluate effect of supplementation of substrate with different sulphur containing amino acids (cysteine, methionine and cystine and vitamin thiamine on enzyme activity. Further optimization of the parameters viz. amount of substrate, concentration of amino acid and vitamin for maximum amylase production was studied by central composite rotatable design.Results and Conclusion: Among 4 different agro-industrial substrates applied, orange peel showed maximum enzyme production (activity: 492.31 IU g-1 sample. Supplementation of the production media with cysteine showed maximum amylaseproduction (515.38 IU g-1 sample among all three amino acids and control. Supplementation with thiamine also showed more amylase production (469.23 IU g-1 sample as compared to control (415.38 IU g-1. Cysteine and thiamine proved to increaseamylase production significantly. Maximum amylase production was obtained at 7.7 g orange peel, 37.29 mg cysteine and 34.23 mg per 10 ml thiamine.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  18. Alpha-amylase activity in wheat flour and breadmaking properties in relation to different climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakita Slađana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the influence of different climatic conditions on the activity of alpha-amylase in wheat samples and bread quality parameters. Three wheat varieties grown in three different localities in three years were chosen for this study. Commonly used methods for estimation of alpha-amylase activity in wheat grain were employed. The obtained results indicated that harvest year 2013, which was characterized with the excessive amount of rainfall, exhibited the highest level of alpha-amylase activity and the lowest values of the peak viscosity. The lowest alpha-amylase level and the highest peak viscosity and FN value were observed for samples harvested in 2012 which was characterized with the greatest number of days with an average daily temperature above 30 and 35°C. In addition, a decrease in Mixolab parameter torque C3 and specific bread loaf volume, as well as increase in the breakdown torque (C3-C4 of samples harvested in 2013 were observed, which could be attributed to rainy weather influencing increase in alpha-amylase activity. It is found that specific bread loaf volume of wheat samples is highest in 2012. Moreover, a negative correlation between alpha-amylase activity and specific bread volume for all the samples grown in three years was determined.

  19. Amylase production potentials of bacterial isolates obtained from the gut of Oryctes rhinoceros larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryati, P. C.; Pangastuti, A.; Sari, S. L. A.

    2017-04-01

    Amylase is one of the main enzymes used in industry, such as food, detergent, textile, and pharmaceutical industry. Amylase can be produced by plants, animals, and microorganisms. However, bacterial and fungal amylases have dominated application in industries. This research was aimed to determine amylolytic activity of bacteria isolated from the gut of Oryctes rhinoceros larvae. Based on clear zone formation, 9 from 11 isolates showed amylolytic activity. Isolates with the widest clear zone, i.e Bacillus subtilis GOR1, Bacillus cereus GOR3, and Bacillus pumilus GOR2, were screened for amylolytic activity based on reduction sugar production. The result showed that Bacillus subtilis GOR1 was the most potential as amylase producer, showed by the widest clear zone 5.224 cm2 and highest reduction sugar production 0.0235 mg/ml. Highest amylase specific activity (0.1447 U/mg protein) was obtained at 60°C and pH 7. Amylase activity was stable for 3 hours at 60°C with residual activity respectively was 59.7%.

  20. Amylase activity of aquatic actinomycetes isolated from the sediments of mangrove forests in south of Iran

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    Farshid Kafilzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study amylase producing actinomycetes were isolated from the sediments of mangrove forests in the south of Iran and the rate of amylase activity was measured. The samples of sediments were collected from one hundred different places in mangrove forests of the south of Iran. Collected samples were diluted then they were purified on the starch (casein agar culture and Woodruff. After that they were examined in terms of amylase production on agar–starch culture. The activity of the produced amylase by the isolated aquatic actinomycetes was measured by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS method. The results showed that aquatic actinomycetes were isolated from 86 per 100 places in spring (86% and from 61 per 100 places in summer (61%. The highest rates of producing enzyme were related to isolated samples in spring (62.97 U/ml. Biochemical and Bergey’s book tests showed that the most isolated aquatic actinomycetes belonged to Streptomyces genus. As regards this, it is economical and easy to isolate the aquatic actinomycetes which produce amylase that is used in different industries in Iran from the sediments of mangrove forests of the south of Iran. So the isolated strains in this study can be suitable candidates for amylase production after genetic manipulation.

  1. Physical and catalytic properties of alpha-amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, V; Poerio, E; Silano, V; Tomasi, M

    1976-01-01

    The amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. larvae (yellow mealworm) was characterized according to a number of its molecular and catalytic properties. The insect amylase is a single polypeptide chain with mol.wt. 68000, an isoelectric point of 4.0 and a very low content of sulphur-containing amino acids. The enzyme is a Ca2+-protein and behaves as an alpha-amylase. Removal of Ca2+ by exhaustive dialysis against water causes the irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. Moreover, the enzyme is activated by the presence in the assay mixture of Cl-, or some other inorganic anions that are less effective than Cl-, and is inhibited by F-. Optimal conditions of pH and temperature for the enzymic activity are 5.8 and 37 degrees C. The insect amylase exhibits an identical kinetic behaviour toward starch, amylose and amylopectin; the enzyme hydrolyses glycogen with a higher affinity constant. Compared with the non-insect alpha-amylases described in the literature, Tenebrio molitor amylase has a lower affinity for starch. PMID:942374

  2. Inhibitory Effect of Heracleum persicum and Ziziphus jujuba on Activity of Alpha-Amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Afrisham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of alpha-amylase was led to a delay in breaks down of starch and glycogen and prevented a rapid rise in blood sugar. Alpha-amylase was isolated by gel filtration chromatography Sephadex G-75 from bovine pancreas. Then, total methanolic extracts of plants were prepared and IC50 values of extracts on alpha-amylase were obtained and compared with acarbose IC50. The polyphenolic content of extracts and antioxidant capacity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu test and DPPH test, respectively. The specific activity of alpha-amylase was 48.2 U/mg. For inhibition of alpha-amylase, IC50 values of H. persicum, Z. jujuba, and acarbose were 307, 827, and 113 μg/ml, respectively. For inhibition of DPPH radical, IC50 values of extracts were 235 and 701 μg/ml. Total phenolic contents of methanol extracts were 73.8±3.2 and 44.2±1.8 μg tannic acid equivalent/mg extract. Acarbose causes gastrointestinal symptoms and liver toxicity, but H. persicum and Z. jujuba decrease these side effects and prevent gastrointestinal disorders. Due to the high polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these plants and significant inhibitory effect of the plants on alpha-amylase, these plants can be proposed for treatment of diabetic patients.

  3. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Rahimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results: Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Conclusion: Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  4. alpha-Amylase of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1: nucleotide sequence of the gene, processing of the enzyme, and comparison of other alpha-amylases.

    OpenAIRE

    Bahl, H; Burchhardt, G; Spreinat, A.; Haeckel, K; Wienecke, A; Schmidt, B.; Antranikian, G

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the alpha-amylase gene (amyA) from Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1 cloned in Escherichia coli was determined. The reading frame of the gene consisted of 2,121 bp. Comparison of the DNA sequence data with the amino acid sequence of the N terminus of the purified secreted protein of C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 suggested that the alpha-amylase is translated from mRNA as a secretory precursor with a signal peptide of 27 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid seque...

  5. Human salivary micro-RNA in patients with parotid salivary gland neoplasms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matse, J.H.; Yoshizawa, J.; Wang, X.; Elashoff, D.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Leemans, C.R.; Pegtel, M.D.; Wong, D.T.W.; Bloemena, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, clinical examination, ultrasound scanning (with or without fine needle aspiration cytology), preoperative CT-scan and MRI are available for the differential diagnosis of parotid gland swelling. A preliminary non-invasive salivary diagnostic tool may be helpful in the clinical

  6. Human antibody response to Lethocerus salivary antigens as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interestingly in addition to a few immunogenic salivary proteins (85, 64, 37 and 33 kDa bands), a 28 kDa protein derived from salivary glands homogenate of aquatic insects was able to bind to Mycobacterium ulcerans and to be recognized by IgG antibodies of healthy subjects in endemic areas. The antibody responses to ...

  7. Digestive and Nondigestive Functions of Rodents' Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, V V; Milto, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Serebryakova, O N; Buzenkova, A V

    2017-01-01

    Major salivary glands play a role not only in digestion, but also in regulation of other functions in rodents. In this review, we analyzed and summarized the data about the rodents' parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands functions, which is not limited to the production of saliva and action of its hydrolytic enzymes on food in the oral cavity. In recent decades significantly expanded understanding of major salivary glands nondigestive functions. They are involved in excretion of metabolic products, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance. Special attention has been paid to the characteristics of specific (parotin, sialorphin, etc.) and nonspecific (epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, kallikrein, etc.) active substances of the major salivary glands and their involvement in wound healing, mineral metabolism, regulation of hematopoiesis and immunity system. Summarized and analyzed major salivary glands endocrine function in the organs and systems. Available literature data suggest: the structure of the major salivary glands, as well as the synthesis and secretion of a number of biologically active substances are controlled by sex hormones. In turn, these biologically active factors of the salivary glands, as epidermal growth factor, and parotin, sialorphin, whose expression is regulated by androgens, have an impact on the morphological and functional state of the gonads. Thus, major salivary glands operate a wide range of functions and involved in the regulation of sexual behavior of reproductive function and maintaining homeostasis in the body.

  8. Evaluation of salivary function in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y C; Hong, I K; Na, S Y; Eun, Y G

    2015-04-01

    To investigate salivary function in patients with primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) compared with control and to evaluate salivary hypofunction using salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS). A total of 33 patients with primary BMS and 30 control subjects were enrolled in our study. The severity of the pain and the burning sensation on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) were assessed. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates (SFRs) were measured. (99m) Tc pertechnetate SGS was used to evaluate salivary gland function. Unstimulated SFR in patients with BMS was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.11 ± 0.15 vs 0.21 ± 0.16 ml min(-1) , P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in stimulated SFR between the two groups. The VAS scores for oral pain and burning sensation, the total OHIP-14 score, and salivary gland function by salivary scintigraphy were not significantly different between BMS patients with normal flow rate and hyposalivation. Patients with primary BMS exhibited a significant decrease in unstimulated SFR compared with control group. In addition, we could not find any difference in salivary gland function between BMS patients with or without hyposalivation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunput, S.T.G.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Terlouw, B.; Brouwer, M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Wouters, D.

    2015-01-01

    After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses and fungi,

  10. Minor salivary gland tumours in Kaduna, Nigeria | Ajike | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the incidence, clinical presentation and management of minor salivary gland tumours at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods: Retrospective study of minor salivary gland tumours at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. Results: The ...

  11. Dysgenetic polycystic disease of the minor and submandibular salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudounarakis, Eleftherios; Willems, Stefan; Karakullukcu, Baris

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease is a rare pathology. No case of minor salivary gland involvement has been reported in the literature. Methods A female patient presented with bilateral tumors of the parotid glands, bilateral submandibular gland enlargement, and multiple cystic

  12. Clinico-pathological analysis of malignant salivary gland tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND Salivary gland tumours are common head and neck tumours. Malignant salivary gland tumours generally occur less frequently than benign ones and account for greater morbidity and mortality. Patients in our environment are seen to present at late stages and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the commonest ...

  13. Summary of: Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Brand, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones

  14. Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Brand, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones

  15. Salivary gland tumors in Uganda: clinical pathological study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of salivary gland tumors is claimed to be influenced by geographical and racial factors. The pathological classification and nomenclature of salivary gland tumors as defined by WHO classification (1991), is accepted world-wide but little is available in the literature regarding the spectrum of ...

  16. Descriptive pattern of Benign Salivary Gland Tumours in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a descriptive study of all histotogically confirmed benign salivary gland tumours over a period of ten years. The slides were reported independently by four pathologists. Diagnosis was made and classification done according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of salivary gland tumours.

  17. Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunput, Sabrina T. G.; Ligtenberg, Antoon J. M.; Terlouw, Bas; Brouwer, Mieke; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Wouters, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses

  18. Infiltrative Oncocytoma arising from minor salivary glands of palate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncocytoma of salivary gland origin is an uncommon tumor found mainly in the parotid gland. On rare occasions, oncocytoma arise in the intra-oral minor salivary glands; having a greater tendency for locally aggressive behavior and infiltrating the adjacent tissues due to incomplete encapsulation. The current case is of ...

  19. Secretion of salivary statherin is compromised in uncontrolled diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Izumi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: The results show that synthesis and secretion of statherin is reduced in diabetics and this reduction is salivary gland specific. As compromised salivary statherin secretion leads to increased oral health risk, this study indicates that routine oral health assessment of these patients is warranted.

  20. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. 3 per 100 000 people.[1,2] A rare salivary gland tumour, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), has only recently been described.[3] The few reports and studies concerning MASC have been published in several pathology journals. We report ...