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Sample records for saline unified school

  1. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic

    and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Technology Integration in a Unified School District

    Bloodman, Suzette L.

    2014-01-01

    A unified school district (USD) continues to invest millions of dollars into its technology integration initiatives with minimal academic gains. Since teachers are essential to effective technology integration, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to analyze the perceptions of 13 teachers within the USD relative to how they could more…

  4. The Vector Space as a Unifying Concept in School Mathematics.

    Riggle, Timothy Andrew

    The purpose of this study was to show how the concept of vector space can serve as a unifying thread for mathematics programs--elementary school to pre-calculus college level mathematics. Indicated are a number of opportunities to demonstrate how emphasis upon the vector space structure can enhance the organization of the mathematics curriculum.…

  5. Capistrano unified school district works with San Onofre NGS

    Osterfield, M.A.; Cramer, E.N.

    1992-01-01

    A unique arrangement has the science coordinator for Capistrano Unified School District's (CUSD) grades kindergarten through eight (K-8) as a part-time contract employee at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS). The purpose is to assess the science capabilities at SONGS useful to CUSD teachers and to assist in making them available. This is different from the usual single-teacher renewal program or from part-time employment. This creates several unique situations for SONGS and the 23 K-8 schools in CUSD, supplementing the existing program of optional science field trips to SONGS. This approach also interests the developing mind in science before being turned off by uninteresting, user-unfriendly, bookish approaches

  6. Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship for Los Angeles Unified School District

    Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.

    2007-11-01

    This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

  7. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities

    Espinosa, Ruben W.

    2010-01-01

    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the…

  8. New Dots Downunder: The Implementation of Unified English Braille (UEB) in Australian Schools

    Gentle, Frances; Steer, Michael; Howse, Josie

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors will outline and describe the recent implementation of Unified English Braille (UEB) in Australia's complex school systems. The New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (NSW/DEC) played a leading role in the process. The education sector at all levels in Australia appears to have embraced the introduction…

  9. New Model of Mobile Learning for the High School Students Preparing for the Unified State Exam

    Khasianov, Airat; Shakhova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study a new model of mobile learning for the Unified State Exam ("USE") preparation in Russian Federation. "USE"--is the test school graduates need to pass in order to obtain Russian matura. In recent years the efforts teachers put for preparation of their students to the "USE" diminish how well the…

  10. Considerations for a Unified Research Agenda for School Health Education

    Birch, David A.

    2012-01-01

    While there is a history of proposing direction for research in school health education, no formal, profession-wide agenda has been developed in over 25 years. In this commentary the author proposes the development of a new profession-driven research agenda for school health education. He includes

  11. Improving Racial and Ethnic Distribution and Intergroup Relations; An Advisory Report to the Board of Education, Vallejo Unified School District.

    Gunsky, Frederic R.; And Others

    As the result of field observation and a review of school data, this report presents the findings of a study of minority-group education and intergroup relations in the Vallejo Unified School District in California. It analyzes the racial and ethnic distribution o f students in the school district and describes the amount of equal educational…

  12. Rural Navajo Students in Kayenta Unified School District's Special Education Programs: The Effects of Home Location and Language.

    Heimbecker, Connie; Bradley-Wilkinson, Evangeline; Nelson, Bernita; Smith, Jody; Whitehair, Marsha; Begay, Mary H.; Bradley, Brian; Gamble, Armanda; McCarty, Nellie; Medina, Catherine; Nelson, Jacob; Pettigrew, Bobbie; Sealander, Karen; Snyder, Maria; White, Sherri; Redsteer, Denise; Prater, Greg

    In Kayenta Unified School District (KUSD) on the Navajo Reservation, 92 percent of students come from homes where Navajo is the primary language, but many students entering school are not fluent in either English or Navajo. A survey of 23 educators examined the effects of language and culture on the likelihood that a student would be placed in…

  13. Preliminary Report Regarding State Allocation Board Funding of the Los Angeles Unified School District's Belmont Learning Complex.

    Armoudian, Maria; Carman, Georgann; Havan, Artineh; Heron, Frank

    A preliminary report of the California Legislature's Joint Legislative Audit Committee presents findings on the construction team selection process for the Los Angeles Unified School District's (LAUSD's) Belmont Learning Complex. Evidence reveals a seriously flawed process that directly conflicted with existing law and practice. The report…

  14. Equal Educational Opportunity in the Sacramento City Unified School District; A Report to the Board of Education, The Sacramento City Unified School District.

    Sacramento City Unified School District, CA. Citizens Advisory Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity.

    A 1965 report presents the findings of a citizens committee on racial tension and school segregation in Sacramento, California. Discussed are defacto segregation and its causes and effects, equal educational opportunity, the neighborhood school concept, and intergroup relations. A series of recommendations for improvement are included. (NH)

  15. Unified communications

    Kravos, Urban

    2011-01-01

    In the modern business world, communication are becoming more and more complex. As a solution to this problem unified communications occurred. Using a single communication approach unified communications are the integration of various communication technologies (eg, telephony, unified messaging, audio, video and web conferencing and collaboration tools). Unified Messaging, which represents only part of the unified communications means the integration of different non real time communication t...

  16. Stennis Space Center Salinity Drifter Project. A Collaborative Project with Hancock High School, Kiln, MS

    Kalcic, Maria; Turowski, Mark; Hall, Callie

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: importance of salinity of coastal waters, habitat switching algorithm, habitat switching module, salinity estimates from Landsat for Sabine Calcasieu Basin, percent of time inundated in 2006, salinity data, prototyping the system, system as packaged for field tests, salinity probe and casing, opening for water flow, cellular antenna used to transmit data, preparing to launch, system is launched in the Pearl River at Stennis Space Center, data are transmitted to Twitter by cell phone modem every 15 minutes, Google spreadsheet I used to import the data from the Twitter feed and to compute salinity (from conductivity) and display charts of salinity and temperature, results are uploaded to NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office Webpage.

  17. A Qualitative Multiple-Case Study of the Merger That Formed Twin Rivers Unified School District

    Crowe, Christopher Hugh

    2013-01-01

    The history of public education in America is a history of school district mergers. Population growth and improvements in transportation and communication brought isolated communities together. Financial pressures and promises of economies of scale overcame reluctance to merger. In more recent times, federal and state legislation has provided…

  18. Effectiveness of the Solar Panels in the Castro Valley Unified School District Based on Projected Amount of Energy to be Produced

    Sparks, J. R.; Palmer, T. C.; Siegel, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years Americans have warmed to the idea of installing solar panels to their homes and businesses. These panels help reduce the cost of receiving energy from power plants that lose a lot of energy in transportation. These power plants provide energy by burning gas or coal producing emissions that add to the growing problem of pollution and global warming. In 2010 the Castro Valley Unified School District decided to add solar panels to Canyon Middle School, Castro Valley High School, and Castro Valley Adult School. We researched whether the solar panels reached their projected amount of energy (74%) for the sites where the panels were placed. The solar panels at all three sites were found to exceed these projected amounts. The solar panels at each site produce a little over 74% for the each school.

  19. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  20. Unifying Abstractions

    Torgersen, Mads

    This thesis presents the RUNE language, a semantic construction of related and tightly coupled programming constructs presented in the shape of a programming language. The major contribution is the succesfull design of a highly unified and general programming model, capable of expressing some of ...... a unified name declaration mechanism. The resulting expressiveness allows for argument covariance, dependent types and module types, plus a solution to the so-called expression problem of two way extensibility in object-oriented languages....... of the most complex type relations put forth in type systems research, without compromising such fundamental qualities as conceptuality, modularity and static typing. While many new constructs and unifications are put forth  to substantiate their conceptual validity, type rules are given to support...

  1. Why unify

    Georgi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Unified gauge theories such as SU(5) of particle interactions are built on the colour SU(3) and SU(2) x U(1) gauge theories which apparently describe strong and weak and electromagnetic interactions at distances as small as 10 -16 cm. In this article the classical reasons for going beyond SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) to a fully unified theory such as SU(5) are reviewed, and a new reason formulated. A class of imaginary worlds similar to our own is considered and it is shown that unification is possible only in ours. This suggests that the low-energy interactions are unique in that they are constructed to make unification possible. (author)

  2. Due Diligence and the Evaluation of Teachers: A Review of the Value-Added Analysis Underlying the Effectiveness Rankings of Los Angeles Unified School District Teachers by the "Los Angeles Times"

    Briggs, Derek; Domingue, Ben

    2011-01-01

    On August 14, 2010, the "Los Angeles Times" published the results of a statistical analysis of student test data to provide information about elementary schools and teachers in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). The analysis, covering the period from 2003 to 2009, was put forward as an evaluation of the effects of schools…

  3. Unifying Physics

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2013-04-01

    Century old GR fails to unify quantum physics, nuclear force or distinguish between the mass of living bodies from inert mass. Probabilistic gravity [1] explains strong coupling (nuclear force). The natural log of the age of the universe, 10E60 in Planck times, equaling 137 (1/Alpha) extends physics to deeper science, if we stand on the shoulders of giants like Feynman and Gamow. Implications of [1] are that it is not the earth, but M and S numbers of the particles of the earth are remotely interacting with corresponding numbers of the particles of the moon and the sun respectively, neglecting other heavenly bodies in this short draft. This new physics is likely to enable creative scientific minds to throw light on a theoretical basis for an otherwise arbitrary cosmological constant, uniformity of microwave background, further vindication of Boltzmann, quantum informatics, Einstein’s later publicized views and more, eliminating the need to spend money for implicitly nonexistent quantum gravity and graviton.[4pt] [1] Journal of Physical Science and Applications 2 (7) (2012) 265-268.

  4. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2014, Series Information for the Current Unified School Districts State-based Shapefile

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — School Districts are single-purpose administrative units within which local officials provide public educational services for the area's residents. The Census Bureau...

  5. Unified Internet Messaging

    Healy, Paul; Barber, Declan

    2015-01-01

    As telephony services, mobile services and internet services continue to converge, the prospect of providing Unified Messaging and even Unified Communications becomes increasingly achievable. This paper discusses the growing importance of IP-based networks to Unified Messaging developments and examines some of the key services and protocols that are likely to make Unified Messaging more widely available. In this initial paper, we limit ourselves initially to the unification of text-based mess...

  6. ACHP | Unified Federal Review

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Unified Federal Review Three logos: 1) Executive Office of the Homeland Security. Unified Federal Environmental and Historic Preservation Review Process Please visit the new location for the Unified Federal Review located here: http://www.fema.gov/environmental-historic

  7. Deja vu: The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited

    2011-05-19

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Déjà vu : The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited A Monograph by Lieutenant...DD-MM-YYYY) 19-05-2011 2. REPORT TYPE Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUL 2010 – MAY 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Déjà vu : The Unified...i SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Lieutenant Colonel Edward Francis Martignetti Title of Monograph: Déjà vu : The Unified

  8. Grand unified theories

    Rosner, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on a pedagogical introduction that attempts to unify the strong and electroweak interactions. Unifying groups discussed include SU(5), SO(10), and E 6 . Particular attention is paid to the questions of whether the low-energy gauge group (that accessible at accelerator experiments in the foreseeable future) extends beyond SU(3) x SU(2) L x U(1). Low-energy studies of neutral-current effects, direct production of gauge bosons, and new fermions all can shed light on this question. Brief remarks are made concerning the role of monopoles, cosmic strings, baryogenesis, supersymmetry, and higher dimensions in this program

  9. Cromatografia unificada Unified chromatography

    Carin von Mühlen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study encompasses an overview of the principles of unified chromatography as well as the principles of chromatographic techniques as applied to unified systems, which include gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, high temperature and high pressure liquid chromatography, micro-liquid chromatography, enhanced fluidity chromatography, and solvating gas chromatography. Theoretical considerations and individual instrumental parameters such as mobile phase, sample introduction system, columns, and detection system are also discussed. Future applications of this separation approach are discussed.

  10. Unified electricity market

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    A unified European electricity market means a unification and harmonisation of functioning of the national electricity market into one European Market or into one entity. It gives an opportunity to Slovenske elektrarne to open room for their wider activity within Europe where common rules for cross-boarder trade and markets functioning will apply. (author)

  11. Unified field theory

    Prasad, R.

    1975-01-01

    Results of researches into Unified Field Theory over the past seven years are presented. The subject is dealt with in chapters entitled: the choice of affine connection, algebraic properties of the vector fields, field laws obtained from the affine connection based on the path integral method, application to quantum theory and cosmology, interpretation of physical theory in terms of geometry. (U.K.)

  12. Finite unified models

    Kapetanakis, D. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.); Mondragon, M. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.); Zoupanos, G. (National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Physics Dept.)

    1993-09-01

    We present phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the case of two models with three families the top quark mass is predicted to be 178.8 GeV. (orig.)

  13. Finite unified models

    Kapetanakis, D.; Mondragon, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1993-01-01

    We present phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the case of two models with three families the top quark mass is predicted to be 178.8 GeV. (orig.)

  14. The Unified Theory of Physics

    Chung, Ding-Yu

    2002-01-01

    The unified theory of physics unifies various phenomena in our observable universe and other universes. The unified theory is based on the zero-energy universe and the space-object structures. Different universes in different developmental stages are the different expressions of the space-object structures. The unified theory is divided into five parts: the space-object structures, cosmology, the periodic table of elementary particles, the galaxy formation, and the extreme force field. The sp...

  15. Education as Instrument or as Empowerment? Untangling White Privilege in the Politics of Ethnic Studies: The Case of the Tucson Unified School District

    Dotts, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Public school curriculum battles offer great examples for illustrating how politics saturates education policy, particularly in the State of Texas. However, Arizona has emerged as another peculiar contender in contemporary battles to control high school curricula. Curriculum battles have deep historical roots in Arizona and elsewhere that go…

  16. Grand unified theories

    Langacker, P.

    1981-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the present status of these theories and of their observational and experimental implications. In section II, I briefly review the standard SU 3 sup(c) x SU 2 x U 1 model of the strong and electroweak interactions. Although phenomenologically successful, the standard model leaves many questions unanswered. Some of these questions are addressed by grand unified theories, which are defined and discussed in Section III. The Georgi-Glashow SU 5 model is described, as are theories based on larger groups such as SO 10 , E 6 , or SO 16 . It is emphasized that there are many possible grand unified theories and that it is an experimental problem not only to test the basic ideas but to discriminate between models. (orig./HSI)

  17. A unified universe

    Codello, Alessandro; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2018-01-01

    We present a unified evolution of the universe from very early times until the present epoch by including both the leading local correction R2 and the leading non-local term R1□2R to the classical gravitational action. We find that the inflationary phase driven by R2 term gracefully exits...... in a transitory regime characterized by coherent oscillations of the Hubble parameter. The universe then naturally enters into a radiation dominated epoch followed by a matter dominated era. At sufficiently late times after radiation–matter equality, the non-local term starts to dominate inducing an accelerated...... expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We further exhibit the fact that both the leading local and non-local terms can be obtained within the covariant effective field theory of gravity. This scenario thus provides a unified picture of inflation and dark energy in a single framework by means...

  18. Operation Unified Protector

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2012-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at se nærmere på erfaringerne fra den maritime kampagne under den militære indsats i konflikten i Libyen i 2011, som i NATO regi blev kendt som Operation Unified Protector (OUP). Dækningen i de danske medier fokuserede primært på luftkampagnen, hvilket må tilskrives,...

  19. Unified Engineering Software System

    Purves, L. R.; Gordon, S.; Peltzman, A.; Dube, M.

    1989-01-01

    Collection of computer programs performs diverse functions in prototype engineering. NEXUS, NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is research set of computer programs designed to support full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. Sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. Primarily addresses process of prototype engineering, task of getting single or small number of copies of product to work. Written in FORTRAN 77 and PROLOG.

  20. Rational Unified Process

    Kopal, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this German seminar paper, which was written in the year 2011 at the University of Duisburg for a Bachelor Colloquium in Applied computer science, we show a brief overview of the Rational Unified Process (RUP). Thus, interested students or generally interested people in software development gain a first impression of RUP. The paper includes a survey and overview of the underlying process structure, the phases of the process, its workflows, and describes the always by the RUP developers pos...

  1. Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems

    Xu Xuejun; Qin Maochang; Mei Fengxiang

    2005-01-01

    The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results.

  2. Unified Bohm criterion

    Kos, L. [LECAD Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Fusion@ÖAW, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    Recent decades have seen research into the conditions necessary for the formation of the monotonic potential shape in the sheath, appearing at the plasma boundaries like walls, in fluid, and kinetic approximations separately. Although either of these approaches yields a formulation commonly known as the much-acclaimed Bohm criterion (BC), the respective results involve essentially different physical quantities that describe the ion gas behavior. In the fluid approach, such a quantity is clearly identified as the ion directional velocity. In the kinetic approach, the ion behavior is formulated via a quantity (the squared inverse velocity averaged by the ion distribution function) without any clear physical significance, which is, moreover, impractical. In the present paper, we try to explain this difference by deriving a condition called here the Unified Bohm Criterion, which combines an advanced fluid model with an upgraded explicit kinetic formula in a new form of the BC. By introducing a generalized polytropic coefficient function, the unified BC can be interpreted in a form that holds, irrespective of whether the ions are described kinetically or in the fluid approximation.

  3. Beyond the Unified Model

    Frauendorf, S.

    2018-04-01

    The key elements of the Unified Model are reviewed. The microscopic derivation of the Bohr Hamiltonian by means of adiabatic time-dependent mean field theory is presented. By checking against experimental data the limitations of the Unified Model are delineated. The description of the strong coupling between the rotational and intrinsic degrees of freedom in framework of the rotating mean field is presented from a conceptual point of view. The classification of rotational bands as configurations of rotating quasiparticles is introduced. The occurrence of uniform rotation about an axis that differs from the principle axes of the nuclear density distribution is discussed. The physics behind this tilted-axis rotation, unknown in molecular physics, is explained on a basic level. The new symmetries of the rotating mean field that arise from the various orientations of the angular momentum vector with respect to the triaxial nuclear density distribution and their manifestation by the level sequence of rotational bands are discussed. Resulting phenomena, as transverse wobbling, rotational chirality, magnetic rotation and band termination are discussed. Using the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking the microscopic underpinning of the rotational degrees is refined.

  4. Direction: unified theory of interactions

    Valko, P.

    1987-01-01

    Briefly characterized are the individual theories, namely, the general relativity theory, the Kaluza-Klein theory, the Weyl theory, the unified theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions, the supergravity theory, and the superstring theory. The history is recalled of efforts aimed at creating a unified theory of interactions, and future prospects are outlined. (M.D.). 2 figs

  5. Grand unified theories. Pt. 2

    Ellis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The author gives an introduction to the construction of grand unified theories on the base of the SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) model of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. Especially he discusses the proton decay, neutrino masses and oscillations, and cosmological implications in connection with grand unified theories. (orig./HSI)

  6. Model Sistem Informasi Manajemen Sekolah Berbasiskan Notasi Unified Modeling Language

    Yohannes Kurniawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Basically the use of integrated information systems can be applied not only for the company, but also education industry, particularly schools. To support business processes at the school, this research would like to describe a conceptual model of information systems using the Unified Modeling Language (UML notationwith "4 +1 View" architectural model. This model is expected to assist analysis and design the whole business processes at school. A conceptual model of the information system can help application developers to easily and clearly understand the school system. By adopting this information system model, schools are able to have effective understanding of management information systems.

  7. Cincinnati's Bold New Venture: A Unified K-12 Reading/Communication Arts Program.

    Green, Reginald Leon

    1989-01-01

    Describes a unified reading/communication arts program in the Cincinnati Public School System which uses new basal texts, support materials, and a customized instructional system for each grade level, integrating listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking skills into a unified language approach. Discusses intervention strategies,…

  8. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  9. UDASH – Unified Database for Arctic and Subarctic Hydrography

    A. Behrendt

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available UDASH (Unified Database for Arctic and Subarctic Hydrography is a unified and high-quality temperature and salinity data set for the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar seas north of 65° N for the period 1980–2015. The archive aims at including all publicly available data and so far consists of 288 532 oceanographic profiles measured mainly with conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD probes, bottles, mechanical thermographs and expendable thermographs. The data were collected by ships, ice-tethered profilers, profiling floats and other platforms. To achieve a uniform quality level, suitable for a wide range of oceanographic analyses, approximately 74 million single measurements of temperature and salinity were thoroughly quality checked. A large number of duplicate and erroneous profiles were detected and not included in the archive. Data outliers were flagged for quick identification. The final archive provides a unique and simple way of accessing most of the available temperature and salinity data for the Arctic Ocean and can be downloaded from https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.872931.

  10. UPQC (Unified power Quality Conditioner)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. UPQC (Unified power Quality Conditioner). Hybrid of Shunt and Series compensator. Compensate both Current Quality and Voltage Quality. Costlier Solution as it involves two set of Inverters.

  11. Model of unified gauge fields

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1998-04-01

    In this work, we discuss the physical ideas which represents the basis for the unified gauge field model. Despite of the difficulties that we presently have for embodying in a natural manner muons and hadrons in that model, we have the feeling that we are on the way which seems to lead to the construction of a theory in which the Maxwell electromagnetic field and the Fermi weak interaction field are manifestations of a unique subjacent physical entity - the unified gauge fields. (author)

  12. Smith Tackles Oakland Unified

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    As a 20-something, Anthony "Tony" Smith had fulfilled one dream: playing professional football for the Green Bay Packers and the San Francisco 49ers. Next up, he thought, was law school, but a former mentor reminded him that he is a teacher. Smith never became a classroom teacher, but his background in sports--where he learned the power…

  13. Experimental status of unified theories

    Bilen'kij, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    A standard SU(2)xU(1) theory is discussed. It is based on an assumption that the left components of fields form doublets, and the rignt ones - singlets. From the weak interaction lagrangian an expression is obtained for the effective hamiltonian describing neutrino-lepton processes. The results of discussing the experimental status of the unified theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions are in agreement with the simplest version of the unified theories - the Weinberg-Salam theory. It has been noted that the accuracy of the experiments (not exceeding 20%) is insufficient and no information is available on diagonal terms of the hamiltonian

  14. The Simplest Unified Growth Theory

    Strulik, Holger; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This paper provides a unified growth theory, i.e. a model that explains the very long-run economic and demographic development path of industrialized economies, stretching from the pre-industrial era to present-day and beyond. Making strict use of Malthus' (1798) so-called preventive check...... hypothesis - that fertility rates vary inversely with the price of food - the current study offers a new and straightforward explanation for the demographic transition and the break with the Malthusian era. The current framework lends support to existing unified growth theories and is well in tune...

  15. On the History of Unified Field Theories

    Goenner Hubert F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to give a review of the history of the classical aspects of unified field theories in the 20th century. It includes brief technical descriptions of the theories suggested, short biographical notes concerning the scientists involved, and an extensive bibliography. The present first installment covers the time span between 1914 and 1933, i.e., when Einstein was living and working in Berlin - with occasional digressions into other periods. Thus, the main theme is the unification of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields augmented by short-lived attempts to include the matter field described by Schrödinger's or Dirac's equations. While my focus lies on the conceptual development of the field, by also paying attention to the interaction of various schools of mathematicians with the research done by physicists, some prosopocraphical remarks are included.

  16. Toward a Unified Communication Theory.

    McMillan, Saundra

    After discussing the nature of theory itself, the author explains her concept of the Unified Communication Theory, which rests on the assumption that there exists in all living structures a potential communication factor which is delimited by species and ontogeny. An organism develops "symbol fixation" at the level where its perceptual abilities…

  17. A model unified field equation

    Perring, J.K.; Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    The classical solutions of a unified field theory in a two-dimensional space-time are considered. This system, a model of a interacting mesons and baryons, illustrates how the particle can be built from a wave-packet of mesons and how reciprocally the meson appears as a tightly bound combination of particle and antiparticle. (author). 6 refs

  18. Saline agriculture: A technology for economic utilization and improvement of saline environments (abstract)

    Aslam, Z.; Malik, K.A.; Khurshid, S.J.; Awan, A.R.; Akram, M.; Hashmi, Z.; Ali, Y.; Gulnaz, A.; Hussain, M.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Aquaculture on their farms. In the cotton growing areas, farmers are also being trained on non-pesticidal control of cotton pests. For effective training of farmers on Saline Agriculture issues, they have been organized into 'Saline Agriculture Farmer Associations (SAFA)'. Regular 'Community Meetings', skill development training courses and Farmer Field Schools are being arranged for these groups. Printed material in Urdu and English on new technologies is also being published regularly for the benefit of project farmers, extension workers and other interested persons, elsewhere. Visible improvements in the project area with time clearly indicate that the Saline Agriculture Farmer Participatory Development Project in Pakistan is an elegant model to demonstrate how science can help in effecting change in life of millions of farmers in a few years, if their full participation is ensured. (author)

  19. Unified theory of effective interaction

    Takayanagi, Kazuo, E-mail: k-takaya@sophia.ac.jp

    2016-09-15

    We present a unified description of effective interaction theories in both algebraic and graphic representations. In our previous work, we have presented the Rayleigh–Schrödinger and Bloch perturbation theories in a unified fashion by introducing the main frame expansion of the effective interaction. In this work, we start also from the main frame expansion, and present various nonperturbative theories in a coherent manner, which include generalizations of the Brandow, Brillouin–Wigner, and Bloch–Horowitz theories on the formal side, and the extended Krenciglowa–Kuo and the extended Lee–Suzuki methods on the practical side. We thus establish a coherent and comprehensive description of both perturbative and nonperturbative theories on the basis of the main frame expansion.

  20. Split supersymmetry in unified models

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2005-01-01

    In the context of split supersymmetry, the gaugino mass spectrum seems to be very important to satisfy the dark matter content of the universe and the gauge coupling unification. In this Letter, we have considered various sources of gaugino masses in the context of unified models. We show that the gaugino mass spectrum varies in different unification pictures. In the context of SU(5), we have found that the bino/wino mass ratio can be close to one at the weak scale which is helpful to satisfy the WMAP data. The gluino/wino mass ratio is also different from the usual scenario of unified gaugino masses. The gaugino masses can be around one TeV and m SUSY is chosen so that the gluino mass does not create any cosmological problem. In the context of the Pati-Salam model, we show that the gluino mass can be made very heavy even after maintaining the unification of the gauge couplings

  1. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    Lampen, P.

    1992-11-01

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  2. Unified theory of the nucleus

    Wildermuth, K.; Tang, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to describe a microscopic nuclear theory which can be used to consider all low-energy nuclear phenomena from a unified viewpoint. In this theory, the Pauli principle is completely taken into account and translationally invariant wave functions are always employed. It can be utilized to study reactions initiated not only by nucleons but also by arbitrary composite particles

  3. Do School Uniforms Fit?

    White, Kerry A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1994, Long Beach (California) Unified School District began requiring uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. Now, half of all urban school systems and many suburban schools have uniform policies. Research on uniforms' effectiveness is mixed. Tightened dress codes may be just as effective and less litigious. (MLH)

  4. Unified approach to dense matter

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    2005-01-01

    We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large N c limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons

  5. Einstein's theory of unified fields

    Tonnelat, Marie Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    First published in1966, here is presented a comprehensive overview of one of the most elusive scientific speculations by the pre-eminent genius of the 20th century. The theory is viewed by some scientists with deep suspicion, by others with optimism, but all agree that it represents an extreme challenge. As the author herself affirms, this work is not intended to be a complete treatise or 'didactic exposition' of the theory of unified fields, but rather a tool for further study, both by students and professional physicists. Dealing with all the major areas of research whic

  6. Charter Schools and Market Segmentation

    Batie, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was undertaken to examine the effect(s) of charter school marketing on the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) education landscape with respect to the stratification of charter schools. Information from four sources: school websites, a survey of charter school parents, existing online statistics and data, and various…

  7. Towards a Unified Programming Language

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    The goal of research in programming languages should be to develop languages that integrates the best of concepts and constructs from the various programming paradigms. We do not argue for a multi-paradigm language, where the programmer alternates between the different paradigms/styles. Instead, we...... find that the languages of the future should integrate the best available concepts and constructs in such a way that the programmer does not think of multiple paradigms when using a given language. In this paper, we describe to what extent the BETA language has been successful in obtaining a unified...... style and where more research is needed. In addition to traditional paradigms such as object-oriented-, imperative-functional- and logic programming, we also discuss concurrent programming and prototype-based programming. We discuss language features such as the BETA pattern construct, virtual...

  8. A unified plant information network

    Niederauer, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Technology is bringing power plants fully into the age of computerization. Microcomputers, data base managers, networking, and friendly, expert software are principal technology factors. Monitoring will improve, and the number and power of computers is increasing. The huge information flow will cause computers to be integrated into a communication network. The total plant operating triangle includes process, engineering, and management systems. The total network will integrate all of these into a Total Unified Plant Information Network (TUPIN). Software will take the type of information beyond monitored data. Analysis will improve through direct access to logical, physical, and procedural models by end users. Information management will improve through widespread use of hierarchical, relational, and expert data base managers. Expert systems will aid in diagnostics and interpretation. The goal is to automate plant operations to enhance safety and performance and to reduce cost by making both the plants and the personnel more expert

  9. Cosmology and unified gauge theory

    Oraifeartaigh, L.

    1981-09-01

    Theoretical points in common between cosmology and unified gauge theory (UGT) are reviewed, with attention given to areas of one which have proven useful for the other. The underlying principles for both theoretical frameworks are described, noting the differences in scale, i.e., 10 to the 25th cm in cosmology and 10 to the -15th cm for UGT. Cosmology has produced bounds on the number of existing neutrino species, and also on the mass of neutrinos, two factors of interest in particle physics. Electrons, protons, and neutrinos, having been spawned from the same massive leptons, each composed of three quarks, have been predicted to be present in equal numbers in the Universe by UGT, in line with necessities of cosmology. The Grand UGT also suggests specific time scales for proton decay, thus accounting for the observed baryon assymmetry.

  10. Unifying physical concepts of reality

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Physics may be characterized as the science of matter and energy. It anchors the two ends of the frontiers of science: the frontier of the very small and the frontier of the very large. All of the phenomena that we observe and study at the frontiers of science - all external experiences - are manifestations of matter and energy. One may, therefore, use physics to exemplify both the diversity and unity of science. This theme will be developed in two separate examples: first by sketching, very briefly, the historical origins of frontiers of the very small and very large and the converging unity of these two frontiers; and then by describing certain unifying concepts that play a central role in physics and provide a framework for relating developments in different sciences.

  11. Phenomenology of unified gauge theories

    Ellis, J.

    1983-01-01

    Part I of these lectures treats the standard Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model of weak and electromagnetic interactions, discussing in turn its basic structure and weak neutral currents, charged currents, mixing angles and CP violation, and the phenomenology of weak vector and Higgs bosons. Part II of the lectures discusses the structure of theories of dynamical symmetry breaking such as technicolour, phenomenological consequences, frustrations and alternatives. The third part of these lectures offers the standard menu of grand unified theories (GUTs) of the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions, including an hors d'oeuvre of constraints on the parameters of the standard model, a main course of baryon number violating processes, and desserts which violate lepton number and CP. The fourth and final part goes through different attempts to remedy the inadequacies of previous theories by invoking supersymmetry and reaching out towards gravitation. (orig./HSI)

  12. Unifying physical concepts of reality

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    Physics may be characterized as the science of matter and energy. It anchors the two ends of the frontiers of science: the frontier of the very small and the frontier of the very large. All of the phenomena that we observe and study at the frontiers of science - all external experiences - are manifestations of matter and energy. One may, therefore, use physics to exemplify both the diversity and unity of science. This theme will be developed in two separate examples: first by sketching, very briefly, the historical origins of frontiers of the very small and very large and the converging unity of these two frontiers; and then by describing certain unifying concepts that play a central role in physics and provide a framework for relating developments in different sciences

  13. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    MacDowell, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  14. A unifying philosophy of governance

    Sankarshan Acharya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bertrand Russell won Nobel Prize for arguing that science has triumphed over religion. Since religions are based on god, Russell’s argument implies that science has triumphed over both religion and god. But neither Russell nor anyone else has ever defined religion and god, rationally. The assertion about triumph of science (which is founded on rationality over concepts such as religion and god (which are not defined rationally or scientifically in the extant literature cannot be rational. This paper offers a novel rational philosophical foundation for the concepts of god, religion and science in which the claim that science triumphs over religion is redundant. This paper also presents substantial new insights about epistemic truths to help resolve current problems facing humanity like financial moral hazard and terrorism which have unnerved nations worldwide. The humanity now begs to answer a fundamental question of how we can govern ourselves. This paper offers a coherent set of credible answers. In particular, it offers a coherent unified philosophy about how humans have universally formed beliefs to govern themselves and how this philosophy could help resolve current problems. The universal rendering of beliefs articulated here subsumes the extant characterization of probability beliefs in mathematics, science, engineering, economics, religion and philosophy. The universal beliefs so articulated in this paper obviate the currently prevalent philosophical conflicts between religion and science or between theism and atheism and paves the way for optimal governance for prosperity amid stability. This philosophy also offers a rational characterization of the spiritual notion of Nirvana or salvation of the soul and the notion of epistemic truth. The unifying philosophy can help humanity achieve unity, stability and prosperity, sans financial moral hazard, antagonism, wars, nuclear proliferation, global warming and atmospheric pollution.

  15. Toward a Unified AGN Structure

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Fukumura, Keigo; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulosa, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We present a unified model for the structure and appearance of accretion powered sources across their entire luminosity range from galactic X-ray binaries (XRB) to luminous quasars, with emphasis on AG N and their phenomenology. Central to this model is the notion of MHD winds launched by the accretion disks that power these objects. These winds provide the matter that manifests as blueshifted absorption features in the UV and X-ray spectra of a large fraction of these sources; furthermore, their density distribution in the poloidal plane determines their "appearance" (i.e. the column and velocity structure of these absorption features and the obscuration of the continuum source) as a function of the observer inclination angle (a feature to which INTEGRAL has made significant contributions). This work focuses on just the broadest characteristics of these objects; nonetheless, it provides scaling laws that allow one to reproduce within this model the properties of objects extending in luminosity from luminous quasars to XRBs. Our general conclusion is that the AGN phenomenology can be accounted for in terms of three parameters: The wind maSS flux in units of the Eddington value, m(dot), the observers' inclination angle Theta and the logarithmic slope between the 0/UV and X-ray fluxes alpha(sub ox); however because of a correlation between alpha(sub ox) and UV luminosity the number of significant parameters is two. The AGN correlations implied by this model appear to extend to and consistent with the XRB phenomenology, suggesting the presence of a truly unified underlying structure for accretion powered sources.

  16. Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe

    ... Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just for Kids Library School Tools Videos Virtual Allergist Education & Training Careers in ... Support the AAAAI Foundation Donate Utility navigation Español Journals Annual Meeting Member Login / My Membership Search navigation ...

  17. Seagrass from Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (NODC Accession 0123059)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a subset of the Unified Map representing Seagrass areas. Version 1.1 - December 2013. The Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (Unified Reef Map) provides...

  18. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  19. A Product Line Enhanced Unified Process

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Unified Process facilitates reuse for a single system, but falls short handling multiple similar products. In this paper we present an enhanced Unified Process, called UPEPL, integrating the product line technology in order to alleviate this problem. In UPEPL, the product line related activit...... activities are added and could be conducted side by side with other classical UP activities. In this way both the advantages of Unified Process and software product lines could co-exist in UPEPL. We show how to use UPEPL with an industrial mobile device product line in our case study....

  20. A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics

    Lawrie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    A unified account of the principles of theoretical physics, A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics, Second Edition stresses the inter-relationships between areas that are usually treated as independent. The profound unifying influence of geometrical ideas, the powerful formal similarities between statistical mechanics and quantum field theory, and the ubiquitous role of symmetries in determining the essential structure of physical theories are emphasized throughout.This second edition conducts a grand tour of the fundamental theories that shape our modern understanding of the physical wor

  1. The unified theory of nuclear reactions

    Tobocman, W.

    A unified nuclear reaction theory is a formalism for the scattering reactions of many-body nuclear systems which is capable of describing both direct interaction and compound nucleus formation processes. The Feshbach projection operator formalism is the original unified nuclear reaction theory. An alternative unified nuclear reaction theory called the X-matrix formalism is described. The X-matrix formalism is a generalization of the Brown-de Dominicis formalism. It does not require projection operators and is readly applied to rearrangement collisions

  2. Tackling the Transition to UC: To Implement Unified Communications on Campus, It Often Pays to Take a Phased Approach

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the challenges faced by two schools that lie, coincidentally, just 110 miles apart in the vast spaces of North Dakota. Both schools, members of the North Dakota University System, decided to forge ahead with a unified communications (UC) implementation. And while their final solutions differ, how the two…

  3. A unifying conceptual model of entrepreneurial management

    Senderovitz, Martin

    This article offers a systematic analysis and synthesis of the area of entrepreneurial management. Through a presentation of two main perspectives on entrepreneurial management and a newly developed unifying conceptual entrepreneurial management model, the paper discusses a number of theoretical...

  4. Unified data model for biological data

    Idrees, M.

    2014-01-01

    A data model empowers us to store, retrieve and manipulate data in a unified way. We consider the biological data consists of DNA (De-Oxyribonucleic Acid), RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) and protein structures. In our Bioinformatics Lab (Bioinformatics Lab, Alkhawarizmi Institute of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan), we have already proposed two data models for DNA and protein structures individually. In this paper, we propose a unified data model by using the data models of TOS (Temporal Object Oriented System) after making some necessary modifications to this data model and our already proposed the two data models. This proposed unified data model can be used for the modeling and maintaining the biological data (i.e. DNA, RNA and protein structures), in a single unified way. (author)

  5. 76 FR 19893 - Unified Command Plan 2011

    2011-04-08

    ... Plan 2011 Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to my authority as Commander in Chief, I hereby approve and direct the implementation of the revised Unified Command Plan. Consistent with title...

  6. Development of unified gauge theories: retrospect

    Lee, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    The construction and development of unified gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions is reviewed. The Weinberg and Lee contributions to this study are mainly considered as personal recollections

  7. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren Xijun [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 4750011 (China); Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  8. Unified Approach in the DSS Development Process

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of today's decision support environment become very complex due to new generation of Business Intelligence applications and technologies like Data Warehouse, OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing and Data Mining. In this respect DSS development process are not simple and needs an adequate methodology or framework able to manage different tools and platforms to achieve manager's requirements. The DSS development process must be view like a unified and iterative set of activities and operations. The new techniques based on Unified Process (UP methodology and UML (Unified Modeling Language it seems to be appropriate for DSS development using prototyping and RAD (Rapid Application Development techniques. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for development and integrate Decision Support Systems using Unified Process Methodology and UML.

  9. Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons

    Mendez-Galain, R.; Ripka, G.

    1990-01-01

    Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons are presented. Emphasis is placed on the underlying quark structure of hadrons including the Skyrmion. The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with vector mesons is discussed

  10. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  11. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  12. Understanding Global Change (UGC) as a Unifying Conceptual Framework for Teaching Ecology: Using UGC in a High School Biology Program to Integrate Earth Science and Biology, and to Demonstrate the Value of Modeling Global Systems in Promoting Conceptual Learning

    Levine, J.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Global change science is ideal for NGSS-informed teaching, but presents a serious challenge to K-12 educators because it is complex and interdisciplinary- combining earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Global systems are themselves complex. Adding anthropogenic influences on those systems creates a formidable list of topics - greenhouse effect, climate change, nitrogen enrichment, introduced species, land-use change among them - which are often presented as a disconnected "laundry list" of "facts." This complexity, combined with public and mass-media scientific illiteracy, leaves global change science vulnerable to misrepresentation and politicization, creating additional challenges to teachers in public schools. Ample stand-alone, one-off, online resources, many of them excellent, are (to date) underutilized by teachers in the high school science course taken by most students: biology. The Understanding Global Change project (UGC) from the UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology has created a conceptual framework that organizes, connects, and explains global systems, human and non-human drivers of change in those systems, and measurable changes in those systems. This organization and framework employ core ideas, crosscutting concepts, structure/function relationships, and system models in a unique format that facilitates authentic understanding, rather than memorization. This system serves as an organizing framework for the entire ecology unit of a forthcoming mainstream high school biology program. The UGC system model is introduced up front with its core informational graphic. The model is elaborated, step by step, by adding concepts and processes as they are introduced and explained in each chapter. The informational graphic is thus used in several ways: to organize material as it is presented, to summarize topics in each chapter and put them in perspective, and for review and critical thinking exercises that supplement the usual end-of-chapter lists of

  13. Unified theory in the worldline approach

    James P. Edwards

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We explore unified field theories based on the gauge groups SU(5 and SO(10 using the worldline approach for chiral fermions with a Wilson loop coupling to a background gauge field. Representing path ordering and chiral projection operators with functional integrals has previously reproduced the sum over the chiralities and representations of standard model particles in a compact way. This paper shows that for SU(5 the 5¯ and 10 representations – into which the Georgi–Glashow model places the left-handed fermionic content of the standard model – appear naturally and with the familiar chirality. We carry out the same analysis for flipped SU(5 and uncover a link to SO(10 unified theory. We pursue this by exploring the SO(10 theory in the same framework, the less established unified theory based on SU(6 and briefly consider the Pati–Salam model using SU(4×SU(2×SU(2.

  14. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  15. A unified transmission loss allocation method

    Ding, Qifeng; Abur, Ali

    2007-01-01

    A new unified method which allocates transmission losses either to buses in a pool market or to individual transactions in a bilateral contract market is presented in this paper. A detailed derivation of the method is given. A bus-loss matrix and a transaction-loss matrix are developed to show the interactions between bus injections and transactions. It is further demonstrated that the ''Physical-power-flow-based'' method can be obtained as an approximation of this unified approach under certain simplifying assumptions. Test systems are used to illustrate how the proposed method behaves under different possible scenarios. (author)

  16. Unifying distribution functions: some lesser known distributions.

    Moya-Cessa, J R; Moya-Cessa, H; Berriel-Valdos, L R; Aguilar-Loreto, O; Barberis-Blostein, P

    2008-08-01

    We show that there is a way to unify distribution functions that describe simultaneously a classical signal in space and (spatial) frequency and position and momentum for a quantum system. Probably the most well known of them is the Wigner distribution function. We show how to unify functions of the Cohen class, Rihaczek's complex energy function, and Husimi and Glauber-Sudarshan distribution functions. We do this by showing how they may be obtained from ordered forms of creation and annihilation operators and by obtaining them in terms of expectation values in different eigenbases.

  17. Technical writing practically unified through industry

    Houston, L. S.

    1981-01-01

    General background details in the development of a university level technical writing program, based upon the writing tasks of the student's occupations, are summarized. Objectives and methods for unifying the courses of study with the needs of industry are discussed. Four academic course divisions, Industries Technologies, in which preparation and training are offered are: Animal, Horticulture, Agriculture, and Agricultural Business. Occupational competence is cited as the main goal for these programs in which technical writing is to be practically unified through industry. Course descriptions are also provided.

  18. Prospects of a Unified Management System

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Simonsen, Gorm

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the trend among management systems towards a common structure and the inclusion of additional areas of corporate concern (quality, environment, occupational health and safety and social responsibility) is outlined. The article suggests that a large part of the work associated...... with implementing and maintaining standardised management systems can be rationalised by developing a ?unified system?. The unified system is proposed to consist of a common basic standard of general managerial methodology expandable with supplements, which are related to the specific areas of concern...

  19. Productive use of saline lands

    2003-01-01

    Water is essential for life, and not least for agricultural activity. It interacts with solar energy to determine the climate of the globe, and its interaction with carbon dioxide inside a plant results in photosynthesis on which depends survival of all life. Much of the water available to man is used for agriculture and yet its usage has not been well managed. One result has been the build up of soil salinity. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Department of Research and Isotopes, to make more productive use of salt-affected land and to limit future build up of salinity. (IAEA)

  20. The unified coordination language UnCL.

    F.S. de Boer (Frank); J.V. Guillen Scholten (Juan); J.F. Jacob (Joost)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we show how to use a (subset) of UML as an Unified Coordination Language (UnCL) that is based on a separation of concerns between coordination and computation. As such UnCL provides a general language for the coordination of, in particular, object-oriented applications. The

  1. A Unified Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations

    Lutzer, Carl V.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how a presentation from the point of view of differential operators can be used to (partially) unify the myriad techniques in an introductory course in ordinary differential equations by providing students with a powerful, flexible paradigm that extends into (or from) linear algebra. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  2. Unifying Learning Object Repositories in MACE

    Prause, Christian; Ternier, Stefaan; De Jong, Tim; Apelt, Stefan; Scholten, Marius; Wolpers, Martin; Eisenhauer, Markus; Vandeputte, Bram; Specht, Marcus; Duval, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Prause, C., Ternier, S., De Jong, T., Apelt, S., Scholten, M., Wolpers, M., et al. (2007). Unifying Learning Object Repositories in MACE. In D. Massart, J.-N. Colin & F. V. Assche (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Learning Object Discovery & Exchange (LODE'07). September,

  3. Unify a hazardous materials/waste program

    Carson, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiently managing a hazardous materials/waste program in a multi-facility, multi-product corporation is a major challenge. This paper describes several methods to help unify a program and gain maximum efficiency of manpower and to minimize risk

  4. A unified theory in higher dimensions

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1990-10-11

    We present a grand unified model defined in ten dimensions and based on the group SO(13). The model is dimensionally reduced over the non-simply-connected space (Su(3)/U(1)xU(1))/Z{sub 2} giving in four dimensions the standard model. (orig.).

  5. A unified theory in higher dimensions

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1990-01-01

    We present a grand unified model defined in ten dimensions and based on the group SO(13). The model is dimensionally reduced over the non-simply-connected space [Su(3)/U(1)xU(1)]/Z 2 giving in four dimensions the standard model. (orig.)

  6. Toward a Unified Theory of Human Reasoning.

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this unified theory of human reasoning is to specify what constitutes reasoning and to characterize the psychological distinction between inductive and deductive reasoning. The theory views reasoning as the controlled and mediated application of three processes (encoding, comparison and selective combination) to inferential rules. (JAZ)

  7. IDEA: A Unifying Theory for Evaluation Systems

    Bella, Giampaolo; Giustolisi, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    Secure systems for voting, exams, auctions and conference paper management are theorised to address the same problem, that of secure evaluations. In support of such a unifying theory comes a model for Secure Evaluation Systems (SES), which offers innovative common grounds to understand all four...

  8. Radial and Regge excitations in unified, grand unified and subconstituent models

    Schnitzer, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Necessary group theoretic conditions for all elementary gauge bosons and fermions of an arbitrary renormalizable gauge theory to lie on Regge trajectories are reviewed. It is then argued that in properly unified gauge theories all particles of a given spin lie on Regge trajectories. This then implies that a properly unified gauge theory has no local U(1) factor groups, and no massive fermion singlets. A consideration of the general pattern of Regge and radial recurrences to be expected in quantum field theories suggests that the presence or absence of spin 3/2 quarks and/or leptons in the TeV region will provide crucial clues to enable one to distinguish between various classes of unified, grand unified, and subconstituent models. The correct interpretation of such excited fermions will require correlation with the higgs boson mass and possible radial and Regge excitations of the weak vector bosons. (orig.)

  9. Unified treatment of the classical and quantum mechanics

    Shirokov, Yu.M.

    1979-01-01

    Classical and Quantum Mechanics are unified in the sense that almost all axioms of both mechanics are identical. The only distinction is the explicit form of one algebraic identity. The unified theory is applied to scattering problem. (Z.M.)

  10. designing a framework for a unified electronic identity system

    DJFLEX

    In this paper, a Unified Identity System is proposed where single electronic identity (eID) is issued that can be used ... online commerce and public sector organizations. Because ..... SearchUnifiedCommunications.com Definitions, Access date.

  11. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  12. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  13. Intention and constraints of Hong Kong secondary school Physical ...

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... of Hong Kong secondary school Physical Education teachers to promote Unified Sports® ... school subjects like Civic Education, Social Studies, Religious Studies or Liberal Studies.

  14. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  15. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity...

  16. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids

    The measurement of soil salinity is a quantification of the total salts present in the liquid portion of the soil. Soil salinity is important in agriculture because salinity reduces crop yields by reducing the osmotic potential making it more difficult for the plant to extract water, by causing spe...

  17. Multi-planed unified switching topologies

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2017-07-04

    An apparatus and method for extending the scalability and improving the partitionability of networks that contain all-to-all links for transporting packet traffic from a source endpoint to a destination endpoint with low per-endpoint (per-server) cost and a small number of hops. An all-to-all wiring in the baseline topology is decomposed into smaller all-to-all components in which each smaller all-to-all connection is replaced with star topology by using global switches. Stacking multiple copies of the star topology baseline network creates a multi-planed switching topology for transporting packet traffic. Point-to-point unified stacking method using global switch wiring methods connects multiple planes of a baseline topology by using the global switches to create a large network size with a low number of hops, i.e., low network latency. Grouped unified stacking method increases the scalability (network size) of a stacked topology.

  18. Finite Unified Theories and the Higgs boson

    Heinemeyer, Sven; Zoupanos, George

    2012-01-01

    All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are very interesting N = 1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) realising an old field theory dream, and moreover have a remarkable predictive power due to the required reduction of couplings. Based on this theoretical framework phenomenologically consistent FUTs have been constructed. Here we review two FUT models based on the SU(5) gauge group, which can be seen as special, restricted and thus very predictive versions of the MSSM. We show that from the requirement of correct prediction of quark masses and other experimental constraints a light Higgs-boson mass in the range M_h ~ 121 - 126 GeV is predicted, in striking agreement with recent experimental results from ATLAS and CMS. The model furthermore naturally predicts a relatively heavy spectrum with colored supersymmetric particles above ~ 1.5 TeV in agreement with the non-observation of those particles at the LHC.

  19. Can the laws of physics be unified ?

    Langacker, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics describes our current understanding of nature's fundamental particles and their interactions, yet gaps remain. For example, it does not include a quantum theory of gravity, nor does it explain the existence of dark matter. Once complete, however, the standard model could provide a unified description of the very building blocks of the universe. Researchers have been chasing this dream for decades, and many wonder whether such a dream can ever be made a reality. Can the Laws of Physics Be Unified? is a short introduction to this exciting frontier of physics. The book is accessibly written for students and researchers across the sciences, and for scientifically minded general readers. Paul Langacker begins with an overview of the key breakthroughs that have shaped the standard model, and then describes the fundamental particles, their interactions, and their role in cosmology. He goes on to explain field theory, internal symmetries, Yang-Mills theories, strong and electro...

  20. Unified-field theory: yesterday, today, tomorrow

    Bergman, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Beginning with the expounding of Einstein understanding of advantages and disadvantages of general relativity theory, the authors proceed to consideration of what the complete unified theory have to be according to Einstein. The four theories which can be considered as ''unified'', namely weyl and Calutsa ones, worked out a half of century ago, and twistor twisting and supersymmetry theories, nowadays attracting attention, are briefly described and discussed. The authors come to a conclusion that achievements in elementary-particle physics have to affect any future theory, that this theory has to explain the principle contradictions between classical and quantum field theories, and that finally it can lead to change of the modern space-time model as a four-dimensional variety

  1. Towards a Unified Global ICT Infrastructure

    Madsen, Ole Brun

    2006-01-01

    A successful evolution towards a unified global WAN platform allowing for the coexistence and interoperability of all kind of services requires careful planning of the next generation global cooperative wired and wireless information infrastructure. The absence of commonly agreed upon and adopted...... to be solved can be found in the interrelation between communication, connectivity and convergence. This paper will focus on steps to be taken in planning the physical infrastructure as a prerequisite for a successful evolution....

  2. Unified geometric description of black hole thermodynamics

    Alvarez, Jose L.; Quevedo, Hernando; Sanchez, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    In the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states we introduce a Legendre invariant metric which contains all the information about the thermodynamics of black holes. The curvature of this thermodynamic metric becomes singular at those points where, according to the analysis of the heat capacities, phase transitions occur. This result is valid for the Kerr-Newman black hole and all its special cases and, therefore, provides a unified description of black hole phase transitions in terms of curvature singularities.

  3. The group manifold approach to unified gravity

    Regge, T.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures start with a synopsis of historical results in the construction of unified theories of gravity. The author keeps some mathematical rigour throughout the lectures. He gives a provisional description of supermanifolds and a set of formal rules intended to manipulate superforms or supermanifolds. Super Lie groups are discussed as well as the dimensional reduction of gravity theories, the Kaluza-Klein theory. A formal introduction of supersymmetry is given. (Auth.)

  4. Unifying Ancient and Modern Geometries Through Octonions

    Catto, Sultan; Gürcan, Yasemin; Kurt, Levent; Khalfan, Amish

    2016-01-01

    We show the first unified description of some of the oldest known geometries such as the Pappus’ theorem with more modern ones like Desargues' theorem, Monge's theorem and Ceva's theorem, through octonions, the highest normed division algebra in eight dimensions. We also show important applications in hadronic physics, giving a full description of the algebra of color applicable to quark physics, and comment on further applications. (paper)

  5. A unified architecture of transcriptional regulatory elements

    Andersson, Robin; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Danko, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space through the integration of signals that act at gene promoters and gene-distal enhancers. Classically, promoters and enhancers are considered separate classes of regulatory elements, often distinguished by histone modifications. However...... and enhancers are considered a single class of functional element, with a unified architecture for transcription initiation. The context of interacting regulatory elements and the surrounding sequences determine local transcriptional output as well as the enhancer and promoter activities of individual elements....

  6. Neutrino mixing in a grand unified theory

    Milton, K.; Tanaka, K.

    1980-01-01

    Neutrino mixing in a grand unified theory in which the neutrino mass matrix is determined by the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism was investigated. With an arbitrary real right-handed Majorana mass matrix which incorporates three neutrino mass scales, the effects of the up-quark mass matrix are found to be dominant and as a result no significant mixing of ν/sub e/ occurs, while ν/sub μ/ - ν/sub γ/ mixing can be substantial

  7. Towards a unified theory of reciprocity.

    Rosas, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    In a unified theory of human reciprocity, the strong and weak forms are similar because neither is biologically altruistic and both require normative motivation to support cooperation. However, strong reciprocity is necessary to support cooperation in public goods games. It involves inflicting costs on defectors; and though the costs for punishers are recouped, recouping costs requires complex institutions that would not have emerged if weak reciprocity had been enough.

  8. A Unified Framework for Systematic Model Improvement

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-01-01

    A unified framework for improving the quality of continuous time models of dynamic systems based on experimental data is presented. The framework is based on an interplay between stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling, statistical tests and multivariate nonparametric regression. This co......-batch bioreactor, where it is illustrated how an incorrectly modelled biomass growth rate can be pinpointed and an estimate provided of the functional relation needed to properly describe it....

  9. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    Suweis, S.; Porporato, A. M.; Daly, E.; van der Zee, S.; Maritan, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The equations for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equations to a single stochastic differential equation (generalized Langevin equation) driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. Generalized Langevin equations with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual Ito (I) or Stratonovich (S) prescription dilemma. Different interpretations lead to different results and then choosing between the I and S prescriptions is crucial to describe correctly the dynamics of the model systems. We show how this choice can be determined by physical information about the timescales involved in the process. We also show that when the multiplicative noise is at most linear in the random variable one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We then apply these results to the generalized Langevin equation that drives the salt mass dynamics. The stationary analytical solutions for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in longterm soil salinization trends, with significant consequences, e.g. for climate change impacts on rain fed agriculture.

  10. Cosmic strings in unified gauge theories

    Everett, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Some spontaneously broken gauge theories can give rise to stringlike vacuum structures (vortices). It has been pointed out by Vilenkin that in grand unified theories these can be sufficiently massive to have cosmological implications, e.g., in explaining the formation of galaxies. The circumstances in which such structures occur are examined. They do not occur in the simplest grand unified theories, but can occur in some more elaborate models which have been proposed. The cross section for the scattering of elementary particles by strings is estimated. This is used to evaluate the effect of collisions on the dynamics of a collapsing circular string, with particular attention to the question of whether energy dissipation by collision can reduce the rate of formation of black holes by collapsed strings, which may be unacceptably large in models where strings occur. It is found that the effect of collisions is not important in the case of grand unified strings, although it can be important for lighter strings

  11. Coset realization of unifying W-algebras

    Blumenhagen, R.; Huebel, R.

    1994-06-01

    We construct several quantum coset W-algebras, e.g. sl(2,R)/U(1) and sl(2,R)+sl(2,R)/sl(2,R), and argue that they are finitely nonfreely generated. Furthermore, we discuss in detail their role as unifying W-algebras of Casimir W-algebras. We show that it is possible to give coset realizations of various types of unifying W-algebras, e.g. the diagonal cosets based on the symplectic Lie algebras sp(2n) realize the unifying W-algebras which have previously been introduced as 'WD -n '. In addition, minimal models of WD -n are studied. The coset realizations provide a generalization of level-rank-duality of dual coset pairs. As further examples of finitely nonfreely generated quantum W-algebras we discuss orbifolding of W-algebras which on the quantum level has different properties than in the classical case. We demonstrate in some examples that the classical limit according to Bowcock and Watts of these nonfreely finitely generated quantum W-algebras probably yields infinitely nonfreely generated classical W-algebras. (orig.)

  12. Unified strength theory and its applications

    Yu, Mao-Hong

    2004-01-01

    This is a completely new theory dealing with the yield and failure of materials under multi-axial stresses. It provides a system of yield and failure criteria adopted for most materials, from metallic materials to rocks, concretes, soils, polymers etc. The Unified Strength Theory has been applied successfully to analyse the elastic limit, plastic limit capacities, the dynamic response behavior for some structures under static and moderate impulsive load, and may be implemented in some elasto-plastic finite element computer codes. The Unified Strength Theory is described in detail and by using this theory a series of results can be obtained. The Unified Strength Theory can improve the conservative Mohr-Coulomb Theory, and since intermediate principal stress is not taken into account in the Mohr-Coulomb theory and most experimental data is not pertainable to the Mohr-Coulomb Theory, a considerable economic benefit may be obtained. The book can also increase the effect of most commercial finite element computer ...

  13. Proton decay in grand unified theories

    Lucha, W.

    1984-01-01

    Interactions which violate the conservation of baryon and lepton number represent an intrinsic part of all grand unified theories (GUTs) of strong and electroweak interactions. These new interactions - predicted within the framework of GUTs - generate B and L violating four-fermion interactions via the exchange of superheavy particles which cannot be ascribed a well-defined baryon or lepton number. The effective coupling constant of these four-fermion interactions might be large enough to make the proton decay detectable by the present generation of experiments. In this review the basic concepts of conventional as well as supersymmetric GUTs relevant for proton decay are sketched. The baryon number violating sector of grand unified theories is discussed in more detail. Special emphasis is laid on the various selection rules arising as consequences of low-energy gauge invariance and supersymmetry for proton decay. These selection rules already determine the coarse pattern of the resulting decay modes and branching ratios without any reference to or detailed knowledge of the underlying grand unified theory. Finally the numerous theoretical predictions are summarized and confronted with experiment. (Author)

  14. The three constituencies of the state: why the state has lost unifying energy.

    King, Desmond; Le Galès, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    We address resurgent populism by examining structural processes of state transformation in the UK, the US and France. Scholars stress the 'unifying energy of the state', a set of institutions and policies capable of limiting inequalities and defending legal regimes. One characteristic of modern Western statehood were packages of policies designed to integrate social groups and territories in part by ensuring common standards of provision and social citizenship across the nation state. This echoes James Scott's critical analysis of the modernist project of the state (1998). This 'unifying energy' had different origins including nationalist movements, combatting external influence or powers, war, and preparing citizens for the rigours of industrialization. Overcoming class differences and territorial differences (including cultural, social and economic differences) was a major source of mobilization to feed this 'unifying energy of the state' in France, Italy or Spain for instance. Political and cultural identities are related in significant part to respective nation states. We argue that this 'unifying energy' was an essential component of statehood in Europe and in the US. It is now largely lost. We explain why and the significance of its displacement. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  15. New Mexico, 2010 Census Unified School District Shapefile

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  16. Model of unified gauge fields; Le modele des champs de jauge unifies

    Leite Lopes, J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-04-01

    In this work, we discuss the physical ideas which represents the basis for the unified gauge field model. Despite of the difficulties that we presently have for embodying in a natural manner muons and hadrons in that model, we have the feeling that we are on the way which seems to lead to the construction of a theory in which the Maxwell electromagnetic field and the Fermi weak interaction field are manifestations of a unique subjacent physical entity - the unified gauge fields. (author) 22 refs., 6 figs.

  17. LEP constraints on grand unified theories

    Sarkar, Utpal

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments on grand unified theories (GUTs) in the context of the LEP measurements of the coupling constants are reviewed. The three coupling constants at the electroweak scale have been measured at LEP quite precisely. One can allow these couplings to evolve with energy following the renormalization group equations for the various groups and find out whether all the coupling constants meet at any energy. It was pointed out that the minimal SU(5) grand unified theory fails to satisfy this test. However, various extensions of the theory are still allowed. These extensions include (i) supersymmetric SU(5) GUT, with some arbitrariness in the susy breaking scale arising from the threshold corrections, (ii) non-susy SU(5) GUTs with additional fermions as well as Higgs multiplets, which has masses of the order of TeV, and (iii) non-renormalizable effect of gravity with a fine tuned relation among the coupling constants at the unification energy. The LEP results also constrain GUTs with an intermediate symmetry breaking scale. By adjusting the intermediate symmetry breaking scale, one usually can have unification, but these theories get constrained. For example, the left-right symmetric theories coming from GUTs can be broken only at energies higher than about ∼10 10 GeV. This implies that if right handed gauge bosons are found at energies lower than this scale, then that will rule out the possibility of grand unification. Another recent interesting development on the subject, namely, low energy unification, is discussed in this context. All the coupling constants are unified at energies of the order of ∼10 8 GeV when they are embedded in an SU(15)GUT, with some particular symmetry breaking pattern. But even in this case the results of the intermediate symmetry breaking scale remain unchanged. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  18. Cosmotopological relation for a unified field theory

    Bij, J. J. van der

    2007-01-01

    I present an argument, based on the topology of the universe, why there are three generations of fermions. The argument implies a preferred unified gauge group of SU(5), but with SO(10) representations of the fermions. The breaking pattern SU(5)→SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) is preferred over the pattern SU(5)→SU(4)xU(1). On the basis of the argument one expects an asymmetry in the early universe microwave data, which might have been detected already

  19. General unifying features of controlled quantum phenomena

    Pechen, Alexander; Brif, Constantin; Wu, Rebing; Chakrabarti, Raj; Rabitz, Herschel

    2010-01-01

    Many proposals have been put forth for controlling quantum phenomena, including open-loop, adaptive feedback, and real-time feedback control. Each of these approaches has been viewed as operationally, and even physically, distinct from the others. This work shows that all such scenarios inherently share the same fundamental control features residing in the topology of the landscape relating the target physical observable to the applied controls. This unified foundation may provide a basis for development of hybrid control schemes that would combine the advantages of the existing approaches to achieve the best overall performance.

  20. Towards unifying inheritance and automatic program specialization

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    and specialization of classes (inheritance) are considered different abstractions. We present a new programming language, Lapis, that unifies inheritance and program specialization at the conceptual, syntactic, and semantic levels. This paper presents the initial development of Lapis, which uses inheritance...... with covariant specialization to control the automatic application of program specialization to class members. Lapis integrates object-oriented concepts, block structure, and techniques from automatic program specialization to provide both a language where object-oriented designs can be e#ciently implemented...

  1. Leading gravitational corrections and a unified universe

    Codello, Alessandro; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Leading order gravitational corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action can lead to a consistent picture of the universe by unifying the epochs of inflation and dark energy in a single framework. While the leading local correction induces an inflationary phase in the early universe, the leading...... nonlocal term leads to an accelerated expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We argue that both the leading UV and IR terms can be obtained within the framework of a covariant effective field theory of gravity. The perturbative gravitational corrections therefore provide a fundamental basis...

  2. TOWARDS A UNIFIED VIEW OF METAHEURISTICS

    El-Ghazali Talbi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This talk provides a complete background on metaheuristics and presents in a unified view the main design questions for all families of metaheuristics and clearly illustrates how to implement the algorithms under a software framework to reuse both the design and code. The key search components of metaheuristics are considered as a toolbox for: - Designing efficient metaheuristics (e.g. local search, tabu search, simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, particle swarm optimization, scatter search, ant colonies, bee colonies, artificial immune systems for optimization problems. - Designing efficient metaheuristics for multi-objective optimization problems. - Designing hybrid, parallel and distributed metaheuristics. - Implementing metaheuristics on sequential and parallel machines.

  3. Improvements on a Unified Dark Matter Model

    Del Popolo A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We study, by means of a spherical collapse model, the effect of shear, rotation, and baryons on a generalized Chaplygin gas (gCg dominated universe. We show that shear, rotation, and the presence of baryons slow down the collapse compared to the simple spherical collapse model. The slowing down in the growth of density perturbation is able to solve the instability of the unified dark matter (UDM models described in previous papers (e.g. Sandvik et al. 2004 at the linear perturbation level, as also shown by a direct comparison of our model with previous results.

  4. Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation

    Pritchard, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the circulation patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The application of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.

  5. ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) seedlings to salinity stress

    The effect of salinity stress on five cultivars of common bean: Bassbeer, Beladi, Giza 3, HRS 516 and RO21 were evaluated on a sand/peat medium with different salinity levels (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl) applied 3 weeks after germination for duration of 10 days. Salinity had adverse effects not only on the biomass yield and ...

  6. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  7. A unified view of "how allostery works".

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    The question of how allostery works was posed almost 50 years ago. Since then it has been the focus of much effort. This is for two reasons: first, the intellectual curiosity of basic science and the desire to understand fundamental phenomena, and second, its vast practical importance. Allostery is at play in all processes in the living cell, and increasingly in drug discovery. Many models have been successfully formulated, and are able to describe allostery even in the absence of a detailed structural mechanism. However, conceptual schemes designed to qualitatively explain allosteric mechanisms usually lack a quantitative mathematical model, and are unable to link its thermodynamic and structural foundations. This hampers insight into oncogenic mutations in cancer progression and biased agonists' actions. Here, we describe how allostery works from three different standpoints: thermodynamics, free energy landscape of population shift, and structure; all with exactly the same allosteric descriptors. This results in a unified view which not only clarifies the elusive allosteric mechanism but also provides structural grasp of agonist-mediated signaling pathways, and guides allosteric drug discovery. Of note, the unified view reasons that allosteric coupling (or communication) does not determine the allosteric efficacy; however, a communication channel is what makes potential binding sites allosteric.

  8. DataSpread: Unifying Databases and Spreadsheets.

    Bendre, Mangesh; Sun, Bofan; Zhang, Ding; Zhou, Xinyan; Chang, Kevin ChenChuan; Parameswaran, Aditya

    2015-08-01

    Spreadsheet software is often the tool of choice for ad-hoc tabular data management, processing, and visualization, especially on tiny data sets. On the other hand, relational database systems offer significant power, expressivity, and efficiency over spreadsheet software for data management, while lacking in the ease of use and ad-hoc analysis capabilities. We demonstrate DataSpread, a data exploration tool that holistically unifies databases and spreadsheets. It continues to offer a Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet front-end, while in parallel managing all the data in a back-end database, specifically, PostgreSQL. DataSpread retains all the advantages of spreadsheets, including ease of use, ad-hoc analysis and visualization capabilities, and a schema-free nature, while also adding the advantages of traditional relational databases, such as scalability and the ability to use arbitrary SQL to import, filter, or join external or internal tables and have the results appear in the spreadsheet. DataSpread needs to reason about and reconcile differences in the notions of schema, addressing of cells and tuples, and the current "pane" (which exists in spreadsheets but not in traditional databases), and support data modifications at both the front-end and the back-end. Our demonstration will center on our first and early prototype of the DataSpread, and will give the attendees a sense for the enormous data exploration capabilities offered by unifying spreadsheets and databases.

  9. SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified theories

    Dermisek, Radovan

    The origin of the fermion mass hierarchy is one of the most challenging problems in elementary particle physics. In the standard model fermion masses and mixing angles are free parameters. Supersymmetric grand unified theories provide a beautiful framework for physics beyond the standard model. In addition to gauge coupling unification these theories provide relations between quark and lepton masses within families, and with additional family symmetry the hierarchy between families can be generated. We present a predictive SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified model with D 3 x U(1) family symmetry. The hierarchy in fermion masses is generated by the family symmetry breaking D 3 x U(1) → ZN → nothing. This model fits the low energy data in the charged fermion sector quite well. We discuss the prediction of this model for the proton lifetime in light of recent SuperKamiokande results and present a clear picture of the allowed spectra of supersymmetric particles. Finally, the detailed discussion of the Yukawa coupling unification of the third generation particles is provided. We find a narrow region is consistent with t, b, tau Yukawa unification for mu > 0 (suggested by b → sgamma and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon) with A0 ˜ -1.9m16, m10 ˜ 1.4m16, m16 ≳ 1200 GeV and mu, M1/2 ˜ 100--500 GeV. Demanding Yukawa unification thus makes definite predictions for Higgs and sparticle masses.

  10. Unifying hydrotropy under Gibbs phase rule.

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-13

    The task of elucidating the mechanism of solubility enhancement using hydrotropes has been hampered by the wide variety of phase behaviour that hydrotropes can exhibit, encompassing near-ideal aqueous solution, self-association, micelle formation, and micro-emulsions. Instead of taking a field guide or encyclopedic approach to classify hydrotropes into different molecular classes, we take a rational approach aiming at constructing a unified theory of hydrotropy based upon the first principles of statistical thermodynamics. Achieving this aim can be facilitated by the two key concepts: (1) the Gibbs phase rule as the basis of classifying the hydrotropes in terms of the degrees of freedom and the number of variables to modulate the solvation free energy; (2) the Kirkwood-Buff integrals to quantify the interactions between the species and their relative contributions to the process of solubilization. We demonstrate that the application of the two key concepts can in principle be used to distinguish the different molecular scenarios at work under apparently similar solubility curves observed from experiments. In addition, a generalization of our previous approach to solutes beyond dilution reveals the unified mechanism of hydrotropy, driven by a strong solute-hydrotrope interaction which overcomes the apparent per-hydrotrope inefficiency due to hydrotrope self-clustering.

  11. A unified dynamics for micro and macrosystems

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.

    1985-12-01

    An explicit model allowing a unified description of micro and macrosystems is exhibited. Firstly, a modified quantum dynamics for the description of macroobjects is constructed and it is shown that it forbids the occurrence of linear superpositions of states localized in far away spatial regions and induces an evolution agreeing with classical mechanics. This dynamics also allows a description of the evolution in terms of trajectories. To set up a unified description of all physical phenomena, a modification of the dynamics, with respect to the standard Hamiltonian one, is then postulated also for microscopic systems. It is shown that one can consistently deduce from it the previously considered dynamics for the centre of mass of macroscopic systems. Choosing in an appropriate way the parameters of the so obtained model one can show that the standard quantum theory for microobjects, the quantum mechanical wave packet reduction with fixed pointer positions, and the classical behaviour for macroobjects can be all derived in a consistent way. Moreover, in the case of a macroscopic system one can obtain, by means of appropriate approximations, a description of the evolution in terms of a phase-space density distribution obeying a Fokker-Planck diffusion equation. (author)

  12. Group theory for unified model building

    Slansky, R.

    1981-01-01

    The results gathered here on simple Lie algebras have been selected with attention to the needs of unified model builders who study Yang-Mills theories based on simple, local-symmetry groups that contain as a subgroup the SUsup(w) 2 x Usup(w) 1 x SUsup(c) 3 symmetry of the standard theory of electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. The major topics include, after a brief review of the standard model and its unification into a simple group, the use of Dynkin diagrams to analyze the structure of the group generators and to keep track of the weights (quantum numbers) of the representation vectors; an analysis of the subgroup structure of simple groups, including explicit coordinatizations of the projections in weight space; lists of representations, tensor products and branching rules for a number of simple groups; and other details about groups and their representations that are often helpful for surveying unified models, including vector-coupling coefficient calculations. Tabulations of representations, tensor products, and branching rules for E 6 , SO 10 , SU 6 , F 4 , SO 9 , SO 5 , SO 8 , SO 7 , SU 4 , E 7 , E 8 , SU 8 , SO 14 , SO 18 , SO 22 , and for completeness, SU 3 are included. (These tables may have other applications.) Group-theoretical techniques for analyzing symmetry breaking are described in detail and many examples are reviewed, including explicit parameterizations of mass matrices. (orig.)

  13. A Unified Theoretical Framework for Cognitive Sequencing.

    Savalia, Tejas; Shukla, Anuj; Bapi, Raju S

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit vs. explicit and goal-directed vs. habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams. Our proposal relies on brain's ability to implicitly extract statistical regularities from the stream of stimuli and with attentional engagement organizing sequences explicitly and hierarchically. Similarly, sequences that need to be assembled purposively to accomplish a goal require engagement of attentional processes. With repetition, these goal-directed plans become habits with concomitant disengagement of attention. Thus, attention and awareness play a crucial role in the implicit-to-explicit transition as well as in how goal-directed plans become automatic habits. Cortico-subcortical loops basal ganglia-frontal cortex and hippocampus-frontal cortex loops mediate the transition process. We show how the computational principles of model-free and model-based learning paradigms, along with a pivotal role for attention and awareness, offer a unifying framework for these two dichotomies. Based on this framework, we make testable predictions related to the potential influence of response-to-stimulus interval (RSI) on developing awareness in implicit learning tasks.

  14. A Unified Theoretical Framework for Cognitive Sequencing

    Tejas Savalia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit versus explicit and goal-directed versus habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams. Our proposal relies on brain's ability to implicitly extract statistical regularities from the stream of stimuli and with attentional engagement organizing sequences explicitly and hierarchically. Similarly, sequences that need to be assembled purposively to accomplish a goal require engagement of attentional processes. With repetition, these goal-directed plans become habits with concomitant disengagement of attention. Thus attention and awareness play a crucial role in the implicit-to-explicit transition as well as in how goal-directed plans become automatic habits. Cortico-subcortical loops ─ basal ganglia-frontal cortex and hippocampus-frontal cortex loops ─ mediate the transition process. We show how the computational principles of model-free and model-based learning paradigms, along with a pivotal role for attention and awareness, offer a unifying framework for these two dichotomies. Based on this framework, we make testable predictions related to the potential influence of response-to-stimulus interval (RSI on developing awareness in implicit learning tasks.

  15. Aspects of extra dimensional supersymmetric unified theories

    Fichet, S.

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) and to make the link with passed and upcoming experiments. The structure of this thesis is as follows. In the first chapter, we will briefly review the sequence of arguments leading to the Higgs mechanism, then to the different concepts underlying physics beyond the Standard Model, and to the paradigm of extra dimensional supersymmetric grand unified theories. At each level of the argumentation, we will mention the different solutions available. The second chapter introduces more formally supersymmetry and extra dimensions, focusing in particular on the aspects of symmetry breaking. Then, in the third chapter, we present in details the two frameworks of extra dimensional theories in which we worked, called supersymmetric gauge-Higgs unification (GHU) and holographic grand unification (HGU) as well as the developments and modifications we brought to them. The fourth chapter is devoted to the low energy viability of the GHU framework, as well as its phenomenological implications. The fifth chapter presents a more generic study of the property of GUT-scale degenerate Higgs mass matrix, common to both frameworks. Finally, the sixth chapter is devoted to the viability and phenomenological implications of the HGU framework, with special emphasis on lepton flavour violation. This quantitative study takes properly into account effects of matrix anarchy, as well as exact flavour observables. The results obtained should generalize, at least qualitatively, to any other model with similar localization and supersymmetry breaking features

  16. Salinity Temperature and Roughness Remote Scanner (STARRS)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides spatially continuous high-resolution surface salinity imagery in a synoptic manner from small aircraft. Its output complements data collected from...

  17. Educational Data Base and School Profile Reports.

    Chiang, Eleanor Yin

    This report describes the development in 1986 of a management information system by the Sacramento City (California) Unified School District for use in high schools. A nine-page attachment, which comprises two-thirds of the report, offers profiles of selected schools drawn from the databases. Data sets of 200 information items, collected from all…

  18. RAND Research Brief: A Decade of Whole-School Reform. The New American Schools Experience

    2002-01-01

    .... NAS's core premise was that all high-quality schools possess, de facto, a unifying design that enables all staff members to function to the best of their abilities and that integrates research-based...

  19. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C. S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is ns = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  20. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics Group, Theory Center, IPNS KEK, and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, 305-0801 (Japan); Lim, C.S. [Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Woman' s Christian University, Tokyo, 167-8585 (Japan); Lin, Chia-Min [Department of Physics, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112 (Japan); Mimura, Yukihiro, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp, E-mail: lin@chuo-u.ac.jp, E-mail: mimura@hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n{sub s} = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  1. Unifying flipped SU(5) in five dimensions

    Barr, S.M.; Dorsner, Ilja

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that embedding a four-dimensional flipped SU(5) model in a five-dimensional SO(10) model preserves the best features of both flipped SU(5) and SO(10). The missing partner mechanism, which naturally achieves both doublet-triplet splitting and suppression of d=5 proton decay operators, is realized as in flipped SU(5), while the gauge couplings are unified as in SO(10). The masses of down quarks and charged leptons, which are independent in flipped SU(5), are related by the SO(10). Distinctive patterns of quark and lepton masses can result. The gaugino mass M 1 is independent of M 3 and M 2 , which are predicted to be equal

  2. Covariant extensions and the nonsymmetric unified field

    Borchsenius, K.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of generally covariant extension of Lorentz invariant field equations, by means of covariant derivatives extracted from the nonsymmetric unified field, is considered. It is shown that the contracted curvature tensor can be expressed in terms of a covariant gauge derivative which contains the gauge derivative corresponding to minimal coupling, if the universal constant p, characterizing the nonsymmetric theory, is fixed in terms of Planck's constant and the elementary quantum of charge. By this choice the spinor representation of the linear connection becomes closely related to the spinor affinity used by Infeld and Van Der Waerden (Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Phys. Math. Kl.; 9:380 (1933)) in their generally covariant formulation of Dirac's equation. (author)

  3. SUGERE - a unified system for waste management

    Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Jordao, Elizabete

    2005-01-01

    Generation and disposal of wastes has been responsible for many economical, ecological and public health problems. In order to manage hazardous wastes in an environment friendly manner, many technical and administrative procedures should be implemented, including prevention, control of generation, and final disposal. A software named SUGERE - a unified system for waste management - is being developed. It is an easy to use tool that integrates all the steps involved in hazardous and radioactive waste management. This system is intended to help generators, transporters and owners of treatment, storage and disposal facilities to manage hazardous and radioactive wastes, by assuring compliance with environmental laws and consumer requirements. This paper presents the current status of the SUGERE software, developed using Borland Delphi package. The nuclear industry is used as a reference for developing this work. (author)

  4. UniPOPS: Unified data reduction suite

    Maddalena, Ronald J.; Garwood, Robert W.; Salter, Christopher J.; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Cram, Thomas R.; Morgan, Lorrie; Vance, Bob; Hudson, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    UniPOPS, a suite of programs and utilities developed at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), reduced data from the observatory's single-dish telescopes: the Tucson 12-m, the Green Bank 140-ft, and archived data from the Green Bank 300-ft. The primary reduction programs, 'line' (for spectral-line reduction) and 'condar' (for continuum reduction), used the People-Oriented Parsing Service (POPS) as the command line interpreter. UniPOPS unified previous analysis packages and provided new capabilities; development of UniPOPS continued within the NRAO until 2004 when the 12-m was turned over to the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The submitted code is version 3.5 from 2004, the last supported by the NRAO.

  5. A unified grand tour of theoretical physics

    Lawrie, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics invites its readers to a guided exploration of the theoretical ideas that shape our contemporary understanding of the physical world at the fundamental level. Its central themes, comprising space-time geometry and the general relativistic account of gravity, quantum field theory and the gauge theories of fundamental forces, and statistical mechanics and the theory of phase transitions, are developed in explicit mathematical detail, with an emphasis on conceptual understanding. Straightforward treatments of the standard models of particle physics and cosmology are supplemented with introductory accounts of more speculative theories, including supersymmetry and string theory. This third edition of the Tour includes a new chapter on quantum gravity, focusing on the approach known as Loop Quantum Gravity, while new sections provide extended discussions of topics that have become prominent in recent years, such as the Higgs boson, massive neutrinos, cosmological perturba...

  6. A Unifying Theory of Biological Function.

    van Hateren, J H

    2017-01-01

    A new theory that naturalizes biological function is explained and compared with earlier etiological and causal role theories. Etiological (or selected effects) theories explain functions from how they are caused over their evolutionary history. Causal role theories analyze how functional mechanisms serve the current capacities of their containing system. The new proposal unifies the key notions of both kinds of theories, but goes beyond them by explaining how functions in an organism can exist as factors with autonomous causal efficacy. The goal-directedness and normativity of functions exist in this strict sense as well. The theory depends on an internal physiological or neural process that mimics an organism's fitness, and modulates the organism's variability accordingly. The structure of the internal process can be subdivided into subprocesses that monitor specific functions in an organism. The theory matches well with each intuition on a previously published list of intuited ideas about biological functions, including intuitions that have posed difficulties for other theories.

  7. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C.S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n s = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton

  8. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  9. Cosmological implications of grand unified theories

    Nanopoulos, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    These lectures, mainly devoted to the cosmological implications of GUTs, also include the essential ingredients of GUTs and some of their important applications to particle physics. Section 1 contains some basic points concerning the structure of the standard strong and electroweak interactions prior to grand unification. A detailed expose of GUTs is attempted in sect. 2, including their basci principles and their consequences for particle physics. The minimal, simplest GUT, SU 5 is analysed in some detail and it will be used throughout these lectures as the GUT prototype. Finally, sect. 3 contains the most important cosmological implications of GUTs, including baryon number generation in the early Universe (in rather lengthy detail), dissipative processes in the very early Universe, grand unified monopoles, etc. (orig./HSI)

  10. OPC from data access to unified architecture

    Lange, Jurgen; Burke, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    OPC stands for Openness, Productivity, and Collaboration, symbolizing the new possibilities opening up in automation technology. The main objective of the new OPC generation Unified Architecture is to facilitate global interoperability and to define an information and data-exchange mechanism that is service oriented, multivendor, and cross-platform capable – from the field device on the shop floor to the ERP system on the factory level. This book includes information on: - the birth, objectives, and fundamentals of OPC and OPC UA, - the technical specifications that currently exist and those that are in preparation, - the procedures for designing and implementing components, - a transparent presentation of the technology through application possibilities and examples, and - the outlook for the future of OPC and OPC UA. Important perspectives and updates in this new edition include - the new era and the exciting application possibilities developing with OPC UA, - the new OPC UA specifications, - the devel...

  11. Introduction to Grand Unified Theories. 12

    Wali, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction into Grand Unified Theories. After a discussion of the general features to be expected in any such theory, and of the motivations for them, a detailed presentation of SU(5) theory is given. The group structures, particle multiplets, gauge and Higgs bosons are explained. The two stages of spontaneous symmetry breaking via the Higgs model, are calculated individually and in combination. Fermion mass matrices and relations between quark and lepton masses are derived. predictions of SU(5) theory, calculated using renormalization group methods, are derived. The chapter ends with discussions that bring together particle physics and cosmology, including the baryon asymmetry problem, phase transitions in the very early universe, and singularities like domain walls, vortex lines and monopoles. (author). 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  12. Supersymmetric grand unified theories and cosmology

    Lazarides, G.; Shafi, Q.

    1983-01-01

    By examining the behavior of supersymmetric grand unified theories (GUT's) in the very early universe we find two classes of realistic models. In one of them supersymmetry is broken at or near superheavy GUT scale. The cosmological implications of such models are expected to be similar to those of nonsupersymmetric GUT's. In the second class of models, the superheavy GUT scale is related to the supersymmetry-breaking scale in the manner of Witten. Two types of cosmological scenarios appear possible in this case, either with or without an intermediate (new) inflationary phase. They can be experimentally distinguished, since the former predicts an absence and the latter an observable number density of superheavy monopoles. A mechanism for generating baryon asymmetry in such models is pointed out

  13. A unified approach to the Darwin approximation

    Krause, Todd B.; Apte, A.; Morrison, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    There are two basic approaches to the Darwin approximation. The first involves solving the Maxwell equations in Coulomb gauge and then approximating the vector potential to remove retardation effects. The second approach approximates the Coulomb gauge equations themselves, then solves these exactly for the vector potential. There is no a priori reason that these should result in the same approximation. Here, the equivalence of these two approaches is investigated and a unified framework is provided in which to view the Darwin approximation. Darwin's original treatment is variational in nature, but subsequent applications of his ideas in the context of Vlasov's theory are not. We present here action principles for the Darwin approximation in the Vlasov context, and this serves as a consistency check on the use of the approximation in this setting

  14. New ideas about unified field theory

    Gleiser, M.

    1986-01-01

    An outline of the physical concepts evolution is given from the ancient philosophers to the present time. With qualitative explanations about the meaning of the theories that is the milestones of these concepts evolution, it mentions the ideas which lead the studies to the conception of a unified field theory. Chronologically, it has brief information about the ideas of Laplace (mechanical determinism), Maxwell (the field concept), Einsten (the space-time structure), Heisenberg and Schroedinger (the quantum mechanics), Dirac (the relativistic quantum and the antiparticles), Gell-Mann (the quarks), Weinberg-Salam (Weak interactions and eletromagnetic unification), H. Georgi and S. Glashon (strong interactions plus Weinberg-Salam), Kaluza-Klein (a fifth space-time coordinate), and Zumino-Weiss (supersymmetry and supergravity). (G.D.F.) [pt

  15. Preface to a GUT (Grand Unified Theory)

    Honig, W.

    1982-01-01

    A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is proposed exhibiting relativistic invariance and based on a physical model for vacuum space consisting of the superposition of oppositely charged continuous fluids. Models for the photon, electron, neutrino, proton, etc., consist of separate unique variations in the relative densities of the fluids and their flow patterns. This GUT is also based on the use of transfinite axiomatic number forms and on a concept of metrical relativity which hopefully reconciles the many logical dichotomies in and between Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. These ideas result in a number of experimental proposals and predicted results which appear to be underivable from present paradigms, first among which is a physical model for the hidden variable of Quantum Mechanics. It is on these features that attention should rest. (Auth.)

  16. Higgsless grand unified theory breaking and trinification

    Carone, Christopher D.; Conroy, Justin M.

    2004-01-01

    Boundary conditions on an extra dimensional interval can be chosen to break bulk gauge symmetries and to reduce the rank of the gauge group. We consider this mechanism in models with gauge trinification. We determine the boundary conditions necessary to break the trinified gauge group directly down to that of the standard model. Working in an effective theory for the gauge-symmetry-breaking parameters on a boundary, we examine the limit in which the grand-unified theory-breaking-sector is Higgsless and show how one may obtain the low-energy particle content of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We find that gauge unification is preserved in this scenario, and that the differential gauge coupling running is logarithmic above the scale of compactification. We compare the phenomenology of our model to that of four dimensional 'trinified' theories

  17. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  18. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  19. Unified SU(4) color models in ten dimensions

    Hanlon, B.E.; Joshi, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of constructing unified models with SU(4) as the color group via a unifying group defined in ten dimensions are examined. Four dimensional theories are recovered using the Coset Space Dimensional Reduction scheme. Candidate models are considered in order to highlight some of the difficulties in constructing realistic four dimensional theories. 30 refs

  20. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P

  1. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Craig Miller; Sarah E. Null; R. Justin DeRose; Peter Wilcock; Maura Hahnenberger; Frank Howe; Johnnie Moore

    2017-01-01

    Many of the world’s saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and...

  2. Estimation of salinity power potential in India

    Das, V.K.; RamaRaju, D.V.

    Salinity gradient as a source of energy has much potential, but this has been recognized only recently. The energy density of this source is equivalent to about 250 m water head for a salinity difference of 35 ppt. This source exists...

  3. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  4. A Unified Scaling Law in Spiral Galaxies.

    Koda; Sofue; Wada

    2000-03-01

    We investigate the origin of a unified scaling relation in spiral galaxies. Observed spiral galaxies are spread on a plane in the three-dimensional logarithmic space of luminosity L, radius R, and rotation velocity V. The plane is expressed as L~&parl0;VR&parr0;alpha in the I passband, where alpha is a constant. On the plane, observed galaxies are distributed in an elongated region which looks like the shape of a surfboard. The well-known scaling relations L-V (Tully-Fisher [TF] relation), V-R (also the TF relation), and R-L (Freeman's law) can be understood as oblique projections of the surfboard-like plane into two-dimensional spaces. This unified interpretation of the known scaling relations should be a clue to understand the physical origin of all the relations consistently. Furthermore, this interpretation can also explain why previous studies could not find any correlation between TF residuals and radius. In order to clarify the origin of this plane, we simulate formation and evolution of spiral galaxies with the N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics method, including cooling, star formation, and stellar feedback. Initial conditions are set to 14 isolated spheres with two free parameters, such as mass and angular momentum. The cold dark matter (h=0.5, Omega0=1) cosmology is considered as a test case. The simulations provide the following two conclusions: (1) The slope of the plane is well reproduced but the zero point is not. This zero-point discrepancy could be solved in a low-density (Omega00.5) cosmology. (2) The surfboard-shaped plane can be explained by the control of galactic mass and angular momentum.

  5. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    Kefford, Ben J.; Papas, Phil J.; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-01-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC 50 values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC 50 obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC 50 ). This LC 50 value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC 50 . For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC 50 and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC 50 of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC 50 values. In contrast, LC 50 determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. - Acute laboratory salinity tolerances relate to maximum salinity where organisms occur in nature

  6. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    Kefford, Ben J.; Papas, Phil J.; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-06-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC{sub 50} values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC{sub 50} obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC{sub 50}). This LC{sub 50} value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC{sub 50}. For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC{sub 50} and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC{sub 50} of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC{sub 50} values. In contrast, LC{sub 50} determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. - Acute laboratory salinity tolerances relate to maximum salinity where organisms occur in nature.

  7. Practices of Waldorf-Inspired Schools. Research Brief

    Friedlaender, Diane; Beckham, Kyle; Zheng, Xinhua; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    "Growing a Waldorf-Inspired Approach in a Public School District" documents the practices and outcomes of Alice Birney, a Waldorf-Inspired School in Sacramento City Unified School District (SCUSD). This study highlights how such a school addresses students' academic, social, emotional, physical, and creative development. The study also…

  8. James Madison High: A School at the Crossroads

    Stroup, John T.; Salmonowicz, Michael J.; Broom, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    This case tells the story of James Madison High School, which became the epicenter of a debate over the future reorganization and control of large secondary schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). The LAUSD, recently taken over by the newly elected mayor, was fighting for control of this 3,000-student high school with a charter…

  9. Technological Studies at Thomas Edison Middle School. Grades 6-7-8.

    Foster, Patrick N.

    This technology studies curriculum for grades 6-8 is a plan for each middle school student to experience technology education for approximately 60 days (1 trimester of a 180-day school year) in each grade. Section A provides definitions; structure or content for grade-level programs with science and technology unifiers (unifying curricular…

  10. Coral Reef and Hardbottom from Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (NODC Accession 0123059)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a subset of the Unified Map representing Coral reef and Hardbottom areas. Version 1.1 - December 2013. The Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (Unified...

  11. Influence of salinity and cadmium on the survival and ...

    osmoregulated at salinities between 5 and 25 and osmoconformed at salinities greater than 25. Chiromantes eulimene followed a hyper-hypo-osmoregulatory strategy; it hyper-regulated in salinities from 0 up to isosmotic conditions at about 28 (c.

  12. The effect of salinity on some endocommensalic ciliates from shipworms

    Santhakumari, V.

    . Seasonal incidence and relative abundance of these ciliates showed that they were more abundant during the low saline than the high saline periods. Eventhough these ciliates can endure higher salinities through gradual acclimatization of their habitat...

  13. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    Negrã o, Só nia; Schmö ckel, S. M.; Tester, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making

  14. Pragmatic Information as a Unifying Biological Concept

    Reza Maleeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce a developed reading of Roederer’s interpretation of pragmatic information as a good candidate for a Unifying Information Concept required for an as-yet-unavailable Science of Information. According to pragmatic information, information and information processing are exclusive attributes of biological systems related to the very definition of life. I will apply the notion to give new accounts in the following areas: (1 quantum interpretation: based on a modified version of David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics, I propose an ontological, information-based interpretation of quantum mechanics which, unlike Roederer’s interpretation, satisfies all conditions of pragmatic information; (2 artificial intelligence: the notion successfully distinguishes natural living systems from artifacts and natural non-living systems, providing a context to pose an information-based argument against the thesis of Strong Artificial Intelligence; (3 phenomenal consciousness: I will use pragmatic information to modify and update Chalmers’s Double-aspect Theory of Information to be explanatorily more powerful regarding the physical aspect of his theory; (4 causation: based on pragmatic information, I pose a new account of causation which differentiates causation in biology from causation in natural abiotic world.

  15. Unified creep-plasticity model for halite

    Krieg, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    There are two national energy programs which are considering caverns in geological salt (NaCl) as a storage repository. One is the disposal of nuclear wastes and the other is the storage of oil. Both short-time and long-time structural deformations and stresses must be predictable for these applications. At 300K, the nominal initial temperature for both applications, the salt is at 0.28 of the melting temperature and exhibits a significant time dependent behavior. A constitutive model has been developed which describes the behavior observed in an extensive set of triaxial creep tests. Analysis of these tests showed that a single deformation mechanism seems to be operative over the stress and temperature range of interest so that the secondary creep data can be represented by a power of the stress over the entire test range. This simple behavior allowed a new unified creep-plasticity model to be applied with some confidence. The resulting model recognizes no inherent difference between plastic and creep strains yet models the total inelastic strain reasonably well including primary and secondary creep and reverse loadings. A multiaxial formulation is applied with a back stress. A Bauschinger effect is exhibited as a consequence and is present regardless of the time scale over which the loading is applied. The model would be interpreted as kinematic hardening in the sense of classical plasticity. Comparisons are made between test data and model behavior

  16. Randomized central limit theorems: A unified theory.

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The central limit theorems (CLTs) characterize the macroscopic statistical behavior of large ensembles of independent and identically distributed random variables. The CLTs assert that the universal probability laws governing ensembles' aggregate statistics are either Gaussian or Lévy, and that the universal probability laws governing ensembles' extreme statistics are Fréchet, Weibull, or Gumbel. The scaling schemes underlying the CLTs are deterministic-scaling all ensemble components by a common deterministic scale. However, there are "random environment" settings in which the underlying scaling schemes are stochastic-scaling the ensemble components by different random scales. Examples of such settings include Holtsmark's law for gravitational fields and the Stretched Exponential law for relaxation times. In this paper we establish a unified theory of randomized central limit theorems (RCLTs)-in which the deterministic CLT scaling schemes are replaced with stochastic scaling schemes-and present "randomized counterparts" to the classic CLTs. The RCLT scaling schemes are shown to be governed by Poisson processes with power-law statistics, and the RCLTs are shown to universally yield the Lévy, Fréchet, and Weibull probability laws.

  17. Argumentation and Inference: A Unified Approach

    Christophe Fouqueré

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper to use Ludics as a unified framework for the analysis of dialogue and the reasoning system. Not only is Ludics a logical theory, but it may also be built by means of concepts of game theory. We first present the main concepts of Ludics. A design is an abstraction and a generalization of the concept of proof. Interaction between designs is equivalent to cut elimination or modus ponens in logical theories. It appears to be a natural means for representing dialogues and also for reasoning. A design is a set of sequences of alternate actions, similar to a move in game theory. We apply Ludics to argumentative dialogues. We discuss how to model the speech acts of argumentative dialogues in terms of dialogue acts. A dialogue act is given by a Ludics action together with the expression that reveals the action in a turn of speech. We show also how arguments may be stored in a commitment state used for reasoning. Finally we revisit an example of juridical dialogue that has been analyzed by Prakken in a different framework.

  18. Unifying Theories of Psychedelic Drug Effects

    Link R. Swanson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available How do psychedelic drugs produce their characteristic range of acute effects in perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self? How do these effects relate to the clinical efficacy of psychedelic-assisted therapies? Efforts to understand psychedelic phenomena date back more than a century in Western science. In this article I review theories of psychedelic drug effects and highlight key concepts which have endured over the last 125 years of psychedelic science. First, I describe the subjective phenomenology of acute psychedelic effects using the best available data. Next, I review late 19th-century and early 20th-century theories—model psychoses theory, filtration theory, and psychoanalytic theory—and highlight their shared features. I then briefly review recent findings on the neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of psychedelic drugs in humans. Finally, I describe recent theories of psychedelic drug effects which leverage 21st-century cognitive neuroscience frameworks—entropic brain theory, integrated information theory, and predictive processing—and point out key shared features that link back to earlier theories. I identify an abstract principle which cuts across many theories past and present: psychedelic drugs perturb universal brain processes that normally serve to constrain neural systems central to perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self. I conclude that making an explicit effort to investigate the principles and mechanisms of psychedelic drug effects is a uniquely powerful way to iteratively develop and test unifying theories of brain function.

  19. Texture Repairing by Unified Low Rank Optimization

    Xiao Liang; Xiang Ren; Zhengdong Zhang; Yi Ma

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to harness both low-rank and sparse structures in regular or near-regular textures for image completion. Our method is based on a unified formulation for both random and contiguous corruption. In addition to the low rank property of texture, the algorithm also uses the sparse assumption of the natural image: because the natural image is piecewise smooth, it is sparse in certain transformed domain (such as Fourier or wavelet transform). We combine low-rank and sparsity properties of the texture image together in the proposed algorithm. Our algorithm based on convex optimization can automatically and correctly repair the global structure of a corrupted texture, even without precise information about the regions to be completed. This algorithm integrates texture rectification and repairing into one optimization problem. Through extensive simulations, we show our method can complete and repair textures corrupted by errors with both random and contiguous supports better than existing low-rank matrix recovery methods. Our method demonstrates significant advantage over local patch based texture synthesis techniques in dealing with large corruption, non-uniform texture, and large perspective deformation.

  20. Constraints on grand unified superstring theories

    Ellis, J.; Lopez, J.L.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Houston Advanced Research Center

    1990-01-01

    We evaluate some constraints on the construction of grand unified superstring theories (GUSTs) using higher level Kac-Moody algebras on the world-sheet. In the most general formulation of the heterotic string in four dimensions, an analysis of the basic GUST model-building constraints, including a realistic hidden gauge group, reveals that there are no E 6 models and any SO(10) models can only exist at level-5. Also, any such SU(5) models can exist only for levels 4≤k≤19. These SO(10) and SU(5) models risk having many large, massless, phenomenologically troublesome representations. We also show that with a suitable hidden sector gauge group, it is possible to avoid free light fractionally charged particles, which are endemic to string derived models. We list all such groups and their representations for the flipped SU(5)xU(1) model. We conclude that a sufficiently binding hidden sector gauge group becomes a basic model-building constraint. (orig.)

  1. A Unified Model for Tidal Disruption Events

    Dai, Lixin; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Roth, Nathaniel; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Miller, M. Coleman

    2018-06-01

    In the past few years wide-field optical and UV transient surveys and X-ray telescopes have allowed us to identify a few dozen candidate tidal disruption events (TDEs). While in theory the physical processes in TDEs are ubiquitous, a few distinct classes of TDEs have been observed. Some TDEs radiate mainly in NUV/optical, while others produce prominent X-rays. Moreover, relativistic jets have been observed in only a handful of TDEs. This diversity might be related to the details of the super-Eddington accretion and emission physics relevant to TDE disks. In this Letter, we utilize novel three-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulations to study the super-Eddington compact disk phase expected in TDEs. Consistent with previous studies, geometrically thick disks, wide-angle optically thick fast outflows, and relativistic jets are produced. The outflow density and velocity depend sensitively on the inclination angle, and hence so does the reprocessing of emission produced from the inner disk. We then use Monte Carlo radiative transfer to calculate the reprocessed spectra and find that that the observed ratio of optical to X-ray fluxes increases with increasing inclination angle. This naturally leads to a unified model for different classes of TDEs in which the spectral properties of the TDE depend mainly on the viewing angle of the observer with respect to the orientation of the disk.

  2. A unified grand tour of theoretical physics

    Griffiths, J

    2002-01-01

    Anyone offering a grand tour is faced with several options. Should they concentrate on what may be considered to be essential features, or should they attempt to present a brief glimpse of almost everything? The present offering is a compromise between these two extremes. The area considered - theoretical physics - is now such a vast subject that some kind of compromise is essential. Indeed, the field is now so wide that few could even attempt to review it in a single-authored work. My task here is to assess how well this book has succeeded in its main aim of providing a unified (though introductory) tour of this subject. Constrained within a single volume, this is clearly not an updated Landau-Lifschitz. It cannot be expected to take any particular topic to the level of recent research. Nevertheless, it does seem to cover the broad range of essential topics which now constitute the subject. It starts (most appropriately in my opinion) with geometry. It then covers classical physics, general relativity and qu...

  3. Unifying Theories of Psychedelic Drug Effects

    Swanson, Link R.

    2018-01-01

    How do psychedelic drugs produce their characteristic range of acute effects in perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self? How do these effects relate to the clinical efficacy of psychedelic-assisted therapies? Efforts to understand psychedelic phenomena date back more than a century in Western science. In this article I review theories of psychedelic drug effects and highlight key concepts which have endured over the last 125 years of psychedelic science. First, I describe the subjective phenomenology of acute psychedelic effects using the best available data. Next, I review late 19th-century and early 20th-century theories—model psychoses theory, filtration theory, and psychoanalytic theory—and highlight their shared features. I then briefly review recent findings on the neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of psychedelic drugs in humans. Finally, I describe recent theories of psychedelic drug effects which leverage 21st-century cognitive neuroscience frameworks—entropic brain theory, integrated information theory, and predictive processing—and point out key shared features that link back to earlier theories. I identify an abstract principle which cuts across many theories past and present: psychedelic drugs perturb universal brain processes that normally serve to constrain neural systems central to perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self. I conclude that making an explicit effort to investigate the principles and mechanisms of psychedelic drug effects is a uniquely powerful way to iteratively develop and test unifying theories of brain function. PMID:29568270

  4. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1902-present, Salinity

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have salinity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  5. Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, M.N.; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water......A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... potential, but increased abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in both leaf and xylem sap. At each salinity level, incorporation of biochar increased shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, An, gs, midday leaf water potential, and decreased ABA concentration in the leaf and xylem sap as compared...

  6. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination.

    Lee, Kibae; Hassan, Arshad; Lee, Chong Hyun; Bae, Jinho

    2017-12-18

    In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under -20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of -35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  7. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  8. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination

    Kibae Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under −20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of −35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  9. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  10. Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics (OlyMPUS) will extend the prototype Ontology-Driven Interactive Search Environment for Earth Sciences...

  11. The Relationship Between Unified Communications and Big Data ...

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Keywords- Big data, Unified Communications, Big Data. Analytics ... sensors through a phenomenon referred to as Internet of. Things (IoT). ... warehouse which utilized when dealing with large quantities of unstructured data.

  12. Constructing 5d orbifold grand unified theories from heterotic strings

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Raby, Stuart; Zhang Renjie

    2004-01-01

    A three-generation Pati-Salam model is constructed by compactifying the heterotic string on a particular T 6 /Z 6 Abelian symmetric orbifold with two discrete Wilson lines. The compactified space is taken to be the Lie algebra lattice G 2 -bar SU(3)-bar SO(4). When one dimension of the SO(4) lattice is large compared to the string scale, this model reproduces many features of a 5d SO(10) grand unified theory compactified on an S 1 /Z 2 orbifold. (Of course, with two large extra dimensions we can obtain a 6d SO(10) grand unified theory.) We identify the orbifold parities and other ingredients of the orbifold grand unified theories in the string model. Our construction provides a UV completion of orbifold grand unified theories, and gives new insights into both field theoretical and string theoretical constructions

  13. On unified-entropy characterization of quantum channels

    Rastegin, A E

    2012-01-01

    We consider properties of quantum channels with the use of unified entropies. Extremal unravelings of quantum channel with respect to these entropies are examined. The concept of map entropy is extended in terms of the unified entropies. The map (q, s)-entropy is naturally defined as the unified (q, s)-entropy of a rescaled dynamical matrix of given quantum channel. Inequalities of Fannes type are obtained for introduced entropies in terms of both the trace and Frobenius norms of difference between corresponding dynamical matrices. Additivity properties of introduced map entropies are discussed. The known inequality of Lindblad with the entropy exchange is generalized to many of the unified entropies. For the tensor product of a pair of quantum channels, we derive a two-sided estimate on the output entropy of a maximally entangled input state. (paper)

  14. Generalized projective synchronization of a unified chaotic system

    Yan Jianping; Li Changpin

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, a simple but efficient control technique of the generalized projective synchronization is applied to a unified chaotic system. Numerical simulations show that this method works very well, which can also be applied to other chaotic systems

  15. A Unified Mathematical Definition of Classical Information Retrieval.

    Dominich, Sandor

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unified mathematical definition for the classical models of information retrieval and identifies a mathematical structure behind relevance feedback. Highlights include vector information retrieval; probabilistic information retrieval; and similarity information retrieval. (Contains 118 references.) (Author/LRW)

  16. Unified composite model of all fundamental particles and forces

    Terazawa, H.

    2000-01-01

    The unified supersymmetric composite model of all fundamental particles (and forces) including not only the fundamental fermions (quarks and leptons) but also the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and Higgs scalars) is reviewed in detail

  17. Unified Nonlinear Flight Dynamics and Aeroelastic Simulator Tool, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes a R&D effort to develop a Unified Nonlinear Flight Dynamics and Aeroelastic Simulator (UNFDAS) Tool that will combine...

  18. Supergravity and the quest for a unified theory

    Ferrara, S.

    1995-01-01

    The foundation of supergravity and research in its subsequent developments is described. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of supergravity on the search for a unified theory of fundamental interactions. (author)

  19. Redox and Ionic Homeostasis Regulations against Oxidative, Salinity and Drought Stress in Wheat (A Systems Biology Approach

    Zahid Hussain Shah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology and omics has provided a comprehensive understanding about the dynamics of the genome, metabolome, transcriptome, and proteome under stress. In wheat, abiotic stresses trigger specific networks of pathways involved in redox and ionic homeostasis as well as osmotic balance. These networks are considerably more complicated than those in model plants, and therefore, counter models are proposed by unifying the approaches of omics and stress systems biology. Furthermore, crosstalk among these pathways is monitored by the regulation and streaming of transcripts and genes. In this review, we discuss systems biology and omics as a promising tool to study responses to oxidative, salinity, and drought stress in wheat.

  20. Top-down approach to unified supergravity models

    Hempfling, R.

    1994-03-01

    We introduce a new approach for studying unified supergravity models. In this approach all the parameters of the grand unified theory (GUT) are fixed by imposing the corresponding number of low energy observables. This determines the remaining particle spectrum whose dependence on the low energy observables can now be investigated. We also include some SUSY threshold corrections that have previously been neglected. In particular the SUSY threshold corrections to the fermion masses can have a significant impact on the Yukawa coupling unification. (orig.)

  1. Restrictions on SU(5) as a grand unified theory

    Shellard, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Some restrictions imposed upon Grand Unified Theories by dynamical symetry breakdown are examined. They are shown that, in particular, theories SU(5) as symmetry group, with 3 or more fermion families undergo dynamical symmetry breakdown, and some of the fermions will acquire mass at the Grand Unified scale. On the other hand, the SO(10) group, with 3 families is free from this problem. (Author) [pt

  2. Lattice mechanics of ionic crystals - unified study

    Sengupta, S.; Roy, D.; Basu, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    The up-to-date situation in the understanding of the mechanical properties of ionic solids is reviewed. These properties are determined by the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) potential energy function. For ionic crystals this potential energy function can be written down with some precision. To keep the expression tractable, the dominant electron deformation, the dipolar deformation, is treated as an adiabatic variable and the energy then becomes a function of both the nuclear coordinates and the ionic dipole moments. All the well known models for ionic crystals are discussed in terms of the energy expression they imply. This makes the comparison straight forward and brings out the essential difference between the models clearly. Next various quantum mechanical treatments for ionic crystals are reviewed. An attempt is made to obtain the B-O potential energy expression using a Heitler-London approach. By comparing the various models one can arrive at some definitive conclusions about the degree of validity and the assumptions underlying these models. Finally a comprehensive review of the results of actual computation on various ionic crystals done by different authors is undertaken. The crucial quantitative results are examined and the success and shortcoming of each calculation are critically analysed. The guiding principle in this part is the unified approach. i.e. to see how far a model with a given set of parameters accounts for both the dynamic and static properties. The discussion is divided in three sections for crystals with sodium chloride, cesium chloride and zinc sulfide structures. Outstanding problems and difficulties in the present understanding are pointed out. (auth.)

  3. Unifying the Algebra for All Movement

    Eddy, Colleen M.; Quebec Fuentes, Sarah; Ward, Elizabeth K.; Parker, Yolanda A.; Cooper, Sandi; Jasper, William A.; Mallam, Winifred A.; Sorto, M. Alejandra; Wilkerson, Trena L.

    2015-01-01

    There exists an increased focus on school mathematics, especially first-year algebra, due to recent efforts for all students to be college and career ready. In addition, there are calls, policies, and legislation advocating for all students to study algebra epitomized by four rationales of the "Algebra for All" movement. In light of this…

  4. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 8: Force Transformers.

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on force transformers is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy…

  5. N2-fixation in fababean (vicia faba l.) grown in saline and non saline conditions using 15N tracer technique

    Khalifa, Kh.; Kurdali, F.

    2002-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of growing fababean and barley under saline conditions, in terms of, dry matter yield, total nitrogen and, percentages and amount of N derived from soil, fertilizer and atmosphere using 15 N isotope dilution method. Three saline treatments were performed: First, plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss), Second, Plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss); and Third, Plants grown in non saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Sn). Furthermore, a control treatment was performed by using non-saline soil and non-saline water (Wn Sn). The different salinity treatments reduced plant growth and the reduction was more pronounced in fababean than in barley. However, under conditions of either saline soil-soft irrigation water or non saline soil-salty irrigation water, the relative growth reduction did not exceed 50% of the control; whereas, a significant negative effect was obtained when plants were grown under completely saline conditions of both soil and irrigation water. Percentage of N 2 -fixed (% Ndfa) was not negatively affected by saline conditions. However, our results clearly demonstrated that the effect of salinity in fababean was more evident on plant growth than on N 2 -fixing activity. Further studies are needed to obtain more salt tolerant faba bean genotypes in terms of growth and yield. This could be simultaneously improve yield and N 2 -fixation under sever saline conditions. (author)

  6. 29 CFR 779.219 - Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership.

    2010-07-01

    ... Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.219 Unified operation may... through “unified operation.” It is clear from the definition that if the described activities are performed through unified operation they will be part of the enterprise whether they are performed by one...

  7. Salinity tolerance of the South African endemic amphipod ...

    Salinities were prepared using natural seawater and synthetic sea salt. Grandidierella lignorum tolerated all salinities, but showed highest survival at salinities of 7–42. Salinity tolerance was modified by temperature, with highest survival occurring between 10 and 25 °C. These represent the range of conditions at which ...

  8. Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between Saline and ... Setting 4 dSm-1 as the limit between saline and non-saline soils in kriging algorithms resulted in a .... number of sample points within the search window,.

  9. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  10. Updating temperature and salinity mean values and trends in the Western Mediterranean: The RADMED project

    Vargas-Yáñez, M.; García-Martínez, M. C.; Moya, F.; Balbín, R.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Serra, M.; Zunino, P.; Pascual, J.; Salat, J.

    2017-09-01

    The RADMED project is devoted to the implementation and maintenance of a multidisciplinary monitoring system around the Spanish Mediterranean waters. This observing system is based on periodic multidisciplinary cruises covering the coastal waters, continental shelf and slope waters and some deep stations (>2000 m) from the Westernmost Alboran Sea to Barcelona in the Catalan Sea, including the Balearic Islands. This project was launched in 2007 unifying and extending some previous monitoring projects which had a more reduced geographical coverage. Some of the time series currently available extend from 1992, while the more recent ones were initiated in 2007. The present work updates the available time series up to 2015 (included) and shows the capability of these time series for two main purposes: the calculation of mean values for the properties of main water masses around the Spanish Mediterranean, and the study of the interannual and decadal variability of such properties. The data set provided by the RADMED project has been merged with historical data from the MEDAR/MEDATLAS data base for the calculation of temperature and salinity trends from 1900 to 2015. The analysis of these time series shows that the intermediate and deep layers of the Western Mediterranean have increased their temperature and salinity with an acceleration of the warming and salting trends from 1943. Trends for the heat absorbed by the water column for the 1943-2015 period, range between 0.2 and 0.6 W/m2 depending on the used methodology. The temperature and salinity trends for the same period and for the intermediate layer are 0.002 °C/yr and 0.001 yr-1 respectively. Deep layers warmed and increased their salinity at a rate of 0.004 °C/yr and 0.001 yr-1.

  11. Theory Z School: Beyond Effectiveness.

    George, Paul S.

    American schools might improve their performance by emulating certain successful businesses that, while distinctly American, have much in common with Japanese corporations. William Ouchi attributes Japanese business success to worker involvement; the typical Japanese corporation, he asserts, unifies its employees around a corporate philosophy…

  12. District-Wide Involvement: The Key to Successful School Improvement.

    Mundell, Scott; Babich, George

    1989-01-01

    Describes the self-study process used by the Marana Unified School District to meet accreditation requirements with minimal expense, to emphasize curriculum development, and to improve the school. Considers the key feature of the cyclical review model to be the personal involvement of nearly every faculty member in the 10-school district. (DMM)

  13. Portfolio District Reform Meets School Turnaround: Early Implementation Findings from the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative

    Marsh, Julie A.; Strunk, Katharine O.; Bush, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the popularity of school "turnaround" and "portfolio district" management as solutions to low performance, there has been limited research on these strategies. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the strategic case of Los Angeles Unified School District's Public School Choice…

  14. Freshwater salinization syndrome on a continental scale.

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Pace, Michael L; Utz, Ryan M; Haq, Shahan; Gorman, Julia; Grese, Melissa

    2018-01-23

    Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century. Across 232 United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring sites, 66% of stream and river sites showed a statistical increase in pH, which often began decades before acid rain regulations. The syndrome is most prominent in the densely populated eastern and midwestern United States, where salinity and alkalinity have increased most rapidly. The syndrome is caused by salt pollution (e.g., road deicers, irrigation runoff, sewage, potash), accelerated weathering and soil cation exchange, mining and resource extraction, and the presence of easily weathered minerals used in agriculture (lime) and urbanization (concrete). Increasing salts with strong bases and carbonates elevate acid neutralizing capacity and pH, and increasing sodium from salt pollution eventually displaces base cations on soil exchange sites, which further increases pH and alkalinization. Symptoms of the syndrome can include: infrastructure corrosion, contaminant mobilization, and variations in coastal ocean acidification caused by increasingly alkaline river inputs. Unless regulated and managed, the freshwater salinization syndrome can have significant impacts on ecosystem services such as safe drinking water, contaminant retention, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Nothing From Everything- A Unified Theory

    Mehra, Vijay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Nothing From Everything-A Unified Theory is a philosophical insight into principles of nature through principle of complementary spontaneity and principle of vertical continuity. This work is intended to explain various cosmological phenomena in light of behaviour of particles in range of their respective and relative speed of light. This theory explains creation of Universe from nothing or zero spacetime through scalar energy field collapsing into Higgs field resulting into giving mass to various particles. The energy particles taking origin from nothing while moving away from zero space-time would create space-time of their own order because energy/matter needs space to exist. The particles while moving away from zero space-time would end up in breaking symmetry of matter/energy at their mass infinity (highest possible mass of any particle, which is function of speed of spin). This break in symmetry would lead to curving of particles upon themselves and hence would lead to creation of antiparticles going back in time towards zero spacetime. Therefore the Universe could have been created by alternate layers of particles and antiparticles and also alternate layers of matter and antimatter with decelerating speed of light, which would lead to creation a closed and flat Universe. With increase in mass of Universe (creation of more and more Universe's matter from nothing), the gravitational force of Universe is bound to increase and hence with quantum by quantum increase in gravity, it would apply brakes on relative speed of photon/light out of its reference frame or designated space and hence speed of photon would decrease. If closed and flat Universe was created with decelerating speed of light, then such Universe is bound to contract back with accelerating speed of light which would have inverse impact on gravitational constant across various spacetime zones of Universe. And hence mass bodies would drift away spontaneously purely on basis and proportional to

  16. Dextrose saline compared with normal saline rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum: a randomized controlled trial.

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Norazilah, Mat Jin; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2013-02-01

    To compare 5% dextrose-0.9% saline against 0.9% saline solution in the intravenous rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum. Women at their first hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum were enrolled on admission to the ward and randomly assigned to receive either 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline by intravenous infusion at a rate 125 mL/h over 24 hours in a double-blind trial. All participants also received thiamine and an antiemetic intravenously. Oral intake was allowed as tolerated. Primary outcomes were resolution of ketonuria and well-being (by 10-point visual numerical rating scale) at 24 hours. Nausea visual numerical rating scale scores were obtained every 8 hours for 24 hours. Persistent ketonuria rates after the 24-hour study period were 10 of 101 (9.9%) compared with 11 of 101 (10.9%) (P>.99; relative risk 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4-2.2) and median (interquartile range) well-being scores at 24 hours were 9 (8-10) compared with 9 (8-9.5) (P=.73) in the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline and 0.9% saline arms, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance of the nausea visual numerical rating scale score as assessed every 8 hours during the 24-hour study period showed a significant difference in favor of the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline arm (P=.046) with the superiority apparent at 8 and 16 hours, but the advantage had dissipated by 24 hours. Secondary outcomes of vomiting, resolution of hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hypokalemia, length of hospitalization, duration of intravenous antiemetic, and rehydration were not different. Intravenous rehydration with 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline solution in women hospitalized for hyperemesis gravidarum produced similar outcomes. ISRCTN Register, www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn, ISRCTN65014409. I.

  17. An Adaptive Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

    2014-11-03

    In this paper, we propose a new adaptive unified differential evolution algorithm for single-objective global optimization. Instead of the multiple mutation strate- gies proposed in conventional differential evolution algorithms, this algorithm employs a single equation unifying multiple strategies into one expression. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexibility for broader exploration of the space of mutation operators. By making all control parameters in the proposed algorithm self-adaptively evolve during the process of optimization, it frees the application users from the burden of choosing appro- priate control parameters and also improves the performance of the algorithm. In numerical tests using thirteen basic unimodal and multimodal functions, the proposed adaptive unified algorithm shows promising performance in compari- son to several conventional differential evolution algorithms.

  18. Unified Phase Diagram for Iron-Based Superconductors.

    Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Zhaoyu; Xie, Tao; Zhang, Wenliang; Gong, Dongliang; Hu, Ding; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunhong; Zhao, Lingxiao; Lin, Lifang; Xu, Zhuang; Tan, Guotai; Chen, Genfu; Meng, Zi Yang; Yang, Yi-Feng; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang

    2017-10-13

    High-temperature superconductivity is closely adjacent to a long-range antiferromagnet, which is called a parent compound. In cuprates, all parent compounds are alike and carrier doping leads to superconductivity, so a unified phase diagram can be drawn. However, the properties of parent compounds for iron-based superconductors show significant diversity and both carrier and isovalent dopings can cause superconductivity, which casts doubt on the idea that there exists a unified phase diagram for them. Here we show that the ordered moments in a variety of iron pnictides are inversely proportional to the effective Curie constants of their nematic susceptibility. This unexpected scaling behavior suggests that the magnetic ground states of iron pnictides can be achieved by tuning the strength of nematic fluctuations. Therefore, a unified phase diagram can be established where superconductivity emerges from a hypothetical parent compound with a large ordered moment but weak nematic fluctuations, which suggests that iron-based superconductors are strongly correlated electron systems.

  19. Unified Phase Diagram for Iron-Based Superconductors

    Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Zhaoyu; Xie, Tao; Zhang, Wenliang; Gong, Dongliang; Hu, Ding; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunhong; Zhao, Lingxiao; Lin, Lifang; Xu, Zhuang; Tan, Guotai; Chen, Genfu; Meng, Zi Yang; Yang, Yi-feng; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang

    2017-10-01

    High-temperature superconductivity is closely adjacent to a long-range antiferromagnet, which is called a parent compound. In cuprates, all parent compounds are alike and carrier doping leads to superconductivity, so a unified phase diagram can be drawn. However, the properties of parent compounds for iron-based superconductors show significant diversity and both carrier and isovalent dopings can cause superconductivity, which casts doubt on the idea that there exists a unified phase diagram for them. Here we show that the ordered moments in a variety of iron pnictides are inversely proportional to the effective Curie constants of their nematic susceptibility. This unexpected scaling behavior suggests that the magnetic ground states of iron pnictides can be achieved by tuning the strength of nematic fluctuations. Therefore, a unified phase diagram can be established where superconductivity emerges from a hypothetical parent compound with a large ordered moment but weak nematic fluctuations, which suggests that iron-based superconductors are strongly correlated electron systems.

  20. Mechanical systems a unified approach to vibrations and controls

    Gans, Roger F

    2015-01-01

    This essential textbook covers analysis and control of engineering mechanisms, which include almost any apparatus with moving parts used in daily life, from musical instruments to robots. The text  presents both vibrations and controls with considerable breadth and depth using a unified notation. It strikes a nice balance between the analytical and the practical.  This text contains enough material for a two semester sequence, but it can also be used in a single semester course combining the two topics. Mechanical Systems: A Unified Approach to Vibrations and Controls presents a common notation and approach to these closely related areas. Examples from the both vibrations and controls components are integrated throughout this text. This book also: ·         Presents a unified approach to vibrations and controls, including an excellent diagram that simultaneously discusses embedding classical vibrations (mechanical systems) in a discussion of models, inverse models, and open and closed loop control ...

  1. Canonical duality theory unified methodology for multidisciplinary study

    Latorre, Vittorio; Ruan, Ning

    2017-01-01

    This book on canonical duality theory provides a comprehensive review of its philosophical origin, physics foundation, and mathematical statements in both finite- and infinite-dimensional spaces. A ground-breaking methodological theory, canonical duality theory can be used for modeling complex systems within a unified framework and for solving a large class of challenging problems in multidisciplinary fields in engineering, mathematics, and the sciences. This volume places a particular emphasis on canonical duality theory’s role in bridging the gap between non-convex analysis/mechanics and global optimization.  With 18 total chapters written by experts in their fields, this volume provides a nonconventional theory for unified understanding of the fundamental difficulties in large deformation mechanics, bifurcation/chaos in nonlinear science, and the NP-hard problems in global optimization. Additionally, readers will find a unified methodology and powerful algorithms for solving challenging problems in comp...

  2. a Unified Matrix Polynomial Approach to Modal Identification

    Allemang, R. J.; Brown, D. L.

    1998-04-01

    One important current focus of modal identification is a reformulation of modal parameter estimation algorithms into a single, consistent mathematical formulation with a corresponding set of definitions and unifying concepts. Particularly, a matrix polynomial approach is used to unify the presentation with respect to current algorithms such as the least-squares complex exponential (LSCE), the polyreference time domain (PTD), Ibrahim time domain (ITD), eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA), rational fraction polynomial (RFP), polyreference frequency domain (PFD) and the complex mode indication function (CMIF) methods. Using this unified matrix polynomial approach (UMPA) allows a discussion of the similarities and differences of the commonly used methods. the use of least squares (LS), total least squares (TLS), double least squares (DLS) and singular value decomposition (SVD) methods is discussed in order to take advantage of redundant measurement data. Eigenvalue and SVD transformation methods are utilized to reduce the effective size of the resulting eigenvalue-eigenvector problem as well.

  3. Towards a Unified Sentiment Lexicon Based on Graphics Processing Units

    Liliana Ibeth Barbosa-Santillán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to create what we have called a Unified Sentiment Lexicon (USL. This approach aims at aligning, unifying, and expanding the set of sentiment lexicons which are available on the web in order to increase their robustness of coverage. One problem related to the task of the automatic unification of different scores of sentiment lexicons is that there are multiple lexical entries for which the classification of positive, negative, or neutral {P,N,Z} depends on the unit of measurement used in the annotation methodology of the source sentiment lexicon. Our USL approach computes the unified strength of polarity of each lexical entry based on the Pearson correlation coefficient which measures how correlated lexical entries are with a value between 1 and −1, where 1 indicates that the lexical entries are perfectly correlated, 0 indicates no correlation, and −1 means they are perfectly inversely correlated and so is the UnifiedMetrics procedure for CPU and GPU, respectively. Another problem is the high processing time required for computing all the lexical entries in the unification task. Thus, the USL approach computes a subset of lexical entries in each of the 1344 GPU cores and uses parallel processing in order to unify 155802 lexical entries. The results of the analysis conducted using the USL approach show that the USL has 95.430 lexical entries, out of which there are 35.201 considered to be positive, 22.029 negative, and 38.200 neutral. Finally, the runtime was 10 minutes for 95.430 lexical entries; this allows a reduction of the time computing for the UnifiedMetrics by 3 times.

  4. Wave Induced Saline Intrusion in Sea Outfalls

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy is dissip...

  5. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  6. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Miller, Craig; Null, Sarah E.; Derose, R. Justin; Wilcock, Peter; Hahnenberger, Maura; Howe, Frank; Moore, Johnnie

    2017-11-01

    Many of the world's saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and levels. Quantifying the relative contributions of natural variability and human impacts to lake inflows is needed to preserve these lakes. With a credible water balance, causes of lake decline from water diversions or climate variability can be identified and the inflow needed to maintain lake health can be defined. Without a water balance, natural variability can be an excuse for inaction. Here we describe the decline of several of the world's large saline lakes and use a water balance for Great Salt Lake (USA) to demonstrate that consumptive water use rather than long-term climate change has greatly reduced its size. The inflow needed to maintain bird habitat, support lake-related industries and prevent dust storms that threaten human health and agriculture can be identified and provides the information to evaluate the difficult tradeoffs between direct benefits of consumptive water use and ecosystem services provided by saline lakes.

  7. Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S.

    are described. Two of the maxima arise from the influence of Red Sea and the Persian Gulf Water. The third, which lies at the bottom of the Equatorial Surface Water, forms due to freshening at the surface of high salinity Arabian Sea near-surface waters...

  8. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

  9. Routine saline infusion sonohysterography prior to assisted ...

    53.85%), 8 (30.77%) and 4 (15.38%) respectively. The average duration of the procedure was 6 minutes with a range of 4-9 minutes. Saline infusion sonohysterography is a reliable, cost effective and safe diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the ...

  10. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  11. Design of output feedback controller for a unified chaotic system

    Li Wenlin; Chen Xiuqin; Shen Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the synchronization of a unified chaotic system is investigated by the use of output feedback controllers; a two-input single-output feedback controller and single-input single-output feedback controller are presented to synchronize the unified chaotic system when the states are not all measurable. Compared with the existing results, the controllers designed in this paper have some advantages such as small feedback gain, simple structure and less conservation. Finally, numerical simulations results are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method

  12. Nonlinear adaptive inverse control via the unified model neural network

    Jeng, Jin-Tsong; Lee, Tsu-Tian

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new nonlinear adaptive inverse control via a unified model neural network. In order to overcome nonsystematic design and long training time in nonlinear adaptive inverse control, we propose the approximate transformable technique to obtain a Chebyshev Polynomials Based Unified Model (CPBUM) neural network for the feedforward/recurrent neural networks. It turns out that the proposed method can use less training time to get an inverse model. Finally, we apply this proposed method to control magnetic bearing system. The experimental results show that the proposed nonlinear adaptive inverse control architecture provides a greater flexibility and better performance in controlling magnetic bearing systems.

  13. Role of baryons in unified dark matter models

    Beca, L.M.G.; Avelino, P.P.; Carvalho, J.P. de M.; Martins, C.J.A.P.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the importance of including baryons in analyses of unified dark matter scenarios, focusing on toy models involving a generalized Chaplygin gas. We determine observational constraints on this unified dark matter scenario coming from large-scale structure, type Ia supernovae and CMB data showing how this component can bring about a different behavior from the classical cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant and thus motivate further studies of this type of models. We also speculate on interesting new features which are likely to be important on nonlinear scales in this context

  14. Geometric theory of fundamental interactions. Foundations of unified physics

    Pestov, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    We put forward an idea that regularities of unified physics are in a simple relation: everything in the concept of space and the concept of space in everything. With this hypothesis as a ground, a conceptual structure of a unified geometrical theory of fundamental interactions is created and deductive derivation of its main equations is produced. The formulated theory gives solution of the actual problems, provides opportunity to understand the origin and nature of physical fields, local internal symmetry, time, energy, spin, charge, confinement, dark energy and dark matter, thus conforming the existence of new physics in its unity

  15. Management of saline soils in Israel

    Rawitz, E.

    1983-01-01

    The main soil salinity problem in Israel is the danger of gradual salinization as a result of excessively efficient water management. Aquifer management is aimed at preventing flow of groundwater into the ocean, causing a creeping salinization at a rate of about 2 ppm per year. Successful efforts to improve irrigation efficiency brought with them the danger of salt accumulation in the soil. A ten-year monitoring programme carried out by the Irrigation Extension Service at 250 sampling sites showed that appreciable salt accumulation indeed occurred during the rainless irrigation season. However, where annual rainfall is more than about 350 mm this salt accumulation is adequately leached out of the root zone by the winter rains. Soil salinity in the autumn is typically two to three times that in the spring, a level which does not affect yields adversely. In the drier regions of the country long-term increasing soil salinity has been observed, and leaching is required. This is generally accomplished during the pre-irrigation given in the spring, whose size is determined by the rainfall amount of the preceding winter. The increasing need to utilize brackish groundwater and recycled sewage effluent requires special measures, which have so far been successful. In particular, drip irrigation with its high average soil-water potential regime and partial wetting of the soil volume has achieved high yields under adverse conditions. However, the long-term trend of water-quality deterioration is unavoidable under present conditions, and will eventually necessitate either major changes in agricultural patterns or the provision of desalinated water for dilution of the irrigation water. (author)

  16. Sodium kinetics in hypertonic saline abortion

    Telfer, N.; Ballard, C.S.; McKee, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The sodium kinetics of hypertonic saline abortions have been followed by measuring the radioactivity and the sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, urine, the foetus and placenta after intrauterine installation of 20% hypertonic saline labelled with 22 Na in order to determine the reason for abortion of a dead foetus in 24 to 48 hours, and reasons for sodium reactions. There is dilution of the 300 ml of amniotic fluid to a maximum of 1.5 to 2.0 litres in an exponential fashion, by the influx of mainly maternal water, slowing after 8 hours. There is an exponential type of increase in plasma radioactivity, also slowing after 8 hours. However, equilibration is never reached, the specific activity of the amniotic fluid remaining 10 times that of the plasma, and the sodium concentration 3 times that of the plasma. The urine equilibrates with the plasma, and about 3% of the administered dose is lost in 22 hours. The largest foetus and placenta picked up the least radioactivity. Thus, a more mature foetus may be protected to some degree against the hypertonic saline action; this has been observed clinically. Hyperkaliaemia was found in all four subjects, and hypoglycaemia occurred sporadically. These were not accompanied by any symptoms. Factors associated with expulsion of the dead foetus are dehydration and decreased circulation associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the placenta, which may also account for cessation of equilibration between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid. Although no saline reactions occurred, the role of extrauterine deposition of hypertonic saline, as shown in one subject, might be considered. (author)

  17. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  18. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  19. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... 2Department of Molecular Physiology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran ... indexes for screening bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance. ... published on screening methods in salinity tolerance in.

  20. Identification of Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Salicornia bigelovii

    Salazar Moya, Octavio Ruben

    2017-01-01

    by providing a genome, transcriptomes, and organellar proteomes, contributing to salinity tolerance research overall. We identified a set of candidate genes for salinity tolerance with the aim of shedding some light on the mechanisms by which this plant thrives

  1. Time-dependence of salinity in monsoonal estuaries

    Vijith, V.; Sundar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    processes (diffusion, gravity current formation, impact of tidal asymmetries, etc.) is balanced by salinity-egress induced by runoff. Here we point out that the salinity field of the estuaries that are located on the coasts of the Indian subcontinent...

  2. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  3. Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) Data, 1985-present

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) develops and maintains a global ocean temperature and salinity resource with data that are both up-to-date...

  4. Sustainable management of coastal saline soils in the Saloum river ...

    conductivity, pH, water soluble cations and anions) were analysed to estimate the salinity level at each .... (floodplain, low terrace), saline soils are now .... Apart from having a high salt content, ..... permeability and thereby promotes continuous.

  5. Microbial Fuel Cells under Extreme Salinity

    Monzon del Olmo, Oihane

    I developed a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) that unprecedentedly works (i.e., produces electricity) under extreme salinity (≈ 100 g/L NaCl). Many industries, such as oil and gas extraction, generate hypersaline wastewaters with high organic strength, accounting for about 5% of worldwide generated effluents, which represent a major challenge for pollution control and resource recovery. This study assesses the potential for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to treat such wastewaters and generate electricity under extreme saline conditions. Specifically, the focus is on the feasibility to treat hypersaline wastewater generated by the emerging unconventional oil and gas industry (hydraulic fracturing) and so, with mean salinity of 100 g/L NaCl (3-fold higher than sea water). The success of this novel technology strongly depends on finding a competent and resilient microbial community that can degrade the waste under extreme saline conditions and be able to use the anode as their terminal electron acceptor (exoelectrogenic capability). I demonstrated that MFCs can produce electricity at extremely high salinity (up to 250 g/l NaCl) with a power production of 71mW/m2. Pyrosequencing analysis of the anode population showed the predominance of Halanaerobium spp. (85%), which has been found in shale formations and oil reservoirs. Promoting Quorum sensing (QS, cell to cell communication between bacteria to control gene expression) was used as strategy to increase the attachment of bacteria to the anode and thus improve the MFC performance. Results show that the power output can be bolstered by adding 100nM of quinolone signal with an increase in power density of 30%, for the first time showing QS in Halanaerobium extremophiles. To make this technology closer to market applications, experiments with real wastewaters were also carried out. A sample of produced wastewater from Barnet Shale, Texas (86 g/L NaCl) produced electricity when fed in an MFC, leading to my discovery of another

  6. Phase transitions at finite chemical potential in grand unified theories

    Bailin, D.; Love, A.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the circumstances in which non-zero chemical potentials might prevent symmetry restoration in phase transitions in the early universe at grand unification or partial unification scales. The general arguments are illustrated by consideration of SO(10) and SU(5) grand unified theories. (orig.)

  7. About the Possibility of Creation of a Deterministic Unified Mechanics

    Khomyakov, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of creation of a unified deterministic scheme of classical and quantum mechanics, allowing to preserve their achievements is discussed. It is shown that the canonical system of ordinary differential equation of Hamilton classical mechanics can be added with the vector system of ordinary differential equation for the variables of equations. The interpretational problems of quantum mechanics are considered

  8. Designing a framework for a unified electronic identity system ...

    In this paper, a Unified Identity System is proposed where single electronic identity (eID) is issued that can be used across the various platforms of business transaction. The activity/state diagram of the model is presented, and the means of authentication is based on the Secure Assertion Markup Language (SAML) ...

  9. A unifying approach to existence of Nash equilibria

    Balder, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    An approach initiated in [4] is shown to unify results about the existence of (i) Nash equilibria in games with at most countably many players, (ii) Cournot-Nash equilibrium distributions for large, anonymous games, and (iii) Nash equilibria (both mixed and pure) for continuum games. A new, central

  10. Seismic monitoring: a unified system for research and verifications

    Thigpen, L.

    1979-01-01

    A system for characterizing either a seismic source or geologic media from observational data was developed. This resulted from an examination of the forward and inverse problems of seismology. The system integrates many seismic monitoring research efforts into a single computational capability. Its main advantage is that it unifies computational and research efforts in seismic monitoring. 173 references, 9 figures, 3 tables

  11. Unified Model for Generation Complex Networks with Utility Preferential Attachment

    Wu Jianjun; Gao Ziyou; Sun Huijun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, based on the utility preferential attachment, we propose a new unified model to generate different network topologies such as scale-free, small-world and random networks. Moreover, a new network structure named super scale network is found, which has monopoly characteristic in our simulation experiments. Finally, the characteristics of this new network are given.

  12. Adapting the unified software development process for user interface development

    Obrenovic, Z.; Starcevic, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe how existing software developing processes, such as Rational Unified Process, can be adapted in order to allow disciplined and more efficient development of user interfaces. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that standard modeling environments, based on the

  13. Designing synchronization schemes for chaotic fractional-order unified systems

    Wang Junwei; Zhang Yanbin

    2006-01-01

    Synchronization in chaotic fractional-order differential systems is studied both theoretically and numerically. Two schemes are designed to achieve chaos synchronization of so-called unified chaotic systems and the corresponding numerical algorithms are established. Some sufficient conditions on synchronization are also derived based on the Laplace transformation theory. Computer simulations are used for demonstration

  14. Modeling of hydrodynamic cavitation reactors: a unified approach

    Moholkar, V.S.; Pandit, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    An attempt has been made to present a unified theoretical model for the cavitating flow in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor using the nonlinear continuum mixture model for two-phase flow as the basis. This model has been used to describe the radial motion of bubble in the cavitating flow in two

  15. The Bjorken-Paschos relation in the unified gauge theory

    Oh, S.K.

    1980-07-01

    We have examined in the unified gauge theory with the integrally-charged quark model the Bjorken-Paschos relation within the impulse approximation of the parton picture. We find that the relation is valid for the forward scattering region and provides a reliable way to test the charge assignment of the quarks and the gluons. (author)

  16. Catastrophe Theory: A Unified Model for Educational Change.

    Cryer, Patricia; Elton, Lewis

    1990-01-01

    Catastrophe Theory and Herzberg's theory of motivation at work was used to create a model of change that unifies and extends Lewin's two separate stage and force field models. This new model is used to analyze the behavior of academics as they adapt to the changing university environment. (Author/MLW)

  17. 78 FR 18235 - Unified Rule for Loss on Subsidiary Stock

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Unified Rule for Loss on... first sentence, reinstate the following sentence: Sec. 1.1502-32 Investment adjustments. * * * * * (c... than the time the distribution is taken into account under the Internal Revenue Code (e.g., under...

  18. New unified field theory based on the conformal group

    Pessa, E [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica

    1980-10-01

    Based on a six-dimensional generalization of Maxwell's equations, a new unified theory of the electromagnetic and gravitational field is developed. Additional space-time coordinates are interpreted only as mathematical tools in order to obtain a linear realization of the four-dimensional conformal group.

  19. When Unified Teacher Pay Scales Meet Differential Alternative Returns

    Walsh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the extent to which unified teacher pay scales and differential alternatives produce opportunity costs that are asymmetric in math and verbal skills. Data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond 1997 and 2003 follow-ups are used to estimate a fully parametric, selection-corrected wage equation for nonteachers, which is then used to…

  20. Quintessential inflation: A unified scenario of inflation and dark energy

    Hossain Wali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quintessential inflation unifies inflation and late time acceleration by a single scalar field. Such a scenario, with canonical and non-canonical scalar fields, has been discussed. The scalar field behaves as an inflaton field during inflation and as a quintessence field during late time. Also the predictions of the models has been compared with the recent Planck data.

  1. A unifying theory The universe on a string

    Greene, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-five years ago, Albert Einstein completed his unified field theory; but, as had happened before and would happen again, Einstein had to go bak to the drawing board. Much progress have been inspired, with the most recent advances coming from an approach called string theory. (1,5 page)

  2. Unified Approach to Universal Cloning and Phase-Covariant Cloning

    Hu, Jia-Zhong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the problem of approximate quantum cloning when the quantum state is between two latitudes on the Bloch's sphere. We present an analytical formula for the optimized 1-to-2 cloning. The formula unifies the universal quantum cloning (UQCM) and the phase covariant quantum cloning.

  3. The Unified Levelling Network of Sarawak and its Adjustment

    Som, Z. A. M.; Yazid, A. M.; Ming, T. K.; Yazid, N. M.

    2016-09-01

    The height reference network of Sarawak has seen major improvement in over the past two decades. The most significant improvement was the establishment of extended precise leveling network of which is now able to connect all three major datum points at Pulau Lakei, Original and Bintulu. Datum by following the major accessible routes across Sarawak. This means the leveling network in Sarawak has now been inter-connected and unified. By having such a unified network leads to the possibility of having a common single least squares adjustment been performed for the first time. The least squares adjustment of this unified levelling network was attempted in order to compute the height of all Bench Marks established in the entire levelling network. The adjustment was done by using MoreFix levelling adjustment package developed at FGHT UTM. The computational procedure adopted is linear parametric adjustment by minimum constraint. Since Sarawak has three separate datums therefore three separate adjustments were implemented by utilizing datum at Pulau Lakei, Original Miri and Bintulu Datum respectively. Results of the MoreFix unified adjustment agreed very well with adjustment repeated using Starnet. Further the results were compared with solution given by Jupem and they are in good agreement as well. The difference in height analysed were within 10mm for the case of minimum constraint at Pulau Lakei datum and with much better agreement in the case of Original Miri Datum.

  4. Towards a unified theory of task-specific motivation

    De Brabander, Cornelis; Martens, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to integrate the current proliferation of motivation theories in a Unified Model of Task-specific Motivation (UMTM). According to this model readiness for action results from an interaction between four relatively independent types of valences that can be classified as affective or

  5. THE UNIFIED LEVELLING NETWORK OF SARAWAK AND ITS ADJUSTMENT

    Z. A. M. Som

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The height reference network of Sarawak has seen major improvement in over the past two decades. The most significant improvement was the establishment of extended precise leveling network of which is now able to connect all three major datum points at Pulau Lakei, Original and Bintulu. Datum by following the major accessible routes across Sarawak. This means the leveling network in Sarawak has now been inter-connected and unified. By having such a unified network leads to the possibility of having a common single least squares adjustment been performed for the first time. The least squares adjustment of this unified levelling network was attempted in order to compute the height of all Bench Marks established in the entire levelling network. The adjustment was done by using MoreFix levelling adjustment package developed at FGHT UTM. The computational procedure adopted is linear parametric adjustment by minimum constraint. Since Sarawak has three separate datums therefore three separate adjustments were implemented by utilizing datum at Pulau Lakei, Original Miri and Bintulu Datum respectively. Results of the MoreFix unified adjustment agreed very well with adjustment repeated using Starnet. Further the results were compared with solution given by Jupem and they are in good agreement as well. The difference in height analysed were within 10mm for the case of minimum constraint at Pulau Lakei datum and with much better agreement in the case of Original Miri Datum.

  6. Unifying weak and electromagnetic forces in Weinberg-Salam theory

    Savoy, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    In this introduction to the ideas related to the unified gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, we begin with the motivations for its basic principles. Then, the formalism is briefly developed, in particular the so-called Higgs mechanism. The advantages and the consequences of the (non-abelian) gauge invariance are emphasized, together with the experimental tests of the theory [fr

  7. Masses of particles in the SO(18) grand unified model

    Asatryan, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    The grand unified model based on the orthogonal group SO(18) is treated. The model involves four familiar and four mirror families of fermions. Arising of masses of familiar and mirror particles is studied. The mass of the right-handed Wsub(R) boson interacting via right-handed current way is estimated

  8. The coherence problem with th Unified Neutral Theory of biodiversity

    James S. Clark

    2012-01-01

    The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity (UNTB), proposed as an alternative to niche theory, has been viewed as a theory that species coexist without niche differences, without fitness differences, or with equal probability of success. Support is claimed when models lacking species differences predict highly aggregated metrics, such as species abundance distributions...

  9. Unifying the Universe the physics of heaven and earth

    Padamsee, Hasan S

    2003-01-01

    Unifying the Universe: The Physics of Heaven and Earth provides a solid background in basic physics. With a humanistic perspective, it shows how science is significant for more than its technological consequences. The book includes clear and well-planned links to the arts and philosophies of relevant historical periods to bring science and the humanities together.

  10. Schr"odinger's Unified Field Theory: Physics by Public Relations

    Halpern, Paul

    2009-05-01

    We will explore the circumstances surrounding Erwin Schr"odinger's announcement in January 1947 that he had developed a comprehensive unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. We will speculate on Schr"odinger's motivations for the mode and tone of his statements, consider the reaction of the international press within the context of the postwar era, and examine Einstein's response.

  11. A Unified Analysis of Japanese Aspect Marker "te iru."

    Shinzato, Rumiko

    1993-01-01

    Following Jacobson's 1990 work, this study is another attempt to offer a unified analysis of the Japanese aspect marker "te iru" that touches upon Gestalt psychologists' ideas of figure/ground opposition, Langacker's cognitive grammar, and Kunihiro's cognitive analysis. (Contains 34 references.) (LB)

  12. Efficacy of nebulised L-adrenaline with 3% hypertonic saline versus normal saline in bronchiolitis

    Shabnam Sharmin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization. Nebulized epineph­rine and salbutamol therapy has been used in different centres with varying results. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline with nebulised adrenaline diluted with normal saline in bronchiolitis. Methods: Fifty three infants and young children with bronchiolitis, age ranging from 2 months to 2 years, presenting in the emergency department of Manikganj Sadar Hospital were enrolled in the study. After initial evaluation, patients were randomized to receive either nebulized adrenaline I .5 ml ( 1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of3% hypertonic saline (group I ornebulised adrenaline 1.5 ml (1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of normal saline (group II. Patients were evaluated again 30 minutes after nebulization. Results: Twenty eight patients in the group I (hypertonic saline and twenty five in groupII (normal saline were included in the study. After nebulization, mean respiratory rate decreased from 63.7 to 48.1 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 8.5 to 3.5 (p<.01 and mean oxygen satw·ation increased 94.7% to 96.9% (p<.01 in group I. In group II, mean respiratory rate decreased from 62.4 to 47.4 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 7.2 to 4.1 (p<.01 and mean oxygen saturation increased from 94. 7% to 96. 7% (p<.01. Mean respiratory rate decreased by 16 in group I versus 14.8 (p>.05 in group 11, mean clinical severity score decreased by 4.6 in group versus 3 (p<.05 in group, and mean oxygen saturation increased by 2.2% and 1.9% in group and group respectively. Difference in reduction in clinical severity score was statistically significant , though the changes in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that both nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline and

  13. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of copper sulphate and lead nitrate against Oreochromis niloticus. KA Bawa-Allah, F Osuala, J Effiong. Abstract. This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate ...

  14. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    Louw, de P.G.B.; Eeman, S.; Siemon, B.; `Voortman, B.R.; Gunnink, J.; Baaren, E.S.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and

  15. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    De Louw, Perry G.B.; Eeman, Sara; Siemon, Bernhard; Voortman, Bernard R.; Gunnink, Jan; Van Baaren, Esther S.; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, fresh water availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence

  16. Salinity ranges of some southern African fish species occurring in ...

    The recorded salinity ranges of 96 fish species occurring in southern African estuaries are documented. Factors influen- cing the tolerance of fishes to low and high salinity regimes are discussed, with most species tolerant of low rather than high salinity conditions. This is important since most systems are subject to periodic ...

  17. 76 FR 5276 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    2011-01-31

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide...

  18. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    2011-08-23

    ... respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function, visibility impairment, and damage to... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  19. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    2010-05-21

    ..., aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function, visibility impairment, and... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  20. 76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    2011-06-24

    ... premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  1. Modelling souring in a high salinity reservoir

    Adams, Michael; Crossland, Alan; Stott, Jim

    2006-03-15

    CAPCIS Ltd (Capcis) have developed a souring model for use in highly saline reservoirs where salinity limits the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Capcis have successfully applied the model to a field in North Africa. The conceptual basis of the model considers the course of the H2S from generation in the reservoir including dilution, sulphide retardation and scavenging and H2S fluid phase partitioning. At each stage mathematical equations governing the behaviour of the H2S were produced. In order to estimate the potential for H2S generation, it is required to know the chemistry of the injection and formation waters, as well as the properties of the indigenous SRB, i.e. the maximum salinity for their growth. This is determined by bottle testing of H2S generation by SRB at a range of injection/formation water ratios. The maximum salinity for SRB growth then determines the mixing ratios at which H2S generation takes place. Sulphide retardation due to adsorption at immobile interfaces was empirically modeled from reservoir data. Sulphide scavenging due to reaction with iron generated from corrosion was also modelled. Reservoir mineral scavenging was not modelled but could be incorporated in an extension to the model. Finally, in order to compute the gas-phase concentration of generated H2S, the H2S in the well stream is partitioned between the gas, oil and water phases. Capcis has carried out detailed computations of H2S solubility in crude oil and formation waters and the derivation of distribution ratios based on the respective partition coefficients using Gerard's line method, a modification of Henry's Law. (author) (tk)

  2. Finding a solution: Heparinised saline versus normal saline in the maintenance of invasive arterial lines in intensive care.

    Everson, Matthew; Webber, Lucy; Penfold, Chris; Shah, Sanjoy; Freshwater-Turner, Dan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed the impact of heparinised saline versus 0.9% normal saline on arterial line patency. Maintaining the patency of arterial lines is essential for obtaining accurate physiological measurements, enabling blood sampling and minimising line replacement. Use of heparinised saline is associated with risks such as thrombocytopenia, haemorrhage and mis-selection. Historical studies draw variable conclusions but suggest that normal saline is at least as effective at maintaining line patency, although recent evidence has questioned this. We conducted a prospective analysis of the use of heparinised saline versus normal saline on unselected patients in the intensive care of our hospital. Data concerning duration of 471 lines insertion and reason for removal was collected. We found a higher risk of blockage for lines flushed with normal saline compared with heparinised saline (RR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.392-3.32, p  ≤ 0.001). Of the 56 lines which blocked initially (19 heparinised saline and 37 normal saline lines), 16 were replaced with new lines; 5 heparinised saline lines and 11 normal saline lines were reinserted; 5 of these lines subsequently blocked again, 3 of which were flushed with normal saline. Our study demonstrates a clinically important reduction in arterial line longevity due to blockages when flushed with normal saline compared to heparinised saline. We have determined that these excess blockages have a significant clinical impact with further lines being inserted after blockage, resulting in increased risks to patients, wasted time and cost of resources. Our findings suggest that the current UK guidance favouring normal saline flushes should be reviewed.

  3. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    Jackson, C.P.

    1989-04-01

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  4. Salinization mechanisms in semi-arid regions

    Santiago, M.M.F.

    1984-01-01

    During a period of three years the basins of the Pereira de Miranda and Caxitore dams, located in the crystalline rock area of Ceara, Brazil, were studied in order to determine the mechanisms of salinization of their waters. Isotope methods ( 18 O/ 16 O) and hidrochemistry (determination of the of the maior ions) were applied to surface, underground and rain water in this study. An isotope model was designed and applied to the determination of evaporation and percolation of dams in semi-arid zones during the dry season. The results are compared to those from a conventional chemical model. As causes of salinization of the water in the dams, the contributions of the rain itself and the lixiviation of the soil are quantified. An interaction between the dams and the underground water is imperceptible. The salinization of the underground water is attributed to recharge of the aquifer with rain water from the surface runoff followed by evaporation of the water rising, due to capilarity, in a one-directional flow to the surface. (Author) [pt

  5. The Moon as a unifying sociological attraction

    Barbieri, C.; Pachera, S.; Ciucci, A.

    We propose to develop an economic, fully automated telescope to equip a variety of public and private buildings, such as disco dancings, pubs, resting houses, hospitals, schools etc., optimized to image and project the Moon, both in daylight and nightime. We strongly believe that the wide spread conscience of being part of a common Universe, by imaging the real Moon ( not a series of computer files) and following its changing course, distributed in places where the soul is usually taken in a wave of loneliness, can have a profound effect. In fact, living such an experience of observation in places where people of all ages usually meet, can help them to mix up socially and have fun and acquire new interests and fulfillment. They could confront their doubts, opinions, curiosity. The Moon is the natural choice, being visible even in polluted cities, it comes to the Zenith of a large band on the Earth encompassing each emisphere, it has deeply rooted meanings in all civilizations, and it is therefore the perfect astronomical object towards which humanity should direct its view above the ground. The possibility of the instrument to zoom in and out and to move across the surface of the Moon or to observe in real time the slowly moving line of the terminator, is intended just for the sheer wonder of it. No didactic use is meant to begin with, although interest is sure to be stimulated and may be followed up in many ways. Our object is indeed to make young and older people throughout the world feel our satellite nearer and more familiar in the shapes and names of its features, truly a constant presence in our everyday natural surroundings. When the time will come for human coloniz ation, the Moon could no longer be considered such an extraneous, exotic and faraway new home. The telescope can be built in very large quantities by a variety of firms practically even in underdeveloped countries, easily automated and connected to the world wide web.

  6. Synchronization of a unified chaotic system and the application in secure communication

    Lu Junan; Wu Xiaoqun; Lue Jinhu

    2002-01-01

    This Letter further investigates the synchronization of a unified chaotic system via different methods. Several sufficient theorems for the synchronization of the unified chaotic system are deduced. A scheme of secure communication based on the synchronization of the unified chaotic system is presented. Numerical simulation shows its feasibility

  7. Performance Analysis of FSO Links over Unified Gamma-Gamma Turbulence Channels

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    , then, present unified exact closed-form expressions for various statistical characteristics of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system. We capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed

  8. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    2011-07-28

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... proposing to approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 3170... the environment. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SJVUAPCD is an extreme...

  9. The effectiveness of dispersants under various temperature and salinity regimes

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON

    2005-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of dispersants in Arctic waters where salinity and temperature interactions play a critical role. In particular, Corexit 9500 was tested on Alaska North Slope oil at different temperatures and salinity using the ASTM standard test and variations of this test. Results were compared to the only historically reported test in which both temperature and salinity were changed over a range of values. This series of tests demonstrated that there is an interaction between salinity, temperature and dispersant effectiveness. It was shown that conventional and currently available dispersants are nearly ineffective at 0 salinity. Dispersant effectiveness peaks at 20 to 40 units of salinity, depending on the type of dispersant. Corexit is less sensitive to salinity, while Corexit 9527 is more sensitive to salinity. There is a smooth gradient of effectiveness with salinity both as the salinity rises to a peak point of effectiveness and as it exceeds this value. Results from the 2 field trials in fresh water suggest that laboratory tests correctly conclude that the effectiveness of dispersants is very low in freshwater. The study also examined several analytical factors such as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) versus relative petroleum hydrocarbon (RPH) methods, specific versus general calibration curves, and automatic versus manual baseline placement. The analytical variations of effectiveness by RPH or TPH methods do not affect the fundamental relationship between salinity and temperature. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    Negrão, Sónia

    2016-10-06

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments.

  11. Schooling, Nation Building, and Industrialization: a Gellnerian Approach (new version)

    Ortega, J.; Hauk, E.

    2015-01-01

    We model a two-region country where value is created through bilateral production between masses and elites (bourgeois and landowners). Industrialization requires the elites to finance schools and the masses to attend them. Schooling raises productivity, particularly for matches between masses and bourgeois. At the same time, only country-wide education ("unified schooling") renders the masses mobile across regions. Alternatively, schools can be implemented in one region alone ("regional educ...

  12. Evaluation of salinity stress on morphophysiological traits of four salin tolarant wheat cultivars

    leila yadelerloo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For assessment the effects of salinity on morphophysiological traits of wheat an experiment with four caltivars (Karchia, Sorkh tokhm, Sholeh and Roshan and one line (1-66-22 in four salt concentrations(0, 60, 120, and 180 mM NaCl, were conducted by factorial analysis in a completely randomized design with three replications. The rate of leaf area were measured in four stages. In booting stage, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD meter, and in pollination phase the rate of Na+ and K+ iones in four leaves(up to down were assessed and finally stem length and total dry matter were measured. Results showed that salinity reduced leaf area, total dry matter stem length of plants and relative chlorophyll content. With increasing of salinity the rate of Na+ were increased but the rate of K+ iones were decreased. Also the salt exclusion was observed at nodes of stem that of 1-66-22 was spot form.

  13. The Unified Database for BM@N experiment data handling

    Gertsenberger, Konstantin; Rogachevsky, Oleg

    2018-04-01

    The article describes the developed Unified Database designed as a comprehensive relational data storage for the BM@N experiment at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. The BM@N experiment, which is one of the main elements of the first stage of the NICA project, is a fixed target experiment at extracted Nuclotron beams of the Laboratory of High Energy Physics (LHEP JINR). The structure and purposes of the BM@N setup are briefly presented. The article considers the scheme of the Unified Database, its attributes and implemented features in detail. The use of the developed BM@N database provides correct multi-user access to actual information of the experiment for data processing. It stores information on the experiment runs, detectors and their geometries, different configuration, calibration and algorithm parameters used in offline data processing. An important part of any database - user interfaces are presented.

  14. Rational Unified Process jako metodika vývoje softwaru

    Rytíř, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Cílem této práce je seznámit se s procesem vývoje softwaru dle vybraných metodik s hlavním zaměřením na metodiku Rational Unified Process od firmy IBM. Incepční a elaborační fáze této metody také aplikuji na praktickém  příkladě. Goal of my work is to introduce software development process metods specialized to Rational Unified Process metod from IBM. I aplicate inception and elaboration phases of RUP on practical example. B

  15. Hyperion technology enables unified meteorological and radiological monitoring

    Zigic, A.; Saponjic, D.; Arandjelovic, V.; Zunic, Z. . E-mail address of corresponding author: alex@vin.bg.ac.yu; Zigic, A.)

    2005-01-01

    The present state of meteorological and radiological measurement and monitoring are quite localized to smaller areas which implies the difficulties in knowing the measurement results in the wider region instantly. The need for establishing a distributed, flexible, modular and centralized measurement system for both meteorological and radiological parameters of environment is arising. The measurement and monitoring of radiological parameters of environment are not sufficient since there is a strong correlation between radiological and meteorological parameters which implies a unified distributed automatic monitoring system. The unified monitoring system makes it possible to transfer, process and store measured data in local and central databases. Central database gives a possibility of easy access to all measured data for authorized personnel and institutions. Stored measured data in central database gives a new opportunity to create a base for meteorological and radiological modelling and studies. (author)

  16. Transcultural nursing as a global care humanizer, diversifier, and unifier.

    Leininger, M M

    1997-01-01

    Three dominant themes of transcultural nursing as a global humanizer, diversifier, and unifier are discussed in relation to their meaning and uses in education, practice, research and consultation. The presenter takes the position that these three dominant themes are essential and imperative to promote, transform, and maintain desired care outcomes which are beneficial, satisfying, and healthy for people of diverse and similar cultures. The three themes are discussed within Leininger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality with focus on the modes of action and decision-making. The author encourages transcultural nurses to take leadership to be an active global humanizer, diversifier, and unifier and transform nursing and health care into the 21st century.

  17. Unified dark fluid in Brans-Dicke theory

    Tripathy, Sunil K.; Behera, Dipanjali; Mishra, Bivudutta

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropic dark energy cosmological models are constructed in the frame work of generalised Brans-Dicke theory with a self-interacting potential. A unified dark fluid characterised by a linear equation of state is considered as the source of dark energy. The shear scalar is considered to be proportional to the expansion scalar simulating an anisotropic relationship among the directional expansion rates. The dynamics of the universe in the presence of a unified dark fluid in anisotropic background have been discussed. The presence of an evolving scalar field makes it possible to get an accelerating phase of expansion even for a linear relationship among the directional Hubble rates. It is found that the anisotropy in expansion rates does not affect the scalar field, the self-interacting potential, but it controls the non-evolving part of the Brans-Dicke parameter. (orig.)

  18. Research and Design in Unified Coding Architecture for Smart Grids

    Gang Han

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Standardized and sharing information platform is the foundation of the Smart Grids. In order to improve the dispatching center information integration of the power grids and achieve efficient data exchange, sharing and interoperability, a unified coding architecture is proposed. The architecture includes coding management layer, coding generation layer, information models layer and application system layer. Hierarchical design makes the whole coding architecture to adapt to different application environments, different interfaces, loosely coupled requirements, which can realize the integration model management function of the power grids. The life cycle and evaluation method of survival of unified coding architecture is proposed. It can ensure the stability and availability of the coding architecture. Finally, the development direction of coding technology of the Smart Grids in future is prospected.

  19. A unified treatment of kinetic effects in a tokamak pedestal

    Catto, Peter J; Landreman, Matt; Kagan, Grigory; Pusztai, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effects of a finite pedestal radial electric field on ion orbits using a unified approach. We then employ these modified orbit results to retain finite E x B drift departures from flux surfaces in an improved drift-kinetic equation. The procedure allows us to make a clear distinction between transit averages and flux surface averages when solving this kinetic equation. The technique outlined here is intended to clarify and unify recent evaluations of the banana regime decrease and plateau regime alterations in the ion heat diffusivity; the reduction and possible reversal of the poloidal flow in the banana regime, and its augmentation in the plateau regime; the increase in the bootstrap current; and the enhancement of the residual zonal flow regulation of turbulence.

  20. Onset of the nonlinear regime in unified dark matter models

    Avelino, P.P.; Beca, L.M.G.; Carvalho, J.P.M. de; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Copeland, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the onset of the nonlinear regime in the context of unified dark matter models involving a generalized Chaplygin gas. We show that the transition from dark-matter-like to dark-energy-like behavior will never be smooth. In some regions of space the transition will never take place while in others it may happen sooner or later than naively expected. As a result the linear theory used in previous studies may break down late in the matter dominated era even on large cosmological scales. We study the importance of this effect showing that its magnitude depends on the exact form of the equation of state in the low density regime. We expect that our results will be relevant for other unified dark matter scenarios, particularly those where the quartessence candidate is a perfect fluid

  1. High energy behaviour of particles and unified statistics

    Chang, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Theories and experiments suggest that particles at high energy appear to possess a new statistics unifying Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics via the GAMMA distribution. This hypothesis can be obtained from many models, and agrees quantitatively with scaling, the multiplicty, large transverse momentum, the mass spectrum, and other data. It may be applied to scatterings at high energy, and agrees with experiments and known QED's results. The Veneziano model and other theories have implied new statistics, such as, the B distribution and the Polya distribution. They revert to the GAMMA distribution at high energy. The possible inapplicability of Pauli's exclusion principle within the unified statistics is considered and associated to the quark constituents

  2. Reduction of parameters in Finite Unified Theories and the MSSM

    Heinemeyer, Sven; Mondragón, Myriam; Tracas, Nicholas; Zoupanos, George

    2018-02-01

    The method of reduction of couplings developed by W. Zimmermann, combined with supersymmetry, can lead to realistic quantum field theories, where the gauge and Yukawa sectors are related. It is the basis to find all-loop Finite Unified Theories, where the β-function vanishes to all-loops in perturbation theory. It can also be applied to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, leading to a drastic reduction in the number of parameters. Both Finite Unified Theories and the reduced MSSM lead to successful predictions for the masses of the third generation of quarks and the Higgs boson, and also predict a heavy supersymmetric spectrum, consistent with the non-observation of supersymmetry so far.

  3. Low-energy neutral current phenomenology and grand unified theories

    Del Aguila, F.; Mendez, A.

    1981-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied by any expanded electroweak gauge model in order to reproduce the standard model low-energy neutral current predictions. These conditions imply several constraints on the neutral gauge boson masses and the quantum number assignments for the ordinary fermions. Using these conditions, we prove that the popular grand unified theories based on the gauge groups SO(10) and E6 can only accommodate trivial extensions of the standard model. As a consequence, if any of these grand unified models works at some energy scale, present low-energy neutral current phenomenology implies that the Z-boson must be produced with the expected mass and couplings to the ordinary fermions. Any additional neutral gauge boson (with the possible exception of very heavy ones) could only be produced in hadronic collisions and it would not decay in e + e - . (orig.)

  4. Constructal Law and the Unifying Principle of Design

    Lorente, Sylvie; Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Design happens everywhere, whether in animate objects (e.g., dendritic lung structures, bacterial colonies, and corals), inanimate patterns (river basins, beach slope, and dendritic crystals), social dynamics (pedestrian traffic flows), or engineered systems (heat dissipation in electronic circuitry). This “design in nature” often takes on remarkably similar patterns, which can be explained under one unifying Constructal Law. This book explores the unifying power of the Constructal Law and its applications in all domains of design generation and evolution, ranging from biology and geophysics to globalization, energy, sustainability, and security.  The Constructal Law accounts for the universal tendency of flow systems to morph into evolving configurations that provide greater and easier access over time. The Constructal Law resolves the many and contradictory ad hoc statements of “optimality”, end design, and destiny in nature, such as minimum and maximum entropy production and minimum and maximum fl...

  5. Unified Digital Periodic Signal Filters for Power Converter Systems

    Yang, Yongheng; Xin, Zhen; Zhou, Keliang

    2017-01-01

    Periodic signal controllers like repetitive and resonant controllers have demonstrated much potential in the control of power electronic converters, where periodic signals (e.g., ac voltages and currents) can be precisely regulated to follow references. Beyond the control of periodic signals, ac...... signal processing (e.g., in synchronization and pre-filtering) is also very important for power converter systems. Hence, this paper serves to unify digital periodic signal filters so as to maximize their roles in power converter systems (e.g., enhance the control of ac signals). The unified digital...... periodic signal filters behave like a comb filter, but it can also be configured to selectively filter out the harmonics of interest (e.g., the odd-order harmonics in single-phase power converter systems). Moreover, a virtual variable-sampling-frequency unit delay that enables frequency adaptive periodic...

  6. Modeling Enterprise Authorization: A Unified Metamodel and Initial Validation

    Matus Korman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Authorization and its enforcement, access control, have stood at the beginning of the art and science of information security, and remain being crucial pillar of security in the information technology (IT and enterprises operations. Dozens of different models of access control have been proposed. Although Enterprise Architecture as the discipline strives to support the management of IT, support for modeling access policies in enterprises is often lacking, both in terms of supporting the variety of individual models of access control nowadays used, and in terms of providing a unified ontology capable of flexibly expressing access policies for all or the most of the models. This study summarizes a number of existing models of access control, proposes a unified metamodel mapped to ArchiMate, and illustrates its use on a selection of example scenarios and two business cases.

  7. DiPS: A Unifying Approach for developing System Software

    Michiels, Sam; Matthijs, Frank; Walravens, Dirk; Verbaeten, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we unify three essential features for flexible system software: a component oriented approach, self-adaptation and separation of concerns.We propose DiPS (Distrinet Protocol Stack), a component framework, which offers components, an anonymous interaction model and connectors to handle non-functional aspects such as concurrency. DiPS has effectively been used in industrial protocol stacks and device drivers.

  8. Skinner-Rusk unified formalism for higher-order systems

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-07-01

    The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of R. Skinner and R. Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, first-order and higher-order field theories, and higher-order autonomous systems. In this work we present a generalization of this formalism for higher-order non-autonomous mechanical systems.

  9. Flavor unifying schemes with a single fermionic representation

    Davidson, A.; Wali, K.C.

    1980-05-01

    If quarks and leptons are indeed elementary, it is natural that they belong to a single representation of a unifying group, G. It is shown that such a requirement, which is inconsistent with G = SU(N), can be satisfied within the semi-simple group G = SU(N) x SU(N). Furthermore, N = 7 emerges as the unique solution accompanied by a fermionic set that exhibits a natural generation structure

  10. Multiple growth regimes: Insights from unified growth theory

    Galor, Oded

    2007-01-01

    Unified Growth Theory uncovers the forces that contributed to the existence of multiple growth regimes and the emergence of convergence clubs. It suggests that differential timing of take-offs from stagnation to growth segmented economies into three fundamental regimes: slow growing economies in a Malthusian regime, fast growing countries in a sustained growth regime, and economies in the transition between these regimes. In contrast to existing research that links regime switching thresholds...

  11. A Unified Access Model for Interconnecting Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    2015-05-01

    validation of the proposed network design for unified network access, and it lays the foundation for implementing a Software - Defined Networking ( SDN ...York (NY): Springer; 2014. Chapter 2, Software - defined networking ; p. 19–32. 5. Sharma S, Staessens D, Colle D, Pickavet M, Demeester P. A...demonstration of fast failure recovery in software defined networking . In: Korakis T, Zink M, Ott, M, editors. Testbeds and research infrastructure

  12. The Unified Problem-Solving Method Development Language UPML

    Fensel, Dieter; Motta, Enrico; van Harmelen, Frank; Benjamins, V. Richard; Crubezy, Monica; Decker, Stefan; Gaspari, Mauro; Groenboom, Rix; Grosso, William; Musen, Mark; Plaza, Enric; Schreiber, Guus; Studer, Rudi; Wielinga, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Problem-solving methods provide reusable architectures and components for implementing the reasoning part of knowledge-based systems. The UNIFIED PROBLEM-SOLVING METHOD DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (UPML) has been developed to describe and implement such architectures and components to facilitate their semi-automatic reuse and adaptation. In a nutshell, UPML is a framework for developing knowledge-intensive reasoning systems based on libraries ofg eneric problem-solving components. The paper describe...

  13. Split Octonion electrodynamics and unified fields of dyons

    Bisht, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Split octonion electrodynamics has been developed in terms of Zorn's vector matrix realization by reformulating electromagnetic potential, current, field tensor and other dynamical quantities. Corresponding field equation (Unified Maxwell's equations) and equation of motion have been reformulated by means of split octonion and its Zorn vector realization in unique, simpler and consistent manner. It has been shown that this theory reproduces the dyon field equations in the absence of gravito-dyons and vice versa

  14. Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) Design Guide. Army Reserve Facilities

    2010-02-01

    horticulturally appropriate to the site specific location in which they are planted. Consideration should be given to adjacent structures and improvements...impact FPI Federal Prison Industries FPM Feet per minute GFCI Government-furnished/contractor-installed or Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter GFGI...Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards UFGs Unified Facility Guide Specifications UFGs Rst UFGS - Reserve Support Team UnICoR Federal Prison Industry

  15. Wartime Roles and Capabilities for the Unified Logistic Staffs

    1989-02-01

    standard Army ammunition system SAPO Subarea Petroleum Office SCP service control point (fuels) SHAPE Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe SIDATH... SAPOs ). Communication exists between the operations and logistic staffs within the unified, component, Service, and JS levels. But between...daily. The JPOs/ SAPOs receive the short-term requirements and consoli- date them for resupply by submitting slates (how much, when, and where needed

  16. Chaos synchronization of a unified chaotic system via partial linearization

    Yu Yongguang; Li Hanxiong; Duan Jian

    2009-01-01

    A partial linearization method is proposed for realizing the chaos synchronization of an unified chaotic system. Through synchronizing partial state of the chaotic systems can result in the synchronization of their entire states, and the resulting controller is singularity free. The results can be easily extended to the synchronization of other similar chaotic systems. Simulation results are conducted to show the effectiveness of the method.

  17. Radiative breaking of cosmologically acceptable grand unified theories

    Gato, B.; Leon, J.; Quiros, M.

    1984-01-01

    We present a cosmologically acceptable grand unified model where the breaking of SU(5) proceeds through radiative corrections induced by supergravity soft-breaking terms. The breaking scale is determined by dimensional transmutation. The model is compatible with the radiative breaking of SU(2)sub(L)xU(1)sub(Y) which provides an experimentally accessible low energy particle spectrum and small top quark mass. (orig.)

  18. Z2 vortex strings in grand unified theories

    Olive, D.; Turok, N.

    1982-01-01

    Spontaneously broken gauge theories may display distinct vortex string solutions for the disconnected components of the exact gauge symmetry group. A type of Higgs mechanism thought to apply in grand unified theories as being responsible for fermion masses yields Z 2 vortex lines, irrespectively of the group. These could seed galaxy formation if the corresponding fermion masses are superheavy. More generally a Higgs mechanism producing Zsub(n) vortex strings is presented. (orig.)

  19. A unified BFKL/DGLAP description of deep inelastic scattering

    Kwiecinski, J.; Stasto, A. M.; Martin, A. D.

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a coupled pair of evolution equations for the unintegrated gluon distribution and the sea quark distribution which incorporate both the resummed leading ln(1/x) BFKL contributions and the resummed leading ln(Q 2 ) DGLAP contributions. We solve these unified equations in the perturbative QCD domain. With only two physically motivated parameters we obtain an excellent description of the HERA F 2 data

  20. Globalization and migration: A "unified brain drain" model

    Brezis, Elise S.; Soueri, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has led to a vast flow of migration of workers but also of students. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the migration of individuals encompassing decisions already at the level of education. We develop a unified brain drain model that incorporates the decisions of an individual vis - à - vis both education and migration. In the empirical part, this paper addresses international flows of migration within the EU and presents strong evidence of concentration of students in cou...

  1. Organizational Structures to Support Oakland Community Schools. Knowledge Brief

    John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This brief is part of a series that shares findings from a research collaboration between the John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities at Stanford University and Oakland Unified School District (OUSD) focused on understanding implementation of the community school model in the district. This brief highlights findings related to…

  2. Pre-School Education in Morocco and Algeria

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija; Benghabrit-Remaoun, Nouria

    2004-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the current state of early childhood care in the Maghreb, in particular in Morocco and Algeria, where the pre-schooling rate for 5-year-olds is on the increase. Extending pre-school infrastructures and the need to create unified curricula have been among the most urgent questions to be tackled over the last decade in…

  3. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-02-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m 3 . In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics.

  4. Unified Stochastic Geometry Model for MIMO Cellular Networks with Retransmissions

    Afify, Laila H.

    2016-10-11

    This paper presents a unified mathematical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, for downlink cellular networks with multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) base stations (BSs). The developed paradigm accounts for signal retransmission upon decoding errors, in which the temporal correlation among the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) of the original and retransmitted signals is captured. In addition to modeling the effect of retransmission on the network performance, the developed mathematical model presents twofold analysis unification for MIMO cellular networks literature. First, it integrates the tangible decoding error probability and the abstracted (i.e., modulation scheme and receiver type agnostic) outage probability analysis, which are largely disjoint in the literature. Second, it unifies the analysis for different MIMO configurations. The unified MIMO analysis is achieved by abstracting unnecessary information conveyed within the interfering signals by Gaussian signaling approximation along with an equivalent SISO representation for the per-data stream SINR in MIMO cellular networks. We show that the proposed unification simplifies the analysis without sacrificing the model accuracy. To this end, we discuss the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff imposed by different MIMO schemes and shed light on the diversity loss due to the temporal correlation among the SINRs of the original and retransmitted signals. Finally, several design insights are highlighted.

  5. The performance of FLake in the Met Office Unified Model

    Gabriel Gerard Rooney

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the coupling of FLake to the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM. The coupling and initialisation are first described, and the results of testing the coupled model in local and global model configurations are presented. These show that FLake has a small statistical impact on screen temperature, but has the potential to modify the weather in the vicinity of areas of significant inland water. Examination of FLake lake ice has revealed that the behaviour of lakes in the coupled model is unrealistic in some areas of significant sub-grid orography. Tests of various modifications to ameliorate this behaviour are presented. The results indicate which of the possible model changes best improve the annual cycle of lake ice. As FLake has been developed and tuned entirely outside the Unified Model system, these results can be interpreted as a useful objective measure of the performance of the Unified Model in terms of its near-surface characteristics.

  6. Inverted Unified Power Quality Conditioner to compensate overvoltage

    Yeison Alberto Garcés Gómez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of unified power quality conditioners UPQC in the electric systems can correct waveform distortions in a steady state, like harmonics, flicker, and the power factor. Objective: This paper presents a novel approach for active compensation of overvoltage with a UPQC in dual topology or iUPQC. Methodology: The study it is presented in five stages, the section I shows an introduction and the state of the art, section II presents the unified power quality conditioner UPQC, section III describes the generalized reactive power theory applied to the iUPQC (dual topology, section IV shows the numerical simulations and the results and section V presents the conclusions of the study. Results: The results for the application of the iUPQC to the compensation of overvoltage are proved and compared with the more representative theory related to compensation of harmonics and low power factor. Conclusions: The control algorithm presented for the unified power quality conditioner in dual topology allows to compensate the overvoltage in three-phase systems as well as voltage and current harmonics and the low power factor.

  7. Unified Stochastic Geometry Model for MIMO Cellular Networks with Retransmissions

    Afify, Laila H.; Elsawy, Hesham; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a unified mathematical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, for downlink cellular networks with multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) base stations (BSs). The developed paradigm accounts for signal retransmission upon decoding errors, in which the temporal correlation among the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) of the original and retransmitted signals is captured. In addition to modeling the effect of retransmission on the network performance, the developed mathematical model presents twofold analysis unification for MIMO cellular networks literature. First, it integrates the tangible decoding error probability and the abstracted (i.e., modulation scheme and receiver type agnostic) outage probability analysis, which are largely disjoint in the literature. Second, it unifies the analysis for different MIMO configurations. The unified MIMO analysis is achieved by abstracting unnecessary information conveyed within the interfering signals by Gaussian signaling approximation along with an equivalent SISO representation for the per-data stream SINR in MIMO cellular networks. We show that the proposed unification simplifies the analysis without sacrificing the model accuracy. To this end, we discuss the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff imposed by different MIMO schemes and shed light on the diversity loss due to the temporal correlation among the SINRs of the original and retransmitted signals. Finally, several design insights are highlighted.

  8. Implications of a Non-Unified Command System and the Need for a Unified Command System in Zambia

    2015-06-12

    aspects. It has been found that Zambia’s two attempts to unify its system happened during the one party participatory democracy era. Since the coming...and its Implication for Democracy ,” in Ourselves to Know: Civil Military Relations and Defence Transformation in Southern Africa, eds. Rocky Williams...adopted a multiparty system of government under the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) which decided to revert to independent commands. As

  9. Growing a Waldorf-Inspired Approach in a Public School District

    Friedlaender, Diane; Beckham, Kyle; Zheng, Xinhua; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the practices and outcomes of Alice Birney, a public K-8 Waldorf-Inspired School in Sacramento City Unified School District (SCUSD). This study highlights how such a school addresses students' academic, social, emotional, physical, and creative development. Birney students outperform similar students in SCUSD on several…

  10. High School Teachers' Perspectives on the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards: An Exploratory Study

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2016-01-01

    This was an exploratory study that examined high school teachers' perspectives about their early experiences with the English language arts Common Core State Standards. The sources of data for the study included a survey and structured interviews. Twenty-three high school ELA teachers from one unified school district in Southern California…

  11. Do Schools Owe a Special Duty of Care to "Special-Needs" Students?

    Fossey, Richard; Russo, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Schools officials owe a duty of care to all the students in their custody. An emerging, but not unanimous, judicial consensus seems to agree that school board officials have a greater legal duty when supervising students with disabilities. A case on this important issue arose in "Jennifer C. v. Los Angeles Unified School District"…

  12. Types, harms and improvement of saline soil in Songnen Plain

    Wang, Zhengjun; Zhuang, Jingjing; Zhao, Anping; Li, Xinxin

    2018-03-01

    Saline soil is an extremely difficult and modified soil, widely distributed around the world. According to UN-UNESCO and FAO, the world’s saline soil area is about 9.54×108hm2, and there is a growing trend, every year in 1.0×106-1.5×106hm2 speed growth, the effective utilization of land resources to the world is the most serious threat. The total area of saline-alkali land in China is about 9.91×107hm2, including the Songnen Plain, which is called one of the three major saline soil concentrations in the world. The Songnen plain is an important grain producing area in China, and the saline soil occupies most of the Songnen plain, so it is of great significance to study the saline soil and improvement in Songnen plain.

  13. Genome interrogation for novel salinity tolerant Arabidopsis mutants.

    van Tol, Niels; Pinas, Johan; Schat, Henk; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2016-12-01

    Soil salinity is becoming an increasingly large problem in agriculture. In this study, we have investigated whether a capacity to withstand salinity can be induced in the salinity sensitive plant species Arabidopsis thaliana, and whether it can be maintained in subsequent generations. To this end, we have used zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ZF-ATFs) mediated genome interrogation. Already within a relatively small collection Arabidopsis lines expressing ZF-ATFs, we found 41 lines that were tolerant to 100 mM NaCl. Furthermore, ZF-ATF encoding gene constructs rescued from the most strongly salinity tolerant lines were indeed found to act as dominant and heritable agents for salinity tolerance. Altogether, our data provide evidence that a silent capacity to withstand normally lethal levels of salinity exists in Arabidopsis and can be evoked relatively easily by in trans acting transcription factors like ZF-ATFs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Coagulation processes of kaolinite and montmorillonite in calm, saline water

    Zhang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Qing-He; Maa, Jerome P.-Y.

    2018-03-01

    A three dimensional numerical model for simulating the coagulation processes of colloids has been performed by monitoring the time evolution of particle number concentration, the size distribution of aggregates, the averaged settling velocity, the collision frequency, and the collision efficiency in quiescent water with selected salinities. This model directly simulates all interaction forces between particles based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, and thus, can reveal the collision and coagulation processes of colloidal suspensions. Although using perfect spherical particles in the modeling, the results were compared with those for kaolinite and montmorillonite suspensions to demonstrate the capability of simulating the responses of these particles with highly irregular shape. The averaged settling velocity of kaolinite aggregates in quiescent saline water reached a maximum of 0.16 mm/s when the salinity increasing to about 3, and then, exhibited little dependence on salinity thereafter. Model simulations results (by choosing specific values that represent kaolinite's characteristics) indicate a similar trend: rapid decrease of the particle number concentration (i.e., rapidly flocculated, and thus, settling velocity also increases rapidly) when salinity increases from 0 to 2, and then, only increased slightly when salinity was further increased from 5 to 20. The collision frequency for kaolinite only decreases slightly with increasing salinity because that the fluid density and viscosity increase slightly in sea water. It suggests that the collision efficiency for kaolinite rises rapidly at low salinities and levels off at high salinity. For montmorillonite, the settling velocity of aggregates in quiescent saline water continuedly increases to 0.022 mm/s over the whole salinity range 0-20, and the collision efficiency for montmorillonite rises with increasing salinities.

  15. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    Ren, Yongzhe; Xu, Yanhua; Teng, Wan; Li, Bin; Lin, Tongbao

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl co...

  16. Improvement of Salinity Stress Tolerance in Rice: Challenges and Opportunities

    Thi My Linh Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important staple crop that feeds more than one half of the world’s population and is the model system for monocotyledonous plants. However, rice is very sensitive to salinity and is the most salt sensitive cereal crop with a threshold of 3 dSm−1 for most cultivated varieties. Despite many attempts using different strategies to improve salinity tolerance in rice, the achievements so far are quite modest. This review aims to discuss challenges that hinder the improvement of salinity stress tolerance in rice as well as potential opportunities for enhancing salinity stress tolerance in this important crop.

  17. Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus ...

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  18. Electrocapillary Phenomena at Edible Oil/Saline Interfaces.

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Ohzono, Takuya; Shoji, Kohei; Yagihara, Shin; Hayashi, Masafumi; Tanaka, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    Interfacial tension between edible oil and saline was measured under applied electric fields to understand the electrocapillary phenomena at the edible oil/saline interfaces. The electric responses of saline droplets in edible oil were also observed microscopically to examine the relationship between the electrocapillary phenomena and interfacial polarization. When sodium oleate (SO) was added to edible oil (SO-oil), the interfacial tension between SO-oil and saline decreased. However, no decrease was observed for additive-free oil or oleic acid (OA)-added oil (OA-oil). Microscopic observations suggested that the magnitude of interfacial polarization increased in the order of additive-free oil oil oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena between OA- and SO-oils was closely related to the polarization magnitude. In the case of SO-oil, the decrease in interfacial tension was remarkably larger for saline (pH 5.4~5.6) than that for phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2~7.4). However, no difference was observed between the electric responses of PBS and saline droplets in SO-oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena for PBS and saline could not be simply explained in terms of polarization magnitude. The ratio of ionized and non-ionized OA at the interfaces changed with the saline pH, possibly leading to the above difference.

  19. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Nan Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  20. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  2. Absolute Salinity, "Density Salinity" and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-08-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. The Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  3. Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    D. G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models.

    First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies.

    Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol

  4. MBAT: A scalable informatics system for unifying digital atlasing workflows

    Sane Nikhil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital atlases provide a common semantic and spatial coordinate system that can be leveraged to compare, contrast, and correlate data from disparate sources. As the quality and amount of biological data continues to advance and grow, searching, referencing, and comparing this data with a researcher's own data is essential. However, the integration process is cumbersome and time-consuming due to misaligned data, implicitly defined associations, and incompatible data sources. This work addressing these challenges by providing a unified and adaptable environment to accelerate the workflow to gather, align, and analyze the data. Results The MouseBIRN Atlasing Toolkit (MBAT project was developed as a cross-platform, free open-source application that unifies and accelerates the digital atlas workflow. A tiered, plug-in architecture was designed for the neuroinformatics and genomics goals of the project to provide a modular and extensible design. MBAT provides the ability to use a single query to search and retrieve data from multiple data sources, align image data using the user's preferred registration method, composite data from multiple sources in a common space, and link relevant informatics information to the current view of the data or atlas. The workspaces leverage tool plug-ins to extend and allow future extensions of the basic workspace functionality. A wide variety of tool plug-ins were developed that integrate pre-existing as well as newly created technology into each workspace. Novel atlasing features were also developed, such as supporting multiple label sets, dynamic selection and grouping of labels, and synchronized, context-driven display of ontological data. Conclusions MBAT empowers researchers to discover correlations among disparate data by providing a unified environment for bringing together distributed reference resources, a user's image data, and biological atlases into the same spatial or semantic context

  5. Unifying Prepositions and Prefixes in Russian: Conceptual structure versus syntax

    Inna Tolskaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to unify the polysemous verbal prefixes and prepositions in Russian. At first glance, the variety of possible denotations of a given prefix might appear a chaotic set of idiomatic meanings, e.g., the prefix za- may refer to beginning of an action, movement to a position behind an object, a brief deviation from a path, completion of an action, while the corresponding preposition za can mean ‘behind,’ ‘after,’ ‘for,’ ‘in’ (like in ‘in an hour’, ‘at’ (like in ‘at the table’. I will propose a unified analysis, where the differences in meaning are claimed to arise from different syntactic positions, while the lexical entry of a prefix remains the same. The main focus is on the verbs of motion due to the consistent duality displayed by the prefix meanings when added to directional and non-directional motion verbs. It will turn out that many prefixes appear to modify path when added onto a directional motion verb and to refer to movement in time with non-directional motion verbs. This semantic distinction corresponds to distinct sets of syntactic properties, specific for each set of prefixes. These two classes of prefixes correspond to the lexical versus superlexical distinction. However, a tripartite division will emerge in each set, corresponding to source, path, and goal of motion (FROM, VIA and TO for lexical prefixes and to initiation, process and result for superlexical prefixes. This leads to the suggestion that the syntactic representation of a VP contains at least six distinct nodes for the Russian verbal prefixes, each characterized by predictable semantic and syntactic properties. The same prefix with a consistent meaning, shared with the corresponding preposition, will receive part of its denotation from the syntactic head it attaches to, thus allowing the polysemy to arise from position, rather than from arbitrary homophony. Thus, conceptual structure will be unified with syntax.

  6. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  7. Saline water in southeastern New Mexico

    Hiss, W.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Ramsey, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Saline waters from formations of several geologic ages are being studied in a seven-county area in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas, where more than 30,000 oil and gas tests have been drilled in the past 40 years. This area of 7,500 sq. miles, which is stratigraphically complex, includes the northern and eastern margins of the Delaware Basin between the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains. Chloride-ion concentrations in water produced from rocks of various ages and depths have been mapped in Lea County, New Mexico, using machine map-plotting techniques and trend analyses. Anomalously low chloride concentrations (1,000-3,000 mg/l) were found along the western margin of the Central Basin platform in the San Andres and Capitan Limestone Formations of Permian age. These low chloride-ion concentrations may be due to preferential circulation of ground water through the more porous and permeable rocks. Data being used in the study were obtained principally from oil companies and from related service companies. The P.B.W.D.S. (Permian Basin Well Data System) scout-record magnetic-tape file was used as a framework in all computer operations. Shallow or non-oil-field water analyses acquired from state, municipal, or federal agencies were added to these data utilizing P.B.W.D.S.-compatible reference numbers and decimal latitude-longitude coordinates. Approximately 20,000 water analyses collected from over 65 sources were coded, recorded on punch cards and stored on magnetic tape for computer operations. Extensive manual and computer error checks for duplication and accuracy were made to eliminate data errors resulting from poorly located or identified samples; non-representative or contaminated samples; mistakes in coding, reproducing or key-punching; laboratory errors; and inconsistent reporting. The original 20,000 analyses considered were reduced to 6,000 representative analyses which are being used in the saline water studies. ?? 1969.

  8. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Salinity, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_salinity_LDWF_2001

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) salinity data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  9. CO{sub 2} storage in saline aquifers; Stockage du CO{sub 2} dans les aquiferes salins

    Bentham, M.; Kirby, G. [British Geological Survey (BGS), Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    Saline aquifers represent a promising way for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Storage capacities of saline aquifers are very important around the world. The Sleipner site in the North Sea is currently the single case world-wide of CO{sub 2} storage in a saline aquifer. A general review is given on the specific risks for CO{sub 2} storage in saline aquifer. The regional distribution of CO{sub 2} storage potential is presented. Finally, the knowledge gaps and the future research in this field are defined. (authors)

  10. IMPETUS - Interactive MultiPhysics Environment for Unified Simulations.

    Ha, Vi Q; Lykotrafitis, George

    2016-12-08

    We introduce IMPETUS - Interactive MultiPhysics Environment for Unified Simulations, an object oriented, easy-to-use, high performance, C++ program for three-dimensional simulations of complex physical systems that can benefit a large variety of research areas, especially in cell mechanics. The program implements cross-communication between locally interacting particles and continuum models residing in the same physical space while a network facilitates long-range particle interactions. Message Passing Interface is used for inter-processor communication for all simulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Robust synchronization of unified chaotic systems via sliding mode control

    Yan Junjuh; Yang Yisung; Chiang Tsungying; Chen Chingyuan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the chaos synchronization problem for a class of uncertain master-slave unified chaotic systems. Based on the sliding mode control technique, a robust control scheme is established which guarantees the occurrence of a sliding motion of error states even when the parameter uncertainty and external perturbation are present. Furthermore, a novel proportional-integral (PI) switching surface is introduced for determining the synchronization performance of systems in the sliding mode motion. Simulation results are proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method

  12. Unified microprocessor CAMAC module for preliminary data processing

    Zaushitsin, V.L.; Kulik, O.V.; Repin, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    The UP-80 unified active module is described. It is made in the CAMAC standard on the base of the K580IK80 microprocessor allowing to increase the rate of large-volume experimental spectroscopic data processing by an order. Loading of 5 different programs for data processing is possible. Data from the operative storage with 1K capacity (8 bits) are recorded and read out trhough the CAMAC line (the regime of unit exchange is possible) or through the joint of the external line

  13. Collusion-resistant multimedia fingerprinting: a unified framework

    Wu, Min; Trappe, Wade; Wang, Z. Jane; Liu, K. J. Ray

    2004-06-01

    Digital fingerprints are unique labels inserted in different copies of the same content before distribution. Each digital fingerprint is assigned to an inteded recipient, and can be used to trace the culprits who use their content for unintended purposes. Attacks mounted by multiple users, known as collusion attacks, provide a cost-effective method for attenuating the identifying fingerprint from each coluder, thus collusion poses a reeal challenge to protect the digital media data and enforce usage policies. This paper examines a few major design methodologies for collusion-resistant fingerprinting of multimedia, and presents a unified framework that helps highlight the common issues and the uniqueness of different fingerprinting techniques.

  14. A Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

    2014-06-24

    Abstract?In this paper, we propose a new unified differential evolution (uDE) algorithm for single objective global optimization. Instead of selecting among multiple mutation strategies as in the conventional differential evolution algorithm, this algorithm employs a single equation as the mutation strategy. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexbility for broader exploration of different mutation strategies. Numerical tests using twelve basic unimodal and multimodal functions show promising performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to convential differential evolution algorithms.

  15. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus: Semantic Metadata for Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Frey, Katie; Accomazzi, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Several controlled vocabularies have been developed and used by the astronomical community, each designed to serve a specific need and a specific group. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) attempts to provide a highly structured controlled vocabulary that will be relevant and useful across the entire discipline, regardless of content or platform. Because classifying articles and data will be the two major functions of the UAT, we examine the UAT in comparison with the Astronomical Subject Keywords used by major publications and the JWST Science Keywords used by STScI’s Astronomer’s Proposal Tool.

  16. A unified tool for performance modelling and prediction

    Gilmore, Stephen; Kloul, Leila

    2005-01-01

    We describe a novel performability modelling approach, which facilitates the efficient solution of performance models extracted from high-level descriptions of systems. The notation which we use for our high-level designs is the Unified Modelling Language (UML) graphical modelling language. The technology which provides the efficient representation capability for the underlying performance model is the multi-terminal binary decision diagram (MTBDD)-based PRISM probabilistic model checker. The UML models are compiled through an intermediate language, the stochastic process algebra PEPA, before translation into MTBDDs for solution. We illustrate our approach on a real-world analysis problem from the domain of mobile telephony

  17. Development of the unified version of COBRA/RELAP5

    Jeong, J. J.; Ha, K. S.; Chung, B. D.; Lee, W. J.; Sim, S. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The COBRA/RELAP5 code, an integrated version of the COBRA-TF and RELAP5/MOD3 codes, has been developed for the realistic simulations of complicated, multi-dimensional, two-phase, thermal-hydraulic system transients in light water reactors. Recently, KAERI developed an unified version of the COBRA/RELAP5 code, which can run in serial mode on both workstations and personal computers. This paper provides the brief overview of the code integration scheme, the recent code modifications, the developmental assessments, and the future development plan. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  18. Torsion tensor and covector in a unified field theory

    Chernikov, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The Einstein unified field theory is used to solve a tensor equation to provide the unambiguous definition of affine connectedness. In the process of solving the Einstein equation limitations imposed by symmetry on the tensor and the torsion covector as well as on affine connectedness are elucidated. It is demonstrated that in a symmetric case the connectedness is unambiguously determined by the Einstein equation. By means of the Riemann geometry a formula for the torsion covector is derived. The equivalence of Einstein equations to those of the nonlinear Born-Infeld electrodynamics is proved

  19. Development of the unified version of COBRA/RELAP5

    Jeong, J J; Ha, K S; Chung, B D; Lee, W J; Sim, S K [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The COBRA/RELAP5 code, an integrated version of the COBRA-TF and RELAP5/MOD3 codes, has been developed for the realistic simulations of complicated, multi-dimensional, two-phase, thermal-hydraulic system transients in light water reactors. Recently, KAERI developed an unified version of the COBRA/RELAP5 code, which can run in serial mode on both workstations and personal computers. This paper provides the brief overview of the code integration scheme, the recent code modifications, the developmental assessments, and the future development plan. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  20. A geometrical foundation of a unified field theory

    Tauber, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    In a series of two little known papers Einstein and Mayer proposed a formalism by which they were able to obtain a theory of gravitation and electromagnetism similar to that of Kaluza and Klein. Instead of assuming, as these authors did, the existence of a five-dimensional continuum they assumed that at each point of space-time, regarded as a Riemannian space there exists a five-dimensional vector space. The purpose of this work is to generalize the approach of Einstein and Mayer to N dimensions and to lay the geometrical foundation of a possible unified field theory of gravitation with other fields. (Auth.)

  1. Unified communications forensics anatomy of common UC attacks

    Grant, Nicholas Mr

    2013-01-01

    Unified Communications Forensics: Anatomy of Common UC Attacks is the first book to explain the issues and vulnerabilities and demonstrate the attacks, forensic artifacts, and countermeasures required to establish a secure (UC) environment. This book is written by leading UC experts Nicholas Grant and Joseph W. Shaw II and provides material never before found on the market, including: analysis of forensic artifacts in common UC attacks an in-depth look at established UC technologies and attack exploits hands-on understanding of UC attack vectors and associated countermeasures

  2. Toward a Unified Framework for Web Service Trustworthiness

    Miotto, N.; Dragoni, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The intrinsic openness of the Service-Oriented Computing vision makes crucial to locate useful services and recognize them as trustworthy. What does it mean that a Web service is trustworthy? How can a software agent evaluate the trustworthiness of a Web service? In this paper we present an ongoing...... research aiming at providing an answer to these key issues to realize this vision. In particular, starting from an analysis of the weaknesses of current approaches, we discuss the possibility of a unified framework for Web service trustworthiness. The founding principle of our novel framework is that “hard...

  3. A unified mobility model for quantum mechanical simulation of MOSFETs

    Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Sang Kyung; Shin, Hyung Soon; Jin, Seong Hoon; Park, Young June; Min, Hong Shik

    2004-01-01

    A unified electron and hole mobility model for inversion and accumulation layers with quantum effect is presented for the first time. By accounting for the screened Coulomb scattering based on the well-known bulk mobility model and allowing the surface roughness scattering term to be a function of net charge, the new model is applicable to the bulk, inversion, and accumulation layers with only one set of fitting parameters. The new model is implemented in the 2-D quantum mechanical device simulator and gives excellent agreement with the experimentally measured effective mobility data over a wide range of effective transverse field, substrate doping, substrate bias, and temperature.

  4. Unified model of nuclear mass and level density formulas

    Nakamura, Hisashi

    2001-01-01

    The objective of present work is to obtain a unified description of nuclear shell, pairing and deformation effects for both ground state masses and level densities, and to find a new set of parameter systematics for both the mass and the level density formulas on the basis of a model for new single-particle state densities. In this model, an analytical expression is adopted for the anisotropic harmonic oscillator spectra, but the shell-pairing correlation are introduced in a new way. (author)

  5. Unified mass-action theory for virus neutralization and radioimmunology

    Trautman, R.

    1976-01-01

    All ideas implicit in the papers since 1953 involved in applying mass-action thermodynamics to antibody- antigen reactions are unified by the use of: (a) the intermediary concept of extent of reaction; (b) the concept of intrinsic association constant; (c) a statistical analysis for probable complexes; and (d) identification of the complex or complexes that contribute to the bioassay. Several general theoretical examples are given that show the limitations of linear interpretations of equilibrium data. Two practical examples from the literature illustrate foot-and-mouth disease virus and influenza virus neutralization. (Auth.)

  6. Unified time analysis of photon and particle tunnelling

    Olkhovsky, Vladislav S.; Recami, Erasmo; Jakiel, Jacek

    2001-07-01

    A unified approach to the time analysis of tunnelling of nonrelativistic particles is presented, in which Time is regarded as a quantum-mechanical observable, canonically conjugated to Energy. The validity of the Hartman effect (independence of the Tunnelling Time of the opaque barrier width, with superluminal group velocities as a consequence) is verified for all the known expressions of the mean tunnelling time. Moreover, the analogy between particle and photon tunnelling is suitably exploited. On the basic of such an analogy, an explanation of some recent microwave and optics experimental results on tunnelling time is proposed. Attention is devoted to some aspects of the causality problem for particle and photon tunnelling. (author)

  7. Unified theory of the exciplex formation/dissipation.

    Khokhlova, Svetlana S; Burshtein, Anatoly I

    2010-11-04

    The natural extension and reformulation of the unified theory (UT) proposed here makes it integro-differential and capable of describing the distant quenching of excitation by electron transfer, accompanied with contact but reversible exciplex formation. The numerical solution of the new UT equations allows specifying the kinetics of the fluorescence quenching and exciplex association/dissociation as well as those reactions' quantum yields. It was demonstrated that the distant electron transfer in either the normal or inverted Marcus regions screens the contact reaction of exciplex formation, especially at slow diffusion.

  8. On the Feasibility of a Unified Modelling and Programming Paradigm

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the feasibility of a unified modelling and programming paradigm is discussed from the perspective of large scale system development and verification in collaborative development environments. We motivate the necessity to utilise multiple formalisms for development and verification....... It is illustrated by means of a case study from the railway domain, how this can be achieved, using concepts from the theory of institutions. This also enables the utilisation of verification tools in different formalisms, despite the fact that these tools are usually developed for one specific formal method....

  9. Softening the supersymmetric flavor problem in orbifold grand unified theories

    Kajiyama, Yuji; Terao, Haruhiko; Kubo, Jisuke

    2004-01-01

    The infrared attractive force of the bulk gauge interactions is applied to soften the supersymmetric flavor problem in the orbifold SU(5) grand unified theory of Kawamura. Then this force aligns in the infrared regime the soft supersymmetry breaking terms out of their anarchical disorder at a fundamental scale, in such a way that flavor-changing neutral currents as well as dangerous CP-violating phases are suppressed at low energies. It is found that this dynamical alignment is sufficiently good compared with the current experimental bounds, as long as the diagonalization matrices of the Yukawa couplings are CKM-like

  10. Estimating High-Frequency Based (Co-) Variances: A Unified Approach

    Voev, Valeri; Nolte, Ingmar

    We propose a unified framework for estimating integrated variances and covariances based on simple OLS regressions, allowing for a general market microstructure noise specification. We show that our estimators can outperform, in terms of the root mean squared error criterion, the most recent...... and commonly applied estimators, such as the realized kernels of Barndorff-Nielsen, Hansen, Lunde & Shephard (2006), the two-scales realized variance of Zhang, Mykland & Aït-Sahalia (2005), the Hayashi & Yoshida (2005) covariance estimator, and the realized variance and covariance with the optimal sampling...

  11. Unified Monitoring Architecture for IT and Grid Services

    Aimar, A.; Aguado Corman, A.; Andrade, P.; Belov, S.; Delgado Fernandez, J.; Garrido Bear, B.; Georgiou, M.; Karavakis, E.; Magnoni, L.; Rama Ballesteros, R.; Riahi, H.; Rodriguez Martinez, J.; Saiz, P.; Zolnai, D.

    2017-10-01

    This paper provides a detailed overview of the Unified Monitoring Architecture (UMA) that aims at merging the monitoring of the CERN IT data centres and the WLCG monitoring using common and widely-adopted open source technologies such as Flume, Elasticsearch, Hadoop, Spark, Kibana, Grafana and Zeppelin. It provides insights and details on the lessons learned, explaining the work performed in order to monitor the CERN IT data centres and the WLCG computing activities such as the job processing, data access and transfers, and the status of sites and services.

  12. Unified Symmetry of Nonholonomic Mechanical Systems with Non-Chetaev's Type Constraints

    Xia Lili; Li Yuancheng; Hou Qibao; Wang Jing

    2006-01-01

    Based on the total time derivative along the trajectory of the system, the unified symmetry of nonholonomic mechanical system with non-Chetaev's type constraints is studied. The definition and criterion of the unified symmetry of nonholonomic mechanical systems with non-Chetaev's type constraints are given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. Two examples are given to illustrate the application of the results.

  13. Unified Symmetry and Conserved Quantities of Mechanical System in Phase Space

    Fang Jianhui; Ding Ning; Wang Peng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new symmetry and its conserved quantities of a mechanical system in phase space are studied. The definition of this new symmetry, i.e., a unified one is presented, and the criterion of this symmetry is also given. The Noether, the generalized Hojman and the Mei conserved quantities of the unified symmetry of the system are obtained. The unified symmetry contains the Noether, the Lie and the Mei symmetries, and has more generalized significance.

  14. Perturbation to Unified Symmetry and Adiabatic Invariants for Relativistic Hamilton Systems

    Zhang Mingjiang; Fang Jianhui; Lu Kai; Pang Ting; Lin Peng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, the perturbation to unified symmetry and adiabatic invariants for relativistic Hamilton systems are studied. The definition of the perturbation to unified symmetry for the system is presented, and the criterion of the perturbation to unified symmetry is given. Meanwhile, the Noether adiabatic invariants, the generalized Hojman adiabatic invariants, and the Mei adiabatic invariants for the perturbed system are obtained. (general)

  15. Modeling carbon dioxide sequestration in saline aquifers: Significance of elevated pressures and salinities

    Allen, D.E.; Strazisar, B.R.; Soong, Y.; Hedges, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    The ultimate capacity of saline formations to sequester carbon dioxide by solubility and mineral trapping must be determined by simulating sequestration with geochemical models. These models, however, are only as reliable as the data and reaction scheme on which they are based. Several models have been used to make estimates of carbon dioxide solubility and mineral formation as a function of pressure and fluid composition. Intercomparison of modeling results indicates that failure to adjust all equilibrium constants to account for elevated carbon dioxide pressures results in significant errors in both solubility and mineral formation estimates. Absence of experimental data at high carbon dioxide pressures and high salinities make verification of model results difficult. Results indicate standalone solubility models that do not take mineral reactions into account will underestimate the total capacity of aquifers to sequester carbon dioxide in the long term through enhanced solubility and mineral trapping mechanisms. Overall, it is difficult to confidently predict the ultimate sequestration capacity of deep saline aquifers using geochemical models. (author)

  16. Effect of Different Alternate Irrigation Strategies using Saline and Non-Saline Water on Corn Yield, Salinity and Moisture Distribution in Soil Profile

    Ali Reza Kiani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of water and deterioration in the quality of soil and water resources are considered to be the prime cause of reduced crop yield in arid and semi-arid regions ‘More crop per drop’ by trickle irrigation, deficit irrigation, and uncommon water are the best strategies for mitigating water crises. Different irrigation management strategies are needed to increase production in different areas. In areas where sufficient water is available, a full irrigation strategy could be a suitable option, while in areas where water is limited, deficit irrigation would be an appropriate method, and finally in areas where water resources are saline, management strategies for achieving sustainable production as well as economic yields would be suitable. Maize is the third most important grain crop in the world following wheat and rice and it is the main source of nutrition for humans and animals. Because of the importance of maize in the world, increasing maize production under environmental stresses is a big challenge for agricultural scientists. Different methods of irrigation and the use of saline water that had satisfactory results for increasing agricultural production have been studied by several investigators . The main objective of this study was to establish an efficient use of limited water resources as well as to explore the possibility of replacing saline water with fresh water using different management techniques. Materials and Methods: A field experiment was conducted over two maize cropping seasons (2012–2013 in northern Iran (Gorgan Agricultural Research Station to compare different alternate irrigation scenarios using saline water on corn yield, salinity and soil moisture distribution in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were: T1 and T2 = 100 and 50 % of crop water requirement with non-saline water, respectively; T3 and T4 = variable and fixed full irrigation with saline and non-saline

  17. Modelling the salinization of a coastal lagoon-aquifer system

    Colombani, N.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a coastal area constituted by alternations of saline-brackish lagoons and freshwater bodies was studied and modelled to understand the hydrological processes occurring between the lagoons, the groundwater system of the Po River Delta (Italy) and the Adriatic Sea. The contribution of both evaporation and anthropogenic factors on groundwater salinization was assessed by means of soil, groundwater and surface water monitoring. Highresolution multi-level samplers were used to capture salinity gradients within the aquifer and surface water bodies. Data were employed to calibrate a density-dependent numerical transport model implemented with SEAWAT code along a transect perpendicular to the coast line. The results show that the lagoon is hydraulically well connected with the aquifer, which provides the major source of salinity because of the upcoming of paleo-seawater from the aquitard laying at the base of the unconfined aquifer. On the contrary, the seawater (diluted by the freshwater river outflow) creates only a limited saltwater wedge. The increase in groundwater salinity could be of serious concern, especially for the pinewood located in the dune near the coast, sensitive to salinity increases. This case study represents an interesting paradigm for other similar environmental setting, where the assumption of classical aquifer salinization from a saltwater wedge intruding from the sea is often not representative of the actual aquifer’s salinization mechanisms.

  18. Effect of salinity on growth of juvenile silver kob, Argyrosomus ...

    We conclude that silver kob perform at least as well at reduced salinities as in full strength seawater. This could lead to significant cost savings when rearing fish inland using artificial seawater. Keywords: fish physiology; mariculture; mulloway; osmolality; salinity tolerance. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2008, 33(2): ...

  19. Morphological responses of forage sorghums to salinity and ...

    The response of forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties to salinity and irrigation frequency were studied from December 2007 to December 2009. Two forage sorghum varieties (Speedfeed and KFS4) were grown under salinity levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 and irrigated when the leaf water potential ...

  20. Constructed wetlands for saline wastewater treatment: A review

    Saline wastewater originating from sources such as agriculture, aquaculture, and many industrial sectors usually contains high levels of salts and other contaminants, which can adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the treatment of saline wastewater (removal of both sa...

  1. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ∼30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  2. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water

    UFUOMA

    biodegradation of oily sludge by hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) at salinity (NaCl ... petroleum waste. In recent times, several literatures have shown that bioremediation has high potentials for restoring polluted media with least negative impact on the ..... salinity, bacterial consortium is highly stable in immo-.

  3. A Geology-Based Estimate of Connate Water Salinity Distribution

    2014-09-01

    poses serious environmental concerns if connate water is mobilized into shallow aquifers or surface water systems. Estimating the distribution of...groundwater flow and salinity transport near the Herbert Hoover Dike (HHD) surrounding Lake Okeechobee in Florida . The simulations were conducted using the...on the geologic configuration at equilibrium, and the horizontal salinity distribution is strongly linked to aquifer connectivity because

  4. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research Commission projects along the Lower Vaal, Riet, Berg and Breede Rivers. ... It is suggested that a more dynamic approach be used for managing salinity under irrigation at farm level, i.e. the use of models. Amongst others, future research should focus on ...

  5. Bacteriophage Infectivity Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Saline Conditions

    Scarascia, Giantommaso; Yap, Scott A.; Kaksonen, Anna H.; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2018-01-01

    at different temperature, pH, and salinity. Bacteriophages showed optimal infectivity at a multiplicity of infection of 10 in saline conditions, and demonstrated lytic abilities over all tested temperature (25, 30, 37, and 45°C) and pH 6–9. Planktonic P

  6. Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance under ...

    In two consecutive seasons (2007-08 and 2008-09), field experiments were conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian and Biosaline Agricultural Research Station, Pakka Aana, Pakistan. During 2007-08, 103 wheat landrace genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance. During 2008-09, 47 selected ...

  7. Irrigation and drainage in agriculture: a salinity and environmental perspective

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Stofberg, S.F.; Yang, X.; Liu, Y.; Islam, M.N.; Hu, Yin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Whereas irrigation and drainage are intended to address the shortage and surplus of soil water, respectively, an important aspect to address is also the management of salinity. Plants have a limited tolerance for soil water salinity, and despite significant gaps in our practical knowledge, an

  8. Salinity controls on Na incorporation in Red Sea planktonic foraminifera

    Mezger, E. M.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Boer, W.; Brummer, G. J. A.; Reichart, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Whereas several well-established proxies are available for reconstructing past temperatures, salinity remains challenging to assess. Reconstructions based on the combination of (in)organic temperature proxies and foraminiferal stable oxygen isotopes result in relatively large uncertainties, which may be reduced by application of a direct salinity proxy. Cultured benthic and planktonic foraminifera showed that Na incorporation in foraminiferal shell calcite provides a potential independent proxy for salinity. Here we present the first field calibration of such a potential proxy. Living planktonic foraminiferal specimens from the Red Sea surface waters were collected and analyzed for their Na/Ca content using laser ablation quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using the Red Sea as a natural laboratory, the calibration covers a broad range of salinities over a steep gradient within the same water mass. For both Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerinoides sacculifer calcite Na/Ca increases with salinity, albeit with a relatively large intraspecimen and interspecimen variability. The field-based calibration is similar for both species from a salinity of 36.8 up to 39.6, while values for G. sacculifer deviate from this trend in the northernmost transect. It is hypothesized that the foraminifera in the northernmost part of the Red Sea are (partly) expatriated and hence should be excluded from the Na/Ca-salinity calibration. Incorporation of Na in foraminiferal calcite therefore provides a potential proxy for salinity, although species-specific calibrations are still required and more research on the effect of temperature is needed.

  9. Zinc, nitrogen and salinity interaction on agronomic traits and some ...

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... percentage decreased due to nitrogen, zinc and salinity in the first year but .... Analysis of variance on canola traits affected by nitrogen, zinc and salinity at ...... a result less of the latter are available for fat synthesis ... Na+ and Cl- in plant tissues, effects of nitrogen and zinc ... Zinc alleviates cadmium-induced.

  10. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    Screening a large number of plants for salinity tolerance is not easy, therefore this investigation was performed to evaluate and screen 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Superhead#2 (Super Seri) and Roshan wheat varieties for salinity tolerance. All the individuals were evaluated under ...

  11. Dynamics of rainwater lenses on upward seeping saline groundwater

    Eeman, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Fresh water is generally a limited resource in coastal areas which are often densely populated. In low-lying areas, groundwater is mostly saline and both agriculture and freshwater nature depend on a thin lens of rainwater that is formed by precipitation surplus on top of saline, upward seeping

  12. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    The spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion into Lekki lagoon and transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and February, 2008. The water quality analysis indicated that, salinity has drastically increased recently in the lagoon (0.007 to ...

  13. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes: Perspectives for saline agriculture

    Bruning, B.; Rozema, J.

    2013-01-01

    Saline agriculture provides a solution for at least two environmental and social problems. It allows us to return to agricultural production areas that have been lost as a consequence of salinization and it can save valuable fresh water by using brackish or salt water to irrigate arable lands. Sea

  14. Effects of salinity on growth and metabolism in blue tilapia ...

    Blood samples were taken to analyse plasma sodium, chloride, potassium, total protein and triglycerides. Liver and muscle samples were collected for HSI and moisture values. Plasma sodium chloride increased in parallel with salinity rise. Total protein and triglycerides significantly reduced as salinity increased. Glucose ...

  15. Investigation of Lake Water Salinity by Using Four-Band Salinity Algorithm on WorldView-2 Satellite Image for a Saline Industrial Lake

    Budakoǧlu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Damla Uça Avcı, Z.; Kumral, Mustafa; Geredeli (Yılmaz), Serpil

    2014-05-01

    Salinity of a lake is an important characteristic since, these are potentially industrial lakes and the degree of salinity can significantly be used for determination of mineral resources and for the production management. In the literature, there are many studies of using satellite data for salinity related lake studies such as determination of salinity distribution and detection of potential freshwater sources in less salt concentrated regions. As the study area Lake Acigol, located in Denizli (Turkey) was selected. With it's saline environment, it's the major sodium sulphate production resource of Turkey. In this study, remote sensing data and data from a field study was used and correlated. Remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor and analyze lake properties by using it complementary to field data. Worldview-2 satellite data was used in this study which consists of 8 bands. At the same time with the satellite data acquisition, a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values in 17 points of the laker with using YSI 556 Multiparametre for measurements. The values were measured as salinity amount in grams per kilogram solution and obtained as ppt unit. It was observed that the values vary from 34 ppt - 40.1 ppt and the average is 38.056 ppt. In Thalassic serie, the lake was in mixoeuhaline state in the time of issue. As a first step, ATCOR correction was performed on satellite image for atmospheric correction. There were some clouds on the lake field, hence it was decided to continue the study by using the 12 sampling points which were clear on the image. Then, for each sampling point, a spectral value was obtained by calculating the average at a 11*11 neighborhood. The relation between the spectral reflectance values and the salinity was investigated. The 4-band algorithm, which was used for determination of chlorophyll-a distribution in highly turbid coastal environment by Wei (2012) was applied. Salinity α (Λi-1 / Λj-1) * (Λk-1 / Λm-1) (i

  16. UniFIeD Univariate Frequency-based Imputation for Time Series Data

    Friese, Martina; Stork, Jörg; Ramos Guerra, Ricardo; Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas; Thaker, Soham; Flasch, Oliver; Zaefferer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces UniFIeD, a new data preprocessing method for time series. UniFIeD can cope with large intervals of missing data. A scalable test function generator, which allows the simulation of time series with different gap sizes, is presented additionally. An experimental study demonstrates that (i) UniFIeD shows a significant better performance than simple imputation methods and (ii) UniFIeD is able to handle situations, where advanced imputation methods fail. The results are indep...

  17. GUDM: Automatic Generation of Unified Datasets for Learning and Reasoning in Healthcare.

    Ali, Rahman; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Shujaat; Huh, Eui-Nam; Kang, Byeong Ho; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-07-02

    A wide array of biomedical data are generated and made available to healthcare experts. However, due to the diverse nature of data, it is difficult to predict outcomes from it. It is therefore necessary to combine these diverse data sources into a single unified dataset. This paper proposes a global unified data model (GUDM) to provide a global unified data structure for all data sources and generate a unified dataset by a "data modeler" tool. The proposed tool implements user-centric priority based approach which can easily resolve the problems of unified data modeling and overlapping attributes across multiple datasets. The tool is illustrated using sample diabetes mellitus data. The diverse data sources to generate the unified dataset for diabetes mellitus include clinical trial information, a social media interaction dataset and physical activity data collected using different sensors. To realize the significance of the unified dataset, we adopted a well-known rough set theory based rules creation process to create rules from the unified dataset. The evaluation of the tool on six different sets of locally created diverse datasets shows that the tool, on average, reduces 94.1% time efforts of the experts and knowledge engineer while creating unified datasets.

  18. Leptogenesis in unified theories with Type II see-saw

    Antusch, Stefan; King, Steve F.

    2006-01-01

    In some classes of flavour models based on unified theories with a type I see-saw mechanism, the prediction for the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino is in conflict with the lower bound from the requirement of successful thermal leptogenesis. We investigate how lifting the absolute neutrino mass scale by adding a type II see-saw contribution proportional to the unit matrix can solve this problem. Generically, lifting the neutrino mass scale increases the prediction for the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino while the decay asymmetry is enhanced and washout effects are reduced, relaxing the lower bound on the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino from thermal leptogenesis. For instance in classes of unified theories where the lightest right-handed neutrino dominates the type I see-saw contribution, we find that thermal leptogenesis becomes possible if the neutrino mass scale is larger than about 0.15 eV, making this scenario testable by neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in the near future

  19. Unified triminimal parametrizations of quark and lepton mixing matrices

    He Xiaogang; Li Shiwen; Ma Boqiang

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed study on triminimal parametrizations of quark and lepton mixing matrices with different basis matrices. We start with a general discussion on the triminimal expansion of the mixing matrix and on possible unified quark and lepton parametrization using quark-lepton complementarity. We then consider several interesting basis matrices and compare the triminimal parametrizations with the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations. The usual Wolfenstein parametrization for quark mixing is a triminimal expansion around the unit matrix as the basis. The corresponding quark-lepton complementarity lepton mixing matrix is a triminimal expansion around the bimaximal basis. Current neutrino oscillation data show that the lepton mixing matrix is very well represented by the tribimaximal mixing. It is natural to take it as an expanding basis. The corresponding zeroth order basis for quark mixing in this case makes the triminimal expansion converge much faster than the usual Wolfenstein parametrization. The triminimal expansion based on tribimaximal mixing can be converted to the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations discussed in the literature. We thus have a unified description between different kinds of parametrizations for quark and lepton sectors: the standard parametrizations, the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations, and the triminimal parametrizations.

  20. Finite element analysis of structures through unified formulation

    Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco; Zappino, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is a computational tool widely used to design and analyse  complex structures. Currently, there are a number of different approaches to analysis using the FEM that vary according to the type of structure being analysed: beams and plates may use 1D or 2D approaches, shells and solids 2D or 3D approaches, and methods that work for one structure are typically not optimized to work for another. Finite Element Analysis of Structures Through Unified Formulation deals with the FEM used for the analysis of the mechanics of structures in the case of linear elasticity. The novelty of this book is that the finite elements (FEs) are formulated on the basis of a class of theories of structures known as the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF). It formulates 1D, 2D and 3D FEs on the basis of the same ''fundamental nucleus'' that comes from geometrical relations and Hooke''s law, and presents both 1D and 2D refined FEs that only have displacement variables as in 3D elements. It also covers 1D...

  1. Implementation of a unified system for waste management

    Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da

    2006-08-01

    The process of generation and disposal of wastes has been responsible for many economical, ecological and public health problems, although the importance of its safe management for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. In order to manage the hazardous wastes in an environmentally-friendly manner, many technical and administrative procedures should be implemented, from prevention and control of waste generation to a final disposal. The nuclear area personnel have a long and successful experience in all administrative and operational activities involved in the handling, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal of radioactive waste. Thus, this knowledge can be considered in the development of a unified methodology for managing all kinds of hazardous waste. The main purpose of the present work is to develop and implement a methodology, primarily to institutions that generate small amounts of waste of different compositions, on the predisposal activities management. This methodology was developed to provide a facilitator tool that should be applied by expert users. To simplify and automatize its application, a software, named SUGERE - a unified system for waste management, was developed in a Windows R environment using a Borland Delphi R package. The nuclear industry was used as a reference for developing this work and many examples of this area standards and procedures are implemented. (author)

  2. In search for the unified theory of fundamental interactions

    Ansel'm, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of developing the unified theory of fundamental interactions is considered in a popular form. The fundamental interactions include interactions between really elementary particles (quarks and leptons) which are performed by strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational forces. The unified theory is based on the requirement of ''Local symmetry''. The problem on invariance of strong interaction theory to local isotopic transformation was proposed for the first time by Yang and Mills, who introduced fields, called compensating (they compensate additional members in the theory equations, appearing during local transformations) Quanta of these fields (calibrating bosons) are massless particles with a spin, equal to one. The bosons should have the mass different from zero in order to be the carriers of real strong and weak interactions. At present there exist two mechanisms, due to which the mentioned controdiction can be overcome. One of these mechanisms - spontaneous symmetry distortion, the other mechanism - ''non-escape'', or ''captivity'' of the particles. The main ideas of building the realistic model of strong interaction are briefly presented

  3. A word from the DG: A unified Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    I complete my five years at the helm of CERN at the end of December and would like to take this opportunity to remind you of the route we have travelled during that time and to express my best wishes to you for the future. In addition to the vital priority of completing the LHC, I set myself two essential goals at the beginning of my term of office: to define a clear long-term strategy for CERN and to unify the Laboratory. These aims were essential in order to regain the confidence of the Member States, partly lost as a result of the crisis that occurred before I took up office, and to transform CERN into the key player in the European strategy for particle physics. We have succeeded in completing the LHC. Despite the incident in the machine, we were able to show very rapidly that the accelerator and its injection chain were well poised to deliver efficient operation and use. Our efforts to unify the Laboratory, to define the strateg...

  4. Unifying the field: developing an integrative paradigm for behavior therapy.

    Eifert, G H; Forsyth, J P; Schauss, S L

    1993-06-01

    The limitations of early conditioning models and treatments have led many behavior therapists to abandon conditioning principles and replace them with loosely defined cognitive theories and treatments. Systematic theory extensions to human behavior, using new concepts and processes derived from and built upon the basic principles, could have prevented the divisive debates over whether psychological dysfunctions are the results of conditioning or cognition and whether they should be treated with conditioning or cognitive techniques. Behavior therapy could also benefit from recent advances in experimental cognitive psychology that provide objective behavioral methods of studying dysfunctional processes. We suggest a unifying paradigm for explaining abnormal behavior that links and integrates different fields of study and processes that are frequently believed to be incompatible or antithetical such as biological vulnerability variables, learned behavioral repertoires, and that also links historical and current antecedents of the problem. An integrative paradigmatic behavioral approach may serve a unifying function in behavior therapy (a) by promoting an understanding of the dysfunctional processes involved in different disorders and (b) by helping clinicians conduct functional analyses that lead to theory-based, individualized, and effective treatments.

  5. Numerical integration of some new unified plasticity-creep formulations

    Krieg, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The usual constitutive description of metals at high temperature treats creep as a phenomenon which must be added to time independent phenomena. A new approach is now being advocated by some people, principally metallurgists. They all treat the inelastic strain as a unified quantity, incapable of being separated into time dependent and time independent parts. This paper examines the behavior of the differential formulations reported in the literature together with one proposed by the author. These formulations are capable of representing primary and secondary creep, cyclic hardening to a stable cyclic stress-strain loop, a conventional plasticity behavior, and a Bauchinger effect which may be creep induced and discernable either at fast or slow loading rates. The new unified formulations seem to lead to very non-linear systems of equations which are very well behaved in some regions and very stiff in other regions where the word 'stiff' is used in the mathematical sense. Simple conventional methods of integrating incremental constitutive equations are observed to be totally inadequate. A method of numerically integrating the equations is presented. (Auth.)

  6. New unified fracture toughness estimation scheme for structural integrity assessment

    Wallin, K.; Nevasmaa, P. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bannister, A. [Research and Development, British Steel plc., Swinden Technology Centre Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    At present, treatment of fracture toughness data varies depending on the type of data (K{sub IC}, J, CTOD) that are available for fracture mechanics analysis. This complicates structural integrity assessment and makes it difficult to apply any single, unified procedure. Within the Brite-Euram project `SINTAP` a fracture toughness estimation scheme has been developed for the unified treatment of data for use in structural integrity assessment. As a procedure, it can be applied to Charpy data, as well as to fracture toughness data, and is suitable for the treatment of data at both single and different temperatures. The data sets may contain results from both homogeneous and inhomogeneous material, making the procedure applicable also to welded joints. The procedure allows fracture toughness assessment with quantified probability and confidence levels. Irrespective of the type of the original data, one material-specific K{sub mat} value representing a conservative estimate of the mean fracture toughness is obtained (with its probability distribution). This information can then be applied to structural integrity assessment. (orig.) 4 refs.

  7. The Goddard multi-scale modeling system with unified physics

    W.-K. Tao

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1 a cloud-resolving model (CRM, (2 a regional-scale model, the NASA unified Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF, and (3 a coupled CRM-GCM (general circulation model, known as the Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework or MMF. The same cloud-microphysical processes, long- and short-wave radiative transfer and land-surface processes are applied in all of the models to study explicit cloud-radiation and cloud-surface interactive processes in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator for comparison and validation with NASA high-resolution satellite data.

    This paper reviews the development and presents some applications of the multi-scale modeling system, including results from using the multi-scale modeling system to study the interactions between clouds, precipitation, and aerosols. In addition, use of the multi-satellite simulator to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the model-simulated precipitation processes will be discussed as well as future model developments and applications.

  8. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Slob, Evert

    2016-06-01

    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green's function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because the medium of interest is often accessible from one side only. The inherent approximations are acceptable as long as the effects of multiple scattering are negligible. However, in case of strongly inhomogeneous media, the effects of multiple scattering can be severe. We derive double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. The single-sided representation applies to situations where the medium can be accessed from one side only. It correctly handles multiple scattering. It employs a focusing function instead of the backward propagating Green's function in the classical (double-sided) representation. When reflection measurements are available at the accessible boundary of the medium, the focusing function can be retrieved from these measurements. Throughout the paper, we use a unified notation which applies to acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic and elastodynamic waves. We foresee many interesting applications of the unified single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation in holographic imaging and inverse scattering, time-reversed wave field propagation and interferometric Green's function retrieval.

  9. A Unified Approach to Model-Based Planning and Execution

    Muscettola, Nicola; Dorais, Gregory A.; Fry, Chuck; Levinson, Richard; Plaunt, Christian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Writing autonomous software is complex, requiring the coordination of functionally and technologically diverse software modules. System and mission engineers must rely on specialists familiar with the different software modules to translate requirements into application software. Also, each module often encodes the same requirement in different forms. The results are high costs and reduced reliability due to the difficulty of tracking discrepancies in these encodings. In this paper we describe a unified approach to planning and execution that we believe provides a unified representational and computational framework for an autonomous agent. We identify the four main components whose interplay provides the basis for the agent's autonomous behavior: the domain model, the plan database, the plan running module, and the planner modules. This representational and problem solving approach can be applied at all levels of the architecture of a complex agent, such as Remote Agent. In the rest of the paper we briefly describe the Remote Agent architecture. The new agent architecture proposed here aims at achieving the full Remote Agent functionality. We then give the fundamental ideas behind the new agent architecture and point out some implication of the structure of the architecture, mainly in the area of reactivity and interaction between reactive and deliberative decision making. We conclude with related work and current status.

  10. Gauge coupling unification from unified theories in higher dimensions

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2002-01-01

    Higher dimensional grand unified theories, with gauge symmetry breaking by orbifold compactification, possess SU(5) breaking at fixed points, and do not automatically lead to tree-level gauge coupling unification. A new framework is introduced that guarantees precise unification--even the leading loop threshold corrections are predicted, although they are model dependent. Precise agreement with the experimental result, α s exp =0.117±0.002, occurs only for a unique theory, and gives α s KK =0.118±0.004±0.003. Remarkably, this unique theory is also the simplest, with SU(5) gauge interactions and two Higgs hypermultiplets propagating in a single extra dimension. This result is more successful and precise than that obtained from conventional supersymmetric grand unification, α s SGUT =0.130±0.004±Δ SGUT . There is a simultaneous solution to the three outstanding problems of 4D supersymmetric grand unified theories: a large mass splitting between Higgs doublets and their color triplet partners is forced, proton decay via dimension five operators is automatically forbidden, and the absence of fermion mass relations amongst light quarks and leptons is guaranteed, while preserving the successful m b /m τ relation. The theory necessarily has a strongly coupled top quark located on a fixed point and part of the lightest generation propagating in the bulk. The string and compactification scales are determined to be around 10 17 GeV and 10 15 GeV, respectively

  11. Higgs, Top, and Bottom Mass Predictions in Finite Unified Theories

    Heinemeyer, Sven; Zoupanos, George

    2014-01-01

    All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are N = 1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) based on the principle of reduction of couplings, which have a remarkable predictive power. The reduction of couplings implies the existence of renormalization group invariant relations among them, which guarantee the vanishing of the beta functions at all orders in perturbation theory in particular N = 1 GUTs. In the soft breaking sector these relations imply the existence of a sum rule among the soft scalar masses. The confrontation of the predictions of a SU(5) FUT model with the top and bottom quark masses and other low-energy experimental constraints leads to a prediction of the light Higgs-boson mass in the rangeMh ∼ 121−126 GeV, in remarkable agreement with the discovery of the Higgs boson with a mass around ∼ 125.7 GeV. Also a relatively heavy spectrum with coloured supersymmetric particles above ∼ 1.5 TeV is predicted, consistent with the non-observation of those particles at the LHC.

  12. New unified fracture toughness estimation scheme for structural integrity assessment

    Wallin, K; Nevasmaa, P [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bannister, A [Research and Development, British Steel plc., Swinden Technology Centre Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    At present, treatment of fracture toughness data varies depending on the type of data (K{sub IC}, J, CTOD) that are available for fracture mechanics analysis. This complicates structural integrity assessment and makes it difficult to apply any single, unified procedure. Within the Brite-Euram project `SINTAP` a fracture toughness estimation scheme has been developed for the unified treatment of data for use in structural integrity assessment. As a procedure, it can be applied to Charpy data, as well as to fracture toughness data, and is suitable for the treatment of data at both single and different temperatures. The data sets may contain results from both homogeneous and inhomogeneous material, making the procedure applicable also to welded joints. The procedure allows fracture toughness assessment with quantified probability and confidence levels. Irrespective of the type of the original data, one material-specific K{sub mat} value representing a conservative estimate of the mean fracture toughness is obtained (with its probability distribution). This information can then be applied to structural integrity assessment. (orig.) 4 refs.

  13. Microphysics in Multi-scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the microphysics development and its performance for the multi-scale modeling system will be presented.

  14. Theory of thermoluminescence gamma dose response: The unified interaction model

    Horowitz, Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the development of a comprehensive theory of thermoluminescence (TL) dose response, the unified interaction model (UNIM). The UNIM is based on both radiation absorption stage and recombination stage mechanisms and can describe dose response for heavy charged particles (in the framework of the extended track interaction model - ETIM) as well as for isotropically ionising gamma rays and electrons (in the framework of the TC/LC geminate recombination model) in a unified and self-consistent conceptual and mathematical formalism. A theory of optical absorption dose response is also incorporated in the UNIM to describe the radiation absorption stage. The UNIM is applied to the dose response supralinearity characteristics of LiF:Mg,Ti and is especially and uniquely successful in explaining the ionisation density dependence of the supralinearity of composite peak 5 in TLD-100. The UNIM is demonstrated to be capable of explaining either qualitatively or quantitatively all of the major features of TL dose response with many of the variable parameters of the model strongly constrained by ancilliary optical absorption and sensitisation measurements

  15. SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN CLUJ-NAPOCA SURROUNDINGS

    B. CZELLECZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saline waters are usually researched in those places where it is used for balneotherapy or other industrial purposes. The aim of this study is to describe the saline water sources from less known areas, as they are an important natural mineral water resource. Twenty nine water samples were analyzed from Cojocna-Pata-Sopor region, thirteen of them can be considered saline waters. The visited locations are 21, 15 and 3 km far from Cluj-Napoca. Highly concentrated springs are to be found in the old mine area from Pata village and in the slough from Cojocna. Beside the well known saline lakes from Cojocna, five other saline lakes were identified; most of them are having artificial origin.

  16. Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis

    Emer P. Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  17. Salinity and resource management in the Hunter Valley

    Creelman, R.A.; Cooke, R.; Simons, M. [RA Creelman & Associates (Australia)

    1995-08-01

    If excess water salinity is to be managed in the Hunter Valley, its causes and behaviour must be understood. Although Hunter Valley hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry require further study, there is now enough information available to begin the development of both temporal and spatial models as valley management tools. Currently the Department of Water Resources is developing a model known as Integrated Water Quality and Quantity Model (IQQM). IQQM which includes a salinity module is essentially a surface water simulation model. It wll enable testing of alternate management and operation policies such as the salinity property rights trading scheme recently introduced by the EPA to manage salt release from coal mines and power stations. An overview is presented of the progress made to date on the salinity module for IQQM, and an outline is given of the geological and hydrogeochemical concepts that have been assembled to support the salinity module of IQQM. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Use of microwave remote sensing in salinity estimation

    Singh, R.P.; Kumar, V.; Srivastav, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Soil-moisture interaction and the consequent liberation of ions causes the salinity of waters. The salinity of river, lake, ocean and ground water changes due to seepage and surface runoff. We have studied the feasibility of using microwave remote sensing for the estimation of salinity by carrying out numerical calculations to study the microwave remote sensing responses of various models representative of river, lake and ocean water. The results show the dependence of microwave remote sensing responses on the salinity and surface temperature of water. The results presented in this paper will be useful in the selection of microwave sensor parameters and in the accurate estimation of salinity from microwave remote sensing data

  19. Nonlinear dynamics and synchronization of saline oscillator’s model

    Fokou Kenfack, W.; Siewe Siewe, M.; Kofane, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of saline oscillator is derived and tested through numerical simulations. • Interaction between globally coupled saline oscillators is modeled. • Dependence of coupling coefficients on physical parameters is brought out. • Synchronization behaviors are studied using the model equations. - Abstract: The Okamura model equation of saline oscillator is refined into a non-autonomous ordinary differential equation whose coefficients are related to physical parameters of the system. The dependence of the oscillatory period and amplitude on remarkable physical parameters are computed and compared to experimental results in order to test the model. We also model globally coupled saline oscillators and bring out the dependence of coupling coefficients on physical parameters of the system. We then study the synchronization behaviors of coupled saline oscillators by the mean of numerical simulations carried out on the model equations. These simulations agree with previously reported experimental results.

  20. The salinity effect in a mixed layer ocean model

    Miller, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    A model of the thermally mixed layer in the upper ocean as developed by Kraus and Turner and extended by Denman is further extended to investigate the effects of salinity. In the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean rapid increases in salinity occur at the bottom of a uniformly mixed surface layer. The most significant effects produced by the inclusion of salinity are the reduction of the deepening rate and the corresponding change in the heating characteristics of the mixed layer. If the net surface heating is positive, but small, salinity effects must be included to determine whether the mixed layer temperature will increase or decrease. Precipitation over tropical oceans leads to the development of a shallow stable layer accompanied by a decrease in the temperature and salinity at the sea surface.

  1. Hypertonic saline in treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis.

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  2. Optimal design of the cable metro with unified intermediate supports

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In article was formulated and solved the problem of conditional nonlinear technical and economic optimization of the distance between intermediate supports, uniform in height, during the design of the cable metro lines in highly urban-ized city environment. The optimization problem involves a single-criterion objective function that expresses the cost of construction of the cable metro line (total cost of intermediate supports and their foundations, traction and carrying steel cables and technical equipment. The specified objective function subject to minimization by finding the optimal combination of the distance between intermediate supports and tension carrying ropes with accounting constructive, modal, structural and planning constraints in the form of nonlinear inequalities. The optimization algorithm was based on the direct method of optimization type, Hooke-Jeeves, which was modified taking into account the need of varying the height of intermediate supports with a constant step equal to the step of unification. When constructing the objective function were considered three possible forms sagging of carrying ropes, which can be implemented for various values of the efforts of their tension. Analysis was done of the influence of the step unification and minimum size of interme-diate supports on their optimum step, the cost of intermediate supports, the cost of 1 km cable metro line for different values of the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief along the cable metro line. The graph of height of uni-fied supports from the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief has discrete-step type. With the increase of the step unify the discreteness increases: the width of the range of angles of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief within which the height of the supports remains constant, increases. The graph of step installation of unified supports along the cable metro line from the angle of the longitudinal

  3. Salinity tolerances and use of saline environments by freshwater turtles: implications of sea level rise.

    Agha, Mickey; Ennen, Joshua R; Bower, Deborah S; Nowakowski, A Justin; Sweat, Sarah C; Todd, Brian D

    2018-03-25

    The projected rise in global mean sea levels places many freshwater turtle species at risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater habitats. Freshwater turtles are disproportionately more threatened than other taxa; thus, understanding the role of salinity in determining their contemporary distribution and evolution should be a research priority. Freshwater turtles are a slowly evolving lineage; however, they can adapt physiologically or behaviourally to various levels of salinity and, therefore, temporarily occur in marine or brackish environments. Here, we provide the first comprehensive global review on freshwater turtle use and tolerance of brackish water ecosystems. We link together current knowledge of geographic occurrence, salinity tolerance, phylogenetic relationships, and physiological and behavioural mechanisms to generate a baseline understanding of the response of freshwater turtles to changing saline environments. We also review the potential origins of salinity tolerance in freshwater turtles. Finally, we integrate 2100 sea level rise (SLR) projections, species distribution maps, literature gathered on brackish water use, and a phylogeny to predict the exposure of freshwater turtles to projected SLR globally. From our synthesis of published literature and available data, we build a framework for spatial and phylogenetic conservation prioritization of coastal freshwater turtles. Based on our literature review, 70 species (∼30% of coastal freshwater turtle species) from 10 of the 11 freshwater turtle families have been reported in brackish water ecosystems. Most anecdotal records, observations, and descriptions do not imply long-term salinity tolerance among freshwater turtles. Rather, experiments show that some species exhibit potential for adaptation and plasticity in physiological, behavioural, and life-history traits that enable them to endure varying periods (e.g. days or months) and levels of saltwater exposure. Species that specialize on

  4. Impacts of irrigation regimes with saline water on carrot productivity and soil salinity

    Kamel Nagaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different irrigation regimes with saline water on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of carrot as a fall-winter crop under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Carrot was grown on a sandy soil and surface-irrigated with a water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. For the three years, a complete randomized block design with four replicates was used to evaluate five irrigation regimes. Four irrigation methods were based on the use of soil water balance (SWB to estimate irrigation amounts and timing while the fifth consisted of using traditional farmers practices. SWB methods consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI-100, 80% (DI-80 and 60% (DI-60. FI-100 was considered as full irrigation while DI-80 and DI-60 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Regulated deficit irrigation regime where 40% reduction is applied only during ripening stage (FI-DI60 was also used. Farmer method (Farmer consisted in giving fixed amounts of water (25 mm every 7 days from planting till harvest. Results on carrot production and soil salinization are globally consistent between the three-year experiments and shows significant difference between irrigation regimes. Higher soil salinity in the root zone is observed at harvest under DI-60 (3.1, 3.4, 3.9 dS/m, respectively, for the three years and farmer irrigation (3.3, 3.6, 3.9 dS/m treatments compared to FI-100 treatment (2.3, 2.6 and 3.1 dS/m. Relatively low ECe values were also observed under FI-DI60 and DI-80 treatments with respectively (2.7, 3, 3.5 dS/m and (2.5, 2.9, 3.3 dS/m. ECe values under the different irrigation treatments were generally lower than or equal to the EC of irrigation water used. Rainfall received during fall and/or winter periods (57, 26 and 29 mm, respectively, during the three years contributed probably to leaching soluble

  5. Examination stress at unified state examination: student destabilization or success factor?

    Svetlana N. Kostromina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to clear up the influence of examination stress on the results of completing examination papers by students in the situation of trial General and Unified State Examinations, imitating the real-life environment of unified state certification of schoolchildren. The tasks of the research included determining the dynamics of psychophysiological stress indices at different examination stages, and evaluating additional factors (the subject in which the examination is held, the strategy of solving the variant, success of solving the task etc., influencing the quantity and quality of stress reactions at the examination.The novelty of the research is in the attempt to overcome the problem of confusing the notions of examination stress and examination anxiety, caused by metering the students’ state either before or after the examination. The technology of online monitoring the students’ psychophysiological state is used in the work, which makes it possible to eliminate a number of restrictions occurring during subjective evaluation of the state by the students themselves. Telemetric cardiorhythmography was chosen as the basic method. The method is based on a three-component model of extreme states with consequent domination of one of the three stress-reactive systems. A cardiointervalogramm was being registered in the research process in the online mode and underwent spectral analysis. The following indices of heart rate variability were recorded in order to determine stress reactions: the total power of the spectrum (TP, the spectrum power in low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF regions, and a vegetative balance index (relation of the spectrum powers in low-frequency and high-frequency regions (LF/HF. When the total power of the heart rate fell and, at the same time, the vegetative balance index rose, a conclusion was made of there being a stress reaction. Twenty-five students of an illustrious school were examined

  6. There is a strong need for a single unified textbook even though education in disaster mitigation covers many fields

    Sugimoto, M.; Song, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Areas of scientific specialties have been segmentalized nowadays. Each natural hazard are researched by scientific researchers. A huge variety of textbooks on one or few natural hazard are published by a single researcher in the world. There are possibilities are several natural disaster in one place. People have to learn from each hazard. However such disaster textbook is not unified education publish. Education in disaster mitigation covers many fields. There is a strong need for a single unified textbook. When I teach disaster education to children in kindergartens and schools, I understand students are confused by each different direction in such textbooks. "Doctor, which is right when a earthquake happens, cover my head or go out of a building? " I would like to discuss what the most valuable disaster textbook is as my following disatser handbook with audiences. This is publisehd for developping countries. You can freely download UNESCO disaster handbook following URL:http://www.icharm.pwri.go.jp/publication/pdf/handbook_on_local_disaster_management_experiences.pdf

  7. Europa's Compositional Evolution and Ocean Salinity

    Vance, S.; Glein, C.; Bouquet, A.; Cammarano, F.; McKinnon, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    Europa's ocean depth and composition have likely evolved through time, in step with the temperature of its mantle, and in concert with the loss of water and hydrogen to space and accretion of water and other chemical species from comets, dust, and Io's volcanism. A key aspect to understanding the consequences of these processes is combining internal structure models with detailed calculations of ocean composition, which to date has not been done. This owes in part to the unavailability of suitable thermodynamic databases for aqueous chemistry above 0.5 GPa. Recent advances in high pressure aqueous chemistry and water-rock interactions allow us to compute the equilibrium ionic conditions and pH everywhere in Europa's interior. In this work, we develop radial structure and composition models for Europa that include self-consistent thermodynamics of all materials, developed using the PlanetProfile software. We will describe the potential hydration states and porosity of the rocky interior, and the partitioning of primordial sulfur between this layer, an underlying metallic core, and the ocean above. We will use these results to compute the ocean's salinity by extraction from the upper part of the rocky layer. In this context, we will also consider the fluxes of reductants from Europa's interior due to high-temperature hydrothermalism, serpentinization, and endogenic radiolysis.

  8. In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions

    Bosshard, B.; Raumin, J.; Saurohan, B.

    1995-01-01

    An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert's interest

  9. Salinity intrusion modeling for Sungai Selangor

    Mohamed Roseli Zainal Abidin; Abd Jalil Hassan; Suriyani Awang; Liew Yuk San; Norbaya Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of fading fireflies. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. (Author)

  10. Salinity, can be indicator for radioactivity

    Patrascu, V.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactivity being within nature is an incontestable reality. Less than a century, man have diversified and intensified its presence, especially after nuclear weapons and peaceful use of fission power. Secondary, the risks of ionizing radiation effects on live matter have increased. The need of environmental radioactivity assessment and knowledge development in the field is and remains actually in follow time. The nuclear techniques are generally expensive and the radioanalytical methods are no so fast. Sometimes it is necessary to make the rapid and cheapest estimation, without to replace them. This is possible by finding of some accessible correlated parameters and easy to be analyzed. These parameters could indicate the availability of radionuclides in different ecosystems or the availability of ecosystems for different radionuclides. K-40 is a remarkable presence in marine natural radioactivity and plays an important role for euphotic and deep levels. As nutrient it can influence coastal ecosystems and its radiation power can be significant for microbiological processes. This present work analyzed the correlation between salinity and water K-40 radioactivity (beta, gamma) and proposes an empirical connection formula on the base of the good correlation that has been identified

  11. A Unified Building Model for 3D Urban GIS

    Ihab Hijazi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several tasks in urban and architectural design are today undertaken in a geospatial context. Building Information Models (BIM and geospatial technologies offer 3D data models that provide information about buildings and the surrounding environment. The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC and CityGML are today the two most prominent semantic models for representation of BIM and geospatial models respectively. CityGML has emerged as a standard for modeling city models while IFC has been developed as a reference model for building objects and sites. Current CAD and geospatial software provide tools that allow the conversion of information from one format to the other. These tools are however fairly limited in their capabilities, often resulting in data and information losses in the transformations. This paper describes a new approach for data integration based on a unified building model (UBM which encapsulates both the CityGML and IFC models, thus avoiding translations between the models and loss of information. To build the UBM, all classes and related concepts were initially collected from both models, overlapping concepts were merged, new objects were created to ensure the capturing of both indoor and outdoor objects, and finally, spatial relationships between the objects were redefined. Unified Modeling Language (UML notations were used for representing its objects and relationships between them. There are two use-case scenarios, both set in a hospital: “evacuation” and “allocating spaces for patient wards” were developed to validate and test the proposed UBM data model. Based on these two scenarios, four validation queries were defined in order to validate the appropriateness of the proposed unified building model. It has been validated, through the case scenarios and four queries, that the UBM being developed is able to integrate CityGML data as well as IFC data in an apparently seamless way. Constraints and enrichment functions are

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome in elderly users of the Unified Health System

    Edna Cunha Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in the elderly. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, with 133 individuals randomly selected in the Unified Health System in Goiania, Goiás. The following variables were researched: anthropometric (BMI, waist circumference, fat percentage by Dual X-ray absorptiometry, sociodemographic (gender, age, color, income, marital status and years of schooling, lifestyle (physical activity, smoking and risk alcohol consumption and food intake (risk and protective foods. The metabolic syndrome was assessed according to harmonized criteria proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO. The combinations were tested by Poisson regression for confounding factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 58.65% (95%CI 49.8 - 67.1, with 60.5% (95%CI 49.01 - 71.18 for females and 55.7% (95%CI 41.33 - 69.53 for males. Hypertension was the most prevalent component of the syndrome in both men, with 80.8% (95%CI 64.5 - 90.4, and women, with 85.2% (95%CI 75.5 - 92.1. After the multivariate analysis, only the excess of weight measured by body mass index (prevalence ratio = 1.66; p < 0.01 remained associated with the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was high, indicating the need for systematic actions by health workers in the control of risk factors through prevention strategies and comprehensive care to the elderly.

  13. Laboratory experiment to study the effect of salinity variations on benthic foraminiferal species - Pararotalia nipponica (Asano)

    Nigam, R.; Saraswat, R.; Kurtarkar, S.R.

    Culture experiment has been carried out to observe the response of Pararotalia nipponica (Asano) to different salinities and its salinity tolerance limits. The specimens of P. nipponica kept in 33‰ saline water achieved optimum growth, while rest...

  14. Effluent salinity of pipe drains and tube-wells : a case study from the Indus plain

    Kelleners, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: anisotropy, aquifer, desalinization, effluent salinity, groundwater, irrigation, salt-water upconing, soil salinity, stream-function, subsurface drainage

    Irrigated agriculture in arid and semi-arid zones often suffers from waterlogging and salinity problems.

  15. Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.

    Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L

    2014-10-29

    According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage.

  16. The density-salinity relation of standard seawater

    Schmidt, Hannes; Seitz, Steffen; Hassel, Egon; Wolf, Henning

    2018-01-01

    The determination of salinity by means of electrical conductivity relies on stable salt proportions in the North Atlantic Ocean, because standard seawater, which is required for salinometer calibration, is produced from water of the North Atlantic. To verify the long-term stability of the standard seawater composition, it was proposed to perform measurements of the standard seawater density. Since the density is sensitive to all salt components, a density measurement can detect any change in the composition. A conversion of the density values to salinity can be performed by means of a density-salinity relation. To use such a relation with a target uncertainty in salinity comparable to that in salinity obtained from conductivity measurements, a density measurement with an uncertainty of 2 g m-3 is mandatory. We present a new density-salinity relation based on such accurate density measurements. The substitution measurement method used is described and density corrections for uniform isotopic and chemical compositions are reported. The comparison of densities calculated using the new relation with those calculated using the present reference equations of state TEOS-10 suggests that the density accuracy of TEOS-10 (as well as that of EOS-80) has been overestimated, as the accuracy of some of its underlying density measurements had been overestimated. The new density-salinity relation may be used to verify the stable composition of standard seawater by means of routine density measurements.

  17. Scottish saline lagoons: Impacts and challenges of climate change

    Angus, Stewart

    2017-11-01

    The majority of Scotland's saline lagoons are located on the low-lying coastlines of the Western Isles and the northern archipelagos of Orkney and Shetland, where recorded annual relative sea level rise rates are among the highest in Scotland. The sediment-impounded lagoons of Orkney and Shetland will either lose their impoundment and become incorporated in marine coastal waters, or become increasingly saline, as relative sea levels rise. The rock-basin lagoons of the Western Isles will retain their restricted exchange with the sea but will also become more saline with rising sea level. Specialist lagoonal organisms tend to have wide salinity tolerances but may succumb to competition from marine counterparts. In all areas, there are sufficient fresh-water inland water bodies with potential to be captured as lagoons to compensate for loss of extent and number, but the specialist lagoon biota tend to have limited dispersal powers. It is thus possible that they will be unable to transfer to their analogue sites before existing lagoons become fully marine, giving conservation managers the problem of deciding on management options: leave natural processes to operate without interference, manage the saline inflow to maintain the current salinity regime, or translocate lagoon organisms perceived as threatened by rising salinities. Timing of conversion and capture is unpredictable due to local topography and complications caused by variable stratification.

  18. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Its Relationship with Vegetative growth in Bromus danthoniae Genotypes from Saline and Non-Saline Areas of Iran

    M. Rezaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus danthoniae Trin. is an annual grass species that is well adapted to harsh climates and could be considered as an important genetic resources for tolerance to environmental stresses such as salinity. In this study, 24 genotypes collected from Ilam, Kurdistan, Kermanshah (non-saline areas and West Azerbaijan (saline area: shores of Uremia Salt Lake provinces of Iran were investigated at the germination stage under salt treatments with concentrations of 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 mM sodium chloride. Germination percentage, germination rate index, seed vigor, root length, shoot length and seedling fresh and dry weights were measured. In addition, the relationship between the percentage of germination in 300 mM sodium chloride and the survival rate (% after four weeks in 350 mM sodium chloride at the vegetative stage was evaluated. The results of analysis of variance showed that salinity treatments caused significant reductions in all the studied traits. Genotypic variation and the interaction of genotype × salt treatments were also significant. Genotypes USLN3 and KER4 were found to be the most tolerant and sensitive genotypes to salinity stress, with 13% and 98% reduction in germination percentage at 300 mM NaCl, respectively. Cluster analysis divided the genotypes into three groups, with one group containing only tolerant genotypes from Uremia Salt Lake, another one comprising only sensitive genotypes from non-saline regions, and the third one containing genotypes from both regions. The correlation between the germination percentage and the survival rate at the vegetative stage was not significant, indicating that different mechanisms are, perhaps, responsible for salinity tolerance at the germination and vegetative stages in B. danthoniae.

  19. A Unified Field Theory of Gravity, Electromagnetism, and theA Unified Field Theory of Gravity, Electromagnetism, and the Yang-Mills Gauge Field

    Suhendro I.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we attempt at constructing a comprehensive four-dimensional unified field theory of gravity, electromagnetism, and the non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field in which the gravitational, electromagnetic, and material spin fields are unified as intrinsic geometric objects of the space-time manifold $S_4$ via the connection, with the generalized non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field appearing in particular as a sub-field of the geometrized electromagnetic interaction.

  20. SALINITY TOLERANCE OF SEVERAL RICE GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE

    Heni Safitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most serious problems in rice cultivation. Salinity drastically reduced plant growth and yield, especially at seedling stage. Several rice genotypes have been produced, but their tolerance to salinity has not yet been evaluated. The study aimed to evaluate salinity tolerance of rice genotypes at seedling stage. The glasshouse experiment was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Station, Bogor, from April to May 2013. Thirteen rice genotypes and two check varieties, namely Pokkali (salt tolerant and IR29 (salt sensitive were tested at seedling stage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors, namely the levels of NaCl (0 and 120 mM and 13 genotypes of rice. Rice seedlings were grown in the nutrient culture (hydroponic supplemented with NaCl at different levels. The growth and salinity injury levels of the genotypes were recorded periodically. The results showed that salinity level of 120 mM NaCl reduced seedling growth of all rice genotypes, but the tolerant ones were survived after 14 days or until the sensitive check variety died. Based on the visual injury symptoms on the leaves, five genotypes, i.e. Dendang, Inpara 5, Inpari 29, IR77674-3B-8-2-2-14-4-AJY2, and IR81493-BBB-6-B- 2-1-2 were tolerant to 120 mM salinity level, while Inpara 4 was comparable to salt sensitive IR29. Hence, Inpara 4 could be used as a salinity sensitive genotype for future research of testing tolerant variety. Further evaluation is needed to confirm their salinity tolerance under field conditions. 

  1. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    Nuttle, William K.; Fourqurean, James W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Zieman, Joseph C.; Robblee, Michael B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long‐term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  2. High salinity conveys thermotolerance in the coral model Aiptasia

    Gegner, Hagen M.

    2017-12-15

    The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal. Here we test the hypothesis that high salinity may lead to increased thermotolerance. We conducted a heat stress experiment at low, intermediate, and high salinities using a set of host-endosymbiont combinations of the coral model Aiptasia. As expected, all host-endosymbiont combinations showed reduced photosynthetic efficiency and endosymbiont loss during heat stress, but the severity of bleaching was significantly reduced with increasing salinities for one of the host-endosymbiont combinations. Our results show that higher salinities can convey increased thermotolerance in Aiptasia, although this effect seems to be dependent on the particular host strain and/or associated symbiont type. This finding may help explain the extraordinarily high thermotolerance of corals in high salinity environments such as the Red Sea and the Persian/Arabian Gulf and provides novel insight regarding factors that contribute to thermotolerance. Since our results are based on a salinity effect in symbiotic sea anemones, it remains to be determined whether this salinity effect can also be observed in stony corals.

  3. High salinity conveys thermotolerance in the coral model Aiptasia

    Gegner, Hagen M.; Ziegler, Maren; Radecker, Nils; Buitrago Lopez, Carol; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal. Here we test the hypothesis that high salinity may lead to increased thermotolerance. We conducted a heat stress experiment at low, intermediate, and high salinities using a set of host-endosymbiont combinations of the coral model Aiptasia. As expected, all host-endosymbiont combinations showed reduced photosynthetic efficiency and endosymbiont loss during heat stress, but the severity of bleaching was significantly reduced with increasing salinities for one of the host-endosymbiont combinations. Our results show that higher salinities can convey increased thermotolerance in Aiptasia, although this effect seems to be dependent on the particular host strain and/or associated symbiont type. This finding may help explain the extraordinarily high thermotolerance of corals in high salinity environments such as the Red Sea and the Persian/Arabian Gulf and provides novel insight regarding factors that contribute to thermotolerance. Since our results are based on a salinity effect in symbiotic sea anemones, it remains to be determined whether this salinity effect can also be observed in stony corals.

  4. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2004-05-01

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m 3 /s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say ±1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m 3 /s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the shoreline

  5. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    Gustafsson, Bo G. [Oceanus Havsundersoekningar, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m{sup 3}/s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say {+-}1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m{sup 3}/s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the

  6. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water

    Reba, M N M; Rosli, A Z; Rahim, N A

    2014-01-01

    The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously

  7. Cloud Computing - A Unified Approach for Surveillance Issues

    Rachana, C. R.; Banu, Reshma, Dr.; Ahammed, G. F. Ali, Dr.; Parameshachari, B. D., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Cloud computing describes highly scalable resources provided as an external service via the Internet on a basis of pay-per-use. From the economic point of view, the main attractiveness of cloud computing is that users only use what they need, and only pay for what they actually use. Resources are available for access from the cloud at any time, and from any location through networks. Cloud computing is gradually replacing the traditional Information Technology Infrastructure. Securing data is one of the leading concerns and biggest issue for cloud computing. Privacy of information is always a crucial pointespecially when an individual’s personalinformation or sensitive information is beingstored in the organization. It is indeed true that today; cloud authorization systems are notrobust enough. This paper presents a unified approach for analyzing the various security issues and techniques to overcome the challenges in the cloud environment.

  8. Molecular catalysis science: Perspective on unifying the fields of catalysis.

    Ye, Rong; Hurlburt, Tyler J; Sabyrov, Kairat; Alayoglu, Selim; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2016-05-10

    Colloidal chemistry is used to control the size, shape, morphology, and composition of metal nanoparticles. Model catalysts as such are applied to catalytic transformations in the three types of catalysts: heterogeneous, homogeneous, and enzymatic. Real-time dynamics of oxidation state, coordination, and bonding of nanoparticle catalysts are put under the microscope using surface techniques such as sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under catalytically relevant conditions. It was demonstrated that catalytic behavior and trends are strongly tied to oxidation state, the coordination number and crystallographic orientation of metal sites, and bonding and orientation of surface adsorbates. It was also found that catalytic performance can be tuned by carefully designing and fabricating catalysts from the bottom up. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, and likely enzymes, behave similarly at the molecular level. Unifying the fields of catalysis is the key to achieving the goal of 100% selectivity in catalysis.

  9. Progress toward a unified kJ-machine CANDY

    Kitagawa, Yoneyoshi; Mori, Yoshitaka; Komeda, Osamu; Hanayama, Ryohei; Ishii, Katsuhiro; Okihara, Shinichiro; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Nakayama, Suisei; Sekine, Takashi; Sato, Nakahiro; Kurita, Takashi; Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Watari, Takeshi; Kan, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Naoki; Kondo, Takuya; Fujine, Manabu; Azuma, Hirozumi; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Hioki, Tatsumi

    2016-01-01

    To construct a unified experimental machine CANDY using a kJ DPSSL driver in the fast-ignition scheme, the Laser for Fast Ignition Experiment (LFEX) at Osaka is used, showing that the laser-driven ions heat the preimploded core of a deuterated polystyrene (CD) shell target from 0.8 keV to 2 keV, resulting in 5 x 10 8 DD neutrons best ever obtained in the scheme. 4-J/10-Hz DPSSL laser HAMA is for the first time applied to the CD shell implosion- core heating experiments in the fast ignition scheme to yield neutrons and also to a continuous target injection, which yields neutrons of 3 x 10 5 n/4πsr n/shot. (paper)

  10. A New Finslerian Unified Field Theory of Physical Interactions

    Suhendro I.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we shall present the foundational structure of a new unified field theory of physical interactions in a geometric world-space endowed with a new kind of Finslerian metric. The intrinsic non-metricity in the structure of our world-geometry may have direct, genuine connection with quantum mechanics, which is yet to be fully explored at present. Building upon some of the previous works of the Author, our ultimate aim here is yet another quantum theory of gravity (in just four space-time dimensions. Our resulting new theory appears to present us with a novel Eulerian (intrinsically motion-dependent world-geometry in which the physical fields originate.

  11. An Investigation of Unified Memory Access Performance in CUDA

    Landaverde, Raphael; Zhang, Tiansheng; Coskun, Ayse K.; Herbordt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Managing memory between the CPU and GPU is a major challenge in GPU computing. A programming model, Unified Memory Access (UMA), has been recently introduced by Nvidia to simplify the complexities of memory management while claiming good overall performance. In this paper, we investigate this programming model and evaluate its performance and programming model simplifications based on our experimental results. We find that beyond on-demand data transfers to the CPU, the GPU is also able to request subsets of data it requires on demand. This feature allows UMA to outperform full data transfer methods for certain parallel applications and small data sizes. We also find, however, that for the majority of applications and memory access patterns, the performance overheads associated with UMA are significant, while the simplifications to the programming model restrict flexibility for adding future optimizations. PMID:26594668

  12. Toward a unified nomenclature for mammalian ADP-ribosyltransferases.

    Hottiger, Michael O; Hassa, Paul O; Lüscher, Bernhard; Schüler, Herwig; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2010-04-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification of proteins catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases. It comprises the transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD+ to specific amino acid residues on substrate proteins or to ADP-ribose itself. Currently, 22 human genes encoding proteins that possess an ADP-ribosyltransferase catalytic domain are known. Recent structural and enzymological evidence of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) family members demonstrate that earlier proposed names and classifications of these proteins are no longer accurate. Here we summarize these new findings and propose a new consensus nomenclature for all ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) based on the catalyzed reaction and on structural features. A unified nomenclature would facilitate communication between researchers both inside and outside the ADP-ribosylation field. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards a unified fatigue life prediction method for marine structures

    Cui, Weicheng; Wang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    In order to apply the damage tolerance design philosophy to design marine structures, accurate prediction of fatigue crack growth under service conditions is required. Now, more and more people have realized that only a fatigue life prediction method based on fatigue crack propagation (FCP) theory has the potential to explain various fatigue phenomena observed. In this book, the issues leading towards the development of a unified fatigue life prediction (UFLP) method based on FCP theory are addressed. Based on the philosophy of the UFLP method, the current inconsistency between fatigue design and inspection of marine structures could be resolved. This book presents the state-of-the-art and recent advances, including those by the authors, in fatigue studies. It is designed to lead the future directions and to provide a useful tool in many practical applications. It is intended to address to engineers, naval architects, research staff, professionals and graduates engaged in fatigue prevention design and survey ...

  14. Gauge hierarchy in an SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified model

    Zhiyong, Z.

    1982-01-01

    An SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified model is constructed in which the gauge hierarchy problem may be solved. Using Higgs superfields belonging to the SO(10) representations 16, 10 and 54, it is found that if SO(10) is broken down to SU(3)sub(c)xSU(2)sub(L)xU(1) via SO(6)xSO(4)approximately equal to SU(4)sub(c)xSU(2)sub(L)xSU(2)sub(R) at unification mass scales without supersymmetry breaking, the gauge hierarchy puzzle might be carried away. It is also shown that the colour-triplet Higgs, which mediates proton decay, is superheavy by an incredibly accurate, but 'natural' adjustment of parameters in the potential. (author)

  15. Foundations to the unified psycho-cognitive engine.

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Bier, Asmeret Brooke; Backus, George A.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.

    2010-10-01

    This document outlines the key features of the SNL psychological engine. The engine is designed to be a generic presentation of cognitive entities interacting among themselves and with the external world. The engine combines the most accepted theories of behavioral psychology with those of behavioral economics to produce a unified simulation of human response from stimuli through executed behavior. The engine explicitly recognizes emotive and reasoned contributions to behavior and simulates the dynamics associated with cue processing, learning, and choice selection. Most importantly, the model parameterization can come from available media or survey information, as well subject-matter-expert information. The framework design allows the use of uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis to manage confidence in using the analysis results for intervention decisions.

  16. A unified wall function for compressible turbulence modelling

    Ong, K. C.; Chan, A.

    2018-05-01

    Turbulence modelling near the wall often requires a high mesh density clustered around the wall and the first cells adjacent to the wall to be placed in the viscous sublayer. As a result, the numerical stability is constrained by the smallest cell size and hence requires high computational overhead. In the present study, a unified wall function is developed which is valid for viscous sublayer, buffer sublayer and inertial sublayer, as well as including effects of compressibility, heat transfer and pressure gradient. The resulting wall function applies to compressible turbulence modelling for both isothermal and adiabatic wall boundary conditions with the non-zero pressure gradient. Two simple wall function algorithms are implemented for practical computation of isothermal and adiabatic wall boundary conditions. The numerical results show that the wall function evaluates the wall shear stress and turbulent quantities of wall adjacent cells at wide range of non-dimensional wall distance and alleviate the number and size of cells required.

  17. Porters versus rowers: a unified stochastic model of motor proteins.

    Leibler, S; Huse, D A

    1993-06-01

    We present a general phenomenological theory for chemical to mechanical energy transduction by motor enzymes which is based on the classical "tight-coupling" mechanism. The associated minimal stochastic model takes explicitly into account both ATP hydrolysis and thermal noise effects. It provides expressions for the hydrolysis rate and the sliding velocity, as functions of the ATP concentration and the number of motor enzymes. It explains in a unified way many results of recent in vitro motility assays. More importantly, the theory provides a natural classification scheme for the motors: it correlates the biochemical and mechanical differences between "porters" such as cellular kinesins or dyneins, and "rowers" such as muscular myosins or flagellar dyneins.

  18. A Unified Monitoring Framework for Energy Consumption and Network Traffic

    Florentin Clouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing experimenters with deep insight about the effects of their experiments is a central feature of testbeds. In this paper, we describe Kwapi, a framework designed in the context of the Grid'5000 testbed, that unifies measurements for both energy consumption and network traffic. Because all measurements are taken at the infrastructure level (using sensors in power and network equipment, using this framework has no dependencies on the experiments themselves. Initially designed for OpenStack infrastructures, the Kwapi framework allows monitoring and reporting of energy consumption of distributed platforms. In this article, we present the extension of Kwapi to network monitoring, and outline how we overcame several challenges: scaling to a testbed the size of Grid'5000 while still providing high-frequency measurements; providing long-term loss-less storage of measurements; handling operational issues when deploying such a tool on a real infrastructure.

  19. Computing an operating parameter of a unified power flow controller

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2017-12-26

    A Unified Power Flow Controller described herein comprises a sensor that outputs at least one sensed condition, a processor that receives the at least one sensed condition, a memory that comprises control logic that is executable by the processor; and power electronics that comprise power storage, wherein the processor causes the power electronics to selectively cause the power storage to act as one of a power generator or a load based at least in part upon the at least one sensed condition output by the sensor and the control logic, and wherein at least one operating parameter of the power electronics is designed to facilitate maximal transmittal of electrical power generated at a variable power generation system to a grid system while meeting power constraints set forth by the electrical power grid.

  20. Unified time analysis of photon and particle tunnelling

    Olkhovsky, V.S.; Recami, Erasmo; Jakiel, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    A unified time analysis of photon and nonrelativistic particle tunnellings is presented, in which time is regarded as a quantum observable, canonically conjugated to energy. Within this approach, one can introduce self-consistent definitions of the tunnelling times, on the basis of conventional quantum mechanics (or one-dimensional quantum electrodynamics) only. The validity of the Hartman effect [which states the tunnelling duration to be independent of the (opaque) barrier width, with superluminal group velocities of the tunnelling packet as a consequence] is verified for all the known expressions of the mean tunnelling time. However, some noticeable generalizations of (and deviations from) the Hartman effect are, as well, briefly investigated. Moreover, the analogy between particle and photon tunnelling is suitably exploited; on the basis of such an analogy, an explanation of some recent interesting microwave and optical experimental results on tunnelling times is proposed. Attention is devoted, at last, to some aspects of the causality problem for particle and photon tunnelling

  1. Engineering system dynamics a unified graph-centered approach

    Brown, Forbes T

    2006-01-01

    For today's students, learning to model the dynamics of complex systems is increasingly important across nearly all engineering disciplines. First published in 2001, Forbes T. Brown's Engineering System Dynamics: A Unified Graph-Centered Approach introduced students to a unique and highly successful approach to modeling system dynamics using bond graphs. Updated with nearly one-third new material, this second edition expands this approach to an even broader range of topics. What's New in the Second Edition? In addition to new material, this edition was restructured to build students' competence in traditional linear mathematical methods before they have gone too far into the modeling that still plays a pivotal role. New topics include magnetic circuits and motors including simulation with magnetic hysteresis; extensive new material on the modeling, analysis, and simulation of distributed-parameter systems; kinetic energy in thermodynamic systems; and Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods. MATLAB(R) figures promi...

  2. A unifying property for distribution-sensitive priority queues

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Farzan, Arash; Iacono, John

    2011-01-01

    , before) the last access of x and are still in the priority queue at the time when the corresponding operation is performed. Our priority queue then has both the working-set and the queueish properties; and, more strongly, it satisfies these properties in the worst-case sense. We also argue...... that these bounds are the best possible with respect to the considered measures. Moreover, we modify our priority queue to satisfy a new unifying property - the time-finger property - which encapsulates both the working-set and the queueish properties. In addition, we prove that the working-set bound......We present a priority queue that supports the operations: insert in worst-case constant time, and delete, delete-min, find-min and decrease-key on an element x in worst-case O(lg(min{wx, qx} + 2)) time, where wx (respectively, qx) is the number of elements that were accessed after (respectively...

  3. A Unified Model of Geostrophic Adjustment and Frontogenesis

    Taylor, John; Shakespeare, Callum

    2013-11-01

    Fronts, or regions with strong horizontal density gradients, are ubiquitous and dynamically important features of the ocean and atmosphere. In the ocean, fronts are associated with enhanced air-sea fluxes, turbulence, and biological productivity, while atmospheric fronts are associated with some of the most extreme weather events. Here, we describe a new mathematical framework for describing the formation of fronts, or frontogenesis. This framework unifies two classical problems in geophysical fluid dynamics, geostrophic adjustment and strain-driven frontogenesis, and provides a number of important extensions beyond previous efforts. The model solutions closely match numerical simulations during the early stages of frontogenesis, and provide a means to describe the development of turbulence at mature fronts.

  4. A unified framework for building high performance DVEs

    Lei, Kaibin; Ma, Zhixia; Xiong, Hua

    2011-10-01

    A unified framework for integrating PC cluster based parallel rendering with distributed virtual environments (DVEs) is presented in this paper. While various scene graphs have been proposed in DVEs, it is difficult to enable collaboration of different scene graphs. This paper proposes a technique for non-distributed scene graphs with the capability of object and event distribution. With the increase of graphics data, DVEs require more powerful rendering ability. But general scene graphs are inefficient in parallel rendering. The paper also proposes a technique to connect a DVE and a PC cluster based parallel rendering environment. A distributed multi-player video game is developed to show the interaction of different scene graphs and the parallel rendering performance on a large tiled display wall.

  5. A Unified Lorenz-Like System and Its Tracking Control

    Li Chun-Lai; Zhao Yi-Bo

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the finding of a unified Lorenz-like system. By gradually tuning the only parameter d, the reported system belongs to Lorenz-type system in the sense defined by Člikovský. Meanwhile, this system belongs to Lorenz-type system, Lü-type system, Chen-type system with d less than, equivalent to and greater than 1.5, respectively, according to the classification defined by Yang. However, this system can only generate a succession of Lorenz-like attractors. Some basic dynamical properties of the system are investigated theoretically and numerically. Moreover, the tracking control of the system with exponential convergence rate is studied. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation show that the proposed scheme can allow us to drive the output variable x 1 to arbitrary reference signals exponentially, and the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be estimated accurately. (paper)

  6. Unified treatment of the luminosity distance in cosmology

    Yoo, Jaiyul; Scaccabarozzi, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the luminosity distance measurements to its theoretical predictions is one of the cornerstones in establishing the modern cosmology. However, as shown in Biern and Yoo, its theoretical predictions in literature are often plagued with infrared divergences and gauge-dependences. This trend calls into question the sanity of the methods used to derive the luminosity distance. Here we critically investigate four different methods—the geometric approach, the Sachs approach, the Jacobi mapping approach, and the geodesic light cone (GLC) approach to modeling the luminosity distance, and we present a unified treatment of such methods, facilitating the comparison among the methods and checking their sanity. All of these four methods, if exercised properly, can be used to reproduce the correct description of the luminosity distance.

  7. Unified treatment of the luminosity distance in cosmology

    Yoo, Jaiyul; Scaccabarozzi, Fulvio, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: fulvio@physik.uzh.ch [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-09-01

    Comparing the luminosity distance measurements to its theoretical predictions is one of the cornerstones in establishing the modern cosmology. However, as shown in Biern and Yoo, its theoretical predictions in literature are often plagued with infrared divergences and gauge-dependences. This trend calls into question the sanity of the methods used to derive the luminosity distance. Here we critically investigate four different methods—the geometric approach, the Sachs approach, the Jacobi mapping approach, and the geodesic light cone (GLC) approach to modeling the luminosity distance, and we present a unified treatment of such methods, facilitating the comparison among the methods and checking their sanity. All of these four methods, if exercised properly, can be used to reproduce the correct description of the luminosity distance.

  8. Perturbative estimates of lepton mixing angles in unified models

    Antusch, Stefan; King, Stephen F.; Malinsky, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Many unified models predict two large neutrino mixing angles, with the charged lepton mixing angles being small and quark-like, and the neutrino masses being hierarchical. Assuming this, we present simple approximate analytic formulae giving the lepton mixing angles in terms of the underlying high energy neutrino mixing angles together with small perturbations due to both charged lepton corrections and renormalisation group (RG) effects, including also the effects of third family canonical normalization (CN). We apply the perturbative formulae to the ubiquitous case of tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing at the unification scale, in order to predict the theoretical corrections to mixing angle predictions and sum rule relations, and give a general discussion of all limiting cases. We also discuss the implications for the sum rule relations of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  9. Some consequences of embedding heavy color in grand unified theories

    Elias, V.

    1980-01-01

    I show that ''standard'' embedding constraints cannot accommodate an empirically motivated value for the heavy-color (HC) momentum scale Λ/sub HC/ if the heavy-color group is SU(N>3). The heavy-color group can be SU(3), provided such constraints are relaxed in order to allow fermions to contribute differentially to SU(3)/sub HC/ and SU(3)/sub QCD/ β-functions (QCD=quantum chromodynamics). Theories successfully embedding G/sub HC/>SU(3) along with the known interactions are shown to require vastly reduced unification mass scales. As an example, empirically acceptable values for Λ/sub HC/, sin 2 theta/sub W/, and α/sub s/(m/sub W/) as well as a unification mass scale within an order of magnitude of Λ/sub HC/ are accommodated within very large models based on [SU(2n)] 4 unifying symmetry

  10. UPDM - Unified Profile for DoDAF/MODAF

    2012-04-01

    Expected target DoDAF 2.03 – MODAF MODEM – DNDAF 1.7 may also be required by the Canadians – UML for  BPMN  profile • Allows the seamless integration of... BPMN  artefacts into a DoDAF  Architecture along with an exchange environment – Others? – Priorities will be based on demand and participation • UPDM 2...19         ,  ,  ,  . • Provides flow‐down, traceability, integration across sectors • BPMN  integration is under development UPDM – Unified Profile

  11. Squark and slepton mass relations in grand unified theories

    Cheng, H.; Hall, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the minimal supersymmetric standard model, assuming universal scalar masses at large energies, there are four intragenerational relations between the masses of the squarks and sleptons for each light generation. In this paper we study the scalar mass relations which follow only from the assumption that at large energies there is a grand unified theory which leads to a significant prediction of the weak mixing angle. Two new intragenerational mass relations for each of the light generations are derived. In addition, a third mass relation is found which relates the Higgs boson masses, the masses of the third generation scalars, and the masses of the scalars of the lighter generations. Verification of a fourth mass relation, involving only the charged slepton masses, provides a signal for SO(10) unification

  12. Unified field theory: a search for unity in diversity

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1981-09-01

    The study of the universe in which we find ourselves is part of the joys of the coming of age in the Asian tradition. At the periods of twilight in the transitions between night and day and between day and night we recite the gayatri which invokes the brilliance of light to inspire one. Further, this understanding is to be a unified whole encompassing the static and the dynamic. It is therefore appropriate that when we celebrate the Asian/Pacific American Heritage that we discuss the successes of the continuing efforts at unification of particle interactions. It is an adventure filled with successes along the way but by no means a finished adventure

  13. The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory?

    Friston, Karl

    2010-02-01

    A free-energy principle has been proposed recently that accounts for action, perception and learning. This Review looks at some key brain theories in the biological (for example, neural Darwinism) and physical (for example, information theory and optimal control theory) sciences from the free-energy perspective. Crucially, one key theme runs through each of these theories - optimization. Furthermore, if we look closely at what is optimized, the same quantity keeps emerging, namely value (expected reward, expected utility) or its complement, surprise (prediction error, expected cost). This is the quantity that is optimized under the free-energy principle, which suggests that several global brain theories might be unified within a free-energy framework.

  14. Rhythmic Degradation Explains and Unifies Circadian Transcriptome and Proteome Data

    Sarah Lück

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rich mammalian cellular circadian output affects thousands of genes in many cell types and has been the subject of genome-wide transcriptome and proteome studies. The results have been enigmatic because transcript peak abundances do not always follow the peaks of gene-expression activity in time. We posited that circadian degradation of mRNAs and proteins plays a pivotal role in setting their peak times. To establish guiding principles, we derived a theoretical framework that fully describes the amplitudes and phases of biomolecules with circadian half-lives. We were able to explain the circadian transcriptome and proteome studies with the same unifying theory, including cases in which transcripts or proteins appeared before the onset of increased production rates. Furthermore, we estimate that 30% of the circadian transcripts in mouse liver and Drosophila heads are affected by rhythmic posttranscriptional regulation.

  15. Unifying Research on Social-Ecological Resilience and Collapse.

    Cumming, Graeme S; Peterson, Garry D

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystems influence human societies, leading people to manage ecosystems for human benefit. Poor environmental management can lead to reduced ecological resilience and social-ecological collapse. We review research on resilience and collapse across different systems and propose a unifying social-ecological framework based on (i) a clear definition of system identity; (ii) the use of quantitative thresholds to define collapse; (iii) relating collapse processes to system structure; and (iv) explicit comparison of alternative hypotheses and models of collapse. Analysis of 17 representative cases identified 14 mechanisms, in five classes, that explain social-ecological collapse. System structure influences the kind of collapse a system may experience. Mechanistic theories of collapse that unite structure and process can make fundamental contributions to solving global environmental problems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Primary disorders of the lymphatic vessels--a unified concept.

    Levine, C

    1989-03-01

    Congenital defects of lymphatics constitute a spectrum of disorders that may manifest with a variety of clinical presentations including lymphedema, chylous effusions, lymphangiomatous malformations with cystic masses and localized gigantism, and intestinal lymphangiectasia with malabsorption. These entities constitute a relatively rare group of disorders, the origin of which remains somewhat controversial, but in some it appears to be due to early lymphatic obstruction. Five cases are described, which demonstrate the anatomical pathology of these entities. A classification and description of the defects is also presented. An attempt is made to present a unified theory of origin for this seemingly diverse group of diseases. While these entities may be challenging from a diagnostic and therapeutic standpoint, a wide variety of imaging modalities, which includes lymphography, computed tomography scanning, and ultrasound, may be used to diagnose the extent and internal structural characteristics of the abnormalities.

  17. Dependence as a unifying construct in defining Alzheimer's disease severity.

    McLaughlin, Trent; Feldman, Howard; Fillit, Howard; Sano, Mary; Schmitt, Frederick; Aisen, Paul; Leibman, Christopher; Mucha, Lisa; Ryan, J Michael; Sullivan, Sean D; Spackman, D Eldon; Neumann, Peter J; Cohen, Joshua; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-11-01

    This article reviews measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in relation to patient dependence and offers a unifying conceptual framework for dependence in AD. Clinicians typically characterize AD by symptomatic impairments in three domains: cognition, function, and behavior. From a patient's perspective, changes in these domains, individually and in concert, ultimately lead to increased dependence and loss of autonomy. Examples of dependence in AD range from a need for reminders (early AD) to requiring safety supervision and assistance with basic functions (late AD). Published literature has focused on the clinical domains as somewhat separate constructs and has given limited attention to the concept of patient dependence as a descriptor of AD progression. This article presents the concept of dependence on others for care needs as a potential method for translating the effect of changes in cognition, function, and behavior into a more holistic, transparent description of AD progression. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  19. On unified gauge theories with a stable proton

    Ogievetskij, V.I.; Tsejtlin, V.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    The unified gauge E 7 -theories are studied with proton stability insured by the Gell-Mann, Ramond and Slansky mechanism, but nonzero eigenvalues of a new conserved quasi-baryon number are admitted. It is shown that the requirement of at least minimal agreement of such theories with phenomenology fixes a restricted class of models. The basic properties and difficulties of these models are analyzed. The following common properties are characteristic for the models considered: absolute proton stability; availability of leptons with the 1 baryon charge; possibility of existence of quasi-baryon charge also for ordinary leptons; possibility of existence of lepton-quarks with a mass comparable with that of calibrating fields; necessity of using a great amount of the Higgs fields, in the representations of high dimension

  20. Unifying logarithmic and factorial behavior in high-energy scattering

    Cornwall, J.M.; Morris, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The elegant instanton calculus of Lipatov and others used to find factorially divergent behavior (g N N exclamation point) for N g much-gt 1 in gφ 4 perturbation theory is strictly only applicable when all external momenta vanish; a description of high-energy 2→N scattering with N massive particles is beyond the scope of such techniques. On the other hand, a standard multiperipheral treatment of scattering with its emphasis on leading logarithms gives a reasonable picture of high-energy behavior but does not result in factorial divergences. Using a straightforward graphical analysis we present a unified picture of both these phenomena as they occur in the two-particle total cross section of gφ 4 theory. We do not attempt to tame the unitarity violations associated with either multiperipheralism or the Lipatov technique at strong coupling