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Sample records for salamanders salamandra salamandra

  1. Notes on Salamandra salamandra ssp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillenius, D.

    1968-01-01

    On 22-VII-1960 I caught some specimens of Salamandra salamandra fastuosa Schreiber between Lago Ercina and Lago Enol, ± 1000 m above Covadonga (Picos de Europa, Cantabrian Mountains, Spain). On 14-VIII-1961 from one of the salamanders two young were born (length 40 and 45 mm). Only one specimen

  2. [Homing behavior in Salamandra salamandra (L.)].

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    Plasa, L

    1979-10-01

    Homing behavior in salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) was studied in the field (52 adults) and in laboratory experiments (75 adult animals). Displacements, occluding of sense organs and experiments with different visual patterns revealed that the home-site orientation is guided by vision. While visual landmarks are most important, Salamandra is also able to use a moon-compass.

  3. Hepatic arginase activity in intra- and extrauterine larvae of the ovoviviparous salamander. Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

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    Schindelmeiser, J; Schindelmeiser, I; Greven, H

    1983-01-01

    The hepatic arginase activity of Salamandra salamandra was determined at three different stages of intra- and extrauterine larval development and at fully metamorphosed juveniles. The highest enzymatic activity was found in intrauterine larvae in November, the lowest in intrauterine larvae in June of the following year. These data can be correlated with the ureotelism of intrauterine larvae previously described and are discussed with respect to the metabolism of larval and juvenile fire salamanders.

  4. Ultrasonography: a method used for pregnancy imaging of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra).

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    Najbar, A; Kiełbowicz, Z; Szymczak, J; Ogielska, M

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasound imaging has more frequently been used in veterinary medicine of amphibians and reptiles. In this study, we have verified the usefulness of ultrasound imaging in pregnancy determination of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We have also undertaken to estimate the number of larvae and their developmental stage directly in the oviducts. Three gravid females from Lower Silesia (southern Poland) were examined. Due to the small size of the scanned animals, and the particular arrangement of embryos in the oviducts and ultrasound beams dispersal, the method proved to be inaccurate. Therefore, the minimum number of well-visualized larvae was determined. The maximum number of larvae was established on the basis of the visible fragments of embryos. After birth, we found that the number of larvae born was included in the "min-max" range in only one case. In the remaining two salamanders the number of larvae was higher than estimated in 3 to 7 individuals. The results showed that ultrasound imaging allows the minimum number of larvae in salamander; oviducts to be specified. However, total length measurements were possible only for single and clearly visible embryos.

  5. Habitat adaptation rather than genetic distance correlates with female preference in fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra

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    Weitere Markus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although some mechanisms of habitat adaptation of conspecific populations have been recently elucidated, the evolution of female preference has rarely been addressed as a force driving habitat adaptation in natural settings. Habitat adaptation of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra, as found in Middle Europe (Germany, can be framed in an explicit phylogeographic framework that allows for the evolution of habitat adaptation between distinct populations to be traced. Typically, females of S. salamandra only deposit their larvae in small permanent streams. However, some populations of the western post-glacial recolonization lineage use small temporary ponds as larval habitats. Pond larvae display several habitat-specific adaptations that are absent in stream-adapted larvae. We conducted mate preference tests with females from three distinct German populations in order to determine the influence of habitat adaptation versus neutral genetic distance on female mate choice. Two populations that we tested belong to the western post-glacial recolonization group, but are adapted to either stream or pond habitats. The third population is adapted to streams but represents the eastern recolonization lineage. Results Despite large genetic distances with FST values around 0.5, the stream-adapted females preferred males from the same habitat type regardless of genetic distance. Conversely, pond-adapted females did not prefer males from their own population when compared to stream-adapted individuals of either lineage. Conclusion A comparative analysis of our data showed that habitat adaptation rather than neutral genetic distance correlates with female preference in these salamanders, and that habitat-dependent female preference of a specific pond-reproducing population may have been lost during adaptation to the novel environmental conditions of ponds.

  6. Habitat adaptation rather than genetic distance correlates with female preference in fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra).

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    Caspers, Barbara A; Junge, Claudia; Weitere, Markus; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2009-06-29

    Although some mechanisms of habitat adaptation of conspecific populations have been recently elucidated, the evolution of female preference has rarely been addressed as a force driving habitat adaptation in natural settings. Habitat adaptation of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra), as found in Middle Europe (Germany), can be framed in an explicit phylogeographic framework that allows for the evolution of habitat adaptation between distinct populations to be traced. Typically, females of S. salamandra only deposit their larvae in small permanent streams. However, some populations of the western post-glacial recolonization lineage use small temporary ponds as larval habitats. Pond larvae display several habitat-specific adaptations that are absent in stream-adapted larvae. We conducted mate preference tests with females from three distinct German populations in order to determine the influence of habitat adaptation versus neutral genetic distance on female mate choice. Two populations that we tested belong to the western post-glacial recolonization group, but are adapted to either stream or pond habitats. The third population is adapted to streams but represents the eastern recolonization lineage. Despite large genetic distances with FST values around 0.5, the stream-adapted females preferred males from the same habitat type regardless of genetic distance. Conversely, pond-adapted females did not prefer males from their own population when compared to stream-adapted individuals of either lineage. A comparative analysis of our data showed that habitat adaptation rather than neutral genetic distance correlates with female preference in these salamanders, and that habitat-dependent female preference of a specific pond-reproducing population may have been lost during adaptation to the novel environmental conditions of ponds.

  7. Genetic drift and rapid evolution of viviparity in insular fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra).

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    Velo-Antón, G; Zamudio, K R; Cordero-Rivera, A

    2012-04-01

    Continental islands offer an excellent opportunity to investigate adaptive processes and to time microevolutionary changes that precede macroevolutionary events. We performed a population genetic study of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), a species that displays unique intraspecific diversity of reproductive strategies, to address the microevolutionary processes leading to phenotypic and genetic differentiation of island, coastal and interior populations. We used eight microsatellite markers to estimate genetic diversity, population structure and demographic parameters in viviparous insular populations and ovoviviparous coastal and interior populations. Our results show considerable genetic differentiation (F(ST) range: 0.06-0.27), and no clear signs of gene flow among populations, except between the large and admixed interior populations. We find no support for island colonization by rafting or intentional/accidental anthropogenic introductions, indicating that rising sea levels were responsible for isolation of the island populations approximately 9000 years ago. Our study provides evidence of rapid genetic differentiation between island and coastal populations, and rapid evolution of viviparity driven by climatic selective pressures on island populations, geographic isolation with genetic drift, or a combination of these factors. Studies of these viviparous island populations in early stages of divergence help us better understand the microevolutionary processes involved in rapid phenotypic shifts.

  8. No Sexual Dimorphism Detected in Digit Ratios of the Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra).

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    Balogová, Monika; Nelson, Emma; Uhrin, Marcel; Figurová, Mária; Ledecký, Valent; Zyśk, Bartłomiej

    2015-10-01

    It has been proposed that digit ratio may be used as a biomarker of early developmental effects. Specifically, the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been linked to the effects of sex hormones and their receptor genes, but other digit ratios have also been investigated. Across taxa, patterns of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios are ambiguous and a scarcity of studies in basal tetrapods makes it difficult to understand how ratios have evolved. Here, we focus on examining sex differences in digit ratios (2D:3D, 2D:4D, and 3D:4D) in a common amphibian, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra). We used graphic software to measure soft tissue digit length and digit bone length from X-rays. We found a nonsignificant tendency in males to have a lower 2D:3D than females; however, no sexual differences were detected in the other ratios. We discuss our results in the context of other studies of digit ratios, and how sex determination systems, as well as other factors, might impact patterns of sexual dimorphism, particularly in reptiles and in amphibians. Our findings suggest that caution is needed when using digit ratios as a potential indicator of prenatal hormonal effects in amphibians and highlight the need for more comparative studies to elucidate the evolutionary and genetic mechanisms implicated in sexually dimorphic patterns across taxonomic groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Ecological connectivity assessment in a strongly structured fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) population.

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    Bani, Luciano; Pisa, Giulia; Luppi, Massimiliano; Spilotros, Giulia; Fabbri, Elena; Randi, Ettore; Orioli, Valerio

    2015-08-01

    Small populations are more prone to extinction if the dispersal among them is not adequately maintained by ecological connections. The degree of isolation between populations could be evaluated measuring their genetic distance, which depends on the respective geographic (isolation by distance, IBD) and/or ecological (isolation by resistance, IBR) distances. The aim of this study was to assess the ecological connectivity of fire salamander Salamandra salamandra populations by means of a landscape genetic approach. The species lives in broad-leaved forest ecosystems and is particularly affected by fragmentation due to its habitat selectivity and low dispersal capability. We analyzed 477 biological samples collected in 47 sampling locations (SLs) in the mainly continuous populations of the Prealpine and Eastern foothill lowland (PEF) and 10 SLs in the fragmented populations of the Western foothill (WF) lowland of Lombardy (northern Italy). Pairwise genetic distances (Chord distance, DC) were estimated from allele frequencies of 16 microsatellites loci. Ecological distances were calculated using one of the most promising methodology in landscape genetics studies, the circuit theory, applied to habitat suitability maps. We realized two habitat suitability models: one without barriers (EcoD) and a second one accounting for the possible barrier effect of main roads (EcoDb). Mantel tests between distance matrices highlighted how the Log-DC in PEF populations was related to log-transformed geographic distance (confirming a prevalence of IBD), while it was explained by the Log-EcoD, and particularly by the Log-EcoDb, in WF populations, even when accounting for the confounding effect of geographic distance (highlighting a prevalence of IBR). Moreover, we also demonstrated how considering the overall population, the effect of Euclidean or ecological distances on genetic distances acting at the level of a single group (PEF or WF populations) could not be detected, when

  10. Pigmentary system of the adult alpine salamander Salamandra atra atra (Laur., 1768).

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    Trevisan, P; Pederzoli, A; Barozzi, G

    1991-10-01

    The pigmentary system of the skin from adult specimens of the black alpine salamander Salamandra atra atra was investigated by light microscope, electron microscope, and biochemical studies. Results were compared with those obtained in previous study of the subspecies Salamandra atra aurorae. Unlike Salamandra atra aurorae, which presents epidermal xanthophores and iridophores, Salamandra atra atra is completely melanized, presenting only epidermal and dermal melanophores. The melanosomes in both the epidermis and the dermis appear to derive from a multivesicular premelanosome similar to that in the goldfish, and the epidermal melanosomes are smaller than those in the dermis. Premelanosomes with an internal lamellar matrix were not observed. The biochemical results have shown that in the ethanol extracts obtained from the skin in toto and from the melanosomes, pteridines and flavins are always present and are the same as those extracted from the black skin areas of Salamandra atra aurorae.

  11. An electron microscope study of the respiratory epithelium in the lungs of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra).

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    Meban, C

    1979-01-01

    The respiratory epithelium in the lungs of the common fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) has been studied by electron microscopy. The entire pulmonary gas-exchange area is covered by a continuous epithelium, the cells of which are all of the same type and are termed 'pneumonocytes'. Typically, each pneumonocyte is squamous and has attenuated sheets of cytoplasm which extend over the pulmonary capillaries. Its free surface bears squat microvilli, and osmiophilic inclusion bodies and other organelles are prominent in the cytoplasm. The lateral cell walls have numerous desmosomes and interdigitating cytoplasmic processes. Many cells send cytoplasmic processes deep into the substance of the lung septa. The morphological evidence suggests that the pneumonocytes are responsible for the secretion of pulmonary surface-active agents and for maintaining the integrity of the gaseous diffusion membrane. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:422482

  12. Variability of alkaloids in the skin secretion of the European fire salamander (Salamandra salamadra terrestris).

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    Mebs, Dietrich; Pogoda, Werner

    2005-04-01

    The two major alkaloids, samandarine and samandarone, were identified in the skin secretion of individual specimens from two populations of the European fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra terrestris) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. High intraspecific variability in the ratio of both alkaloids was observed, but also in individual specimens over a period of 4 months suggesting separate metabolic pathways of the compounds. Alkaloid synthesis appears to take place also in liver, testes and ovaries, whereas the larvae of the salamanders are entirely free of alkaloids.

  13. Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure: the case study of the Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) in Northern Italy.

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    Pisa, Giulia; Orioli, Valerio; Spilotros, Giulia; Fabbri, Elena; Randi, Ettore; Bani, Luciano

    2015-02-01

    The multistep method here applied in studying the genetic structure of a low dispersal and philopatric species, such as the Fire Salamander Salamandra salamandra, was proved to be effective in identifying the hierarchical structure of populations living in broad-leaved forest ecosystems in Northern Italy. In this study, 477 salamander larvae, collected in 28 sampling populations (SPs) in the Prealpine and in the foothill areas of Northern Italy, were genotyped at 16 specie-specific microsatellites. SPs showed a significant overall genetic variation (Global F ST = 0.032, P < 0.001). The genetic population structure was assessed by using STRUCTURE 2.3.4. We found two main genetic groups, one represented by SPs inhabiting the Prealpine belt, which maintain connections with those of the Eastern foothill lowland (PEF), and a second group with the SPs of the Western foothill lowland (WF). The two groups were significantly distinct with a Global F ST of 0.010 (P < 0.001). While the first group showed a moderate structure, with only one divergent SP (Global F ST = 0.006, P < 0.001), the second group proved more structured being divided in four clusters (Global F ST = 0.017, P = 0.058). This genetic population structure should be due to the large conurbations and main roads that separate the WF group from the Prealpine belt and the Eastern foothill lowland. The adopted methods allowed the analysis of the genetic population structure of Fire Salamander from wide to local scale, identifying different degrees of genetic divergence of their populations derived from forest fragmentation induced by urban and infrastructure sprawl.

  14. Waterborne amitrole affects the predator-prey relationship between common frog tadpoles (Rana temporaria) and larval spotted salamander (Salamandra salamandra).

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    Mandrillon, Anne-Lise; Saglio, Philippe

    2007-08-01

    Within their aquatic habitats, larval amphibians are often subjected to multiple natural and anthropic stressors. Among these, predation and waterborne pollution represent two types of stressing factor that frequently co-occur. In this connection, the present laboratory study was designed to investigate the effects of amitrole, a commonly used triazole herbicide, on the predator-prey relationship between common frog tadpoles (Rana temporaria) and larval spotted salamander (Salamandra salamandra). Tadpoles were exposed for 3 days to 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L amitrole, either in the absence or in the presence of larval salamanders. Tadpole behavior (refuge use, movements) was monitored every day, and the predation efficiency was assessed at the end of the experiment by counting the number of surviving tadpoles. In the absence of the predator, amitrole-exposed tadpoles (at 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/L) increased their refuge use and decreased their rate of movements. In the presence of the predator, amitrole contamination did not affect tadpole behavior, except on the first day, where tadpoles exposed to 10 mg/L were found to be significantly more active than unexposed control tadpoles. Throughout the experiment, control tadpoles were the only group to show significant reductions of activity and visibility in response to the predator's presence. In contrast, tadpoles exposed to 0.01 and 0.1 mg/L amitrole increased their refuge use in response to the predator, whereas their rate of movements remained unaffected. Furthermore, exposures of tadpoles to the two highest amitrole concentrations (1 and 10 mg/L) resulted in the loss of both behavioral responses to the predator's presence. Interestingly, the lack of antipredator behavior in amitrole-exposed tadpoles did not enhance their vulnerability to predation by the larval salamander. Moreover, tadpoles exposed to the two highest herbicide concentrations showed a better survival than unexposed controls, indicating that

  15. Nuclear and mitochondrial multilocus phylogeny and survey of alkaloid content in true salamanders of the genus Salamandra (Salamandridae).

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    Vences, Miguel; Sanchez, Eugenia; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Eikelmann, Daniel; Rodríguez, Ariel; Carranza, Salvador; Donaire, David; Gehara, Marcelo; Helfer, Véronique; Lötters, Stefan; Werner, Philine; Schulz, Stefan; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2014-04-01

    The genus Salamandra represents a clade of six species of Palearctic salamanders of either contrasted black-yellow, or uniformly black coloration, known to contain steroidal alkaloid toxins in high concentrations in their skin secretions. This study reconstructs the phylogeny of the genus Salamandra based on DNA sequences of segments of 10 mitochondrial and 13 nuclear genes from 31 individual samples representing all Salamandra species and most of the commonly recognized subspecies. The concatenated analysis of the complete dataset produced a fully resolved tree with most nodes strongly supported, suggesting that a clade composed of the Alpine salamander (S. atra) and the Corsican fire salamander (S. corsica) is the sister taxon to a clade containing the remaining species, among which S. algira and S. salamandra are sister species. Separate analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear data partitions disagreed regarding basal nodes and in the position of the root but concordantly recovered the S. atra/S. corsica as well as the S. salamandra/S. algira relationship. A species-tree analysis suggested almost simultaneous temporal splits between these pairs of species, which we hypothesize was caused by vicariance events after the Messinian salinity crisis (from late Miocene to early Pliocene). A survey of toxins with combined gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy confirmed the presence of samandarine and/or samandarone steroidal alkaloids in all species of Salamandra as well as in representatives of their sister group, Lyciasalamandra. Samandarone was also detected in lower concentrations in other salamandrids including Calotriton, Euproctus, Lissotriton, and Triturus, suggesting that the presence and possible biosynthesis of this alkaloid is plesiomorphic within the Salamandridae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel, non-invasive method for distinguishing the individuals of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra in capture-mark-recapture studies

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    Goran Šukalo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently we started implementing a highly efficient, non-invasive method of direct individual marking (i.e., typifying in a population study of the fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra. Our technique is based on the unique alphanumeric code for every individual, generated upon the numbers of openings of repellent/toxic skin glands in the yellow areas of the selected regions of the body. This code was proved reliable in the sample of 159 individuals from two separate populations and enabled easy and quick recognition of recaptured animals. The proposed method is inexpensive, easily applicable in the field, involves minimum stress for the animals and does not affect their behaviour and the possibility of repeated captures of “marked” (i.e., coded individuals. It is particularly suitable for dense populations.

  17. Inferring the shallow phylogeny of true salamanders (Salamandra) by multiple phylogenomic approaches.

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    Rodríguez, Ariel; Burgon, James D; Lyra, Mariana; Irisarri, Iker; Baurain, Denis; Blaustein, Leon; Göçmen, Bayram; Künzel, Sven; Mable, Barbara K; Nolte, Arne W; Veith, Michael; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Elmer, Kathryn R; Philippe, Hervé; Vences, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    The rise of high-throughput sequencing techniques provides the unprecedented opportunity to analyse controversial phylogenetic relationships in great depth, but also introduces a risk of being misinterpreted by high node support values influenced by unevenly distributed missing data or unrealistic model assumptions. Here, we use three largely independent phylogenomic data sets to reconstruct the controversial phylogeny of true salamanders of the genus Salamandra, a group of amphibians providing an intriguing model to study the evolution of aposematism and viviparity. For all six species of the genus Salamandra, and two outgroup species from its sister genus Lyciasalamandra, we used RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) to obtain data for: (1) 3070 nuclear protein-coding genes from RNAseq; (2) 7440 loci obtained by RADseq; and (3) full mitochondrial genomes. The RNAseq and RADseq data sets retrieved fully congruent topologies when each of them was analyzed in a concatenation approach, with high support for: (1) S. infraimmaculata being sister group to all other Salamandra species; (2) S. algira being sister to S. salamandra; (3) these two species being the sister group to a clade containing S. atra, S. corsica and S. lanzai; and (4) the alpine species S. atra and S. lanzai being sister taxa. The phylogeny inferred from the mitochondrial genome sequences differed from these results, most notably by strongly supporting a clade containing S. atra and S. corsica as sister taxa. A different placement of S. corsica was also retrieved when analysing the RNAseq and RADseq data under species tree approaches. Closer examination of gene trees derived from RNAseq revealed that only a low number of them supported each of the alternative placements of S. atra. Furthermore, gene jackknife support for the S. atra - S. lanzai node stabilized only with very large concatenated data sets. The phylogeny of true salamanders thus provides a

  18. Strong correlation between cross-amplification success and genetic distance across all members of 'True Salamanders' (Amphibia: Salamandridae) revealed by Salamandra salamandra-specific microsatellite loci.

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    Hendrix, Ralf; Susanne Hauswaldt, J; Veith, Michael; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2010-11-01

    The unpredictable and low cross-amplification success of microsatellite loci tested for congeneric amphibian species has mainly been explained by the size and complexity of amphibian genomes, but also by taxonomy that is inconsistent with phylogenetic relationships among taxa. Here, we tested whether the cross-amplification success of nine new and 11 published microsatellite loci cloned for an amphibian source species, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), correlated with the genetic distance across all members of True Salamanders (genera Chioglossa, Lyciasalamandra, Mertensiella and Salamandra that form a monophyletic clade within the family of Salamandridae) serving as target species. Cross-amplification success varied strongly among the species and showed a highly significant negative relationship with genetic distance and amplification success. Even though lineages of S. salamandra and Lyciasalamndra have separated more than 30 Ma, a within genus amplification success rate of 65% was achieved for species of Lyciasalamandra thus demonstrating that an efficient cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci in amphibians is feasible even across large evolutionary distances. A decrease in genome size, on the other hand, paralleled also a decrease in amplified loci and therefore contradicted previous results and expectations that amplification success should increase with a decrease in genome size. However, in line with other studies, our comprehensive dataset clearly shows that cross-amplification success of microsatellite loci is well explained by phylogenetic divergence between species. As taxonomic classifications on the species and genus level do not necessarily mirror phylogenetic divergence between species, the pure belonging of species to the same taxonomic units (i.e. species or genus) might be less useful to predict cross-amplification success of microsatellite loci between such species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Genetic variation in an endemic salamander, Salamandra atra, using amplified fragment length polymorphism.

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    Riberon, Alexandre; Miaud, Claude; Guyetant, R; Taberlet, P

    2004-06-01

    The pattern of genetic differentiation of the endemic alpine salamander, Salamandra atra, has been studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) from 11 populations throughout the range of the two currently recognized subspecies, atra and aurorae. Five different primer combinations produced 706 bands and were analyzed by constructing a phylogenetic tree using NJ and principal component analysis. Significant genetic variation was revealed by AFLP between and within populations but, our results show a lack of genetic structure. AFLP markers seems to be unsuitable to investigate complex and recent diversification.

  20. Apparent survival of the salamander Salamandra salamandra is low because of high migratory activity

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    Schaub Michael

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the demographic processes underlying population dynamics is a central theme in ecology. Populations decline if losses from the population (i.e., mortality and emigration exceed gains (i.e., recruitment and immigration. Amphibians are thought to exhibit little movement even though local populations often fluctuate dramatically and are likely to go exinct if there is no rescue effect through immigration from nearby populations. Terrestrial salamanders are generally portrayed as amphibians with low migratory activity. Our study uses demographic analysis as a key to unravel whether emigration or mortality is the main cause of "losses" from the population. In particular, we use the analysis to challenge the common belief that terrestrial salamanders show low migratory activity. Results The mark-recapture analysis of adult salamanders showed that monthly survival was high (> 90% without a seasonal pattern. These estimates, however, translate into rather low rates of local annual survival of only ~40% and suggest that emigration was important. The estimated probability of emigration was 49%. Conclusion Our analysis shows that terrestrial salamanders exhibit more migratory activity than commonly thought. This may be due either because the spatial extent of salamander populations is underestimated or because there is a substantial exchange of individuals between populations. Our current results are in line with several other studies that suggest high migratory activity in amphibians. In particular, many amphibian populations may be characterized by high proportions of transients and/or floaters.

  1. Apparent survival of the salamander Salamandra salamandra is low because of high migratory activity.

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    Schmidt, Benedikt R; Schaub, Michael; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2007-09-06

    Understanding the demographic processes underlying population dynamics is a central theme in ecology. Populations decline if losses from the population (i.e., mortality and emigration) exceed gains (i.e., recruitment and immigration). Amphibians are thought to exhibit little movement even though local populations often fluctuate dramatically and are likely to go exinct if there is no rescue effect through immigration from nearby populations. Terrestrial salamanders are generally portrayed as amphibians with low migratory activity. Our study uses demographic analysis as a key to unravel whether emigration or mortality is the main cause of "losses" from the population. In particular, we use the analysis to challenge the common belief that terrestrial salamanders show low migratory activity. The mark-recapture analysis of adult salamanders showed that monthly survival was high (> 90%) without a seasonal pattern. These estimates, however, translate into rather low rates of local annual survival of only ~40% and suggest that emigration was important. The estimated probability of emigration was 49%. Our analysis shows that terrestrial salamanders exhibit more migratory activity than commonly thought. This may be due either because the spatial extent of salamander populations is underestimated or because there is a substantial exchange of individuals between populations. Our current results are in line with several other studies that suggest high migratory activity in amphibians. In particular, many amphibian populations may be characterized by high proportions of transients and/or floaters.

  2. Heterochrony, cannibalism, and the evolution of viviparity in Salamandra salamandra.

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    Buckley, David; Alcobendas, Marina; García-París, Mario; Wake, Marvalee H

    2007-01-01

    The way in which novelties that lead to macroevolutionary events originate is a major question in evolutionary biology, and one that can be addressed using the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) as a model system. It is exceptional among amphibians in displaying intraspecific diversity of reproductive strategies. In S. salamandra, two distinct modes of reproduction co-occur: the common mode, ovoviviparity (females giving birth to many small larvae), and a phylogenetically derived reproductive strategy, viviparity (females producing only a few large, fully metamorphosed juveniles, which are nourished maternally). We examine the relationship between heterochronic modifications of the ontogeny and the evolution of the new reproductive mode in the fire salamander. The in vitro development of embryos of ovoviviparous and viviparous salamanders from fertilization to metamorphosis is compared, highlighting the key events that distinguish the two modes of reproduction. We identify the heterochronic events that, together with the intrauterine cannibalistic behavior, characterize the derived viviparous reproductive strategy. The ways in which evolutionary novelties can arise by modification of developmental programs can be studied in S. salamandra. Moreover, the variation in reproductive modes and the associated variation of sequences of development occur in neighboring, conspecific populations. Thus, S. salamandra is a unique biological system in which evolutionary developmental research questions can be addressed at the level of populations.

  3. Habitat features and distribution of Salamandra salamandra in underground springs

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    Raoul Manenti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean habitats are among the less known terrestrial habitats, but can reveal an unexpected biodiversity, and can play an underestimated role for amphibians. The fire salamander Salamandra salamandra is sometimes found in underground environments, but the factors affecting its distribution in subterranean spaces remain substantially unexplored. We repeatedly surveyed some hypogeous springs, such as draining galleries and “bottini” in NW Italy, in order to evaluate the relationship between environmental features and distribution of S. salamandra in these underground springs. We performed visual encounter surveys to assess the occurrence of larvae, juveniles or adults in springs. We also recorded four habitat variables: easy of access, isolation, macrobenthos richness and forest cover of the surrounding landscape. We used generalized linear models to evaluate the relationships between habitat features and occurrence of larvae. We observed larvae of S. salamandra in 13 out of 22 springs; their presence was associated to springs with high easy of access and with relatively rich macrobenthos communities. In underground springs, larval development apparently required longer time than in nearby epigeous streams. Nevertheless, S. salamandra can attain metamorphosis in this environment. The occurrence of S. salamandra in underground environments was not accidental, but repeated in the time and interesting from an ecological point of view, confirming the high plasticity of the species.

  4. Two Records of large specimens of Fire Salamander Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Caudata in Bulgaria

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    ALEXANDER PULEV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two particularly large specimens of Fire Salamander have been registered in southwestern Bulgaria in late winter/early spring. Both of them are adult females with total body length 231 mm, and 219 mm. The two specimens recorded are the largest ones found in Bulgaria so far. Their dimensions are impressive for the entire range of the species. Both specimens have been found during the day in a sunny and dry weather, which has not been registered by other researchers in the cold half of the year in Bulgaria. The winter activity of the species has been confirmed.

  5. The phenology of a rare salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata in a population breeding under unpredictable ambient conditions: a 25 year study

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    Michael R. Warburg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a long-term study (1974-1999 on the phenology of the rare, xeric- inhabiting salamander Salamandra infraimmaculata in a small isolated population during the breeding season near the breeding ponds on Mt. Carmel. This is a fringe area of the genus’ south-easternmost Palaearctic distribution. Salamanders were captured during the 25 year long study. The first years up to the 1980s the total number of salamanders increased but during the last years there seems to have been a decline. Although this could be a phase in normal population cyclic oscillations nevertheless when compared with long-term data on a European Salamandra it does not seem so. The interpretation of the species’ status is dependent on numbers of salamanders captured as well as on the duration of the study. These subjects are reviewed and discussed in this paper.

  6. Cultures of skin fragments of Salamandra salamandra salamandra (L.) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzoli, A; Restani, C

    1998-04-01

    As part of a study on the pigmentary system of Salamandra salamandra salamandra (L.), we cultured skin fragments of 7-10-day-old larvae in order to examine the expression of molecules implicated in cellular adhesion and migration and in regulating cell-cell relationships. Keratinocytes, fibroblasts, Leydig cells, xanthophores, and melanophores migrated from the fragments and were observed in the outgrowth. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts organized into an epidermal layer and an underlying "dermal portion." The chromatophores were always located below the epithelial cells, often with fibroblasts. We examined by immunocytochemistry the expression of fibronectin, beta1-integrin, L-CAM, and A-CAM in the cultures. Many keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and Leydig cells expressed all the signal molecules tested. Xanthophores and melanophores were only immunoreactive to the anti-adhesion molecules antisera. Since the molecules tested are known to play a role in cell adhesion, growth, and spreading, as well as in regulating tissue differentiation and in maintaining normal tissue morphology, we may hypothesize that in Salamandra salamandra salamandra fibronectin, beta1-integrin, L-, and A-CAMs concertedly act to stabilize the architecture of the outgrowth and regulate the relationships between chromatophores and those between chromatophores and the other elements of the skin culture.

  7. Fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra in Larzac plateau: low occurrence, pond-breeding and cohabitation of larvae with paedomorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus

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    Mathieu Denoël

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative reproductive strategies are widespread in caudate amphibians. Among them, fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra usually rely on streams to give birth to aquatic larvae but also use ponds, whereas palmate newt larvae (Lissotriton helveticus typically metamorphose into terrestrial juveniles, but can also reproduce in retaining their gills, a process known as paedomorphosis. Here we report repeated observations of an unusual case of coexistence of these two alternative traits in the same pond (Larzac, France. The prevalence of fire salamanders in Southern Larzac was very low (pond occupancy: 0.36%. The observed abundance of fire salamander larvae and paedomorphic newts was also low in the studied pond. On one hand, the rarity of this coexistence pattern may suggest that habitat characteristics may not be optimal or that competition or predation processes might be operating. However, these hypotheses remain to be tested. On the other hand, as this is the only known case of breeding in Southern Larzac, it could be considered to be at a high risk of extirpation.

  8. Ultrahistochemical and autoradiographic evidence of epithelial transport in the uterus of the ovoviviparous salamander, Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H

    1980-01-01

    The uterine epithelium of pregnant females of the terrestrial ovoviviparous Salamandra salamandra is characterized by a considerable enlargement of its basolateral surface. Chloride and cations (among others sodium), preferentially within the intercellular spaces, can be demonstrated ultrahistochemically. There is indirect evidence of Na+ --K+ -ATPase activity along the basolateral plasma membranes of the epithelial cells using the Sr-technique for demonstration of a K+ -NPPase and 3H-ouabain autoradiography. Preliminary measurements reveal a potential difference across the uterine wall of 15--25 mV, the lumenal (mucosal) surface being negative with respect to the coelomic (serosal) surface, and a short circuit current of 200--300 microA. The possible electrogenic ion transport is ouabain-sensitive. The results are in agreement with the model of a "forward" transporting, i.e. absorptive epithelium. An active transport of solute out of the uterine lumen across the epithelium to the subjacent connective tissue and the blood vessels may be involved in the regulation of an intrauterine milieu appropriate for the development of the offspring.

  9. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical investigations on epidermal mitochondria-rich cells in Salamandra salamandra salamandra (L.) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restani, C; Pederzoli, A

    1997-12-01

    In the present study we set out to investigate the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, beta 1-integrin, fibronectin and vitronectin in the mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) of the skin of Salamandra salamandra salamandra. Moreover MRC were stained with five lectins (Triticum vulgaris; Dolichos biflorus; Glycine max; Arachis hypogaea and Canavalia ensiformis). Larval MRC expressed both adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix glycoproteins and bound all lectins tested. Juvenile MRC did not react with the antisera utilized, but they stained with the lectins. Both the lectins and the regulatory molecules proved to be good cytochemical markers for distinguishing morphologically differentiated MRC during the larval life of Salamandra salamandra salamandra. The adhesion molecules and matrix glycoproteins are of great utility for maintaining the correct tissue architecture. In Salamandra salamandra salamandra larvae these molecules may be crucial for stability and for the correct localization and fate of all skin elements, including specialized cells such as larval MRC.

  10. Parallel habitat acclimatization is realized by the expression of different genes in two closely related salamander species (genus Salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, D J; Czypionka, T; Altmüller, J; Rodriguez, A; Küpfer, E; Segev, O; Blaustein, L; Templeton, A R; Nolte, A W; Steinfartz, S

    2017-12-01

    The utilization of similar habitats by different species provides an ideal opportunity to identify genes underlying adaptation and acclimatization. Here, we analysed the gene expression of two closely related salamander species: Salamandra salamandra in Central Europe and Salamandra infraimmaculata in the Near East. These species inhabit similar habitat types: 'temporary ponds' and 'permanent streams' during larval development. We developed two species-specific gene expression microarrays, each targeting over 12 000 transcripts, including an overlapping subset of 8331 orthologues. Gene expression was examined for systematic differences between temporary ponds and permanent streams in larvae from both salamander species to establish gene sets and functions associated with these two habitat types. Only 20 orthologues were associated with a habitat in both species, but these orthologues did not show parallel expression patterns across species more than expected by chance. Functional annotation of a set of 106 genes with the highest effect size for a habitat suggested four putative gene function categories associated with a habitat in both species: cell proliferation, neural development, oxygen responses and muscle capacity. Among these high effect size genes was a single orthologue (14-3-3 protein zeta/YWHAZ) that was downregulated in temporary ponds in both species. The emergence of four gene function categories combined with a lack of parallel expression of orthologues (except 14-3-3 protein zeta) suggests that parallel habitat adaptation or acclimatization by larvae from S. salamandra and S. infraimmaculata to temporary ponds and permanent streams is mainly realized by different genes with a converging functionality.

  11. [Change of a releasing mechanism involved in pre-catching behavior during the development of Salamandra salamandra (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himstedt, W; Freidank, U; Singer, E

    1976-07-01

    Preycatching behaviour in salamanders (Salamandra salamandra L.) was studied before (60 larvae) and after metamorphosis (50 juveniles) to find out whether there are differences in releasing mechanisms depending on the developmental stage. Responses to prey dummies of different size, shape and orientation were recorded. With advancing age salamanders respond more selectively, preferring "wormlike" dummies. The releasing mechanism is narrowed down during 10 months after metamorphosis. This is not caused by learning processes.

  12. Phylogeography of the Alpine salamander, Salamandra atra (Salamandridae) and the influence of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations on population divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riberon, A; Miaud, C; Grossenbacher, K; Taberlet, P

    2001-10-01

    Fifty individuals of the endemic Alpine salamander, Salamandra atra, representing 13 populations throughout the range of the two currently recognized subspecies, atra and aurorae, were examined for sequence variation in a large portion (1050 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We revealed a large number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes (10). Interpopulation sequence divergence was very low, ranging from 0 to 3.1%. The relationships among haplotypes were poorly resolved. The divergence time estimate between several mtDNA haplotypes suggested a pre-Pleistocene differentiation approximately 3 million years ago. Moreover, the impact of the Pleistocene glaciations on the phylogeographical patterns appears to have been secondary, although a somewhat reduced genetic variability was found in populations living in areas that were directly affected by the glaciation.

  13. Subterranean systems provide a suitable overwintering habitat for Salamandra salamandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Balogová

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra has been repeatedly noted to occur in natural and artificial subterranean systems. Despite the obvious connection of this species with underground shelters, their level of dependence and importance to the species is still not fully understood. In this study, we carried out long-term monitoring based on the capture-mark-recapture method in two wintering populations aggregated in extensive underground habitats. Using the POPAN model we found the population size in a natural shelter to be more than twice that of an artificial underground shelter. Survival and recapture probabilities calculated using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model were very constant over time, with higher survival values in males than in females and juveniles, though in terms of recapture probability, the opposite situation was recorded. In addition, survival probability obtained from Cormack-Jolly-Seber model was higher than survival from POPAN model. The observed bigger population size and the lower recapture rate in the natural cave was probably a reflection of habitat complexity. Our study showed that regular visits are needed to detect the true significance of underground shelters for fire salamanders. The presence of larvae was recorded in both wintering sites, especially in bodies of water near the entrance. On the basis of previous and our observations we incline to the view, that karst areas can induce not only laying in underground shelters but also group wintering in this species. Our study highlights the strong connection of the life cycle of fire salamanders with underground shelters and their essential importance for the persistence of some populations during unfavourable conditions and breeding activity. In addition, the study introduces the POPAN and Cormac-Jolly-Seber models for estimating of population size, survival and recapture probability in wintering populations of the species, which could provide important information

  14. Sexual steroids in Salamandra salamandra (L.) during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, D H; Joly, J

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the ontogeny of steroid secretions during the juvenile phase, sexual steroids were extracted and assayed after chromatographic separation in the gonads and plasma of male and female salamanders Salamandra salamandra L. at three characteristic postlarval stages. All specimens were collected in the wild. The immature stage is characterized, in the female, by high dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5 alpha-androstandiol levels, low progesterone concentration, and an absence of testosterone in the ovary. Just before sexual maturity a regular increase in plasma levels of estradiol and testosterone was observed. In the male, progesterone and DHT are at a relatively high level in the testis of the immature stage but concentrations decrease in subadults. In young adults, concentrations of progesterone are greater than they are in the immature animals. Sexual maturity is characterized by a large increase in testicular and plasma testosterone as well as a relative decrease in DHT, 5 alpha-diols, and estrone. The progesterone liberated into the plasma was negligible. Diols seem to play an important part in the ontogeny of sexual function.

  15. Dispersal of viviparity across contact zones in Iberian populations of fire salamanders (Salamandra) inferred from discordance of genetic and morphological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-París, M; Alcobendas, M; Buckley, D; Wake, D B

    2003-01-01

    We used partial sequences of the cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene, obtained from 76 individuals representing 45 populations of Iberian Salamandra salamandra plus 15 sequences of additional species of Salamandra and related genera, to investigate contact zones. These zones, identified by earlier allozymic and morphological analyses, are between populations of viviparous (S. s. bernardezi and S. s. fastuosa) and ovoviviparous (S. s. gallaica and S. s. terrestris) salamanders. The distribution of mtDNA and nuclear markers is mostly concordant at one contact zone (between S. s. gallaica and S. s. bernardezi), but at another (between S. s. fastuosa and S. s. terrestris) the markers are offset by about 250 km. The observed geographic variation fits a model of mtDNA capture. Among the potential mechanisms responsible for such discordance we favor a combination of range shifts due to climatic fluctuations and biased genetic admixture across moving contact zones. We apply our findings to the issue of possible homoplasy in the evolution of viviparity and conclude that viviparity likely arose only once within S. salamandra.

  16. The distribution of monosaccharides and hexosamines in the oviduct of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Baldus, B B

    1984-01-01

    Biochemical analysis of the different segments of the oviduct in the ovoviviparous salamander, Salamandra salamandra, reveals the monosaccharides glucose, galactose, fucose, mannose, ribose and the hexosamines glucosamine and mannosamine. In segment 1 (pars recta) ribose and mannose are absent, and in segments 2 (p. convoluta I) and 5 (p. convoluta IV, uterus) mannose is not detectable; fucose is absent in the uterus. Segments 3 (p. convoluta II) and 4 (p. convoluta II) contain all sugars identified. The main hexoses present in the glandular segments are galactose, fucose and glucose.

  17. The role of early sensory experience in the prey catching responses of Salamandra salamandra to stationary prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, G; Luthardt, G

    1980-01-01

    Two groups of newly metamorphosed Salamandra salamandra (L.) were raised with living and with stationary prey, respectively. One year later, the group which had experience exclusively with stationary prey was significantly better in responding to stationary prey than the group which only had experience with moving prey. This was the case both under light and dark conditions. The experiments show that prey-catching behavior in salamanders can be considerably modified by experience.

  18. Ultrastructure of epidermis of Salamandra salamandra followed throughout ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburg, M R; Lewinson, D

    1977-07-15

    Ventral epidermal ultrastructure of the amphibian urodele Salamandra salamandra is described and followed throughout its life cycle. Tadpoles were divided into five categories on the basis of the organization of their epidermis and the ultrastructure of its cells. In newly hatched tadpoles the epidermis is arranged in two layers and four types of cells were recognized. The number of epidermal layers increases in the metamorphosing tadpole. At this stage the layers become organized in four strata. Metamorphosis involves the disappearance of some cell types and the appearance of others, typical of the adult epidermis. The significance of these ontogenetic changes in epidermal ultrastructure is discussed in respect to aquatic and terrestrial life habits.

  19. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

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    Ori Segev

    Full Text Available Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample.

  20. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample.

  1. Meiosis and spermiogenesis in the testis of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Greven, H; Bergmann, M

    1985-01-01

    Meiosis and spermiogenesis in the fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, take place in an intermediate zone of the testis between the cephal immature and the more caudal mature part. Primary spermatocytes in zytogene and pachytene are characterized by synaptonemal complexes, flattened vesicles at the periphery of the cytoplasm and mitochondria with dilated cristae. Mitochondria in primary spermatocytes during meiosis, in secondary spermatocytes and early spermatids are typically arranged beneath the plasmalemma. Secondary spermatocytes are provided with pro-acrosomal granules, nucleolus-like bodies and complexes of annulate lamellae. Cytoplasmic parts with numerous vesicles seem to become extruded from secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. In testicular lobules containing pachytene spermatocytes the normally fibroblast-like follicle cells transform into glandular Sertoli cells. Already after the second meiotic division of germ cells lobule boundary cells show morphological features of steroid hormone secreting cells.

  2. Projections to the midbrain tectum in Salamandra salamandra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenstädt, T; Ebbesson, S O; Ewert, J P

    1983-01-01

    Following unilateral iontophoretic application of HRP into the optic tectum of Salamandra salamandra, retrogradely HRP-filled cells were found bilaterally in the pretectum, tegmentum isthmi, the reticular formation, pars medialis, and in the nucleus vestibularis magnocellularis. The area octavo-lateralis projects only to the caudal part of the tectum. Ipsilateral projections were noted from the dorsal gray columns of the cervical spinal cord, the dorsal tegmentum, the thalamus dorsalis pars medialis, thalamus dorsalis, pars anterior (to the rostral one-third of the tectum), the thalamus ventralis (in its entire rostro-caudal extent), and the preoptico-hypothalamic complex. Retrogradely filled cells were identified in deeper layers of the contralateral tectum. There are two telencephalic nuclei projecting ipsilaterally to the tectum via the lateral forebrain: the ventral part of the lateral pallium, and the posterior strioamygdalar complex.

  3. Further freeze-fracture studies on the uterine epithelium of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela) using the antibiotic filipin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Robenek, H

    1982-01-01

    The apical portion of the uterine lining of the ovoviviparous fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, was studied by the freeze-fracture technique in conjunction with the polyene antibiotic filipin. Filipin-sterol complexes were found in the luminal plasmalemma and in the membranes limiting the mucous secretory granules typical of this epithelium. In all females, but particularly in non-pregnant females, more or less discrete clusters of filipin-sterol complexes were occasionally found overlying heavily affected secretory granules. The findings are discussed with regard to comparable results (Orci et al. 1980) based on the examination of collapsed and stretched urinary bladders of toads.

  4. A new approach for surveying the Alpine Salamander (Salamandra atra in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Reinthaler-Lottermoser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Alpine Salamander is a small pitch black amphibian which is endemic to the European Alps and the Dinarides. It is strictly protected according to the European FFH guidelines. Despite its central role in the alpine ecosystem our actual published record in Austria is small. In order to resolve this shortcoming our project explores its distribution in Austria. It uses a participatory and community based approach to gather data. Everybody can enter and look at Alpine Salamander observations on our website www.alpensalamander.eu. This approach also allows us to establish an “oral history” of Salamander observations in the past 50 years by conducting interviews in the local community. Since July 2009 the website and salamander report database are online. From the actual data (more than 5600 records we already obtained an overview about the present distribution and data quality. The data are an excellent basis for detailed scientific studies on these remarkable amphibians. With this new and highly interactive approach science and education are combined to initiate protection measures with the public.

  5. Salamandra salamandra (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae) in Portugal: not all black and yellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Davide M; Cunha, Regina L; Patrão, Cláudia; Rebelo, Rui; Castilho, Rita

    2011-09-01

    The fire salamander complex is quite diverse in the Iberian Peninsula where nine subspecies of Salamandra salamandra are currently recognized. Here, we analysed the geographical distribution of the subspecies S. s. gallaica and S. s. crespoi using partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 168 individuals from 12 locations in Portugal. Our results support the existence of a deep lineage divergence between the two subspecies, with non-overlapping geographical distributions except in two contact zones: one in Sesimbra on the western coast, and another in Alcoutim on the southeastern border with Spain. Moreover, S. s. crespoi displays signs of gene flow among the sampled locations whereas S. s. gallaica shows evidence of some restriction to gene flow. Present-day genetic make-up of S. s. gallaica and S. s. crespoi is a result of past historical events, fine-tuned by contemporary Iberian geoclimate. Humid mountain areas were found to harbour increased genetic diversity possibly acting as past refugia during drier interglacial periods. To analyse wider geographical patterns and lineage splitting events within S. salamandra we performed a Bayesian dating analysis completing our data set with previously published sequences. The observed divergences were associated to successive biogeographic scenarios, and to other Iberian species showing similar trends. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  6. Notas sobre la distribución geográfica de las salamandras Pseudoeurycea gadovii y Pseudoeurycea melanomolga (Caudata: Plethodontidae Notes about the geographic distribution of the salamanders Pseudoeurycea gadovii and Pseudoeurycea melanomolga (Caudata: Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Solano-Zavaleta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En un análisis de la distribución de las salamandras Pseudoeurycea gadovii y P. melanomolga, se registra por primera vez para Puebla la especie Pseudoeurycea melanomolga, además de ampliarse el rango de distribución conocido para ambas especies.Analyzing the distribution of the salamanders Pseudoeurycea gadovil and P. melanmolga, we report Pseudoeurycea melanmolga for the first time in Puebla, and the known distribution range for both species is increased.

  7. Notas sobre la distribución geográfica de las salamandras Pseudoeurycea gadovii y Pseudoeurycea melanomolga (Caudata: Plethodontidae) Notes about the geographic distribution of the salamanders Pseudoeurycea gadovii and Pseudoeurycea melanomolga (Caudata: Plethodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Solano-Zavaleta; Uri Omar García-Vázquez; Andrés Alberto Mendoza-Hernández

    2009-01-01

    En un análisis de la distribución de las salamandras Pseudoeurycea gadovii y P. melanomolga, se registra por primera vez para Puebla la especie Pseudoeurycea melanomolga, además de ampliarse el rango de distribución conocido para ambas especies.Analyzing the distribution of the salamanders Pseudoeurycea gadovil and P. melanmolga, we report Pseudoeurycea melanmolga for the first time in Puebla, and the known distribution range for both species is increased.

  8. The influence of a water current on the larval deposition pattern of females of a diverging fire salamander population (Salamandra salamandra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, E.T.; Caspers, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Fire salamanders are amphibians that exhibit a highly specific reproductive mode termed ovo-viviparity. The eggs develop inside their mothers, and the females give birth to fully developed larvae. The larvae in our study area cluster in two distinct genetic groups that can be linked directly to the

  9. On the presence of nucleus ruber in the urodele Salamandra salamandra and the caecilian Ichthyophis kohtaoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujoks-Manteuffel, C; Manteuffel, G; Himstedt, W

    1988-01-01

    The presence of nucleus ruber in urodeles and caecilians (amphibia) was investigated. For that purpose, horseradish peroxidase was applied to the rostral spinal cord, the medulla oblongata at various levels and the dorsolateral funiculus. Whereas Salamandra salamandra possesses a rubrospinal tract, it is absent in the limbless caecilian Ichthyophis kohtaoensis.

  10. Efferent neurons to the labyrinth of Salamandra salamandra as revealed by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B

    1981-11-04

    Application of horseradish peroxidase to the severed VIIIth nerve of Salamandra salamandra resulted in heavy bilateral labeling of neurons of the medullary reticular formation. These neurons closely resemble the Mauthner neuron in their widespread dendritic ramification. In most preparations axon collaterals are seen to leave the medulla via the contralateral VIIIth nerve. It is suggested that these neurons are labyrinthine efferents.

  11. Evidence of an alpha 2-macroglobulin-like molecule in plasma of Salamandra salamandra. Structural and functional similarity with human alpha 2-macroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave, J M; Bellot, R

    1987-07-13

    A high-Mr (Mr 750,000) alpha 1-macroglobulin, obtained from Salamandra salamandra, is described. Salamander alpha 1-macroglobulin is composed of two monomers of equal Mr, which are composed of two polypeptide chains, each of Mr 180,000, linked by disulfide bonds. The molecular parameters of this protein, its binding to trypsin and inactivation by methylamine suggest that salamander alpha 1-macroglobulin is closely related to human alpha 2-macroglobulin and to other related proteins described in the animal kingdom.

  12. The more the better - polyandry and genetic similarity are positively linked to reproductive success in a natural population of terrestrial salamanders (Salamandra salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Barbara A; Krause, E Tobias; Hendrix, Ralf; Kopp, Michael; Rupp, Oliver; Rosentreter, Katrin; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Although classically thought to be rare, female polyandry is widespread and may entail significant fitness benefits. If females store sperm over extended periods of time, the consequences of polyandry will depend on the pattern of sperm storage, and some of the potential benefits of polyandry can only be realized if sperm from different males is mixed. Our study aimed to determine patterns and consequences of polyandry in an amphibian species, the fire salamander, under fully natural conditions. Fire salamanders are ideal study objects, because mating, fertilization and larval deposition are temporally decoupled, females store sperm for several months, and larvae are deposited in the order of fertilization. Based on 18 microsatellite loci, we conducted paternity analysis of 24 female-offspring arrays with, in total, over 600 larvae fertilized under complete natural conditions. More than one-third of females were polyandrous and up to four males were found as sires. Our data clearly show that sperm from multiple males is mixed in the female's spermatheca. Nevertheless, paternity is biased, and the most successful male sires on average 70% of the larvae, suggesting a 'topping off' mechanism with first-male precedence. Female reproductive success increased with the number of sires, most probably because multiple mating ensured high fertilization success. In contrast, offspring number was unaffected by female condition and genetic characteristics, but surprisingly, it increased with the degree of genetic relatedness between females and their sires. Sires of polyandrous females tended to be genetically similar to each other, indicating a role for active female choice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Scanning electron microscopy of the oviduct of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Rüterbories, H J

    1984-01-01

    The oviduct of non-pregnant females of the ovoviviparous salamander, Salamandra salamandra, was examined using SEM-techniques. In the luminal epithelium polygonal ciliated cells were found along the entire surface of the oviduct, except the uterus, and non-ciliated cells with a varying number of short or long microvilli. The ciliated cells occur in the most anterior portion of the oviduct, the pars recta; they are sparsely distributed in the p. convoluta I, but abundant in the p. convoluta II and III. Non-ciliated cells comprise several small gland cells, restricted to the p. convoluta I, II, III, and undifferentiated cells both provided with microvilli, but difficult to be discerned from their surface appearance. The p. convoluta I, II, III is characterized by three types of secretory cells forming tubular glands, each type confined to a given zone. The secretory cells have slender microvilli at their surfaces. In freeze-cracked glands details of their secretory products can be visualized. The findings are compared to previously published TEM-investigations and discussed with regard to some functions of the oviduct during reproduction.

  14. The immature part of the testis in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

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    Schindelmeiser, J; Greven, H; Bergmann, M

    1983-04-01

    The immature part of the testis in the European fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, consists of cephalo-caudally orientated zones of primary spermatogonia, secondary spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids associated with follicle cells. Germ cells and follicle cells are arranged in lobules separated from each other by a vascularized connective tissue. Primordial germ cells are dispersed throughout the testicular stroma, preferably near the efferent ductules. They possess a multilobated nucleus, irregularly arranged mitochondria, nuage material, and a few lipid droplets. Primary spermatogonia are characterized by a more spherical nucleus, a coronal distribution of cell organelles--mainly mitochondria--small amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid droplets. Secondary spermatogonia exhibit an irregular distribution of cell organelles with increased amounts of vesicular profiles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum; they are highly interdigitated and connected by intercellular bridges. In this stage degenerative processes may take place. Primary spermatocytes are provided with basal bodies and peripheral microtubules. Secondary spermatocytes and spermatids will be described elsewhere. Follicle cells and their projections surround each germinal cyst. Their nucleated parts are commonly localized in the central part of the lobule. Follicle cells and lobule boundary cells are very similar to fibrocytes. Already in the primary spermatocyte zone, both cell types show ultrastructural features indicating a setting in glandular activity.

  15. The urodelean Mauthner cell. Morphology of the afferent synapses to the M-cell of larval Salamandra salamandra

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    Cioni, C.; De Palma, F.; De Vito, L.; Stefanelli, A. [Rome, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell`Uomo

    1997-12-31

    In the present work the fine morphology and the distribution of the afferent synapses to the Mauthner cell of larval Salamandra salamandra are described. The aim of the study is to characterize the synaptic bed in the larvae of this terrestrial salamander in order to compare it with that of larval axolotl and larval anurans. Four main types of afferent endings have been identified: myelinated club endings, round-vesicle end bulbs, flattened-vesicle end bulbs and spiral fibers endings. The M-cell afferent synaptology of larval stages of terrestrial amphibians is quite similar to that previously observed in larval stages of aquatic species. This fact can be related to the fundamental similarities between the larval lifestyles.

  16. Light and electron microscopic study on complex carbohydrates in the testis of Salamandra salamandra L. (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of complex carbohydrates was studied in the testis of the European fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, by light- and electron-microscopic methods. The basal laminae and fibrous structures in the connective tissue between the lobules are PAS-positive. After alcianblue staining (at pH = 2.8), acid mucopolysaccharides could be demonstrated in steroid hormone-producing cells in the interstitial tissue between lobules containing spermatids, spermatozoa, and lobules after spermiation, as well as in most of the Sertoli cells in lobules after spermiation. In all spermatogenic stages from secondary spermatocytes to mature sperms, dictyosome-like structures and flat vesicles showed a distinct contrast enhancement, as did parts of the acrosome after treatment with the phosphotungstic acid-chromic acid method for electron microscopy.

  17. [Demonstration and in vitro study of a complex reaction (rejection and facilitation) of the mother towards the embryo in the urodele amphibian Salamandra salamandra L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badet, M T; Chateaureynaud-Duprat, P; Voisin, G A

    1975-07-21

    Spleen cells from pregnant (but not from non-pregnant) Salamandra salamandra are cytotoxic in vitro for dissociated epidermal cells from their own embryos. Maternal serum inhibits this cytotoxicity. Analogies and differences are stressed in Salamandra salamandra between allograft rejection mechanisms and immune reactions towards embryos. They may contribute to an explanation of the delayed expulsion of embryos.

  18. [The maternal protection reaction against a mother's rejection of her own larva in Salamandra salamandra L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badet, M T; Chateaureynaud-Duprat, P; Voisin, G A

    1977-06-20

    In vitro experiments have shown that maternal spleen cells from Salamandra salamandra are cytotoxic to cells from their embryos. This reaction can be inhibited by maternal serum. In this paper, we show that maternal serum protection acts through two effects: by inactivating spleen cells and by protecting embryonic cells. The more numerous the embryos are in a female, the stronger the protection is. The effect of the maternal serum does not appear to be individual specific.

  19. Xanthophore migration from the dermis to the epidermis and dermal remodeling during Salamandra salamandra salamandra (L.) larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Gambarelli, Andrea; Restani, Cinzia

    2003-02-01

    During larval development of Salamandra salamandra salamandra chromatophores organize to form the definitive pigment pattern constituted by a black background with yellow patches that are characterized by epidermal xanthophores and dermal iridophores. Simultaneously the dermis undergoes remodeling from the larval stage to that typical of the adult. In the present study we ultrastucturally and immunocytochemically examined skin fragments of S. s. salamandra larvae and juveniles in order to investigate the modalities of xanthophore migration and differentiation in the context of dermal remodeling from the larval to adult stage. Semithin and thin sections showed that the dermis in newly born larvae consists of a compact connective tissue (basement lamella), to which fibroblasts and xanthophores adhere, and of a loose deep collagen layer. As larval development proceeds, fibroblasts and xanthophores invade the basement lamella, skin glands develop and the adult dermis forms. At metamorphosis, xanthophores reach the epidermis crossing through the basal lamina. We examined immunocytochemically the expression of signal molecules, such as fibronectin, vitronectin, beta1-integrin, chondroitin sulfate, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and plasminogen activator, which are known to be involved in regulating morphogenetic events. Their role in dermal remodeling and in pigment pattern formation is discussed.

  20. Variation in the reproductive strategies of Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758 populations in the province of Gipuzkoa (Basque Country.

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    UOTILA, E., CRESPO-DIAZ, A., SANZ-AZKUE, I., RUBIO, X.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire salamander [Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758] populations show variability in their reproductive strategies across the northern Iberian Peninsula. Females can give birth to aquatic larvae (ovoviviparous mode, to metamorphosed juveniles (viviparous mode or to both aquatic and metamorphosed juveniles (intermediate mode. The reproductive modes of the populations inhabiting the Basque Country are poorly studied. The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the reproductive strategies of four fire salamander populations, belonging to the subspecies S.s.fastuosa, in the province of Gipuzkoa, Basque Country. The main focus was on an urban population inhabiting the park Mount Urgull in San Sebastián. The other three populations were located in forested mountain areas. Eighteen pregnant female salamanders were captured and kept in the laboratory until they gave birth. Females captured in the Urgull population gave birth, either to metamorphosed juveniles, or to metamorphosed juveniles and aquatic larvae. However, due to the lack of water bodies in Urgull, the fire salamanders are mostly viviparous. Two females from the other populations also gave birth to etamor-phosed juveniles and aquatic larvae, which suggests that the populations may have intermediate reproductive mode. The results of this study confirm that there can be intrapopulational variation in the reproductive modes of the S.s.fastuosa and that the intermediate (and maybe the viviparous mode might be more common than previously thought in Gipuzkoa.

  1. Discovery of Salamandra atra aurorae (Trevisan, 1982 on the Altopiano di Vezzena, Trentino (Northeastern Italy

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    Wouter Beukema

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Aurora’s Alpine Salamander is a limited distributed subspecies endemic to the Altopiano di Asiago, Veneto. In the current paper the occurrence of Salamandra atra aurorae is described for the Altopiano di Vezzena, Trentino. The aim of this paper is to review the distribution as well as to comment on the conservational status of the subspecies in Trentino.

  2. Physicochemical characterization and tissue distribution of esterases in two salamandridae species (Mertensiella luschani and Salamandra salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannetatou-Polymeni, R; Haritos, A A

    1989-01-01

    1. Tissue- and species-specificity of the electrophoretic patterns of the multiple molecular forms of esterases were observed in the urodele amphibians Mertensiella luschani luschani, M.l. helverseni and Salamandra salamandra. All esterases--distributed into two electrophoretic mobility areas in gonads, muscles and brain and into four areas in liver, stomach and intestine--were characterized as carboxylesterases. 2. M. l. luschani and S. salamandra liver esterases were electrofocused into nine and eleven major bands with pIs ranging from 4.60 to 5.65 and from 4.40 to 6.20, respectively. 3. Two size groups of esterases were observed in liver extracts of the above three subspecies by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. The mean values of their apparent molecular weights were 70,000 and 230,000 respectively.

  3. A histochemical study of the microglial cells in the brain of Salamandra salamandra by lectin binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, V; Ciani, F

    1992-01-01

    Seven biotinylated lectins were utilized as histochemical markers for the study of microglial cells in the brain of Salamandra salamandra. It has been demonstrated that SBA, BSA-I, BSA-I-B4 and RCA120 label the microglial cells and, on the basis of the binding selectivity of the single lectins for specific carbohydrates, it was found that alpha-galactosyl residues are present in high density on the microglial membrane of S. salamandra. The reaction was localized not only to the ramified microglial cells, but also to other round cells without extensions, interpreted as ameboid microglial cells. The results show that lectin binding is a reliable molecular probe for identifying microglial cells in urodels.

  4. The influence of prey experience on movement pattern preference in Salamandra salamandra (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthardt, G; Roth, G

    1979-11-01

    Groups of juvenile Salamandra salamandra were raised selectively with different types of prey. The influence of these conditions on the movement pattern preference was studied during the first six months after metamorphosis. Responses to a black horizontal bar moving continuously or stepwise at step frequencies between 0.25 and 8 steps/s were tested. The differently raised groups showed significant differences in their respective preference for stimulus movement patterns which corresponded with the movement pattern of their food. At the same time, superimposed upon this learning process, a general increase in the relative efficiency of continuous stimulus movement with regard to stepwise stimulus movement could be observed.

  5. Ovarian steroid levels in Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata during the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, G; Sharon, R; Warburg, M

    1997-06-01

    Gonadal steroid levels were determined in the ovary of Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata during the reproductive cycle in populations from a xeric region in northern Israel. Varying proportions of previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes were present throughout the year, and mature oocytes were present in winter and spring. The numbers of mature oocytes were greater between December and April, after parturition. The levels of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone rose during oocyte vitellogenesis and maturation. Levels of progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxy progesterone appeared to be related to the level of vitellogenesis. Gravid females contained greater quantities of all four steroids than did nongravid females.

  6. [In vivo and in vitro study of the effect of pregnant female serum graft rejection in Salamandra salamandra Lin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badet, M T; Chateaureynaud-Duprat, P; Izoard, F; Voisin, G A

    1979-05-14

    Serum from pregnant female Salamandra salamandra inhibits the cytotoxic reaction from the mother towards its larvae. Such a serum accelerates the allograft rejection reaction. In vitro studies show that a serum from pregnant female inhibits the cytotoxic reaction of host spleen cells towards epithelial cells of the donor of the graft.

  7. Mitochondrial sequence analysis of Salamandra taxa suggests old splits of major lineages and postglacial recolonizations of central Europe from distinct source populations of Salamandra salamandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfartz, S; Veith, M; Tautz, D

    2000-04-01

    Representatives of the genus Salamandra occur in Europe, Northern Africa and the Near East. Many local variants are known but species and subspecies status of these is still a matter of dispute. We have analysed samples from locations covering the whole expansion range of Salamandra by sequence analysis of mitochondrial D-loop regions. In addition, we have calibrated the rate of divergence of the D-loop on the basis of geologically dated splits of the closely related genus Euproctus. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences suggests that six major monophyletic groups exist (S. salamandra, S. algira, S. infraimmaculata, S. corsica, S. atra and S. lanzai) which have split between 5 and 13 million years ago (Ma). We find that each of the Salamandra species occupies a distinct geographical area, with the exception of S. salamandra. This species occurs all over Europe from Spain to Greece, suggesting that it was the only species that has recolonized Central Europe after the last glaciation. The occurrence of specific east and west European haplotypes, as well as allozyme alleles in the S. salamandra populations suggests that this recolonization has started from at least two source populations, possibly originating in the Iberian peninsula and the Balkans. Two subpopulations of S. salamandra were found that are genetically very distinct from the other populations. One lives in northern Spain (S. s. bernardezi) and one in southern Italy (S. s. gigliolii). Surprisingly, the mitochondrial lineages of these subpopulations group closer together than the remainder S. salamandra lineages. We suggest that these populations are remnants of a large homogeneous population that had colonized Central Europe in a previous interglacial period, approximately 500 000 years ago. Animals from these populations were apparently not successful in later recolonizations. Still, they have maintained their separate genetic identity in their areas, although they are not separated by geographical

  8. Origins of descending projections to the medulla oblongata and rostral medulla spinalis in the urodele Salamandra salamandra (amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujoks-Manteuffel, C; Manteuffel, G

    1988-07-08

    Descending projections to the medulla oblongata and rostral medulla spinalis have been examined in the urodele Salamandra salamandra with retrograde horseradish peroxidase tracing. Ipsilateral projections originate from the striatum and the nucleus ventrolateralis thalami and reach the medulla oblongata. The ipsilateral nucleus praeopticus magnocellularis reaches the medulla spinalis. The rostral part of the nucleus tuberculi posterioris projects to the ipsilateral medulla oblongata; its caudal part projects further caudally. Tectal efferents and the efferents of the nucleus praetectalis profundus project bilaterally, the nucleus praetectalis superficialis, nucleus mesencephalicus nervi trigemini, torus semicircularis, nucleus Darkschewitsch, and nucleus fasciculi longitudinalis medialis project ipsilaterally to the medulla oblongata. The nucleus mesencephalicus nervi trigemini, nucleus fasciculi longitudinalis medialis, and tectal efferents reach the rostral medulla spinalis. The nucleus ruber projects mainly via the contralateral dorsolateral funiculus to the medulla spinalis. A largely crossed medullary projection arises in the nucleus dorsalis tegmenti pars anterior, a bilateral projection arises in the nucleus dorsalis tegmenti pars posterior, and an ipsilateral projection arises in the nucleus ventralis tegmenti pars anterior. Cerebellar and statoacoustic efferents descend to the medulla spinalis. The nucleus reticularis isthmi, superior, medius and inferior as well as the nucleus raphes exhibit spinal trajectories. The nucleus vestibularis magnocellularis projects bilaterally, the nucleus vestibularis medialis projects ipsilaterally spinalward. The supposed nucleus descendens nervi trigemini descends mainly contralaterally. A small spinal projection arises in the nucleus tractus solitarii. The results indicate that salamander brains display elaborate descending connections which are similar to those in other vertebrates despite their scarcely differentiated

  9. A peculiar mode of formation of the surface lining layer in the lungs of Salamandra salamandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniakowska-Witalińska, L

    1980-01-01

    The pneumocytes of the larva of Salamandra salamandra contain numerous lamellar bodies and their precursors: electron-dense bodies at various stages of development. Both lamellar bodies and electron-dense bodies occur inside the fluid-filled lung. The former are spherical or bell-shaped and possess concentrically arranged smooth membranes, 8 nm thicks; the latter have paracrystalline cores composed of alternatively oriented clear and dark striations (3 . 6--3 . 9 nm and 2 . 6--3 . 6 nm, respectively). On all sides such cores separate membranes, which assume a concentric orientation. No tubular myelin was observed in any phase of the transformation of lamellar bodies and electron-dense bodies into the surface lining layer. Fixation of the lungs of adult individuals with tannic acid-containing fixative visualized the surface lining layer, but not tubular myelin.

  10. [Light and electron microscopic studies of oropharyngeal epithelium in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Urodela: Salamandridae) larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, G

    1984-01-01

    The oropharyngeal-epithelium of intrauterine and free swimming larvae of Salamandra salamandra has been investigated by electron microscopy. With the exception of the toothed areas, where it is multi-layered, the epithelium of intrauterine larvae consists of two cell layers, pavement and basal cells. In older larvae, however, the entire epithelium is multi-layered. The outermost layer contains nonciliated pavement cells, goblet cells and sporadically mitochondria-rich cells. Both, goblet cells and pavement cells synthesize mainly acid mucosubstances, which are localized in big confluent secretory granules in the former and in small granules immediately beneath the apical plasmalemm in the latter. In the second layer different developmental stages of goblet cells and pavement cells can be identified.

  11. The secondary tongue of Salamandra salamandra: histochemical and ultrastructural aspects of the developing lingual epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolka, A; Wistuba, J; Clemen, G

    2001-01-01

    The development of the lingual epithelium of Salamandra salamandra was investigated with emphasis on histochemical and ultrastructural aspects. The temporal and spatial occurrence and the typical appearance of various cell types; i.e. pavement cells, replacement pavement cells, basal cells, mitochondria rich cells, goblet cells and glandular cells have been analysed and documented in detail from the young larval stage up to the metamorphosed animal (2 months after metamorphosis). It is shown that anatomical re- and de novo-constructions related to the formation of the secretory tongue led to distinct changes in the cellular equipment of the epithelium of the tongue, including various histochemical properties. Finally, functional aspects of the morphological characteristics are discussed in detail and compared with respective findings in other species.

  12. The innervation of the uterus in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela). A morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Schindelmeiser, J; Straub, H

    1983-01-01

    The innervation of the uterus in the ovoviviparous urodele Salamandra salamandra was studied. In whole mount preparations of the thin-walled uterus of pregnant females, a dense adrenergic network was demonstrated using a modified glyoxylic acid fluorescence technique. Based on vesicle type and cytochemical reactivity after chromate/dichromate fixation for electron microscopy at least two types of neural process were distinguished and classified as adrenergic and cholinergic. Both types are preferentially situated above or between the smooth muscles of the uterine tissue. Adjacent to the muscles in the walls of arterioles mainly adrenergic fibers are seen. Using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in tissue homogenates of uterus a considerable amount of noradrenaline could be identified. The significance of the dense innervation is discussed with respect to the function of the uterus during pregnancy and birth.

  13. Sexual size and shape dimorphism in Salamandra salamandra (Amphibia, Caudata, Salamandridae from the central Balkans

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    Labus N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism is one of the key evolutionary features that has been studied in many organisms. On the other hand, sexual shape dimorphism has not been examined as well despite being as important as size dimorphism. Therefore, we analyzed the sexual size and shape dimorphism (SSSD of Salamandra salamandra from the territory of the central Balkans. In addition, we wanted to reconsider if there is some regularity in the geographical distribution of SSSD in the investigated area. Significant differences in size and shape between the sexes were found for the whole sample and among the analyzed groups. Females were larger than males and had bigger heads, interlimb distances and a parotid gland, while males had bigger tails, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and forefoot and hindfoot length. Our results reveal a strong effect of locality on trait variation. This variation from the general pattern of SSSD is not substantial but still has to be considered.

  14. Sex-specific estimates of dispersal show female philopatry and male dispersal in a promiscuous amphibian, the alpine salamander (Salamandra atra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, V; Broquet, T; Fumagalli, L

    2012-10-01

    Amphibians display wide variations in life-history traits and life cycles that should prove useful to explore the evolution of sex-biased dispersal, but quantitative data on sex-specific dispersal patterns are scarce. Here, we focused on Salamandra atra, an endemic alpine species showing peculiar life-history traits. Strictly terrestrial and viviparous, the species has a promiscuous mating system, and females reproduce only every 3 to 4 years. In the present study, we provide quantitative estimates of asymmetries in male vs. female dispersal using both field-based (mark-recapture) and genetic approaches (detection of sex-biased dispersal and estimates of migration rates based on the contrast in genetic structure across sexes and age classes). Our results revealed a high level of gene flow among populations, which stems exclusively from male dispersal. We hypothesize that philopatric females benefit from being familiar with their natal area for the acquisition and defence of an appropriate shelter, while male dispersal has been secondarily favoured by inbreeding avoidance. Together with other studies on amphibians, our results indicate that a species' mating system alone is a poor predictor of sex-linked differences in dispersal, in particular for promiscuous species. Further studies should focus more directly on the proximate forces that favour or limit dispersal to refine our understanding of the evolution of sex-biased dispersal in animals. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Structure-function relationships in the integument of Salamandra salamandra during ontogenetic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Gambarelli, A; Gabbay, Shosh; Rozman, A; Katz, U

    2002-06-01

    Morphological, cytological and transport properties of the integument of Salamandra salamandra were investigated during natural ontogenetic development, from birth to adult. Three stages were operationally defined: I, larvae, from birth to metamorphosis; II, metamorphosis (judged externally by the colour change and loss of the gills); and III, post-metamorphosis to adult. Pieces of skin were fixed at various stages for immunocytochemical examinations, and the electrical properties were investigated on parallel pieces. Distinct cellular changes take place in the skin during metamorphosis, and lectin (PNA, WGA and ConA) binding indicates profound changes in glycoprotein composition of cell membranes, following metamorphosis. Band 3 and carbonic anhydrase I (CA I) were confined to mitochondria-rich (MR)-like cells, and were detected only in the larval stage. CA II on the other hand, was detected both in MR-like and in MR cells following metamorphosis. The electrical studies show that the skin becomes more tight (transepithelial resistance increases) upon metamorphosis, followed by manifestation of amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current (I(SC)) indicating that functional Na+ uptake has been acquired. The skin of metamorphosed adults had no finite transepithelial Cl- conductance, and band 3 was not detected in its MR cells. The functional properties of MR-like and MR cells remain to be established.

  16. The lingual epithelium of Salamandra salamandra: metamorphotic changes during its ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolka, A; Clemen, G

    1998-12-01

    The development of the epithelia of the secondary tongue of Salamandra salamandra is described on the basis of light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies of defined developmental stages. A glandular area with radial ridges and furrows is formed anterior to the primary tongue during the larval phase. Epithelial cones--each a compact anlage of a gland lying in the furrows--displace the lamina propria. The glandular area grows upward and latero-caudad during metamorphosis and forms the secondary tongue by fusing with the primary tongue. Lumina within the gland anlage appear at the beginning of metamorphosis. They open as glandular tubules towards the oral cavity at the climax of metamorphosis. The epithelial lining becomes single layered and differentiates into gland cells. The glands are increasingly surrounded by fibers of the musculus genioglossus. At the orifice of the gland, the gland cells mingle with the multilayered epithelium of the surface of the tongue. This contains two types of goblet cells in addition to the villus-shaped covering cells which leave gaps for the taste buds. The goblet cells are formed before (type I) and during (type II) metamorphosis and replace the typical larval goblet cells. The new mushroom-shaped part of the secondary tongue is characterized by aborally running septae of connective tissue, visible after digestion with pankreatin. The tip of the primary tongue which originally covers the glandular part becomes completely integrated. It is characterized by crypts which become shallower caudally.

  17. Morphological differentiation of taste organs in the ontogeny of Salamandra salamandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuwała, K; Jakubowski, M

    2001-11-01

    Morphological studies presented here provide additional cytological evidence that in the postnatal development of Salamandra salamandra there are two successive generations of taste organs: premetamorphic taste buds (TBs) in larval forms and taste disks (TDs) in postmetamorphic animals. The TBs have been found in the epithelium of the whole oropharyngeal cavity of larval forms, while in adults TDs appear only at the end of metamorphosis. The TDs can be papillary (or fungiform) on the soft (secondary) tongue and non-papillary outside the tongue. Two main cyto-morphological criteria distinguishing TDs from TBs have been established: (1) high differentiation of "nonsensory" components of a taste organ into several kinds of cells (often named "associate cells")--at least mucous cells and, separating them, wing cells; (2) a considerably larger area of the sensory epithelium than that in TBs, as the consequence of the large size of the mucous cells. In contrast to TDs each TB consists of longitudinally elongated supporting cells and taste cells, as well as of horizontally oriented basal cells, adjacent to the basement membrane. The sensory area in TBs measures 10-12 microm in diameter, while that in TDs has diameter of 45-90 microm. The anlage of the secondary tongue appears as a small folding of the floor epithelium just in front to the tip of the primary tongue in larvae 3 cm long, and is definitely formed in an animal with body length of about 6 cm.

  18. Gut hormones in Salamandra salamandra. An immunocytochemical and electron microscopic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, A M; Polak, J M; Pearse, A G

    1980-01-01

    Histological, cytochemical and immunocytochemical methods were used in light and electron microscopical studies to demonstrate the presence of a neuroendocrine system in the gut of the urodele, Salamandra salamandra. Cytochemical stains capable of detecting peptide-producing endocrine cells demonstrate cells reacting with Masson's silver (argentaffin) method, Grimelius' argyrophil silver method, masked metachromasia method and the lead haematoxylin stain. Using antisera raised to a variety of mammalian gut peptides, cells containing bombesin-, gastrin-, somatostatin-, substance P- and glucagon-like immunoreactivity were indentified; vasoactive intestinal polypeptide- and substance P-like immunoreactivities were found in nerve fibres in the submucous and myenteric plexus. No immunoreactivity was detected from motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, cholecystokinin or secretin. The ultrastructure of the immunoreactive cells and nerves was revealed by the semithin/thin method. All the cells indentified contained numerous electrondense secretory granules, which varied in their characteristic morphological structure from one cell type to another. The evidence collected in this study indicates that a complex neuroendocrine system regulating gut function is present in this amphibian and may have developed prior to the emergence of the phylum.

  19. Morphological and biochemical studies on the innervation of the testis of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Bergmann, M; Straub, H; Greven, H

    1983-05-01

    The innervation of the male gonad of Salamandra salamandra was studied by fluorescence microscopy using the glyoxylic acid method, acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, electron microscopy using glutaraldehyde/osmium tetroxide and chromate/dichromate fixation, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection of biogenic amines in homogenates of the testicular tissue. Noradrenaline has been found to be the prevailing neurotransmitter in the testicular nerves; dopamine could be identified only in minor concentration. The relatively scarce noradrenergic innervation is mainly restricted to the connective tissue septa between the immature and the mature part of the testis and between the mature part and the glandular tissue. Most of the fluorescent fibers have a close connection to blood vessels. After chromate/dichromate fixation the nerve profiles contain in most cases small vesicles with electron-dense reaction products, indicating the presence of catecholamines. Varicosities are to be found near the capillaries, in the vicinity of vascular (in the wall of arterioles) and non-vascular (near the testicular surface) smooth muscle cells; no relationships were found between nerve fibers and glandular (steroid hormone-secreting) or germinal cells. Cholinergic fibers could not be identified, non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic fibers were present only in very small numbers.

  20. Intercellular junctions in the uterine epithelium of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela). A freeze-fracture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H; Robenek, H

    1980-01-01

    Intercellular junctions in the uterine epithelium of the ovoviviparous urodele Salamandra salamandra were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant females by freeze-fracture technique. Junctional complexes consist of zonulae occludentes (tight junctions) and numerous maculae adhaerentes (desmosomes); z. adhaerentes and nexuses (gap junctions) could not be identified. Tight junctions are of the "flexible" type exhibiting loosely interconnected fibrils. The fibrillary network appears stretched more often in pregnant females possibly due to the mechanical stress of pregnancy. The structure and occurrence of the junctions identified, especially that of the tight junctions, is discussed with regard to the functions of the uterus during pregnancy.

  1. [Analogies between "fraction P" with immunosuppressive properties in pregnant females and a protein fraction induced by estradiol treatment in the amphibian Salamandra salamandra L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badet, M T

    1980-12-08

    A "fraction P" analogue possessing immunosuppressive properties during pregnancy in the Salamandra, can be induced by treating males and females with oestradiol. Both fractions possess the same physiochemical characteristics, and equally react against a Rabbit immune serum anti "fraction P" of pregnant Salamandra. But the proteic fraction induced by hormonal treatment does immunosuppressive properties.

  2. Comparative ultrastructural investigations of the uterine epithelium in the viviparous Salamandra atra Laur. and the ovoviviparous Salamandra salamandra (l.) (amphibia, urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H

    1977-07-11

    The uterine epithelium of the viviparous Salamandra atra and the ovoviviparous Salamandra salamandra was studied in non pregnant and ovulating females and in females during different stages of pregnancy. The epithelium of both species is organized in a monolayer. The epithelial cells are characterized by a moderate secretory activity, a variable amount of apical granules which include PAS-positive material and by some apical and basal exo- or endocytotic vesicles. Adjacent cells are joined by junctional complexes. The lateral surfaces form a tortuous boundary with adjoining cells which suggest that the epithelium is involved in transport. Sporadic light cells possess highly variable cytoplasmic inclusions and are not joined with neighbouring cells. Possibly they represent migratory cells. The entire epithelium, except for a small cranial portion of the uterus in S. atra, undergoes no remarkable morphological changes during the different physiological stages examined except that flattened cells seem to be more numerous in pregnant females. The results are discussed with regard to the possible supply of the developing young by the mother.

  3. Ultrastructural investigations of the epidermis and the gill epithelium in the intrauterine larvae of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H

    1980-01-01

    The epidermis and the gill epithelium of larval intrauterine Salamandra salamandra were studied by the electron microscope. Both epithelia are bilayered. In the epidermis of the skin three cell types occur: pavement cells containing apical mucous granules, basal cells, Leydig cells and sporadically pea-shaped cells which obviously correspond to the Langerhans cells described by previous authors. The epithelium of the gills is composed of pavement-, basal-, pea-shaped, and ciliated cells. In the primary gill bar there are additional mitochondria-rich cells and single Leydig cells. In the secondary gill filament the thickness of the epithelium is reduced. There is no morphological evidence for the uptake of material by endocytosis in the apical plasmalemm of the pavement cells.

  4. [Light and electron microscopy analysis of the differentiation of oropharyngeal epithelium in Salamandra salamandra (L.) during metamorphosis (Urodela:Salamandridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, G

    1985-01-01

    During metamorphosis the oropharyngeal-epithelium of Salamandra salamandra consists of cells partly with features typical for larvae partly with these characteristic for metamorphosed animals. In the stratum intermedium cells which in larvae develop to secreting non-ciliated pavement cells become precursors of ciliated cells. During this process mucus granulus were discharged and cells develop cilia. Cells of deepe layers stop the production of mucus granules; those granules, which are already present, disintegrate. Furthermore, new types of goblet cells (type 2 and 3 according to Clemen, 1984) arise. Goblet cells of older larvae (typ 1) are to be found nearly unchanged in metamorphosed animals. Older goblet cells degenerate. In the stratum superficiale during transformation of pavement cells to ciliated cells discharge of mucus and ciliogenesis run parallely. Some of the pavement cells, however, degenerate. The stratum basale remains unaltered.

  5. Ontogenetic pattern change in amphibians: the case of Salamandra corsica

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    Wouter Beukema

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenetic, post-metamorphic pattern development is a rarely studied topic in amphibian science. As there are indications that the pattern of Salamandra corsica might expand over time, digital image analyses were applied in order to measure several phenotypical variables which were related to the snout vent length. Results show a significant increase of patches which change to irregular shapes while SVL increases. Digital image analysis is identified as a suitable tool to explore pattern shape and change in general, while the documented pattern development in S. corsica might be one of the first quantified cases of post-metamorphic ontogenetic pattern change in amphibians.

  6. Seasonal variations of androgens, estrogens, and progesterone in the different lobules of the testis and in the plasma of Salamandra salamandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecouteux, A; Garnier, D H; Bassez, T; Joly, J

    1985-05-01

    Progesterone, 4-androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol (3 alpha-diol), 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol (3 beta-diol), estrone, and estradiol levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in the different lobules of the testis of Salamandra salamandra throughout the year according to the seasonal cycle. 3 beta-diol levels were not detectable. High levels of steroids were found in the grandular tissue (enlarged pericystic cells after spermiation) and large variations were showed for progesterone, 4-androstenedione, testosterone, 3 alpha-diol, and estrone. In the mature lobule (formed by cysts with mature spermatozoa), only testosterone showed seasonal variations and in the immature lobule (with early stages of meiosis), 3 alpha-diol showed fluctuations. The major estrogen found in the testis of Salamandra was estrone; estradiol stayed at a low level throughout the cycle. The steroids fluctuation seems to be related to the histological evolution of the testis throughout the cycle. The present data were the first on steroid seasonal variations in the testis of an urodele.

  7. A non-invasive geometric morphometrics method for exploring variation in dorsal head shape in urodeles: sexual dimorphism and geographic variation in Salamandra salamandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Ríos, Lucía; Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni

    2017-04-01

    The study of morphological variation among and within taxa can shed light on the evolution of phenotypic diversification. In the case of urodeles, the dorso-ventral view of the head captures most of the ontogenetic and evolutionary variation of the entire head, which is a structure with a high potential for being a target of selection due to its relevance in ecological and social functions. Here, we describe a non-invasive procedure of geometric morphometrics for exploring morphological variation in the external dorso-ventral view of urodeles' head. To explore the accuracy of the method and its potential for describing morphological patterns we applied it to two populations of Salamandra salamandra gallaica from NW Iberia. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we detected differences in head shape between populations and sexes, and an allometric relationship between shape and size. We also determined that not all differences in head shape are due to size variation, suggesting intrinsic shape differences across sexes and populations. These morphological patterns had not been previously explored in S. salamandra, despite the high levels of intraspecific diversity within this species. The methodological procedure presented here allows to detect shape variation at a very fine scale, and solves the drawbacks of using cranial samples, thus increasing the possibilities of using collection specimens and alive animals for exploring dorsal head shape variation and its evolutionary and ecological implications in urodeles. J. Morphol. 278:475-485, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A new finding of Salamandra lanzai in the Upper Sangone Valley (NW Italy marks the species' most disjunct population (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae

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    Giulia Tessa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Salamandra lanzai was confirmed for the Upper Sangone Valley (Turin Province, NW Italy, within the Parco Naturale Orsiera Rocciavré. The species attribution was further supported by morphological and genetic (16S analysis and represents the north-eastern most limit of the species’ distribution. This salamander was so far known only for a few major alpine valleys of Italy (Po, Pellice, and Germanasca Valleys, and France (Guil Valley. The new finding is especially interesting since it is separated from its closest known locality by about 15 km. For such a reason this population needs to be carefully managed.

  9. Electrophysiology and anatomy of direction-specific pretectal units in Salamandra salamandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteuffel, G

    1984-01-01

    Pretectal cells of the European fire salamander were recorded extracellularly during binocular and monocular horizontal optokinetic stimulations. The locations of the individual units within the pretectal nucleus were verified with Alcian blue injections. The particular anatomical properties of single cells were demonstrated after single-unit recordings by means of horseradish peroxidase preparations. Direction selective pretectal cells were found to be predominantly (2/3) sensitive to temporo-nasal movements in the visual field of the contralateral eye. They usually possessed large receptive fields centered on the visual equator with restricted diameters in the dorso-ventral axis. Their resting discharge was low, and in some cells no spontaneous discharges were observed. The cells preferred low stimulus velocities, most of them being optimally stimulated with velocities of 1 to 10 deg/s. A group of units was exclusively sensitive to accelerated movements. A subclass of them was transiently responsive when the stimulus stopped. In the anterior and most dorsal part of the pretectal nucleus, binocularly influenced units were found. These cells responded best with binocular optokinetic stimulations and less vigorously or with less pronounced direction selectivity if only the contralateral eye was stimulated. With ipsilateral stimulations alone no response could be elicited. This response type could be explained by inhibitory inputs from the ipsilateral eye via direct ipsilateral projections or crossing pretectal fibers. The responses of these cells are well correlated to behavioral results showing that OKN performance in salamanders, as in some other vertebrates, is different with binocular as compared to monocular stimulations. The direction-sensitive pretectal cells usually possess extensive dendritic arborizations within the ipsilateral pretectal neuropil. Most of the cell bodies were scattered in the white substance or in the superficial layers of the

  10. Salamandras de la Familia Plethodontidas: Hallazgo de los huevos de Bolitoglossa adspersa (Peters

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    Nicéforo María Hermano

    1960-06-01

    Full Text Available La ovoviviparidad en las salamandras del género Bolitoglossa (2 (Oedipus ha sido registrada solamente para las formas que habitanen las montañas de Colombia. Al referirse a «Oedipus adspersus», que fue colectada en las bromelias de las montañas de Santa Marta, Ruthven (3 dice simplemente que ella es una especie vivípara.  Es muy probable que el autor apoya su información sobre la de Peters, quien encontró huevos de 3 mm. en el ovario de la salamandra «Oedipus adspersus» y afirmó que el animal era vivíparo.

  11. An annotated review of the Salamander types described in the Fauna Japonica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    The whereabouts of the salamander types described by Temminck & Schlegel in the Fauna Japonica (1838) are discussed and lectotypes are selected from the syntypes for the following nominal species : Salamandra naevia Temminck & Schlegel, S. unguiculata Temminck & Schlegel, S. subcristata Temminck &

  12. New home, new life: The effect of shifts in the habitat choice of salamander larvae on population performance and their effect on pond invertebrate communities

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, Timm

    2017-01-01

    Changes of habitats are amongst the main drivers of evolutionary processes. Corresponding shifts in the behaviour and life history traits of species might in turn also alter ecosystem attributes. The reproduction of Western European fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra), in small pond habitats instead of first order streams, is one example of a recent local adaptation. Since fire salamander larvae are important top-predators in these fish free habitats, their presence likely changes variou...

  13. Microclimatic variation in multiple Salamandra algira populations along an altitudinal gradient: phenology and reproductive strategies

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    Daniel Escoriza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salamandra algira is one of the southernmost species of the genus, and most of its ecology remains poorly known. We studied the microhabitat conditions of the sites occupied by several populations of S. algira along an altitudinal gradient, and the use of water bodies for reproduction. The microclimate conditions were analysed at six sites in northern Morocco: one site in Beni Snassen massif (S. algira spelaea, two in the Middle Atlas and central Rif mountains (S. algira splendens, and three in the western Rif mountains and Peninsula Tingitana (S. algira tingitana, where a viviparous population also occurs. The microclimate was characterized using temperature and relative humidity data loggers for a period of two years. We also measured the surface area and depth of the water bodies where we found S. algira larvae. Our results showed an autumn-winter reproductive period for all ovoviviparous populations studied. In most of the aquatic habitats examined, larvae appeared between November and March, although this period could extend to May at higher altitudes. Larval abundance and their size variability did not correlate with water body size or microclimate conditions. The decrease in the number of larvae per water body coincided with the existence of suitable conditions for post-metamorphic dispersal. Salamandra algira occurred in regions with moist conditions (annual average relative humidity greater than 64 % and with mean annual temperatures of 13.6-18.6 °C, but populations were largely segregated along a gradient of humidity, with some showing higher and more constant values than others. The viviparous population occurs in a region with maritime influence and greater microclimate stability than the other sites studied.

  14. Dependencia térmica de la salamandra endémica de Colombia Bolitoglossa ramosi (Caudata, Plethodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Erika X. Cruz; Galindo, Carlos A; Manuel H. Bernal

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN La temperatura ambiental es un factor determinante en los procesos fisiológicos y comportamentales de los anfibios ya que son ectotérmos y consecuentemente dependen de una fuente de calor externa para alcanzar su temperatura corporal óptima. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la dependencia térmica de la salamandra endémica de Colombia Bolitoglossa ramosi Brame & Wake, 1972 con respecto a las temperaturas del aire y del sustrato. Para esto se realizaron diferentes muestreos en...

  15. Is the reaction to chemical cues of predators affected by age or experience in fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibanez, A.; Caspers, B.A.; Lopez, P.; Martin, J.; Krause, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    Predation is one of the strongest forces driving natural selection. Predator success reduces future prey fitness to zero. Thus, recognition and avoidance of a potential predator is an essential fitness-relevant skill for prey. Being well equipped in the predator-prey arms race is highly adaptive. In

  16. [Light and electron microscopic studies of the structure and histochemistry of the oviduct epithelial cells (pars recta and pars convoluta I, II, III) in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H

    1980-01-01

    The oviduct of the ovoviviparous Salamandra salamandra is differentiated into five readily distinguishable regions (1. pars recta, 2. p. convoluta I, 3. p. convoluta II, 4. p. convoluta III, 5. p. convoluta IV or uterus) due to the structure of its epithelial cells and the carbohydrate histochemistry of their secretory products. The epithelium of region 1-4 is mono-layered and exhibits ciliated and rather undifferentiated cells which both may contain small amounts of secretory material. Large amounts, however, are present in different gland cells restricted to discrete regions of the oviduct: microgranulocytes occur in the p. convoluta I, II, III, microspongiocytes in the p. convoluta II, III, groups of voluminous spongiocytes and granulocytes which form crypts are found in the p. convoluta I (spongiocytes I), in the p. convoluta II (granulocytes), and in the p. convoluta III (spongiocytes II). The uterine epithelium consists of a uniform cell type described elsewhere. All secretory cells contain neutral mucosubstances (in particular the granulocytes and microgranulocytes) and acid mucosubstances with carboxyl- and sulphate-groups. Sulphate ester groups are common in the mucigen globules of the spongiocytes and the microgranulocytes, whereas carboxylgroups and a demonstrable protein component seem to be predominant in the seromucous granulocytes. The secretory product of the microspongiocytes could not be characterized clearly. The ultrastructural features of the gland cells resemble those of other mucus secreting cells. The Golgi apparatus is the most prominent cell organelle of the spongiocytes and granulocytes. In the latter cells granular endoplasmic reticulum is invariable abundant. The secretory granules of all epithelial cells including the content of the vacuoles of the microspongiocytes as well as substances within the dictyosomes and associated vesicles are stained with the periodic acid--chromic acid--methenamine silver (PACAMS) technique suggesting

  17. Dependencia térmica de la salamandra endémica de Colombia Bolitoglossa ramosi (Caudata, Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika X. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La temperatura ambiental es un factor determinante en los procesos fisiológicos y comportamentales de los anfibios ya que son ectotérmos y consecuentemente dependen de una fuente de calor externa para alcanzar su temperatura corporal óptima. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la dependencia térmica de la salamandra endémica de Colombia Bolitoglossa ramosi Brame & Wake, 1972 con respecto a las temperaturas del aire y del sustrato. Para esto se realizaron diferentes muestreos en el municipio de Líbano, Tolima, Colombia, entre las 18:00 y las 24:00 horas, en Abril y Mayo de 2015. Allí se capturaron 34 individuos a los cuales se les registró directamente en campo: la temperatura corporal, la masa corporal y la longitud corporal. También, se midió la temperatura del sustrato y la temperatura del aire en el lugar donde fue encontrado el animal. La temperatura corporal de los individuos tuvo una media de 18.3±0.55°C, mostrando una relación positiva y significativa con la temperatura del sustrato y la temperatura del aire, lo que demuestra que la especie es termoconformadora. Además, la temperatura corporal mostró una dependencia térmica mayor con la temperatura del sustrato que con la del aire, indicando que B. ramosi presenta una regulación tigmotérmica. Finalmente, la temperatura corporal no se relacionó con la longitud corporal ni con la masa corporal. Esta información es importante para el conocimiento de la biología térmica de la especie y las posibles respuestas fisiológicas ante el incremento de las temperaturas ambientales.

  18. Salamanders on the bench - A biocompatibility study of salamander skin secretions in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Byern, Janek; Mebs, Dietrich; Heiss, Egon; Dicke, Ursula; Wetjen, Oliver; Bakkegard, Kristin; Grunwald, Ingo; Wolbank, Susanne; Mühleder, Severin; Gugerell, Alfred; Fuchs, Heidemarie; Nürnberger, Sylvia

    2017-09-01

    Salamanders have evolved a wide variety of antipredator mechanisms and behavior patterns, including toxins and noxious or adhesive skin secretions. The high bonding strength of the natural bioadhesives makes these substances interesting for biomimetic research and applications in industrial and medical sectors. Secretions of toxic species may help to understand the direct effect of harmful substances on the cellular level. In the present study, the biocompatibility of adhesive secretions from four salamander species (Plethodon shermani, Plethodon glutinosus, Ambystoma maculatum, Ambystoma opacum) were analyzed using the MTT assay in cell culture and evaluated against toxic secretions of Pleurodeles waltl, Triturus carnifex, Pseudotriton ruber, Tylototriton verrucosus, and Salamandra salamandra. Their effect on cells was tested in direct contact (direct culture) or under the influence of the extract (indirect exposure) in accordance with the protocol of the international standard norm ISO 10993-5. Human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF), umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and articular chondrocytes (HAC), as well as the cell lines C2C12 and L929 were used in both culture types. While the adhesive secretions from Plethodon shermani are cytocompatible and those of Ambystoma opacum are even advantageous, those of Plethodon glutinosus and Ambystoma maculatum appear to be cytotoxic to NDHF and HUVEC. Toxic secretions from Salamandra salamandra exhibited harmful effects on all cell types. Pseudotriton ruber and Triturus carnifex secretions affected certain cell types marginally; those from Pleurodeles waltl and Tylototriton verrucosus were generally well tolerated. The study shows for the first time the effect of salamander secretions on the viability of different cell types in culture. Two adhesive secretions appeared to be cell compatible and are therefore promising candidates for future investigations in the field of medical bioadhesives. Among the toxic secretions

  19. Tracing the first step to speciation: ecological and genetic differentiation of a salamander population in a small forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfartz, Sebastian; Weitere, Markus; Tautz, Diethard

    2007-11-01

    Mechanisms and processes of ecologically driven adaptive speciation are best studied in natural situations where the splitting process is still occurring, i.e. before complete reproductive isolation is achieved. Here, we present a case of an early stage of adaptive differentiation under sympatric conditions in the fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, that allows inferring the underlying processes for the split. Larvae of S. salamandra normally mature in small streams until metamorphosis, but in an old, continuous forest area near Bonn (the Kottenforst), we found salamander larvae not only in small streams but also in shallow ponds, which are ecologically very different from small streams. Common-environment experiments with larvae from both habitat types reveal specific adaptations to these different ecological conditions. Mitochondrial and microsatellite analyses show that the two ecologically differentiated groups also show signs of genetic differentiation. A parallel analysis of animals from a neighbouring much larger forest area (the Eifel), in which larvae mature only in streams, shows no signs of genetic differentiation, indicating that gene flow between ecologically similar types can occur over large distances. Hence, geographical factors cannot explain the differential larval habitat adaptations in the Kottenforst, in particular since adult life and mating of S. salamandra is strictly terrestrial and not associated with larval habitats. We propose therefore that the evolution of these adaptations was coupled with the evolution of cues for assortative mating which would be in line with models of sympatric speciation that suggest a co-evolution of habitat adaptations and associated mating signals.

  20. Drivers of salamander extirpation mediated by Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, Gwij; Pasmans, Frank; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Rouffaer, Lieze O; Van Praet, Sarah; Schaub, Michael; Canessa, Stefano; Laudelout, Arnaud; Kinet, Thierry; Adriaensen, Connie; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Bert, Wim; Bossuyt, Franky; Martel, An

    2017-04-19

    The recent arrival of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe was followed by rapid expansion of its geographical distribution and host range, confirming the unprecedented threat that this chytrid fungus poses to western Palaearctic amphibians. Mitigating this hazard requires a thorough understanding of the pathogen's disease ecology that is driving the extinction process. Here, we monitored infection, disease and host population dynamics in a Belgian fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) population for two years immediately after the first signs of infection. We show that arrival of this chytrid is associated with rapid population collapse without any sign of recovery, largely due to lack of increased resistance in the surviving salamanders and a demographic shift that prevents compensation for mortality. The pathogen adopts a dual transmission strategy, with environmentally resistant non-motile spores in addition to the motile spores identified in its sister species B. dendrobatidis. The fungus retains its virulence not only in water and soil, but also in anurans and less susceptible urodelan species that function as infection reservoirs. The combined characteristics of the disease ecology suggest that further expansion of this fungus will behave as a 'perfect storm' that is able to rapidly extirpate highly susceptible salamander populations across Europe.

  1. Ecological implications of metabolic compensation at low temperatures in salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is influencing the biology of the world's biota. Temperature increases are occurring at a faster pace than that experienced by organisms in their evolutionary histories, limiting the organisms' response to new conditions. Mechanistic models that include physiological traits can help predict species' responses to warming. Changes in metabolism at high temperatures are often examined; yet many species are behaviorally shielded from high temperatures. Salamanders generally favor cold temperatures and are one of few groups of metazoans to be most species-rich in temperate regions. I examined variation in body temperature, behavioral activity, and temperature dependence of resting heart rate, used as a proxy for standard metabolic rate, in fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra). Over 26 years, I found that salamanders are behaviorally active at temperatures as low as 1 °C, and aestivate at temperatures above 16 °C. Infrared thermography indicates limited thermoregulation opportunities for these nocturnal amphibians. Temperature affects resting heart rate, causing metabolic depression above 11 °C, and metabolic compensation below 8 °C: heart rate at 3 °C is 224% the expected heart rate. Thus, salamanders operating at low temperatures during periods of peak behavioral activity are able to maintain a higher metabolic rate than the rate expected in absence of compensation. This compensatory mechanism has important ecological implications, because it increases estimated seasonal heart rates. Increased heart rate, and thus metabolism, will require higher caloric intake for field-active salamanders. Thus, it is important to consider a species performance breadth over the entire temperature range, and particularly low temperatures that are ecologically relevant for cold tolerant species such as salamanders.

  2. Ecological implications of metabolic compensation at low temperatures in salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is influencing the biology of the world’s biota. Temperature increases are occurring at a faster pace than that experienced by organisms in their evolutionary histories, limiting the organisms’ response to new conditions. Mechanistic models that include physiological traits can help predict species’ responses to warming. Changes in metabolism at high temperatures are often examined; yet many species are behaviorally shielded from high temperatures. Salamanders generally favor cold temperatures and are one of few groups of metazoans to be most species-rich in temperate regions. I examined variation in body temperature, behavioral activity, and temperature dependence of resting heart rate, used as a proxy for standard metabolic rate, in fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra. Over 26 years, I found that salamanders are behaviorally active at temperatures as low as 1 °C, and aestivate at temperatures above 16 °C. Infrared thermography indicates limited thermoregulation opportunities for these nocturnal amphibians. Temperature affects resting heart rate, causing metabolic depression above 11 °C, and metabolic compensation below 8 °C: heart rate at 3 °C is 224% the expected heart rate. Thus, salamanders operating at low temperatures during periods of peak behavioral activity are able to maintain a higher metabolic rate than the rate expected in absence of compensation. This compensatory mechanism has important ecological implications, because it increases estimated seasonal heart rates. Increased heart rate, and thus metabolism, will require higher caloric intake for field-active salamanders. Thus, it is important to consider a species performance breadth over the entire temperature range, and particularly low temperatures that are ecologically relevant for cold tolerant species such as salamanders.

  3. Ghelen, Darwin e la salamandra

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    Vallori Rasini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available GEHLEN, DARWIN AND THE SALAMANDER   Arnold Gehlen creates a theory of man as “lacking being” that leads to a theory of a “superior being”. Man is radically different from animal, and Gehlen uses the biological idea of human neoteny to refuse the Darwinian theory of human evolution. However his arguments are preconceived and ineffectual.

  4. Successful treatment of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans infections in salamanders requires synergy between voriconazole, polymyxin E and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blooi, M; Pasmans, F; Rouffaer, L; Haesebrouck, F; Vercammen, F; Martel, A

    2015-06-30

    Chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) poses a serious threat to urodelan diversity worldwide. Antimycotic treatment of this disease using protocols developed for the related fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), results in therapeutic failure. Here, we reveal that this therapeutic failure is partly due to different minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimycotics against Bsal and Bd. In vitro growth inhibition of Bsal occurs after exposure to voriconazole, polymyxin E, itraconazole and terbinafine but not to florfenicol. Synergistic effects between polymyxin E and voriconazole or itraconazole significantly decreased the combined MICs necessary to inhibit Bsal growth. Topical treatment of infected fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra), with voriconazole or itraconazole alone (12.5 μg/ml and 0.6 μg/ml respectively) or in combination with polymyxin E (2000 IU/ml) at an ambient temperature of 15 °C during 10 days decreased fungal loads but did not clear Bsal infections. However, topical treatment of Bsal infected animals with a combination of polymyxin E (2000 IU/ml) and voriconazole (12.5 μg/ml) at an ambient temperature of 20 °C resulted in clearance of Bsal infections. This treatment protocol was validated in 12 fire salamanders infected with Bsal during a field outbreak and resulted in clearance of infection in all animals.

  5. Caracterización de la población y del hábitat de la salamandra endémica (Bolitoglossa mombachoensis en la Reserva Natural Volcán Mombacho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Ramón Salgado Aráuz

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available LA RESERVA NATURAL VOLCÁN MOMBACHO ALBERGA A UNA GRAN DIVERSIDAD de especies silvestres en su bosque nuboso (Nebliselva, debido a sus pisos o gradientes altitudinales. En él se encuentra una especie de salamandra endémica, objeto de este estudio. Para el muestreo, se utilizó el método de transectos (tres de un m ancho por 100m de largo. Además, se seleccionaron cuatro microhábitat, asociadados a vegetación, tomados como unidades naturales de muestreo a través de cuadrantes de 10x10m. Los resultados arrojaron una población de 703 individuos asociados a vegetación y de preferencia por la especie: Heliconia latispatha, Dieffenbachia sp., Hedichium coronarium, Vriesea pedicellata y Clusia rotundata. Se encontró la mayor actividad de la especie entre 8:00 PM a 10:00 PM, a una temperatura entre 16º a 18º, de 20º a 21º y de 22º a 23º, con una humedad relativa de 61% a 95%. La mayor parte de los individuos (690 se encontraron de 0.20 a 0.99 cm de altura del sotobosque al estrato de vegetación. Por lo tanto, se han encontrado nuevos datos de la ecología de la especie para el área y para la ciencia.

  6. Status of some populations of Mexican salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Parra-Olea

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Mexican plethodontid salamanders have been surveyed non-systematically over the last 25 years. In light of many reports of disappearance of amphibians around the world, we checked for persistence of reported species at ten of these sites. All of the commoner species persist (we observed individuals representing a total of 30 species. While observed densities of many species of Mexican plethodontids are lower to much lower than was the case 20 to 25 years ago, evidence for recent extinctions, such as has been reported for amphibian taxa elsewhere, is equivocal or lacking. Habitat modification has contributed to difficulties in finding certain species.Poblaciones de varias especies de salamandras pletodóntidas en México han sido monitoreadas de manera no sistemática durante los últimos 25 años. Diez de éstas poblaciones fueran visitadas recientemente con el propósito de verificar la persistencia de las especies reportadas para dichas localidades. Nuestras observaciones confirman la persistencia local de más de 30 especies cuyo estatus era desconocido, aunque la frecuencia de observación de estas especies es en general menor que en fechas anteriores. Estas observaciones son particularmente relevantes dada la situación actual de preocupación por la disminución mundial de anfibios.

  7. Hybridization during altitudinal range shifts: nuclear introgression leads to extensive cyto-nuclear discordance in the fire salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; Buckley, David

    2016-04-01

    Ecological models predict that, in the face of climate change, taxa occupying steep altitudinal gradients will shift their distributions, leading to the contraction or extinction of the high-elevation (cold-adapted) taxa. However, hybridization between ecomorphologically divergent taxa commonly occurs in nature and may lead to alternative evolutionary outcomes, such as genetic merger or gene flow at specific genes. We evaluate this hypothesis by studying patterns of divergence and gene flow across three replicate contact zones between high- and low-elevation ecomorphs of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) that have experienced altitudinal range shifts over the current postglacial period. Strong population structure with high genetic divergence in mitochondrial DNA suggests that vicariant evolution has occurred over several glacial-interglacial cycles and that it has led to cryptic differentiation within ecomorphs. In current parapatric boundaries, we do not find evidence for local extinction and replacement upon postglacial expansion. Instead, parapatric taxa recurrently show discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear markers, suggesting nuclear-mediated gene flow across contact zones. Isolation with migration models support this hypothesis by showing significant gene flow across all five parapatric boundaries. Together, our results suggest that, while some genomic regions, such as the mitochondria, may follow morphologic species traits and retreat to isolated mountain tops, other genomic regions, such as nuclear markers, may flow across parapatric boundaries, sometimes leading to a complete genetic merger. We show that despite high ecologic and morphologic divergence over prolonged periods of time, hybridization allows for evolutionary outcomes alternative to extinction and replacement of taxa in response to climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Treatment of urodelans based on temperature dependent infection dynamics of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans

    OpenAIRE

    Blooi, Mark; Martel, An; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Vercammen, Francis; Bonte, Dries; Pasmans, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans currently causes amphibian population declines. We hypothesized that temperature dictates infection dynamics of B. salamandrivorans, and that therefore heat treatment may be applied to clear animals from infection. We examined the impact of environmental temperature on B. salamandrivorans infection and disease dynamics in fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra). Colonization of salamanders by B. salamandrivorans occurred a...

  9. Controlador de caldeiras e salamandras domésticas

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, João Ricardo Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    Os pellets são uma fonte de energia renovável proveniente da compactação de desperdícios da madeira. Ocupam menos espaço do que a lenha, produzem menos cinzas, são mais fáceis de transportar e podem ser utilizados em sistemas com funcionamento automático, proporcionando maior conforto aos seus utilizadores. Por terem origem na biomassa, são considerados neutros em termos ambientais e o seu preço não depende diretamente das oscilações do preço do petróleo. Estas características fazem dos pelle...

  10. Comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the cloacae of salamanders (Amphibia: Caudata). IV. Salamandridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, D M

    1992-06-01

    Cloacae were examined from male and female salamanders representing 12 genera and 22 species in the Salamandridae. All female salamandrids possess numerous sperm storage glands, spermathecae, in the roof of the cloaca, but intergeneric variation exists in the occurrence of additional cloacal glands. Pleurodeles and Tylototriton possess both vent and anterior ventral glands, and secondary loss has occurred of vent glands in all other genera and anterior ventral glands in Chioglossa, Cynops, Paramesotriton, and Triturus The most highly derived cloaca occurs in Euproctus asper, in which the cloacal tube extends through a conical projection, and ventral glands secrete onto the dorsolateral surface of the projection rather than into the cloaca. Marked intergeneric variation occurs in males in conformation of the cloacal cavities and in extent of the dorsal gland. In Cynops, Euproctus, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton, Taricha, and Triturus, the pseudopenis (a broad, posteriorly projecting evagination of the dorsal roof) fills much of the cavity of the anterior cloacal chamber. In most salamandrids, distal ends of the dorsal glands occur lateral to pelvic glands in the anterior end of the cloaca, and dorsal gland tubules descend to secretory sites at the posterior end of the vent. Salamandra and Mertensiella possess a unique, bifurcated dorsal gland in which distal ends of tubules lie dorsal to the other cloacal glands, and proximal ends curve ventrally in the anterior end of the cloaca to secretory sites along the cloacal orifice. Cladistic analyses indicate that the variation in presence of anterior ventral glands is due to homoplasy. The occurrence of female vent glands, bifurcated dorsal glands, and the pseudopenis supports a phylogeny based upon non-cloacal characters.

  11. Pathogenic Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, but Not B. salamandrivorans, Detected on Eastern Hellbenders

    OpenAIRE

    Bales, Emma K.; Oliver J Hyman; Loudon, Andrew H; Reid N. Harris; Gregory Lipps; Eric Chapman; Kenneth Roblee; John D Kleopfer; Terrell, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent worldwide declines and extinctions of amphibian populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Until recently, Bd was thought to be the only Batrachochytrium species that infects amphibians; however a newly described species, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bs), is linked to die-offs in European fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra). Little is known about the distribution, host range, or origin ...

  12. Treatment of urodelans based on temperature dependent infection dynamics of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blooi, M; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F; Vercammen, F; Bonte, D; Pasmans, F

    2015-01-27

    The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans currently causes amphibian population declines. We hypothesized that temperature dictates infection dynamics of B. salamandrivorans, and that therefore heat treatment may be applied to clear animals from infection. We examined the impact of environmental temperature on B. salamandrivorans infection and disease dynamics in fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra). Colonization of salamanders by B. salamandrivorans occurred at 15°C and 20°C but not at 25°C, with a significantly faster buildup of infection load and associated earlier mortality at 15°C. Exposing B. salamandrivorans infected salamanders to 25°C for 10 days resulted in complete clearance of infection and clinically cured all experimentally infected animals. This treatment protocol was validated in naturally infected wild fire salamanders. In conclusion, we show that B. salamandrivorans infection and disease dynamics are significantly dictated by environmental temperature, and that heat treatment is a viable option for clearing B. salamandrivorans infections.

  13. Like Salamanders in a Flame: The Fandango and Foreign Travellers to Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Charnon-Deutsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La apreciación que los viajeros europeos por el fandango evolucionó desde principios del siglo dieciocho hasta finales del diecinueve. Hacia la segunda mitad del dieciocho, y especialmente durante el diecinueve, los viajeros se entusiasmaron por el baile que con frecuencia comparaban con los bailes que se ejecutaban en Cádiz durante el Imperio Romano. A finales del siglo diecinueve los viajeros franceses se enamoraron especialmente de la sensualidad de las bailaoras, cuyos movimientos describieron con gran detalle para sus lectores. Gradualmente, otros viajeros, en búsqueda de espectáculos más apasionados, comenzaron a preferir bailes como el Olé y el Vito. En 1889, España presentó a un grupo de bailaoras a la Exposición Universal en París. El escritor Catulle Mendès, entusiasmado por la apasionada y exótica exhibición, describió sus movimientos como salamandras en el fuego, haciendo eco de viejos estereotipos que a lo largo del tiempo los viajeros europeos asociaban especialmente con las mujeres gitanas.

  14. Rana iberica (Boulenger, 1879 goes underground: subterranean habitat usage and new insights on natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reports of amphibians exploiting subterranean habitats are common, with salamanders being the most frequent and studied inhabitants. Anurans can occasionally be observed in caves and other subterranean habitats, but in contrast to salamanders, breeding had never been reported in a cave or similar subterranean habitat in Western Europe. Based on observations during visits to a drainage gallery in Serra da Estrela, Portugal, from May 2010 to December 2012, here we document: (i first report of Rana iberica reproduction in cave-like habitat, representing the fourth report of an anuran for the Palearctic ecozone; (ii oophagic habits of the tadpoles of R. iberica; and (iii Salamandra salamandra predation on R. iberica larvae. These observations, particularly of R. iberica, highlight our lack of knowledge of subterranean ecosystems in the Iberian Peninsula.

  15. Early action to address an emerging wildlife disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Harris, M. Camille; Grear, Daniel A.

    2017-02-23

    A deadly fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) that affects amphibian skin was discovered during a die-off of European fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) in 2014. This pathogen has the potential to worsen already severe worldwide amphibian declines. Bsal is a close relative to another fungal disease known as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Many scientists consider Bd to be the greatest threat to amphibian biodiversity of any disease because it affects a large number of species and has the unusual ability to drive species and populations to extinction.Although not yet detected in the United States, the emergence of Bsal could threaten the salamander population, which is the most diverse in the world. The spread of Bsal likely will lead to more State and federally listed threatened or endangered amphibian species, and associated economic effects.Because of the concern expressed by resource management agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made Bsal and similar pathogens a priority for research.

  16. Intercohort size structure dynamics of fire salamander larvae in ephemeral habitats: a mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Asaf; Polevikov, Antonina; Mangel, Marc; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-10-01

    The size structure of a larval population facilitates interaction asymmetries that, in turn, influence the dynamics of size-structure. In species that exhibit conspicuous aggressive interactions, the competitive effects of the smaller individuals may be overlooked. We manipulated initial size differences between two larval cohorts and young-cohort density of Salamandra infraimmaculata in mesocosms to determine: (1) whether young individuals function primarily as prey or as competitors of older and larger individuals; (2) the resulting dynamics of size variation; and (3) recruitment to the postmetamorph population. Intercohort size differences generally remained constant over time at low young-cohort densities, but reduced over time at high densities due to retardation of the old-cohort growth rate. This suggests a competitive advantage to the young cohort that outweighs the interference advantage of older cohorts previously documented in this species. The increase in mortality from desiccation due to high young-cohort density was an order of magnitude greater in the old cohort than in the young-cohort, further indicating size-dependent vulnerability to competition. However, the conditions least favorable to most of the old-cohort larvae (large size difference and high young-cohort density) promoted cannibalism. Among cannibals, mortality and time to metamorphosis decreased and sizes at metamorphosis increased substantially. Thus, a balance between the competitive advantage to young cohorts, and the interference and cannibalism advantage to old cohorts shapes larval size-structure dynamics. Larval densities and individual expression of cannibalism can shift this balance in opposite directions and alter relative recruitment rates from different cohorts.

  17. Shifty salamanders: transient trophic polymorphism and cannibalism within natural populations of larval ambystomatid salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Dale M; Ferrari, Maud Co; Mathis, Alicia; Hobson, Keith A; Britzke, Eric R; Crane, Adam L; Blaustein, Andrew R; Chivers, Douglas P

    2014-01-01

    Many species of ambystomatid salamanders are dependent upon highly variable temporary wetlands for larval development. High larval densities may prompt the expression of a distinct head morphology that may facilitate cannibalism. However, few studies have characterized structural cannibalism within natural populations of larval salamanders. In this study we used two species of larval salamanders, long-toed (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and ringed salamanders (A. annulatum). Head morphometrics and stable isotopic values of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) were used to identify the presence or absence of structural cannibalism. Weather conditions were also analyzed as a potential factor associated with the expression of cannibalistic morphology. Populations of salamander larvae did not consistently exhibit cannibalistic morphologies throughout collection periods. Larval long-toed salamanders exhibited trophic polymorphisms when relatively lower precipitation amounts were observed. Larval ringed salamanders were observed to be cannibalistic but did not exhibit polymorphisms in this study. Structural cannibalism may be transient in both species; however in long-toed salamanders this morphology is necessary for cannibalism. Ringed salamanders can be cannibalistic without morphological adaptations; however the cannibal morph may prolong the viable time period for cannibalism. Additionally, weather conditions may alter pond hydroperiod, subsequently influencing head morphology and cannibalism.

  18. Cheat Mountain Salamander Survey Summary for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal for this project is to establish baseline information on populations of the Cheat Mountain salamander on the refuge. In the future, an additional...

  19. Testing the efficacy of downscaling in species distribution modelling: a comparison between MaxEnt and Favourability Function models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero, J.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Real, R.

    2016-07-01

    Statistical downscaling is used to improve the knowledge of spatial distributions from broad–scale to fine–scale maps with higher potential for conservation planning. We assessed the effectiveness of downscaling in two commonly used species distribution models: Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) and the Favourability Function (FF). We used atlas data (10 x 10 km) of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra distribution in southern Spain to derive models at a 1 x 1 km resolution. Downscaled models were assessed using an independent dataset of the species’ distribution at 1 x 1 km. The Favourability model showed better downscaling performance than the MaxEnt model, and the models that were based on linear combinations of environmental variables performed better than models allowing higher flexibility. The Favourability model minimized model overfitting compared to the MaxEnt model. (Author)

  20. Testing the efficacy of downscaling in species distribution modelling: a comparison between MaxEnt and Favourability Function models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivero, J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Statistical downscaling is used to improve the knowledge of spatial distributions from broad–scale to fine–scale maps with higher potential for conservation planning. We assessed the effectiveness of downscaling in two commonly used species distribution models: Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt and the Favourability Function (FF. We used atlas data (10 x 10 km of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra distribution in southern Spain to derive models at a 1 x 1 km resolution. Downscaled models were assessed using an independent dataset of the species’ distribution at 1 x 1 km. The Favourability model showed better downscaling performance than the MaxEnt model, and the models that were based on linear combinations of environmental variables performed better than models allowing higher flexibility. The Favourability model minimized model overfitting compared to the MaxEnt model.

  1. Conservation assessment for the Siskiyou Mountains salamander and Scott Bar salamander in northern California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W. S.; LaGory, K. E.; Adduci, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-10-20

    The purpose of this conservation assessment is to summarize existing knowledge regarding the biology and ecology of the Siskiyou Mountains salamander and Scott Bar salamander, identify threats to the two species, and identify conservation considerations to aid federal management for persistence of the species. The conservation assessment will serve as the basis for a conservation strategy for the species.

  2. CMS Survey / Bald Knob for Cheat Mountain Salamanders 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several survey reports and summary dated: 1.) Bald Knob was surveyed on 05 June 2002 for Cheat Mountain Salamanders. No Cheat Mountain Salamanders (CMS) were...

  3. Evolution of coprophagy and nutrient absorption in a Cave Salamander

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daphne Soares; Rachel Adams; Shea Hammond; Michael E. Slay; Danté B. Fenolio; Matthew L. Niemiller

    2017-01-01

    .... One strategy against starvation is to expand diet breadth. Grotto Salamanders (Eurycea spelaea (Stejneger, 1892)) are known to ingest bat guano deliberately, challenging the general understanding that salamanders are strictly carnivorous...

  4. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Ziemba

    Full Text Available Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp. are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding. We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance

  5. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Julie L; Hickerson, Cari-Ann M; Anthony, Carl D

    2016-01-01

    Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp.) are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding). We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance following Asian

  6. Evolution of gigantism in amphiumid salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Bonett

    Full Text Available The Amphiumidae contains three species of elongate, permanently aquatic salamanders with four diminutive limbs that append one, two, or three toes. Two of the species, Amphiuma means and A. tridactylum, are among the largest salamanders in the world, reaching lengths of more than one meter, whereas the third species (A. pholeter, extinct amphiumids, and closely related salamander families are relatively small. Amphiuma means and A. tridactylum are widespread species and live in a wide range of lowland aquatic habitats on the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States, whereas A. pholeter is restricted to very specialized organic muck habitats and is syntopic with A. means. Here we present analyses of sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear loci from across the distribution of the three taxa to assess lineage diversity, relationships, and relative timing of divergence in amphiumid salamanders. In addition we analyze the evolution of gigantism in the clade. Our analyses indicate three lineages that have diverged since the late Miocene, that correspond to the three currently recognized species, but the two gigantic species are not each other's closest relatives. Given that the most closely related salamander families and fossil amphiumids from the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene are relatively small, our results suggest at least two extreme changes in body size within the Amphuimidae. Gigantic body size either evolved once as the ancestral condition of modern amphiumas, with a subsequent strong size reduction in A. pholeter, or gigantism independently evolved twice in the modern species, A. means and A. tridactylum. These patterns are concordant with differences in habitat breadth and range size among lineages, and have implications for reproductive isolation and diversification of amphiumid salamanders.

  7. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years. Long

  8. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov. causes lethal chytridiomycosis in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, An; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Blooi, Mark; Bert, Wim; Ducatelle, Richard; Fisher, Matthew C; Woeltjes, Antonius; Bosman, Wilbert; Chiers, Koen; Bossuyt, Franky; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-09-17

    The current biodiversity crisis encompasses a sixth mass extinction event affecting the entire class of amphibians. The infectious disease chytridiomycosis is considered one of the major drivers of global amphibian population decline and extinction and is thought to be caused by a single species of aquatic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. However, several amphibian population declines remain unexplained, among them a steep decrease in fire salamander populations (Salamandra salamandra) that has brought this species to the edge of local extinction. Here we isolated and characterized a unique chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov., from this salamander population. This chytrid causes erosive skin disease and rapid mortality in experimentally infected fire salamanders and was present in skin lesions of salamanders found dead during the decline event. Together with the closely related B. dendrobatidis, this taxon forms a well-supported chytridiomycete clade, adapted to vertebrate hosts and highly pathogenic to amphibians. However, the lower thermal growth preference of B. salamandrivorans, compared with B. dendrobatidis, and resistance of midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) to experimental infection with B. salamandrivorans suggest differential niche occupation of the two chytrid fungi.

  9. Diversification and biogeographical history of Neotropical plethodontid salamanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rovito, Sean M; Parra‐Olea, Gabriela; Recuero, Ernesto; Wake, David B

    2015-01-01

    ...% of global salamander species diversity. Despite decades of morphological studies and molecular work, a robust multilocus phylogenetic hypothesis based on DNA sequence data is lacking for the group...

  10. Stream salamanders as indicators of stream quality in Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, M.T.; Jung, R.E.; Baxter, D.P.; Chellman, I.C.; Mercurio, G.; Volstad, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Biological indicators are critical to the protection of small, headwater streams and the ecological values they provide. Maryland and other state monitoring programs have determined that fish indicators are ineffective in small streams, where stream salamanders may replace fish as top predators. Because of their life history, physiology, abundance, and ubiquity, stream salamanders are likely representative of biological integrity in these streams. The goal of this study was to determine whether stream salamanders are effective indicators of ecological conditions across biogeographic regions and gradients of human disturbance. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, we intensively surveyed for stream salamanders at 76 stream sites located west of the Maryland Coastal Plain, sites also monitored by the Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) and City of Gaithersburg. We found 1,584 stream salamanders, including all eight species known in Maryland, using two 15 ? 2 m transects and two 4 m2 quadrats that spanned both stream bank and channel. We performed removal sampling on transects to estimate salamander species detection probabilities, which ranged from 0.67-0.85. Stepwise regressions identified 15 of 52 non-salamander variables, representing water quality, physical habitat, land use, and biological conditions, which best predicted salamander metrics. Indicator development involved (1) identifying reference (non-degraded) and degraded sites (using percent forest, shading, riparian buffer width, aesthetic rating, and benthic macroinvertebrate and fish indices of biotic integrity); (2) testing 12 candidate salamander metrics (representing species richness and composition, abundance, species tolerance, and reproductive function) for their ability to distinguish reference from degraded sites; and (3) combining metrics into an index that effectively discriminated sites according to known stream conditions. Final indices for Highlands, Piedmont, and Non-Coastal Plain

  11. Reproductive biology of Ambystoma salamanders in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Hefner, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive aspects of Ambystoma salamanders were investigated at sites in Louisiana (2010–12) and Mississippi (2013). Three species occurred at the Louisiana site, Spotted Salamander (A. maculatum), Marbled Salamander (A. opacum), and Mole Salamander (A. talpoideum), whereas only Spotted Salamanders were studied at the Mississippi site. A total of 162 and 71 egg masses of Spotted Salamanders were examined at the Louisiana and Mississippi sites, respectively. Significantly more Spotted Salamander eggs per egg mass were observed at the Mississippi site (x̄ = 78.2) than the Louisiana site (x̄ = 53.8; P < 0.001). The mean snout–vent length of female Spotted Salamanders at the Mississippi site (82.9 mm) was significantly larger than the Louisiana site (76.1 mm; P < 0.001). Opaque Spotted Salamander egg masses were not found at the Mississippi site, but accounted for 11% of examined egg masses at the Louisiana site. The mean number of eggs per egg mass at the Louisiana site did not differ between opaque (47.3) and clear (54.6) egg masses (P = 0.21). A total of 47 egg masses of the Mole Salamander were examined, with a mean number of 6.7 embryos per mass. Twenty-three individual nests of the Marbled Salamander were found either under or in decaying logs in the dry pond basins. There was no difference between the mean numbers of eggs per mass of attended nests (93.0) versus those that were discovered unattended (86.6; P = 0.67). Females tended to place their nests at intermediate heights within the pond basin.

  12. Bromeliad Selection by Two Salamander Species in a Harsh Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Fajardo, Gustavo; Rovito, Sean M.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Bromeliad phytotelmata are frequently used by several Neotropical amphibian taxa, possibly due to their high humidity, microclimatic stability, and role as a refuge from predators. Indeed, the ability of phytotelmata to buffer against adverse environmental conditions may be instrumental in allowing some amphibian species to survive during periods of environmental change or to colonize sub-optimal habitats. Association between bromeliad traits and salamanders has not been studied at a fine scale, despite the intimate association of many salamander species with bromeliads. Here, we identify microhabitat characteristics of epiphytic bromeliads used by two species of the Bolitoglossa morio group (B. morio and B. pacaya) in forest disturbed by volcanic activity in Guatemala. Specifically, we measured multiple variables for bromeliads (height and position in tree, phytotelma water temperature and pH, canopy cover, phytotelma size, leaf size, and tree diameter at breast height), as well as salamander size. We employed a DNA barcoding approach to identify salamanders. We found that B. morio and B. pacaya occurred in microsympatry in bromeliads and that phytotelmata size and temperature of bromeliad microhabitat were the most important factors associated with the presence of salamanders. Moreover, phytotelmata with higher pH contained larger salamanders, suggesting that larger salamanders or aggregated individuals might modify pH. These results show that bromeliad selection is nonrandom with respect to microhabitat characteristics, and provide insight into the relationship between salamanders and this unique arboreal environment. PMID:24892414

  13. Bromeliad selection by two salamander species in a harsh environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ruano-Fajardo

    Full Text Available Bromeliad phytotelmata are frequently used by several Neotropical amphibian taxa, possibly due to their high humidity, microclimatic stability, and role as a refuge from predators. Indeed, the ability of phytotelmata to buffer against adverse environmental conditions may be instrumental in allowing some amphibian species to survive during periods of environmental change or to colonize sub-optimal habitats. Association between bromeliad traits and salamanders has not been studied at a fine scale, despite the intimate association of many salamander species with bromeliads. Here, we identify microhabitat characteristics of epiphytic bromeliads used by two species of the Bolitoglossa morio group (B. morio and B. pacaya in forest disturbed by volcanic activity in Guatemala. Specifically, we measured multiple variables for bromeliads (height and position in tree, phytotelma water temperature and pH, canopy cover, phytotelma size, leaf size, and tree diameter at breast height, as well as salamander size. We employed a DNA barcoding approach to identify salamanders. We found that B. morio and B. pacaya occurred in microsympatry in bromeliads and that phytotelmata size and temperature of bromeliad microhabitat were the most important factors associated with the presence of salamanders. Moreover, phytotelmata with higher pH contained larger salamanders, suggesting that larger salamanders or aggregated individuals might modify pH. These results show that bromeliad selection is nonrandom with respect to microhabitat characteristics, and provide insight into the relationship between salamanders and this unique arboreal environment.

  14. Plethodontid salamander response to Silvilcultural Practices in Missouri Ozark forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. Herbeck; David R. Larsen

    1999-01-01

    There is little information on the effects of tree harvest on salamander populations in the midwestern United States. We present data on plethodontid salamander densities in replicated stands of three forest age classes in the southeastern Ozarks of Missouri. Forest age classes consisted of regeneration-cut sites

  15. The Potential Linkage between Emergency Medical Services Systems and Health Systems Agencies to Civil Defense Related Health and Medical Care Plans and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Attendees Madge R. Swann HRA 436-7234 Bob Handy HRA 436-7240 Dick Salamandra HSA-EMS 436-6295 Jonetta Darden PHS 443-1167 Gordon Johnson PHS/FDA/BRH 443...Francsico area. He said all Federal agencies have been working under General Woodward’s leadership to develop a plan. Mr. Salamandra asked Ms. Darden how...Anderson then introduced Dick Salamandra whose topic was Overview of Emergency Medical Services Systems. Mr. Salamandra said the intent of the EMS Act of

  16. Northwestern salamanders Ambystoma gracile in mountain lakes: record oviposition depths among salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R.; Pearl, C.A.; Larson, G.L.; Samora, B.

    2012-01-01

    Oviposition timing, behaviors, and microhabitats of ambystomatid salamanders vary considerably (Egan and Paton 2004; Figiel and Semlitsch 1995; Howard and Wallace 1985; Mac-Cracken 2007). Regardless of species, however, females typically oviposit using sites conducive to embryo development and survival. For example, the results of an experiment by Figiel and Semlitsch (1995) on Ambystoma opacum (Marbled Salamander) oviposition indicated that females actively selected sites that were under grass clumps in wet versus dry treatments, and surmised that environmental conditions such as humidity, moisture, and temperature contributed to their results. Other factors associated with ambystomatid oviposition and embryo survival include water temperature (Anderson 1972; Brown 1976), dissolved oxygen concentration (Petranka et al. 1982; Sacerdote and King 2009), oviposition depth (Dougherty et al. 2005; Egan and Paton 2004), and oviposition attachment structures such as woody vegetation (McCracken 2007; Nussbaum et al. 1983). Resetarits (1996), in creating a model of oviposition site selection for anuran amphibians, hypothesized that oviparous organisms were also capable of modifying oviposition behavior and site selection to accommodate varying habitat conditions and to minimize potential negative effects of environmental stressors. Kats and Sih (1992), investigating the oviposition of Ambystoma barbouri (Streamside Salamander) in pools of a Kentucky stream, found that females preferred pools without predatory Lepomis cyanellus (Green Sunfish), and that the number of egg masses present in a pool historically containing fish increased significantly the year after fish had been extirpated from the pool. Palen et al. (2005) determined that Ambystoma gracile (Northwestern Salamander) and Ambystoma macrodactylum (Longtoed Salamander) eggs were deposited either at increased depth or in full shaded habitats, respectively, as water transperancy to UV-B radiation increased.

  17. Ecological separation in a polymorphic terrestrial salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Carl D; Venesky, Matthew D; Hickerson, Cari-Ann M

    2008-07-01

    1. When studying speciation, researchers commonly examine reproductive isolation in recently diverged populations. Polymorphic species provide an opportunity to examine the role of reproductive isolation in populations that may be in the process of divergence. 2. We examined a polymorphic population of Plethodon cinereus (red-backed salamanders) for evidence of sympatric ecological separation by colour morphology. Recent studies have correlated temperature and climate with colour morphology in this species, but no studies have looked at differences in diet or mate choice between colour morphs. We used artificial cover objects to assess salamander diet, mating preference and surface activity over a 2-year period at a field site in north-eastern Ohio. 3. We detected differences in diet between two colour morphs, striped and unstriped. The diets of striped individuals were significantly more diverse and were made up of more profitable prey than the diets of unstriped salamanders. 4. Opposite sex pairs were made up of individuals of the same colour morph and striped males were found more often with larger females than were unstriped males. 5. We corroborate findings of earlier studies suggesting that the unstriped form is adapted to warmer conditions. Unstriped individuals were the first to withdraw from the forest floor as temperatures fell in the late fall. We found no evidence that the colour morphs responded differently to abiotic factors such as soil moisture and relative humidity, and responses to surface temperatures were also equivocal. 6. We conclude that the two colour morphs exhibit some degree of ecological separation and tend to mate assortatively, but are unlikely to be undergoing divergence given the observed frequency of intermorph pairings.

  18. Effects of red-backed salamanders on ecosystem functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Hocking

    Full Text Available Ecosystems provide a vast array of services for human societies, but understanding how various organisms contribute to the functions that maintain these services remains an important ecological challenge. Predators can affect ecosystem functions through a combination of top-down trophic cascades and bottom-up effects on nutrient dynamics. As the most abundant vertebrate predator in many eastern US forests, woodland salamanders (Plethodon spp. likely affect ecosystems functions. We examined the effects of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus on a variety of forest ecosystem functions using a combined approach of large-scale salamander removals (314-m(2 plots and small-scale enclosures (2 m(2 where we explicitly manipulated salamander density (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 m(-2. In these experiments, we measured the rates of litter and wood decomposition, potential nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, acorn germination, and foliar insect damage on red oak seedlings. Across both experimental venues, we found no significant effect of red-backed salamanders on any of the ecosystem functions. We also found no effect of salamanders on intraguild predator abundance (carabid beetles, centipedes, spiders. Our study adds to the already conflicting evidence on effects of red-backed salamander and other amphibians on terrestrial ecosystem functions. It appears likely that the impact of terrestrial amphibians on ecosystem functions is context dependent. Future research would benefit from explicitly examining terrestrial amphibian effects on ecosystem functions under a variety of environmental conditions and in different forest types.

  19. Paedomorphosis and simplification in the nervous system of salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, G; Nishikawa, K C; Naujoks-Manteuffel, C; Schmidt, A; Wake, D B

    1993-01-01

    Comparative neuroanatomists since Herrick [1914] have been aware of the paradox that the brain of amphibians, especially salamanders, is less complex than one would expect based on their phylogenetic position among the Tetrapoda. Many features of the brain are less differentiated in salamanders than in tetrapod outgroups, including chondrichthyans and bony fishes, and for some brain characters, the salamander brain is even more simple than that of the agnathans. Here, we perform a cladistic analysis on 23 characters of four sensory systems (visual, auditory, lateral line and olfactory) and the brain. Our taxa include myxinoids, lampreys, chondrichthyans, actinopterygians, Latimeria, Neoceratodus and the lepidosirenid lungfishes, amniotes, frogs, caecilians, salamanders and bolitoglossine salamanders. Of the 23 characters we examined, 19 are most parsimoniously interpreted as secondarily simplified in salamanders from a more complex ancestral state, two characters are equally parsimonious under both hypotheses, one character (well developed ipsilateral retinotectal projections) is more complex in bolitoglossine salamanders than in vertebrates generally, and only one character (migration of neurons in the medial pallium) is most parsimoniously interpreted as retention of the plesiomorphically simple condition. Secondary simplification of the salamander brain appears to result from paedomorphosis, or retention of juvenile or embryonic morphology into adulthood. Paedomorphosis is correlated with an increase in genome size, which in turn is positively correlated with cell size, but negatively correlated with cell proliferation and differentiation rates. Available data suggest that, although increasing genome size and paedomorphosis tend to compromise the function of the salamander brain, compensating mechanisms have evolved that may restore or even enhance brain function.

  20. Could we also be regenerative superheroes, like salamanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnese, Alessandra; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Development of methods to reawaken the semi-dormant regenerative potential that lies within adult human tissues would hold promise for the restoration of diseased or damaged organs and tissues. While most of the regeneration potential is suppressed in many vertebrates, including humans, during adult life, urodele amphibians (salamanders) retain their regenerative ability throughout adulthood. Studies in newts and axolotls, two salamander models, have provided significant knowledge about adult limb regeneration. In this review, we present a comparative analysis of salamander and mammalian regeneration and discuss how evolutionarily altered properties of the regenerative environment can be exploited to restore full regenerative potential in the human body. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Night Area Search for Cheat Mountain Salamanders, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On July 8, 2009 a night area search was conducted for presence of Cheat Mountain salamanders (Plethodon nettingi) on the Kelly Elkins Tract of the Refuge. A total of...

  2. Cheat Mountain Salamander Coverboard Survey Summary for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal for this project is to establish baseline information on populations of the Cheat Mountain salamander on the refuge. In the future, an additional...

  3. Final Critical Habitat for the San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana) occur based on the description provided in the...

  4. Evolution of coprophagy and nutrient absorption in a Cave Salamander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Soares

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from carnivory to omnivory is poorly understood. The ability to feed at more than one trophic level theoretically increases an animal’s fitness in a novel environment. Because of the absence of light and photosynthesis, most subterranean ecosystems are characterized by very few trophic levels, such that food scarcity is a challenge in many subterranean habitats. One strategy against starvation is to expand diet breadth. Grotto Salamanders (Eurycea spelaea (Stejneger, 1892 are known to ingest bat guano deliberately, challenging the general understanding that salamanders are strictly carnivorous. Here we tested the hypothesis that grotto salamanders have broadened their diet related to cave adaptation and found that, although coprophagous behavior is present, salamanders are unable to acquire sufficient nutrition from bat guano alone. Our results suggest that the coprophagic behavior has emerged prior to physiological or gut biome adaptations.

  5. Final Critical Habitat for Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma bishopi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for the endangered Ambystoma bishopi (reticulated flatwoods salamander).

  6. Streamside Salamander Inventory and Monitoring Northeast Refuges Summer 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this project are to (1) conduct transect and quadrat sampling for streamside salamanders, (2) determine detection rates and population estimates...

  7. Streamside Salamander Inventory and Monitoring Northeast Refuges Summer 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this project are to (1) conduct transect and quadrat sampling for streamside salamanders, (2) determine detection rates and population estimates...

  8. Contributions to the functional morphology of caudate skulls: kinetic and akinetic forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Stephan; Lukanov, Simeon; Naumov, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    A strongly ossified and rigid skull roof, which prevents parietal kinesis, has been reported for the adults of all amphibian clades. Our μ-CT investigations revealed that the Buresch’s newt (Triturus ivanbureschi) possess a peculiar cranial construction. In addition to the typical amphibian pleurokinetic articulation between skull roof and palatoquadrate associated structures, we found flexible connections between nasals and frontals (prokinesis), vomer and parasphenoid (palatokinesis), and between frontals and parietals (mesokinesis). This is the first description of mesokinesis in urodelans. The construction of the skull in the Buresch’s newts also indicates the presence of an articulation between parietals and the exocipitals, discussed as a possible kind of metakinesis. The specific combination of pleuro-, pro-, meso-, palato-, and metakinetic skull articulations indicate to a new kind of kinetic systems unknown for urodelans to this date. We discuss the possible neotenic origin of the skull kinesis and pose the hypothesis that the kinesis in T. ivanbureschi increases the efficiency of fast jaw closure. For that, we compared the construction of the skull in T. ivanbureschi to the akinetic skull of the Common fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We hypothesize that the design of the skull in the purely terrestrial living salamander shows a similar degree of intracranial mobility. However, this mobility is permitted by elasticity of some bones and not by true articulation between them. We comment on the possible relation between the skull construction and the form of prey shaking mechanism that the species apply to immobilize their victims. PMID:27688958

  9. Contributions to the functional morphology of caudate skulls: kinetic and akinetic forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Natchev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A strongly ossified and rigid skull roof, which prevents parietal kinesis, has been reported for the adults of all amphibian clades. Our μ-CT investigations revealed that the Buresch’s newt (Triturus ivanbureschi possess a peculiar cranial construction. In addition to the typical amphibian pleurokinetic articulation between skull roof and palatoquadrate associated structures, we found flexible connections between nasals and frontals (prokinesis, vomer and parasphenoid (palatokinesis, and between frontals and parietals (mesokinesis. This is the first description of mesokinesis in urodelans. The construction of the skull in the Buresch’s newts also indicates the presence of an articulation between parietals and the exocipitals, discussed as a possible kind of metakinesis. The specific combination of pleuro-, pro-, meso-, palato-, and metakinetic skull articulations indicate to a new kind of kinetic systems unknown for urodelans to this date. We discuss the possible neotenic origin of the skull kinesis and pose the hypothesis that the kinesis in T. ivanbureschi increases the efficiency of fast jaw closure. For that, we compared the construction of the skull in T. ivanbureschi to the akinetic skull of the Common fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We hypothesize that the design of the skull in the purely terrestrial living salamander shows a similar degree of intracranial mobility. However, this mobility is permitted by elasticity of some bones and not by true articulation between them. We comment on the possible relation between the skull construction and the form of prey shaking mechanism that the species apply to immobilize their victims.

  10. The effect of brumation on memory retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna; Hloch, Anne; Mueller-Paul, Julia; Huber, Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    Long-term torpor is an adaptive strategy that allows animals to survive harsh winter conditions. However, the impact that prolonged torpor has on cognitive function is poorly understood. Hibernation causes reduced synaptic activity and experiments with mammals reveal that this can have adverse effects on memories formed prior to hibernation. The impact of brumation, the winter dormancy that is observed in ectotherms, on memory remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether an amphibian, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), was able to retain learned spatial information after a period of brumation. Twelve fire salamanders were trained to make a simple spatial discrimination using a T-maze. All subjects learned the initial task. Upon reaching criterion, half of the subjects were placed into brumation for 100 days while the other half served as controls and were maintained under normal conditions. A post-brumation memory retention test revealed that animals from both conditions retained the learned response. Control tests showed that they solved the task using learned information and not olfactory cues. This finding contrasts with much of the mammalian research and suggests that the processes involved in prolonged torpor may have a fundamentally different impact on memory in mammals and amphibians. PMID:28074838

  11. Influence of headwater site conditions and riparian buffers on terrestrial salamander response to forest thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Rundio; D.H. Olson

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effect of forest thinning and riparian buffers along headwater streams on terrestrial salamanders at two sites in western Oregon. Salamander numbers were reduced postthinning at one site with lower down-wood volume. Terrestrial salamander distributions along stream-to-upslope transects suggest benefits of one and two site-potential tree-height stream...

  12. Amfibieen rond Ambleteuse 1977

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Jeroen; Leeuwen, van Frits

    1979-01-01

    In 1977 hebban we in het gebied rond Ambleteuse amfibieën bestudeerd. Bij inventarisatie troffen we Triturus vulgaris, T. helveticus, T.alpestris, T.cristatus. Rana temporaria, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, B. calamita, Alytes obstetricans, Pelodytes punctatus en Salamandra salamandra aan. Verschillend

  13. A potential wound-healing-promoting peptide from salamander skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lixian; Tang, Jing; Liu, Han; Shen, Chuanbin; Rong, Mingqiang; Zhang, Zhiye; Lai, Ren

    2014-09-01

    Although it is well known that wound healing proceeds incredibly quickly in urodele amphibians, such as newts and salamanders, little is known about skin-wound healing, and no bioactive/effector substance that contributes to wound healing has been identified from these animals. As a step toward understanding salamander wound healing and skin regeneration, a potential wound-healing-promoting peptide (tylotoin; KCVRQNNKRVCK) was identified from salamander skin of Tylototriton verrucosus. It shows comparable wound-healing-promoting ability (EC50=11.14 μg/ml) with epidermal growth factor (EGF; NSDSECPLSHDGYCLHDGVCMYIEALDKYACNCVVGYIGERCQYRDLKWWELR) in a murine model of full-thickness dermal wound. Tylotoin directly enhances the motility and proliferation of keratinocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, resulting in accelerated reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation in the wound site. Tylotoin also promotes the release of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), which are essential in the wound healing response. Gene-encoded tylotoin secreted in salamander skin is possibly an effector molecule for skin wound healing. This study may facilitate understanding of the cellular and molecular events that underlie quick wound healing in salamanders. © FASEB.

  14. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  15. Perceived predation risk as a function of predator dietary cues in terrestrial salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray; Jenkins

    1999-01-01

    Prey often avoid predator chemical cues, and in aquatic systems, prey may even appraise predation risk via cues associated with the predator's diet. However, this relationship has not been shown for terrestrial predator-prey systems, where the proximity of predators and prey, and the intensity of predator chemical cues in the environment, may be less than in aquatic systems. In the laboratory, we tested behavioural responses (avoidance, habituation and activity) of terrestrial red-backed salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, to chemical cues from garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis, fed either red-backed salamanders or earthworms (Lumbricus spp.). We placed salamanders in arenas lined with paper towels pretreated with snake chemicals, and monitored salamander movements during 120 min. Salamanders avoided substrates preconditioned by earthworm-fed (avoidanceX+/-SE=91.1+/-2.5%, N=25) and salamander-fed (95.2+/-2.5%, N=25) snakes, when tested against untreated substrate (control). Salamanders avoided cues from salamander-fed snakes more strongly (75.2+/-5.5%, N=25) than earthworm-fed snakes when subjected to both treatments simultaneously, implying that salamanders were sensitive to predator diet. Salamanders tended to avoid snake substrate more strongly during the last 60 min of a trial, but activity patterns were similar between salamanders exposed exclusively to control substrate versus those subject to snake cues. In another experiment, salamanders failed to avoid cues from dead conspecifics, suggesting that the stronger avoidance of salamander-fed snakes in the previous experiment was not directly due to chemical cues emitted by predator-killed salamanders. Salamanders also did not discriminate between cues from a salamander-fed snake versus a salamander-fed snake that was recently switched (i.e. diet. Our results imply that terrestrial salamanders are sensitive to perceived predation risk via by-products of predator diet, and that snake predators rather than dead

  16. Extremely high-power tongue projection in plethodontid salamanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deban, S.M.; O'Reilly, J.C.; Dicke, U.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Many plethodontid salamanders project their tongues ballistically at high speed and for relatively great distances. Capturing evasive prey relies on the tongue reaching the target in minimum time, therefore it is expected that power production, or the rate of energy release, is maximized during

  17. Reproductive biology of the Del Norte salamander (Plethodon elongatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara A. Wheeler; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.; Lisa M. Ollivier

    2013-01-01

    We examined seasonal reproductive patterns of the Del Norte Salamander, Plethodon elongatus, in mixed conifer and hardwood forests of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Seasonal size differences in reproductive structures suggested that maximum spermatogenic activity occurred during the late summer, with spermatozoa transfer to the...

  18. Design tradeoffs in long-term research for stream salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Adrianne B,; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2017-01-01

    Long-term research programs can benefit from early and periodic evaluation of their ability to meet stated objectives. In particular, consideration of the spatial allocation of effort is key. We sampled 4 species of stream salamanders intensively for 2 years (2010–2011) in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, USA to evaluate alternative distributions of sampling locations within stream networks, and then evaluated via simulation the ability of multiple survey designs to detect declines in occupancy and to estimate dynamic parameters (colonization, extinction) over 5 years for 2 species. We expected that fine-scale microhabitat variables (e.g., cobble, detritus) would be the strongest determinants of occupancy for each of the 4 species; however, we found greater support for all species for models including variables describing position within the stream network, stream size, or stream microhabitat. A monitoring design focused on headwater sections had greater power to detect changes in occupancy and the dynamic parameters in each of 3 scenarios for the dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) and red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber). Results for transect length were more variable, but across all species and scenarios, 25-m transects are most suitable as a balance between maximizing detection probability and describing colonization and extinction. These results inform sampling design and provide a general framework for setting appropriate goals, effort, and duration in the initial planning stages of research programs on stream salamanders in the eastern United States.

  19. Acid precipitation and reproductive success of Ambystoma salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Harvey Pough; Richard E. Wilson

    1976-01-01

    The two species of mole salamander that occur in the Ithaca, New York, region (Ambystoma maculatum and A. jeffersonianum) breed in temporary ponds that are formed by accumulation of melted snow and spring rains. Water in many of these pools during the breeding season is acid; pH values as low as 3.5 have been measured. In...

  20. Reproductive allometry in three species of Dusky Salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Desmognathus comprises 21 currently recognized species of salamanders in eastern North America. Assemblages of 3–6 species occur in the Appalachian Mountains, wherein the larger species are more aquatic and the smaller more terrestrial. Adaptive divergence along the habitat gradient from stream to forest involves variation in such life-history traits as age and size at...

  1. Seasonality and microhabitat selection in a forest-dwelling salamander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Marco; Romano, Antonio; Costa, Andrea; Posillico, Mario; Scinti Roger, Daniele; Crisci, Aldo; Raimondi, Ranieri; Altea, Tiziana; Garfì, Vittorio; Santopuoli, Giovanni; Marchetti, Marco; Salvidio, Sebastiano; De Cinti, Bruno; Matteucci, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    Many small terrestrial vertebrates exhibit limited spatial movement and are considerably exposed to changes in local environmental variables. Among such vertebrates, amphibians at present experience a dramatic decline due to their limited resilience to environmental change. Since the local survival and abundance of amphibians is intrinsically related to the availability of shelters, conservation plans need to take microhabitat requirements into account. In order to gain insight into the terrestrial ecology of the spectacled salamander Salamandrina perspicillata and to identify appropriate forest management strategies, we investigated the salamander's seasonal variability in habitat use of trees as shelters in relation to tree features (size, buttresses, basal holes) and environmental variables in a beech forest in Italy. We used the occupancy approach to assess tree suitability on a non-conventional spatial scale. Our approach provides fine-grained parameters of microhabitat suitability and elucidates many aspects of the salamander's terrestrial ecology . Occupancy changed with the annual life cycle and was higher in autumn than in spring, when females were found closer to the stream in the study area. Salamanders showed a seasonal pattern regarding the trees they occupied and a clear preference for trees with a larger diameter and more burrows. With respect to forest management, we suggest maintaining a suitable number of trees with a trunk diameter exceeding 30 cm. A practice of selective logging along the banks of streams could help maintain an adequate quantity of the appropriate microhabitat. Furthermore, in areas with a presence of salamanders, a good forest management plan requires leaving an adequate buffer zone around streams, which should be wider in autumn than in spring.

  2. Salamander Regeneration as a Model for Developing Novel Regenerative and Anticancer Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Fior, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Among vertebrates, urodele amphibians are the only tetrapods with the ability to regenerate complex structures such as limbs, tail, and spinal cord throughout their lives. Furthermore, the salamander regeneration process has been shown to reverse tumorigenicity. Fibroblasts are essential for salamander regeneration, but the mechanisms underlying their role in the formation of a regeneration blastema remain unclear. Here, I review the role of fibroblasts in salamander limb regeneration and how...

  3. Experimental Evidence that Nest Attendance Benefits Female Marbled Salamanders (Ambystoma opacum) by Reducing Egg Mortality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DEAN A. CROSHAW; DAVID E. SCOTT

    2005-01-01

    ...(s) of specific behaviors. We used field and laboratory experiments to investigate possible fitness benefits and proximate functions of female nest attendance in marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum...

  4. Impact of valley fills on streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Valley fills associated with mountaintop-removal mining bury stream headwaters and affect water quality and ecological function of reaches below fills. We quantified relative abundance of streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia during 2002 in three streams below valley fills (VFS) and in three reference streams (RS). We surveyed 36 10- × 2-m stream transects, once in summer and fall, paired by order and structure. Of 2,343 salamanders captured, 66.7% were from RS. Total salamanders (adults plus larvae) were more abundant in RS than VFS for first-order and second-order reaches. Adult salamanders had greater abundance in first-order reaches of RS than VFS. Larval salamanders were more abundant in second-order reaches of RS than VFS. No stream width or mesohabitat variables differed between VFS and RS. Only two cover variables differed. Silt cover, greater in VFS than RS first-order reaches, is a likely contributor to reduced abundance of salamanders in VFS. Second-order RS had more boulder cover than second-order VFS, which may have contributed to the higher total and larval salamander abundance in RS. Water chemistry assessments of our VFS and RS reported elevated levels of metal and ion concentrations in VFS, which can depress macroinvertebrate populations and likely affect salamander abundance. Valley fills appear to have significant negative effects on stream salamander abundance due to alterations in habitat structure, water quality and chemistry, and macroinvertebrate communities in streams below fills.

  5. Trouble in the aquatic world: How wildlife professionals are battling amphibian declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Deanna H.; Chestnut, Tara E.

    2014-01-01

    A parasitic fungus, similar to the one that caused the extinction of numerous tropical frog and toad species, is killing salaman-ders in Europe. Scientists first identified the fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, in 2013 as the culprit behind the death of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) in the Netherlands (Martel et al. 2013) and are now exploring its potential impact to other species. Although the fungus, which kills the amphibians by infecting their skin, has not yet spread to the United States, researchers believe it's only a mat-ter of time before it does and, when that happens, the impact on salamander populations could be devastating (Martel et al. 2014). Reports of worldwide declines of amphibians began a quarter of a century ago (Blaustein & Wake 1990). Globally, some amphibian popula-tion declines occurred in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and declining trends continued in North America (Houlahan et al. 2000). In the earlier years, population declines were attributed primar-ily to overharvest due to unregulated supply of species such as the northern leopard frog (Litho-bates pipiens) for educational use (Dodd 2013). In later years, however, causes of declines were less evident. In 1989, herpetologists at the First World Congress of Herpetology traded alarming stories of losses across continents and in seemingly pro-tected landscapes, making it clear that amphibian population declines were a "global phenomenon." In response to these reports, in 1991, the Interna-tional Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) established the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force to better understand the scale and scope of global amphibian declines. Unfortunate-ly, the absence of long-term monitoring data and targeted studies made it difficult for the task force to compile information.

  6. Pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, but not B. salamandrivorans, detected on eastern hellbenders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma K Bales

    Full Text Available Recent worldwide declines and extinctions of amphibian populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Until recently, Bd was thought to be the only Batrachochytrium species that infects amphibians; however a newly described species, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bs, is linked to die-offs in European fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra. Little is known about the distribution, host range, or origin of Bs. In this study, we surveyed populations of an aquatic salamander that is declining in the United States, the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis, for the presence of Bs and Bd. Skin swabs were collected from a total of 91 individuals in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Virginia, and tested for both pathogens using duplex qPCR. Bs was not detected in any samples, suggesting it was not present in these hellbender populations (0% prevalence, 95% confidence intervals of 0.0-0.04. Bd was found on 22 hellbenders (24% prevalence, 95% confidence intervals of 0.16 ≤ 0.24 ≤ 0.34, representing all four states. All positive samples had low loads of Bd zoospores (12.7 ± 4.9 S.E.M. genome equivalents compared to other Bd susceptible species. More research is needed to determine the impact of Batrachochytrium infection on hellbender fitness and population viability. In particular, understanding how hellbenders limit Bd infection intensity in an aquatic environment may yield important insights for amphibian conservation. This study is among the first to evaluate the distribution of Bs in the United States, and is consistent with another, which failed to detect Bs in the U.S. Knowledge about the distribution, host-range, and origin of Bs may help control the spread of this pathogen, especially to regions of high salamander diversity, such as the eastern United States.

  7. Pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, but not B. salamandrivorans, detected on eastern hellbenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Emma K; Hyman, Oliver J; Loudon, Andrew H; Harris, Reid N; Lipps, Gregory; Chapman, Eric; Roblee, Kenneth; Kleopfer, John D; Terrell, Kimberly A

    2015-01-01

    Recent worldwide declines and extinctions of amphibian populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Until recently, Bd was thought to be the only Batrachochytrium species that infects amphibians; however a newly described species, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bs), is linked to die-offs in European fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra). Little is known about the distribution, host range, or origin of Bs. In this study, we surveyed populations of an aquatic salamander that is declining in the United States, the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis), for the presence of Bs and Bd. Skin swabs were collected from a total of 91 individuals in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Virginia, and tested for both pathogens using duplex qPCR. Bs was not detected in any samples, suggesting it was not present in these hellbender populations (0% prevalence, 95% confidence intervals of 0.0-0.04). Bd was found on 22 hellbenders (24% prevalence, 95% confidence intervals of 0.16 ≤ 0.24 ≤ 0.34), representing all four states. All positive samples had low loads of Bd zoospores (12.7 ± 4.9 S.E.M. genome equivalents) compared to other Bd susceptible species. More research is needed to determine the impact of Batrachochytrium infection on hellbender fitness and population viability. In particular, understanding how hellbenders limit Bd infection intensity in an aquatic environment may yield important insights for amphibian conservation. This study is among the first to evaluate the distribution of Bs in the United States, and is consistent with another, which failed to detect Bs in the U.S. Knowledge about the distribution, host-range, and origin of Bs may help control the spread of this pathogen, especially to regions of high salamander diversity, such as the eastern United States.

  8. A molecular assessment of phylogenetic relationships and lineage accumulation rates within the family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisrock, David W; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Macey, J Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H; Zhao, Ermi; Jowkar, Houman; Larson, Allan

    2006-11-01

    We examine phylogenetic relationships among salamanders of the family Salamandridae using approximately 2700 bases of new mtDNA sequence data (the tRNALeu, ND1, tRNAIle, tRNAGln, tRNAMet, ND2, tRNATrp, tRNAAla, tRNAAsn, tRNACys, tRNATyr, and COI genes and the origin for light-strand replication) collected from 96 individuals representing 61 of the 66 recognized salamandrid species and outgroups. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis are performed on the new data alone and combined with previously reported sequences from other parts of the mitochondrial genome. The basal phylogenetic split is a polytomy of lineages ancestral to (1) the Italian newt Salamandrina terdigitata, (2) a strongly supported clade comprising the "true" salamanders (genera Chioglossa, Mertensiella, Lyciasalamandra, and Salamandra), and (3) a strongly supported clade comprising all newts except S. terdigitata. Strongly supported clades within the true salamanders include monophyly of each genus and grouping Chioglossa and Mertensiella as the sister taxon to a clade comprising Lyciasalamandra and Salamandra. Among newts, genera Echinotriton, Pleurodeles, and Tylototriton form a strongly supported clade whose sister taxon comprises the genera Calotriton, Cynops, Euproctus, Neurergus, Notophthalmus, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton, Taricha, and Triturus. Our results strongly support monophyly of all polytypic newt genera except Paramesotriton and Triturus, which appear paraphyletic, and Calotriton, for which only one of the two species is sampled. Other well-supported clades within newts include (1) Asian genera Cynops, Pachytriton, and Paramesotriton, (2) North American genera Notophthalmus and Taricha, (3) the Triturus vulgaris species group, and (4) the Triturus cristatus species group; some additional groupings appear strong in Bayesian but not parsimony analyses. Rates of lineage accumulation through time are evaluated using this nearly comprehensive sampling of

  9. On the amphibious food uptake and prey manipulation behavior in the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi, Arntzen and Wielstra, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukanov, Simeon; Tzankov, Nikolay; Handschuh, Stephan; Heiss, Egon; Naumov, Borislav; Natchev, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    Feeding behavior in salamanders undergoing seasonal habitat shifts poses substantial challenges caused by differences in the physical properties of air and water. Adapting to these specific environments, urodelans use suction feeding predominantly under water as opposed to lingual food prehension on land. This study aims to determine the functionality of aquatic and terrestrial feeding behavior in the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi) in its terrestrial stage. During the terrestrial stage, these newts feed frequently in water where they use hydrodynamic mechanisms for prey capture. On land, prey apprehension is accomplished mainly by lingual prehension, while jaw prehension seems to be the exception (16.67%) in all terrestrial prey capture events. In jaw prehension events there was no detectable depression of the hyo-lingual complex. The success of terrestrial prey capture was significantly higher when T. ivanbureschi used lingual prehension. In addition to prey capture, we studied the mechanisms involved in the subduction of prey. In both media, the newts frequently used a shaking behavior to immobilize the captured earthworms. Apparently, prey shaking constitutes a significant element in the feeding behavior of T. ivanbureschi. Prey immobilization was applied more frequently during underwater feeding, which necessitates a discussion of the influence of the feeding media on food manipulation. We also investigated the osteology of the cranio-cervical complex in T. ivanbureschi to compare it to that of the predominantly terrestrial salamandrid Salamandra salamandra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Salamander growth rates increase along an experimental stream phosphorus gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpers, Phillip M; Maerz, John C; Rosemond, Amy D; Benstead, Jonathan P

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient-driven perturbations to the resource base of food webs are predicted to attenuate with trophic distance, so it is unclear whether higher-level consumers will generally respond to anthropogenic nutrient loading. Few studies have tested whether nutrient (specifically, nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]) enrichment of aquatic ecosystems propagates through multiple trophic levels to affect predators, or whether N vs. P is relatively more important in driving effects on food webs. We conducted two-year whole-stream N and P additions to five streams to generate gradients in N and P concentration and N:P ratio (target N:P = 2, 8, 16, 32, 128). Larval salamanders are vertebrate predators of primary and secondary macroinvertebrate consumers in many heterotrophic headwater streams in which the basal resources are detritus and associated microorganisms. We determined the effects of N and P on the growth rates of caged and free-roaming larval Desmognathus quadramaculatus and the average body size of larval Eurycea wilderae. Growth rates and average body size increased by up to 40% and 60%, respectively, with P concentration and were negatively related to N:P ratio. These findings were consistent across both species of salamanders using different methodologies (cage vs. free-roaming) and at different temporal scales (3 months vs. 2 yr). Nitrogen concentration was not significantly related to increased growth rate or body size of the salamander species tested. Our findings suggest that salamander growth responds to the relaxation of ecosystem-level P limitation and that moderate P enrichment can have relatively large effects on vertebrate predators in detritus-based food webs.

  11. Evolution of coprophagy and nutrient absorption in a Cave Salamander

    OpenAIRE

    Daphne Soares; Rachel Adams; Shea Hammond; Michael E. Slay; Fenolio, Danté B.; Niemiller, Matthew L.

    2017-01-01

    The transition from carnivory to omnivory is poorly understood. The ability to feed at more than one trophic level theoretically increases an animal’s fitness in a novel environment. Because of the absence of light and photosynthesis, most subterranean ecosystems are characterized by very few trophic levels, such that food scarcity is a challenge in many subterranean habitats. One strategy against starvation is to expand diet breadth. Grotto Salamanders (Eurycea spelaea (Stejneger, 1892)) are...

  12. Cannibalistic-morph Tiger Salamanders in unexpected ecological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Stockwell, Craig A.; Mushet, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Barred tiger salamanders [Ambystoma mavortium (Baird, 1850)] exhibit two trophic morphologies; a typical and a cannibalistic morph. Cannibalistic morphs, distinguished by enlarged vomerine teeth, wide heads, slender bodies, and cannibalistic tendencies, are often found where conspecifics occur at high density. During 2012 and 2013, 162 North Dakota wetlands and lakes were sampled for salamanders. Fifty-one contained A. mavortium populations; four of these contained cannibalistic morph individuals. Two populations with cannibalistic morphs occurred at sites with high abundances of conspecifics. However, the other two populations occurred at sites with unexpectedly low conspecific but high fathead minnow [Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)] abundances. Further, no typical morphs were observed in either of these later two populations, contrasting with earlier research suggesting cannibalistic morphs only occur at low frequencies in salamander populations. Another anomaly of all four populations was the occurrence of cannibalistic morphs in permanent water sites, suggesting their presence was due to factors other than faster growth allowing them to occupy ephemeral habitats. Therefore, our findings suggest environmental factors inducing the cannibalistic morphism may be more complex than previously thought.

  13. Detection of an enigmatic plethodontid Salamander using Environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Todd W.; Mckee, Anna; Spear, Stephen F.; Maerz, John C.; Camp, Carlos D.; Glenn, Travis C.

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and identification of environmental DNA (eDNA) offers a non-invasive and efficient method for the detection of rare and secretive aquatic wildlife, and it is being widely integrated into inventory and monitoring efforts. The Patch-Nosed Salamander (Urspelerpes brucei) is a tiny, recently discovered species of plethodontid salamander known only from headwater streams in a small region of Georgia and South Carolina. Here, we present results of a quantitative PCR-based eDNA assay capable of detecting Urspelerpes in more than 75% of 33 samples from five confirmed streams. We deployed the method at 31 additional streams and located three previously undocumented populations of Urspelerpes. We compare the results of our eDNA assay with our attempt to use aquatic leaf litterbags for the rapid detection of Urspelerpes and demonstrate the relative efficacy of the eDNA assay. We suggest that eDNA offers great potential for use in detecting other aquatic and semi-aquatic plethodontid salamanders.

  14. 76 FR 55413 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-legged Frog, California Tiger Salamander, Smith...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Tiger Salamander, Smith's Blue Butterfly, and Yadon's Piperia at Palo Corona Regional Park, Monterey... federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) and California tiger salamander (Ambystoma..., California tiger salamander, Smith's blue butterfly, and Yadon's piperia on the property subject to the...

  15. The Abundance of Salamanders in Forest Stands with Different Histories of Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Harvey Pough; Donald H. Rhodes; Andres Collazo

    1987-01-01

    Because of the importance of salamanders in forest food chains, the effects of forest management practices on populations of these animals warrant consideration. We compared the numbers and activity patterns of salamanders in areas of a deciduous forest in central New York State that had been cut selectively for firewood, or c1earcut, or planted with conifers. Numbers...

  16. Long-term partial cutting impacts on Desmognathus salamander abundance in West Virginia headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtis R. Moseley; W. Mark Ford; Thomas M. Schuler

    2008-01-01

    To understand long-term impacts of partial cutting practices on stream-dwelling salamanders in the central Appalachians, we examined pooled abundance of Desmognathus fuscus and D. monticola salamanders (hereafter Desmognathus) in headwater streams located within long-term silvicultural research compartments on...

  17. Relative abundance and species richness of terrestrial salamanders on hardwood ecosystem experiment sites before harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami E. MacNeil; Rod N. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders are ideal indicators of forest ecosystem integrity due to their abundance, their role in nutrient cycling, and their sensitivity to environmental change. To understand better how terrestrial salamanders are affected by forest management practices, we monitored species diversity and abundance before implementation of timber harvests within the...

  18. Using a GIS model to assess terrestrial salamander response to alternative forest management plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Nathan L. Murphy; Thomas R. Crow

    2001-01-01

    A GIS model predicting the spatial distribution of terrestrial salamander abundance based on topography and forest age was developed using parameters derived from the literature. The model was tested by sampling salamander abundance across the full range of site conditions used in the model. A regression of the predictions of our GIS model against these sample data...

  19. Diet of the Del Norte Salamander (Plethodon elongatus): Differences by age, gender, and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara A. Wheeler; Nancy E. Karraker; Hartwell H. Welsh; Lisa M. Ollivier

    2007-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders are integral components of forest ecosystems and the examination of their feeding habits may provide useful information regarding various ecosystem processes. We studied the diet of the Del Norte Salamander (Plethodon elongatus) and assessed diet differences between age classes, genders, and seasons. The stomachs of 309...

  20. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans not detected in U.S. survey of pet salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Blake; Becker, Matthew; Lewis, James; Fleischer, Robert C; Muletz-Wolz, Carly R; Rockwood, Larry; Aguirre, A Alonso; Gratwicke, Brian

    2017-10-13

    We engaged pet salamander owners in the United States to screen their animals for two amphibian chytrid fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal). We provided pet owners with a sampling kit and instructional video to swab the skin of their animals. We received 639 salamander samples from 65 species by mail, and tested them for Bd and Bsal using qPCR. We detected Bd on 1.3% of salamanders (95% CI 0.0053-0.0267) and did not detect Bsal (95% CI 0.0000-0.0071). If Bsal is present in the U.S. population of pet salamanders, it occurs at a very low prevalence. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed 201 species of salamanders as "injurious wildlife" under the Lacey Act (18 U.S.C. § 42) on January 28, 2016, a precautionary action to prevent the introduction of Bsal to the U.S. through the importation of salamanders. This action reduced the number of salamanders imported to the U.S. from 2015 to 2016 by 98.4%. Our results indicate that continued precautions should be taken to prevent the introduction and establishment of Bsal in the U.S., which is a hotspot of salamander biodiversity.

  1. 77 FR 36287 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander, Calaveras...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger... listed animal, the threatened Central California Distinct Population Segment of the California tiger salamander (tiger salamander). The applicant would implement a conservation program to minimize and mitigate...

  2. Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Salamanders in Riparian Forests: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Clipp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Salamanders and riparian forests are intimately interconnected. Salamanders are integral to ecosystem functions, contributing to vertebrate biomass and complex food webs in riparian forests. In turn, these forests are critical ecosystems that perform many environmental services, facilitate high biodiversity and species richness, and provide habitat to salamander populations. Due to the global decline of amphibians, it is important to understand, as thoroughly and holistically as possible, the roles of environmental parameters and the impact of human activities on salamander abundance and diversity in riparian forests. To determine the population responses of salamanders to a variety of environmental factors and anthropogenic activities, we conducted a review of published literature that compared salamander abundance and diversity, and then summarized and synthesized the data into general patterns. We identify stream quality, leaf litter and woody debris, riparian buffer width, and soil characteristics as major environmental factors influencing salamander populations in riparian forests, describe and explain salamander responses to those factors, and discuss the effects of anthropogenic activities such as timber harvest, prescribed fires, urbanization, road construction, and habitat fragmentation. This review can assist land and natural resource managers in anticipating the consequences of human activities and preparing strategic conservation plans.

  3. Variable infection of stream salamanders in the southern Appalachians by the trematode Metagonimoides oregonensis (family: Heterophyidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennie A. Wyderko; Ernest F. Benfield; John C. Maerz; Kristen C. Cecala; Lisa K. Belden

    2015-01-01

    Many factors contribute to parasites varying in host specificity and distribution among potential hosts. Metagonimoides oregonensis is a digenetic trematode that uses stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders as second intermediate hosts in the Eastern US. We completed a field survey to identify which stream salamander species, at a regional level, are most...

  4. Electric Fields for Flame Extinguishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    ethylene-air and methane-air flames, the application of a DC field of 0.5 kV/cm increased the burning velocity by close to a factor of two. Salamandra and...flame surface area and thus the velocity, but Jaggers and von Engel also saw physical perturbations in flame fronts with no electric field. Salamandra ...Conductivity in Propane-Air Flames by Using Rydberg State Stark Spectroscopy," Proc. Combustion Inst., Fall (1990). 12. Salamandra , G.D., and Mairov, N.I

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Andrias_japonicus_L.png Andrias_jap...onicus_NL.png Andrias_japonicus_S.png Andrias_japonicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japon...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=NS ...

  6. What Do Owls, Salamanders, Flycatchers and Cuckoos Have In Common?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrave, Maria A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Wildlife Management

    2016-09-27

    This is an article from the Los Alamos Living magazine. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on a beautiful and unique landscape that provides important protected habitat to many species, including a few that are federally-listed as threatened or endangered. These species are the Jemez Mountains Salamander, the Mexican Spotted Owl, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher, the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, and the New Mexico Meadow Jumping Mouse. Part of the job of the Laboratory's wildlife biologists is to survey for these species each year and determine what actions need to be taken if they are found.

  7. Environmental influences on egg and clutch sizes in lentic- and lotic-breeding salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon M. Davenport

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that social and environmental factors influence egg and clutch sizes in amphibians. However, most of this work is based on the reproductively diverse order Anura (frogs and toads, whereas less research has been conducted on Caudata (salamanders and Gymnophiona (caecilians. Researchers have suggested that a relationship exists between social and environmental factors and egg and clutch sizes in salamanders, but studies controlling for phylogenetic context are lacking. We could not identify a sufficient number of comparisons for social influences on egg and clutch sizes; therefore, we focused on environmental influences for this study. Data on egg size, clutch size, environmental factors, and phylogenies for salamanders were assembled from the scientific literature. We used independent, pair-wise comparisons to investigate the association of larval salamander habitat and egg size and the association of larval salamander habitat with clutch sizes within a phylogenetic framework. There is a significant association between larval habitat and egg size; specifically, stream-breeding species produce larger eggs. There is no significant association between larval habitat and clutchsize. Our study confirms earlier reports that salamander egg size is associated with larval environments, but is the first to use phylogenetically independent contrasts to account for the lack of phylogenetic independence of the traits measured (egg size and clutch size associated with many of the diverse lineages. Our study shows that environmental selection pressure can be quite strong on one aspect of salamander reproduction—egg size.

  8. A new species of salamander (Caudata: Plethodontidae, Bolitoglossa) from Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, Javier; Escalona, Moisés; Mora, Andrés; Díaz De Pascual, Amelia; Fermin, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a new species of salamander of the genus Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) from the cloud forest near La Mucuy in Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuelan Andes, is described. Bolitoglossa mucuyensis sp. nov. differs from all Venezuelan salamanders, except B. orestes, by a larger SVL/TL ratio, and from La Culata salamander B. orestes by a reduced webbing extension of the front and hind limbs. Additionally, B. mucuyensis sp. nov. and B. orestes diverge 3.12% in terms of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, as previously reported, and in 8.1% for the cytb gene as shown in this study.

  9. Strong selection barriers explain microgeographic adaptation in wild salamander populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan L; Urban, Mark C

    2013-06-01

    Microgeographic adaptation occurs when populations evolve divergent fitness advantages across the spatial scales at which focal organisms regularly disperse. Although an increasing number of studies find evidence for microgeographic adaptation, the underlying causes often remain unknown. Adaptive divergence requires some combination of limited gene flow and strong divergent natural selection among populations. In this study, we estimated the relative influence of selection, gene flow, and the spatial arrangement of populations in shaping patterns of adaptive divergence in natural populations of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum). Within the study region, A. maculatum co-occur with the predatory marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) in some ponds, and past studies have established a link between predation risk and adaptive trait variation in A. maculatum. Using 14 microsatellite loci, we found a significant pattern of genetic divergence among A. maculatum populations corresponding to levels of A. opacum predation risk. Additionally, A. maculatum foraging rate was strongly associated with predation risk, genetic divergence, and the spatial relationship of ponds on the landscape. Our results indicate the sorting of adaptive genotypes by selection regime and strongly suggest that substantial selective barriers operate against gene flow. This outcome suggests that microgeographic adaptation in A. maculatum is possible because strong antagonistic selection quickly eliminates maladapted phenotypes despite ongoing and substantial immigration. Increasing evidence for microgeographic adaptation suggests a strong role for selective barriers in counteracting the homogenizing influence of gene flow. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Road deicing salt irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karraker, Nancy E., E-mail: karraker@hku.hk [Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Gibbs, James P. [Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    It has been postulated that road deicing salts are sufficiently diluted by spring rains to ameliorate any physiological impacts to amphibians breeding in wetlands near roads. We tested this conjecture by exposing clutches of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to three chloride concentrations (1 mg/L, 145 mg/L, 945 mg/L) for nine days, then transferred clutches to control water for nine days, and measured change in mass at three-day intervals. We measured mass change because water uptake by clutches reduces risks to embryos associated with freezing, predation, and disease. Clutches in controls sequestered water asymptotically. Those in the moderate concentrations lost 18% mass initially and regained 14% after transfer to control water. Clutches in high concentration lost 33% mass and then lost an additional 8% after transfer. Our results suggest that spring rains do not ameliorate the effects of deicing salts in wetlands with extremely high chloride concentrations. - Road deicing salts irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches.

  11. Conservation genetics of the endangered Shenandoah salamander (Plethodon shenandoah, Plethodontidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Jung, R.E.; Sites, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Shenandoah salamander (Plethodon shenandoah) is restricted to three isolated talus outcrops in Shenandoah National Park, VA, USA and has one of the smallest ranges of any tetrapod vertebrate. This species was listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act in 1989 over concern that direct competition with the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), successional habitat changes, and human impacts may cause its decline and possible extinction. We address two issues herein: (1) whether extensive introgression (through long-term hybridization) is present between the two species and threatens the survival of P. shenandoah, and (2) the level of population structure within P. shenandoah. We provide evidence from mtDNA haplotypes that shows no genetic differentiation among the three isolates of P. shenandoah, suggesting that their fragmentation is a geologically recent event, and/or that the isolates are still connected by occasional gene flow. There is also no evidence for extensive introgression of alleles in either direction between P. cinereus and P. shenandoah, which suggests that P. shenandoah may not be in danger of being genetically swamped out through hybridization with P. cinereus.

  12. Telocytes in pancreas of the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Pengcheng; Zhong, Shengwei; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Zuohong

    2016-11-01

    Telocytes (TCs), novel interstitial cells, have been identified in various organs of many mammals. However, information about TCs of lower animals remains rare. Herein, pancreatic TCs of the Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias davidianus) were identified by CD34 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The IHC micrographs revealed CD34 + TCs with long telopodes (Tps) that were located in the interstitium of the pancreas. CD34 + TCs/Tps were frequently observed between exocrine acinar cells and were close to blood vessels. The TEM micrographs also showed the existence of TCs in the interstitium of the pancreas. TCs had distinctive ultrastructural features, such as one to three very long and thin Tps with podoms and podomers, caveolae, dichotomous branching, neighbouring exosomes and vesicles. The Tps and exosomes were found in close proximity to exocrine acinar cells and α cells. It is suggested that TCs may play a role in the regeneration of acinar cells and α cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the presence of TCs in the pancreas of the Chinese giant salamander. This finding will assist us in a better understanding of TCs functions in the amphibian pancreas. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. Landscape-stream interactions and habitat conservation for amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Marziali, Laura; Rossaro, Bruno; De Bernardi, Fiorenza; Padoa-Schioppa, Emilio

    2011-06-01

    Semiaquatic organisms depend on the features of both water bodies and landscapes; the interplay between terrestrial and aquatic systems might influence the semiaquatic communities, determining the scale at which management would be more effective. However, the consequences of such interplay are not frequently quantified, particularly at the community level. We analyzed the distribution of amphibians to evaluate whether the influence of landscape features on freshwater ecosystems can have indirect consequences at both the species and community level. We surveyed 74 streams in northern Italy to obtain data on breeding amphibians, water, and microhabitat features; we also measured features of surrounding landscapes. We used an information-theoretic approach and structural equation models to compare hypotheses on causal relationships between species distribution and variables measured at multiple levels. We also used a constrained redundancy analyses to evaluate causal relationships between multivariate descriptors of habitat features and community composition. Distribution of Salamandra salamandra was related to landscape, hydrological, and water characteristics: salamanders were more frequent in permanent streams with low phosphate concentration within natural landscapes. Water characteristics were dependent on landscape: streams in natural landscapes had less phosphates. Landscape influenced the salamander both directly and indirectly through its influence on phosphates. Community structure was determined by both landscape and water characteristics. Several species were associated with natural landscapes, and with particular water characteristics. Landscape explained a significant proportion of variability of water characteristics; therefore it probably had indirect effects on community. Upland environments play key roles for amphibians, for example, as the habitat of adults, but upland environments also have indirect effects on the aquatic life stages, mediated

  14. Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Angiostomatidae from the intestine of Pseudoeurycea mixteca (Caudata: Plethodontidae in central Mexico Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Angiostomatidae del intestino de Pseudoeurycea mixteca (Caudata: Plethodontidae en la región central de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Falcón-Ordaz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Angiostoma (Angiostomatidae is described from the intestine of the plethodontid salamander, Pseudoeurycea mixteca from Puebla State, in central Mexico. The new species closely resembles Angiostoma limancis, Angiostoma kimmeriensis, Angiostoma spiridonovi, Angiostoma stammeri, and Angiostoma carettae, because they all possess 8 pairs of pedunculate papillae in the caudal region; however, the new species can be distinguished by the unique arrangement of papillae, with 1 pre-cloacal pair, and 7 post-cloacal pairs. Among the 12 congeneric species of Angiostoma described so far, 2 have been described as parasites of salamanders, Angiostoma plethodontis from Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon richmondi in Virginia, USA, and Angiostoma onychodactyla from Onychodactylus japonicus in Japan. Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. is readily distinguished from these 2 species by the presence of lateral alae and by the number of pre-cloacal papillae.En este trabajo se describe una especie nueva del género Angiostoma (Angiostomatidae como parásito del intestino de la salamandra pletodóntida Pseudoeurycea mixteca en el estado de Puebla, en el centro de México. La nueva especie es morfológicamente similar a Angiostoma limancis, Angiostoma kimmeriensis, Angiostoma spiridonovi, Angiostoma stammeri y Angiostoma carettae, porque todas ellas poseen 8 pares de papilas pedunculadas en la región caudal; sin embargo, se puede distinguir de éstas por el arreglo característico de dichas papilas: 1 par en posición precloacal y 7 pares postcloacales. Dos de las 12 especies congenéricas de Angiostoma fueron descritas de salamandras, Angiostoma plethodontis de Plethodon cinereus y Plethodon richmondi en Virginia, EUA y Angiostoma onychodactyla de Onychodactylus japonicus en Japón. Angiostoma lamotheargumedoi n. sp. se distingue fácilmente de estas 2 especies por la presencia de alas laterales y por el número de papilas precloacales.

  15. Thermoregulatory strategies in an aquatic ectotherm from thermally-constrained habitats: An evaluation of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasečná, Karin; Pončová, Alena; Tejedo, Miguel; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2015-08-01

    Many ectotherms employ diverse behavioral adjustments to effectively buffer the spatio-temporal variation in environmental temperatures, whereas others remain passive to thermal heterogeneity. Thermoregulatory studies are frequently performed on species living in thermally benign habitats, which complicate understanding of the thermoregulation-thermoconformity continuum. The need for new empirical data from ectotherms exposed to thermally challenging conditions requires the evaluation of available methods for quantifying thermoregulatory strategies. We evaluated the applicability of various thermoregulatory indices using fire salamander larvae, Salamandra salamandra, in two aquatic habitats, a forest pool and well, as examples of disparate thermally-constrained environments. Water temperatures in the well were lower and less variable than in the pool. Thermal conditions prevented larvae from reaching their preferred body temperature range in both water bodies. In contrast to their thermoregulatory abilities examined in a laboratory thermal gradient, field body temperatures only matched the mean and range of operative temperatures, showing thermal passivity of larvae in both habitats. Despite apparent thermoconformity, thermoregulatory indices indicated various strategies from active thermoregulation, to thermoconformity, and even thermal evasion, which revealed their limited applicability under thermally-constrained conditions. Salamander larvae abandoned behavioral thermoregulation despite varying opportunities to increase their body temperature above average water temperatures. Thermoconformity represents a favored strategy in these ectotherms living in more thermally-constrained environments than those examined in previous thermoregulatory studies. To understand thermal ecology and its impact on population dynamics, the quantification of thermoregulatory strategies of ectotherms in thermally-constrained habitats requires the careful choice of an appropriate

  16. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  17. Larval salamanders and channel geomorphology are indicators of hydrologic permanence in forested headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory agencies need rapid indicators of hydrologic permanence for jurisdictional determinations of headwater streams. Our study objective was to assess the utility of larval salamander presence and assemblage structure and habitat variables for determining stream permanence ...

  18. Cheat Mountain Salamanders Search Reports 2008 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This documents six different surveys between July and September, 2008 that were done to monitor the endangered Cheat Mountain salamander at Canaan Valley National...

  19. Cheat Mountain Salamander coverboard data analysis Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 2000 to 2008 data was collected from three Cheat Mountain salamander coverboard sites at Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Cabin Knob A, Cabin Knob B, and...

  20. Cheat Mountain Salamanders Search Report 2004 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report that outlines the results of a one-day survey for the endangered Cheat Mountain Salamander at Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in 2004. The...

  1. Investigation into the status of Cheat Mountain Salamander (Plethodon nettingz) at the Canaan Valley NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There are two primary goals for this project: to establish baseline information on populations of the Cheat Mountain salamander and to determine if there are any...

  2. Egg predators of an endemic Italian salamander, Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We report new aquatic predators feeding on Northern spectacled salamander eggs, Salamandrina perspicillata, an endemic Italian species. Eggs were preyed upon by the leech, Trocheta bykowskii, and the trichopteran larvae of Potamophylax cingulatus and Halesus appenninus.

  3. Dramatic Declines in Neotropical Salamander Populations Are an Important Part of the Global Amphibian Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sean M. Rovito; Gabriela Parra-Olea; Carlos R. Vásquez-Almazán; Theodore J. Papenfuss; David B. Wake

    2009-01-01

    We document major declines of many species of salamanders at several sites in Central America and Mexico, with emphasis on the San Marcos region of Guatemala, one of the best studied and most diverse...

  4. Contaminant discharge in habitat springs of the Barton Springs Salamander during storm rainfall events

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aquatic habitat of the endangered Barton Springs salamander, Eurycea sosorum, in Travis County, Texas can potentially be impacted by contaminants in surface runoff...

  5. Salamander võib õpetada jäsemete kasvatamist / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2008-01-01

    Salamander on selgroogsete seas ainulaadne olevus. Ta suudab endale kasvatada ka täiskasvanuna uued kehaosad. Kui arstiteadlased välja uurivad, kuidas ta seda teeb, võib see aidata ka inimest rasketest haavadest ravida

  6. Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USA. This dataset is associated with the following...

  7. SPATIALLY AUTOCORRELATED DEMOGRAPHY AND INTERPOND MIGRATION IN THE CALIFORNIA TIGER SALAMANDER (AMBYSTOME CALIFORNIENSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the metapopulation structure of the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) using a combination of indirect and direct methods to evaluate two key requirements of modern metapopulation models: 1) that patches support somewhat independent populations ...

  8. Water and sediment quality in habitat springs of Edwards Aquifer salamanders

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Many springs associated with the Edwards Aquifer of Texas are inhabited by relict populations of neotenic salamanders in the genus Eurycea. This study was done to...

  9. Diagnostic and molecular evaluation of three iridovirus-associated salamander mortality events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Meteyer, C.U.; Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, J.; Case, S.T.; Chinchar, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998 viruses were isolated from tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum diaboli and A. tigrinum melanostictum) involved in North Dakota and Utah (USA) mortality events and spotted salamander (A. maculatum) larvae in a third event in Maine (USA). Although sympatric caudates and anurans were present at all three sites only ambystomid larvae appeared to be affected. Mortality at the North Dakota site was in the thousands while at the Utah and Maine sites mortality was in the hundreds. Sick larvae were lethargic and slow moving. They swam in circles with obvious buoyancy problems and were unable to remain upright. On the ventral surface, near the gills and hind limbs, red spots or swollen areas were noted. Necropsy findings included: hemorrhages and ulceration of the skin, subcutaneous and intramuscular edema, swollen and pale livers with multifocal hemorrhage, and distended fluid-filled intestines with areas of hemorrhage. Light microscopy revealed intracytoplasmic inclusions, suggestive of a viral infection, in a variety of organs. Electron microscopy of ultra thin sections of the same tissues revealed iridovirus-like particles within the inclusions. These viruses were isolated from a variety of organs, indicating a systemic infection. Representative viral isolates from the three mortality events were characterized using molecular assays. Characterization confirmed that the viral isolates were iridoviruses and that the two tiger salamander isolates were similar and could be distinguished from the spotted salamander isolate. The spotted salamander isolate was similar to frog virus 3, the type species of the genus Ranavirus, while the tiger salamander isolates were not. These data indicate that different species of salamanders can become infected and die in association with different iridoviruses. Challenge assays are required to determine the fish and amphibian host range of these isolates and to assess the susceptibility of tiger and spotted salamanders to

  10. Environmental conditions prerequisite for complete limb regeneration in the postmetamorphic adult land-phase salamander, Ambystoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H E; Bailey, C F; Dalley, B K

    1983-07-01

    Historically, postmetamorphic adult land-phase salamanders have been shown to exhibit minimal to nonexistent limb regeneration. Hence, it has been generally accepted that these forms have lost the intrinsic capacity to regenerate a limb. Due to the experimental protocols used, an alternate explanation is also possible: that this intrinsic capacity cannot be expressed when the salamanders are maintained under adverse laboratory environmental conditions. Therefore, this study addresses two questions: 1) What are the optimal environmental conditions for long-term survival of adult land-phase salamanders; and 2) will complete limb regeneration occur in these salamanders if they are maintained under survival conditions. A mixed population of adult Ambystoma were tested under varying conditions of habitat, temperature, humidity, photoperiod, and food source. Complete limb regeneration was possible in 100% of four species of adult postmetamorphic land-phase Ambystoma salamanders given the proper environmental laboratory conditions of a peat moss and potting soil habitat with a controlled temperature of 25 degrees C +/- 5 degrees C, 70% or greater humidity, a 12/12 light/dark photoperiod, a diet including nightcrawlers released into their respective terraria, and an extended observation time of up to 370 days postamputation (dpa). Regeneration was completed during the following range periods for the adult salamanders: A. annulatum, 324 to 370 dpa; A. maculatum, 255 to 300 dpa; A. texanum, 215 to 250 dpa; and A. tigranum, 155 to 180 dpa.

  11. Amphibian optokinetic after nystagmus: properties and comparative analysis in various species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteuffel, G; Kopp, J; Himstedt, W

    1986-01-01

    Optokinetic nystagmus and after nystagmus were studied in six amphibian species, three urodeles and three anurans. It was demonstrated that two of the urodeles, Hydromantes italicus and Salamandra salamandra, display a relatively well-developed optokinetic after nystagmus, which is less pronounced in Bombina variegata and nearly absent in Bufo bufo, Rana temporaria, and Tylototriton verrucosus. These results indicate a certain degree of velocity storage in the optokinetic reflex of some amphibians.

  12. Innovative techniques for sampling stream-inhabiting salamanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.M. Luhring; C.A. Young

    2006-01-01

    Although salamanders are excellent indicators of environmental health, the ability to catch them efficiently without substantially disrupting their habitat is not always practical or even possible with current techniques. Ripping open logs and raking leaf packs onto shore (Bruce 1972) are examples of such practices that are disruptive but widely used by herpetologists who have no other means of efficient collection. Drift fences with pitfall traps are effective in catching animals moving within or between habitats but are time consuming and require an initial financial investment and constant upkeep to maintain functionality and prevent animal fatalities (Gibbons and Semlitsch 1981). One current alternative to drift fences is the use of coverboards (Grant et al. 1992), which require less maintenance and sampling effort than drift fences. However, coverboards do not integrate captures over a long time period and often result in a lower number of captures per trap (Grant et al. 1992).

  13. Biological activities of skin secretions of the salamander Tylototriton verrucosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ren; Yang, Dong-Ming; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2002-08-01

    Water-soluble skin secretions of salamander Tylototriton verrucosus, first described by Anderson in 1871, were studied for their biological and enzymatic activities. They were found to be toxic to mice with an intraperitoneal LD50 of 11.5 mg/kg. Using Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, it was proven that the toxic components of the secretions are proteins with molecular weights ranging from 30,000 to 50,000 Da. The secretions of T. verrucosus display a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities and also contain both proteolytic activity and trypsin inhibitory activity. In contrast, neither hemolytic nor hemorrhagic activities were found. The secretions were determined to have phospholipase A2 activity; however, no acetylcholine esterase activity was detectable under the assay conditions.

  14. Using passive integrated transponder (PIT) systems for terrestrial detection of blue-spotted salamanders (Ambystoma laterale) in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin J.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Pure-diploid Blue-spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma laterale) are the smallest members of the family Ambystomatidae which makes tracking with radio-transmitters difficult because of small battery capacity. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags provide another tracking approach for small fossorial animals such as salamanders. We evaluated the use of portable PIT tag readers (PIT packs) to detect PIT tag-implanted pure-diploid Blue-spotted Salamanders in situ. We also examined the detection probability of salamanders with PIT tags held in enclosures in wetland and terrestrial habitats, as well as the underground detection range of PIT packs by scanning for buried tags not implanted into salamanders. Of the 532 PIT tagged salamanders, we detected 6.84% at least once during scanning surveys. We scanned systematically within a 13.37 ha area surrounding a salamander breeding pool on 34 occasions (~119 hours of survey time) and detected PIT tags 74 times. We detected 55% of PITs in tagged salamanders and 45%were expelled tags. We were able to reliably detect buried PIT tags from 1–22cm below the ground surface. Because nearly half the locations represented expelled tags, our data suggest this technique is inappropriate for future studies of pure-diploid Blue-spotted Salamanders, although it may be suitable for polyploid Blue-spotted Salamanders and other ambystomatid species, which are larger in size and may exhibit higher tag retention rates. It may also be prudent to conduct long-term tag retention studies in captivity before tagging and releasing salamanders for in situ study, and to double-mark individuals.

  15. 76 FR 44036 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander, AT&T Portable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger... potential for ``take'' of one Federally listed animal, the California tiger salamander. The applicant would... for the California tiger salamander into a new storage facility for portable generators within the...

  16. Abundance of western red-backed salamanders (Plethodon vehiculum) in the Washington Coast Range after headwater stream-buffer manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Wilk; Jeffrey D. Ricklefs; Martin G. Raphael

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of forest riparian alternative tree buffer designs on Western Red-backed Salamanders (Plethodon vehiculum) along headwater stream banks in managed forests of the Washington Coast Range. We used pit trap live removals in early autumn to estimate relative abundances of surface-active salamanders before and after 3 levels of riparian buffer...

  17. Larval long-toed salamanders incur nonconsumptive effects in the presence of nonnative trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenison, Erin K.; Litt, Andrea R.; Pilliod, David; McMahon, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Predators can influence prey directly through consumption or indirectly through nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) by altering prey behavior, morphology, and life history. We investigated whether predator-avoidance behaviors by larval long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in lakes with nonnative trout result in NCEs on morphology and development. Field studies in lakes with and without trout were corroborated by experimental enclosures, where prey were exposed only to visual and chemical cues of predators. We found that salamanders in lakes with trout were consistently smaller than in lakes without trout: 38% lower weight, 24% shorter body length, and 29% shorter tail length. Similarly, salamanders in protective enclosures grew 2.9 times slower when exposed to visual and olfactory trout cues than when no trout cues were present. Salamanders in trout-free lakes and enclosures were 22.7 times and 1.48 times, respectively, more likely to metamorphose during the summer season than those exposed to trout in lakes and/or their cues. Observed changes in larval growth rate and development likely resulted from a facultative response to predator-avoidance behavior and demonstrate NCEs occurred even when predation risk was only perceived. Reduced body size and growth, as well as delayed metamorphosis, could have ecological consequences for salamander populations existing with fish if those effects carry-over into lower recruitment, survival, and fecundity.

  18. Salamanders increase their feeding activity when infected with the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Alexandra; McAllister, Caroline; DeMarchi, Joseph; Zidek, Makenzie; Murone, Julie; Venesky, Matthew D

    2015-10-27

    Immune function is a costly line of defense against parasitism. When infected with a parasite, hosts frequently lose mass due to these costs. However, some infected hosts (e.g. highly resistant individuals) can clear infections with seemingly little fitness losses, but few studies have tested how resistant hosts mitigate these costly immune defenses. We explored this topic using eastern red-backed salamanders Plethodon cinereus and the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Bd is generally lethal for amphibians, and stereotypical symptoms of infection include loss in mass and deficits in feeding. However, individuals of P. cinereus can clear their Bd infections with seemingly few fitness costs. We conducted an experiment in which we repeatedly observed the feeding activity of Bd-infected and non-infected salamanders. We found that Bd-infected salamanders generally increased their feeding activity compared to non-infected salamanders. The fact that we did not observe any differences in mass change between the treatments suggests that increased feeding might help Bd-infected salamanders minimize the costs of an effective immune response.

  19. Stream water temperature limits occupancy of salamanders in mid-Atlantic protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Wiewel, Amber N. M.; Rice, Karen C.

    2014-01-01

    Stream ecosystems are particularly sensitive to urbanization, and tolerance of water-quality parameters is likely important to population persistence of stream salamanders. Forecasted climate and landscape changes may lead to significant changes in stream flow, chemical composition, and temperatures in coming decades. Protected areas where landscape alterations are minimized will therefore become increasingly important for salamander populations. We surveyed 29 streams at three national parks in the highly urbanized greater metropolitan area of Washington, DC. We investigated relationships among water-quality variables and occupancy of three species of stream salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus, Eurycea bislineata, and Pseudotriton ruber). With the use of a set of site-occupancy models, and accounting for imperfect detection, we found that stream-water temperature limits salamander occupancy. There was substantial uncertainty about the effects of the other water-quality variables, although both specific conductance (SC) and pH were included in competitive models. Our estimates of occupancy suggest that temperature, SC, and pH have some importance in structuring stream salamander distribution.

  20. Resource partitioning in two stream salamanders, Dicamptodon tenebrosus and Rhyacotriton cascadae, from the Oregon Cascade Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Wynn W.; Bury, R. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the potential for resource partitioning between the Coastal giant salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) and the Cascade torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton cascadae) by examining their diet and microhabitats in forest streams. Larval D. tenebrosus and R. cascadae fed primarily upon aquatic insect larvae. We found similar foods in larval and adult R. cascadae and combined these results. Dicamptodon larvae consumed ephemeropteran, plecopteran, and trichopteran larvae in about equal amounts whereas R. cascadae ate more trichopteran and less ephemeropteran larvae than D. tenebrosus. Diet of all R. cascadae overlapped more with smaller than larger sized D. tenebrosus larvae. Comparisons of diets with available foods indicated R. cascadae is more selective or more gape-limited in its feeding habits than D. tenebrosus larvae. The two salamanders differed in use of microhabitats in creeks, which may contribute to their diet differences.

  1. Wildlife disease. Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, A; Blooi, M; Adriaensen, C; Van Rooij, P; Beukema, W; Fisher, M C; Farrer, R A; Schmidt, B R; Tobler, U; Goka, K; Lips, K R; Muletz, C; Zamudio, K R; Bosch, J; Lötters, S; Wombwell, E; Garner, T W J; Cunningham, A A; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A; Salvidio, S; Ducatelle, R; Nishikawa, K; Nguyen, T T; Kolby, J E; Van Bocxlaer, I; Bossuyt, F; Pasmans, F

    2014-10-31

    Emerging infectious diseases are reducing biodiversity on a global scale. Recently, the emergence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans resulted in rapid declines in populations of European fire salamanders. Here, we screened more than 5000 amphibians from across four continents and combined experimental assessment of pathogenicity with phylogenetic methods to estimate the threat that this infection poses to amphibian diversity. Results show that B. salamandrivorans is restricted to, but highly pathogenic for, salamanders and newts (Urodela). The pathogen likely originated and remained in coexistence with a clade of salamander hosts for millions of years in Asia. As a result of globalization and lack of biosecurity, it has recently been introduced into naïve European amphibian populations, where it is currently causing biodiversity loss. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Rapid synaptic vesicle endocytosis in cone photoreceptors of salamander retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Matthew J.; Thoreson, Wallace B.

    2013-01-01

    Following synaptic vesicle exocytosis, neurons retrieve the fused membrane by a process of endocytosis in order to provide a supply of vesicles for subsequent release and maintain the presynaptic active zone. Rod and cone photoreceptors use a specialized structure called the synaptic ribbon that enables them to sustain high rates of neurotransmitter release. They must also employ mechanisms of synaptic vesicle endocytosis capable of keeping up with release. While much is known about endocytosis at another retinal ribbon synapse, that of the goldfish Mb1 bipolar cell, less is known about endocytosis in photoreceptors. We used capacitance recording techniques to measure vesicle membrane fusion and retrieval in photoreceptors from salamander retinal slices. We found that application of brief depolarizing steps (endocytosis with a time constant ~250 ms. In some cases, the capacitance trace overshot the baseline, indicating excess endocytosis. Calcium had no effect on the time constant, but enhanced excess endocytosis resulting in a faster rate of membrane retrieval. Surprisingly, endocytosis was unaffected by blockers of dynamin, suggesting that cone endocytosis is dynamin-independent. This contrasts with synaptic vesicle endocytosis in rods, which was inhibited by the dynamin inhibitor dynasore and GTPγS introduced through the patch pipette, suggesting that the two photoreceptor types employ distinct pathways for vesicle retrieval. The fast kinetics of synaptic vesicle endocytosis in photoreceptors likely enables these cells to maintain a high rate of transmitter release, allowing them to faithfully signal changes in illumination to second-order neurons. PMID:23238726

  3. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans is the predominant chytrid fungus in Vietnamese salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laking, Alexandra E; Ngo, Hai Ngoc; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An; Nguyen, Tao Thien

    2017-03-13

    The amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), pose a major threat to amphibian biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests Southeast Asia as a potential cradle for both fungi, which likely resulted in widespread host-pathogen co-existence. We sampled 583 salamanders from 8 species across Vietnam in 55 locations for Bsal and Bd, determined scaled mass index as a proxy for fitness and collected environmental data. Bsal was found within 14 of the 55 habitats (2 of which it was detected in 2013), in 5 salamandrid species, with a prevalence of 2.92%. The globalized pandemic lineage of Bd was found within one pond on one species with a prevalence of 0.69%. Combined with a complete lack of correlation between infection and individual body condition and absence of indication of associated disease, this suggests low level pathogen endemism and Bsal and Bd co-existence with Vietnamese salamandrid populations. Bsal was more widespread than Bd, and occurs at temperatures higher than tolerated by the type strain, suggesting a wider thermal niche than currently known. Therefore, this study provides support for the hypothesis that these chytrid fungi may be endemic to Asia and that species within this region may act as a disease reservoir.

  4. Survey of Pathogenic Chytrid Fungi (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans) in Salamanders from Three Mountain Ranges in Europe and the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Joshua Curtis; Shepack, Alexander; Burkart, David; LaBumbard, Brandon; Scimè, Patrick; Baruch, Ethan; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is a virulent fungal pathogen that infects salamanders. It is implicated in the recent collapse of several populations of fire salamanders in Europe. This pathogen seems much like that of its sister species, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the agent responsible for anuran extinctions and extirpations worldwide, and is considered to be an emerging global threat to salamander communities. Bsal thrives at temperatures found in many mountainous regions rich in salamander species; because of this, we have screened specimens of salamanders representing 17 species inhabiting mountain ranges in three continents: The Smoky Mountains, the Swiss Alps, and the Peruvian Andes. We screened 509 salamanders, with 192 representing New World salamanders that were never tested for Bsal previously. Bsal was not detected, and Bd was mostly present at low prevalence except for one site in the Andes.

  5. Antifungal bacteria on woodland salamander skin exhibit high taxonomic diversity and geographic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muletz-Wolz, Carly R.; DiRenzo, Graziella V.; Yarwood, Stephanie A.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Fleischer, Robert C.; Lips, Karen R.

    2017-01-01

    Diverse bacteria inhabit amphibian skin; some of those bacteria inhibit growth of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Yet there has been no systematic survey of anti-B. dendrobatidis bacteria across localities, species, and elevations. This is important given geographic and taxonomic variations in amphibian susceptibility to B. dendrobatidis. Our collection sites were at locations within the Appalachian Mountains where previous sampling had indicated low B. dendrobatidis prevalence. We determined the numbers and identities of anti-B. dendrobatidis bacteria on 61 Plethodon salamanders (37 P. cinereus, 15 P. glutinosus, 9 P. cylindraceus) via culturing methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We sampled co-occurring species at three localities and sampled P. cinereus along an elevational gradient (700 to 1,000 meters above sea level [masl]) at one locality. We identified 50 anti-B. dendrobatidis bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and found that the degree of B. dendrobatidis inhibition was not correlated with relatedness. Five anti-B. dendrobatidis bacterial strains occurred on multiple amphibian species at multiple localities, but none were shared among all species and localities. The prevalence of anti-B. dendrobatidis bacteria was higher at Shenandoah National Park (NP), VA, with 96% (25/26) of salamanders hosting at least one anti-B. dendrobatidis bacterial species compared to 50% (7/14) at Catoctin Mountain Park (MP), MD, and 38% (8/21) at Mt. Rogers National Recreation Area (NRA), VA. At the individual level, salamanders at Shenandoah NP had more anti-B. dendrobatidis bacteria per individual (μ = 3.3) than those at Catoctin MP (μ = 0.8) and at Mt. Rogers NRA (μ = 0.4). All salamanders tested negative for B. dendrobatidis. Anti-B. dendrobatidis bacterial species are diverse in central Appalachian Plethodon salamanders, and their distribution varied geographically. The antifungal bacterial species that we identified may play a protective

  6. Different season, different strategies: Feeding ecology of two syntopic forest-dwelling salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiano, Salvidio; Antonio, Romano; Fabrizio, Oneto; Dario, Ottonello; Roberta, Michelon

    2012-08-01

    Trophic niche may be the most important ecological dimension for some vertebrate groups and in particular for terrestrial amphibians, that are important predators of soil invertebrates. In general, resource partitioning occurs between syntopic species with similar ecological niches, and coexistence patterns seem to be regulated by temporal resource variability. However most of the generalization on foraging strategies of terrestrial salamanders are extrapolated from studies on New World temperate species, thus we investigated the seasonal effect of resource variation in an European forest ecosystem, in which two ecologically similar but phylogenetically distinct salamander species are found. The diet of adult and juvenile cave salamanders (Speleomantes strinati), and of adult spectacled salamander (Salamandrina perspicillata) was obtained by stomach flushing, and results showed large seasonal changes both in prey availability and in salamander realised trophic niche. Values of trophic diversity were similar and niche overlaps were large among all salamander groups in spring, during high prey availability. Conversely in autumn, when a two-fold reduction in prey biomass was observed, there was a clear niche partitioning as the smaller S. perspicillata shifted from a generalist to a specialized trophic strategy. Juvenile Speleomantes strinatii, that largely overlapped in size with S. perspicillata, did not show any change in diet, suggesting that the feeding strategies were species-specific and not size-mediated. The observed patterns of variation in feeding ecology indicate that similar predators may react differently to changing prey availability to enhance niche partitioning. We also observed an increased energy intake during autumn for S perspicillata and S. strinatii juveniles, possibly related to differences in microhabitat use and activity patterns.

  7. Decadal changes in phenology of peak abundance patterns of woodland pond salamanders in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Deahn M.; Ribic, Christine; Beck, Albert J.; Higgins, Dale; Eklund, Dan; Reinecke, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Woodland ponds are important landscape features that help sustain populations of amphibians that require this aquatic habitat for successful reproduction. Species abundance patterns often reflect site-specific differences in hydrology, physical characteristics, and surrounding vegetation. Large-scale processes such as changing land cover and environmental conditions are other potential drivers influencing amphibian populations in the Upper Midwest, but little information exists on the combined effects of these factors. We used Blue-spotted (Ambystoma laterale Hallowell) and Spotted Salamander (A. maculatum Shaw) monitoring data collected at the same woodland ponds thirteen years apart to determine if changing environmental conditions and vegetation cover in surrounding landscapes influenced salamander movement phenology and abundance. Four woodland ponds in northern Wisconsin were sampled for salamanders in April 1992-1994 and 2005-2007. While Blue-spotted Salamanders were more abundant than Spotted Salamanders in all ponds, there was no change in the numbers of either species over the years. However, peak numbers of Blue-spotted Salamanders occurred 11.7 days earlier (range: 9-14 days) in the 2000s compared to the 1990s; Spotted Salamanders occurred 9.5 days earlier (range: 3 - 13 days). Air and water temperatures (April 13- 24) increased, on average, 4.8°C and 3.7°C, respectively, between the decades regardless of pond. There were no discernible changes in canopy openness in surrounding forests between decades that would have warmed the water sooner (i.e., more light penetration). Our finding that salamander breeding phenology can vary by roughly 10 days in Wisconsin contributes to growing evidence that amphibian populations have responded to changing climate conditions by shifting life-cycle events. Managers can use this information to adjust monitoring programs and forest management activities in the surrounding landscape to avoid vulnerable amphibian

  8. The effect of waist twisting on walking speed of an amphibious salamander like robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin-Yan; Jia, Li-Chao; Wang, Chen; Xie, Guang-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Amphibious salamanders often swing their waist to coordinate quadruped walking in order to improve their crawling speed. A robot with a swing waist joint, like an amphibious salamander, is used to mimic this locomotion. A control method is designed to allow the robot to maintain the rotational speed of its legs continuous and avoid impact between its legs and the ground. An analytical expression is established between the amplitude of the waist joint and the step length. Further, an optimization amplitude is obtained corresponding to the maximum stride. The simulation results based on automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems (ADAMS) and physical experiments verify the rationality and validity of this expression.

  9. Antifungal Bacteria on Woodland Salamander Skin Exhibit High Taxonomic Diversity and Geographic Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muletz-Wolz, Carly R; DiRenzo, Graziella V; Yarwood, Stephanie A; Campbell Grant, Evan H; Fleischer, Robert C; Lips, Karen R

    2017-05-01

    Diverse bacteria inhabit amphibian skin; some of those bacteria inhibit growth of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Yet there has been no systematic survey of anti- B. dendrobatidis bacteria across localities, species, and elevations. This is important given geographic and taxonomic variations in amphibian susceptibility to B. dendrobatidis Our collection sites were at locations within the Appalachian Mountains where previous sampling had indicated low B. dendrobatidis prevalence. We determined the numbers and identities of anti- B. dendrobatidis bacteria on 61 Plethodon salamanders (37 P. cinereus , 15 P. glutinosus , 9 P. cylindraceus ) via culturing methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We sampled co-occurring species at three localities and sampled P. cinereus along an elevational gradient (700 to 1,000 meters above sea level [masl]) at one locality. We identified 50 anti- B. dendrobatidis bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and found that the degree of B. dendrobatidis inhibition was not correlated with relatedness. Five anti- B. dendrobatidis bacterial strains occurred on multiple amphibian species at multiple localities, but none were shared among all species and localities. The prevalence of anti- B. dendrobatidis bacteria was higher at Shenandoah National Park (NP), VA, with 96% (25/26) of salamanders hosting at least one anti- B. dendrobatidis bacterial species compared to 50% (7/14) at Catoctin Mountain Park (MP), MD, and 38% (8/21) at Mt. Rogers National Recreation Area (NRA), VA. At the individual level, salamanders at Shenandoah NP had more anti- B. dendrobatidis bacteria per individual (μ = 3.3) than those at Catoctin MP (μ = 0.8) and at Mt. Rogers NRA (μ = 0.4). All salamanders tested negative for B. dendrobatidis Anti- B. dendrobatidis bacterial species are diverse in central Appalachian Plethodon salamanders, and their distribution varied geographically. The antifungal bacterial species that we identified may play a

  10. Long bone histology of the stem salamander Kokartus honorarius (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutschas, Pavel; Stein, Koen

    2015-04-01

    Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Kyrgyzstan is one of the oldest salamanders in the fossil record, characterized by a mixture of plesiomorphic morphological features and characters shared with crown-group salamanders. Here we present a detailed histological analysis of its long bones. The analysis of a growth series demonstrates a significant histological maturation during ontogeny, expressed by the progressive appearance of longitudinally oriented primary vascular canals, primary osteons, growth marks, remodelling features in primary bone tissues, as well as progressive resorption of the calcified cartilage, formation of endochondral bone and development of cartilaginous to bony trabeculae in the epiphyses. Apart from the presence of secondary osteons, the long bone histology of Kokartus is very similar to that of miniaturized temnospondyls, other Jurassic stem salamanders, miniaturized seymouriamorphs and modern crown-group salamanders. We propose that the presence of secondary osteons in Kokartus honorarius is a plesiomorphic feature, and the loss of secondary osteons in the long bones of crown-group salamanders as well as in those of miniaturized temnospondyls is the result of miniaturization processes. Hitherto, all stem salamander long bong histology (Kokartus, Marmorerpeton and 'salamander A') has been generally described as having paedomorphic features (i.e. the presence of Katschenko's Line and a layer of calcified cartilage), these taxa were thus most likely neotenic forms. The absence of clear lines of arrested growth and annuli in long bones of Kokartus honorarius suggests that the animals lived in an environment with stable local conditions. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  11. Methodological considerations for detection of terrestrial small-body salamander eDNA and implications for biodiversity conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Donald M.; Leys, Jacob E.; Dunham, Kelly E.; Oliver, Joshua C.; Schiller, Emily E.; Stephenson, Kelsey S.; Kimrey, John T.; Wooten, Jessica; Rogers, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used as an assessment tool to detect populations of threatened species and provide fine-scale data required to make management decisions. The objectives of this project were to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) to: (i) detect spiked salamander DNA in soil, (ii) quantify eDNA degradation over time, (iii) determine detectability of salamander eDNA in a terrestrial environment using soil, faeces, and skin swabs, (iv) detect salamander eDNA in a mesocosm experiment. Salamander eDNA was positively detected in 100% of skin swabs and 66% of faecal samples and concentrations did not differ between the two sources. However, eDNA was not detected in soil samples collected from directly underneath wild-caught living salamanders. Salamander genomic DNA (gDNA) was detected in all qPCR reactions when spiked into soil at 10.0, 5.0, and 1.0 ng/g soil and spike concentration had a significant effect on detected concentrations. Only 33% of samples showed recoverable eDNA when spiked with 0.25 ng/g soil, which was the low end of eDNA detection. To determine the rate of eDNA degradation, gDNA (1 ng/g soil) was spiked into soil and quantified over seven days. Salamander eDNA concentrations decreased across days, but eDNA was still amplifiable at day 7. Salamander eDNA was detected in two of 182 mesocosm soil samples over 12 weeks (n = 52 control samples; n = 65 presence samples; n = 65 eviction samples). The discrepancy in detection success between experiments indicates the potential challenges for this method to be used as a monitoring technique for small-bodied wild terrestrial salamander populations.

  12. Methodological considerations for detection of terrestrial small-body salamander eDNA and implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Donald M; Leys, Jacob E; Dunham, Kelly E; Oliver, Joshua C; Schiller, Emily E; Stephenson, Kelsey S; Kimrey, John T; Wooten, Jessica; Rogers, Mark W

    2017-11-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used as an assessment tool to detect populations of threatened species and provide fine-scale data required to make management decisions. The objectives of this project were to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) to: (i) detect spiked salamander DNA in soil, (ii) quantify eDNA degradation over time, (iii) determine detectability of salamander eDNA in a terrestrial environment using soil, faeces, and skin swabs, (iv) detect salamander eDNA in a mesocosm experiment. Salamander eDNA was positively detected in 100% of skin swabs and 66% of faecal samples and concentrations did not differ between the two sources. However, eDNA was not detected in soil samples collected from directly underneath wild-caught living salamanders. Salamander genomic DNA (gDNA) was detected in all qPCR reactions when spiked into soil at 10.0, 5.0, and 1.0 ng/g soil and spike concentration had a significant effect on detected concentrations. Only 33% of samples showed recoverable eDNA when spiked with 0.25 ng/g soil, which was the low end of eDNA detection. To determine the rate of eDNA degradation, gDNA (1 ng/g soil) was spiked into soil and quantified over seven days. Salamander eDNA concentrations decreased across days, but eDNA was still amplifiable at day 7. Salamander eDNA was detected in two of 182 mesocosm soil samples over 12 weeks (n = 52 control samples; n = 65 presence samples; n = 65 eviction samples). The discrepancy in detection success between experiments indicates the potential challenges for this method to be used as a monitoring technique for small-bodied wild terrestrial salamander populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of extensive mitochondrial gene rearrangementin plethodontid salamanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-06-01

    Extensive gene rearrangement is reported in the mitochondrial genomes of lungless salamanders (Plethodontidae). In each genome with a novel gene order, there is evidence that the rearrangement was mediated by duplication of part of the mitochondrial genome, including the presence of both pseudogenes and additional, presumably functional, copies of duplicated genes. All rearrangement-mediating duplications include either the origin of light strand replication and the nearby tRNA genes or the regions flanking the origin of heavy strand replication. The latter regions comprise nad6, trnE, cob, trnT, an intergenic spacer between trnT and trnP and, in some genomes, trnP, the control region, trnF, rrnS, trnV, rrnL, trnL1, and nad1. In some cases, two copies of duplicated genes, presumptive regulatory regions, and/or sequences with no assignable function have been retained in the genome following the initial duplication; in other genomes, only one of the duplicated copies has been retained. Both tandem and non-tandem duplications are present in these genomes, suggesting different duplication mechanisms. In some of these mtDNAs, up to 25 percent of the total length is composed of tandem duplications of non-coding sequence that includes putative regulatory regions and/or pseudogenes of tRNAs and protein-coding genes along with otherwise unassignable sequences. These data indicate that imprecise initiation and termination of replication, slipped-strand mispairing, and intra-molecular recombination may all have played a role in generating repeats during the evolutionary history of plethodontid mitochondrial genomes.

  14. Cytogenetics of the Brazilian Bolitoglossa paraensis (Unterstein, 1930 salamanders (Caudata, Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Barata da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plethodontid salamanders of genus Bolitoglossa constitute the largest and most diverse group of salamanders, including around 20% of living caudate species. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of five recognized species in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. We present here the first cytogenetic data of a Brazilian salamander, which may prove to be a useful by contribution to the cytotaxonomy of the genus. Specimens were collected near the "type" locality (Utinga, Belém, PA, Brazil. Chromosomal preparations from duodenal epithelial cells and testes were subjected to Giemsa staining, C-banding and DAPI/CMA3 fluorochrome staining. All specimens showed a karyotype with 13 bi-armed chromosome pairs (2n = 26. Nucleolar Organizer Regions, evidenced by CMA3, were located distally on the long arm of pair 7 (7q. DAPI+ heterochromatin was predominantly centromeric, with some small pericentromeric bands. Although the C-banding patterns of other Bolitoglossa species are so far unknown, cytogenetic studies conducted in other Plethodontid salamanders have demonstrated that pericentromeric heterochromatin is a useful cytological marker for identifying interspecific homeologies. Species diversification is usually accompanied by chromosomal changes. Therefore, the cytogenetic characterization of Bolitoglossa populations from the middle and western Brazilian Amazon Basin could identify differences which may lead to the identification of new species.

  15. Oviposition site of the southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Karraker; Lisa M. Ollivier; Garth R. Hodgson

    2005-01-01

    Oviposition sites and reproductive ecology of the southern-torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) remain poorly documented. This species oviposits in cryptic locations making the detection of eggs difficult. Here we describe the discovery of 1 clutch of eggs of R. variegatus from northern California, which further expands our...

  16. Cheat Mountain Salamanders Search Report 2006 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the survey was to document Cheat Mountain salamander use on either side of Powderline ski trail or Three-Mile ski trail in an effort to continue to...

  17. Sal-Site: Integrating new and existing ambystomatid salamander research and informational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisrock David W

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salamanders of the genus Ambystoma are a unique model organism system because they enable natural history and biomedical research in the laboratory or field. We developed Sal-Site to integrate new and existing ambystomatid salamander research resources in support of this model system. Sal-Site hosts six important resources: 1 Salamander Genome Project: an information-based web-site describing progress in genome resource development, 2 Ambystoma EST Database: a database of manually edited and analyzed contigs assembled from ESTs that were collected from A. tigrinum tigrinum and A. mexicanum, 3 Ambystoma Gene Collection: a database containing full-length protein-coding sequences, 4 Ambystoma Map and Marker Collection: an image and database resource that shows the location of mapped markers on linkage groups, provides information about markers, and provides integrating links to Ambystoma EST Database and Ambystoma Gene Collection databases, 5 Ambystoma Genetic Stock Center: a website and collection of databases that describe an NSF funded salamander rearing facility that generates and distributes biological materials to researchers and educators throughout the world, and 6 Ambystoma Research Coordination Network: a web-site detailing current research projects and activities involving an international group of researchers. Sal-Site is accessible at http://www.ambystoma.org.

  18. Cutaneous bacteria of the redback salamander prevent morbidity associated with a lethal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Becker

    Full Text Available Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is an infectious disease that causes population declines of many amphibians. Cutaneous bacteria isolated from redback salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, and mountain yellow-legged frogs, Rana muscosa, inhibit the growth of Bd in vitro. In this study, the bacterial community present on the skin of P. cinereus individuals was investigated to determine if it provides protection to salamanders from the lethal and sub-lethal effects of chytridiomycosis. When the cutaneous bacterial community was reduced prior to Bd exposure, salamanders experienced a significantly greater decrease in body mass, which is a symptom of the disease, when compared to infected individuals with a normal bacterial community. In addition, a greater proportion of infected individuals with a reduced bacterial community experienced limb-lifting, a behavior seen only in infected individuals. Overall, these results demonstrate that the cutaneous bacterial community of P. cinereus provides protection to the salamander from Bd and that alteration of this community can change disease resistance. Therefore, symbiotic microbes associated with this species appear to be an important component of its innate skin defenses.

  19. The Amphibian Chytrid Fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in Fully Aquatic Salamanders from Southeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Matthew W. H.; Moler, Paul; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the impact that the pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has on fully aquatic salamander species of the eastern United States. As a first step in determining the impacts of Bd on these species, we aimed to determine the prevalence of Bd in wild populations of fully aquatic salamanders in the genera Amphiuma, Necturus, Pseudobranchus, and Siren. We sampled a total of 98 salamanders, representing nine species from sites in Florida, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Overall, infection prevalence was found to be 0.34, with significant differences among genera but no clear geographic pattern. We also found evidence for seasonal variation, but additional sampling throughout the year is needed to clarify this pattern. The high rate of infection discovered in this study is consistent with studies of other amphibians from the southeastern United States. Coupled with previously published data on life histories and population densities, the results presented here suggest that fully aquatic salamanders may be serving as important vectors of Bd and the interaction between these species and Bd warrants additional research. PMID:22984569

  20. Determining sex and life stage of Del Norte salamanders from external cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Ollivier; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr

    2003-01-01

    Life stage determination for many western plethodontids often requires dissection of the specimen. Availability of reliable external measures that could be applied under field conditions would enhance future studies of the genus Plethodon. We examined preserved specimens of the Del Norte Salamander, Plethodon elongatus, taken from...

  1. Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a Nicaraguan, micro-endemic Neotropical salamander, Bolitoglossa mombachoensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, Tariq; Laurijssens, Carlijn; Weterings, Martijn; Martel, An; Köhler, Gunther; Pasmans, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians are the most threatened terrestrial vertebrates on the planet and are iconic in the global biodiversity crisis. Their global decline caused by the fungal agent Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is well known. Declines of Mesoamerican salamanders of the family Plethodontidae, mainly

  2. Exceptional soft tissues preservation in a mummified frog-eating Eocene salamander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Tissier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fossils are almost always represented by hard tissues but we present here the exceptional case of a three-dimensionally preserved specimen that was ‘mummified’ (likely between 40 and 34 million years ago in a terrestrial karstic environment. This fossil is the incomplete body of a salamander, Phosphotriton sigei, whose skeleton and external morphology are well preserved, as revealed by phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography. In addition, internal structures composed of soft tissues preserved in three dimensions are now identified: a lung, the spinal cord, a lumbosacral plexus, the digestive tract, muscles and urogenital organs that may be cloacal glands. These are among the oldest known cases of three-dimensional preservation of these organs in vertebrates and shed light on the ecology of this salamander. Indeed, the digestive tract contains remains of a frog, which represents the only known case of an extinct salamander that fed on a frog, an extremely rare type of predation in extant salamanders. These new data improve our scarce knowledge on soft tissue anatomy of early urodeles and should prove useful for future biologists and palaeontologists working on urodele evolutionary biology. We also suggest that the presence of bat guano and carcasses represented a close source of phosphorus, favouring preservation of soft tissues. Bone microanatomy indicates that P. sigei was likely amphibious or terrestrial, and was probably not neotenic.

  3. Vertebral development of modern salamanders provides insights into a unique event of their evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Catherine Anne

    2009-01-15

    The origin of salamanders and their interrelationships to the two other modern amphibian orders (frogs and caecilians) are problematic owing to an 80-100 million year gap in the fossil record between the Carboniferous to the Lower Jurassic. This is compounded by a scarcity of adult skeletal characters linking the early representatives of the modern orders to their stem-group in the Paleozoic. The use of ontogenetic characters can be of great use in the resolution of these questions. Growth series of all ten modern salamander families (a 120 cleared and stained larvae) were examined for pattern and timing of vertebral elements chondrification and ossification. The primitive pattern is that of the neural arches developing before the centra, while the reverse represents the derived condition. Both the primitive and derived conditions are observed within the family Hynobiidae, whereas only the derived condition is observed in all other salamanders. This provides support to the claims that Hynobiidae is both the most basal of modern families and potentially polyphyletic (with Ranodon and Hybobius forming the most basal clade and Salamandrella being a part of the most derived clade). This provides insight into a unique event in salamander evolutionary history and suggests that the developmental pattern switch occurred between the Triassic and the mid-Jurassic before the last major radiation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Size-Mediated Tradeoffs in Life-History Traits in Dusky Salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Among salamanders of the genus Desmognathus, the larger species tend to be more aquatic and the smaller more terrestrial. I studied life histories in assemblages of Desmognathus in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina at sites in the Cowee and southern Nantahala Mountains. Traits evaluated included mortality/survival...

  5. Stand age and habitat influences on salamanders in Appalachian cove hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Brian R. Chapman; Michael A. Menzel; Richard H. Odom

    2002-01-01

    We surveyed cove hardwood stands aged 15, 25, 50, and ≥85 years following clearcutting in the southern Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia to assess the effects of stand age and stand habitat characteristics on salamander communities using drift-fence array and pitfall methodologies from May 1994 to April 1995. Over a 60,060 pitfall trapnight effort, we...

  6. Data from proteomic analysis of the skin of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Geng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, renowned as a living fossil, is the largest and longest-lived amphibian species in the world. Its skin is rich in collagens, and has developed mucous gland which could secrete a large amount of mucus under the scraping and electric stimulation. The molting is the degraded skin stratum corneum. To establish the functional skin proteome of Chinese giant salamander, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE and mass spectrometry (MS were applied to detect the composition and relative abundance of the proteins in the skin, mucus and molting. The determination of the general proteome in the skin can potentially serve as a foundation for future studies characterizing the skin proteomes from diseased salamander to provide molecular and mechanistic insights into various disease states and potential therapeutic interventions. Data presented here are also related to the research article “Proteomic analysis of the skin of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus” in the Journal of Proteomics [1].

  7. Stream salamander species richness and abundance in relation to environmental factors in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Jung, Robin E.; Rice, Karen C.

    2005-01-01

    Stream salamanders are sensitive to acid mine drainage and may be sensitive to acidification and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of a watershed. Streams in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, are subject to episodic acidification from precipitation events. We surveyed 25 m by 2 m transects located on the stream bank adjacent to the water channel in Shenandoah National Park for salamanders using a stratified random sampling design based on elevation, aspect and bedrock geology. We investigated the relationships of four species (Eurycea bislineata, Desmognathus fuscus, D. monticola and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) to habitat and water quality variables. We did not find overwhelming evidence that stream salamanders are affected by the acid-base status of streams in Shenandoah National Park. Desmognathus fuscus and D. monticola abundance was greater both in streams that had a higher potential to neutralize acidification, and in higher elevation (>700 m) streams. Neither abundance of E. bislineata nor species richness were related to any of the habitat variables. Our sampling method preferentially detected the adult age class of the study species and did not allow us to estimate population sizes. We suggest that continued monitoring of stream salamander populations in SNP will determine the effects of stream acidification on these taxa.

  8. Geographic variation, genetic structure, and conservation unit designation in the Larch Mountain salamander (Plethodon larselli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Steven Wagner; Mark P. Miller; Charles M. Crisafulli; Susan M. Haig

    2005-01-01

    The Larch Mountain salamander (Plethodon larselli Burns, 1954) is an endemic species in the Pacific northwestern United States facing threats related to habitat destruction. To facilitate development of conservation strategies, we used DNA sequences and RAPDs (random amplified polymorphic DNA) to examine differences among populations of this...

  9. A stem batrachian from the Early Permian of Texas and the origin of frogs and salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jason S; Reisz, Robert R; Scott, Diane; Fröbisch, Nadia B; Sumida, Stuart S

    2008-05-22

    The origin of extant amphibians (Lissamphibia: frogs, salamanders and caecilians) is one of the most controversial questions in vertebrate evolution, owing to large morphological and temporal gaps in the fossil record. Current discussions focus on three competing hypotheses: a monophyletic origin within either Temnospondyli or Lepospondyli, or a polyphyletic origin with frogs and salamanders arising among temnospondyls and caecilians among the lepospondyls. Recent molecular analyses are also controversial, with estimations for the batrachian (frog-salamander) divergence significantly older than the palaeontological evidence supports. Here we report the discovery of an amphibamid temnospondyl from the Early Permian of Texas that bridges the gap between other Palaeozoic amphibians and the earliest known salientians and caudatans from the Mesozoic. The presence of a mosaic of salientian and caudatan characters in this small fossil makes it a key taxon close to the batrachian (frog and salamander) divergence. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the batrachian divergence occurred in the Middle Permian, rather than the late Carboniferous as recently estimated using molecular clocks, but the divergence with caecilians corresponds to the deep split between temnospondyls and lepospondyls, which is congruent with the molecular estimates.

  10. A survey for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in endangered and highly susceptible Vietnamese salamanders (Tylototriton spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Tao Nguyen; Martel, An; Brutyn, Melanie; Bogaerts, Sergé; Sparreboom, Max; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Fisher, Matthew C; Beukema, Wouter; Van, Tang Duong; Chiers, Koen; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Until now, Asian amphibians appear to have largely escaped declines driven by chytridiomycosis. Vietnamese salamanders that belong to the genus Tylototriton are rare and have a patchy distribution in mountainous areas, falling within the proposed environmental envelope of chytrid infections, surrounded by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infected regions. If these salamanders are susceptible to chytridiomycosis, then their populations could be highly vulnerable after the introduction of B. dendrobatidis. Examination for the presence of the chytrid fungus in skin swabs from 19 Tylototriton asperrimus and 104 Tylototriton vietnamensis by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed. Susceptibility of T. asperrimus to experimental infection by using the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) strain of B. dendrobatidis was examined. The fungus was absent in all samples from all wild salamanders examined. Inoculation with the BdGPL strain resulted in mortality of all five inoculated salamanders within 3 weeks after inoculation with infected animals that manifested severe orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, and spongiosis. Although infection by B. dendrobatidis currently appears absent in Vietnamese Tylototriton populations, the rarity of these animals, their pronounced susceptibility to chytridiomycosis, an apparently suitable environmental context and increasing likelihood of the pathogen being introduced, together suggest the need of urgent measures to avoid future scenarios of extinction as witnessed in Central America and Australia.

  11. Projected loss of a salamander diversity hotspot as a consequence of projected global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph R. Milanovich; William E. Peterman; Nathan P. Nibbelink; John C. Maerz

    2010-01-01

    Background: Significant shifts in climate are considered a threat to plants and animals with significant physiological limitations and limited dispersal abilities. The southern Appalachian Mountains are a global hotspot for plethodontid salamander diversity. Plethodontids are lungless ectotherms, so their ecology is strongly governed by temperature and precipitation....

  12. The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in fully aquatic salamanders from Southeastern North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W H Chatfield

    Full Text Available Little is known about the impact that the pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, has on fully aquatic salamander species of the eastern United States. As a first step in determining the impacts of Bd on these species, we aimed to determine the prevalence of Bd in wild populations of fully aquatic salamanders in the genera Amphiuma, Necturus, Pseudobranchus, and Siren. We sampled a total of 98 salamanders, representing nine species from sites in Florida, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Overall, infection prevalence was found to be 0.34, with significant differences among genera but no clear geographic pattern. We also found evidence for seasonal variation, but additional sampling throughout the year is needed to clarify this pattern. The high rate of infection discovered in this study is consistent with studies of other amphibians from the southeastern United States. Coupled with previously published data on life histories and population densities, the results presented here suggest that fully aquatic salamanders may be serving as important vectors of Bd and the interaction between these species and Bd warrants additional research.

  13. Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Ozark Zigzag Salamanders to Stimuli from an Invasive Predator: The Armadillo

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    Adam L. Crane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When new predators invade a habitat, either through range extensions or introductions, prey may be at a high risk because they do not recognize the predators as dangerous. The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus has recently expanded its range in North America. Armadillos forage by searching soil and leaf litter, consuming invertebrates and small vertebrates, including salamanders. We tested whether Ozark zigzag salamanders (Plethodon angusticlavius from a population coexisting with armadillos for about 30 years exhibit antipredator behavior in the presence of armadillo chemical cues and whether they can discriminate between stimuli from armadillos and a nonpredatory sympatric mammal (white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus. Salamanders appeared to recognize substrate cues from armadillos as a threat because they increased escape behaviors and oxygen consumption. When exposed to airborne cues from armadillos, salamanders also exhibited an antipredator response by spending more time in an inconspicuous posture. Additionally, individually consistent behaviors across treatments for some response variables suggest the potential for a behavioral syndrome in this species.

  14. Microarray analysis of a salamander hopeful monster reveals transcriptional signatures of paedomorphic brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta Srikrishna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum is considered a hopeful monster because it exhibits an adaptive and derived mode of development - paedomorphosis - that has evolved rapidly and independently among tiger salamanders. Unlike related tiger salamanders that undergo metamorphosis, axolotls retain larval morphological traits into adulthood and thus present an adult body plan that differs dramatically from the ancestral (metamorphic form. The basis of paedomorphic development was investigated by comparing temporal patterns of gene transcription between axolotl and tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum that typically undergo a metamorphosis. Results Transcript abundances from whole brain and pituitary were estimated via microarray analysis on four different days post hatching (42, 56, 70, 84 dph and regression modeling was used to independently identify genes that were differentially expressed as a function of time in both species. Collectively, more differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified as unique to the axolotl (n = 76 and tiger salamander (n = 292 than were identified as shared (n = 108. All but two of the shared DEGs exhibited the same temporal pattern of expression and the unique genes tended to show greater changes later in the larval period when tiger salamander larvae were undergoing anatomical metamorphosis. A second, complementary analysis that directly compared the expression of 1320 genes between the species identified 409 genes that differed as a function of species or the interaction between time and species. Of these 409 DEGs, 84% exhibited higher abundances in tiger salamander larvae at all sampling times. Conclusions Many of the unique tiger salamander transcriptional responses are probably associated with metamorphic biological processes. However, the axolotl also showed unique patterns of transcription early in development. In particular, the axolotl showed a genome

  15. At random meetings to the creation of new species of Salamander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillant, Marie-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The pupils in final year of high school (15-18 years old) study the notion "species" and the creation of new species in various ways. Having studied genetic admixtures, this activity allows the pupils to build a scenario explaining the creation of a new species of Salamander in southern California from an ancestral population existing in northern Oregon. They can observe, on Google Earth, various populations of Salamander of the genus Ensatina. Salamanders of the genus Ensatina live in California around the Joaquin and Sacramento dry valleys. In this software, the pupils get information about the salamanders' environment and photographs of individuals and environments. During a migratory movement toward new territories to be colonized, these salamanders meet an inhospitable environment that they can not occupy. This population then splits up into two migratory branches, east and west, each overcoming the obstacles in different ways. The two groups gradually colonized southern territories but they avoided the too dry and hot San Joaquin plains. The two main branches of the original population gradually move away from each other, and genetic exchanges between them decrease over time. Eventually, we can find various populations of Salamander on both sides of the valleys, since the salamanders occupied new territories and diversified along the way. Among mutations that randomly occur, only those mutations that are best adapted in the origin were conserved in the genetic heritage of every population. When the individuals stemming from different western populations met, they were interfertile and give fertile hybrids, which was verified in the laboratory. Likewise, when individuals of the different eastern subspecies met accidentally, fertile hybrids also could arise from these crossings. The pupils can observe what happens in the overlap of various populations : interfertility or not. They also have geological, geographical and climatic information about the San Joaquin

  16. Evaluating multi-level models to test occupancy state responses of Plethodontid salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Andrew J.; Garcia, Tiffany S.; Jones, Jay E.; Dugger, Catherine; Murden, Blake; Johnson, Josh; Peerman, Summer; Brintz, Ben; Rochelle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Plethodontid salamanders are diverse and widely distributed taxa and play critical roles in ecosystem processes. Due to salamander use of structurally complex habitats, and because only a portion of a population is available for sampling, evaluation of sampling designs and estimators is critical to provide strong inference about Plethodontid ecology and responses to conservation and management activities. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-scale and hierarchical single-scale occupancy models in the context of a Before-After Control-Impact (BACI) experimental design with multiple levels of sampling. Also, we fit the hierarchical single-scale model to empirical data collected for Oregon slender and Ensatina salamanders across two years on 66 forest stands in the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. All models were fit within a Bayesian framework. Estimator precision in both models improved with increasing numbers of primary and secondary sampling units, underscoring the potential gains accrued when adding secondary sampling units. Both models showed evidence of estimator bias at low detection probabilities and low sample sizes; this problem was particularly acute for the multi-scale model. Our results suggested that sufficient sample sizes at both the primary and secondary sampling levels could ameliorate this issue. Empirical data indicated Oregon slender salamander occupancy was associated strongly with the amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = 0.74; SD = 0.24); Ensatina occupancy was not associated with amount of coarse woody debris (posterior mean = -0.01; SD = 0.29). Our simulation results indicate that either model is suitable for use in an experimental study of Plethodontid salamanders provided that sample sizes are sufficiently large. However, hierarchical single-scale and multi-scale models describe different processes and estimate different parameters. As a result, we recommend careful consideration of study questions

  17. Northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus (endangered), and Cheat Mountain salamander, Plethodon nettingi (threatened), evaluation; Bald Knob of Cabin

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On April 17, 1991, the WVFO conducted an endangered species recon of properties in the southern end of Canaan Valley. Cheat Mountain Salamander A viable population...

  18. Report on the Status of the Cheat Mountain Salamander in the Cabin Mountain Area of West Virginia 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This outlines the results of field surveys that were conducted for the Cheat Mountain salamander on the Kelley property on three mountains in the Cabin Mountain area...

  19. Impacts of a gape limited Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, on larval Northwestern salamander, Ambystoma gracile, growth: A field enclosure experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currens, C.R.; Liss, W.J.; Hoffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The formation of amphibian population structure is directly affected by predation. Although aquatic predators have been shown to have direct negative effects on larval salamanders in laboratory and field experiments, the potential impacts of gape-limited fish on larval salamander growth has been largely underexplored. We designed an enclosure experiment conducted in situ to quantify the effects of gape-limited Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) on larval Northwestern Salamander (Ambystoma gracile) growth. We specifically tested whether the presence of fish too small to consume larvae had a negative effect on larval growth. The results of this study indicate that the presence of a gape-limited S. fontinalis can have a negative effect on growth of larval A. gracile salamanders. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  20. Survey for the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in southwestern North Carolina salamander populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitzer, S Conor; Goforth, Reuben; Pessier, Allan P; Johnson, April J

    2011-04-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a fungal pathogen responsible for a potentially fatal disease of amphibians. We conducted a survey for B. dendrobatidis in the Appalachian Mountains of southwestern North Carolina, USA, from 10 June to 23 July 23 2009. Ventral skin swabs were collected from plethodontid salamanders (n=278) and real-time PCR was performed to test for the presence of B. dendrobatidis. We found no evidence of B. dendrobatidis, suggesting that B. dendrobatidis is absent or present in such low levels that it was undetected. If B. dendrobatidis was present at the time of our sampling, this survey supports evidence of low prevalence of B. dendrobatidis in North American headwater stream salamander populations.

  1. Climate-mediated competition in a high-elevation salamander community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallalio, Eric A.; Brand, Adrianne B,; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of the federally endangered Shenandoah Salamander (Plethodon shenandoah) is presumed to be limited by competition with the Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus). In particular, the current distribution of P. shenandoah is understood to be restricted to warmer and drier habitats because of interspecific interactions. These habitats may be particularly sensitive to climate change, though the influence of competition may also be affected by temperature and relative humidity. We investigated the response of P. shenandoah to competition with P. cinereus under four climate scenarios in 3-dimensional mesocosms. The results suggest that, although climate change may alleviate competitive pressure from P. cinereus, warmer temperatures may also significantly influence the persistence of the species across its known range.

  2. Distribution of the Sonora Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium stebbinsi) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Muths, Erin L.; Rorabaugh, James C.; Lemos Espinal, Julio A.; Sigafus, Brent H.; Chambert, Thierry A.; Carreon Arroyo, Gerardo; Hurtado Felix, David; Toyos Martinez, Daniel; Jones, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Sonoran Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium stebbinsi Lowe, 1954) was listed as federally endangered in the USA in 1997 (USFWS 1997). In the USA, the distribution of A. mavortium stebbinsi is limited to the San Rafael Valley (approximately 567 km2), between the Sierra San Antonio (called the Patagonia Mountains in Arizona) and Huachuca Mountains, and south of the Canelo Hills, Arizona (Fig. 1). The USA listing was triggered by loss of natural wetland habitats, threats from invasive predators, frequent die-offs from disease, introgression with the introduced Barred Tiger Salamander (A. mavortium mavortium), and small range and number of breeding sites that increases susceptibility to stochastic events (USFWS 1997). Small population sizes and limited gene flow have caused inbreeding, which may further reduce population viability and the potential for recovery (Jones et al. 1988; Storfer et al. 2014). 

  3. Comparing population patterns to processes: abundance and survival of a forest salamander following habitat degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint R V Otto

    Full Text Available Habitat degradation resulting from anthropogenic activities poses immediate and prolonged threats to biodiversity, particularly among declining amphibians. Many studies infer amphibian response to habitat degradation by correlating patterns in species occupancy or abundance with environmental effects, often without regard to the demographic processes underlying these patterns. We evaluated how retention of vertical green trees (CANOPY and coarse woody debris (CWD influenced terrestrial salamander abundance and apparent survival in recently clearcut forests. Estimated abundance of unmarked salamanders was positively related to CANOPY (β Canopy  = 0.21 (0.02-1.19; 95% CI, but not CWD (β CWD  = 0.11 (-0.13-0.35 within 3,600 m2 sites, whereas estimated abundance of unmarked salamanders was not related to CANOPY (β Canopy  = -0.01 (-0.21-0.18 or CWD (β CWD  = -0.02 (-0.23-0.19 for 9 m2 enclosures. In contrast, apparent survival of marked salamanders within our enclosures over 1 month was positively influenced by both CANOPY and CWD retention (β Canopy  = 0.73 (0.27-1.19; 95% CI and β CWD  = 1.01 (0.53-1.50. Our results indicate that environmental correlates to abundance are scale dependent reflecting habitat selection processes and organism movements after a habitat disturbance event. Our study also provides a cautionary example of how scientific inference is conditional on the response variable(s, and scale(s of measure chosen by the investigator, which can have important implications for species conservation and management. Our research highlights the need for joint evaluation of population state variables, such as abundance, and population-level process, such as survival, when assessing anthropogenic impacts on forest biodiversity.

  4. Generalisation within specialization: inter-individual diet variation in the only specialized salamander in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Costa; Sebastiano Salvidio; Mario Posillico; Giorgio Matteucci; Bruno De Cinti; Antonio Romano

    2015-01-01

    Specialization is typically inferred at population and species level but in the last decade many authors highlighted this trait at the individual level, finding that generalist populations can be composed by both generalist and specialist individual. Despite hundreds of reported cases of individual specialization there is a complete lack of information on inter-individual diet variation in specialist species. We studied the diet of the Italian endemic Spectacled Salamander (Salamandrina persp...

  5. First record of salamander predation by a Liophis (Wagler, 1830 snake in the Venezuelan Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Esqueda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Information available so far is exceedingly meagre about the diet of the snakes included in the genus Liophis, one of the most diverse groups that inhabit terrestrial ecosystems of South America. For the first time is documented the predation of a salamander by Liophis from Venezuela, including a brief overview on the alteration of montane and submontane Andean ecosystem and their effect on the natural dynamic.

  6. The Impact of Management on the Movement and Home Range Size of Indiana's Eastern Hellbender Salamanders

    OpenAIRE

    McCallen, Emily B.; Kraus, Bart T.; Burgmeier, Nick G.; Williams, Rod N.

    2016-01-01

    Eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) are a large, fully aquatic salamander species distributed throughout watersheds in the eastern United States. In Indiana, hellbenders were once found in tributaries of the Ohio River and the Wabash River but are now restricted to a single river in the southern portion of the state. Monitoring within the Blue River over twenty years has revealed a steady decrease in the total abundance of hellbenders and a shift towards older ind...

  7. Purification and characterization of cholecystokinin from the skin of salamander Tylototriton verrucosus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wen-Bin; HAKIM, Ma; Luo, Lei; LI, Bo-Wen; Yang, Shi-Long; SONG, Yu-Zhu; Lai, Ren; Lu, Qiu-Min

    2015-01-01

    As a group of intestinal hormones and neurotransmitters, cholecystokinins (CCKs) regulate and affect pancreatic enzyme secretion, gastrointestinal motility, pain hypersensitivity, digestion and satiety, and generally contain a DYMGWMDFG sequence at the C-terminus. Many CCKs have been reported in mammals. However, only a few have been reported in amphibians, such as Hyla nigrovittata, Xenopus laevis, and Rana catesbeiana, with none reported in urodele amphibians like newts and salamanders. Her...

  8. Ecology and distribution of the Florida bog frog and flatwoods salamander on Eglin Air Force Base

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, David Christopher

    2005-01-01

    I studied the ecology and distribution of the Florida bog frog (Rana okaloosae) and flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum) on Eglin Air Force Base in northwest Florida. I report data on the breeding ecology, population dynamics, home ranges, microhabitat, and distribution of the endemic bog frog and make comparisons to its closest relative, the bronze frog (Rana clamitans clamitans). Bog and bronze frogs occur in the same habitats and are suspected to hybridize. I investigated th...

  9. Vertebrate hosts as islands: dynamics of selection, immigration, loss, persistence and potential function of bacteria on salamander skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Howard Loudon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin bacterial communities can protect amphibians from a fungal pathogen; however, little is known about how these communities are maintained. We used a neutral model of community ecology to identify bacteria that are maintained on salamanders by selection or by dispersal from a bacterial reservoir (soil and ecological drift. We found that 75% (9/12 of bacteria that were consistent with positive selection, < 1% of bacteria that were consistent with random dispersal and none of the bacteria that were consistent under negative selection had a 97% or greater match to antifungal isolates. Additionally we performed an experiment where salamanders were either provided or denied a bacterial reservoir and estimated immigration and loss (emigration and local extinction rates of bacteria on salamanders in both treatments. Loss was strongly related to bacterial richness, suggesting competition is important for structuring the community. Bacteria closely related to antifungal isolates were more likely to persist on salamanders with or without a bacterial reservoir, suggesting they had a competitive advantage. Furthermore, over-represented and under-represented OTUs had similar persistence on salamanders when a bacterial reservoir was present. However, under-represented OTUs were less likely to persist in the absence of a bacterial reservoir, suggesting that the over-represented and under-represented bacteria are selected for or against on salamanders through time. Our findings from the neutral model, migration and persistence analyses show that bacteria that exhibit a high similarity to antifungal isolates persist on salamanders, which likely protect hosts against pathogens and improve fitness. This research is one of the first to apply ecological theory to investigate assembly of host associated-bacterial communities, which can provide insights for probiotic bioaugmentation as a conservation strategy against disease.

  10. Phylogeography of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) is mainly determined by geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; van der Meijden, Arie; Mucedda, Mauro; Lourenço, João M; Hochkirch, Axel; Veith, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Detecting the factors that determine the interruption of gene flow between populations is key to understanding how speciation occurs. In this context, caves are an excellent system for studying processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation, since they represent discrete geographical units often with known geological histories. Here, we asked whether discontinuous calcareous areas and cave systems represent major barriers to gene flow within and among the five species of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) and whether intraspecific genetic structure parallels geographic distance within and among caves. We generated mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from 184 individuals representing 48 populations, and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to infer possible areas of cladogenesis for these species and reconstruct historical and current dispersal routes among distinct populations. Our results show deep genetic divergence within and among all Sardinian cave salamander species, which can mostly be attributed to the effects of mountains and discontinuities in major calcareous areas and cave systems acting as barriers to gene flow. While these salamander species can also occur outside caves, our results indicate that there is a very poor dispersal of these species between separate cave systems.

  11. Genic regions of a large salamander genome contain long introns and novel genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Susan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basis of genome size variation remains an outstanding question because DNA sequence data are lacking for organisms with large genomes. Sixteen BAC clones from the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum: c-value = 32 × 109 bp were isolated and sequenced to characterize the structure of genic regions. Results Annotation of genes within BACs showed that axolotl introns are on average 10× longer than orthologous vertebrate introns and they are predicted to contain more functional elements, including miRNAs and snoRNAs. Loci were discovered within BACs for two novel EST transcripts that are differentially expressed during spinal cord regeneration and skin metamorphosis. Unexpectedly, a third novel gene was also discovered while manually annotating BACs. Analysis of human-axolotl protein-coding sequences suggests there are 2% more lineage specific genes in the axolotl genome than the human genome, but the great majority (86% of genes between axolotl and human are predicted to be 1:1 orthologs. Considering that axolotl genes are on average 5× larger than human genes, the genic component of the salamander genome is estimated to be incredibly large, approximately 2.8 gigabases! Conclusion This study shows that a large salamander genome has a correspondingly large genic component, primarily because genes have incredibly long introns. These intronic sequences may harbor novel coding and non-coding sequences that regulate biological processes that are unique to salamanders.

  12. Safe caves and dangerous forests? Predation risk may contribute to salamander colonization of subterranean habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvidio, Sebastiano; Palumbi, Giulia; Romano, Antonio; Costa, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that many organisms actively colonize the subterranean environment to avoid climatic stress, exploit new ecological opportunities and reduce competition and predation. Terrestrial salamanders are known to colonize the more stable subterranean habitats mainly to escape external climatic extremes, while the role of predation avoidance remains untested. To better understand the importance of predation, we used clay models of the cave salamander Speleomantes strinatii to compare the predation occurring in woodland and subterranean habitats. Models were positioned in three forests and in three caves in NW Italy. One-hundred eighty-four models were retrieved from the field and 59 (32%) were attacked by predators. Models were attacked on their head more often than expected by chance and, therefore, were perceived by predators as real prey items. In the woodlands, clay models showed a four-time higher probability of being attacked in comparison to caves, suggesting a different level of potential predation risk in these surface habitats. These findings are one of the first experimental evidences that, in terrestrial ecosystems, predation avoidance may contribute to the salamander underground colonization process.

  13. The dynamic evolutionary history of genome size in North American woodland salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Catherine E; Gregory, T Ryan; Austin, Christopher C

    2017-04-01

    The genus Plethodon is the most species-rich salamander genus in North America, and nearly half of its species face an uncertain future. It is also one of the most diverse families in terms of genome sizes, which range from 1C = 18.2 to 69.3 pg, or 5-20 times larger than the human genome. Large genome size in salamanders results in part from accumulation of transposable elements and is associated with various developmental and physiological traits. However, genome sizes have been reported for only 25% of the species of Plethodon (14 of 55). We collected genome size data for Plethodon serratus to supplement an ongoing phylogeographic study, reconstructed the evolutionary history of genome size in Plethodontidae, and inferred probable genome sizes for the 41 species missing empirical data. Results revealed multiple genome size changes in Plethodon: genomes of western Plethodon increased, whereas genomes of eastern Plethodon decreased, followed by additional decreases or subsequent increases. The estimated genome size of P. serratus was 21 pg. New understanding of variation in genome size evolution, along with genome size inferences for previously unstudied taxa, provide a foundation for future studies on the biology of plethodontid salamanders.

  14. Pathogens as a factor limiting the spread of cannibalism in tiger salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, David W; Loeb, Michael L G; Collins, James P

    1991-10-01

    Intraspecific predation is taxonomically widespread, but few species routinely prey on conspecifics. This is surprising as conspecifics could be a valuable resource for animals limited by food. A potential cost of cannibalism that has been largely unexplored is that it may enhance the risk of acquiring debilitating pathogens or toxins from conspecifics. We examined how pathogens affect variation in the incidence of cannibalism in tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum), which occur as two environmentally-induced morphs, typicals and cannibals. Salamanders from one population were more likely than those in another to develop into cannibals, even when reared under identical conditions. Variation in the propensity to become a cannibal may be caused by variation in pathogen density. In the population with cannibals at low frequency, bacterial blooms in late summer correlated with massive die-offs of salamanders. The frequency of cannibals correlated significantly negatively with bacterial density in ten different natural lakes. In the laboratory, cannibals exposed to a diseased conspecific always preyed on the sick animal. As a result, cannibals wre more likely to acquire and die from disease than were typicals that were similarly exposed, or cannibals that were exposed to healthy conspecifics. Since conspecifics often share lethal pathogens, enhanced risk of disease may explain why cannibalism is generally infrequent. Pathogens may constrain not only the tendency to be behaviorally cannibalistic, but also the propensity to develop specialized cannibal morphologies.

  15. Safe caves and dangerous forests? Predation risk may contribute to salamander colonization of subterranean habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvidio, Sebastiano; Palumbi, Giulia; Romano, Antonio; Costa, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that many organisms actively colonize the subterranean environment to avoid climatic stress, exploit new ecological opportunities and reduce competition and predation. Terrestrial salamanders are known to colonize the more stable subterranean habitats mainly to escape external climatic extremes, while the role of predation avoidance remains untested. To better understand the importance of predation, we used clay models of the cave salamander Speleomantes strinatii to compare the predation occurring in woodland and subterranean habitats. Models were positioned in three forests and in three caves in NW Italy. One-hundred eighty-four models were retrieved from the field and 59 (32%) were attacked by predators. Models were attacked on their head more often than expected by chance and, therefore, were perceived by predators as real prey items. In the woodlands, clay models showed a four-time higher probability of being attacked in comparison to caves, suggesting a different level of potential predation risk in these surface habitats. These findings are one of the first experimental evidences that, in terrestrial ecosystems, predation avoidance may contribute to the salamander underground colonization process.

  16. Unexpected Rarity of the Pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Appalachian Plethodon Salamanders: 1957–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muletz, Carly; Caruso, Nicholas M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Lips, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread population declines in terrestrial Plethodon salamanders occurred by the 1980s throughout the Appalachian Mountains, the center of global salamander diversity, with no evident recovery. We tested the hypothesis that the historic introduction and spread of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) into the eastern US was followed by Plethodon population declines. We expected to detect elevated prevalence of Bd prior to population declines as observed for Central American plethodontids. We tested 1,498 Plethodon salamanders of 12 species (892 museum specimens, 606 wild individuals) for the presence of Bd, and tested 94 of those for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bs) and for ranavirus. Field samples were collected in 2011 from 48 field sites across a 767 km transect. Historic samples from museum specimens were collected at five sites with the greatest number and longest duration of collection (1957–987), four of which were sampled in the field in 2011. None of the museum specimens were positive for Bd, but four P. cinereus from field surveys were positive. The overall Bd prevalence from 1957–2011 for 12 Plethodon species sampled across a 757 km transect was 0.2% (95% CI 0.1–0.7%). All 94 samples were negative for Bs and ranavirus. We conclude that known amphibian pathogens are unlikely causes for declines in these Plethodon populations. Furthermore, these exceptionally low levels of Bd, in a region known to harbor Bd, may indicate that Plethodon specific traits limit Bd infection. PMID:25084159

  17. Unexpected rarity of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Appalachian Plethodon Salamanders: 1957-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muletz, Carly; Caruso, Nicholas M; Fleischer, Robert C; McDiarmid, Roy W; Lips, Karen R

    2014-01-01

    Widespread population declines in terrestrial Plethodon salamanders occurred by the 1980s throughout the Appalachian Mountains, the center of global salamander diversity, with no evident recovery. We tested the hypothesis that the historic introduction and spread of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) into the eastern US was followed by Plethodon population declines. We expected to detect elevated prevalence of Bd prior to population declines as observed for Central American plethodontids. We tested 1,498 Plethodon salamanders of 12 species (892 museum specimens, 606 wild individuals) for the presence of Bd, and tested 94 of those for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bs) and for ranavirus. Field samples were collected in 2011 from 48 field sites across a 767 km transect. Historic samples from museum specimens were collected at five sites with the greatest number and longest duration of collection (1957-987), four of which were sampled in the field in 2011. None of the museum specimens were positive for Bd, but four P. cinereus from field surveys were positive. The overall Bd prevalence from 1957-2011 for 12 Plethodon species sampled across a 757 km transect was 0.2% (95% CI 0.1-0.7%). All 94 samples were negative for Bs and ranavirus. We conclude that known amphibian pathogens are unlikely causes for declines in these Plethodon populations. Furthermore, these exceptionally low levels of Bd, in a region known to harbor Bd, may indicate that Plethodon specific traits limit Bd infection.

  18. Unexpected rarity of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Appalachian Plethodon Salamanders: 1957-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Muletz

    Full Text Available Widespread population declines in terrestrial Plethodon salamanders occurred by the 1980s throughout the Appalachian Mountains, the center of global salamander diversity, with no evident recovery. We tested the hypothesis that the historic introduction and spread of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd into the eastern US was followed by Plethodon population declines. We expected to detect elevated prevalence of Bd prior to population declines as observed for Central American plethodontids. We tested 1,498 Plethodon salamanders of 12 species (892 museum specimens, 606 wild individuals for the presence of Bd, and tested 94 of those for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bs and for ranavirus. Field samples were collected in 2011 from 48 field sites across a 767 km transect. Historic samples from museum specimens were collected at five sites with the greatest number and longest duration of collection (1957-987, four of which were sampled in the field in 2011. None of the museum specimens were positive for Bd, but four P. cinereus from field surveys were positive. The overall Bd prevalence from 1957-2011 for 12 Plethodon species sampled across a 757 km transect was 0.2% (95% CI 0.1-0.7%. All 94 samples were negative for Bs and ranavirus. We conclude that known amphibian pathogens are unlikely causes for declines in these Plethodon populations. Furthermore, these exceptionally low levels of Bd, in a region known to harbor Bd, may indicate that Plethodon specific traits limit Bd infection.

  19. Toxicity and immune system effects of dietary deltamethrin exposure in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Jennifer M W; Smits, Judit E G; Forsyth, Douglas J; Wickstrom, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    One theory proposed to explain the global declines in amphibian populations involves contaminant-induced immune alteration and subsequent increased susceptibility to infectious disease. The goal of this study was twofold, to (1) study acute oral toxicity of deltamethrin (cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-(2,2-dibromoethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester) in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum), and (2) evaluate whether the insecticide deltamethrin produces immunosuppression in these animals. In the acute toxicity study, tiger salamanders receiving single doses of deltamethrin ranging from 1 to 35 mg/kg displayed intention tremors, hypersalivation, ataxia, choreoathetosis (writhing), severe depression (immobility with minimal response to stimuli), and death. For acute effects, based on clinical signs, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) and lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) were estimated to be 5 to 10 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, respectively. The LOAEL in animals dosed 3 times per week for 4 wk was 400 microg/kg/d. The endpoints for the immunotoxicity study included lymphoid organ mass and histopathology, hematological variables, and functional assays of phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and lymphoblastic transformation. Tiger salamanders in 4 treatment groups (0, 4, 40, or 400 microg/kg/d) were dosed with deltamethrin via the diet 3 times per week for 4 wk. Deltamethrin exposure resulted in increased liver mass, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein concentration, but these effects were not dose dependent. The relative mass of kidney and spleen, plasma albumin and globulin concentrations, and circulating leukocyte numbers were not affected by deltamethrin exposure, nor were phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and lymphoblastic transformation. This study shows that at moderate levels of exposure, deltamethrin may be neurotoxic to tiger salamanders. However, based on the immune assays considered in this study there was no evidence of immunosuppression

  20. Salamander chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) in the United States—Developing research, monitoring, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2016-01-20

    The recently (2013) identified pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), poses a severe threat to the distribution and abundance of salamanders within the United States and Europe. Development of a response strategy for the potential, and likely, invasion of Bsal into the United States is crucial to protect global salamander biodiversity. A formal working group, led by Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins Science Center, and Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, was held at the USGS Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis in Fort Collins, Colorado, United States from June 23 to June 25, 2015, to identify crucial Bsal research and monitoring needs that could inform conservation and management strategies for salamanders in the United States. Key findings of the workshop included the following: (1) the introduction of Bsal into the United States is highly probable, if not inevitable, thus requiring development of immediate short-term and long-term intervention strategies to prevent Bsal establishment and biodiversity decline; (2) management actions targeted towards pathogen containment may be ineffective in reducing the long-term spread of Bsal throughout the United States; and (3) early detection of Bsal through surveillance at key amphibian import locations, among high-risk wild populations, and through analysis of archived samples is necessary for developing management responses. Top research priorities during the preinvasion stage included the following: (1) deployment of qualified diagnostic methods for Bsal and establishment of standardized laboratory practices, (2) assessment of susceptibility for amphibian hosts (including anurans), and (3) development and evaluation of short- and long-term pathogen intervention and management strategies. Several outcomes were achieved during the workshop, including development

  1. Physical condition, sex, and age-class of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in forested and open habitats of West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breanna L. Riedel; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark. Ford

    2012-01-01

    Nonforested habitats such as open fields and pastures have been considered unsuitable for desiccation-prone woodland salamanders such as the Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Recent research has suggested that Plethodon cinereus may not only disperse across but also reside within open habitats including fields,...

  2. Informing recovery in a human-transformed landscape: Drought-mediated coexistence alters population trends of an imperiled salamander and invasive predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Honeycutt, Richard; Sigafus, Brent H.; Muths, Erin L.; Crawford, Catherine L.; Jones, Thomas R.; Sorensen, Jeff A.; Rorabaugh, James C.; Chambert, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the additive or interactive threats of habitat transformation and invasive species is critical for conservation, especially where climate change is expected to increase the severity or frequency of drought. In the arid southwestern USA, this combination of stressors has caused widespread declines of native aquatic and semi-aquatic species. Achieving resilience to drought and other effects of climate change may depend upon continued management, so understanding the combined effects of stressors is important. We used Bayesian hierarchical models fitted with 10-years of pond-based monitoring surveys for the federally-endangered Sonoran Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium stebbinsi) and invasive predators (fishes and American Bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus) that threaten native species. We estimated trends in occupancy of salamanders and invasive predators while accounting for hydrological dynamics of ponds, then used a two-species interaction model to directly estimate how invasive predators affected salamander occupancy. We also tested a conceptual model that predicted that drought, by limiting the distribution of invasive predators, could ultimately benefit native species. Even though occupancy of invasive predators was stationary and their presence in a pond reduced the probability of salamander presence by 23%, occupancy of Sonoran Tiger Salamanders increased, annually, by 2.2%. Occupancy of salamanders and invasive predators both declined dramatically following the 5th consecutive year of drought. Salamander occupancy recovered quickly after return to non-drought conditions, while occupancy of invasive predators remained suppressed. Models that incorporated three time-lagged periods (1 to 4 years) of local moisture conditions confirmed that salamanders and invasive predators responded differently to drought, reflecting how life-history strategies shape responses to disturbances. The positive 10-year trend in salamander occupancy and their

  3. Propulsive forces of mudskipper fins and salamander limbs during terrestrial locomotion: implications for the invasion of land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Sandy M; Blob, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of land was a pivotal event in vertebrate evolution that was associated with major appendicular modifications. Although fossils indicate that the evolution of fundamentally limb-like appendages likely occurred in aquatic environments, the functional consequences of using early digited limbs, rather than fins, for terrestrial propulsion have had little empirical investigation. Paleontological and experimental analyses both have led to the proposal of an early origin of "hind limb-driven" locomotion among tetrapods or their ancestors. However, the retention of a pectoral appendage that had already developed terrestrial adaptations has been proposed for some taxa, and few data are available from extant functional models that can provide a foundation for evaluating the relative contributions of pectoral and pelvic appendages to terrestrial support among early stem tetrapods. To examine these aspects of vertebrate locomotor evolution during the invasion of land, we measured three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRFs) produced by isolated pectoral fins of mudskipper fishes (Periophthalmus barbarus) during terrestrial crutching, and compared these to isolated walking footfalls by the forelimbs and hind limbs of tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum), a species with subequally-sized limbs that facilitate comparisons to early tetrapods. Pectoral appendages of salamanders and mudskippers exhibited numerous differences in GRFs. Compared with salamander forelimbs, isolated fins of mudskippers bear lower vertical magnitudes of GRFs (as a proportion of body weight), and had GRFs that were oriented more medially. Comparing the salamanders' forelimbs and hind limbs, although the peak net GRF occurs later in stance for the forelimb, both limbs experience nearly identical mediolateral and vertical components of GRF, suggesting comparable contributions to support. Thus, forelimbs could also have played a significant locomotor role among basal tetrapods that had limbs

  4. Loading mechanics of the femur in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) during terrestrial locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, K Megan; Blob, Richard W

    2011-08-01

    Salamanders are often used as representatives of the basal tetrapod body plan in functional studies, but little is known about the loads experienced by their limb bones during locomotion. Although salamanders' slow walking speeds might lead to low locomotor forces and limb bone stresses similar to those of non-avian reptiles, their highly sprawled posture combined with relatively small limb bones could produce elevated limb bone stresses closer to those of avian and mammalian species. This study evaluates the loads on the femur of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) during terrestrial locomotion using three-dimensional measurements of the ground reaction force (GRF) and hindlimb kinematics, as well as anatomical measurements of the femur and hindlimb muscles. At peak stress (29.8 ± 2.0% stance), the net GRF magnitude averaged 0.42 body weights and was directed nearly vertically for the middle 20-40% of the contact interval, essentially perpendicular to the femur. Although torsional shear stresses were significant (4.1 ± 0.3 MPa), bending stresses experienced by the femur were low compared with other vertebrate lineages (tensile: 14.9 ± 0.8 MPa; compressive: -18.9 ± 1.0 MPa), and mechanical property tests indicated yield strengths that were fairly standard for tetrapods (157.1 ± 3.7 MPa). Femoral bending safety factors (10.5) were considerably higher than values typical for birds and mammals, and closer to the elevated values calculated for reptilian species. These results suggest that high limb bone safety factors may have an ancient evolutionary history, though the underlying cause of high safety factors (e.g. low limb bone loads, high bone strength or a combination of the two) may vary among lineages.

  5. Behavioral and physiological antipredator responses of the San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Drew R; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to predatory stimuli typically results in the elevation of circulating glucocorticoid levels and a behavioral response of freezing or escape behavior in many prey species. Corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid in amphibians and is known to be important in modulating many behaviors and developmental functions. The federally threatened San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana, decreases activity in response to both native and introduced predatory fish, however, experience may further influence these interactions. To better understand the indirect effects of fish predators on this salamander, we examined both the antipredator behavior and water-borne CORT release rates in response to chemical cues (kairomones) from two fish species that varied in temporal risk of predation: (1) a low encounter frequency predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), (2) a high encounter frequency predator (redbreast sunfish, Lepomis auritus), and (3) a blank water control. Salamanders reduced activity (antipredator response) after exposure to both predator treatments, but not to the blank water control, and the response to M. salmoides was significantly stronger than that to L. auritus. The CORT response (post-stimulus/pre-stimulus release rates) did not differ between the blank water control and L. auritus treatments, and both were significantly less than the CORT response to M. salmoides. Overall, E. nana showed a decreased antipredator response and no CORT response towards the high encounter frequency L. auritus as compared to the low encounter frequency M. salmoides. Eurycea nana may mute antipredator and CORT responses to high temporal frequency predators. There was, however, no correlation between CORT release rates and antipredator behavior, which suggests that the presence of predators may be affecting CORT response and behavior independently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Life history plasticity does not confer resilience to environmental change in the mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney L. Davis,; David A.W. Miller,; Walls, Susan; Barichivich, William J.; Riley, Jeffrey W.; Brown, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Plasticity in life history strategies can be advantageous for species that occupy spatially or temporally variable environments. We examined how phenotypic plasticity influences responses of the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, to disturbance events at the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (SMNWR), FL, USA from 2009 to 2014. We observed periods of extensive drought early in the study, in contrast to high rainfall and expansive flooding events in later years. Flooding facilitated colonization of predatory fishes to isolated wetlands across the refuge. We employed multistate occupancy models to determine how this natural experiment influenced the occurrence of aquatic larvae and paedomorphic adults and what implications this may have for the population. We found that, in terms of occurrence, responses to environmental variation differed between larvae and paedomorphs, but plasticity (i.e. the ability to metamorphose rather than remain in aquatic environment) was not sufficient to buffer populations from declining as a result of environmental perturbations. Drought and fish presence negatively influenced occurrence dynamics of larval and paedomorphic mole salamanders and, consequently, contributed to observed short-term declines of this species. Overall occurrence of larval salamanders decreased from 0.611 in 2009 to 0.075 in 2014 and paedomorph occurrence decreased from 0.311 in 2009 to 0.121 in 2014. Although variation in selection pressures has likely maintained this polyphenism previously, our results suggest that continued changes in environmental variability and the persistence of fish in isolated wetlands could lead to a loss of paedomorphosis in the SMNWR population and, ultimately, impact regional persistence in the future.

  7. Role of habitat complexity in predator-prey dynamics between an introduced fish and larval Long-toed Salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenison, Erin K; Litt, Andrea R.; Pilliod, David; McMahon, Tom E

    2016-01-01

    Predation by nonnative fishes has reduced abundance and increased extinction risk for amphibian populations worldwide. Although rare, fish and palatable amphibians have been observed to coexist where aquatic vegetation and structural complexity provide suitable refugia. We examined whether larval long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird, 1849) increased use of vegetation cover in lakes with trout and whether adding vegetation structure could reduce predation risk and nonconsumptive effects (NCEs), such as reductions in body size and delayed metamorphosis. We compared use of vegetation cover by larval salamanders in lakes with and without trout and conducted a field experiment to investigate the influence of added vegetation structure on salamander body morphology and life history. The probability of catching salamanders in traps in lakes with trout was positively correlated with the proportion of submerged vegetation and surface cover. Growth rates of salamanders in enclosures with trout cues decreased as much as 85% and the probability of metamorphosis decreased by 56%. We did not find evidence that adding vegetation reduced NCEs in experimental enclosures, but salamanders in lakes with trout utilized more highly-vegetated areas which suggests that adding vegetation structure at the scale of the whole lake may facilitate coexistence between salamanders and introduced trout.

  8. Persistence and extirpation in invaded landscapes: patch characteristics and connectivity determine effects of non-native predatory fish on native salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert S.; Maxell, Bryce A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated negative effects of non-native, predatory fishes on native amphibians, yet it is still unclear why some amphibian populations persist, while others are extirpated, following fish invasion. We examined this question by developing habitat-based occupancy models for the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and nonnative fish using survey data from 1,749 water bodies across 470 catchments in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA. We first modeled the habitat associations of salamanders at 468 fishless water bodies in 154 catchments where non-native fish were historically, and are currently, absent from the entire catchment. Wethen applied this habitat model to the complete data set to predict the probability of salamander occupancy in each water body, removing any effect of fish presence. Finally, we compared field-observed occurrences of salamanders and fish to modeled probability of salamander occupancy. Suitability models indicated that fish and salamanders had similar habitat preferences, possibly resulting in extirpations of salamander populations from entire catchments where suitable habitats were limiting. Salamanders coexisted with non-native fish in some catchments by using marginal quality, isolated (no inlet or outlet) habitats that remained fishless. They rarely coexisted with fish within individual water bodies and only where habitat quality was highest. Connectivity of water bodies via streams resulted in increased probability of fish invasion and consequently reduced probability of salamander occupancy.These results could be used to identify and prioritize catchments and water bodies where control measures would be most effective at restoring amphibian populations. Our approach could be useful as a framework for improved investigations into questions of persistence and extirpation of native species when non-native species have already become established.

  9. Preliminary data concerning the distribution of amphibian fauna in Suceava county (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STRUGARIU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused upon an area in which the herpetofauna had previously been very poorly studied and aimed to identify the species of amphibians from the research area and to establish distribution areas. In the 54 investigated localities 16 species of amphibians (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Pelobates fuscus, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria, Rana arvalis, Rana ridibunda & Rana lessonae and 2 hybrids (Bombina bombina X Bombina variegata & Rana kl. esculanta have been identified. Of these, the Bombina hybrids have been identified for the first time in the studied region.

  10. The trophic role of a forest salamander: impacts on invertebrates, leaf litter retention, and the humification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Best; H. H. Welsh

    2014-01-01

    Woodland (Plethodontid) salamanders are the most abundant vertebrates in North American forests, functioning as predators on invertebrates and prey for higher trophic levels. We investigated the role of Ensatina (Ensatina eschscholtzii) in regulating invertebrate numbers and leaf litter retention in a northern California forest. Our objective was...

  11. Color-Biased Dispersal Inferred by Fine-Scale Genetic Spatial Autocorrelation in a Color Polymorphic Salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Alexa H; Liebgold, Eric B

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral traits can be influenced by predation rates of color morphs, potentially leading to reduced boldness or increased escape behaviors in one color morph. The red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is a small terrestrial salamander whose color morphs have different diets and select different microhabitats, but little is known about potential differences in dispersal behaviors. We used fine-scale genetic spatial autocorrelation to examine 122 P. cinereus in a color-polymorphic population at 10 microsatellite loci in order to generate estimates of spatial genetic structure for each color morph. Differences in spatial genetic structure have been used extensively to infer within-population sex-biased dispersal but have never been used to test for dispersal differences between other groups within populations such as color morphs. We found evidence for color-biased dispersal, but not sex-biased dispersal. Striped salamanders had significant positive genetic structure in the shortest distance classes indicating philopatry. In contrast, unstriped salamanders showed a lack of spatial genetic structure at shorter distances and higher than expected genetic similarity at further distances, as expected if they are dispersing from their natal site. These results show that genetic methods typically used for sex-biased dispersal can be used to investigate differences in dispersal between morphs that vary discretely in polymorphic populations, such as color morphs. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Vertebral number is highly evolvable in salamanders and newts (family Salamandridae) and variably associated with climatic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; Beukema, W.; Galis, F.; Ivanović, A.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates, the relative proportion of the number of trunk and caudal vertebrae is an important determinant of body shape. While among amphibians frogs and toads show low variation in vertebrae numbers, in salamanders the numbers of trunk and caudal vertebrae vary widely, giving rise to

  13. Phylogeography and spatial genetic structure of the Southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.P.; Haig, S.M.; Wagner, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders. ?? The American Genetic Association. 2006. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization and evolutionary analysis of leptin gene in Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hai-feng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an important hormone possessing diverse physiological roles in mammals and teleosts. However, it has been characterized only in a few amphibian species, and its evolutions are still under debate. Here, the full length of the leptin (Adlep cDNA of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, an early diverging amphibian species, is characterized and according to the results of the primary sequence analysis, tertiary structure reconstruction and phylogenetic analysis is confirmed to be an ortholog of mammalian leptin. An intron was identified between the coding exons of A. davidianus leptin, which indicated that the leptin is present in the salamander genome and contains a conserved gene structure in vertebrates. Adlep is widely distributed but expression levels vary among different tissues, with highest expression levels in the muscle. Additionally, the leptin receptor and other genes were mapped to three known leptin signaling pathways, suggesting that the leptin signaling pathways are present in A. davidianus. Phylogenetic topology of leptins are consistent with the generally accepted evolutionary relationships of vertebrates, and multiple leptin members found in teleosts seem to be obtained through a Cluopeocephala-specific gene duplication event. Our results will lay a foundation for further investigations into the physiological roles of leptin in A. davidianus.

  15. Estimating occurrence and detection probabilities for stream-breeding salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Jennifer Y.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Qualls, Carl P.

    2017-01-01

    Large gaps exist in our knowledge of the ecology of stream-breeding plethodontid salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Data describing where these salamanders are likely to occur along environmental gradients, as well as their likelihood of detection, are important for the prevention and management of amphibian declines. We used presence/absence data from leaf litter bag surveys and a hierarchical Bayesian multispecies single-season occupancy model to estimate the occurrence of five species of plethodontids across reaches in headwater streams in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Average detection probabilities were high (range = 0.432–0.942) and unaffected by sampling covariates specific to the use of litter bags (i.e., bag submergence, sampling season, in-stream cover). Estimates of occurrence probabilities differed substantially between species (range = 0.092–0.703) and were influenced by the size of the upstream drainage area and by the maximum proportion of the reach that dried. The effects of these two factors were not equivalent across species. Our results demonstrate that hierarchical multispecies models successfully estimate occurrence parameters for both rare and common stream-breeding plethodontids. The resulting models clarify how species are distributed within stream networks, and they provide baseline values that will be useful in evaluating the conservation statuses of plethodontid species within lotic systems in the Gulf Coastal Plain.

  16. Purification and characterization of cholecystokinin from the skin of salamander Tylototriton verrucosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Bin; Hakim, Ma; Luo, Lei; Li, Bo-Wen; Yang, Shi-Long; Song, Yu-Zhu; Lai, Ren; Lu, Qiu-Min

    2015-05-18

    As a group of intestinal hormones and neurotransmitters, cholecystokinins (CCKs) regulate and affect pancreatic enzyme secretion, gastrointestinal motility, pain hypersensitivity, digestion and satiety, and generally contain a DYMGWMDFG sequence at the C-terminus. Many CCKs have been reported in mammals. However, only a few have been reported in amphibians, such as Hyla nigrovittata, Xenopus laevis, and Rana catesbeiana, with none reported in urodele amphibians like newts and salamanders. Here, a CCK called CCK-TV was identified and characterized from the skin of the salamander Tylototriton verrucosus. This CCK contained an amino acid sequence of DYMGWMDF-NH2 as seen in other CCKs. A cDNA encoding the CCK precursor containing 129 amino acid residues was cloned from the cDNA library of T. verrucosus skin. The CCK-TV had the potential to induce the contraction of smooth muscle strips isolated from porcine gallbladder, eliciting contraction at a concentration of 5.0 x 10⁻¹¹ mol/L and inducing maximal contraction at a concentration of 2.0 x 10⁻⁶ mol/L. The EC50 was 13.6 nmol/L. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to identify the presence of a CCK in an urodele amphibian.

  17. Structured decision making as a conservation tool for recovery planning of two endangered salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Katherine; Messerman, Arianne F; Barichivich, William J.; Semlitsch, Raymond D.; Gorman, Thomas A.; Mitchell, Harold G; Allan, Nathan; Fenolio, Dante B.; Green, Adam; Johnson, Fred A.; Keever, Allison; Mandica, Mark; Martin, Julien; Mott, Jana; Peacock, Terry; Reinman, Joseph; Romanach, Stephanie; Titus, Greg; McGowan, Conor P.; Walls, Susan

    2017-01-01

    At least one-third of all amphibian species face the threat of extinction, and current amphibian extinction rates are four orders of magnitude greater than background rates. Preventing extirpation often requires both ex situ (i.e., conservation breeding programs) and in situ strategies (i.e., protecting natural habitats). Flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi and A. cingulatum) are protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The two species have decreased from 476 historical locations to 63 recently extant locations (86.8% loss). We suggest that recovery efforts are needed to increase populations and prevent extinction, but uncertainty regarding optimal actions in both ex situ and in situ realms hinders recovery planning. We used structured decision making (SDM) to address key uncertainties regarding both captive breeding and habitat restoration, and we developed short-, medium-, and long-term goals to achieve recovery objectives. By promoting a transparent, logical approach, SDM has proven vital to recovery plan development for flatwoods salamanders. The SDM approach has clear advantages over other previous approaches to recovery efforts, and we suggest that it should be considered for other complex decisions regarding endangered species.

  18. Tuataras and salamanders show that walking and running mechanics are ancient features of tetrapod locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Stephen M; McElroy, Eric J; Andrew Odum, R; Hornyak, Valerie A

    2006-01-01

    The lumbering locomotor behaviours of tuataras and salamanders are the best examples of quadrupedal locomotion of early terrestrial vertebrates. We show they use the same walking (out-of-phase) and running (in-phase) patterns of external mechanical energy fluctuations of the centre-of-mass known in fast moving (cursorial) animals. Thus, walking and running centre-of-mass mechanics have been a feature of tetrapods since quadrupedal locomotion emerged over 400 million years ago. When walking, these sprawling animals save external mechanical energy with the same pendular effectiveness observed in cursorial animals. However, unlike cursorial animals (that change footfall patterns and mechanics with speed), tuataras and salamanders use only diagonal couplet gaits and indifferently change from walking to running mechanics with no significant change in total mechanical energy. Thus, the change from walking to running is not related to speed and the advantage of walking versus running is unclear. Furthermore, lumbering mechanics in primitive tetrapods is reflected in having total mechanical energy driven by potential energy (rather than kinetic energy as in cursorial animals) and relative centre-of-mass displacements an order of magnitude greater than cursorial animals. Thus, large vertical displacements associated with lumbering locomotion in primitive tetrapods may preclude their ability to increase speed. PMID:16777753

  19. Cutaneous mastocytomas in the neotenic caudate amphibians Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) and Ambystoma tigrinun (tiger salamander)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, J.C.; Chang, S.C.; DeLanney, L.E.; Rose, F.L.; Green, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous mastocytomas studied in 18 axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) and six tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) were gray-white, uni- to multilobular cutaneous protrusions from 2mm to 2cm in diameter. Tumors were moderately cellular unencapsulated masses that usually infiltrated the dermis and hypodermis with the destruction of intervening tissues. Some tumors were invading superficial bundles of the underlying skeletal muscle. Tumors consisted of mitotically active cells derived from a single lineage but showing a range of differentiation. Immature cells had nearly smooth to lightly cleft or folded basophilic nuclei bordered by a band of cytoplasm with few cytoplasmic processes and containing a few small uniform eccentric granules. Mature cells had basophilic nuclei with deep clefts or folds and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with multiple long intertwining cytoplasmic extensions packed with metachromatic granules. The axolotls were old individuals from an inbred laboratory colony. The tiger salamanders were wild animals from a single polluted pond. They could have been old and inbred. Both groups were neotenic. These are the first mastocytomas discovered in cold-blooded animals.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Black Salamanders (Aneides flavipunctatus across Watersheds in the Klamath Mountains

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    David B. Wake

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we characterize the genetic structure of Black Salamanders (Aneides flavipunctatus in the Klamath Mountains of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. We hypothesized that the Sacramento, Smith, Klamath, and Rogue River watersheds would represent distinct genetic populations based on prior ecological results, which suggest that Black Salamanders avoid high elevations such as the ridges that separate watersheds. Our mitochondrial results revealed two major lineages, one in the Sacramento River watershed, and another containing the Klamath, Smith, and Rogue River watersheds. Clustering analyses of our thirteen nuclear loci show the Sacramento watershed population to be genetically distinctive. Populations in the Klamath, Smith, and Rogue watersheds are also distinctive but not as differentiated and their boundaries do not correspond to watersheds. Our historical demographic analyses suggest that the Sacramento population has been isolated from the Klamath populations since the mid-Pleistocene, with negligible subsequent gene flow (2 Nm ≤ 0.1. The Smith and Rogue River watershed populations show genetic signals of recent population expansion. These results suggest that the Sacramento River and Klamath River watersheds served as Pleistocene refugia, and that the Rogue and Smith River watersheds were colonized more recently by northward range expansion from the Klamath.

  1. Population estimate and distribution of the Cheat Mountain Salamander (Plethodon nettingi) in the Southern portion of Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cheat Mountain Salamander (Plethodon nettingi) is an endemic species native only to West Virginia. Besides being restricted to one state, Cheat Mountain...

  2. Potential use of artificial cover objects to facilitate movement of Cheat Mountain salamanders (Plethodon netdngi) across an old logging road in the Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cheat Mountain salamander (CMS; Plethodon nettingi) is endemic to high-elevation forests of the Allegheny Mountains in Tucker, Randolph, Pocahontas, Grant, and...

  3. Proposal: To Examine Potential Effects of Corridors such as Cross-County Ski Trials, Logging Roads, etc. on Populations of Cheat Mountain Salamanders

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Cheat Mountain Salamanders (Plethodon nettingi) are known to occur in only 5 counties and the western edge of Grant County along the Allegheny Front in the eastern...

  4. Preliminary study of food habits in the Japanese clawed salamander larvae (Onychodactylus japonicus) in a mountain brook of the Kiso River system

    OpenAIRE

    Teruhiko, Takahara; Motomi, Genkai-Kato; Hitoshi, MIYASAKA; Yukihiro, Kohmatsu

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate food habits of the Japanese clawed salamander larvae (Onychodactylus japonicus), we examined stomach contents of 22 individuals collected from a natural mountain brook in a tributary of the Kurokawa River in Kiso Fukushima, Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. Their diet composition did not differ between fast and slow current conditions. The diet reflected the natural benthos communities of the brook, in which mayfly nymphs and caddisfly larvae accounted for 70–88%. The salamander l...

  5. The Importance of Maintaining Upland Forest Habitat Surrounding Salamander Breeding Ponds: Case Study of the Eastern Tiger Salamander in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valorie Titus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most amphibians use both wetland and upland habitats, but the extent of their movement in forested habitats is poorly known. We used radiotelemetry to observe the movements of adult and juvenile eastern tiger salamanders over a 4-year period. Females tended to move farther from the breeding ponds into upland forested habitat than males, while the distance a juvenile moved appeared to be related to body size, with the largest individuals moving as far as the adult females. Individuals chose refugia in native pitch pine—oak forested habitat and avoided open fields, roads, and developed areas. We also observed a difference in potential predation pressures in relation to the distance an individual moved from the edge of the pond. Our results support delineating forested wetland buffer zones on a case-by-case basis to reduce the impacts of concentrated predation, to increase and protect the availability of pitch pine—oak forests near the breeding pond, and to focus primarily on the habitat needs of the adult females and larger juveniles, which in turn will encompass habitat needs of adult males and smaller juveniles.

  6. Phyllodistomum kanae sp. nov. (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae), a bladder fluke from the Ezo salamander Hynobius retardatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru

    2015-10-01

    The Ezo salamander, Hynobius retardatus, is endemic only to Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Gravid flukes of the family Gorgoderidae were discovered from the urinary bladder of H. retardatus. The parasites were identified as a new species named Phyllodistomum kanae sp. nov. In the neighboring Honshu island another bladder fluke, Phyllodistomum patellare, has already been found from the Japanese newt. The new species clearly differs from P. patellare in having a spherical ovary and very weakly lobed testes. The discovery of species of Phyllodistomum from urodelan amphibians is very uncommon in Eurasia. A molecular phylogeny based on 28S ribosomal DNA suggests that sphaeriid bivalves may serve as the first intermediate host for the new species. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Salamander spinal cord regeneration: The ultimate positive control in vertebrate spinal cord regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaki, Akira; Tanaka, Elly M; Fei, Ji-Feng

    2017-12-01

    Repairing injured tissues / organs is one of the major challenges for the maintenance of proper organ function in adulthood. In mammals, the central nervous system including the spinal cord, once established during embryonic development, has very limited capacity to regenerate. In contrast, salamanders such as axolotls can fully regenerate the injured spinal cord, making this a very powerful vertebrate model system for studying this process. Here we discuss the cellular and molecular requirements for spinal cord regeneration in the axolotl. The recent development of tools to test molecular function, including CRISPR-mediated gene editing, has lead to the identification of key players involved in the cell response to injury that ultimately leads to outgrowth of neural stem cells that are competent to replay the process of spinal cord development to replace the damaged/missing tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plethodontid salamander mitochondrial genomics: A parsimonyevaluation of character conflict and implications for historicalbiogeography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert

    2005-01-19

    A new parsimony analysis of 27 complete mitochondrial genomic sequences is conducted to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of plethodontid salamanders. This analysis focuses on the amount of character conflict between phylogenetic trees recovered from newly conducted parsimony searches and the Bayesian and maximum likelihood topology reported by Mueller et al. (2004, PNAS, 101, 13820-13825). Strong support for Hemidactylium as the sister taxon to all other plethodontids is recovered from parsimony analyses. Plotting area relationships on the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree suggests that eastern North America is the origin of the family Plethodontidae supporting the ''Out of Appalachia'' hypothesis. A new taxonomy that recognizes clades recovered from phylogenetic analyses is proposed.

  9. Natural History Constrains the Macroevolution of Foot Morphology in European Plethodontid Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dean C; Korneisel, Dana; Young, Morgan; Nistri, Annamaria

    2017-08-01

    The natural history of organisms can have major effects on the tempo and mode of evolution, but few examples show how unique natural histories affect rates of evolution at macroevolutionary scales. European plethodontid salamanders (Plethodontidae: Hydromantes) display a particular natural history relative to other members of the family. Hydromantes commonly occupy caves and small crevices, where they cling to the walls and ceilings. On the basis of this unique and strongly selected behavior, we test the prediction that rates of phenotypic evolution will be lower in traits associated with climbing. We find that, within Hydromantes, foot morphological traits evolve at significantly lower rates than do other phenotypic traits. Additionally, Hydromantes displays a lower rate of foot morphology evolution than does a nonclimbing genus, Plethodon. Our findings suggest that macroevolutionary trends of phenotypic diversification can be mediated by the unique behavioral responses in taxa related to particular attributes of their natural history.

  10. From biomedicine to natural history research: EST resources for ambystomatid salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Susan V

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing genomic resources for closely related species will provide comparative insights that are crucial for understanding diversity and variability at multiple levels of biological organization. We developed ESTs for Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and Eastern tiger salamander (A. tigrinum tigrinum, species with deep and diverse research histories. Results Approximately 40,000 quality cDNA sequences were isolated for these species from various tissues, including regenerating limb and tail. These sequences and an existing set of 16,030 cDNA sequences for A. mexicanum were processed to yield 35,413 and 20,599 high quality ESTs for A. mexicanum and A. t. tigrinum, respectively. Because the A. t. tigrinum ESTs were obtained primarily from a normalized library, an approximately equal number of contigs were obtained for each species, with 21,091 unique contigs identified overall. The 10,592 contigs that showed significant similarity to sequences from the human RefSeq database reflected a diverse array of molecular functions and biological processes, with many corresponding to genes expressed during spinal cord injury in rat and fin regeneration in zebrafish. To demonstrate the utility of these EST resources, we searched databases to identify probes for regeneration research, characterized intra- and interspecific nucleotide polymorphism, saturated a human – Ambystoma synteny group with marker loci, and extended PCR primer sets designed for A. mexicanum / A. t. tigrinum orthologues to a related tiger salamander species. Conclusions Our study highlights the value of developing resources in traditional model systems where the likelihood of information transfer to multiple, closely related taxa is high, thus simultaneously enabling both laboratory and natural history research.

  11. Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.

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    Gareth J Voss

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4% and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site.

  12. Decision analysis for habitat conservation of an endangered, range-limited salamander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Orin J.; McGowan, Conor P.; Apodaca, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Many species of conservation concern are habitat limited and often a major focus of management for these species is habitat acquisition and/or restoration. Deciding the location of habitat restoration or acquisition to best benefit a protected species can be a complicated subject with competing management objectives, ecological uncertainties and stochasticity. Structured decision making (SDM) could be a useful approach for explicitly incorporating those complexities while still working toward species conservation and/or recovery. We applied an SDM approach to Red Hills salamander Phaeognathus hubrichti habitat conservation decision making. Phaeognathus hubrichti is a severely range-limited endemic species in south central Alabama and has highly specific habitat requirements. Many known populations live on private lands and the primary mode of habitat protection is habitat conservation planning, but such plans are non-binding and not permanent. Working with stakeholders, we developed an objectives hierarchy linking land acquisition or protection actions to fundamental objectives. We built a model to assess and compare the quality of the habitat in the known range of P. hubrichti. Our model evaluated key habitat attributes of 5814 pixels of 1 km2 each and ranked the pixels from best to worst with respect to P. hubrichti habitat requirements. Our results are a spatially explicit valuation of each pixel, with respect to its probable benefit to P. hubrichti populations. The results of this effort will be used to rank pixels from most to least beneficial, then identify land owners in the most useful areas for salamanders who are willing to sell or enter into a permanent easement agreement.

  13. Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site.

  14. Posterior tail development in the salamander Eurycea cirrigera: exploring cellular dynamics across life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglia, Janet L; Fornari, Chet; Evans, Paula K

    2017-03-01

    During embryogenesis, the body axis elongates and specializes. In vertebrate groups such as salamanders and lizards, elongation of the posterior body axis (tail) continues throughout life. This phenomenon of post-embryonic tail elongation via addition of vertebrae has remained largely unexplored, and little is known about the underlying developmental mechanisms that promote vertebral addition. Our research investigated tail elongation across life stages in a non-model salamander species, Eurycea cirrigera (Plethodontidae). Post-embryonic addition of segments suggests that the tail tip retains some aspects of embryonic cell/tissue organization and gene expression throughout the life cycle. We describe cell and tissue differentiation and segmentation of the posterior tail using serial histology and expression of the axial tissue markers, MF-20 and Pax6. Embryonic expression patterns of HoxA13 and C13 are shown with in situ hybridization. Tissue sections reveal that the posterior spinal cord forms via cavitation and precedes development of the underlying cartilaginous rod after embryogenesis. Post-embryonic tail elongation occurs in the absence of somites and mesenchymal cells lateral to the midline express MF-20. Pax6 expression was observed only in the spinal cord and some mesenchymal cells of adult Eurycea tails. Distinct temporal and spatial patterns of posterior Hox13 gene expression were observed throughout embryogenesis. Overall, important insights to cell organization, differentiation, and posterior Hox gene expression may be gained from this work. We suggest that further work on gene expression in the elongating adult tail could shed light on mechanisms that link continual axial elongation with regeneration.

  15. Metabolism, gas exchange, and acid-base balance of giant salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Gordon R

    2012-08-01

    The giant salamanders are aquatic and paedomorphic urodeles including the genera Andrias and Cryptobranchus (Cryptobranchidae), Amphiuma (Amphiumidae), Siren (Sirenidae), and Necturus (Proteidae, of which only N. maculosus is considered 'a giant'). Species in the genera Cryptobranchus and Necturus are considered aquatic salamanders well adapted for breathing water, poorly adapted for breathing air, and with limited abilities to compensate acid-base disturbances. As such, they are water-breathing animals with a somewhat fish-like respiratory and acid-base physiology, whose habitat selection is limited to waters that do not typically become hypoxic or hypercarbic (although this assertion has been questioned for N. maculosus). Siren and Amphiuma species, by contrast, are dependent upon air-breathing, have excellent lungs, inefficient (Siren) or no (Amphiuma) gills, and are obligate air-breathers with an acid-base status more similar to that of terrestrial tetrapods. As such, they can be considered to be air-breathing animals that live in water. Their response to the aquatic hypercarbia that they often encounter is to maintain intracellular pH (pH(i) ) and abandon extracellular pH regulation, a process that has been referred to as preferential pH(i) regulation. The acid-base status of some present-day tropical air-breathing fishes, and of Siren and Amphiuma, suggests that the acid-base transition from a low PCO(2) -low [] system typical of water-breathing fishes to the high PCO(2) -high [] systems of terrestrial tetrapods may have been completed before emergence onto land, and likely occurred in habitats that were typically both hypoxic and hypercarbic. © 2011 The Author. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. Interactions between fish and salamander larvae : Costs of predator avoidance or competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semlitsch, R D

    1987-07-01

    Two species of salamander larvae (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum) were reared separately in the presence and absence of a fish (Lepomis macrochirus) in artificial ponds to measure the effects of a predator on the growth, survival, diet, and activity of larvae. The presence of L. macrochirus reduced body sizes of larvae by 18% in A. talpoideum and by 16% in A. maculatum. L. macrochirus apparently preyed on the smallest individuals. Survival in the presence of L. macrochirus decreased by 61% in A. talpoideum and by 97% in A. maculatum compared with larvae reared alone. Species identity did not significantly effect body size or survival, but an interaction effect suggested that A. maculatum was more severely affected by predators than was A. talpodeum. Activity of larvae in the water column was dramatically reduced in the presence of L. macrochirus, when larvae were restricted to the leaf litter of the benthic zone. There was overlap in the diets of fish and salamander larvae. Larvae reared in the presence of fish, however, consumed different taxa of prey as well as reduced number of prey compared to larvae reared alone. A. talpoideum larvae were more nocturnal than diurnal in the absence of fish, whereas A. maculatum larvae were equally active day and night. This experiment suggests that predator-prey relationships can change with shifts in species attributes and potentially confound apparent costs of predator avoidance with competition. Measuring the long-term dynamics of the cost-benefit relationship will help elucidate how prey balance the demands of their life history with the demands of predators.

  17. Morphological variation in a larval salamander: dietary induction of plasticity in head shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C; Belanger, Secret S; Blaustein, Andrew R

    1993-11-01

    We examined diet-dependent plasticity in head shape in larvae of the eastern long-toed salamander, Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum. Larvae in some populations of this species exhibit trophic polymorphism, with some individuals possessing exaggerated trophic features characteristic of a cannibalistic morphology in larval Ambystoma; e.g. a disproportionately broad head and hypertrophied vomerine teeth. We hypothesized that 1) head shape variation results from feeding upon different types of prey and that 2) cannibal morphs are induced by consumption of conspecifics. To induce variation, we fed three groups of larvae different diets: 1) brine shrimp nauplii only; 2) nauplii plus anuran tadpoles; 3) nauplii, tadpoles and conspecific larval salamanders. Comparisons of size (mass)-adjusted means revealed that this manipulation of diet induced significant variation in six measures of head shape, but not in the area of the vomerine tooth patch. For five of the six head traits, larvae that ate tadpoles and brine shrimp nauplii developed significantly broader, longer and deeper heads than did larvae that only ate brine shrimp nauplii. The ingestion of conspecifics, in addition to nauplii and tadpoles, significantly altered two head traits (interocular-width and head depth), compared to larvae only fed nauplii and tadpoles. Canonical discriminant function analysis detected two statistically reliable canonical variables: head depth was most highly associated with the first canonical variable, whereas three measures of head width (at the jaws, gills and eyes) and interocular width were most highly associated with the second canonical variable. Despite this diet-enhanced morphological variation, there was no indication that any of the three types of diet (including conspecific prey) induced the exaggerated trophic features of the "cannibal" morph in this species. These results illustrate that ingestion of different types of prey contributes to plasticity in head shape, but

  18. Coprophagy in a cave-adapted salamander; the importance of bat guano examined through nutritional and stable isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenolio, Danté B; Graening, G O; Collier, Bret A; Stout, Jim F

    2006-02-22

    During a two year population ecology study in a cave environment, 15 Eurycea (= Typhlotriton) spelaea were observed ingesting bat guano. Furthermore, E. spelaea capture numbers increased significantly during the time that grey bats (Myotis grisescens) deposited fresh guano. We investigated the hypothesis that this behaviour was not incidental to the capture of invertebrate prey, but a diet switch to an energy-rich detritus in an oligotrophic environment. Stable isotope assays determined that guano may be assimilated into salamander muscle tissue, and nutritional analyses revealed that guano is a comparable food source to potential invertebrate prey items. This is the first report of coprophagy in a salamander and in any amphibian for reasons other than intestinal inoculation. Because many temperate subterranean environments are often energy poor and this limitation is thought to select for increased diet breadth, we predict that coprophagy may be common in subterranean vertebrates where it is not currently recognized.

  19. First record of salamander predation by a Liophis (Wagler, 1830) snake in the Venezuelan Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Felipe Esqueda; Marco Natera-Mumaw; Enrique La Marca

    2009-01-01

    Information available so far is exceedingly meagre about the diet of the snakes included in the genus Liophis, one of the most diverse groups that inhabit terrestrial ecosystems of South America. For the first time is documented the predation of a salamander by Liophis from Venezuela, including a brief overview on the alteration of montane and submontane Andean ecosystem and their effect on the natural dynamic.

  20. Interactive effects of temperature and glyphosate on the behavior of blue ridge two-lined salamanders (Eurycea wilderae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Jaina S; Cecala, Kristen K

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential interactive effects of stream temperatures and environmentally relevant glyphosate-based herbicide concentrations on movement and antipredator behaviors of larval Eurycea wilderae (Blue Ridge two-lined salamander). Larval salamanders were exposed to 1 of 4 environmentally relevant glyphosate concentrations (0.00 µg acid equivalent [a.e.]/L, 0.73 µg a.e./L, 1.46 µg a.e./L, and 2.92 µg a.e./L) at either ambient (12 °C) or elevated (23 °C) water temperature. Behaviors observed included the exploration of a novel habitat, use of refuge, habitat selection relative to a potential predator, and burst movement distance. In the absence of glyphosate, temperature consistently affected movement and refuge-use behavior, with individuals moving longer distances more frequently and using refuge less at warm temperatures; however, when glyphosate was added, the authors observed inconsistent effects of temperature that may have resulted from differential toxicity at various temperatures. Larval salamanders made shorter, more frequent movements and demonstrated reduced burst distance at higher glyphosate concentrations. The authors also found that lower glyphosate concentrations sometimes had stronger effects than higher concentrations (i.e., nonmonotonic dose responses), suggesting that standard safety tests conducted only at higher glyphosate concentrations might overlook important sublethal effects on salamander behavior. These data demonstrate that sublethal effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on natural behaviors of amphibians can occur with short-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2297-2303. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Osteological Variation among Extreme Morphological Forms in the Mexican Salamander Genus Chiropterotriton (Amphibia: Plethodontidae: Morphological Evolution And Homoplasy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Darda

    Full Text Available Osteological variation is recorded among and within four of the most distinctive species of the Mexican salamander genus Chiropterotriton. Analysis of the data is consistent with the monophyletic status of the genus and documents previously unrecorded intraspecific and interspecific variation. Most of the recorded variation involves qualitative and quantitative proportional differences, but four fixed differences constitute autapomorphic states that affirm and diagnose some species (C. dimidiatus, C. magnipes. Osteological variation in 15 characters is analyzed with respect to predictions generated from four hypotheses: 1 phylogeny, 2 adaptation to specific habitats (the four species include cave-dwelling, terrestrial, and arboreal forms, 3 size-free shape, and 4 size. High levels of intraspecific variation suggest that the characters studied are not subject to rigid functional constraints in salamanders, regardless of size. The pattern predicted by the hypothesis based on size differences seen among these four Chiropterotriton species matches most closely the observed pattern of relative skull robustness. Since size change and heterochrony are often associated in plethodontid evolution, it is likely that changes in developmental timing play a role in the morphological transitions among these morphologically diverse taxa. Webbed feet, miniaturization, body shape, and an unusual tarsal arrangement are morphologies exhibited in species of Chiropterotrition that are shown to be homoplastic with other clades of tropical plethodontids. Although extensive homoplasy in salamanders might be seen as a roadblock to unraveling phylogenetic hypotheses, the homologous developmental systems that appear to underlie such homoplasy may reveal common and consistent evolutionary processes at work.

  2. Osteological Variation among Extreme Morphological Forms in the Mexican Salamander Genus Chiropterotriton (Amphibia: Plethodontidae): Morphological Evolution And Homoplasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darda, David M; Wake, David B

    2015-01-01

    Osteological variation is recorded among and within four of the most distinctive species of the Mexican salamander genus Chiropterotriton. Analysis of the data is consistent with the monophyletic status of the genus and documents previously unrecorded intraspecific and interspecific variation. Most of the recorded variation involves qualitative and quantitative proportional differences, but four fixed differences constitute autapomorphic states that affirm and diagnose some species (C. dimidiatus, C. magnipes). Osteological variation in 15 characters is analyzed with respect to predictions generated from four hypotheses: 1) phylogeny, 2) adaptation to specific habitats (the four species include cave-dwelling, terrestrial, and arboreal forms), 3) size-free shape, and 4) size. High levels of intraspecific variation suggest that the characters studied are not subject to rigid functional constraints in salamanders, regardless of size. The pattern predicted by the hypothesis based on size differences seen among these four Chiropterotriton species matches most closely the observed pattern of relative skull robustness. Since size change and heterochrony are often associated in plethodontid evolution, it is likely that changes in developmental timing play a role in the morphological transitions among these morphologically diverse taxa. Webbed feet, miniaturization, body shape, and an unusual tarsal arrangement are morphologies exhibited in species of Chiropterotrition that are shown to be homoplastic with other clades of tropical plethodontids. Although extensive homoplasy in salamanders might be seen as a roadblock to unraveling phylogenetic hypotheses, the homologous developmental systems that appear to underlie such homoplasy may reveal common and consistent evolutionary processes at work.

  3. Sensory Feedback Plays a Significant Role in Generating Walking Gait and in Gait Transition in Salamanders: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harischandra, Nalin; Knuesel, Jeremie; Kozlov, Alexander; Bicanski, Andrej; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Ijspeert, Auke; Ekeberg, Örjan

    2011-01-01

    Here, we investigate the role of sensory feedback in gait generation and transition by using a three-dimensional, neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a salamander with realistic physical parameters. Activation of limb and axial muscles were driven by neural output patterns obtained from a central pattern generator (CPG) which is composed of simulated spiking neurons with adaptation. The CPG consists of a body-CPG and four limb-CPGs that are interconnected via synapses both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. We use the model both with and without sensory modulation and four different combinations of ipsilateral and contralateral coupling between the limb-CPGs. We found that the proprioceptive sensory inputs are essential in obtaining a coordinated lateral sequence walking gait (walking). The sensory feedback includes the signals coming from the stretch receptor like intraspinal neurons located in the girdle regions and the limb stretch receptors residing in the hip and scapula regions of the salamander. On the other hand, walking trot gait (trotting) is more under central (CPG) influence compared to that of the peripheral or sensory feedback. We found that the gait transition from walking to trotting can be induced by increased activity of the descending drive coming from the mesencephalic locomotor region and is helped by the sensory inputs at the hip and scapula regions detecting the late stance phase. More neurophysiological experiments are required to identify the precise type of mechanoreceptors in the salamander and the neural mechanisms mediating the sensory modulation. PMID:22069388

  4. Sensory feedback plays a significant role in generating walking gait and in gait transition in salamanders: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalin eHarischandra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we use a three-dimensional, neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a salamander with realistic physical parameters in order to investigate the role of sensory feedback in gait generation and transition. Activation of limb and axial muscles were driven by neural output patterns obtained from a central pattern generator (CPG which is composed of simulated spiking neurons with adaptation. The CPG consists of a body CPG and four limb CPGs that are interconnected via synapses both ipsilateraly and contralaterally. We use the model both with and without sensory modulation and for different combinations of ipsilateral and contralateral coupling between the limb CPGs. We found that the proprioceptive sensory inputs are essential in obtaining a coordinated walking gait. The sensory feedback includes the signals coming from the stretch receptor like intraspinal neurons located in the girdle regions and the limb stretch receptors residing in the hip and scapula regions of the salamander. On the other hand, coordinated motor output patterns for the trotting gait were obtainable without the sensory inputs. We found that the gait transition from walking to trotting can be induced by increased activity of the descending drive coming from the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR and is helped by the sensory inputs at the hip and scapula regions detecting the late stance phase. More neurophysiological experiments are required to identify the precise type of mechanoreceptors in the salamander and the neural mechanisms mediating the sensory modulation.

  5. Evolutionary response to global change: Climate and land use interact to shape color polymorphism in a woodland salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Bradley J; Moore, Jean-David; Karraker, Nancy E; Ouellet, Martin; Gibbs, James P

    2017-07-01

    Evolutionary change has been demonstrated to occur rapidly in human-modified systems, yet understanding how multiple components of global change interact to affect adaptive evolution remains a critical knowledge gap. Climate change is predicted to impose directional selection on traits to reduce thermal stress, but the strength of directional selection may be mediated by changes in the thermal environment driven by land use. We examined how regional climatic conditions and land use interact to affect genetically based color polymorphism in the eastern red-backed salamander ( Plethodon cinereus ). P. cinereus is a woodland salamander with two primary discrete color morphs (striped, unstriped) that have been associated with macroclimatic conditions. Striped individuals are most common in colder regions, but morph frequencies can be variable within climate zones. We used path analysis to analyze morph frequencies among 238,591 individual salamanders across 1,170 sites in North America. Frequency of striped individuals was positively related to forest cover in populations occurring in warmer regions (>7°C annually), a relationship that was weak to nonexistent in populations located in colder regions (≤7°C annually). Our results suggest that directional selection imposed by climate warming at a regional scale may be amplified by forest loss and suppressed by forest persistence, with a mediating effect of land use that varies geographically. Our work highlights how the complex interaction of selection pressures imposed by different components of global change may lead to divergent evolutionary trajectories among populations.

  6. Context-dependent reproductive habitat selection: the interactive roles of structural complexity and cannibalistic conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Asaf; Mangel, Marc; Blaustein, Leon

    2009-11-01

    Structural complexity generally reduces predation and cannibalism rates. Although the benefits from this effect vary among environmental contexts and through time, it has been the common explanation for high species abundance in complex habitats. We hypothesized that oviposition habitat selection for structural complexity depends on the expected trophic function of the progeny. In Salamandra infraimmaculata larvae, expected trophic function is dictated by their sequence of deposition. First cohorts cannibalize later-arriving cohorts, while all compete for shared prey resources. In a mesocosm experiment, we show that gravid salamanders facing conspecific-free pools preferred structurally simple habitats (no rocks), while females facing only pools with older conspecific larvae preferred complex habitats (with rocks). Context-dependent preference of habitat complexity for managing food/safety trade-offs may be extended from classic foraging patch decisions to breeding habitat selection. These trade-offs vary with dynamic larval processes such as priority effects and ontogenetic diet shifts, potentially leading to complex maternal parturition behaviours.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) stomach contents detects cryptic range of a secretive salamander (Ensatina eschscholtzii oregonensis) Herpetological Conservation and Biology 5(3):395–402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean B. Reilly; Andrew D Gottsho; Justin M. Garwood; Bryan. Jennings

    2010-01-01

    Given the current global amphibian decline, it is crucial to obtain accurate and current information regarding species distributions. Secretive amphibians such as plethodontid salamanders can be difficult to detect in many cases, especially in remote, high elevation areas. We used molecular phylogenetic analyses to identify three partially digested salamanders palped...

  8. PRELIMINARY DATA CONCERNING THE HERPETOFAUNA IN NEAM COUNTY (ROMANIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin ROŞU; Iulian GHERGHEL

    2005-01-01

    In the researched area we identified 14 amphibian species: (Salamandra salamndra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria) and 8 reptilian species (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Elaphe longissima, Coronella austriaca, Vipera berus). Within the region we identi...

  9. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  10. Deep divergences and extensive phylogeographic structure in a clade of lowland tropical salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovito Sean M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex geological history of Mesoamerica provides the opportunity to study the impact of multiple biogeographic barriers on population differentiation. We examine phylogeographic patterns in a clade of lowland salamanders (Bolitoglossa subgenus Nanotriton using two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene. We use several phylogeographic analyses to infer the history of this clade and test hypotheses regarding the geographic origin of species and location of genetic breaks within species. We compare our results to those for other taxa to determine if historical events impacted different species in a similar manner. Results Deep genetic divergence between species indicates that they are relatively old, and two of the three widespread species show strong phylogeographic structure. Comparison of mtDNA and nuclear gene trees shows no evidence of hybridization or introgression between species. Isolated populations of Bolitoglossa rufescens from Los Tuxtlas region constitute a separate lineage based on molecular data and morphology, and divergence between Los Tuxtlas and other areas appears to predate the arrival of B. rufescens in other areas west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The Isthmus appears responsible for Pliocene vicariance within B. rufescens, as has been shown for other taxa. The Motagua-Polochic fault system does not appear to have caused population vicariance, unlike in other systems. Conclusions Species of Nanotriton have responded to some major geological events in the same manner as other taxa, particularly in the case of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The deep divergence of the Los Tuxtlas populations of B. rufescens from other populations highlights the contribution of this volcanic system to patterns of regional endemism, and morphological differences observed in the Los Tuxtlas populations suggests that they may represent an undescribed species of Bolitoglossa. The absence of phylogeographic structure in B

  11. Population level differences in thermal sensitivity of energy assimilation in terrestrial salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Timothy A; Gifford, Matthew E

    2017-02-01

    Thermal adaptation predicts that thermal sensitivity of physiological traits should be optimized to thermal conditions most frequently experienced. Furthermore, thermodynamic constraints predict that species with higher thermal optima should have higher performance maxima and narrower performance breadths. We tested these predictions by examining the thermal sensitivity of energy assimilation between populations within two species of terrestrial-lungless salamanders, Plethodon albagula and P. montanus. Within P. albagula, we examined populations that were latitudinally separated by >450km. Within P. montanus, we examined populations that were elevationally separated by >900m. Thermal sensitivity of energy assimilation varied substantially between populations of P. albagula separated latitudinally, but did not vary between populations of P. montanus separated elevationally. Specifically, in P. albagula, the lower latitude population had a higher thermal optimum, higher maximal performance, and narrower performance breadth compared to the higher latitude population. Furthermore, across all individuals as thermal optima increased, performance maxima also increased, providing support for the theory that "hotter is better". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly of the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus

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    Yong Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation technologies for determination of genomics and transcriptomics composition have a wide range of applications. Andrias davidianus, has become an endangered amphibian species of salamander endemic in China. However, there is a lack of the molecular information. In this study, we obtained the RNA-Seq data from a pool of A. davidianus tissue including spleen, liver, muscle, kidney, skin, testis, gut and heart using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. A total of 15,398,997,600 bp were obtained, corresponding to 102,659,984 raw reads. A total of 102,659,984 reads were filtered after removing low-quality reads and trimming the adapter sequences. The Trinity program was used to de novo assemble 132,912 unigenes with an average length of 690 bp and N50 of 1263 bp. Unigenes were annotated through number of databases. These transcriptomic data of A. davidianus should open the door to molecular evolution studies based on the entire transcriptome or targeted genes of interest to sequence. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRP099564.

  13. Resistance to chytridiomycosis in European plethodontid salamanders of the genus Speleomantes.

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    Frank Pasmans

    Full Text Available North America and the neotropics harbor nearly all species of plethodontid salamanders. In contrast, this family of caudate amphibians is represented in Europe and Asia by two genera, Speleomantes and Karsenia, which are confined to small geographic ranges. Compared to neotropical and North American plethodontids, mortality attributed to chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd has not been reported for European plethodontids, despite the established presence of Bd in their geographic distribution. We determined the extent to which Bd is present in populations of all eight species of European Speleomantes and show that Bd was undetectable in 921 skin swabs. We then compared the susceptibility of one of these species, Speleomantes strinatii, to experimental infection with a highly virulent isolate of Bd (BdGPL, and compared this to the susceptible species Alytes muletensis. Whereas the inoculated A. muletensis developed increasing Bd-loads over a 4-week period, none of five exposed S. strinatii were colonized by Bd beyond 2 weeks post inoculation. Finally, we determined the extent to which skin secretions of Speleomantes species are capable of killing Bd. Skin secretions of seven Speleomantes species showed pronounced killing activity against Bd over 24 hours. In conclusion, the absence of Bd in Speleomantes combined with resistance to experimental chytridiomycosis and highly efficient skin defenses indicate that the genus Speleomantes is a taxon unlikely to decline due to Bd.

  14. Ancient DNA assessment of tiger salamander population in Yellowstone National Park.

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    Sarah K McMenamin

    Full Text Available Recent data indicates that blotched tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum in northern regions of Yellowstone National Park are declining due to climate-related habitat changes. In this study, we used ancient and modern mitochondrial haplotype diversity to model the effective size of this amphibian population through recent geological time and to assess past responses to climatic changes in the region. Using subfossils collected from a cave in northern Yellowstone, we analyzed >700 base pairs of mitochondrial sequence from 16 samples ranging in age from 100 to 3300 years old and found that all shared an identical haplotype. Although mitochondrial diversity was extremely low within the living population, we still were able to detect geographic subdivision within the local area. Using serial coalescent modelling with Bayesian priors from both modern and ancient genetic data we simulated a range of probable population sizes and mutation rates through time. Our simulations suggest that regional mitochondrial diversity has remained relatively constant even through climatic fluctuations of recent millennia.

  15. Ancient DNA assessment of tiger salamander population in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Sarah K; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Recent data indicates that blotched tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum) in northern regions of Yellowstone National Park are declining due to climate-related habitat changes. In this study, we used ancient and modern mitochondrial haplotype diversity to model the effective size of this amphibian population through recent geological time and to assess past responses to climatic changes in the region. Using subfossils collected from a cave in northern Yellowstone, we analyzed >700 base pairs of mitochondrial sequence from 16 samples ranging in age from 100 to 3300 years old and found that all shared an identical haplotype. Although mitochondrial diversity was extremely low within the living population, we still were able to detect geographic subdivision within the local area. Using serial coalescent modelling with Bayesian priors from both modern and ancient genetic data we simulated a range of probable population sizes and mutation rates through time. Our simulations suggest that regional mitochondrial diversity has remained relatively constant even through climatic fluctuations of recent millennia.

  16. Temporal response of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum to 3,000 years of climatic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Webb

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphibians are sensitive indicators of environmental conditions and show measurable responses, such as changes in phenology, abundance and range limits to local changes in precipitation and temperature regimes. Amphibians offer unique opportunities to study the important ecological and evolutionary implications of responses in life history characteristics to climatic change. We analyzed a late-Holocene fossil record of the Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum for evidence of population-level changes in body size and paedomorphosis to climatic change over the last 3000 years. Results We found a significant difference in body size index between paedomorphic and metamorphic individuals during the time interval dominated by the Medieval Warm Period. There is a consistent ratio of paedomorphic to metamorphic specimens through the entire 3000 years, demonstrating that not all life history characteristics of the population were significantly altered by changes in climate on this timescale. Conclusion The fossil record of Ambystoma tigrinum we used spans an ecologically relevant timescale appropriate for understanding population and community response to projected climatic change. The population-level responses we documented are concordant with expectations based on modern environmental studies, and yield insight into population-level patterns across hundreds of generations, especially the independence of different life history characteristics. These conclusions lead us to offer general predictions about the future response of this species based on likely scenarios of climatic warming in the Rocky Mountain region.

  17. Temporal response of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) to 3,000 years of climatic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzgul, Judsen E; Long, Webb; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2005-09-13

    Amphibians are sensitive indicators of environmental conditions and show measurable responses, such as changes in phenology, abundance and range limits to local changes in precipitation and temperature regimes. Amphibians offer unique opportunities to study the important ecological and evolutionary implications of responses in life history characteristics to climatic change. We analyzed a late-Holocene fossil record of the Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) for evidence of population-level changes in body size and paedomorphosis to climatic change over the last 3000 years. We found a significant difference in body size index between paedomorphic and metamorphic individuals during the time interval dominated by the Medieval Warm Period. There is a consistent ratio of paedomorphic to metamorphic specimens through the entire 3000 years, demonstrating that not all life history characteristics of the population were significantly altered by changes in climate on this timescale. The fossil record of Ambystoma tigrinum we used spans an ecologically relevant timescale appropriate for understanding population and community response to projected climatic change. The population-level responses we documented are concordant with expectations based on modern environmental studies, and yield insight into population-level patterns across hundreds of generations, especially the independence of different life history characteristics. These conclusions lead us to offer general predictions about the future response of this species based on likely scenarios of climatic warming in the Rocky Mountain region.

  18. Morphological homoplasy, life history evolution, and historical biogeography of plethodontid salamanders inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Macey, J. Robert; Jaekel, Martin; Wake, David B.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-08-01

    The evolutionary history of the largest salamander family (Plethodontidae) is characterized by extreme morphological homoplasy. Analysis of the mechanisms generating such homoplasy requires an independent, molecular phylogeny. To this end, we sequenced 24 complete mitochondrial genomes (22 plethodontids and two outgroup taxa), added data for three species from GenBank, and performed partitioned and unpartitioned Bayesian, ML, and MP phylogenetic analyses. We explored four dataset partitioning strategies to account for evolutionary process heterogeneity among genes and codon positions, all of which yielded increased model likelihoods and decreased numbers of supported nodes in the topologies (PP > 0.95) relative to the unpartitioned analysis. Our phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent trees that contrast with the traditional morphology-based taxonomy; the monophyly of three out of four major groups is rejected. Reanalysis of current hypotheses in light of these new evolutionary relationships suggests that (1) a larval life history stage re-evolved from a direct-developing ancestor multiple times, (2) there is no phylogenetic support for the ''Out of Appalachia'' hypothesis of plethodontid origins, and (3) novel scenarios must be reconstructed for the convergent evolution of projectile tongues, reduction in toe number, and specialization for defensive tail loss. Some of these novel scenarios imply morphological transformation series that proceed in the opposite direction than was previously thought. In addition, they suggest surprising evolutionary lability in traits previously interpreted to be conservative.

  19. Linking extinction–colonization dynamics to genetic structure in a salamander metapopulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Bradley J.; Phillips, Christopher A.; Schooley, Robert L.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Douglas, Marlis R.

    2012-01-01

    Theory predicts that founder effects have a primary role in determining metapopulation genetic structure. However, ecological factors that affect extinction–colonization dynamics may also create spatial variation in the strength of genetic drift and migration. We tested the hypothesis that ecological factors underlying extinction–colonization dynamics influenced the genetic structure of a tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) metapopulation. We used empirical data on metapopulation dynamics to make a priori predictions about the effects of population age and ecological factors on genetic diversity and divergence among 41 populations. Metapopulation dynamics of A. tigrinum depended on wetland area, connectivity and presence of predatory fish. We found that newly colonized populations were more genetically differentiated than established populations, suggesting that founder effects influenced genetic structure. However, ecological drivers of metapopulation dynamics were more important than age in predicting genetic structure. Consistent with demographic predictions from metapopulation theory, genetic diversity and divergence depended on wetland area and connectivity. Divergence was greatest in small, isolated wetlands where genetic diversity was low. Our results show that ecological factors underlying metapopulation dynamics can be key determinants of spatial genetic structure, and that habitat area and isolation may mediate the contributions of drift and migration to divergence and evolution in local populations. PMID:22113029

  20. Current and historical drivers of landscape genetic structure differ in core and peripheral salamander populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Y Dudaniec

    Full Text Available With predicted decreases in genetic diversity and greater genetic differentiation at range peripheries relative to their cores, it can be difficult to distinguish between the roles of current disturbance versus historic processes in shaping contemporary genetic patterns. To address this problem, we test for differences in historic demography and landscape genetic structure of coastal giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus in two core regions (Washington State, United States versus the species' northern peripheral region (British Columbia, Canada where the species is listed as threatened. Coalescent-based demographic simulations were consistent with a pattern of post-glacial range expansion, with both ancestral and current estimates of effective population size being much larger within the core region relative to the periphery. However, contrary to predictions of recent human-induced population decline in the less genetically diverse peripheral region, there was no genetic signature of population size change. Effects of current demographic processes on genetic structure were evident using a resistance-based landscape genetics approach. Among core populations, genetic structure was best explained by length of the growing season and isolation by resistance (i.e. a 'flat' landscape, but at the periphery, topography (slope and elevation had the greatest influence on genetic structure. Although reduced genetic variation at the range periphery of D. tenebrosus appears to be largely the result of biogeographical history rather than recent impacts, our analyses suggest that inherent landscape features act to alter dispersal pathways uniquely in different parts of the species' geographic range, with implications for habitat management.

  1. Extinction debt as a driver of amphibian declines: An example with imperiled flatwoods salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiltsch, Raymond D; Walls, Susan; Barichivich, William J.; O'Donnell, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive view of population declines and their underlying causes is necessary to reverse species loss. Historically, in many cases, a narrow view may have allowed species declines to continue, virtually undetected, for long periods of time (perhaps even decades). We suggest that extinction debt is likely responsible for numerous (perhaps most) amphibian declines and that this perspective should be incorporated into the structure of amphibian research and management. Extinction debt, originally proposed to explain changes in species richness following environmental disturbance, also may refer to the proportion of populations of an individual species that is expected to eventually be lost because of habitat change. A conservation framework to address extinction debt focuses research on threats at the individual, population, and metapopulation levels. This approach will help enhance, restore, and protect specific processes and habitats at the proper scale by directing management to the most vulnerable level and stage of a species. We illustrate this approach using Flatwoods Salamanders, Ambystoma cingulatumand Ambystoma bishopi, which occurred historically throughout the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States but have experienced a greater than 85% loss of populations in recent years. Reversal of these losses is possible only if conservation and recovery efforts encompass individual, population, and metapopulation levels. We illustrate our framework by outlining actions that could be taken at each of these levels to help guide conservation and management of amphibians with complex life cycles and provide options for how to prioritize conservation actions in the face of logistical and budgetary shortfalls.

  2. Generalisation within specialization: inter-individual diet variation in the only specialized salamander in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andrea; Salvidio, Sebastiano; Posillico, Mario; Matteucci, Giorgio; De Cinti, Bruno; Romano, Antonio

    2015-08-21

    Specialization is typically inferred at population and species level but in the last decade many authors highlighted this trait at the individual level, finding that generalist populations can be composed by both generalist and specialist individual. Despite hundreds of reported cases of individual specialization there is a complete lack of information on inter-individual diet variation in specialist species. We studied the diet of the Italian endemic Spectacled Salamander (Salamandrina perspicillata), in a temperate forest ecosystem, to disclose the realised trophic niche, prey selection strategy in function of phenotypic variation and inter-individual diet variation. Our results showed that Salamandrina is highly specialized on Collembola and the more specialized individuals are the better performing ones. Analyses of inter-individual diet variation showed that a subset of animals exhibited a broader trophic niche, adopting different foraging strategies. Our findings reflects the optimal foraging theory both at population and individual level, since animals in better physiological conditions are able to exploit the most profitable prey, suggesting that the two coexisting strategies are not equivalent. At last this species, feeding on decomposers of litter detritus, could play a key role determining litter retention rate, nutrient cycle and carbon sequestration.

  3. Landscape genetics of alpine Sierra Nevada salamanders reveal extreme population subdivision in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Wesley K; Fremier, Alexander K; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2010-08-01

    Quantifying the influence of the landscape on the genetic structure of natural populations remains an important empirical challenge, particularly for poorly studied, ecologically cryptic species. We conducted an extensive microsatellite analysis to examine the population genetics of the southern long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum sigillatum) in a naturally complex landscape. Using spatially explicit modelling, we investigated the influence of the Sierra Nevada topography on potential dispersal corridors between sampled populations. Our results indicate very high-genetic divergence among populations, high within-deme relatedness, and little evidence of recent migration or population admixture. We also discovered unexpectedly high between-year genetic differentiation (F(ST)) for breeding sites, suggesting that breeding groups vary over localized space and time. While environmental factors associated with high-elevation montane habitats apparently play an important role in shaping population differentiation, additional, species-specific biological processes must also be operating to account for observed deviations from temporal, among-year panmixia. Our study emphasizes the population-level insights that can be gained from high-density sampling in space and time, and the highly substructured population biology that may characterize amphibians in extreme montane habitats.

  4. Notes on cranial ontogeny and delayed metamorphosis in the hynobiid salamander Ranodon sibiricus Kessler, 1866 (Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jömann, Norbert; Clemen, Günter; Greven, Hartmut

    2005-07-01

    The skull of larvae, juveniles and adults of the rare and primitive hynobiid salamander Ranodon sibiricus was re-examined using transparencies and illustrated by new graphics. The earliest larva available for investigations already had the dominant bones. The maxillary, however, was still lacking. Previous descriptions regarding the appearance and growth of bones could be largely confirmed. The vomer, first seen as a relatively small obliquely arranged dentate bar in the 3.8 cm long larva, became larger during ontogeny, but did not change its position remarkably. The vomerine pars dentalis with only a single tooth line was straight in larvae and juveniles, but was slightly curved in adults allowing for distinction of an outer and inner portion. This feature is typical and more pronounced in most other hynobiids. The significance of the vomer and vomerine dentition for systematic and phylogenetic purposes and its changes during metamorphosis are briefly discussed. Two of the specimens examined showed delayed metamorphosis very likely caused by low temperatures. Here the temporal course of transformation was "stretched" and therefore some alterations, e.g. regression of the palatinal portion of the palatopterygoid, were shown more clearly. Continuous growth of some skull elements in these individuals suggested a relative independence from metamorphosis perhaps due to variable thyroid activity and/or independent changes in individual tissue sensitivities. It is suggested that remodelling of the mouth roof could be used for staging urodele ontogeny.

  5. Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius) from Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Rovito, Sean M; García-París, Mario; Maisano, Jessica A; Wake, David B; Hanken, James

    2016-01-01

    We describe three new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius, from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico. Until now only a single species, T. minutissimus, has been reported from this region, although molecular data have long shown extensive genetic differentiation among geographically disjunct populations. Adult Thorius pinicola sp. nov., T. longicaudus sp. nov., and T. tlaxiacus sp. nov. are larger than T. minutissimus and possess elliptical rather than oval nostrils; T. pinicola and T. longicaudus also have longer tails. All three new species occur west of the range of T. minutissimus, which has the easternmost distribution of any member of the genus. The new species are distinguished from each other and from other named Thorius in Oaxaca by a combination of adult body size, external morphology and osteology, and by protein characters (allozymes) and differences in DNA sequences. In addition, we redescribe T. minutissimus and a related species, T. narisovalis, to further clarify the taxonomic status of Oaxacan populations and to facilitate future studies of the remaining genetically differentiated Thorius that cannot be satisfactorily assigned to any named species. Populations of all five species considered here appear to have declined dramatically over the last one or two decades and live specimens are difficult to find in nature. Thorius may be the most endangered genus of amphibians in the world. All species may go extinct before the end of this century.

  6. Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius from Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Parra-Olea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius, from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico. Until now only a single species, T. minutissimus, has been reported from this region, although molecular data have long shown extensive genetic differentiation among geographically disjunct populations. Adult Thorius pinicola sp. nov., T. longicaudus sp. nov., and T. tlaxiacus sp. nov. are larger than T. minutissimus and possess elliptical rather than oval nostrils; T. pinicola and T. longicaudus also have longer tails. All three new species occur west of the range of T. minutissimus, which has the easternmost distribution of any member of the genus. The new species are distinguished from each other and from other named Thorius in Oaxaca by a combination of adult body size, external morphology and osteology, and by protein characters (allozymes and differences in DNA sequences. In addition, we redescribe T. minutissimus and a related species, T. narisovalis, to further clarify the taxonomic status of Oaxacan populations and to facilitate future studies of the remaining genetically differentiated Thorius that cannot be satisfactorily assigned to any named species. Populations of all five species considered here appear to have declined dramatically over the last one or two decades and live specimens are difficult to find in nature. Thorius may be the most endangered genus of amphibians in the world. All species may go extinct before the end of this century.

  7. Ultrastructure of previtellogene oocytes in the neotenic cave salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus (Amphibia, Urodela, Proteidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Lilijana Bizjak; Bulog, Boris

    2010-10-01

    Oogenesis in the neotenic, cave dwelling salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus has not been studied yet, and this study provides a detailed description of the early growth of the oocytes. Early previtellogene oocytes ranging from 100 to 600 µm in diameter were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The oocytes were divided into two stages based on size, color, and histology. Stage I oocytes can be identified by their transparent cytoplasm and a homogenous juxtanuclear mass, composed of numerous lipid droplets and mitochondria. Stage II oocytes are no longer transparent and have increased in diameter to 300- 600 µm, and many cortical alveoli differing in size have appeared. The common and most predominant ultrastructural characteristics of both stages of previtellogene oocytes are extensive quantities of smooth membrane, numerous mitochondria, and lipid droplets, as well as abundant free ribosomes. Myeline-like structures and remarkable annulate lamellae of closely packed membrane stacks are also frequently observed. Previtellogenic oocytes are the most predominant oocytes in the ovaries of Proteus, and while they possess certain structural characteristics typical for other amphibians, some features are unique and could result from adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  8. Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, Pascale; Pasmans, Frank; Coen, Yanaika; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal®, Chloramine-T®, Dettol medical®, Disolol®, ethanol, F10®, Hibiscrub®, potassium permanganate, Safe4®, sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S®, were effective at killing Bsal. Concentrations of 5% sodium chloride or lower, 0.01% peracetic acid and 0.001-1% copper sulphate were inactive against Bsal. None of the conditions tested for hydrogen peroxide affected Bsal viability, while it did kill Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). For Bsal, enzymatic breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalases and specific morphological features (clustering of sporangia, development of new sporangia within the original sporangium), were identified as fungal factors altering susceptibility to several of the disinfectants tested. Based on the in vitro results we recommend 1% Virkon S®, 4% sodium hypochlorite and 70% ethanol for disinfecting equipment in the field, lab or captive setting, with a minimal contact time of 5 minutes for 1% Virkon S® and 1 minute for the latter disinfectants. These conditions not only efficiently target Bsal, but also Bd and Ranavirus.

  9. Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Van Rooij

    Full Text Available The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal®, Chloramine-T®, Dettol medical®, Disolol®, ethanol, F10®, Hibiscrub®, potassium permanganate, Safe4®, sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S®, were effective at killing Bsal. Concentrations of 5% sodium chloride or lower, 0.01% peracetic acid and 0.001-1% copper sulphate were inactive against Bsal. None of the conditions tested for hydrogen peroxide affected Bsal viability, while it did kill Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. For Bsal, enzymatic breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalases and specific morphological features (clustering of sporangia, development of new sporangia within the original sporangium, were identified as fungal factors altering susceptibility to several of the disinfectants tested. Based on the in vitro results we recommend 1% Virkon S®, 4% sodium hypochlorite and 70% ethanol for disinfecting equipment in the field, lab or captive setting, with a minimal contact time of 5 minutes for 1% Virkon S® and 1 minute for the latter disinfectants. These conditions not only efficiently target Bsal, but also Bd and Ranavirus.

  10. The naris muscles in tiger salamander. I. Potential functions and innervation as revealed by biocytin tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R; Holliday, Katherine R

    2002-06-01

    The naris constrictor muscle, along with naris dilator and naris accessory muscles, controls the opening and closing of the external naris in tiger salamanders. It has been hypothesized that contraction of the naris constrictor muscle also causes the external nasal gland to secrete its contents inside the lateral wall of the external naris opening. This location is just rostral to vomeronasal organ and thus secretion in this region may be important for access of odorous compounds to vomeronasal organ. Little is known about the innervation of the naris muscles. To elucidate the neural control of these muscles, their innervation was examined using retrograde tract tracing with biocytin. Following application of biocytin to the naris constrictor muscle, labeling was observed in a ventral axonal plexus of the palatine nerve and numerous neuronal cell bodies distributed along this peripheral nerve plexus and within the main portion of the palatine ganglion. If the naris accessory and/or dilator muscles were also exposed to the tracer, the lateral-most branch of the palatine nerve and its associated neural cell bodies were labeled. To confirm the functional innervation of the muscles by the palatine nerve, the nerve was cut and the contraction of the muscles was eliminated. These findings demonstrate that the muscles controlling the external naris are under the control of palatine ganglion neurons. We hypothesize that this innervation of the naris constrictor muscle controls both muscle contraction and glandular secretion that may facilitate access of chemosensory substances to the vomeronasal organ.

  11. Effects of copper exposure on hatching success and early larval survival in marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteropoulos, Diana L; Lance, Stacey L; Flynn, R Wesley; Scott, David E

    2014-07-01

    The creation of wetlands, such as urban and industrial ponds, has increased in recent decades, and these wetlands often become enriched in pollutants over time. One metal contaminant trapped in created wetlands is copper (Cu(2+)). Copper concentrations in sediments and overlying water may affect amphibian species that breed in created wetlands. The authors analyzed the Cu concentration in dried sediments from a contaminated wetland and the levels of aqueous Cu released after flooding the sediments with different volumes of water, mimicking low, medium, and high pond-filling events. Eggs and larvae of Ambystoma opacum Gravenhorst, a salamander that lays eggs on the sediments in dry pond beds that hatch on pond-filling, were exposed to a range of Cu concentrations that bracketed potential aqueous Cu levels in created wetlands. Embryo survival varied among clutches, but increased Cu levels did not affect embryo survival. At Cu concentrations of 500 µg/L or greater, however, embryos hatched earlier, and the aquatic larvae died shortly after hatching. Because Cu concentrations in sediments increase over time in created wetlands, even relatively tolerant species such as A. opacum may be affected by Cu levels in the posthatching environment. © 2014 SETAC.

  12. Effects of corticosterone on infection and disease in salamanders exposed to the amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonner, Chris W; Patel, Shreya A; Boord, Shelby M; Venesky, Matthew D; Woodley, Sarah K

    2017-03-06

    Although it is well established that glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) alter immune function and disease resistance in humans and laboratory animal models, fewer studies have linked elevated GCs to altered immune function and disease resistance in wild animals. The chytrid fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infects amphibians and can cause the disease chytridiomycosis, which is responsible for worldwide amphibian declines. It is hypothesized that long-term exposure to environmental stressors reduces host resistance to Bd by suppressing host immunity via stress-induced release of GCs such as corticosterone (CORT). We tested whether elevation of CORT would reduce resistance to Bd and chytridiomycosis development in the red-legged salamander Plethodon shermani. Plasma CORT was elevated daily in animals for 9 d, after which animals were inoculated with Bd and subsequently tested for infection loads and clinical signs of disease. On average, Bd-inoculated animals treated with CORT had higher infection abundance compared to Bd-inoculated animals not treated with CORT. However, salamanders that received CORT prior to Bd did not experience any increase in clinical signs of chytridiomycosis compared to salamanders not treated with CORT. The lack of congruence between CORT effects on infection abundance versus disease may be due to threshold effects. Nonetheless, our results show that elevation of plasma CORT prior to Bd inoculation decreases resistance to infection by Bd. More studies are needed to better understand the effects of CORT on animals exposed to Bd and whether CORT variation contributes to differential responses to Bd observed across amphibian species and populations.

  13. Rapid fixation of non-native alleles revealed by genome-wide SNP analysis of hybrid tiger salamanders

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    Shaffer H Bradley

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid zones represent valuable opportunities to observe evolution in systems that are unusually dynamic and where the potential for the origin of novelty and rapid adaptation co-occur with the potential for dysfunction. Recently initiated hybrid zones are particularly exciting evolutionary experiments because ongoing natural selection on novel genetic combinations can be studied in ecological time. Moreover, when hybrid zones involve native and introduced species, complex genetic patterns present important challenges for conservation policy. To assess variation of admixture dynamics, we scored a large panel of markers in five wild hybrid populations formed when Barred Tiger Salamanders were introduced into the range of California Tiger Salamanders. Results At three of 64 markers, introduced alleles have largely displaced native alleles within the hybrid populations. Another marker (GNAT1 showed consistent heterozygote deficits in the wild, and this marker was associated with embryonic mortality in laboratory F2's. Other deviations from equilibrium expectations were idiosyncratic among breeding ponds, consistent with highly stochastic demographic effects. Conclusion While most markers retain native and introduced alleles in expected proportions, strong selection appears to be eliminating native alleles at a smaller set of loci. Such rapid fixation of alleles is detectable only in recently formed hybrid zones, though it might be representative of dynamics that frequently occur in nature. These results underscore the variable and mosaic nature of hybrid genomes and illustrate the potency of recombination and selection in promoting variable, and often unpredictable genetic outcomes. Introgression of a few, strongly selected introduced alleles should not necessarily affect the conservation status of California Tiger Salamanders, but suggests that genetically pure populations of this endangered species will be difficult to

  14. Diet of larval Ambystoma rivulare (Caudata: Ambystomatidae), a threatened salamander from the Volcán Nevado de Toluca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    JULIO A LEMOS-ESPINAL; Smith, Geoffrey R.; Guillermo A. Woolrich-Piña; Raymundo Montoya-Ayala

    2015-01-01

    Several species of salamander in the genus Ambystoma occur in the mountains surrounding Mexico City and are considered at risk of extinction. However, little is known about their ecology and natural history. The Toluca Stream Siredon (Ambystoma rivulare) is classified as “Data Deficient” by the IUCN, and considered “Threatened” under Mexican law. From October 2013 to September 2014, we examined the diet of larval A. rivulare from a stream on the Volcán Nevado de Toluca in Mexico to provide in...

  15. Effects of Photoperiod and Temperature on Growth and Development in Clouded Salamander (Hynobius nebulosus) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukita, Sayuri; Gouda, Mika; Ikeda, Sakiko; Ishibashi, Sakiko; Furuya, Tatsunori; Nakamura, Keiji

    2015-06-01

    Day length is one of the most important factors that organisms use to predict seasonal changes in their environment. Several amphibians regulate their growth and development in response to photoperiod. However, many studies have not focused on the ecological effects of the photoperiodic response on growth and development because they use tropical animals, animals from a commercial source or from unknown localities, or extreme light regimens for experiments. In the present study, we examined the effects of photoperiod on growth and development in the clouded salamander (Hynobius nebulosus) by raising larvae under different photoperiods and at different temperatures in the laboratory. The average larval period under a long-day photoperiod of L16:D8 was longer than that under L12:D12 at 15°C or 20°C, although the difference between the photoperiods was only significant for 15°C. Juveniles weighed more at metamorphosis under L16:D8 than those under L12:D12, irrespective of temperature, suggesting that a longer developmental period results in a heavier body weight. The head width of juveniles did not differ for different photoperiods at either temperature. However, the growth rate of the head width under L12:D12 was faster than that under L16:D8 at 15°C. Long day length appears to produce larger H. nebulosus juveniles in a relatively stable aquatic environment with a low population density. Thus, development may be accelerated when the day length becomes shorter as winter approaches, and larvae may have increased the growth rate of their head widths to compensate for the shorter growing period under shorter day lengths.

  16. Isolation of Giant Lampbrush Chromosomes from Living Oocytes of Frogs and Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Joseph G; Nizami, Zehra F

    2016-12-05

    We describe methods for studying the giant transcriptionally active lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) found in the oocyte, or unlaid egg, of frogs and salamanders. Individual LBCs can be up to 1 mm in length and they reside in a gigantic nucleus, itself up to 0.5 mm in diameter. The large size of the chromosomes permits unparalleled observations of active genes by light optical microscopy, but at the same time special techniques are required for isolating the nucleus, removing the nuclear envelope, and spreading the chromosomes on a microscope slide. The oocyte nucleus, also called the germinal vesicle (GV), is isolated in a medium that allows partial gelling of the nuclear actin and preserves the delicate structure of the LBCs. This step is carried out manually under a dissecting microscope using jeweler's forceps. Next, the nuclear envelope is removed, again manually with jeweler's forceps. The nuclear contents are quickly transferred to a medium that disperses the actin gel and allows the undamaged LBCs to settle onto a microscope slide. At this point the LBCs and other nuclear organelles can be viewed by phase contrast or differential interference contrast microscopy, although finer details are obscured by Brownian motion. For high resolution microscopical observation or molecular analysis, the whole preparation is centrifuged to attach the delicate LBCs firmly to the slide. A brief fixation in paraformaldehyde is then followed by immunofluorescent staining or in situ hybridization. LBCs are in a transcriptionally active state and their enormous size permits molecular analysis at the individual gene level using confocal or super-resolution microscopy.

  17. Ontogenetic convergence and evolution of foot morphology in European cave salamanders (Family: Plethodontidae

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    Nistri Annamaria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Both natural and sexual selection play a large role in generating phenotypic adaptations, with biomechanical requirements and developmental mechanisms mediating patterns of phenotypic evolution. For many traits, the relative importance of selective and developmental components remains understudied. Results We investigated ontogenetic trajectories of foot morphology in the eight species of European plethodontid cave salamander to test the hypothesis that adult foot morphology was adapted for climbing. Using geometric morphometrics and other approaches, we found that developmental patterns in five species displayed little morphological change during growth (isometry, where the extensive interdigital webbing in adults was best explained as the retention of the juvenile morphological state. By contrast, three species exhibited significant allometry, with an increase in interdigital webbing during growth. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that multiple evolutionary transitions between isometry and allometry of foot webbing have occurred in this lineage. Allometric parameters of foot growth were most similar to those of a tropical species previously shown to be adapted for climbing. Finally, interspecific variation in adult foot morphology was significantly reduced as compared to variation among juveniles, indicating that ontogenetic convergence had resulted in a common adult foot morphology across species. Conclusions The results presented here provide evidence of a complex history of phenotypic evolution in this clade. The common adult phenotype exhibited among species reveals that selection plays an important part in generating patterns of foot diversity in the group. However, developmental trajectories arriving at this common morphology are distinct; with some species displaying developmental stasis (isometry, while others show an increase

  18. Understanding positional cues in salamander limb regeneration: implications for optimizing cell-based regenerative therapies

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    Catherine D. McCusker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine has reached the point where we are performing clinical trials with stem-cell-derived cell populations in an effort to treat numerous human pathologies. However, many of these efforts have been challenged by the inability of the engrafted populations to properly integrate into the host environment to make a functional biological unit. It is apparent that we must understand the basic biology of tissue integration in order to apply these principles to the development of regenerative therapies in humans. Studying tissue integration in model organisms, where the process of integration between the newly regenerated tissues and the ‘old’ existing structures can be observed and manipulated, can provide valuable insights. Embryonic and adult cells have a memory of their original position, and this positional information can modify surrounding tissues and drive the formation of new structures. In this Review, we discuss the positional interactions that control the ability of grafted cells to integrate into existing tissues during the process of salamander limb regeneration, and discuss how these insights could explain the integration defects observed in current cell-based regenerative therapies. Additionally, we describe potential molecular tools that can be used to manipulate the positional information in grafted cell populations, and to promote the communication of positional cues in the host environment to facilitate the integration of engrafted cells. Lastly, we explain how studying positional information in current cell-based therapies and in regenerating limbs could provide key insights to improve the integration of cell-based regenerative therapies in the future.

  19. Pseudo-immunolabelling with the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) due to the presence of endogenous biotin in retinal Müller cells of goldfish and salamander

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharjee, J.; Nunes Cardozo, B.; Kamphuis, W.; Kamermans, M.; Vrensen, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    Immunodetection techniques are dependent on enzyme-protein conjugates for the visualisation of antigen-antibody complexes. One of the most widely used is the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method. The present study demonstrates that direct treatment of goldfish and salamander retinal

  20. Site-level habitat models for the endemic, threatened Cheat Mountain salamander (Plethodon nettingi): the importance of geophysical and biotic attributes for predicting occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester O. Dillard; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark Ford

    2008-01-01

    The federally threatened Cheat Mountain salamander (Plethodon nettingi; hereafter CMS) is known to occur in approximately 70 small, scattered populations in the Allegheny Mountains of eastern West Virginia, USA. Current conservation and management efforts on federal, state, and private lands involving CMS largely rely on small scale, largely...

  1. 3D bite modeling and feeding mechanics of the largest living amphibian, the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus (Amphibia:Urodela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Fortuny

    Full Text Available Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their "conservative" morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints.

  2. Habitat utilization, density, and growth of steelhead trout, coho salmon, and Pacific giant salamander in relation to habitat types in a small coastal redwood stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Roy Lau

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Small Pacific northwestern coastal streams are nurseries for populations of young of the year coho salmon, steelhead trout, and the Pacific giant salamander larvae. Previous field studies suggest that the habitats of the juveniles of these species were similar to one another. Few habitat utilization studies focus on the juvenile stages of these species...

  3. 3D Bite Modeling and Feeding Mechanics of the Largest Living Amphibian, the Chinese Giant Salamander Andrias davidianus (Amphibia:Urodela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuny, Josep; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Heiss, Egon; Sanchez, Montserrat; Gil, Lluis; Galobart, Àngel

    2015-01-01

    Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their “conservative” morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints. PMID:25853557

  4. Diet of larval Ambystoma rivulare (Caudata: Ambystomatidae, a threatened salamander from the Volcán Nevado de Toluca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Lemos-Espinal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several species of salamander in the genus Ambystoma occur in the mountains surrounding Mexico City and are considered at risk of extinction. However, little is known about their ecology and natural history. The Toluca Stream Siredon (Ambystoma rivulare is classified as “Data Deficient” by the IUCN, and considered “Threatened” under Mexican law. From October 2013 to September 2014, we examined the diet of larval A. rivulare from a stream on the Volcán Nevado de Toluca in Mexico to provide insight into the suitability of the habitat to support this population of salamanders. Ostracods accounted for approximately 90% of all prey items consumed by larval A. rivulare. The number of ostracods found in stomachs increased with individual body size, but the proportion of ostracods in stomachs did not vary with body size. Nematodes were observed in approximately one third of the stomachs we examined. The diversity of prey in the diet of A. rivulare in the stream we studied is low and dominated by a single prey taxon, ostracods. Our results suggest that if environmental conditions in the stream change such that ostracods are negatively affected then the long-term persistence of this population of A. rivulare might be in jeopardy.

  5. A 3D Musculo-Mechanical Model of the Salamander for the Study of Different Gaits and Modes of Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harischandra, Nalin; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Ekeberg, Örjan

    2010-01-01

    Computer simulation has been used to investigate several aspects of locomotion in salamanders. Here we introduce a three-dimensional forward dynamics mechanical model of a salamander, with physically realistic weight and size parameters. Movements of the four limbs and of the trunk and tail are generated by sets of linearly modeled skeletal muscles. In this study, activation of these muscles were driven by prescribed neural output patterns. The model was successfully used to mimic locomotion on level ground and in water. We compare the walking gait where a wave of activity in the axial muscles travels between the girdles, with the trotting gait in simulations using the musculo-mechanical model. In a separate experiment, the model is used to compare different strategies for turning while stepping; either by bending the trunk or by using side-stepping in the front legs. We found that for turning, the use of side-stepping alone or in combination with trunk bending, was more effective than the use of trunk bending alone. We conclude that the musculo-mechanical model described here together with a proper neural controller is useful for neuro-physiological experiments in silico. PMID:21206530

  6. Molecular detection of vertebrates in stream water: A demonstration using rocky mountain tailed frogs and Idaho giant salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, C.S.; Pilliod, D.S.; Arkle, R.S.; Waits, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    Stream ecosystems harbor many secretive and imperiled species, and studies of vertebrates in these systems face the challenges of relatively low detection rates and high costs. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has recently been confirmed as a sensitive and efficient tool for documenting aquatic vertebrates in wetlands and in a large river and canal system. However, it was unclear whether this tool could be used to detect low-density vertebrates in fast-moving streams where shed cells may travel rapidly away from their source. To evaluate the potential utility of eDNA techniques in stream systems, we designed targeted primers to amplify a short, species-specific DNA fragment for two secretive stream amphibian species in the northwestern region of the United States (Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, and Idaho giant salamanders, Dicamptodon aterrimus). We tested three DNA extraction and five PCR protocols to determine whether we could detect eDNA of these species in filtered water samples from five streams with varying densities of these species in central Idaho, USA. We successfully amplified and sequenced the targeted DNA regions for both species from stream water filter samples. We detected Idaho giant salamanders in all samples and Rocky Mountain tailed frogs in four of five streams and found some indication that these species are more difficult to detect using eDNA in early spring than in early fall. While the sensitivity of this method across taxa remains to be determined, the use of eDNA could revolutionize surveys for rare and invasive stream species. With this study, the utility of eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic vertebrates has been demonstrated across the majority of freshwater systems, setting the stage for an innovative transformation in approaches for aquatic research.

  7. Hindcasting Historical Breeding Conditions for an Endangered Salamander in Ephemeral Wetlands of the Southeastern USA: Implications of Climate Change.

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    Houston C Chandler

    Full Text Available The hydroperiod of ephemeral wetlands is often the most important characteristic determining amphibian breeding success, especially for species with long development times. In mesic and wet pine flatwoods of the southeastern United States, ephemeral wetlands were a common landscape feature. Reticulated flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi, a federally endangered species, depend exclusively on ephemeral wetlands and require at least 11 weeks to successfully metamorphose into terrestrial adults. We empirically modeled hydroperiod of 17 A. bishopi breeding wetlands by combining downscaled historical climate-model data with a recent 9-year record (2006-2014 of observed water levels. Empirical models were subsequently used to reconstruct wetland hydrologic conditions from 1896-2014 using the downscaled historical climate datasets. Reconstructed hydroperiods for the 17 wetlands were highly variable through time but were frequently unfavorable for A. bishopi reproduction (e.g., only 61% of years, using a conservative estimate of development time [12 weeks], were conducive to larval development and metamorphosis. Using change-point analysis, we identified significant shifts in average hydroperiod over the last century in all 17 wetlands. Mean hydroperiods were shorter in recent years than at any other point since 1896, and thus less suitable for A. bishopi reproduction. We suggest that climate change will continue to impact the reproductive success of flatwoods salamanders and other ephemeral wetland breeders by reducing the number of years these wetlands have suitable hydroperiods. Consequently, we emphasize the importance of conservation and management for mitigating other forms of habitat degradation, especially maintenance of high quality breeding sites where reproduction can occur during appropriate environmental conditions.

  8. Individual (co)variation in standard metabolic rate, feeding rate, and exploratory behavior in wild-caught semiaquatic salamanders.

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    Gifford, Matthew E; Clay, Timothy A; Careau, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Repeatability is an important concept in evolutionary analyses because it provides information regarding the benefit of repeated measurements and, in most cases, a putative upper limit to heritability estimates. Repeatability (R) of different aspects of energy metabolism and behavior has been demonstrated in a variety of organisms over short and long time intervals. Recent research suggests that consistent individual differences in behavior and energy metabolism might covary. Here we present new data on the repeatability of body mass, standard metabolic rate (SMR), voluntary exploratory behavior, and feeding rate in a semiaquatic salamander and ask whether individual variation in behavioral traits is correlated with individual variation in metabolism on a whole-animal basis and after conditioning on body mass. All measured traits were repeatable, but the repeatability estimates ranged from very high for body mass (R = 0.98), to intermediate for SMR (R = 0.39) and food intake (R = 0.58), to low for exploratory behavior (R = 0.25). Moreover, repeatability estimates for all traits except body mass declined over time (i.e., from 3 to 9 wk), although this pattern could be a consequence of the relatively low sample size used in this study. Despite significant repeatability in all traits, we find little evidence that behaviors are correlated with SMR at the phenotypic and among-individual levels when conditioned on body mass. Specifically, the phenotypic correlations between SMR and exploratory behavior were negative in all trials but significantly so in one trial only. Salamanders in this study showed individual variation in how their exploratory behavior changed across trials (but not body mass, SMR, and feed intake), which might have contributed to observed changing correlations across trials.

  9. Growth, survival, longevity, and population size of the Big Mouth Cave salamander (Gyrinophilus palleucus necturoides) from the type locality in Grundy County, Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiller, Matthew L.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Fenolio, Dante B.; Reynolds, R. Graham; Taylor, Steven J.; Miller, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    Salamander species that live entirely in subterranean habitats have evolved adaptations that allow them to cope with perpetual darkness and limited energy resources. We conducted a 26-month mark–recapture study to better understand the individual growth and demography of a population of the Big Mouth Cave Salamander (Gyrinophilus palleucus necturoides). We employed a growth model to estimate growth rates, age at sexual maturity, and longevity, and an open population model to estimate population size, density, detectability, and survival rates. Furthermore, we examined cover use and evidence of potential predation. Individuals probably reach sexual maturity in 3–5 years and live at least nine years. Survival rates were generally high (>75%) but declined during the study. More than 30% of captured salamanders had regenerating tails or tail damage, which presumably represent predation attempts by conspecifics or crayfishes. Most salamanders (>90%) were found under cover (e.g., rocks, trash, decaying plant material). Based on 11 surveys during the study, population size estimates ranged from 21 to 104 individuals in the ca. 710 m2 study area. Previous surveys indicated that this population experienced a significant decline from the early 1970s through the 1990s, perhaps related to silvicultural and agricultural practices. However, our data suggest that this population has either recovered or stabilized during the past 20 years. Differences in relative abundance between early surveys and our survey could be associated with differences in survey methods or sampling conditions rather than an increase in population size. Regardless, our study demonstrates that this population is larger than previously thought and is in no immediate risk of extirpation, though it does appear to exhibit higher rates of predation than expected for a species believed to be an apex predator of subterranean food webs.

  10. Solution structure and phylogenetics of Prod1, a member of the three-finger protein superfamily implicated in salamander limb regeneration.

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    Acely Garza-Garcia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the amputation of a limb, newts and salamanders have the capability to regenerate the lost tissues via a complex process that takes place at the site of injury. Initially these cells undergo dedifferentiation to a state competent to regenerate the missing limb structures. Crucially, dedifferentiated cells have memory of their level of origin along the proximodistal (PD axis of the limb, a property known as positional identity. Notophthalmus viridescens Prod1 is a cell-surface molecule of the three-finger protein (TFP superfamily involved in the specification of newt limb PD identity. The TFP superfamily is a highly diverse group of metazoan proteins that includes snake venom toxins, mammalian transmembrane receptors and miscellaneous signaling molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim of identifying potential orthologs of Prod1, we have solved its 3D structure and compared it to other known TFPs using phylogenetic techniques. The analysis shows that TFP 3D structures group in different categories according to function. Prod1 clusters with other cell surface protein TFP domains including the complement regulator CD59 and the C-terminal domain of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. To infer orthology, a structure-based multiple sequence alignment of representative TFP family members was built and analyzed by phylogenetic methods. Prod1 has been proposed to be the salamander CD59 but our analysis fails to support this association. Prod1 is not a good match for any of the TFP families present in mammals and this result was further supported by the identification of the putative orthologs of both CD59 and N. viridescens Prod1 in sequence data for the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The available data suggest that Prod1, and thereby its role in encoding PD identity, is restricted to salamanders. The lack of comparable limb-regenerative capability in other adult vertebrates could be

  11. A review of the biology and conservation of the Cope's giant salamander Dicamptodon copei Nussbaum, 1970 (Amphibia: Caudata: Dicamptodontidae) in the Pacific northwestern region of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex D. Foster; Deanna H. Olson; Lawrence L.C. Jones

    2015-01-01

    The Cope’s Giant Salamander Dicamptodon copei is a stream dwelling amphibian reliant on cool streams, native to forested areas primarily west of the crest of the Cascade Range in the Pacific Northwest region, USA. Unlike other members of the genus, adult D. copei are most often found in a paedomorphic form, and rarely transforms to a terrestrial stage. As a result,...

  12. Plasticity in the timing of a major life-history transition and resulting changes in the age structure of populations of the salamander Hynobius retardatus

    OpenAIRE

    Michimae, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Variation in age and size at life-history transitions is a reflection of the diversifying influence of biotic or abiotic environmental change. Examples abound, but it is not well understood how such environmental changes influence the age structure of a population. I experimentally investigated the effects of water temperature and food type on age and body size at metamorphosis in larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus. In individuals grown at a cold temperature (15 °C) or given Chirono...

  13. Individual and seasonal variation in the diet of the endangered Barton Springs Salamander (Eurycea sosorum): An application of stable isotope analysis to the conservation of an endangered species

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hayley Gillespie

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that many species show strong temporal variation in diet. Long-term dietary trends may be important in assessing the effects of ecological change such as global warming, land use change, or introductions of invasive species. Short-term variation in food sources or prey selection may be crucial for understanding population dynamics in poorly understood species. The Barton Springs Salamander (_Eurycea sosorum_) is an endangered species endemic to four small spring outflows in d...

  14. Extensive diversification of MHC in Chinese giant salamanders Andrias davidianus (Anda-MHC) reveals novel splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Chen, Zhong-yuan; Wang, Jun; Yuan, Jiang-di; Liao, Xiang-yong; Gui, Jian-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2014-02-01

    A series of MHC alleles (including 26 class IA, 27 class IIA, and 17 class IIB) were identified from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus (Anda-MHC). These genes are similar to classical MHC molecules in terms of characteristic domains, functional residues, deduced tertiary structures and genetic diversity. The majority of variation between alleles is found in the putative peptide-binding region (PBR), which is driven by positive Darwinian selection. The coexistence of two isoforms in MHC IA, IIA, and IIB alleles are shown: one full-length transcript and one novel splice variant. Despite lake of the external domains, these variants exhibit similar subcellular localization with the full-length transcripts. Moreover, the expression of MHC isoforms are up-regulated upon in vivo and in vitro stimulation with Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV), suggesting their potential roles in the immune response. The results provide insights into understanding MHC variation and function in this ancient and endangered urodele amphibian. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bayesian salamanders: analysing the demography of an underground population of the European plethodontid Speleomantes strinatii with state-space modelling

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    Salvidio Sebastiano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that Plethodontid salamanders are excellent candidates for indicating ecosystem health. However, detailed, long-term data sets of their populations are rare, limiting our understanding of the demographic processes underlying their population fluctuations. Here we present a demographic analysis based on a 1996 - 2008 data set on an underground population of Speleomantes strinatii (Aellen in NW Italy. We utilised a Bayesian state-space approach allowing us to parameterise a stage-structured Lefkovitch model. We used all the available population data from annual temporary removal experiments to provide us with the baseline data on the numbers of juveniles, subadults and adult males and females present at any given time. Results Sampling the posterior chains of the converged state-space model gives us the likelihood distributions of the state-specific demographic rates and the associated uncertainty of these estimates. Analysing the resulting parameterised Lefkovitch matrices shows that the population growth is very close to 1, and that at population equilibrium we expect half of the individuals present to be adults of reproductive age which is what we also observe in the data. Elasticity analysis shows that adult survival is the key determinant for population growth. Conclusion This analysis demonstrates how an understanding of population demography can be gained from structured population data even in a case where following marked individuals over their whole lifespan is not practical.

  16. Histology and ultrastructure of the caudal courtship glands of the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus (Amphibia: Plethodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Siegel, Dustin S

    2015-03-01

    Caudal courtship glands (CCGs) are sexually dimorphic glands described in the skin of the dorsal tail base of some male salamanders in the genera Desmognathus, Eurycea, and Plethodon in the family Plethodontidae. These glands are believed to deliver pheromones to females during courtship, when the female rests her chin on the dorsal tail base during the stereotypic tail straddling walk unique to plethodontids. Although CCGs have been studied histologically, no investigations of their ultrastructure have been made. This article presents the first study on the fine structure and seasonal variation of CCGs, using the plethodontid Plethodon cinereus. The CCGs vary seasonally in height and secretory activity. The mature secretory granules observed in males collected in October and April consist of oval, biphasic granules that are eosinophilic and give positive reactions to periodic acid-Schiff for neutral carbohydrates but do not stain for acidic mucosusbtances or proteins with alcian blue and bromphenol blue, respectively. Granular glands, some of which contain mucous demilunes, are twice as large as CCGs, are syncytial (unlike CCGs), and stain for proteins. Mucous glands are similar in size to CCGs, but are basophilic, show no seasonal variation in secretory activity, and stain positive for acidic mucosubstances. CCGs do not resemble cytologically the sexually dimorphic mental glands of some plethodontids, which contain round or oval granules filled with an electron-dense amorphous substance. The CCGs are similar histologically to sexually dimorphic skin glands described in some anurans, but more comparative work is needed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Movement, demographics, and occupancy dynamics of a federally-threatened salamander: evaluating the adequacy of critical habitat

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    Nathan F. Bendik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Critical habitat for many species is often limited to occupied localities. For rare and cryptic species, or those lacking sufficient data, occupied habitats may go unrecognized, potentially hindering species recovery. Proposed critical habitat for the aquatic Jollyville Plateau salamander (Eurycea tonkawae and two sister species were delineated based on the assumption that surface habitat is restricted to springs and excludes intervening stream reaches. To test this assumption, we performed two studies to understand aspects of individual, population, and metapopulation ecology of E. tonkawae. First, we examined movement and population demographics using capture-recapture along a spring-influenced stream reach. We then extended our investigation of stream habitat use with a study of occupancy and habitat dynamics in multiple headwater streams. Indications of extensive stream channel use based on capture-recapture results included frequent movements of >15 m, and high juvenile abundance downstream of the spring. Initial occupancy of E. tonkawae was associated with shallow depths, maidenhair fern presence and low temperature variation (indicative of groundwater influence, although many occupied sites were far from known springs. Additionally, previously dry sites were three times more likely to be colonized than wet sites. Our results indicate extensive use of stream habitats, including intermittent ones, by E. tonkawae. These areas may be important for maintaining population connectivity or even as primary habitat patches. Restricting critical habitat to occupied sites will result in a mismatch with actual habitat use, particularly when assumptions of habitat use are untested, thus limiting the potential for recovery.

  18. COI is better than 16S rRNA for DNA barcoding Asiatic salamanders (Amphibia: Caudata: Hynobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Gu, Hai-Feng; Peng, Rui; Chen, Qin; Zheng, Yu-Chi; Murphy, Robert W; Zeng, Xiao-Mao

    2012-01-01

    The 5' region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) is the standard marker for DNA barcoding. However, because COI tends to be highly variable in amphibians, sequencing is often challenging. Consequently, another mtDNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, is often advocated for amphibian barcoding. Herein, we directly compare the usefulness of COI and 16S in discriminating species of hynobiid salamanders using 130 individuals. Species identification and classification of these animals, which are endemic to Asia, are often based on morphology only. Analysis of Kimura 2-parameter genetic distances (K2P) documents the mean intraspecific variation for COI and 16S rRNA genes to be 1.4% and 0.3%, respectively. Whereas COI can always identify species, sometimes 16S cannot. Intra- and interspecific genetic divergences occasionally overlap in both markers, thus reducing the value of a barcoding gap to identify genera. Regardless, COI is the better DNA barcoding marker for hynobiids. In addition to the comparison of two potential markers, high levels of intraspecific divergence in COI (>5%) suggest that both Onychodactylus fischeri and Salamandrella keyserlingii might be composites of cryptic species. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Explaining long-distance dispersal: effects of dispersal distance on survival and growth in a stream salamander.

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    Lowe, Winsor H

    2010-10-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) may contribute disproportionately to range expansions, the creation of new evolutionary lineages, and species persistence in human-dominated landscapes. However, because data on the individual consequences of dispersal distance are extremely limited, we have little insight on how LDD is maintained in natural populations. I used six years of spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data to test the prediction that individual performance increases with dispersal distance in the stream salamander Gyrinophilus porphyriticus. Dispersal distance was total distance moved along the 1-km study stream, ranging from 0 to 565 m. To quantify individual performance, I used CMR estimates of survival and individual growth rates based on change in body length. Survival and growth rates increased significantly with dispersal distance. These relationships were not confounded by pre-dispersal body condition or by ecological gradients along the stream. Individual benefits of LDD were likely caused by an increase in the upper limit of settlement site quality with dispersal distance. My results do not support the view that the fitness consequences of LDD are unpredictable and instead suggest that consistent evolutionary mechanisms may explain the prevalence of LDD in nature. They also highlight the value of direct CMR data for understanding the individual consequences of variation in dispersal distance and how that variation is maintained in natural populations.

  20. The role of thermal niche selection in maintenance of a colour polymorphism in redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus

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    Niewiarowski Peter H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eastern North America two common colour morphs exist in most populations of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus. Previous studies have indicated that the different morphs may be adapted to different thermal niches and the morphological variation has been linked to standard metabolic rate at 15°C in one population of P. cinereus. It has therefore been hypothesized that a correlated response to selection on metabolic rate across thermal niches maintains the colour polymorphism in P. cinereus. This study tests that hypothesis. Results We found that the two colour morphs do sometimes differ in their maintenance metabolic rate (MMR profiles, but that the pattern is not consistent across populations or seasons. We also found that when MMR profiles differ between morphs those differences do not indicate that distinct niches exist. Field censuses showed that the two colour morphs are sometimes found at different substrate temperatures and that this difference is also dependent on census location and season. Conclusion While these morphs sometimes differ in their maintenance energy expenditures, the differences in MMR profile in this study are not consistent with maintenance of the polymorphism via a simple correlated response to selection across multiple niches. When present, differences in MMR profile do not indicate the existence of multiple thermal niches that consistently mirror colour polymorphism. We suggest that while a relationship between colour morph and thermal niche selection appears to exist it is neither simple nor consistent.

  1. The effects of simulated solar UVB radiation on early developmental stages of the Northwestern Salamander (Ambystoma gracile) from three lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Hoffman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) has received much attention as a factor that could play a role in amphibian population declines. UV can be hazardous to some amphibians, but the resultant effects depend on a variety of environmental and behavioral factors. In this study, the potential effects of UV on the Northwestern Salamander, Ambystoma gracile, from three lakes were assessed in the laboratory using a solar simulator. We measured the survival of embryos and the survival and growth of larvae exposed to four UV treatments in controlled laboratory studies, the UV absorbance of egg jelly, oviposition depths in the lakes, and UV absorbance in water samples from the three lakes. Hatching success of embryos decreased in the higher UV treatments as compared to the control treatments, and growth of surviving larvae was significantly reduced in the higher UVB irradiance treatments. The egg jelly exhibited a small peak of absorbance within the UVB range (290–320 nm). The magnitude of UV absorbance differed among egg jellies from the three lakes. Oviposition depths at the three sites averaged 1.10 m below the water surface. Approximately 66% of surface UVB radiation was attenuated at 10-cm depth in all three lakes. Results of this study indicate that larvae may be sensitive to UVB exposure under laboratory conditions; however, in field conditions the depths of egg deposition in the lakes, absorbance of UV radiation by the water column, and the potential for behavioral adjustments may mitigate severe effects of UV radiation.

  2. Lineage divergence and speciation in the Web-toed Salamanders (Plethodontidae: Hydromantes) of the Sierra Nevada, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovito, Sean M

    2010-10-01

    Peripatric speciation and the importance of founder effects have long been controversial, and multilocus sequence data and coalescent methods now allow hypotheses of peripatric speciation to be tested in a rigorous manner. Using a multilocus phylogeographical data set for two species of salamanders (genus Hydromantes) from the Sierra Nevada of California, hypotheses of recent divergence by peripatric speciation and older, allopatric divergence were tested. Phylogeographical analysis revealed two divergent lineages within Hydromantes platycephalus, which were estimated to have diverged in the Pliocene. By contrast, a low-elevation species, Hydromantes brunus, diverged from within the northern lineage of H. platycephalus much more recently (mid-Pleistocene), during a time of major climatic change in the Sierra Nevada. Multilocus species tree estimation and coalescent estimates of divergence time, migration rate, and growth rate reject a scenario of ancient speciation of H. brunus with subsequent gene flow and introgression from H. platycephalus, instead supporting a more recent divergence with population expansion. Although the small, peripheral distribution of H. brunus suggests the possibility of peripatric speciation, the estimated founding population size of the species was too large to have allowed founder effects to be important in its divergence. These results provide evidence for both recent speciation, most likely tied to the climatic changes of the Pleistocene, and older lineage divergence, possibly due to geological events, and add to evidence that Pleistocene glacial cycles were an important driver of diversification in the Sierra Nevada. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Amphibians of the “Cilento e Vallo di Diano” National Park (Campania, Southern Italy: updated check list, distribution and conservation notes

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    Antonio Romano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the results of our field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park (Southern Italy. Two hundred and thirty three spawning sites (167 original and 66 derived from literature, and 11 amphibian species were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina terdigitata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica, Rana dalmatina and Pelophylax synkl. hispanica. The distribution record of many species is widely improved with respect to bibliographic data. Our results also suggested that preservation and restoration of small aquatic sites, in particular of the artificial ones, such as stony wells and drinking-troughs, are fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibians in the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park.

  4. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: Epomis dejeani and Epomis circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of Epomis dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae) and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata) is described. Only Epomis dejeani consumed Triturus vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit.

  5. The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata

  6. Evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic Ozark Hellbender salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Nickerson

    cultured from a Cryptobranchid salamander. The incidence of abnormalities/injury and retarded regeneration in C. a. bishopi may have many contributing factors including disease and habitat degradation. Results from this study may provide insight into other amphibian population declines.

  7. Effects of simulated solar UVB radiation on early developmental stages of the northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile) from three lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.; Pearl, C.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) has received much attention as a factor that could play a role in amphibian population declines. UV can be hazardous to some amphibians, but the resultant effects depend on a variety of environmental and behavioral factors. In this study, the potential effects of UV on the Northwestern Salamander, Ambystoma gracile, from three lakes were assessed in the laboratory using a solar simulator. We measured the survival of embryos and the survival and growth of larvae exposed to four UV treatments in controlled laboratory studies, the UV absorbance of egg jelly, oviposition depths in the lakes, and UV absorbance in water samples from the three lakes. Hatching success of embryos decreased in the higher UV treatments as compared to the control treatments, and growth of surviving larvae was significantly reduced in the higher UVB irradiance treatments. The egg jelly exhibited a small peak of absorbance within the UVB range (290-320 nm). The magnitude of UV absorbance differed among egg jellies from the three lakes. Oviposition depths at the three sites averaged 1.10 m below the water surface. Approximately 66 of surface UVB radiation was attenuated at 10-cm depth in all three lakes. Results of this study indicate that larvae may be sensitive to UVB exposure under laboratory conditions; however, in field conditions the depths of egg deposition in the lakes, absorbance of UV radiation by the water column, and the potential for behavioral adjustments may mitigate severe effects of UV radiation. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  8. Management and monitoring of the endangered Shenandoah salamander under climate change: Workshop report 10-12 April 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Wofford, John E.B.; Smith, D.R.; Dennis, J.; Hawkins-Hoffman, C.; Schaberl, J.; Foley, M.; Bogle, M.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on a structured decision making (SDM) process to identify management strategies to ensure persistence of the federally endangered Shenandoah salamander (Plethodon shenandoah), given that it may be at increased extinction risk under projected climate change. The focus of this report is the second of two SDM workshops; in the first workshop, participants developed a prototype of the decision, including problem frame, management objectives and a suite of potential management strategies, predictive models to inform the decision and link alternatives with the objectives to identify potential solutions, and identified data needs to reduce key uncertainties in the decision. Participants in this second workshop included experts in National Park Service policy at multiple administrative levels, who refined objectives, further evaluated the initial management alternatives, and discussed policy constraints on implementing active management for the species and its high-elevation habitat. The conclusion of the second workshop was similar to that of the first: the current state of information and objectives suggest that there is some value in considering active management to reduce the long-term extinction risk for the species, though there are institutional conservative policies to implementing active management at range-wide scales. The workshop participants also emphasized a conservative NPS management philosophy, including caution in implementing management actions that may ultimately harm the system, a stated assumption that ecosystem changes were “natural” unless demonstrated otherwise (therefore not warranting active management to mitigate), and a need to demonstrate that extinction risk is tied to anthropogenic influence prior to taking active management to mitigate specific anthropogenic influences. Even within a protected area having minimal human disturbance, intertwined environmental variables and interspecific relationships that drive population

  9. Multilocus Phylogeography and Species Delimitation in the Cumberland Plateau Salamander, Plethodon kentucki: Incongruence among Data Sets and Methods.

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    Shawn R Kuchta

    Full Text Available Species are a fundamental unit of biodiversity, yet can be challenging to delimit objectively. This is particularly true of species complexes characterized by high levels of population genetic structure, hybridization between genetic groups, isolation by distance, and limited phenotypic variation. Previous work on the Cumberland Plateau Salamander, Plethodon kentucki, suggested that it might constitute a species complex despite occupying a relatively small geographic range. To examine this hypothesis, we sampled 135 individuals from 43 populations, and used four mitochondrial loci and five nuclear loci (5693 base pairs to quantify phylogeographic structure and probe for cryptic species diversity. Rates of evolution for each locus were inferred using the multidistribute package, and time calibrated gene trees and species trees were inferred using BEAST 2 and *BEAST 2, respectively. Because the parameter space relevant for species delimitation is large and complex, and all methods make simplifying assumptions that may lead them to fail, we conducted an array of analyses. Our assumption was that strongly supported species would be congruent across methods. Putative species were first delimited using a Bayesian implementation of the GMYC model (bGMYC, Geneland, and Brownie. We then validated these species using the genealogical sorting index and BPP. We found substantial phylogeographic diversity using mtDNA, including four divergent clades and an inferred common ancestor at 14.9 myr (95% HPD: 10.8-19.7 myr. By contrast, this diversity was not corroborated by nuclear sequence data, which exhibited low levels of variation and weak phylogeographic structure. Species trees estimated a far younger root than did the mtDNA data, closer to 1.0 myr old. Mutually exclusive putative species were identified by the different approaches. Possible causes of data set discordance, and the problem of species delimitation in complexes with high levels of population

  10. Exploring the Distribution of the Spreading Lethal Salamander Chytrid Fungus in Its Invasive Range in Europe - A Macroecological Approach.

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    Stephan Feldmeier

    Full Text Available The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal is a dangerous pathogen to salamanders and newts. Apparently native to Asia, it has recently been detected in Western Europe where it is expected to spread and to have dramatic effects on naïve hosts. Since 2010, Bsal has led to some catastrophic population declines of urodeles in the Netherlands and Belgium. More recently, it has been discovered in additional, more distant sites including sites in Germany. With the purpose to contribute to a better understanding of Bsal, we modelled its potential distribution in its invasive European range to gain insights about the factors driving this distribution. We computed Bsal Maxent models for two predictor sets, which represent different temporal resolutions, using three different background extents to account for different invasion stage scenarios. Beside 'classical' bioclimate, we employed weather data, which allowed us to emphasize predictors in accordance with the known pathogen's biology. The most important predictors as well as spatial predictions varied between invasion scenarios and predictor sets. The most reasonable model was based on weather data and the scenario of a recent pathogen introduction. It identified temperature predictors, which represent optimal growing conditions and heat limiting conditions, as the most explaining drivers of the current distribution. This model also predicted large areas in the study region as suitable for Bsal. The other models predicted considerably less, but shared some areas which we interpreted as most likely high risk zones. Our results indicate that growth relevant temperatures measured under laboratory conditions might also be relevant on a macroecological scale, if predictors with a high temporal resolution and relevance are used. Additionally, the conditions in our study area support the possibility of a further Bsal spread, especially when considering that our models might tend to

  11. Exploring the Distribution of the Spreading Lethal Salamander Chytrid Fungus in Its Invasive Range in Europe – A Macroecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, Stephan; Schefczyk, Lukas; Wagner, Norman; Heinemann, Günther; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is a dangerous pathogen to salamanders and newts. Apparently native to Asia, it has recently been detected in Western Europe where it is expected to spread and to have dramatic effects on naïve hosts. Since 2010, Bsal has led to some catastrophic population declines of urodeles in the Netherlands and Belgium. More recently, it has been discovered in additional, more distant sites including sites in Germany. With the purpose to contribute to a better understanding of Bsal, we modelled its potential distribution in its invasive European range to gain insights about the factors driving this distribution. We computed Bsal Maxent models for two predictor sets, which represent different temporal resolutions, using three different background extents to account for different invasion stage scenarios. Beside ‘classical’ bioclimate, we employed weather data, which allowed us to emphasize predictors in accordance with the known pathogen’s biology. The most important predictors as well as spatial predictions varied between invasion scenarios and predictor sets. The most reasonable model was based on weather data and the scenario of a recent pathogen introduction. It identified temperature predictors, which represent optimal growing conditions and heat limiting conditions, as the most explaining drivers of the current distribution. This model also predicted large areas in the study region as suitable for Bsal. The other models predicted considerably less, but shared some areas which we interpreted as most likely high risk zones. Our results indicate that growth relevant temperatures measured under laboratory conditions might also be relevant on a macroecological scale, if predictors with a high temporal resolution and relevance are used. Additionally, the conditions in our study area support the possibility of a further Bsal spread, especially when considering that our models might tend to underestimate the

  12. Exploring the Distribution of the Spreading Lethal Salamander Chytrid Fungus in Its Invasive Range in Europe - A Macroecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, Stephan; Schefczyk, Lukas; Wagner, Norman; Heinemann, Günther; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is a dangerous pathogen to salamanders and newts. Apparently native to Asia, it has recently been detected in Western Europe where it is expected to spread and to have dramatic effects on naïve hosts. Since 2010, Bsal has led to some catastrophic population declines of urodeles in the Netherlands and Belgium. More recently, it has been discovered in additional, more distant sites including sites in Germany. With the purpose to contribute to a better understanding of Bsal, we modelled its potential distribution in its invasive European range to gain insights about the factors driving this distribution. We computed Bsal Maxent models for two predictor sets, which represent different temporal resolutions, using three different background extents to account for different invasion stage scenarios. Beside 'classical' bioclimate, we employed weather data, which allowed us to emphasize predictors in accordance with the known pathogen's biology. The most important predictors as well as spatial predictions varied between invasion scenarios and predictor sets. The most reasonable model was based on weather data and the scenario of a recent pathogen introduction. It identified temperature predictors, which represent optimal growing conditions and heat limiting conditions, as the most explaining drivers of the current distribution. This model also predicted large areas in the study region as suitable for Bsal. The other models predicted considerably less, but shared some areas which we interpreted as most likely high risk zones. Our results indicate that growth relevant temperatures measured under laboratory conditions might also be relevant on a macroecological scale, if predictors with a high temporal resolution and relevance are used. Additionally, the conditions in our study area support the possibility of a further Bsal spread, especially when considering that our models might tend to underestimate the potential

  13. Evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic Ozark Hellbender salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A; Ott, C Mark; Castro, Sarah L; Garcia, Veronica M; Molina, Thomas C; Briggler, Jeffrey T; Pitt, Amber L; Tavano, Joseph J; Byram, J Kelly; Barrila, Jennifer; Nickerson, Max A

    2011-01-01

    Cryptobranchid salamander. The incidence of abnormalities/injury and retarded regeneration in C. a. bishopi may have many contributing factors including disease and habitat degradation. Results from this study may provide insight into other amphibian population declines.

  14. A refined ecological risk assessment for California red-legged frog, delta smelt, and California tiger salamander exposed to malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemow, Yvonne H; Manning, Gillian E; Breton, Roger L; Winchell, Michael F; Padilla, Lauren; Rodney, Sara I; Hanzas, John P; Estes, Tammara L; Budreski, Katherine; Toth, Brent N; Hill, Katie L; Priest, Colleen D; Teed, R Scott; Knopper, Loren D; Moore, Dwayne Rj; Stone, Christopher T; Whatling, Paul

    2017-10-31

    The California red-legged frog (CRLF), Delta smelt (DS), and California tiger salamander (CTS) are 3 species listed under the United States Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA), all of which inhabit aquatic ecosystems in California. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has conducted deterministic screening-level risk assessments for these species potentially exposed to malathion, an organophosphorus insecticide and acaricide. Results from our screening-level analyses identified potential risk of direct effects to DS as well as indirect effects to all 3 species via reduction in prey. Accordingly, for those species and scenarios in which risk was identified at the screening level, we conducted a refined probabilistic risk assessment for CRLF, DS, and CTS. The refined ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted using best available data and approaches, as recommended by the 2013 National Research Council (NRC) report "Assessing Risks to Endangered and Threatened Species from Pesticides." Refined aquatic exposure models including the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), the Vegetative Filter Strip Modeling System (VFSMOD), the Variable Volume Water Model (VVWM), the Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were used to generate estimated exposure concentrations (EECs) for malathion based on worst-case scenarios in California. Refined effects analyses involved developing concentration-response curves for fish and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for fish and aquatic invertebrates. Quantitative risk curves, field and mesocosm studies, surface-water monitoring data, and incident reports were considered in a weight-of-evidence approach. Currently, labeled uses of malathion are not expected to result in direct effects to CRLF, DS or CTS, or indirect effects due to effects on fish and invertebrate prey. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;00:000-000. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and

  15. Response of Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus to Changes in Hemlock Forest Soil Driven by Invasive Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges Tsugae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Ochs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemlock forests of the northeastern United States are declining due to the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA (Adelges tsugae. Hardwood species replace these forests, which affects soil properties that may influence other communities, such as red-backed salamanders (red-backs (Plethodon cinereus. This study examined the effects of HWA invasion on soil properties and how this affects red-backs at the Hemlock Removal Experiment at Harvard Forest, which consists of eight 0.8 ha plots treated with girdling to simulate HWA invasion, logging to simulate common management practices, or hemlock- or hardwood-dominated controls. Coverboard surveys were used to determine the relative abundance of red-backs between plots during June and July 2014 and soil cores were collected from which the bulk density, moisture, pH, temperature, leaf litter, and carbon-nitrogen ratio were measured. Ordination provided a soil quality index based on temperature, pH, and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, which was significantly different between plot treatments (p < 0.05 and showed a significant negative correlation with the red-back relative abundance (p < 0.05. The findings support the hypothesis that red-backs are affected by soil quality, which is affected by plot treatment and thus HWA invasion. Further studies should explore how salamanders react in the long term towards changing environments and consider the use of red-backs as indicator species.

  16. Guide to Inventory and Monitoring of Streamside Salamanders in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia Supplement No. 2 to Amphibian Decline in the Mid-Atlantic Region; Monitoring and Management of a Sensitive Resource. Final Report to the Legacy Resource Management Program. U.S. Department of Defense.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Amphibians (frogs, toads, salamanders) have become recognized widely as sensitive indicators of environmental change. They have permeable skin, gills, and eggs that...

  17. A new species of salamander of the genus Hynobius (Amphibia, Caudata, Hynobiidae) from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Mi-Sook; Baek, Hae-Jun; Song, Jae-Young; Chang, Min Ho; Poyarkov, Nikolay A Jr

    2016-09-21

    We describe a new species of lentic-breeding Hynobius salamander from the Naro Islands, near the village of Bongrae-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do, South Korea, on the basis of results of morphological, ecological and genetic analyses. Hynobius unisacculus sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) comparatively small size (adult SVL up to 61 mm; range 38.3-60.3 mm in males and 37.5-59.9 mm in females); (2) relatively slender short limbs; tips of fore- and hindlimbs adpressed on body never meeting, but separated by a large gap (gap of -3.0 to -1.5 costal folds in males and -3.5 to -1.5 in females); (3) comparatively short tail (TL/SVL ratio in adult males varying from 0.54-0.98, in adult females from 0.55 to 0.89), tail flattened and with a low dorsal fin extending to the posterior one-third of tail length; (4) usually 11 (occasionally 12) costal grooves; (5) in adults, dark brown dorsum with indistinct bronze or dark copper spots, lighter greyish-white or pinkish belly; (6) well developed fifth toe; (7) comparatively shallow vomerine tooth series with 13-23 vomerine teeth; (8) small, pigmented ova, located in one, occasionally two, strings in a small, curved egg sac with folded envelope, lacking distinct mucous stalks or whiptail-like structures on both ends. The molecular differentiation among Korean Hynobius is high; Hynobius unisacculus sp. nov. is genetically highly divergent from the morphologically similar H. leechii, H. yangi and H. quelpaertensis: pairwise distances are 9.7%, 9.1% and 8.0% of sequence divergence at the COI mtDNA gene respectively, and 10.9%, 10.9% and 9.4% of sequence divergence at the cyt b mtDNA gene, respectively. At present, the new species is known from coastal areas and offshore islands in southeastern part of Jeollanam-do in South Korea. We suggest the species should be considered as Vulnerable (Vu2a) in accordance with IUCN's Red List categories. Our study supports

  18. Taxonomic revision of the moss salamander Nototriton barbouri (Schmidt (Caudata: Plethodontidae), with description of two new species from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Josiah H

    2016-11-24

    Moss salamanders (genus Nototriton) are represented in northern Central America by nine putative species: N. barbouri, N. brodiei, N. lignicola, N. limnospectator, N. mime, N. picucha, N. saslaya, N. stuarti, and N. tomamorum. I estimate the phylogenetic relationships for these species based on data from three mitochondrial gene fragments (16S, cytochrome b, and COI), and compare morphological variation among putative taxa. As evidenced here and in previous studies, the taxon N. barbouri is paraphyletic with respect to populations from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios in northern Honduras. I restrict this taxon to populations from the Sierra de Sulaco in central Yoro, Honduras, and describe two new species from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios.

  19. Comparative limb bone loading in the humerus and femur of the tiger salamander: testing the 'mixed-chain' hypothesis for skeletal safety factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Sandy M; Economy, D Ross; Kennedy, Marian S; Dean, Delphine; Blob, Richard W

    2016-02-01

    Locomotion imposes some of the highest loads upon the skeleton, and diverse bone designs have evolved to withstand these demands. Excessive loads can fatally injure organisms; however, bones have a margin of extra protection, called a 'safety factor' (SF), to accommodate loads that are higher than normal. The extent to which SFs might vary amongst an animal's limb bones is unclear. If the limbs are likened to a chain composed of bones as 'links', then similar SFs might be expected for all limb bones because failure of the system would be determined by the weakest link, and extra protection in other links could waste energetic resources. However, Alexander proposed that a 'mixed-chain' of SFs might be found amongst bones if: (1) their energetic costs differ, (2) some elements face variable demands, or (3) SFs are generally high. To test whether such conditions contribute to diversity in limb bone SFs, we compared the biomechanical properties and locomotor loading of the humerus and femur in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). Despite high SFs in salamanders and similar sizes of the humerus and femur that would suggest similar energetic costs, the humerus had lower bone stresses, higher mechanical hardness and larger SFs. SFs were greatest in the anatomical regions where yield stresses were highest in the humerus and lowest in the femur. Such intraspecific variation between and within bones may relate to their different biomechanical functions, providing insight into the emergence of novel locomotor capabilities during the invasion of land by tetrapods. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Structural insights into the evolution of a sexy protein: novel topology and restricted backbone flexibility in a hypervariable pheromone from the red-legged salamander, Plethodon shermani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Damien B; Bowen, Kathleen E; Doty, Kari A; Arumugam, Sengodagounder; Lane, Andrew N; Feldhoff, Pamela W; Feldhoff, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    In response to pervasive sexual selection, protein sex pheromones often display rapid mutation and accelerated evolution of corresponding gene sequences. For proteins, the general dogma is that structure is maintained even as sequence or function may rapidly change. This phenomenon is well exemplified by the three-finger protein (TFP) superfamily: a diverse class of vertebrate proteins co-opted for many biological functions - such as components of snake venoms, regulators of the complement system, and coordinators of amphibian limb regeneration. All of the >200 structurally characterized TFPs adopt the namesake "three-finger" topology. In male red-legged salamanders, the TFP pheromone Plethodontid Modulating Factor (PMF) is a hypervariable protein such that, through extensive gene duplication and pervasive sexual selection, individual male salamanders express more than 30 unique isoforms. However, it remained unclear how this accelerated evolution affected the protein structure of PMF. Using LC/MS-MS and multidimensional NMR, we report the 3D structure of the most abundant PMF isoform, PMF-G. The high resolution structural ensemble revealed a highly modified TFP structure, including a unique disulfide bonding pattern and loss of secondary structure, that define a novel protein topology with greater backbone flexibility in the third peptide finger. Sequence comparison, models of molecular evolution, and homology modeling together support that this flexible third finger is the most rapidly evolving segment of PMF. Combined with PMF sequence hypervariability, this structural flexibility may enhance the plasticity of PMF as a chemical signal by permitting potentially thousands of structural conformers. We propose that the flexible third finger plays a critical role in PMF:receptor interactions. As female receptors co-evolve, this flexibility may allow PMF to still bind its receptor(s) without the immediate need for complementary mutations. Consequently, this unique

  1. Structural insights into the evolution of a sexy protein: novel topology and restricted backbone flexibility in a hypervariable pheromone from the red-legged salamander, Plethodon shermani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien B Wilburn

    Full Text Available In response to pervasive sexual selection, protein sex pheromones often display rapid mutation and accelerated evolution of corresponding gene sequences. For proteins, the general dogma is that structure is maintained even as sequence or function may rapidly change. This phenomenon is well exemplified by the three-finger protein (TFP superfamily: a diverse class of vertebrate proteins co-opted for many biological functions - such as components of snake venoms, regulators of the complement system, and coordinators of amphibian limb regeneration. All of the >200 structurally characterized TFPs adopt the namesake "three-finger" topology. In male red-legged salamanders, the TFP pheromone Plethodontid Modulating Factor (PMF is a hypervariable protein such that, through extensive gene duplication and pervasive sexual selection, individual male salamanders express more than 30 unique isoforms. However, it remained unclear how this accelerated evolution affected the protein structure of PMF. Using LC/MS-MS and multidimensional NMR, we report the 3D structure of the most abundant PMF isoform, PMF-G. The high resolution structural ensemble revealed a highly modified TFP structure, including a unique disulfide bonding pattern and loss of secondary structure, that define a novel protein topology with greater backbone flexibility in the third peptide finger. Sequence comparison, models of molecular evolution, and homology modeling together support that this flexible third finger is the most rapidly evolving segment of PMF. Combined with PMF sequence hypervariability, this structural flexibility may enhance the plasticity of PMF as a chemical signal by permitting potentially thousands of structural conformers. We propose that the flexible third finger plays a critical role in PMF:receptor interactions. As female receptors co-evolve, this flexibility may allow PMF to still bind its receptor(s without the immediate need for complementary mutations. Consequently

  2. Assessment of intra and interregional genetic variation in the Eastern Red-backed Salamander, Plethodon cinereus, via analysis of novel microsatellite markers.

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    Alexander C Cameron

    Full Text Available The red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus has long-served as a model system in ecology, evolution, and behavior, and studies surveying molecular variation in this species have become increasingly common over the past decade. However, difficulties are commonly encountered when extending microsatellite markers to populations that are unstudied from a genetic perspective due to high levels of genetic differentiation across this species' range. To ameliorate this issue, we used 454 pyrosequencing to identify hundreds of microsatellite loci. We then screened 40 of our top candidate loci in populations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio-including an isolated island population ~ 4.5 km off the shore of Lake Erie (South Bass Island. We identified 25 loci that are polymorphic in a well-studied region of Virginia and 11 of these loci were polymorphic in populations located in the genetically unstudied regions of Ohio and Pennsylvania. Use of these loci to examine patterns of variation within populations revealed that South Bass Island has low diversity in comparison to other sites. However, neither South Bass Island nor isolated populations around Cleveland are inbred. Assessment of variation between populations revealed three well defined genetic clusters corresponding to Virginia, mainland Ohio/Pennsylvania, and South Bass Island. Comparisons of our results to those of others working in various parts of the range are consistent with the idea that differentiation is lower in regions that were once glaciated. However, these comparisons also suggest that well differentiated isolated populations in the formerly glaciated portion of the range are not uncommon. This work provides novel genetic resources that will facilitate population genetic studies in a part of the red-backed salamander's range that has not previously been studied in this manner. Moreover, this work refines our understanding of how neutral variation is distributed in this ecologically

  3. Precise control of miR-125b levels is required to create a regeneration-permissive environment after spinal cord injury: a cross-species comparison between salamander and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Quiroz, Juan Felipe; Tsai, Eve; Coyle, Matthew; Sehm, Tina; Echeverri, Karen

    2014-06-01

    Most spinal cord injuries lead to permanent paralysis in mammals. By contrast, the remarkable regenerative abilities of salamanders enable full functional recovery even from complete spinal cord transections. The molecular differences underlying this evolutionary divergence between mammals and amphibians are poorly understood. We focused on upstream regulators of gene expression as primary entry points into this question. We identified a group of microRNAs (miRNAs) that are conserved between the Mexican axolotl salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum) and mammals but show marked cross-species differences in regulation patterns following spinal cord injury. We found that precise post-injury levels of one of these miRNAs (miR-125b) is essential for functional recovery, and guides correct regeneration of axons through the lesion site in a process involving the direct downstream target Sema4D in axolotls. Translating these results to a mammalian model, we increased miR-125b levels in the rat through mimic treatments following spinal cord transection. These treatments downregulated Sema4D and other glial-scar-related genes, and enhanced the animal's functional recovery. Our study identifies a key regulatory molecule conserved between salamander and mammal, and shows that the expression of miR-125b and Sema4D must be carefully controlled in the right cells at the correct level to promote regeneration. We also show that these molecular components of the salamander's regeneration-permissive environment can be experimentally harnessed to improve treatment outcomes for mammalian spinal cord injuries. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Molecular Phylogeography and Population Genetic Structure of an Endangered Species Pachyhynobius shangchengensis (hynobiid Salamander) in a Fragmented Habitat of Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyu; Zhang, Yanhua; Li, Xiaochen

    2013-01-01

    The salamander Pachyhynobius shangchengensis (Hynobiidae) is a vulnerable species restricted to a patchy distribution associated with small mountain streams surrounded by forested slopes in the Mount Dabieshan region in southeastern China. However, molecular phylogeography and population genetic structure of P. shangchengensis remain poorly investigated. In this study, we explored the genetic structure and phylogeography of P. shangchengensis based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes. Fifty-one haplotypes and four clades were found among 93 samples. Phylogenetic analyses revealed four deeply divergent and reciprocally monophyletic mtDNA lineages that approximately correspond to four geographic regions separated by complicated topography and long distances. The distinct geographic distributions of all lineages and the estimated divergence time suggest spatial and temporal separation coinciding with climatic changes during the Pleistocene. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the observed genetic variation occurred among the four groups, implying long-term interruption of gene flow, and the possible separation of P. shangchengensis into four management units for conservation. PMID:24205092

  5. Precise control of miR-125b levels is required to create a regeneration-permissive environment after spinal cord injury: a cross-species comparison between salamander and rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Diaz Quiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most spinal cord injuries lead to permanent paralysis in mammals. By contrast, the remarkable regenerative abilities of salamanders enable full functional recovery even from complete spinal cord transections. The molecular differences underlying this evolutionary divergence between mammals and amphibians are poorly understood. We focused on upstream regulators of gene expression as primary entry points into this question. We identified a group of microRNAs (miRNAs that are conserved between the Mexican axolotl salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum and mammals but show marked cross-species differences in regulation patterns following spinal cord injury. We found that precise post-injury levels of one of these miRNAs (miR-125b is essential for functional recovery, and guides correct regeneration of axons through the lesion site in a process involving the direct downstream target Sema4D in axolotls. Translating these results to a mammalian model, we increased miR-125b levels in the rat through mimic treatments following spinal cord transection. These treatments downregulated Sema4D and other glial-scar-related genes, and enhanced the animal’s functional recovery. Our study identifies a key regulatory molecule conserved between salamander and mammal, and shows that the expression of miR-125b and Sema4D must be carefully controlled in the right cells at the correct level to promote regeneration. We also show that these molecular components of the salamander’s regeneration-permissive environment can be experimentally harnessed to improve treatment outcomes for mammalian spinal cord injuries.

  6. Conflicting patterns of genetic structure produced by nuclear and mitochondrial markers in the Oregon Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps wrighti): implications for conservation efforts and species management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark; Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Endemic to Oregon in the northwestern US, the Oregon slender salamander (Batrachoseps wrighti) is a terrestrial plethodontid found associated with late successional mesic forests. Consequently, forest management practices such as timber harvesting may impact their persistence. Therefore, to infer possible future effects of these practices on population structure and differentiation, we used mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b) and RAPD markers to analyze 22 populations across their range. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence data (774 bp) revealed two historical lineages corresponding to northern and southern-distributed populations. Relationships among haplotypes and haplotype diversity within lineages suggested that the northern region may have more recently been colonized compared to the southern region. In contrast to the mitochondrial data, analyses of 46 RAPD loci suggested an overall pattern of isolation-by-distance in the set of populations examined and no particularly strong clustering of populations based on genetic distances. We propose two non-exclusive hypotheses to account for discrepancies between mitochondrial and nuclear data sets. First, our data may reflect an overall ancestral pattern of isolation-by-distance that has subsequently been influenced by vicariance. Alternately, our analyses may suggest that male-mediated gene flow and female philopatry are important contributors to the pattern of genetic diversity. We discuss the importance of distinguishing between these two hypotheses for the purposes of identifying conservation units and note that, regardless of the relative contribution of each mechanism towards the observed pattern of diversity, protection of habitat will likely prove critical for the long-term persistence of this species.

  7. Concurrent speciation in the eastern woodland salamanders (Genus Plethodon):DNA sequences of the complete albumin nuclear and partialmitochondrial 12s genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highton, Richard; Hastings, Amy Picard; Palmer, Catherine; Watts, Richard; Hass, Carla A.; Culver, Melanie; Arnold, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Salamanders of the North American plethodontid genus Plethodon are important model organisms in a variety of studies that depend on a phylogenetic framework (e.g., chemical communication, ecological competition, life histories, hybridization, and speciation), and consequently their systematics has been intensively investigated over several decades. Nevertheless, we lack a synthesis of relationships among the species. In the analyses reported here we use new DNA sequence data from the complete nuclear albumin gene (1818 bp) and the 12s mitochondrial gene (355 bp), as well as published data for four other genes (Wiens et al., 2006), up to a total of 6989 bp, to infer relationships. We relate these results to past systematic work based on morphology, allozymes, and DNA sequences. Although basal relationships show a strong consensus across studies, many terminal relationships remain in flux despite substantial sequencing and other molecular and morphological studies. This systematic instability appears to be a consequence of contemporaneous bursts of speciation in the late Miocene and Pliocene, yielding many closely related extant species in each of the four eastern species groups. Therefore we conclude that many relationships are likely to remain poorly resolved in the face of additional sequencing efforts. On the other hand, the current classification of the 45 eastern species into four species groups is supported. The Plethodon cinereus group (10 species) is the sister group to the clade comprising the other three groups, but these latter groups (Plethodon glutinosus [28 species], Plethodon welleri [5 species], and Plethodon wehrlei [2 species]) probably diverged from each other at approximately the same time.

  8. An integrative approach to phylogeography: investigating the effects of ancient seaways, climate, and historical geology on multi-locus phylogeographic boundaries of the Arboreal Salamander (Aneides lugubris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Sean B; Corl, Ammon; Wake, David B

    2015-11-04

    Phylogeography is an important tool that can be used to reveal cryptic biodiversity and to better understand the processes that promote lineage diversification. We studied the phylogeographic history of the Arboreal Salamander (Aneides lugubris), a wide-ranging species endemic to the California floristic province. We used multi-locus data to reconstruct the evolutionary history of A. lugubris and to discover the geographic location of major genetic breaks within the species. We also used species distribution modeling and comparative phylogeography to better understand the environmental factors that have shaped the genetic history of A. lugubris. We found six major mitochondrial clades in A. lugubris. Nuclear loci supported the existence of at least three genetically distinct groups, corresponding to populations north of the San Francisco Bay and in the Sierra Nevada, in the Santa Cruz Mountains, and in the central coast and southern California. All of the genetic breaks in mitochondrial and nuclear loci corresponded to regions where historical barriers to dispersal have been observed in other species. Geologic or water barriers likely were the most important factors restricting gene flow among clades. Climatic unsuitability during glacial maximum may have contributed to the isolation of the mitochondrial clades in the central coast and southern California. A projection of our species distribution model to a future scenario with a moderate amount of climate change suggests that most of the range of A. lugubris will remain climatically suitable, but climatic conditions in the Sierra Nevada and low elevation areas in Southern California are likely to deteriorate. Aneides lugubris contains substantial cryptic genetic diversity as a result of historical isolation of populations. At least two (and perhaps three) evolutionarily significant units in A. lugubris merit protection; all six mitochondrial clades should be considered as management units within the species.

  9. Microhabitat types promote the genetic structure of a micro-endemic and critically endangered mole salamander (Ambystoma leorae of Central Mexico.

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    Armando Sunny

    Full Text Available The reduced immigration and emigration rates resulting from the lack of landscape connectivity of patches and the hospitality of the intervening matrix could favor the loss of alleles through genetic drift and an increased chance of inbreeding. In order for isolated populations to maintain sufficient levels of genetic diversity and adapt to environmental changes, one important conservation goal must be to preserve or reestablish connectivity among patches in a fragmented landscape. We studied the last known population of Ambystoma leorae, an endemic and critically threatened species. The aims of this study were: (1 to assess the demographic parameters of A. leorae and to distinguish and characterize the microhabitats in the river, (2 to determine the number of existing genetic groups or demes of A. leorae and to describe possible relationships between microhabitats types and demes, (3 to determine gene flow between demes, and (4 to search for geographic locations of genetic discontinuities that limit gene flow between demes. We found three types of microhabitats and three genetically differentiated subpopulations with a significant level of genetic structure. In addition, we found slight genetic barriers. Our results suggest that mole salamander's species are very sensitive to microhabitat features and relatively narrow obstacles in their path. The estimates of bidirectional gene flow are consistent with the pattern of a stepping stone model between demes, where migration occurs between adjacent demes, but there is low gene flow between distant demes. We can also conclude that there is a positive correlation between microhabitats and genetic structure in this population.

  10. Life history tactics shape amphibians' demographic responses to the North Atlantic Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Hugo; Joly, Pierre; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Pichenot, Julian; Bonnaire, Eric; Priol, Pauline; Peyronel, Olivier; Laville, Mathias; Besnard, Aurélien

    2017-11-01

    Over the last three decades, climate abnormalities have been reported to be involved in biodiversity decline by affecting population dynamics. A growing number of studies have shown that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influences the demographic parameters of a wide range of plant and animal taxa in different ways. Life history theory could help to understand these different demographic responses to the NAO. Indeed, theory states that the impact of weather variation on a species' demographic traits should depend on its position along the fast-slow continuum. In particular, it is expected that NAO would have a higher impact on recruitment than on adult survival in slow species, while the opposite pattern is expected occur in fast species. To test these predictions, we used long-term capture-recapture datasets (more than 15,000 individuals marked from 1965 to 2015) on different surveyed populations of three amphibian species in Western Europe: Triturus cristatus, Bombina variegata, and Salamandra salamandra. Despite substantial intraspecific variation, our study revealed that these three species differ in their position on a slow-fast gradient of pace of life. Our results also suggest that the differences in life history tactics influence amphibian responses to NAO fluctuations: Adult survival was most affected by the NAO in the species with the fastest pace of life (T. cristatus), whereas recruitment was most impacted in species with a slower pace of life (B. variegata and S. salamandra). In the context of climate change, our findings suggest that the capacity of organisms to deal with future changes in NAO values could be closely linked to their position on the fast-slow continuum. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Exotic Fish in Exotic Plantations: A Multi-Scale Approach to Understand Amphibian Occurrence in the Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Joana; Sarmento, Pedro; Carretero, Miguel A; White, Piran C L

    2015-01-01

    Globally, amphibian populations are threatened by a diverse range of factors including habitat destruction and alteration. Forestry practices have been linked with low diversity and abundance of amphibians. The effect of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on amphibian communities has been studied in a number of biodiversity hotspots, but little is known of its impact in the Mediterranean region. Here, we identify the environmental factors influencing the presence of six species of amphibians (the Caudata Pleurodeles waltl, Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus and the anurans Pelobates cultripes and Hyla arborea/meridionalis) occupying 88 ponds. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean landscape dominated by eucalypt plantations alternated with traditional use (agricultural, montados and native forest) at three different scales: local (pond), intermediate (400 metres radius buffer) and broad (1000 metres radius buffer). Using the Akaike Information Criterion for small samples (AICc), we selected the top-ranked models for estimating the probability of occurrence of each species at each spatial scale separately and across all three spatial scales, using a combination of covariates from the different magnitudes. Models with a combination of covariates at the different spatial scales had a stronger support than those at individual scales. The presence of predatory fish in a pond had a strong effect on Caudata presence. Permanent ponds were selected by Hyla arborea/meridionalis over temporary ponds. Species occurrence was not increased by a higher density of streams, but the density of ponds impacted negatively on Lissotriton boscai. The proximity of ponds occupied by their conspecifics had a positive effect on the occurrence of Lissotriton boscai and Pleurodeles waltl. Eucalypt plantations had a negative effect on the occurrence of the newt Lissotriton boscai and anurans Hyla arborea/meridionalis, but had a positive effect on the presence of

  12. Exotic Fish in Exotic Plantations: A Multi-Scale Approach to Understand Amphibian Occurrence in the Mediterranean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cruz

    Full Text Available Globally, amphibian populations are threatened by a diverse range of factors including habitat destruction and alteration. Forestry practices have been linked with low diversity and abundance of amphibians. The effect of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on amphibian communities has been studied in a number of biodiversity hotspots, but little is known of its impact in the Mediterranean region. Here, we identify the environmental factors influencing the presence of six species of amphibians (the Caudata Pleurodeles waltl, Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus and the anurans Pelobates cultripes and Hyla arborea/meridionalis occupying 88 ponds. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean landscape dominated by eucalypt plantations alternated with traditional use (agricultural, montados and native forest at three different scales: local (pond, intermediate (400 metres radius buffer and broad (1000 metres radius buffer. Using the Akaike Information Criterion for small samples (AICc, we selected the top-ranked models for estimating the probability of occurrence of each species at each spatial scale separately and across all three spatial scales, using a combination of covariates from the different magnitudes. Models with a combination of covariates at the different spatial scales had a stronger support than those at individual scales. The presence of predatory fish in a pond had a strong effect on Caudata presence. Permanent ponds were selected by Hyla arborea/meridionalis over temporary ponds. Species occurrence was not increased by a higher density of streams, but the density of ponds impacted negatively on Lissotriton boscai. The proximity of ponds occupied by their conspecifics had a positive effect on the occurrence of Lissotriton boscai and Pleurodeles waltl. Eucalypt plantations had a negative effect on the occurrence of the newt Lissotriton boscai and anurans Hyla arborea/meridionalis, but had a positive effect on

  13. What are the consequences of combining nuclear and mitochondrial data for phylogenetic analysis? Lessons from Plethodon salamanders and 13 other vertebrate clades

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    Wiens John J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of mitochondrial DNA data in phylogenetics is controversial, yet studies that combine mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data (mtDNA and nucDNA to estimate phylogeny are common, especially in vertebrates. Surprisingly, the consequences of combining these data types are largely unexplored, and many fundamental questions remain unaddressed in the literature. For example, how much do trees from mtDNA and nucDNA differ? How are topological conflicts between these data types typically resolved in the combined-data tree? What determines whether a node will be resolved in favor of mtDNA or nucDNA, and are there any generalities that can be made regarding resolution of mtDNA-nucDNA conflicts in combined-data trees? Here, we address these and related questions using new and published nucDNA and mtDNA data for Plethodon salamanders and published data from 13 other vertebrate clades (including fish, frogs, lizards, birds, turtles, and mammals. Results We find widespread discordance between trees from mtDNA and nucDNA (30-70% of nodes disagree per clade, but this discordance is typically not strongly supported. Despite often having larger numbers of variable characters, mtDNA data do not typically dominate combined-data analyses, and combined-data trees often share more nodes with trees from nucDNA alone. There is no relationship between the proportion of nodes shared between combined-data and mtDNA trees and relative numbers of variable characters or levels of homoplasy in the mtDNA and nucDNA data sets. Congruence between trees from mtDNA and nucDNA is higher on branches that are longer and deeper in the combined-data tree, but whether a conflicting node will be resolved in favor mtDNA or nucDNA is unrelated to branch length. Conflicts that are resolved in favor of nucDNA tend to occur at deeper nodes in the combined-data tree. In contrast to these overall trends, we find that Plethodon have an unusually large number of strongly

  14. Miniaturization and its effects on cranial morphology in plethodontid salamanders, genus Thorius (Amphibia, Plethodontidae): II. The fate of the brain and sense organs and their role in skull morphogenesis and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, J

    1983-09-01

    Relative size and arrangement of the brain and paired sense organs are examined in three species of Thorius, a genus of minute, terrestrial salamanders that are among the smallest extant tailed tetrapods. Analogous measurements of representative species of three related genera of larger tropical (Pseudoeurycea, Chiropterotriton) and temperate (Plethodon) salamanders are used to identify changes in gross morphology of the brain and sense organs that have accompanied the evolution of decreased head size in Thorius and their relation to associated changes in skull morphology. In adult Thorius, relative size (area measured in frontal plane, and length) of the eyes, otic capsules, and brain each is greater than in adults of all of the larger genera; relative size of the nasal capsules is unchanged or slightly smaller. Interspecific scaling phenomena--negative allometry of otic capsule, eye and brain size, isometry or slight positive allometry of nasal capsule size, all with respect to skull length--also are characteristic of intraspecific (ontogenetic) comparisons in both T. narisovalis and Pseudoeurycea goebeli. Predominance of the brain and eyes in Thorius results in greater contact and overlap among these structures and the nasal capsules in the anterior portion of the head. This is associated with anterior displacement of both the eyes and nasal capsules, which now protrude anterior to the skull proper; a change in eye shape; and medial deformation of anterior braincase walls. Posteriorly, predominance of the otic capsules has effected a reorientation of the jaw suspensorium to a fully vertical position that is correlated with the novel presence of a posteriorly directed squamosal process and shift in origin of the quadropectoralis muscle. Many of these changes in cranial morphology may be explained simply as results of mechanical (physical) interactions among the skeletal, nervous, and sensory components during head development at reduced size. This provides

  15. Delayed metamorphosis of amphibian larvae facilitates Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis transmission and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel; Garner, Trenton W J; Carrascal, Luis María; Bosch, Jaime

    2015-12-09

    Highly virulent pathogens that cause host population declines confront the risk of fade-out, but if pathogen transmission dynamics are age-structured, pathogens can persist. Among other features of amphibian biology, variable larval developmental rates generate age-structured larval populations, which in theory can facilitate pathogen persistence. We investigated this possibility empirically in a population of Salamandra salamandra in Spain affected by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) at breeding sites that lacked alternative amphibian hosts. None of the adults presented infection by Bd. However, for the larvae, while environmental heterogeneity was the most important predictor of infection, the effect on infection dynamics was mediated by transmission from overwintered larvae to new larval recruits, which occurred only in permanent larval habitats. We suggest that interannual Bd maintenance in a host population that experiences mass mortality associated with infection can occur without an environmental reservoir or direct involvement of an alternative host in our study system. However the 2 aquatic habitat types that support intraspecific reservoirs, permanent streams and ponds, are not ideal habitats for long-term Bd maintenance, either due to poor transmission probability or low host survival, respectively. While intraspecific pathogen maintenance due to larval plasticity might be possible at our study sites, this transmission pattern is not without significant risk to the pathogen. The availability of alternative hosts nearby does indicate that permanent Bd fade-out is unlikely.

  16. Review of the systematics, distribution, biogeography and natural history of Moroccan amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukema, Wouter; De Pous, Philip; Donaire-Barroso, David; Boaerts, Sergé; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Escoriza, Daniel; Arribas, Oscar J; El Mouden, El Hassan; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The amphibian fauna of the Kingdom of Morocco was traditionally regarded as poor and closely related to its European counterpart. However, an increase in research during the last decades revealed a considerable degree of endemism amongst Moroccan amphibians, as well as phenotypic and genotypic inter- and intraspecific divergence. Despite this increase in knowledge, a comprehensible overview is lacking while several systematic issues have remained unresolved. We herein present a contemporary overview of the distribution, taxonomy and biogeography of Moroccan amphibians. Fourteen fieldtrips were made by the authors and colleagues between 2000 and 2012, which produced a total of 292 new distribution records. Furthermore, based on the results of the present work, we (i) review the systematics of the genus Salamandra in Morocco, including the description of a new subspecies from the Rif- and Middle Atlas Mountains, Salamandra algira splendens ssp. nov.; (ii) present data on intraspecific morphological variability of Pelobates varaldiiand Pleurodeles waltl in Morocco; (iii) attempt to resolve the phylogenetic position of Bufo brongersmai and erect a new genus for this species, Barbarophryne gen. nov.; (iv) summarize and assess the availability of tadpole-specific characteristics and bioacoustical data, and (v) summarize natural history data.

  17. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: Epomis dejeani and Epomis circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of Epomis dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae) and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata) is described. Only Epomis dejeani consumed Triturus vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit. PMID:21738411

  18. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel

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    Gil Wizen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: E. dejeani and E. circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of E. dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata is described. Only E. dejeani consumed T. vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit.

  19. Survey of traditional beliefs in the Hungarian Csángó and Székely ethnomedicine in Transylvania, Romania

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    Nóra Papp

    Full Text Available Transylvania, part of Romania, has a long-standing culture of Hungarian ethnomedicinal practices. The aim of this study was to review the unexplored ethnopharmacological use of plants, animals and other materials, focusing mainly on the beliefs surrounding them; and compare them with traditional uses from other countries and with scientific literature. An ethnobotanical inventory was conducted among Csángó and Székely Hungarians in three areas of the country between 2007 and 2012. Questionnaires included medical and non-medical uses of plants, animals, and other substances with rational and irrational elements. Altogether 22 plants, twelve animals, and ten other substances had documented uses for various beliefs. The treatments utilize magical numbers, like 3 and 9, to define peculiar order, tools, and like-minded aspects. Plants were used for prediction (e.g. Phaseolus vulgarisL., protection (e.g. Corylus avellana L., and as symbols (e.g. Arctium lappaL.. In addition to the use of animals (e.g. Salamandra salamandra L. or no longer used elements (use of Lytta vesicatoriaL., the employment of other substances (e.g.ash, milk was also documented. The frequency of the documented uses is in continuous decline due to environmental and social changes, and the increased prevalence of conventional healthcare. Hence, the priority of their conservation is of pivotal importance nowadays.

  20. Factors driving semi-aquatic predator occurrence in traditional cattle drinking pools: conservation issues

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    Raoul Manenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In several cases, human impact on water bodies and on their freshwater communities is detrimental, but in some cases the human activity may favour and enhance the biodiversity of small water bodies, as traditional cattle drinking pools. Despite their small size, small water bodies may constitute hot spot of biodiversity often representing the only lentic aquatic biotope in landscapes where superficial water lacks or flows in lotic environments like creeks and streams. Predators are good indicators of biodiversity in ponds and give information of food chain web complexity. In particular, semi-aquatic predators like amphibians and dragonflies may account for a substantial percentage of energy flow between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the conservation value of traditional cattle drinking pools building by assessing the factors determining the occurrence and distribution of the semi-aquatic predators. From April to August 2015, we investigated 30 distinct pools recording several abiotic and biotic environmental variables. We detected 4 semi-aquatic predators: Salamandra salamandra larvae, Triturus carnifex, Aeshna sp. larvae and Libellula sp. larvae. Abiotic features played a major role in shaping the predator community that resulted linked to stable, with no dryness period, and large drinking pools. Invertebrate prey biomass was not particularly important, while vegetation cover and occurrence of unpalatable tadpoles were the most important biotic features of the pools. Our study provides novel evidence on the importance of cattle drinking pools management to preserve biodiversity especially in areas where traditional pastoral activity is disappearing.

  1. 5-HT-like immunoreactivity in the brains of plethodontid and salamandrid salamanders (Hydromantes italicus, Hydromantes genei, Plethodon jordani, Desmognathus ochrophaeus, Pleurodeles waltl): an immunohistochemical and biocytin double-labelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, U; Wallstein, M; Roth, G

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of 5-HT-like-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibres was studied in the brains of the salamanders Hydromantes italicus, H. genei, Plethodon jordani, Desmognathus ochrophaeus (family Plethodontidae), and Pleurodeles waltl (family Salamandridae). In addition, double-labelling experiments with biocytin were carried out to identify the relationship between serotonergic fibres and neurons involved in the processing of sensory and sensorimotor information. In all species, 5-HT-immunopositive somata are found in the ventral thalamus close to the ventricle forming the paraventricular organ. In the hypothalamus, cells are labelled in the ependymal layer around the infundibular recess and at the lateral edge of the periventricular grey. In the pretectum, a few immunoreactive cells are situated dorsolaterally in the grey matter. In the tegmentum and medulla oblongata, cells of the raphe nuclei are regularly distributed along the midline; labelled perikarya are occasionally found in the cervical spinal cord. 5-HT-like-immunoreactive fibres are widely distributed throughout the nervous system. Densely arborizing fibres are found in the olfactory bulb, striatum and amygdala. Distinct fibre projections extend in the ventral thalamus and tectum. Biocytin tracing of striatal and tectal projection neurons and ascending reticular neurons combined with the demonstration of 5-HT suggest that the striatum, the tectum and the ascending activating system are strongly influenced by 5-HT.

  2. The role of the matrix-edge dynamics of amphibian conservation in tropical montane fragmented landscapes La dinámica del borde-matriz en bosques mesófilos de montaña fragmentados y su papel en la conservación de los anfibios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Santos-Barrera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Edge effects play a key role in forest dynamics in which the context of the anthropogenic matrix has a great influence on fragment connectivity and function. The study of the interaction between edge and matrix effects in nature is essential to understand and promote the colonization of some functional groups in managed ecosystems. We studied the dynamics of 7 species of frogs and salamanders occurring in 8 ecotones of tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF which interact with adjacent managed areas of coffee and corn plantations in Guerrero, southern Mexico. A survey effort of 196 man/hours along 72 transects detected 58 individuals of 7 amphibian species and 12 environmental and structural variables were measured. The diversity and abundance of amphibians in the forest mostly depended on the matrix context adjacent to the forest patches. The forest interior provided higher relative humidity, leaf litter cover, and canopy cover that determined the presence of some amphibian species. The use of shaded coffee plantations was preferred by the amphibians over the corn plots possibly due to the maintenance of native forest arboreal elements, low management rate and less intensity of disturbance in the coffee plantations than in the corn plots. Shaded coffee plantations reduce the edge effects in TMCF, improve the connectivity between TMCF fragments and increase habitat quality for the forest interior amphibian species. Future wildlife management research should take into account edge and matrix effects to understand species dynamics which move along anthropogenic-natural ecotones in managed ecosystems, thus prioritizing sites to buffer edge effects and increase habitat quality in remaining natural ecosystems.El efecto de borde es un evento clave en la dinámica de algunos bosques, la matriz que rodea a los fragmentos de bosque tiene una gran importancia en el funcionamiento y conectividad de estos fragmentos. El conocimiento de las interacciones entre

  3. Atlas de distribución y estado de conservación de los Anfibios de la Comunidad de Madrid

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    Martínez-Solano, I.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful management and conservation planning depend upon the availability, integration and updating of information provided by different disciplines. This paper compiles relevant information for the conservation of amphibians in Comunidad de Madrid (Spain. We obtained chorological information from 1384 sampling localities throughout the region of Madrid, and reviewed relevant scientific literature for the management of amphibian populations in this area. We found at least one amphibian species in 70,3% of sampled localities. Results are illustrated in distribution maps of all 18 species found: Salamandra salamandra, Pleurodeles waltl, Mesotriton alpestris, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus, Triturus pygmaeus, Alytes obstetricans, Alytes cisternasii, Discoglossus galganoi, Discoglossus jeanneae, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Hyla arborea, Hyla meridionalis, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Rana iberica and Rana perezi. Distribution maps are presented in five-kilometer side UTM grids cells. We compare and integrate our results with previous studies and outline groups of populations representing independent management units, for which we propose risk categories according to the criteria established by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN at the regional level. Finally, we point out the main threats for the survival of amphibian populations and discuss possible actions to improve their conservation status.

    La planificación de estrategias de gestión y conservación eficaces depende de la disponibilidad, integración y actualización de información procedente de diversas disciplinas. En este trabajo se recopila información relevante para la conservación de los anfibios de la Comunidad de Madrid. Hemos obtenido información corológica de un total de 1384 puntos de muestreo repartidos por toda la geografía madrileña y revisado la literatura científica de interés para la gestión de las

  4. PRELIMINARY DATA CONCERNING THE HERPETOFAUNA IN NEAM COUNTY (ROMANIA

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    Sorin ROŞU

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In the researched area we identified 14 amphibian species: (Salamandra salamndra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria and 8 reptilian species (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Elaphe longissima, Coronella austriaca, Vipera berus. Within the region we identified species quoted (Coglniceanu et al. 2000 to have the lowest altitudinal limit of their spreading area at much higher altitudes. The species Triturus montandoni was identified at 320 m altitude at Agârcia and Doamna. Most of the amphibian and reptilian species are not endangered in the researched area.

  5. An Updated Distribution of the Herpetofauna from the Natura 2000 Site Rarău-Giumalău (Rosci0212, Romania

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    Ştefan Remus Zamfirescu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians and reptiles are among the most threatened animal species in Europe. Because of their legal conservation status, amphibians and reptiles may act as umbrella and flagship species in certain areas. The Rarău-Giumalău Natura 2000 site (ROSCI 0212 is such an area that, despite its conservation status, is still exposed to human activities alterations. In addition, the standard data form of the site mentions only three amphibian species, which is notably below the herpetofauna diversity of the region. Therefore, the aim of this study is to update the existing knowledge on the local herpetofauna. To this end, herpetological field surveys were conducted in the area between May– September, 2015, ten species being identified, as follows: six amphibians (Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton montandoni, Ichthyosaura alpestris, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria and four reptiles (Anguis colchica, Lacerta agilis, Zootoca vivipara and Vipera berus. Species distribution is influenced by human activities, among which grazing seems to be the most important. The diversity of herpetofauna is not evenly distributed between the perimeters of the site. The Giumalău perimeter has only six species probably because of a lower habitat diversity compared to the Rarău perimeter. Nine of the identified species are protected by European and national regulations, whereas the standard data form of the site lists only two of them, and one not confirmed by our study. Therefore, the standard data form, a tool for protective management, does not reflect the real situation of the herpetofauna of the site and for this reason, it should be updated.

  6. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  7. Better than fish on land? Hearing across metamorphosis in salamanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Lauridsen, Henrik; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Early tetrapods faced an auditory challenge from the impedance mismatch between air and tissue in the transition from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles during the Early Carboniferous (350 Ma). Consequently, tetrapods may have been deaf to airborne sounds for up to 100 Myr until tympanic middle ears...

  8. Cheat Mountain Salamander Surveys and Studies Summary 1999-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is responsible for monitoring population trends of threatened and endangered species and recommending actions which may protect...

  9. Cheat Mountain Salamander search - Cabin Knob-August 2, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On August 2, 2012, a survey was established at transect on Herz Knob within the Idleman's Treatment Unit (old Kelly-Elkins tract of Canaan Valley N.W.R.) People...

  10. Plethodontid salamander distributions in managed forest headwaters in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanna H. Olson; Matthew R. Kluber

    2014-01-01

    We examined terrestrial amphibians in managed headwater forest stands in western Oregon from 1998 to 2009. We assessed: (1) temporal and spatial patterns of species capture rates, and movement patterns with distance from streams and forest management treatments of alternative riparian buffer widths and upland thinning; (2) species survival and recapture probabilities;...

  11. Unusual subterranean aggregations of the California Giant Salamander, Dicamptodon ensatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Wood, Leslie L.; Carlisle, Sarah; Pratt, David

    2010-01-01

    Larval Dicamptodon are one of the most abundant vertebrates in headwater streams in the Pacific Northwest. Their numbers and biomass can exceed those of all other amphibians, and of salmonid fishes. By contrast, metamorphosed Dicamptodon are only found infrequently, usually during formal surveys using pitfall traps, cover boards, or time constrained surveys However, we found two aggregations (23 and 27 individuals) of metamorphosed Dicamptodon ensatus during a culvert removal project at Point Reyes National Seashore, California. Furthermore, we found an additional 23 terrestrial D. ensatus in terrestrial habitat adjacent to the culverts. We did not expect these aggregations because metamorphosed individuals are so rarely encountered, and aggregations are likely to increase competition and predation in a species known to feed regularly on vertebrate prey. Deteriorating culverts might provide an unusually high-quality habitat that leads to aggregations such as we describe. Our observations may provide insight into the natural haunts of D. ensatus—underground burrows or caverns—and if so, then aggregations may be normal, but rarely seen.

  12. Salamander colonization of Chase Lake, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; McLean, Kyle I.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Salt concentrations in lakes are dynamic. In the western United States, water diversions have caused significant declines in lake levels resulting in increased salinity, placing many aquatic species at risk (Galat and Robinson 1983, Beutel et al. 2001). Severe droughts can have similar effects on salt concentrations and aquatic communities (Swanson et al. 2003). Conversely, large inputs of water can dilute salt concentrations and contribute to community shifts (Euliss et al. 2004).

  13. DEMOGRAPHY AND SPATIAL POPULATION STRUCTURE IN CALIFORNIA TIGER SALAMANDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the causes of many amphibian declines remain mysterious, there is general agreement that human habitat alteration represents the greatest threat to amphibian populations. In January 2000 the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed listing Santa Barbara County California Ti...

  14. Axial dynamics during locomotion in vertebrates: lesson from the salamander

    OpenAIRE

    GOSSARD, JEAN-PIERRE; Dubuc, Réjean; Kolta, Arlette; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Ijspeert, Auke; Lamarque, Stéphanie; Ryczko, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    Much of what we know about the flexibility of the locomotor networks in vertebrates is derived from studies examining the adaptation of limb movements during stepping in various conditions. However, the body movements play important roles during locomotion: they produce the thrust during undulatory locomotion and they help to increase the stride length during legged locomotion. In this chapter, we review our current knowledge about the flexibility in the neuronal circuits controlling the body...

  15. Salamander Survey Week August 4-7 and Area Search For Cheat Mountain Salamanders August 28 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two separate reports are included. 1.) During the Week of August 4, 2003 a group of biologists were brought to CVNWR to perform a survey for Cheat Mountain...

  16. Una nueva especie de Bolitoglossa (Caudata: Plethodontidae de las selvas del Magdalena Medio en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Galvis Andrés R.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie del genero Bolitoglossa del grupo alfa (sensu Wake & Lynch, 1976 denominada Bolitoglossa lozanoi de las selvas húmedas relictuales del valle del Río Magdalena en La Cordillera Central de Colombia (loe. typ.: Río La Miel, Mpio. La Victoria, Departamento de Caldas, 500 m.s.n.m.; la nueva especie es reconocible por su cuerpo robusto, las palmeaduras manuales y pediales extensas, su patrón cromático ventral café con punteaduras café más oscuras y crema, ojos no protuberantes y la talla corporal relativamente grande entre las especies de salamandras del país. A new species of the genus Bolitoglossa, of the alpha group (sensu Wake & Lynch, 1976 named Bolitoglossa lozanoi from the relictual humid forest from the Magdalena Valley on the eastern slope ofthe central Andes Mountain range in Colombia (type locality: La Miel River, Mpio. La Victoria, Dept. of Caldas, 500 m.s.n.m.. The new species is mainly recognized by the presence of a robust body, extensively webbed hands and toes, a brownish ventral chromatic pattern with small darker brown and cream dots, non-protuberant eyes and a relatively large size.

  17. Climate and environment of the earliest West European hominins inferred from amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages: Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit, Atapuerca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Bennàsar, Maria; Rofes, Juan; López-García, Juan Manuel; Huguet, Rosa; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald

    2010-11-01

    The Sima del Elefante cave, in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain), is famous for the fact that level TE9 of its Lower Red Unit recently delivered the oldest hominin remains of Western Europe, identified as Homo antecessor and dated by biostratigraphy and radiometric methods to ca 1.2 Ma. Given the importance of this discovery, every effort is being made to reconstruct the landscapes where these hominins once thrived. The amphibian and squamate reptile assemblage of the Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit is here studied for the first time. The faunal list comprises at least 17 species (roughly 12,000 bone fossil remains): Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cf. marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana sp., cf. Pelophylax sp., Lacerta s.l., small-sized indeterminate lacertids, Anguis fragilis, Natrix cf. natrix, Natrix cf. maura, Coronella cf. girondica and Vipera sp. As the amphibians and squamate reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The results from the squamate and amphibian study indicate that during the hominin presence the mean annual temperature (MAT = 10-13 °C) was always slightly warmer than at present and the mean annual precipitation (MAP = 800-1000 mm) was greater than today in the Burgos area. The landscape had open habitats in the vicinity of the Atapuerca caves throughout the sequence, with wet points in the surrounding area, and a predominance of humid meadows and open woodlands. These results mainly agree with those for large mammals, small mammals and the pollen analysis. The climate and landscape of TE-LRU are very similar to those reconstructed for the TD6 "Aurora Stratum

  18. Estudio de la anurofauna del municipio de Ibagué

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páez C. A.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Colombia es considerada, en el mundo, el país más rico en especies de anfibios (Lynch, 1998. De las 4.300 especies registradas en el planeta, Colombia presenta 583 (Ruiz et al., 1996. Esto refleja la gran riqueza que el país tiene respecto a la diversidad  no sólo de anfibios, sino también de otros grupos de animales y plantas. Entre los anfibios el mayor número de especies se encuentra en el orden Anura, los comúnmente conocidos como ranas y sapos, le sigue el orden Urodela (salamandras y por ultimo esta el Apoda (cecilias. En Colombia se han reportado 540 especies de anuros, pertenecientes a 56 géneros y 9 familias (Ruiz et 01., 1996. Por otra parte, entre las regiones de Colombia con mayor aporte a la diversidad de anuros esta la Cordillera Central. Estimulados por esta riqueza de anuros y dada las amplias zonas del país aún desconocidas a nivel de inventarios, entre ellas el municipio de Ibagué, el cual por su posición geográfica en la Cordillera Central y por su variedad de niveles altitudinales, ecosistemas y el hábitat para el albergue de los anuros, se llevó a cabo el presente estudio, con el propósito de reconocer el aporte de este municipio a la diversidad descrita con respecto a la Cordillera Central ya Colombia.

  19. Interleukin 1 in oviductal tissues of viviparous, oviparous, and ovuliparous species of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantra, Silke; Bigliardi, Elisa; Brizzi, Rossana; Ietta, Francesca; Bechi, Nicoletta; Paulesu, Luana

    2007-06-01

    In previous reports, we have shown that interleukin 1 (IL1), a cytokine associated with implantation in mice, is also expressed in reproductive tissues of viviparous squamate reptiles and cartilaginous fishes. In the present study, we investigated the expression of IL1B and its functional membrane receptor type I (IL1R1) in amphibians, a class of vertebrates that is characterized by different reproductive modes, including internal and external fertilization. In particular, we investigated the oviductal tissues of the aplacental viviparous Salamandra lanzai, the oviparous Triturus carnifex, and the ovuliparous Bufo bufo. In immunohistochemistry with anti-human IL1B and IL1R1 polyclonal antibodies we found that in S. lanzai, most cells in the uterine mucosa were immunoreactive for IL1B and IL1R1. In T. carnifex, IL1B and IL1R1 were present in ciliated luminal cells, and there was evidence of IL1B in glandular cells. In B. bufo, the expression of IL1B and IL1R1 was limited to the apical cytoplasm of the ciliated oviductal cells. Western blot analysis showed that a putative mature form of IL1B, similar to that seen in mammals, was present in the oviductal tissues of S. lanzai, whereas different forms, which probably correspond to an inactive pro-IL1B protein, were found in T. carnifex and B. bufo. A band that corresponded to the predicted 80-kDa human IL1R1 was found in S. lanzai and T. carnifex. Although the present study shows that IL1B and IL1R1 expression occurs in all reproductive modes, the differential expression patterns noted between ovuliparity and oviparity and viviparity may reflect the different roles of IL1 in the various reproductive modes.

  20. Comparison of silvicultural and natural disturbance effects on terrestrial salamanders in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Hocking; Kimberly J. Babbitt; Mariko. Yamasaki

    2013-01-01

    In forested ecosystems timber harvesting has the potential to emulate natural disturbances, thereby maintaining the natural communities adapted to particular disturbances. We compared the effects of even-aged (clearcut and patch cut) and uneven-aged (group cut, single-tree selection) timber management techniques with natural ice-storm damage and unmanipulated reference...

  1. Robot-salamander näitab maismaaloomade arengut / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    Teadlased on valmistanud salamandrisarnase masina, mis ühendab bioloogia robootikaga ja võimaldab uurida seda, kuidas esimesed tetrapoodid - neljajalgsed selgroogsed - ronisid sadu miljoneid aastaid tagasi maale elama

  2. 76 FR 61956 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Ozark Hellbender Salamander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... submerged logs. Ozark Hellbenders mate via external fertilization, and males will guard the fertilized eggs... record of an Ozark Hellbender in the Black River above its confluence with the Strawberry River on the...

  3. Cheat Mountain Salamander search - Cabin Knob-July 7, 2011 and August 9, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey includes data gathered on two separate dates: July 7, 2011and August 9, 2011. A survey transect was established along Cabin Knob within the Idlemans Treatment...

  4. Cheat Mountain Salamander search - Three Mile Trail 7/21/10

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On July 21, 2010 two survey transects were established along Three mile trail on the Kelly Elkins tract of Canaan Valley N.W.R. Both of these transects were...

  5. Salamanders and fish can regenerate lost structures - why can't we?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hans-Georg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent introduction of in vivo lineage-tracing techniques using fluorescently labeled cells challenged the long-standing view that complete dedifferentiation is a major force driving vertebrate tissue regeneration. The report in BMC Developmental Biology by Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte and colleagues adds a new twist to a rapidly evolving view of the origin of blastemal cells. As classic and recent experimental findings are considered together, a new perspective on vertebrate muscle regeneration is emerging. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-213X/12/9

  6. Time--temperature relation of embryonic development in the northwestern salamander, Ambystoma gracile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.A.

    1976-04-01

    A field and laboratory study on temperature-related embryonic development of Ambystoma gracile was made on a population from northwestern Washington. Natural spawning began in the beaver pond during early March, and the duration of embryonic development (stages 1 to 46) was about 62 days. Average water temperature in the pond during embryonic development was 8.5/sup 0/C (range, 4.4 to 14.3/sup 0/C). The laboratory data of embryonic development at constant temperatures show that the limits of temperature tolerance are about 5 to 22.5/sup 0/C. Rate of development was measured by determining time required to develop from first cleavage (stage 2) to gill circulation (stage 37); representative rates are 12.7 days at 20/sup 0/C, 27 days at 12/sup 0/C, and 89 days at 7/sup 0/C. Embryos of A. gracile have the slowest rate of development when compared with embryos of four other species of Ambystoma (maculatum, mexicanum, tigrinum, and jeffersonianum) and with embryos of three Pacific Northwest frogs (Ascaphus truei, Rana aurora, and Hyla regilla).

  7. Realistic Fasting Does Not Affect Stable Isotope Levels of a Metabolically Efficient Salamander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes are commonly used to examine various aspects of animal ecology. The use of stable isotopes generally proceeds under the implicit assumption that resource use is the only factor driving variation in stable isotope levels; however, a wealth of studies demonstrate a...

  8. Response of stream salamanders to experimental drought in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan Currinder; Kristen K. Cecala; Robert M. Northington; Michael E. Dorcas

    2015-01-01

    Droughts act as significant disturbances to freshwater animals and their ecosystems. Given the impending threat of more frequent and persistent droughts because of global climate change, the lack of data on the responses of many aquatic animals to drought is a cause for concern. This study examined the body condition of the most commonly detected species (

  9. Adaptive Colour Contrast Coding in the Salamander Retina Efficiently Matches Natural Scene Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasserman, Genadiy; Schneidman, Elad; Segev, Ronen

    2013-01-01

    The visual system continually adjusts its sensitivity to the statistical properties of the environment through an adaptation process that starts in the retina. Colour perception and processing is commonly thought to occur mainly in high visual areas, and indeed most evidence for chromatic colour contrast adaptation comes from cortical studies. We show that colour contrast adaptation starts in the retina where ganglion cells adjust their responses to the spectral properties of the environment. We demonstrate that the ganglion cells match their responses to red-blue stimulus combinations according to the relative contrast of each of the input channels by rotating their functional response properties in colour space. Using measurements of the chromatic statistics of natural environments, we show that the retina balances inputs from the two (red and blue) stimulated colour channels, as would be expected from theoretical optimal behaviour. Our results suggest that colour is encoded in the retina based on the efficient processing of spectral information that matches spectral combinations in natural scenes on the colour processing level. PMID:24205373

  10. Life history and ecology of the southern redback salamander, Plethodon serratus, in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. Herbeck

    2000-01-01

    The life history and ecology of Plethodon serratus were studied in two populations in southcentral and southeastern Missouri, USA. One population was located on private land in Perry County and the other was located in Mark Twain National Forest in Phelps County. Courtship and insemination probably occurred between December and March. Oviposition...

  11. Woodland pond salamander abundance in relation to forest management and environmental conditions in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahn M. Donner; Christine A. Ribic; Albert J. Beck; Dale Higgins; Dan Eklund; Susan. Reinecke

    2015-01-01

    Woodland ponds are important landscape features that help sustain populations of amphibians that require this aquatic habitat for successful reproduction. Species abundance patterns often reflect site-specific differences in hydrology, physical characteristics, and surrounding vegetation. Large-scale processes such as changing land cover and environmental conditions...

  12. Maximizing Sampling Efficiency and Minimizing Uncertainty in Presence/Absence Classification of Rare Salamander Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    palustris mermaidweed obligate Myrica cerifera waxmyrtle facultative Panicum virgatum switchgrass facultative Pontederia cordata ...graminaceous pickerelweed: Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed): NWI indicator status – obligate; structure – aq1 pitcherplant: Sarracenia spp

  13. Scale-dependent genetic structure of the Idaho giant salamander (Dicamptodon aterrimus) in stream networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindy B. Mullen; H. Arthur Woods; Michael K. Schwartz; Adam J. Sepulveda; Winsor H. Lowe

    2010-01-01

    The network architecture of streams and rivers constrains evolutionary, demographic and ecological processes of freshwater organisms. This consistent architecture also makes stream networks useful for testing general models of population genetic structure and the scaling of gene flow. We examined genetic structure and gene flow in the facultatively paedomorphic Idaho...

  14. Cheat Mountain Salamander Monitoring Outline 2001 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A primary responsibility of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service is to identify, monitor, and protect nationally listed endangered and threatened species of...

  15. In situ measurement of Larval Salamander growth using individuals marked with acrylic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent R. Johnson; J. Bruce Wallace

    2002-01-01

    Mark-recapture studies are often used to provide valuable life history information for animal populations. However, long-term marking of larval amphibians has been problematic because of their small size, delicate skin, and ability to regenerate tissues (Cecil and Just 1978; Donnelly et al. 1994; Seale and Boraas 1974). Procedures that have been used to mark larvae...

  16. Adaptive colour contrast coding in the salamander retina efficiently matches natural scene statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genadiy Vasserman

    Full Text Available The visual system continually adjusts its sensitivity to the statistical properties of the environment through an adaptation process that starts in the retina. Colour perception and processing is commonly thought to occur mainly in high visual areas, and indeed most evidence for chromatic colour contrast adaptation comes from cortical studies. We show that colour contrast adaptation starts in the retina where ganglion cells adjust their responses to the spectral properties of the environment. We demonstrate that the ganglion cells match their responses to red-blue stimulus combinations according to the relative contrast of each of the input channels by rotating their functional response properties in colour space. Using measurements of the chromatic statistics of natural environments, we show that the retina balances inputs from the two (red and blue stimulated colour channels, as would be expected from theoretical optimal behaviour. Our results suggest that colour is encoded in the retina based on the efficient processing of spectral information that matches spectral combinations in natural scenes on the colour processing level.

  17. Stoichiometry of a semi-aquatic plethodontid salamander: Intraspecific variation due to location, size and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological stoichiometry provides a framework to investigate an organism's relationship to nutrient cycles. An organism's stoichiometry is thought to constrain its contribution to nutrient cycles (recycling or storage), and to limit its growth and reproduction. Factors that influ...

  18. Stoichiometry and estimates of nutrient standing stocks of larval salamanders in Appalachian headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph R. Milanovich; John C. Maerz; Amy D. Rosemond

    2015-01-01

    1.Because of their longevity and skeletal phosphorus demand, vertebrates can have distinct influences on the uptake, storage and recycling of nutrients in ecosystems. Quantification of body stoichiometry, combined with estimates of abundance or biomass, can provide insights into the effect of vertebrates on nutrient cycling. 2.We measured the nutrient content and...

  19. Multi-level detection of toxic stress in the mudpuppy (amphibian, salamander)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendron, A.D.; Fortin, R.; Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Bishop, C.A. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Van Der Kraak, G. [Guelph Univ., Ontario (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Worldwide reports of declining amphibian populations highlight the need for ecotoxicological research on amphibians. The authors have investigated the response to toxic stress in the mudpuppy. Sites (N = 9) along mixed pollution gradients in the St. Lawrence/Ottawa Rivers systems were sampled on two consecutive winters (1992-93). Elevated concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDFs detected in female gonads at the most contaminated sites, led the investigation toward signs of reproductive dysfunction. High levels of skeletal deformities were observed in the most polluted group where mudpuppies were found significantly more at risk to develop limb defects than at the reference site. The frequencies of terata, including oligodactyly and polydactyly, significantly increased with the intensity of exposure to recognized teratogens, in the St. Lawrence River system. The finding of deformities in adults could signal a more important impact during early life stages. The shift toward older t the most impacted site suggest a decrease in recruitment, that is consistent with lower survival of embryos developing under a toxic stress. Among site differences in other indicators of reproductive performance such as fecundity, gonado-somatic indices, circulating levels of 17{beta}-estradiol, testosterone, and corticosterone in females with vitellogenic eggs, were not detected.

  20. Persistence of retinal dopamine cells in the degenerated eye of the cave salamander, Proteus anguinus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Legros, J; Durand, J; Simon, A; Keller, N; Vigny, A; Dupuy, J; Pouliquen, Y

    1987-01-01

    The Proteus anguinus L. is a blind cave perennibranch amphibian whose visual system undergoes an important morphogenetic degeneration in adulthood. The eyeball becomes atrophied and disappears under the fat tissue of the head. However, a retina can still be identified and a photophobic behavior of the animal indicates a remaining photosensitivity. In the oldest animal observed, some photoreceptor cells are still present as well as other types of retinal neurons. Characteristic synapses are observed in both the inner and outer plexiform layers. Dopaminergic amacrine cells, with processes in the inner plexiform layer, can be identified by their tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactivity. Taken together, these results indicate a possible functional role of the remaining retina. Since dopamine is especially involved in light adaptation from darkness, the residual retina could act in triggering the turning behavior of Proteus in response to lightening.

  1. Frequency-dependent selection by wild birds promotes polymorphism in model salamanders

    OpenAIRE

    Shook Kim; Fitzpatrick Benjamin M; Izally Reuben

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Co-occurrence of distinct colour forms is a classic paradox in evolutionary ecology because both selection and drift tend to remove variation from populations. Apostatic selection, the primary hypothesis for maintenance of colour polymorphism in cryptic animals, proposes that visual predators focus on common forms of prey, resulting in higher survival of rare forms. Empirical tests of this frequency-dependent foraging hypothesis are rare, and the link between predator beha...

  2. ENVIRONMENT-DEPENDENT ADMIXTURE DYNAMICS IN A TIGER SALAMANDER HYBRID ZONE. (R828896)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Ion exchange mechanisms on the erythrocyte membrane of the aquatic salamander, Amphiuma tridactylum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufts, B L; Nikinmaa, M; Steffensen, J F

    1987-01-01

    The effects of different pharmacological agents and incubation media on the intracellular pH and water content of Amphiuma erythrocytes were investigated in vitro. Adrenaline had no significant effect on the intracellular pH or cell water content. DIDS caused an intracellular alkalinization...... that could be abolished by amiloride, ouabain or removal of sodium from the incubation medium. In addition, amiloride and DIDS both caused a decrease in cell water content. The data indicate that sodium/proton and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers are present on the membrane of Amphiuma erythrocytes...

  4. Metagonimoides oregonensis (Heterophyidae:Digenea) Infection in pleurocerid snails and Desmognathus quadramaculatus salamander larvae in southern Appalachian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa K. Belden; William E. Peterman; Stephen A. Smith; Lauren R. Brooks; E.F. Benfield; Wesley P. Black; Zhaomin Yang; Jeremy M. Wojdak

    2012-01-01

    Metagonimoides oregonensis (Heterophyidae) is a little-known digenetic trematode that uses raccoons and possibly mink as definitive hosts, and stream snails and amphibians as intermediate hosts. Some variation in the life cycle and adult morphology in western and eastern populations has been previously noted. In the southern Appalachians, Pleurocera snails and stream...

  5. Polymorphic duplicate genes and persistent non-coding sequences reveal heterogeneous patterns of mitochondrial DNA loss in salamanders

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Rebecca A.; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

    2017-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are the site of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In metazoans, the mitochondrial genome is a small, circular molecule averaging 16.5 kb in length. Despite evolutionarily conserved gene content, metazoan mitochondrial genomes show a diversity of gene orders most commonly explained by the duplication-random loss (DRL) model. In the DRL model, (1) a sequence of genes is duplicated in tandem, (2) one paralog sustains a loss-of-function mutation...

  6. Larval deposition behaviour and maternal investment of females reflect differential habitat adaptation in a genetically diverging salamander population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspers, B.A.; Steinfartz, S.; Krause, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    Illuminating the ability of individuals to react to different selective forces caused by environmental differences is crucial to understand population divergence and speciation in the context of habitat adaptation. In a common environment experiment performed under standardised laboratory

  7. Salamander assemblage survey of mercury and selenium contaminated Headwater sites in the Appalachian Mountains of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Headwater streams comprise 60-75 percent of the total stream length and watershed area in the Mid-Atlantic region. Due to their diverse and complex life histories...

  8. Coprophagy in a cave-adapted salamander; the importance of bat guano examined through nutritional and stable isotope analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Fenolio, Danté B.; Graening, G.O; Collier, Bret A.; Stout, Jim F

    2005-01-01

    During a two year population ecology study in a cave environment, 15 Eurycea (=Typhlotriton) spelaea were observed ingesting bat guano. Furthermore, E. spelaea capture numbers increased significantly during the time that grey bats (Myotis grisescens) deposited fresh guano. We investigated the hypothesis that this behaviour was not incidental to the capture of invertebrate prey, but a diet switch to an energy-rich detritus in an oligotrophic environment. Stable isotope assays determined that g...

  9. Pronounced differences in genetic structure despite overall ecological similarity for two Ambystoma salamanders in the same landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew R. Whiteley; Kevin McGarigal; Michael K. Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    Studies linking genetic structure in amphibian species with ecological characteristics have focused on large differences in dispersal capabilities. Here, we test whether two species with similar dispersal potential but subtle differences in other ecological characteristics also exhibit strong differences in genetic structure in the same landscape. We examined eight...

  10. New distribution and genetic data extend the ranges of the spectacled salamanders, genus Salamandrina, in the Apulia region (South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Liuzzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additional data on the distribution of the genus Salamandrina in the Apulia region (southern Italy are provided. Based on fieldwork carried out from May to August 2011 in two new localities, Volturara Appula (Foggia province and Spinazzola (Barletta province, the presence of Salamandrina species was recorded. Results from the genetic analyses of the 12S rRNA gene fragment from six individuals demonstrated that S. perspicillata occurs in Volturara Appula while S. terdigitata in the Spinazzola locality. The latter species is reported for the first time for the Apulia region. These new distribution data represent considerable range extensions for the Salamandrina species, indicating that more surveys are needed to complement the existing knowledge on their distribution as well as of the herpetofauna from the Apulia region. The conservation implications of our findings are also discussed.

  11. Remote camera monitoring and a mark – recapture study of the wandering salamander in a redwood forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Campbell-Spickler; Stephen C. Sillett

    2017-01-01

    Crowns of old redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) are teaming with life. Storm damage followed by recovery via trunk reiteration increases the structural complexity of redwood crowns over time. Bark and wood surfaces within complex redwood crowns accumulate debris and become covered with epiphytes. Arboreal soils develop beneath...

  12. Abundance, biomass production, nutrient content, and the possible role of terrestrial salamanders in Missouri Ozark forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Semlitsch; K.M. O' Donnell; F.R. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of energy and nutrients largely depends on the role of animals in the movement of biomass between trophic levels and ecosystems. Despite the historical recognition that amphibians could play an important role in the movement of biomass and nutrients, very few studies have provided reliable estimates of abundance and density of amphibians to reveal their...

  13. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BRANCHIATE MOLE SALAMANDERS (AMBYSTOMA TALPOIDEUM) AND LESSER SIRENS (SIREN INTERMEDIA): ASYMMETRICAL COMPETITION AND INTRAGUILD PREDATION. (R825795)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. A review of best management practices and the mitigation of stream-breeding salamanders in the eastern deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Maigret; John J. Cox

    2014-01-01

    Timber harvest has been implicated as a causative factor in the decline of amphibian populations and diversity in many areas of the world. The adoption of best management practices (BMPs) is intended to minimize the impacts of timber harvest on the biotic community, including amphibians and their habitat requirements. Herein, we synthesize the current scientific...

  15. Deflagration-to-detonation transition in gases in tubes with cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Phylippov, Yu. G.

    2010-12-01

    The existence of a supersonic second combustion mode — detonation — discovered by Mallard and Le Chatelier and by Berthélot and Vieille in 1881 posed the question of mechanisms for transition from one mode to the other. In the period 1959-1969, experiments by Salamandra, Soloukhin, Oppenheim, and their coworkers provided insights into this complex phenomenon. Since then, among all the phenomena related to combustion processes, deflagration-to-detonation transition is, undoubtedly, the most intriguing one. Deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in gases is connected with gas and vapor explosion safety issues. Knowing mechanisms of detonation onset control is of major importance for creating effective mitigation measures addressing two major goals: to prevent DDT in the case of mixture ignition, or to arrest the detonation wave in the case where it has been initiated. A new impetus to the increase in interest in deflagration-to-detonation transition processes was given by the recent development of pulse detonation devices. The probable application of these principles to creation of a new generation of engines put the problem of effectiveness of pulse detonating devices at the top of current research needs. The effectiveness of the pulse detonation cycle turned out to be the key factor characterizing the Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE), whose operation modes were shown to be closely related to periodical onset and degeneration of a detonation wave. Those unsteady-state regimes should be self-sustained to guarantee a reliable operation of devices using the detonation mode of burning fuels as a constitutive part of their working cycle. Thus deflagration-to-detonation transition processes are of major importance for the issue. Minimizing the predetonation length and ensuring stability of the onset of detonation enable one to increase the effectiveness of a PDE. The DDT turned out to be the key factor characterizing the PDE operating cycle. Thus, the problem of

  16. Development of a robust monitoring tool for aquatic species: applications of molecular techniques to imperiled herpetofauna of the Southeastern US

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal is to determine the efficacy of eDNA procudures to detect flatwoods salamander, reticulated salamander, gopher frog, and the striped newt from wetlands and...

  17. Phylogeography and genetic identification of the newly-discovered populations of torrent salamanders (Rhyacotriton cascade and R. variegatus) in the central Cascades (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.S.; Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Newly discovered populations of Rhyacotritonidae were investigated for taxonomic identity, hybridization, and sympatry. Species in the genus Rhyacotriton have been historically difficult to identify using morphological characters. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) 16S ribosomal RNA sequences (491 bp) and allozymes (6 loci) were used to identify the distribution of populations occurring intermediate between the previously described ranges of R. variegatus and R. cascadae in the central Cascade Mountain region of Oregon. Allozyme and mitochondrial sequence data both indicated the presence of two distinct evolutionary lineages, with each lineage corresponding to the allopatric distribution of R. cascadae and R. variegatus. Results suggest the Willamette River acts as a phylogeographic barrier limiting the distribution of both species, although we cannot exclude the possibility that reproductive isolation also exists that reinforces species' distributions. This study extends the previously described geographical ranges of both R. cascadae and R. variegatus and defines an eastern range limit for R. variegatus conservation efforts.

  18. The effects of inference method, population sampling, and gene sampling on species tree inferences: an empirical study in slender salamanders (Plethodontidae: Batrachoseps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jockusch, Elizabeth L; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; Timpe, Elizabeth K

    2015-01-01

    Species tree methods are now widely used to infer the relationships among species from multilocus data sets. Many methods have been developed, which differ in whether gene and species trees are estimated simultaneously or sequentially, and in how gene trees are used to infer the species tree. While these methods perform well on simulated data, less is known about what impacts their performance on empirical data. We used a data set including five nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene for 22 species of Batrachoseps to compare the effects of method of analysis, within-species sampling and gene sampling on species tree inferences. For this data set, the choice of inference method had the largest effect on the species tree topology. Exclusion of individual loci had large effects in *BEAST and STEM, but not in MP-EST. Different loci carried the greatest leverage in these different methods, showing that the causes of their disproportionate effects differ. Even though substantial information was present in the nuclear loci, the mitochondrial gene dominated the *BEAST species tree. This leverage is inherent to the mtDNA locus and results from its high variation and lower assumed ploidy. This mtDNA leverage may be problematic when mtDNA has undergone introgression, as is likely in this data set. By contrast, the leverage of RAG1 in STEM analyses does not reflect properties inherent to the locus, but rather results from a gene tree that is strongly discordant with all others, and is best explained by introgression between distantly related species. Within-species sampling was also important, especially in *BEAST analyses, as shown by differences in tree topology across 100 subsampled data sets. Despite the sensitivity of the species tree methods to multiple factors, five species groups, the relationships among these, and some relationships within them, are generally consistently resolved for Batrachoseps. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Using multiple metrics to assess the effects of forest succession on population status: a comparative study of two terrestrial salamanders in the US Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart Welsh; Karen L. Pope; Clara A. Wheeler

    2008-01-01

    Investigations to determine stable or source-sink animal population dynamics are challenging and often infeasible for most species due to the time and expense of mark-recapture studies and the challenge of life histories attributes that result in low detectability and low recapture probabilities. Often, managers rely solely on occupancy or relative abundance patterns...

  20. Salamander Hox clusters contain repetitive DNA and expanded non-coding regions: a typical Hox structure for non-mammalian tetrapod vertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Stephen Randal; Putta, Srikrishna; Walker, John A; Smith, Jeramiah J; Maki, Nobuyasu; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2013-04-05

    Hox genes encode transcription factors that regulate embryonic and post-embryonic developmental processes. The expression of Hox genes is regulated in part by the tight, spatial arrangement of conserved coding and non-coding sequences. The potential for evolutionary changes in Hox cluster structure is thought to be low among vertebrates; however, recent studies of a few non-mammalian taxa suggest greater variation than originally thought. Using next generation sequencing of large genomic fragments (>100 kb) from the red spotted newt (Notophthalamus viridescens), we found that the arrangement of Hox cluster genes was conserved relative to orthologous regions from other vertebrates, but the length of introns and intergenic regions varied. In particular, the distance between hoxd13 and hoxd11 is longer in newt than orthologous regions from vertebrate species with expanded Hox clusters and is predicted to exceed the length of the entire HoxD clusters (hoxd13-hoxd4) of humans, mice, and frogs. Many repetitive DNA sequences were identified for newt Hox clusters, including an enrichment of DNA transposon-like sequences relative to non-coding genomic fragments. Our results suggest that Hox cluster expansion and transposon accumulation are common features of non-mammalian tetrapod vertebrates.

  1. Species of the Mississippi River Headwaters Reservoirs Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    S CRICKET GULL, FRANKLIN S GREBE, WESTERN HAWK, COOPER’S HAWK, MARSH HAWK, RED SHOULDERED HERON, GREAT BLUE KITE, SWALLOW-TAILED LAMPREY ...BELTED KINGLET, GOLDEN CROWNED KINGLET, RUBY-CROWNED LAMPREY , AMERICAN BROOK LAMPREY , CHESTNUT LAMPREY , SILVER LARK, HORNED LEMMING...REDSTART, AMERICAN ROBIN, AMERICAN SALAMANDER, BLUE SPOTTED SALAMANDER, JEFFERSON SALAMANDER, TIGER SALMON, CHINOOK (KING, PACIFIC ) SALMON

  2. 78 FR 55599 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ..., p. 1050) found the disruption of sodium balance by acidic conditions in three species of terrestrial salamanders. A low pH substrate can also reduce salamander body sodium, body water levels, and body mass... unique conditions occur when the population density of red-backed salamanders is so high in a given area...

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation on the light sensing elements of the retina. [Structural and physiological effects of carbon, helium, and neon ions on rods and cones of salamanders and mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malachowski, M.J.

    1978-07-01

    This investigation was undertaken to quantitate possible morphological and physiological effects of particles of high linear energy transfer on the retina, in comparison with x-ray effects. The particles used were accelerated atomic nuclei of helium, carbon, and neon at kinetic energies of several hundred MeV/nucleon. For morphological studies, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy were used. Physiological studies consisted of autoradiographic data of the rate of incorporation of labeled protein in the structures (opsin) of the outer segment of visual cells. Structural changes were found in the nuclei, as well as the inner and outer segments of visual cells, rods and cones. At a low dose of 10 rad, x rays and helium had no statistically significant morphological effects, but carbon and neon beams did cause significant degeneration of individual cells, pointing to the existence of a linear dose--effect relationship. At high doses of several hundred rads, a Pathologic Index determined the relative biological effectiveness of neon against alpha particles to have a value of greater than 6. The severity of effects per particle increased with atomic number. Labeling studies demonstrated a decreased rate of incorporation of labeled proteins in the structural organization of the outer segments of visual rods. The rate of self-renewal of visual rod discs was punctuated by irradiation and the structures themselves were depleted of amino acids. A model of rod discs (metabolic and catabolic) was postulated for correlated early and late effects to high and low doses.

  4. Infinite Worlds: Eighteenth-Century London, the Atlantic Ocean, and Post-Slavery in S.I. Martin's Incomparable World, Lawrence Hill's The Book of Negroes, David Dabydeen's A Harlot's Progress, and Thomas Wharton's Salamander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clement Ball

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Black London: Life before Emancipation (1995, Gretchen Holbrook Gerzina writes of how, on discovering that 15,000 Africans and their descendants were living in London in 1768, she was struck by a vision of her present-day London as 'suddenly occupied by two simultaneous centuries' (2 - an eighteenth-century city of black pageboys and entertainers, of black beggars and prostitutes and autobiographers, overlaying the late twentieth-century one like a ghostly palimpsest. In the same decade as Gerzina was articulating these spectral imaginings, four prominent black British novelists were similarly looking back to the eighteenth century - to the final decades of the British slave trade, to the Atlantic Ocean across and around which it took place, and to London, where the abolitionist cause was advanced. Caryl Phillips, S.I. Martin, David Dabydeen, and Fred D'Aguiar all published novels in the 1990s that have black protagonists and are set entirely or partly in the eighteenth-century metropolis. In the subsequent decade, two Canadian novelists did likewise: Lawrence Hill and Thomas Wharton both published historical novels featuring female ex-slaves that end up in London after long and circuitous oceanic journeys.[i] Since historical novels are always prompted by present-tense obsessions and therefore frequently gaze at two centuries simultaneously, how does this outpouring of eighteenth-century-oriented narrative reflect and enhance our contemporary understanding of slavery, the Atlantic world, and London? What geographies and identities, what forms of mobility and dwelling, what personal quests and local or global communities do these novels imagine for the imperial capital's black inhabitants at a time when the prevailing winds were blowing abolition and revolutionary political change across the Atlantic world? And how do these texts - transhistorical, transnational, circum-Atlantic visions of London echo - or anticipate - other postcolonial writings about the world city of our time and the black person's place in it?

  5. 78 FR 51277 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Information Taxonomy The Austin blind and Jollyville Plateau salamanders are neotenic (do not transform into a... salamander is found in three of the four Barton Springs outlets in the COA's Zilker Park, Travis County... the near future (Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) 2011, p. 11). Jollyville Plateau...

  6. 78 FR 9727 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... California tiger salamander (central DPS) (Ambystoma californiense) in Napa, Solano, Contra Costa, Alameda... throughout the range of the species in Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, and Colorado for the purpose...) the California tiger salamander (central DPS) (Ambystoma californiense) in conjunction with survey and...

  7. A complex, cross-taxon, chemical releaser of antipredator behavior in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Dale M; Sullivan, Aaron M; Maerz, John C; McDarby, James H; Rohr, Jason R

    2002-11-01

    Prey species show diverse antipredator responses to chemical cues signaling predation threat. Among terrestrial vertebrates, the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an important species in the study of these chemical defenses. During the day and early evening, this species avoids rinses from garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis, independent of snake diet, but late at night. avoids only those rinses from garter snakes that have recently eaten P. cinereus. We tested whether the selective, late-night response requires the ingestion or injury of salamanders. In three experiments, we tested P. cinereus for their responses to separate or combined rinses from salamanders (undisturbed, distressed, and injured P. cinereus) and snakes (unfed, earthworm fed, and salamander-fed T. sirtalis). When paired against a water control, only rinses from salamander-fed snakes were avoided. When salamander treatments (undisturbed or distressed) were combined with the snake treatments (unfed or earthworm-fed) and tested against a water control, the combinations elicited avoidance. When selected treatments were paired against the standard rinse from salamander-fed snakes, only the combined rinses from salamanders and snakes nullified the avoidance response to the standard rinse. These data reveal a prey defense mechanism involving chemical elements fromboth the predatorand prey that does not require injury or ingestion of the prey in the formation of the cue.

  8. 75 FR 11107 - Revision of Land Management Plan for the George Washington National Forest, Virginia and West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Area; the Biological Opinion for the Indiana bat; and the helicopter application of liming for the St... species. 7. Update the Management Indicator Species (MIS) list to use the same species as in the Jefferson NF Forest Plan, except the Cow Knob salamander will replace the Peaks of Otter salamander. MIS are...

  9. 77 FR 50767 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Four Central Texas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... primary threat to the four central Texas salamander species. Water quality degradation in salamander... the Texas State Data Center (2008, p. 1) estimate that Travis County will increase in population from... size over this 40-year period. The Texas State Data Center also estimates an increase in human...

  10. Reptile and amphibian response to oak regeneration treatments in productive southern Appalachian hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Christopher E. Moorman; Amy L. Raybuck; Chad Sundol; Tara L. Keyser; Janis Bush; Dean M. Simon; Gordon S. Warburton

    2016-01-01

    Forest restoration efforts commonly employ silvicultural methods that alter light and competition to influence species composition. Changes to forest structure and microclimate may adversely affect some taxa (e.g., terrestrial salamanders), but positively affect others (e.g., early successional birds). Salamanders are cited as indicators of ecosystem health because of...

  11. Spatial variation in risk and consequence of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans introduction in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richgels, Katherine L D; Russell, Robin E; Adams, Michael J; White, C LeAnn; Grant, Evan H Campbell

    2016-02-01

    A newly identified fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans(Bsal), is responsible for mass mortality events and severe population declines in European salamanders. The eastern USA has the highest diversity of salamanders in the world and the introduction of this pathogen is likely to be devastating. Although data are inevitably limited for new pathogens, disease-risk assessments use best available data to inform management decisions. Using characteristics of Bsalecology, spatial data on imports and pet trade establishments, and salamander species diversity, we identify high-risk areas with both a high likelihood of introduction and severe consequences for local salamanders. We predict that the Pacific coast, southern Appalachian Mountains and mid-Atlantic regions will have the highest relative risk from Bsal. Management of invasive pathogens becomes difficult once they are established in wildlife populations; therefore, import restrictions to limit pathogen introduction and early detection through surveillance of high-risk areas are priorities for preventing the next crisis for North American salamanders.

  12. Amphibian commerce as a likely source of pathogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Angela M; Collins, James P

    2008-12-01

    The commercial trade of wildlife occurs on a global scale. In addition to removing animals from their native populations, this trade may lead to the release and subsequent introduction of nonindigenous species and the pathogens they carry. Emerging infectious diseases, such as chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and ranaviral disease have spread with global trade in amphibians and are linked to amphibian declines and die-offs worldwide, which suggests that the commercial trade in amphibians may be a source of pathogen pollution. We screened tiger salamanders involved in the bait trade in the western United States for both ranaviruses and Bd with polymerase chain reaction and used oral reports from bait shops and ranavirus DNA sequences from infected bait salamanders to determine how these animals and their pathogens are moved geographically by commerce. In addition, we conducted 2 surveys of anglers to determine how often tiger salamanders are used as bait and how often they are released into fishing waters by anglers, and organized bait-shop surveys to determine whether tiger salamanders are released back into the wild after being housed in bait shops. Ranaviruses were detected in the tiger salamander bait trade in Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico, and Bd was detected in Arizona bait shops. Ranaviruses were spread geographically through the bait trade. All tiger salamanders in the bait trade were collected from the wild, and in general they moved east to west and north to south, bringing with them their multiple ranavirus strains. Finally, 26-73% of anglers used tiger salamanders as fishing bait, 26-67% of anglers released tiger salamanders bought as bait into fishing waters, and 4% of bait shops released tiger salamanders back into the wild after they were housed in shops with infected animals. The tiger salamander bait trade in the western United States is a useful model for understanding the consequences of the

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for estuarine reptiles (turtles, terrapins) and amphibians (salamanders, frogs) for the Hudson River....

  14. West Virginia Nature Notes Rare Species Fact Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cheat Mountain salamander has been listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened throughout its range since 1989. Information on the fact sheet...

  15. Prevalence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in stream and wetland amphibians in Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Ware, Joy L.; Duncan, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, responsible for the potentially fatal amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, is known to occur in a large and ever increasing number of amphibian populations around the world. However, sampling has been biased towards stream- and wetland-breeding anurans, with little attention paid to stream-associated salamanders. We sampled three frog and three salamander species in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park, Maryland, by swabbing animals for PCR analysis to detect DNA of B. dendrobatidis. Using PCR, we detected B. dendrobatidis DNA in both stream and wetland amphibians, and report here the first occurrence of the pathogen in two species of stream-associated salamanders. Future research should focus on mechanisms within habitats that may affect persistence and dissemination of B. dendrobatidis among stream-associated salamanders

  16. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Biological Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of wildlife population assessments (inlcuding birds, mammals, salamanders, lizards, and snakes), and Breeding Bird Census events occurring on the refuge in...

  17. 75 FR 33633 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Survey, Biological Resources Division, Western Ecological Research Center, San Diego Field Station, San... tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) in conjunction with surveys, population monitoring, and... (Ambystoma californiense) in conjunction with surveys and population monitoring throughout the range of the...

  18. 78 FR 50082 - South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In 2009, the Service completed a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and... South Farallon Islands. The purpose of this project is to benefit native seabirds, amphibians... amphibians, invertebrates, and plants, including the endemic Farallon arboreal salamander (Aneides lugubris...

  19. 75 FR 66123 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... (February 1, 1999, 64 FR 4888) to take (biological samples) the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) in conjunction with disease research throughout the range of the species in California for the...

  20. 78 FR 37840 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... and voucher specimens, and release) the California tiger salamander (Santa Barbara County DPS... authorized activities to capture, seine, electrofish, PIT tag, collect vouchers, and preserve larvae) the... vouchers) the conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio), longhorn fairy shrimp (Branchinecta...