WorldWideScience

Sample records for safety system design

  1. Safety design guide for safety related systems for CANDU 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of); Wright, A.C.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Toronto (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    In general, two types of safety related systems and structures exist in the nuclear plant; The one is a systems and structures which perform safety functions during the normal operation of the plant, and the other is a systems and structures which perform safety functions to mitigate events caused by failure of the normally operating systems or by naturally occurring phenomena. In this safety design guide, these systems are identified in detail, and the major events for which the safety functions are required and the major safety requirements are identified in the list. As the probabilistic safety assessments are completed during the course of the project, additions or deletions to the list may be justified. 3 tabs. (Author) .new.

  2. Analysis and design on airport safety information management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport safety information management system is the foundation of implementing safety operation, risk control, safety performance monitor, and safety management decision for the airport. The paper puts forward the architecture of airport safety information management system based on B/S model, focuses on safety information processing flow, designs the functional modules and proposes the supporting conditions for system operation. The system construction is helpful to perfecting the long effect mechanism driven by safety information, continually increasing airport safety management level and control proficiency.

  3. Design of an Active Automotive Safety System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the national economy, the people's standard of living got corresponding improvement, cars has been one of the indispensable traffic tools in many families. An active safety system is proposed, which can real-time detect the vehicle's running status and judge the security status of the vehicle. The system, which takes single-chip microcomputer as the controlling core and combines with millimeter-wave and ultrasonic distance measurement technology, can detect the distance from vehicle to vehicle and judge the security status of the vehicle. The hardware composition of the system and the data acquiring circuit are proposed, the mathematic model for different situation is established, and the controlling algorithm is completed. This system can accurately measure speed and distance between vehicles; the active safety control system can meet the relevant data measurement and transmission requirement; and can meet the functional requirement of the active safety control system

  4. Safety design integrated in the building delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    In construction, it is important to view safety and health as an integrated part of the way that “designers” are working. The designers cowers architects, constructors, engineers and others who carry out their consulting services in the design phase of a construction project. The philosophy...... is simple, if the demands for safety and health are incorporated early on in the solving of a building assignment, then it becomes much easier to organise the executing phase in a responsible manner safety-wise. But, the problem is that very few of the designers have knowledge or experience of how to do so....... The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how safety and health can be integrated in the design phases integrated in the management delivery systems within construction, The method for the research was to go through the building delivery system step by step and create a normative description of what, when...

  5. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, P. [The Glocal University, Mirzapur Pole, Delhi- Yamuntori Highway, Saharanpur 2470001 (India)

    2014-10-06

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.

  6. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, P.

    2014-10-01

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.

  7. Design for safety: theoretical framework of the safety aspect of BIM system to determine the safety index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Lin Evelyn Teo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the safety improvement drive that has been implemented in the construction industry in Singapore for many years, the industry continues to report the highest number of workplace fatalities, compared to other industries. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theoretical framework of the safety aspect of a proposed BIM System to determine a Safety Index. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the current workplace safety and health situation in the construction industry and explore how BIM can be used to improve safety performance in the industry. A safety hazard library was developed based on the main contributors to fatal accidents in the construction industry, determined from the formal records and existing literature, and a series of discussions with representatives from the Workplace Safety and Health Institute (WSH Institute in Singapore. The results from the survey suggested that the majority of the firms have implemented the necessary policies, programmes and procedures on Workplace Safety and Health (WSH practices. However, BIM is still not widely applied or explored beyond the mandatory requirement that building plans should be submitted to the authorities for approval in BIM format. This paper presents a discussion of the safety aspect of the Intelligent Productivity and Safety System (IPASS developed in the study. IPASS is an intelligent system incorporating the buildable design concept, theory on the detection, prevention and control of hazards, and the Construction Safety Audit Scoring System (ConSASS. The system is based on the premise that safety should be considered at the design stage, and BIM can be an effective tool to facilitate the efforts to enhance safety performance. IPASS allows users to analyse and monitor key aspects of the safety performance of the project before the project starts and as the project progresses.

  8. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Okon, Shira

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible".1 To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) chose a development approach that explicitly incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 preliminary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigation strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  9. Safety design integrated in the Building Delivery System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    It is important to see safety and health in construction as an integrated part of the way in which designers, architects, constructors, engineers and others carry out their consulting services. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how safety and health can be integrated in the design...... of safety in each process. The group of participants who created the description had a high experience in a combination of research, safety and health in general and especial in construction and knowledge of the lean construction processes both from the clients perspective as well as from the designers...

  10. European Workshop Industrical Computer Science Systems approach to design for safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Janusz

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents guidelines on designing systems for safety, developed by the Technical Committee 7 on Reliability and Safety of the European Workshop on Industrial Computer Systems. The focus is on complementing the traditional development process by adding the following four steps: (1) overall safety analysis; (2) analysis of the functional specifications; (3) designing for safety; (4) validation of design. Quantitative assessment of safety is possible by means of a modular questionnaire covering various aspects of the major stages of system development.

  11. Design, Operations, and Safety Report for the MERIT Target System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, Van B [ORNL; Spampinato, Philip Thomas [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The Mercury Intense Target Project (MERIT) is a proof-of-principal experiment to determine the feasibility of using a free-jet of Hg as a spallation target in a Neutrino Factory or a Muon Collider facility. The 1-cm-diameter, 20-m/sec jet will be generated inside a 15-Tesla magnetic field, and high-speed optical diagnostics will be used to photograph the interaction between the Hg jet and a 24-GeV proton beam.The experiment is scheduled to be conducted at CERN in 2007. ORNL is responsible for the design, fabrication, and testing of a system to deliver the Hg jet within the confines of the 15-cm magnet bore. This report documents the functional and safety requirements of the Hg system along with descriptions of its interfaces to the other experimental equipment.

  12. Design considerations in an active medical product safety monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J; Fireman, Bruce; Ryan, Patrick B; Maclure, Malcolm; Gerhard, Tobias; Toh, Sengwee; Rassen, Jeremy A; Nelson, Jennifer C; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Active medical product monitoring systems, such as the Sentinel System, will utilize electronic healthcare data captured during routine health care. Safety signals that arise from these data may be spurious because of chance or bias, particularly confounding bias, given the observational nature of the data. Applying appropriate monitoring designs can filter out many false-positive and false-negative associations from the outset. Designs can be classified by whether they produce estimates based on between-person or within-person comparisons. In deciding which approach is more suitable for a given monitoring scenario, stakeholders must consider the characteristics of the monitored product, characteristics of the health outcome of interest (HOI), and characteristics of the potential link between these. Specifically, three factors drive design decisions: (i) strength of within-person and between-person confounding; (ii) whether circumstances exist that may predispose to misclassification of exposure or misclassification of the timing of the HOI; and (iii) whether the exposure of interest is predominantly transient or sustained. Additional design considerations include whether to focus on new users, the availability of appropriate active comparators, the presence of an exposure time trend, and the measure of association of interest. When the key assumptions of self-controlled designs are fulfilled (i.e., lack of within-person, time-varying confounding; abrupt HOI onset; and transient exposure), within-person comparisons are preferred because they inherently avoid confounding by fixed factors. The cohort approach generally is preferred in other situations and particularly when timing of exposure or outcome is uncertain because cohort approaches are less vulnerable to biases resulting from misclassification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Failure and factors of safety in piping system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antaki, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    An important body of test and performance data on the behavior of piping systems has led to an ongoing reassessment of the code stress allowables and their safety margin. The codes stress allowables, and their factors of safety, are developed from limits on the incipient yield (for ductile materials), or incipient rupture (for brittle materials), of a test specimen loaded in simple tension. In this paper, we examine the failure theories introduced in the B31 and ASME III codes for piping and their inherent approximations compared to textbook failure theories. We summarize the evolution of factors of safety in ASME and B31 and point out that, for piping systems, it is appropriate to reconsider the concept and definition of factors of safety.

  14. Failure and factors of safety in piping system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antaki, G.A.

    1993-06-01

    An important body of test and performance data on the behavior of piping systems has led to an ongoing reassessment of the code stress allowables and their safety margin. The codes stress allowables, and their factors of safety, are developed from limits on the incipient yield (for ductile materials), or incipient rupture (for brittle materials), of a test specimen loaded in simple tension. In this paper, we examine the failure theories introduced in the B31 and ASME III codes for piping and their inherent approximations compared to textbook failure theories. We summarize the evolution of factors of safety in ASME and B31 and point out that, for piping systems, it is appropriate to reconsider the concept and definition of factors of safety.

  15. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production-safety systems. 250.802 Section 250.802 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.802 Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems. (a) General. All production facilities, including separators, treaters, compressors...

  16. Electronics system design techniques for safety critical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sterpone, Luca

    2008-01-01

    Addresses the development of techniques for the evaluation and the hardening of designs implemented on SRAM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays. This title presents a design methodology solving industrial designer''s needs for implementing electronic systems using SRAM-based FPGAs in critical environments, like the space or avionic ones.

  17. Design of the NSLS-II Top-Off Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliller, III R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Doom, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Ganetis, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Hetzel, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Job, P. K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Li, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Shaftan, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Sharma, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Singh, O. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Wang, G. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Xia, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source

    2015-05-03

    The NSLS-II accelerators finished commissioning in the fall of 2014, with beamline commissioning underway. Part of the design for the NSLS-II is to operate in top off mode. The Top Off Safety System (TOSS) is presently being installed. In this report we discuss the Top Off Safety System design and implementation, along with the necessary tracking results and radiological calculations.

  18. Design of agricultural product quality safety retrospective supervision system of Jiangsu province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun

    2017-08-01

    In store and supermarkets to consumers can trace back agricultural products through the electronic province card to query their origin, planting, processing, packaging, testing and other important information and found that the problems. Quality and safety issues can identify the responsibility of the problem. This paper designs a retroactive supervision system for the quality and safety of agricultural products in Jiangsu Province. Based on the analysis of agricultural production and business process, the goal of Jiangsu agricultural product quality safety traceability system construction is established, and the specific functional requirements and non-functioning requirements of the retroactive system are analyzed, and the target is specified for the specific construction of the retroactive system. The design of the quality and safety traceability system in Jiangsu province contains the design of the overall design, the trace code design and the system function module.

  19. Optimization of Safety Instrumented System Design and Maintenance Frequency for Oil and Gas Industry Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yury Redutskiy

    2017-01-01

    ... for safety system design is introduced in a generalized form. The model aims to reflect the divergent perspectives of the main parties involved in oil and gas projects, and, therefore, it is formulated as a multi-objective problem...

  20. Optimization of Safety Instrumented System Design and Maintenance Frequency for Oil and Gas Industry Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redutskiy Yury

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas industry processes are associated with significant expenditures and risks. Adequacy of the decisions on safety measures made during early stages of planning the facilities and processes contributes to avoiding technological incidents and corresponding losses. Formulating straightforward requirements for safety instrumented systems that are followed further during the detailed engineering design and operations is proposed, and a mathematical model for safety system design is introduced in a generalized form. The model aims to reflect the divergent perspectives of the main parties involved in oil and gas projects, and, therefore, it is formulated as a multi-objective problem. Application of black box optimization is suggested for solving real-life problem instances. A Markov model is applied to account for device failures, technological incidents, continuous restorations and periodic maintenance for a given process and safety system configuration. This research is relevant to engineering departments and contractors, who specialize in planning and designing the technological solution.

  1. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-06-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  2. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, Senu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bailey, Bruce [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Filippelli, Matthew [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  3. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Himanshu, E-mail: htyagi@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Soni, Jignesh [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  4. Context factors affecting design and operation of Food Safety Management Systems in the fresh produce chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Nanyunja, J.; Jacxsens, L.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Uyttendaele, M.; Luning, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent food-borne outbreaks and cases of non-compliances to maximum residue limits of pesticides, indicated that food safety management systems (FSMS) in fresh produce chain are not yet performing in a satisfactory manner. However, the system output is not only dependent on the system design and

  5. Impact of Passive Safety on FHR Instrumentation Systems Design and Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) will rely more extensively on passive safety than earlier reactor classes. 10CFR50 Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum design requirements to provide reasonable assurance of adequate safety. 10CFR50.69, Risk-Informed Categorization and Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components for Nuclear Power Reactors, provides guidance on how the safety significance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) should be reflected in their regulatory treatment. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has provided 10 CFR 50.69 SSC Categorization Guideline (NEI-00-04) that factors in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model insights, as well as deterministic insights, through an integrated decision-making panel. Employing the PRA to inform deterministic requirements enables an appropriately balanced, technically sound categorization to be established. No FHR currently has an adequate PRA or set of design basis accidents to enable establishing the safety classification of its SSCs. While all SSCs used to comply with the general design criteria (GDCs) will be safety related, the intent is to limit the instrumentation risk significance through effective design and reliance on inherent passive safety characteristics. For example, FHRs have no safety-significant temperature threshold phenomena, thus enabling the primary and reserve reactivity control systems required by GDC 26 to be passively, thermally triggered at temperatures well below those for which core or primary coolant boundary damage would occur. Moreover, the passive thermal triggering of the primary and reserve shutdown systems may relegate the control rod drive motors to the control system, substantially decreasing the amount of safety-significant wiring needed. Similarly, FHR decay heat removal systems are intended to be running continuously to minimize the amount of safety-significant instrumentation needed to initiate

  6. Ecological Design of Cooperative Human-Machine Interfaces for Safety of Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research results in the domain of cooperative intelligent transport systems. The requirements for human-machine interface considering safety issue of for intelligent transport systems (ITSare analyzed. Profiling of the requirements to cooperative human-machine interface (CHMI for such systems including requirements to usability and safety is based on a set of standards for ITSs. An approach and design technique of cooperative human-machine interface for ITSs are suggested. The architecture of cloud-based CHMI for intelligent transport systems has been developed. The prototype of software system CHMI4ITSis described.

  7. Enhancing Patient Safety Event Reporting. A Systematic Review of System Design Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yang; Kang, Hong; Wu, Xinshuo; Hua, Lei

    2017-08-30

    Electronic patient safety event reporting (e-reporting) is an effective mechanism to learn from errors and enhance patient safety. Unfortunately, the value of e-reporting system (a software or web server based platform) in patient safety research is greatly overshadowed by low quality reporting. This paper aims at revealing the current status of system features, detecting potential gaps in system design, and accordingly proposing suggestions for future design and implementation of the system. Three literature databases were searched for publications that contain informative descriptions of e-reporting systems. In addition, both online publicly accessible reporting forms and systems were investigated. 48 systems were identified and reviewed. 11 system design features and their frequencies of occurrence (Top 5: widgets (41), anonymity or confidentiality (29), hierarchy (20), validator (17), review notification (15)) were identified and summarized into a system hierarchical model. The model indicated the current e-reporting systems are at an immature stage in their development, and discussed their future development direction toward efficient and effective systems to improve patient safety.

  8. Multi-dimensional database design and implementation of dam safety monitoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er-feng ZHAO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the effectiveness of dam safety monitoring database systems, the development process of a multi-dimensional conceptual data model was analyzed and a logic design was achieved in multi-dimensional database mode. The optimal data model was confirmed by identifying data objects, defining relations and reviewing entities. The conversion of relations among entities to external keys and entities and physical attributes to tables and fields was interpreted completely. On this basis, a multi-dimensional database that reflects the management and analysis of a dam safety monitoring system on monitoring data information has been established, for which factual tables and dimensional tables have been designed. Finally, based on service design and user interface design, the dam safety monitoring system has been developed with Delphi as the development tool. This development project shows that the multi-dimensional database can simplify the development process and minimize hidden dangers in the database structure design. It is superior to other dam safety monitoring system development models and can provide a new research direction for system developers.

  9. Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Cristhian

    2011-12-01

    The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a pebble fueled, liquid salt cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor design that can be used for electricity generation or other applications requiring the availability of heat at elevated temperatures. A stage in the design evolution of this plant requires the analysis of the plant during a variety of potential transients to understand the primary and safety cooling system response. This study focuses on the performance of the passive safety cooling system with a dual purpose, to assess the capacity to maintain the core at safe temperatures and to assist the design process of this system to achieve this objective. The analysis requires the use of complex computational tools for simulation and verification using analytical solutions and comparisons with experimental data. This investigation builds upon previous detailed design work for the PB-AHTR components, including the core, reactivity control mechanisms and the intermediate heat exchanger, developed in 2008. In addition the study of this reference plant design employs a wealth of auxiliary information including thermal-hydraulic physical phenomena correlations for multiple geometries and thermophysical properties for the constituents of the plant. Finally, the set of performance requirements and limitations imposed from physical constrains and safety considerations provide with a criteria and metrics for acceptability of the design. The passive safety cooling system concept is turned into a detailed design as a result from this study. A methodology for the design of air-cooled passive safety systems was developed and a transient analysis of the plant, evaluating a scrammed loss of forced cooling event was performed. Furthermore, a design optimization study of the passive safety system and an approach for the validation and verification of the analysis is presented. This study demonstrates that the resulting point design responds properly to the

  10. Yucca Mountain Site Charecterization Project Design Package 1C System Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRW

    1995-10-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package IC, Surface Utilities (for a list of package 1C subsystems see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1C structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1C structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations. Hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations have not been included in this analysis.

  11. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated Safety in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Casper Siebken; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    consider OHS in execution as a responsibility of the contractors. The output of this stage is a systematic and structured conceptual framework that couples OHS-risks in construction (health, safety and mental health) to the stages in the design and engineering processes. Moreover the framework includes...... a focus on processual elements, constraints and prevention strategies and also includes a tool to address OHS risks in the design processes. The approach stresses how complying with legislation should only be seen as a minimum condition in design and engineering. Incentives to prioritize OHS in design......An on-going research project investigates the inclusion of health and safety considerations in the design phase as a means to achieve a higher level of health and safety in the construction industry. Moreover, the approach is coupled to the overall quality efforts. Two architectural firms and two...

  13. Integrated Design and Analysis Environment for Safety Critical Human-Automation Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight deck systems, like many safety critical systems, often involve complex interactions between multiple human operators, automated subsystems, and physical...

  14. MODULAR AND FULL SIZE SIMPLIFIED BOILING WATER REACTOR DESIGN WITH FULLY PASSIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ishii; S. T. Revankar; T. Downar; Y. Xu, H. J. Yoon; D. Tinkler; U. S. Rohatgi

    2003-06-16

    OAK B204 The overall goal of this three-year research project was to develop a new scientific design of a compact modular 200 MWe and a full size 1200 MWe simplified boiling water reactors (SBWR). Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to perform scientific designs of the core neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics for a small capacity and full size simplified boiling water reactor, (2) to develop a passive safety system design, (3) improve and validate safety analysis code, (4) demonstrate experimentally and analytically all design functions of the safety systems for the design basis accidents (DBA) and (5) to develop the final scientific design of both SBWR systems, 200 MWe (SBWR-200) and 1200 MWe (SBWR-1200). The SBWR combines the advantages of design simplicity and completely passive safety systems. These advantages fit well within the objectives of NERI and the Department of Energy's focus on the development of Generation III and IV nuclear power. The 3-year research program was structured around seven tasks. Task 1 was to perform the preliminary thermal-hydraulic design. Task 2 was to perform the core neutronic design analysis. Task 3 was to perform a detailed scaling study and obtain corresponding PUMA conditions from an integral test. Task 4 was to perform integral tests and code evaluation for the DBA. Task 5 was to perform a safety analysis for the DBA. Task 6 was to perform a BWR stability analysis. Task 7 was to perform a final scientific design of the compact modular SBWR-200 and the full size SBWR-1200. A no cost extension for the third year was requested and the request was granted and all the project tasks were completed by April 2003. The design activities in tasks 1, 2, and 3 were completed as planned. The existing thermal-hydraulic information, core physics, and fuel lattice information was collected on the existing design of the simplified boiling water reactor. The thermal-hydraulic design were developed. Based on a detailed

  15. Design of a User-Centered Voluntary Reporting System for Patient Safety Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Gong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    As the third leading cause of death in the U.S., patient safety events (PSE) are difficult to control due to multiple inputs from healthcare providers, systems, or even patients. Inspired by the success of reporting systems in other fields, PSE reporting systems could be a good resource to share and to learn from previous cases. However, the success of such systems in healthcare is yet to be seen due to the low report quality and the lack of interoperability and communication. A knowledge-based and user-centered PSE reporting system is needed to organize the scattered knowledge and improve user-friendliness. We described the development of a knowledge base for patient falls, the most frequent PSE. Based on the knowledge base, user-centered design features were incorporated into the system to improve the reporting accuracy, completeness, and timeliness. This prototype holds promise in improving PSE reporting quality and facilitating human-computer communication.

  16. Urban traffic safety analysis and assessment system based on GIS: system design, key techniques and implementation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peijun; Pei, Jianzhong; Chen, Xiaowei; Yan, Zhigang

    2008-10-01

    As the most important technical support to digital transportation and intelligent transportation system (ITS), Geographical Information System (GIS) has become an important tool for traffic safety assessment, management and accident prevention. In this paper, the key techniques, system design method and implementation strategy of Traffic Safety Analysis and Assessment System (TSAAS) is investigated based on the integration of GIS and traffic safety models. TSAAS takes road segment as basic units and uses node sets and directed edge sets to describe road network. Event driven spatial data model is adopted to organize information about traffic accidents in order to link accidents with road network data. In order to solve the problem of data storage, Microsoft SQL Server2000 is used as the basic database platform and SuperMap SDX+ large spatial database engine is used. Traffic safety analysis modeling is usually based on many random accident events, and the results are expressed by certain numerical criteria. Taking two typical traffic safety models: black point model and traffic safety assessment model as examples, the integration of traffic models with GIS is explored in detail. Finally the implementation strategy of TSAAS is investigated, and the secondary development scheme based on ComGIS product, SuperMap Objects, is recommended.

  17. 14 CFR 415.127 - Flight safety system design and operation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... expendable launch vehicle that uses a flight safety system to protect public safety as required by § 417.107... and connections and wiring diagrams and schematics. For a flight termination system, a description of... document must also contain flight termination system wiring diagrams and schematics and identify the test...

  18. Customer Relationship Management System in Occupational Safety & Health Companies: Research on Practice and Preliminary Design Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent contemporary trends in formation of companies is the approach to development of a customer-oriented company. In this matter, various versions related to the intensity of this orientation are differentiated. Customer relationship management (CRM system is a well-known concept, and its practice is being studied and improved in connection to various sectors. Companies providing services of occupational safety and health (OHS mainly cooperate with a large number of customers and the quality of this cooperation largely affects the occupational safety and health of employees. Therefore, it is of both scientific and wider social interest to study and improve the relationship of these companies with their customers. This paper investigates the practice of applying CRM in Croatian OHS companies. It identifies the existing conditions and suggests possible improvements in the practice of CRM, based on experts’ assessments using analytic hierarchy process evaluation. Universal preliminary design was created as a framework concept for the formation of a typical customer-oriented OHS services company. Preliminary design includes a structural view, which provides more details through system diagrams, and an illustration of main cooperation processes of a company with its customer.

  19. Design and development of safety evaluation system of buildings on a seismic field based on the network platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baitao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiangzhao; Zhang, Xinghua

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a set of on-site earthquake safety evaluation systems for buildings, which were developed based on a network platform. The system embedded into the quantitative research results which were completed in accordance with the provisions from Post-earthquake Field Works, Part 2: Safety Assessment of Buildings, GB18208.2 -2001, and was further developed into an easy-to-use software platform. The system is aimed at allowing engineering professionals, civil engineeing technicists or earthquake-affected victims on site to assess damaged buildings through a network after earthquakes. The authors studied the function structure, process design of the safety evaluation module, and hierarchical analysis algorithm module of the system in depth, and developed the general architecture design, development technology and database design of the system. Technologies such as hierarchical architecture design and Java EE were used in the system development, and MySQL5 was adopted in the database development. The result is a complete evaluation process of information collection, safety evaluation, and output of damage and safety degrees, as well as query and statistical analysis of identified buildings. The system can play a positive role in sharing expert post-earthquake experience and promoting safety evaluation of buildings on a seismic field.

  20. Design of safety-critical systems using the complementarities of success and failure domains with a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rizwan; Koo, June Mo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.k [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    A safety-critical system has to qualify the performance-related requirements and the safety-related requirements simultaneously. Conceptually, design processes should consider both of them simultaneously but the practices do not and/or cannot follow such a theoretical approach due to the limitation of design resources. From our experience, we found that safety-related functions must be simultaneously resolved with the development of performance-related functions, particularly, in case of safety-critical systems. Since, success and failure domain analyses are essential for the investigation of performance-related and safety-related requirements, respectively, we articulated our perception to Axiomatic Design (AD), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and TRIZ. A design evolution procedure considering feedbacks from AD to identify functional couplings, TRIZ methodology to explore uncoupling solutions and FTA to improve reliability in a systematic way is presented here. A case study regarding design of safety injection tank installed in a nuclear power plant is also included to illustrate the proposed framework. It is expected that several iterations between AD-TRIZ-FTA would result into an optimized design which could be tested against the desired performance and safety criteria.

  1. Software system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Software itself is not hazardous, but since software and hardware share common interfaces there is an opportunity for software to create hazards. Further, these software systems are complex, and proven methods for the design, analysis, and measurement of software safety are not yet available. Some past software failures, future NASA software trends, software engineering methods, and tools and techniques for various software safety analyses are reviewed. Recommendations to NASA are made based on this review.

  2. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

    2003-09-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

  3. Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem; Barszcz, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (ISHM) systems are used to detect, assess, and isolate functional failures in order to improve safety of space systems such as Orbital Space Planes (OSPs). An ISHM system, as a whole, consists of several subsystems that monitor different components of an OSP including: Spacecraft, Launch Vehicle, Ground Control, and the International Space Station. In this research, therefore, we propose a new methodology to design and optimize ISHM as a distributed system with multiple disciplines (that correspond to different subsystems of OSP safety). A paramount amount of interest has been given in the literature to the multidisciplinary design optimization of problems with such architecture (as will be reviewed in the full paper).

  4. SAFETY DESIGN AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Tamargazin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  The article deals with contemporary issues of safety of aircraft structures, which are fundamental in the choice of approaches to the continuing airworthiness of aircraft which re fundamental in the choice of approaches to continuing airworthiness of aircraft. The features of the formation methods of technical maintenance of aircraft in view of the design type are considered. Experience of aircraft maintenance has shown that the use of combined operational vitality in a number of cases has helped to prevent the catastrophic destruction of aircraft at a time when high enough qualifications for airline personnel were not satisfied.

  5. [A simplified occupational health and safety management system designed for small enterprises. Initial validation results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Romana; Veneri, L; Ghini, P; Caso, Maria Alessandra; Baldassarri, Giovanna; Renzetti, F; Santarelli, R

    2009-01-01

    Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) are known to be effective in improving safety at work. Unfortunately they are often too resource-heavy for small businesses. The aim of this project was to develop and test a simplified model of OHSMS suitable for small enterprises. The model consists of 7 procedures and various operating forms and check lists, that guide the enterprise in managing safety at work. The model was tested in 15 volunteer enterprises. In most of the enterprises two audits showed increased awareness and participation of workers; better definition and formalisation of respon sibilities in 8 firms; election of Union Safety Representatives in over one quarter of the enterprises; improvement of safety equipment. The study also helped identify areas where the model could be improved by simplification of unnecessarily complex and redundant procedures.

  6. Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems: Guidelines for Hydrogen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage and Transportation. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Safety Standard, which establishes a uniform process for hydrogen system design, materials selection, operation, storage, and transportation, is presented. The guidelines include suggestions for safely storing, handling, and using hydrogen in gaseous (GH2), liquid (LH2), or slush (SLH2) form whether used as a propellant or non-propellant. The handbook contains 9 chapters detailing properties and hazards, facility design, design of components, materials compatibility, detection, and transportation. Chapter 10 serves as a reference and the appendices contained therein include: assessment examples; scaling laws, explosions, blast effects, and fragmentation; codes, standards, and NASA directives; and relief devices along with a list of tables and figures, abbreviations, a glossary and an index for ease of use. The intent of the handbook is to provide enough information that it can be used alone, but at the same time, reference data sources that can provide much more detail if required.

  7. A Survey of a System of Methods for Fire Safety Design of Traditional Concrete Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    During the years since 1978 the author has been developing a series of calculation methods and sup-porting test methods for the fire safety design of concrete constructions. The basic methods have been adopted in the fire chapters of the Eurocode ENV1992-1-2 and the Danish code for concrete const...

  8. Air Operators’ Safety Assurance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zhi-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of air operators’ safety assurance system is important for national civil aviation authority to perform the safety oversight work systematically and efficiently on the air operators. The system is a combination of management process, tools, information platform, which utilize system configuration model and data collection tools to accomplish the air operator system design evaluation and performance evaluation, and output the advice for national civil aviation authority inspectors to take action to improve the air operators’ safety design and performance according to the regulation. Process has been designed to realize design and performance evaluation, and strengthen the safety assurance function during the air operator certification and surveillance phases. Based on the system configuration model, risk indicators, data collection tools and other tools, the system could perform configuration setting, planning, task assignment, data collection, analysis and action during the certification and surveillance. The application of the safety assurance system to different operators has been considered.

  9. Guidelines for engineering design for process safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    .... Key areas to be enhanced in the new edition include inherently safer design, specifically concepts for design of inherently safer unit operations and Safety Instrumented Systems and Layer of Protection Analysis...

  10. Identifying Facilitators and Barriers for Patient Safety in a Medicine Label Design System Using Patient Simulation and Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Clemmensen, Marianne Hald; Sørensen, Trine Kart

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Medicine label design plays an important role in improving patient safety. This study aimed at identifying facilitators and barriers in a medicine label system to prevent medication errors in clinical use by health care professionals. Methods The study design is qualitative...... on patient safety, it is necessary to consider the context in which they are used....... and exploratory, with a convenience sample of 10 nurses and 10 physicians from different acute care specialties working in hospitals in the Capital Region of Denmark. In 2 patient simulation scenarios and a sorting task, the participants selected the medicines from a range of ampules, vials, and infusion bags...

  11. System safety education focused on flight safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  12. Nuclear safety considerations for the design of a shuttle launched 500 to 2000 watt isotope Brayton power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate, J. A.; Gorland, S. H.

    1973-01-01

    An extensive study was conducted to evaluate the safety requirements for the design of a heat source assembly for use in a shuttle launched, isotope Brayton electric power system for the 500-W(e) to 2 kWe range. The assembly is a self-contained package which supplies heat to a power conversion system. A typical mission profile for a shuttle launched, earth orbital mission was assumed. Critical mission accidents were identified and evaluated to determine their impact upon the design of the Heat Source Assembly. Earth-orbital decay reentry analyses were performed to demonstrate survivability of the heat source. Safety design requirements were developed to ensure survivability under credible accident conditions including loss of the power conversion system in orbit.

  13. Safety design for medical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanzides, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The use of robots in medicine is increasing, leading to the call for specific safety standards. This is a challenging endeavor, however, because the patient must usually be placed in the robot's workspace and the medical staff must frequently interact with the robot. Although specific safety standards for medical robots do not yet exist, there are several medical device standards and well-established principles of risk analysis and safety design that can and should be applied. This paper presents a tutorial overview of safety design for medical robots, starting with a discussion of high-level safety requirements, followed by methods for risk assessment (or hazard analysis) and a brief discussion of some sample safety strategies.

  14. An analysis of the state-of-the-art for the safety depressurization system design of YGN 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Yung; Ahn, Jang Sun; Park, Chun Tae; Choi, Soon Hoh; Sul, Yung Sil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this technical state-of-the-art report is to review and analyze the Safety Depressurization System Design for YGN 3 and 4 Power Plants. The SDS was added to the YGN 3 and 4 NSSS design during the design processing to mitigate the beyond design basis event of the TLOFW in response to the KINS solicitation. The SDS provides a manual means of rapidly depressuring the RCS for the highly event of a TLOFW to both S/G. As a result of this study, it is identified that the SDS backfitting for YGN 3 and 4 is appropriate. And, it is judged that the licensing problems such as the system flowrates test and verification, the globe valves position indicator problem, IOSDS and are sufficiently resolved and is satisfied. 12 figs., 10 tabs., 22 refs. (Author).

  15. System safety education focused on industrial engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W. L.; Morris, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    An educational program, designed to train students with the specific skills needed to become safety specialists, is described. The discussion concentrates on application, selection, and utilization of various system safety analytical approaches. Emphasis is also placed on the management of a system safety program, its relationship with other disciplines, and new developments and applications of system safety techniques.

  16. The development of design technology on the safety parameter display system for the operability improvement of the nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Young Joon; Choi, Hae Yoon; Ahn, Jang Sun; Lee, Tae Woo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Kil Kon; Baek, Seong Min; Sul, Young Sil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is, basically, threefold. Firstly, through detailed comparison, the difference between the safety parameters used in the EPG and CFMS is analyzed. Furthermore, to anticipate and extrapolate the problems that might be encountered when developing the CFMS system that utilizes safety parameters consistent with that of the EPG. Secondly, the setpoint analysis of the CFMS alarm algorithm was done for there is a possibility of causing spurious alarms since the alarm setpoint of the YGN 3,4 CFMS is not reflective of the plant operating conditions nor accident progression. Lastly, the analysis of the success path for each accident was done to help operator in mitigating the accident by using the pictorial path of the success path during an accident condition. Moreover, in this analysis, the contents of the concerns that KINS raised regarding the YGN 3,4 SPDS has been addressed from the designer`s perspective. 33 figs., 16 refs. (Author) .new.

  17. Optimal Design of Safety Instrumented Systems for Pressure Control of Methanol Separation Columns in the Bisphenol a Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Bok Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A bisphenol A production plant possesses considerable potential risks in the top of the methanol separation column, as pressurized acetone, methanol, and water are processed at an elevated temperature, especially in the event of an abnormal pressure increase due to a sudden power outage. This study assesses the potential risks in the methanol separation column through hazard and operability assessments and evaluates the damages in the case of fire and explosion accident scenarios. The study chooses three leakage scenarios: a 5-mm puncture on the methanol separation column, a 50-mm diameter fracture of a discharge pipe and a catastrophic rupture, and, simulated using Phast (Ver. 6.531, the concentration distribution of scattered methanol, thermal radiation distribution of fires, and overpressure distribution of vapor cloud explosions. Implementation of a safety-instrumented system equipped with two-out-of-three voting as a safety measure can detect overpressure at the top of the column and shut down the main control valve and the emergency shutoff valve simultaneously. By applying a safety integrity level of three, the maximal release volume of the safety relief valve can be reduced and, therefore, the design capacity of the flare stack can also be reduced. Such integration will lead to improved safety at a reduced cost.

  18. Environmental testing of a prototypic digital safety channel, phase I: System design and test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Qualification Program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis for the qualification of advanced I&C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALNWS) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBNW) and AP600. It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALNWS. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines.

  19. The Self-networking Safety Monitoring System Design in the Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min LI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In most of the traditional monitoring system, wired or handled devices are used to transmit signals, which is inconvenient for power supply, signal management, transmission and maintenance. To overcome these shortcomings, it is mainly introduced how the ZigBee wireless communication protocol is used as the technical support to put forward a wireless combustible gas monitoring and networking solution in this paper. Meanwhile, the network node’s hardware solution is designed on the basis of the ZigBee technology using CC2530 chip which is made by TI (Texas Instrument. Besides of networking and data collection, in order to get the real-time monitoring conveniently, the friendly human-computer interaction interface is designed carefully making use of VC++ 6.0 as well. The study results demonstrate that the monitoring system for acquisition has a fast speed, good stability, flexible networking and high use value.

  20. Basic investigation of particle swarm optimization performance in a reduced scale PWR passive safety system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Joao J. da [Eletronuclear Eletrobras Termonuclear, Gerencia de Analise de Seguranca Nuclear, Rua da Candelaria, 65, 7o andar. Centro, Rio de Janeiro 20091-906 (Brazil); Lapa, Celso Marcelo F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Divisao de Reatores/PPGIEN, P.O. Box 68550, Rua Helio de Almeida 75 Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (Brazil); Alvim, Antonio Carlos M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE/Nuclear, P.O. Box 68509, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao s/n, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (Brazil); Lima, Carlos A. Souza [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Divisao de Reatores/PPGIEN, P.O. Box 68550, Rua Helio de Almeida 75 Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Instituto Politecnico, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional, Rua Alberto Rangel, s/n, Vila Nova, Nova Friburgo 28630-050 (Brazil); Pereira, Claudio Marcio do N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Divisao de Reatores/PPGIEN, P.O. Box 68550, Rua Helio de Almeida 75 Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    This work presents a methodology to investigate the viability of using particle swarm optimization technique to obtain the best combination of physical and operational parameters that lead to the best adjusted dimensionless groups, calculated by similarity laws, that are able to simulate the most relevant physical phenomena in single-phase flow under natural circulation and to offer an appropriate alternative reduced scale design for reactor primary loops with this flow characteristics. A PWR reactor core, under natural circulation, based on LOFT test facility, was used as the case study. The particle swarm optimization technique was applied to a problem with these thermo-hydraulics conditions and results demonstrated the viability and adequacy of the method to design similar systems with these characteristics.

  1. Safety system status monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  2. Integrating Safety and Mission Assurance in Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciola, Chris; Crane, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes how the Ares Projects are learning from the successes and failures of previous launch systems in order to maximize safety and reliability while maintaining fiscal responsibility. The Ares Projects are integrating Safety and Mission Assurance into design activities and embracing independent assessments by Quality experts in thorough reviews of designs and processes. Incorporating Lean thinking into the design process, Ares is also streamlining existing processes and future manufacturing flows which will yield savings during production. Understanding the value of early involvement of Quality experts, the Ares Projects are leading launch vehicle development into the 21st century.

  3. Cockpit emergency safety system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Leo

    2000-06-01

    A comprehensive safety concept is proposed for aircraft's experiencing an incident to the development of fire and smoke in the cockpit. Fire or excessive heat development caused by malfunctioning electrical appliance may produce toxic smoke, may reduce the clear vision to the instrument panel and may cause health-critical respiration conditions. Immediate reaction of the crew, safe respiration conditions and a clear undisturbed view to critical flight information data can be assumed to be the prerequisites for a safe emergency landing. The personal safety equipment of the aircraft has to be effective in supporting the crew to divert the aircraft to an alternate airport in the shortest possible amount of time. Many other elements in the cause-and-effect context of the emergence of fire, such as fire prevention, fire detection, the fire extinguishing concept, systematic redundancy, the wiring concept, the design of the power supplying system and concise emergency checklist procedures are briefly reviewed, because only a comprehensive and complete approach will avoid fatal accidents of complex aircraft in the future.

  4. Design and implementation of an integrated safety management system for compressed natural gas stations using ubiquitous sensor network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Mo; Ko, Byung Seok; Park, Chulhwan; Ko, Jae Wook [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Byungtae [National Disaster Management Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongil [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To increase awareness of safety in facilities where hazards may exist, operators, managers, and executive officers on the site should be able to monitor such facilities. However, most compressed natural gas (CNG) service stations in Korea use only local-mode monitoring, with only on-site operators to monitor the facility. To complement this local-mode monitoring, an online safety management system called Ubiquitous-gas safety management system (U-GSMS) was developed. The U-GSMS consists largely of software and hardware. The software consists of systems that can manage safety and operations, while the hardware consists of sensors installed in the gas facility and wireless communication systems using a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technology that facilitates communication between sensors as well as between sensors and other devices. As these systems are web-based, on-site operators as well as managers and executive officers at the headquarters can more effectively and efficiently perform monitoring and safety management.

  5. Safety instrumented systems in the oil and gas industry : Concepts and methods for safety and reliability assessments in design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann

    2009-07-01

    This thesis proposes new methods and gives new insight to safety and reliability assessments of safety instrumented systems (SISs). These systems play an important role in many industry sectors and are used to detect the onset of hazardous events and mitigate their consequences to humans, the environment, and material assets. The thesis focuses on SIS applications in the oil and gas industry. Here, the SIS must respond to hazardous events such as gas leakages, fires, and over pressurization. Because there are personnel onboard the oil and gas installations, the operations take place in a vulnerable marine environment, and substantial values are associated with the offshore facilities, the reliability of SIS is of great concern to the public, the authorities, and the plant owners. The objective of this project has been to identify some of the key factors that influence the SIS reliability, clarify their effects on reliability, and suggest means to improve the treatment of these factors in safety and reliability assessments in design and operation. The project builds on concepts, methods, and definitions in two key standards for SIS design, construction, and operation: IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. The main contributions from this project are: A product development model that integrates reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) requirements with product development. The contributions have been presented in ten articles, five published in international journals, two submitted for publication, and three presented at conferences and in conference proceedings. The contributions are also directed to the industry and the actors that are involved in SIS design, construction, and operation. Even if the oil and gas industry is the main focus area, the results may be relevant for other industry sectors as well. SIS manufacturers and SIS designers face a large number of requirements from authorities, oil companies, international standards, and so on. At the same

  6. Nuclear Safety Design Base for License Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-09-29

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111(b) [DIRS 173273] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113(b) and (c) [DIRS 173273] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period.

  7. NUCLEAR SAFETY DESIGN BASES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-03-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111 [DIRS 156605] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113 [DIRS 156605] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period.

  8. Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Raluca Olga

    This dissertation treats system design, modeling of transient system response, and characterization of individual phenomena and demonstrates a framework for integration of these three activities early in the design process of a complex engineered system. A system analysis framework for prioritization of experiments, modeling, and development of detailed design is proposed. Two fundamental topics in thermal-hydraulics are discussed, which illustrate the integration of modeling and experimentation with nuclear reactor design and safety analysis: thermal-hydraulic modeling of heat generating pebble bed cores, and scaled experiments for natural circulation heat removal with Boussinesq liquids. The case studies used in this dissertation are derived from the design and safety analysis of a pebble bed fluoride salt cooled high temperature nuclear reactor (PB-FHR), currently under development in the United States at the university and national laboratories level. In the context of the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) methodology, new tools and approaches are proposed and demonstrated here, which are specifically relevant to technology in the early stages of development, and to analysis of passive safety features. A system decomposition approach is proposed. Definition of system functional requirements complements identification and compilation of the current knowledge base for the behavior of the system. Two new graphical tools are developed for ranking of phenomena importance: a phenomena ranking map, and a phenomena identification and ranking matrix (PIRM). The functional requirements established through this methodology were used for the design and optimization of the reactor core, and for the transient analysis and design of the passive natural circulation driven decay heat removal system for the PB-FHR. A numerical modeling approach for heat-generating porous media, with multi-dimensional fluid flow is presented. The application of this modeling

  9. Integrated Design and Analysis Environment for Safety Critical Human-Automation Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerous advances have been made in recent years in the areas of flight deck design, aircraft modeling, resilient control, and vehicle health management. The...

  10. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-06-08

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance.

  11. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety-critical computer systems must be engineered to meet system and software safety requirements. For legacy safety-critical computer systems, software safety requirements may not have been formally specified during development. When process-oriented software safety requirements are levied on a legacy system after the fact, where software development artifacts don't exist or are incomplete, the question becomes 'how can this be done?' The risks associated with only meeting certain software safety requirements in a legacy safety-critical computer system must be addressed should such systems be selected as candidates for reuse. This paper proposes a method for ascertaining formally, a software safety risk assessment, that provides measurements for software safety for legacy systems which may or may not have a suite of software engineering documentation that is now normally required. It relies upon the NASA Software Safety Standard, risk assessment methods based upon the Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire, and the application of reverse engineering CASE tools to produce original design documents for legacy systems.

  12. CERN Safety System Monitoring - SSM

    CERN Document Server

    Hakulinen, T; Valentini, F; Gonzalez, J; Salatko-Petryszcze, C

    2011-01-01

    CERN SSM (Safety System Monitoring) [1] is a system for monitoring state-of-health of the various access and safety systems of the CERN site and accelerator infrastructure. The emphasis of SSM is on the needs of maintenance and system operation with the aim of providing an independent and reliable verification path of the basic operational parameters of each system. Included are all network-connected devices, such as PLCs, servers, panel displays, operator posts, etc. The basic monitoring engine of SSM is a freely available system-monitoring framework Zabbix [2], on top of which a simplified traffic-light-type web-interface has been built. The web-interface of SSM is designed to be ultra-light to facilitate access from handheld devices over slow connections. The underlying Zabbix system offers history and notification mechanisms typical of advanced monitoring systems.

  13. Designs that lacked inherent safety: case histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Roy E

    2003-11-14

    The fundamentals of Inherently Safer Design were not fully appreciated in the initial design (or re-design) in the following series of case histories. Two case histories involving the basic element of plant layout to minimize property damages and injury will be covered first. Simple physical separation could have reduced the losses. A case history that occurred in a bulk chemical terminal tank farm will highlight designs which allowed incompatible chemicals to react, create a fire and a lingering toxic gas release. The combination of these chemicals caused equipment damage in one case and a threat to the public in another case. This paper will conclude with case histories involving poor piping design or poorly identified piping systems, which needlessly resulted in expensive repairs. Exercising the principles of inherent safety would have reduced the severity and perhaps the opportunity of these events. We must employ the techniques of inherent safety to improve our performance.

  14. Metal food packaging design based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP system in canned food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design metal food packaging with hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP. First, theory of HACCP was introduced in detail. Taking empty cans provided by Wuxi Huapeng Food Packaging Company as an example, we studied migration of bisphenol compounds in coating of food can to food stimulant. Moreover, packaging design of luncheon meat can was taken as an example to confirm whether HACCP system could effectively control migration of phenolic substance. Results demonstrated that, coating of such empty were more likely to contain multiple bisphenol compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE was considered as the leading bisphenol pollutant; food stimulant of different types, storage temperature and time could all impact migration of bisphenol compounds. HACCP system was proved to be effective in controlling hazards of phenolic substance in luncheon meat can and could reduce various phenolic substance indexes to an acceptable range. Therefore, HACCP can control migration of phenolic substance and recontamination of food and thus ensure food safety.

  15. Air Force System Safety Handbook, Designing the Safest Possible Systems Consistent with Mission Requirements and Cost Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    is a discipline employed from the initial design steps through system demilitarization or disposal (a.k.a. “cradle to grave or “ womb to tomb”). 1.2...clear weather versus cold weather and limited visibility; or smooth, level desert versus mountainous terrain. (2) Artificial or induced environment...aircraft or buildings. (3) In compiling a preliminary hazard list (Figure A-5), the analyst should identify the natural and artificial environmental

  16. Validation of a functional model for integration of safety into process system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, J.; Lind, M.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    behavior sufficiently well. With the reasoning capability provided by the MFM syntax and semantics, the validation procedure is illustrated on a three-phase separator system of an MFM model. The MFM model reasoning results successfully compares against analysis results from API RP. 14-C....

  17. Systems Safety and Engineering Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Systems Safety and Engineering Division conducts engineering, research, and analysis to improve transportation safety, capacity, and resiliency. We provide...

  18. Some uncertainty results obtained by the statistical version of the KARATE code system related to core design and safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panka, Istvan; Hegyi, Gyoergy; Maraczy, Csaba; Temesvari, Emese [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Reactor Analysis Dept.

    2017-11-15

    The best-estimate KARATE code system has been widely used for core design calculations and simulations of slow transients of VVER reactors. Recently there has been an increasing need for assessing the uncertainties of such calculations by propagating the basic input uncertainties of the models through the full calculation chain. In order to determine the uncertainties of quantities of interest during the burnup, the statistical version of the KARATE code system has been elaborated. In the first part of the paper, the main features of the new code system are discussed. The applied statistical method is based on Monte-Carlo sampling of the considered input data taking into account mainly the covariance matrices of the cross sections and/or the technological uncertainties. In the second part of the paper, only the uncertainties of cross sections are considered and an equilibrium cycle related to a VVER-440 type reactor is investigated. The burnup dependence of the uncertainties of some safety related parameters (e.g. critical boron concentration, rod worth, feedback coefficients, assembly-wise radial power and burnup distribution) are discussed and compared to the recently used limits.

  19. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80{sup +} design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 1, Chapters 1--14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the System 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of Abb-CE`s System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design included: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors, and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 1, contains Chapters 1 through 14 of this report.

  20. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80{sup +} design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 2, Chapters 15--22 and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the system 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of ABB-CE`s System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design include: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 2, contains Chapters 15 through 22 and Appendices A through E.

  1. Average Case vs. Worst Case-Margins of Safety in System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian; Gal, Andreas; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We predict that we will soon witness attacks on all kinds of systems that will be based on the attacked systems’ worstcase behavior. For example, the worst-case performance of Java Bytecode Verification rises quadratically with program length. By sending a legal, but difficult-to-verify program...... to a server virtual machine, we can keep that server occupied for an inordinate amount of time, effectively making it unavailable for useful work. The problem, however, is not restricted to mobile-code verification: for example, an attacker could exploit knowledge about a just-in-time compiler’s register...

  2. Design of Nanoparticle Engineered Safety Injection Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myoung Suk; Jee, Chang Hyun; Park, Sang Jun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bang, In Choel [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Nanofluids, which are engineered colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent have been found to show significantly enhanced coolant properties with respect to other fluids, due to higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest nanoparticle concentrations. In order to bring these benefits to nuclear power plants, attempts to improve the performance of safety features such as emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) are being made in laboratory environments. This study proposes a design process to reform a previous design of nanofluid-assisted ECCS using Axiomatic Design (AD) principles and TRIZ

  3. Verifying therapy safety interlock system with spin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available on the successful use of model checking in the design and verification of the Safety Interlock System (SIS) at iThemba LABS. SIS is part of proton therapy control system (TCS) and its main task is to monitor and evaluate the safety conditions in the TCS as a whole...

  4. Architecture Level Safety Analyses for Safety-Critical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kushal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of complex embedded Safety-Critical Systems across Avionics and Aerospace domains on their underlying software and hardware components has gradually increased with progression in time. Such application domain systems are developed based on a complex integrated architecture, which is modular in nature. Engineering practices assured with system safety standards to manage the failure, faulty, and unsafe operational conditions are very much necessary. System safety analyses involve the analysis of complex software architecture of the system, a major aspect in leading to fatal consequences in the behaviour of Safety-Critical Systems, and provide high reliability and dependability factors during their development. In this paper, we propose an architecture fault modeling and the safety analyses approach that will aid in identifying and eliminating the design flaws. The formal foundations of SAE Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL augmented with the Error Model Annex (EMV are discussed. The fault propagation, failure behaviour, and the composite behaviour of the design flaws/failures are considered for architecture safety analysis. The illustration of the proposed approach is validated by implementing the Speed Control Unit of Power-Boat Autopilot (PBA system. The Error Model Annex (EMV is guided with the pattern of consideration and inclusion of probable failure scenarios and propagation of fault conditions in the Speed Control Unit of Power-Boat Autopilot (PBA. This helps in validating the system architecture with the detection of the error event in the model and its impact in the operational environment. This also provides an insight of the certification impact that these exceptional conditions pose at various criticality levels and design assurance levels and its implications in verifying and validating the designs.

  5. Design verification enhancement of field programmable gate array-based safety-critical I&C system of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jaecheon, E-mail: jcjung@kings.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, 658-91 Haemaji-ro, Seosang-myeon, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 45014 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • An enhanced, systematic and integrated design verification approach is proposed for V&V of FPGA-based I&C system of NPP. • RPS bistable fixed setpoint trip algorithm is designed, analyzed, verified and discussed using the proposed approaches. • The application of integrated verification approach simultaneously verified the entire design modules. • The applicability of the proposed V&V facilitated the design verification processes. - Abstract: Safety-critical instrumentation and control (I&C) system in nuclear power plant (NPP) implemented on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) plays a vital role in safe operation of the plant. The challenges such as fast obsolescence, the vulnerability to cyber-attack, and other related issues of software systems have currently led to the consideration of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as an alternative to PLCs because of their advantages and hardware related benefits. However, safety analysis for FPGA-based I&C systems, and verification and validation (V&V) assessments still remain important issues to be resolved, which are now become a global research point of interests. In this work, we proposed a systematic design and verification strategies from start to ready-to-use in form of model-based approaches for FPGA-based reactor protection system (RPS) that can lead to the enhancement of the design verification and validation processes. The proposed methodology stages are requirement analysis, enhanced functional flow block diagram (EFFBD) models, finite state machine with data path (FSMD) models, hardware description language (HDL) code development, and design verifications. The design verification stage includes unit test – Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) test and modified condition decision coverage (MC/DC) test, module test – MATLAB/Simulink Co-simulation test, and integration test – FPGA hardware test beds. To prove the adequacy of the proposed

  6. Safety in the design of production lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Broberg, Ole; Jacobsen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a case study report on how safety considerations were handled in the process of redesigning a production line. The design process was characterized as a specification and negotiation process between engineers from the company and the supplier organization. The new production line...... became safer, but not as a result of any intentional plan to integrate safety aspects into the design process. Instead, the supplier’s design of a new piece of equipment had a higher built-in safety level. The engineering team in the company was aware of the importance of safety aspects neither...... a ‘history workshop’ with the engineering team. The workshop clarified the sequence of events and discussions that took place during the design process and opened for a discussion of the role of safety aspects. During the workshop new insights emerged into the question of how to integrate safety aspects...

  7. From Safe Systems to Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, J.; Nøhr, C.

    2010-01-01

    for the third conference with the theme: The ability to design, implement and evaluate safe, useable and effective systems within complex health care organizations. The theme for this conference was "Designing and Implementing Health IT: from safe systems to patient safety". The contributions have reflected...... and implementation of safe systems and thus contribute to the agenda of patient safety? The contributions demonstrate how the health informatics community has contributed to the performance of significant research and to translating research findings to develop health care delivery and improve patient safety...

  8. SU-E-T-785: Using Systems Engineering to Design HDR Skin Treatment Operation for Small Lesions to Enhance Patient Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, C; Baikadi, M; Peters, C; Brereton, H [Northeast Radiation Oncology Centers, Harrisburg, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Using systems engineering to design HDR skin treatment operation for small lesions using shielded applicators to enhance patient safety. Methods: Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field that offers formal methodologies to study, design, implement, and manage complex engineering systems as a whole over their life-cycles. The methodologies deal with human work-processes, coordination of different team, optimization, and risk management. The V-model of systems engineering emphasize two streams, the specification and the testing streams. The specification stream consists of user requirements, functional requirements, and design specifications while the testing on installation, operational, and performance specifications. In implementing system engineering to this project, the user and functional requirements are (a) HDR unit parameters be downloaded from the treatment planning system, (b) dwell times and positions be generated by treatment planning system, (c) source decay be computer calculated, (d) a double-check system of treatment parameters to comply with the NRC regulation. These requirements are intended to reduce human intervention to improve patient safety. Results: A formal investigation indicated that the user requirements can be satisfied. The treatment operation consists of using the treatment planning system to generate a pseudo plan that is adjusted for different shielded applicators to compute the dwell times. The dwell positions, channel numbers, and the dwell times are verified by the medical physicist and downloaded into the HDR unit. The decayed source strength is transferred to a spreadsheet that computes the dwell times based on the type of applicators and prescribed dose used. Prior to treatment, the source strength, dwell times, dwell positions, and channel numbers are double-checked by the radiation oncologist. No dosimetric parameters are manually calculated. Conclusion: Systems engineering provides methodologies to

  9. Design of Vertical Wall Caisson Breakwaters using Partial Safety Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a new system for implementation of target reliability in caisson breakwater designs by means of partial safety factors. The development of the system is explained, and tables of partial safety factors are presented for important overall stability failure modes related to caisso...

  10. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  11. Computer system reliability safety and usability

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, BS

    2013-01-01

    Computer systems have become an important element of the world economy, with billions of dollars spent each year on development, manufacture, operation, and maintenance. Combining coverage of computer system reliability, safety, usability, and other related topics into a single volume, Computer System Reliability: Safety and Usability eliminates the need to consult many different and diverse sources in the hunt for the information required to design better computer systems.After presenting introductory aspects of computer system reliability such as safety, usability-related facts and figures,

  12. A review of human factors principles for the design and implementation of medication safety alerts in clinical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phansalkar, Shobha; Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Seger, Diane L; Schedlbauer, Angela; Avery, Anthony J; Bates, David W

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to describe the implementation of human factors principles for the design of alerts in clinical information systems. First, we conduct a review of alarm systems to identify human factors principles that are employed in the design and implementation of alerts. Second, we review the medical informatics literature to provide examples of the implementation of human factors principles in current clinical information systems using alerts to provide medication decision support. Last, we suggest actionable recommendations for delivering effective clinical decision support using alerts. A review of studies from the medical informatics literature suggests that many basic human factors principles are not followed, possibly contributing to the lack of acceptance of alerts in clinical information systems. We evaluate the limitations of current alerting philosophies and provide recommendations for improving acceptance of alerts by incorporating human factors principles in their design.

  13. Aviation Safety Hotline Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aviation Safety Hotline Information System (ASHIS) collects, stores, and retrieves reports submitted by pilots, mechanics, cabin crew, passengers, or the public...

  14. HTGR Generic Technology Program: safety, systems and component design and development. Quarterly progress report for the period ending March 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    The work documented includes HTGR safety and safety-related studies to better understand and more accurately define safety characteristics and safety margins of GCRs under postulated accident conditions. Also included are the design, analysis, and testing of th PCRV, liner, penetrations, thermal barrier, reactor internals, steam generator, CAHE, and rotating machinery. Design studies and analysis plus experimental procedures and results are discussed and, where appropriate, the data are presented in tables, graphs, and photographs.

  15. Industrial Personal Computer based Display for Nuclear Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Aram; Jo, Jung Hee; Kim, Ki Beom; Cheon, Sung Hyun; Cho, Joo Hyun; Sohn, Se Do; Baek, Seung Min [KEPCO, Youngin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The safety display of nuclear system has been classified as important to safety (SIL:Safety Integrity Level 3). These days the regulatory agencies are imposing more strict safety requirements for digital safety display system. To satisfy these requirements, it is necessary to develop a safety-critical (SIL 4) grade safety display system. This paper proposes industrial personal computer based safety display system with safety grade operating system and safety grade display methods. The description consists of three parts, the background, the safety requirements and the proposed safety display system design. The hardware platform is designed using commercially available off-the-shelf processor board with back plane bus. The operating system is customized for nuclear safety display application. The display unit is designed adopting two improvement features, i.e., one is to provide two separate processors for main computer and display device using serial communication, and the other is to use Digital Visual Interface between main computer and display device. In this case the main computer uses minimized graphic functions for safety display. The display design is at the conceptual phase, and there are several open areas to be concreted for a solid system. The main purpose of this paper is to describe and suggest a methodology to develop a safety-critical display system and the descriptions are focused on the safety requirement point of view.

  16. Safety by design and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladios, Magdy; McMullin, Dianne; Gopalakrishnan, Bhaskaran; Becker, Paul E.; Carr, Michael; Lobo, Paul; Farmani, Maryam; Decker, Andrew

    2001-10-01

    With the giant leaps that technology has taken in the past few years, some professions are still largely artistic. A good example of this is the profession of design. Designers produce products that are efficient, attractive, practical, but not safe. This is because most Universities around the world fail to include safety and health issues into their curriculum. To overcome that flaw, a rule-based tool was designed to assist designers in pointing out the unsafe conditions in their designs. This tool, that utilizes expert systems technologies, took five years to reach its current version. The tool is called TEXPERT. The latest version of TEXPERT underwent a number of changes and continued growth. This year's efforts resulted in the selection of a focus area and investigations into the selection of two technologies (demolition and decontamination- D&D) by which to validate the program. Validation and expansion of the rule-base continued with an emphasis on those components necessary for D&D. Research in object-oriented prototypes, determination of report-format and approach, and development of an initial visual project builder interface were also accomplished. Latest accomplishments included the development of new components, two-way interactions, and the implementation of a maintainable component database that the user interface can use to build the current library that will be available in the menu system.

  17. Resilient computer system design

    CERN Document Server

    Castano, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a paradigm for designing new generation resilient and evolving computer systems, including their key concepts, elements of supportive theory, methods of analysis and synthesis of ICT with new properties of evolving functioning, as well as implementation schemes and their prototyping. The book explains why new ICT applications require a complete redesign of computer systems to address challenges of extreme reliability, high performance, and power efficiency. The authors present a comprehensive treatment for designing the next generation of computers, especially addressing safety-critical, autonomous, real time, military, banking, and wearable health care systems.   §  Describes design solutions for new computer system - evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) that is free from drawbacks inherent in current ICT and related engineering models §  Pursues simplicity, reliability, scalability principles of design implemented through redundancy and re-configurability; targeted for energy-,...

  18. Development of verification program for safety evaluation of KNGR on-site and off-site power system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kem Joong; Ryu, Eun Sook; Choi, Jang Hong; Lee, Byung Il; Han, Hyun Kyu; Oh, Seong Kyun; Kim, Han Kee; Park, Chul Woo; Kim, Min Jeong [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-15

    In order to verify the adequacy of the design and analysis of the on-site and off-site power system, we developed the regulatory analysis program. We established the methodology for electric power system and constructed the algorithm of steady-state load flow analysis, fault analysis, transient stability analysis. The developed program to be an advantage of GUI and C++ programming technique. The design of input made easy to access the common use PSS/E format and that of output made users to work with Excel spreadsheet. The performance of program was verified to compare with PSS/E results. The case studies as follows. The verification of load flow analysis of KNGR on-site power system. The evaluation of load flow and transient stability analysis of off-site power system of KNGR. The verification of load flow and transient stability analysis. The frequency drop analysis of loss of generation.

  19. Detailed Design of the Safety Residual Heat Removal System and a Circulation Pump for the KIJANG Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyungi; Seo, Kyoungwoo; Kim, Seonghoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Primary cooling system (PCS) circulates the coolant from the reactor core to the heat exchanger. Therefore the heat generated from the fuel assembly in the reactor core is removed continuously. The PCS is designed based on the required thermal design flow rate of the reactor core, uncertainty of measuring instruments and the safe functions. Primary coolant is generally dumped into the pool and goes to the reactor core through the flow guide. The fission heat generated from the fuel assembly is transferred to the coolant, and then heated coolant goes to the PCS equipment room in order to remove the heat through the heat exchanger. SRHSR is designed based on the required flow rate and system constraints. Centrifugal pump of Case 1 with a non-dimensional specific speed of 0.97 [-] and specific diameter of 3.33 [-] is chosen as the SRHRS pump for the KJRR.

  20. Guidelines for engineering design for process safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    "This updated version of one of the most popular and widely used CCPS books provides plant design engineers, facility operators, and safety professionals with key information on selected topics of interest...

  1. Safety Sound interpretive site designation environmental assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this environmental assessment is to analyze the impacts of designating a 70 acre parcel of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge as the Safety...

  2. Interdisciplinary Quality Improvement Conference: Using a Revised Morbidity and Mortality Format to Focus on Systems-Based Patient Safety Issues in a VA Hospital: Design and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Wendy H; Ledford, Judith; Cooper, Jacqueline; Lloyd, Melissa G; Moore, Timothy; Harji, Farzana; Twitty, Vivian; Brooks, Annette; Oliver, Rosalinda C; Goff, James M

    2016-01-01

    The Veterans Healthcare Administration (VA) has embraced patient safety and quality improvement in the quest to improve care for veterans. The New Mexico VA Health Care System introduced a new morbidity and mortality conference, called the Interdisciplinary Quality Improvement Conference (IQIC), using patient case presentations to focus on underlying systems in the clinical care environment. The revised conference design also effectively teaches the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core requirements for resident education. A formal process was established for case selection, presentation, systems issue identification, tracking, and follow-up. The IQIC has enabled the identification of more than 20 system issues at the study institution. Outcome data show lasting improvement in system issues that were addressed by this mechanism. The VA IQIC is an effective method to both identify and correct systems issues that affect patient care and is an effective method for teaching residents the 6 ACGME requirements for residency education. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Skill acquisition while operating in-vehicle information systems: interface design determines the level of safety-relevant distractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Georg; Krems, Josef F; Gelau, Christhard

    2009-04-01

    This study tested whether the ease of learning to use human-machine interfaces of in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) can be assessed at standstill. Assessing the attentional demand of IVIS should include an evaluation of ease of learning, because the use of IVIS at low skill levels may create safety-relevant distractions. Skill acquisition in operating IVIS was quantified by fitting the power law of practice to training data sets collected in a driving study and at standstill. Participants practiced manual destination entry with two route guidance systems differing in cognitive demand. In Experiment 1, a sample of middle-aged participants was trained while steering routes of varying driving demands. In Experiment 2, another sample of middle-aged participants was trained at standstill. In Experiment 1, display glance times were less affected by driving demands than by total task times and decreased at slightly higher speed-up rates (0.02 higher on average) than task times collected at standstill in Experiment 2. The system interface that minimized cognitive demand was operated more quickly and was easier to learn. Its system delays increased static task times, which still predicted 58% of variance in display glance times compared with even 76% for the second system. The ease of learning to use an IVIS interface and the decrease in attentional demand with training can be assessed at standstill. Fitting the power law of practice to static task times yields parameters that predict display glance times while driving, which makes it possible to compare interfaces with regard to ease of learning.

  4. Safety culture in design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchi, L.; Pietikaeinen, E.; Liinasuo, M.; Savioja, P.; Reiman, T.; Wahlstroem, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kahlbom, U. [Risk Pilot AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Rollenhagen, C. [Vattenfall, Stockholm, (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    In this report we approach design from a safety culture approach As this research area is new and understudied, we take a wide scope on the issue. Different theoretical perspectives that can be taken when improving safety of the design process are considered in this report. We suggest that in the design context the concept of safety culture should be expanded from an organizational level to the level of the network of organizations involved in the design activity. The implication of approaching the design process from a safety culture perspective are discussed and the results of the empirical part of the research are presented. In the interview study in Finland and Sweden we identified challenges and opportunities in the design process from safety culture perspective. Also, a small part of the interview study concentrated on state of the art human factors engineering (HFE) practices in Finland and the results relating to that are presented. This report provide a basis for future development of systematic good design practices and for providing guidelines that can lead to safe and robust technical solutions. (Author)

  5. System safety education focused on system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  6. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  7. Conceptual study of advanced PWR systems. A study of passive and inherent safety design concepts for advanced light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; No, Hee Cheon; Baek, Won Pil; Shim Young Jae; Lee, Goung Jin; Na, Man Gyun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Han Gon; Kang, Ki Sig; Moon, Sang Ki; Kim, Yun Il; Park, Jae Wook; Yang, Soo Hyung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Lee, Seong Wook; Kim, Hong Che; Park, Hyun Sik; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Lee, Sang Il; Jung, Hae Yong; Kim, Hyong Tae; Chae, Kyung Sun; Moon, Ki Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The five thermal-hydraulic concepts chosen for advanced PWR have been studied as follows: (1) Critical Heat Flux: Review of previous works, analysis of parametric trends, analysis of transient CHF characteristics, extension of the CHF date bank, survey and assessment of correlations, design of a intermediate-pressure CHF test loop have been performed. (2) Passive Cooling Concepts for Concrete Containment system: Review of condensation phenomena with noncondensable gases, selection of a promising concept (i.e., use of external condensers), design of test loop according to scaling laws have been accomplished. and computer programs based on the control-volume approach, and the conceptual design of test loop have been accomplished. (4) Fluidic Diode Concepts: Review of previous applications of the concept, analysis major parameters affecting the performance, development of a computational code, and conceptual investigation of the verification test loop have been performed. (5) Wet Thermal Insulator: Review of previous works, selection of promising methods ( i.e. ceramic fiber in a steel case and mirror-type insulator), and conceptual design of the experimental loop have been performed. (author). 9 refs.

  8. COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ELEMENTS OF PRECISION FARMING SYSTEMS BASED ON THE PRINCIPLES BIOLOGIZATION, RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lobkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of practical methods of computer-aided design elements of precision farming systems on the basis of biological function, resource and environmental security for the producers of different specialization, ownership and financial security is the actual direction of development of modern agricultural science. Proposed development, which may serve as a basic programming model, allowing for expanded reproduction of soil fertility through the use of new ways to maximize the amount of phytomass in the agricultural lands, increase soil biological activity and reduce the costs of manufacturing nitrogen on yield formation of crops.

  9. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  10. Preliminary safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, D. H.; Kwon, Y. M.; Chang, W. P.; Suk, S. D.; Lee, S. O.; Lee, Y. B.; Jeong, K. S

    2000-07-01

    KAERI is currently developing the conceptual design of a liquid metal reactor, KALIMER(Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) under the long-term nuclear R and D program. In this report, descriptions of the KALIMER safety design features and safety analyses results for selected ATWS accidents are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in chapter 1, and the safety evaluation procedure for the KALIMER design is described in chapter 2. It includes event selection, event categorization, description of design basis events, and beyond design basis events. In chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER core and plant system are designed to assure design performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram(ATWS) have been performed to investigate the KALIMER system response to the events. They are categorized as bounding events(BEs) because of their low probability of occurrence. In chapter 4, the design of the KALIMER containment dome and the results of its performance analysis are presented. The designs of the existing LMR containment and the KALIMER containment dome have been compared in this chapter. Procedure of the containment performance analysis and the analysis results are described along with the accident scenario and source terms. Finally, a simple methodology is introduced to investigate the core kinetics and hydraulic behavior during HCDA in chapter 5. Mathematical formulations have been developed in the framework of the modified bethe-tait method, and scoping analyses have been performed for the KALIMER core behavior during super-prompt critical excursions.

  11. STRATEGY FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ANALYSIS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES ON THE BASIS OF THE SYSTEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaikin Vladimir Genrikhovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors highlight three problems of the age of information technologies and proposes the strategy for their resolution in relation to the computer-aided design of civil engineering structures. The authors express their concerns in respect of globalization of software programmes designated for the analysis of civil engineering structures and employed outside of Russia. The problem of the poor quality of the input data has reached Russia. Lately, the rate of accidents of buildings and structures has been growing not only in Russia. Control over efficiency of design projects is hardly performed. This attitude should be changed. Development and introduction of CAD along with the application the efficient methods of projection of behaviour of building structures are in demand. Computer-aided calculations have the function of a logical nucleus, and they need proper control. The system approach to computer-aided calculations and technologies designated for the projection of accidents is formulated by the authors. Two tasks of the system approach and fundamentals of the strategy for its implementation are formulated. The study of cases of negative results of computer-aided design of engineering structures was performed and multi-component design patterns were developed. Conclusions concerning the results of researches aimed at regular and wide-scale implementation of the strategy fundamentals are formulated. Organizational and innovative actions concerning the projected behaviour of civil engineering structures proposed in the strategy are to facilitate: safety and reliability improvement of buildings and structures; saving of building materials and resources; improvement of labour efficiency of designers; modernization and improvement of accuracy of projected behaviour of buildings and building standards; closer ties between civil and building engineering researchers and construction companies; development of competitive environment to boost

  12. The safety potential of navigation systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    2002-01-01

    This study deals with the possible negative and positive effects of navigation systems on road safety. The literature shows that the human factors side is open for improvement: the design of the menu, possibility of manual programming during driving and shifting the attention of the driver from the

  13. Concrete Strength for Fire Safety Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2005-01-01

    Idealized data are derived for the compressive strength of a number of concretes for fire safety design. The data are derived from the authors own research including test series not published before and from more than 400 other test series comprising approximately 3000 specimens known from...

  14. Design review report for modifications to RMCS safety class equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1997-05-30

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for modifications to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) safety class equipment. These modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve the Engineering Change Notices affecting safety class equipment used in the RMCS system. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that these changes are acceptable.

  15. Distributed System Design Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brendan; Driscoll, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a design checklist targeted to fault-tolerant distributed electronic systems. Many of the questions and discussions in this checklist may be generally applicable to the development of any safety-critical system. However, the primary focus of this report covers the issues relating to distributed electronic system design. The questions that comprise this design checklist were created with the intent to stimulate system designers' thought processes in a way that hopefully helps them to establish a broader perspective from which they can assess the system's dependability and fault-tolerance mechanisms. While best effort was expended to make this checklist as comprehensive as possible, it is not (and cannot be) complete. Instead, we expect that this list of questions and the associated rationale for the questions will continue to evolve as lessons are learned and further knowledge is established. In this regard, it is our intent to post the questions of this checklist on a suitable public web-forum, such as the NASA DASHLink AFCS repository. From there, we hope that it can be updated, extended, and maintained after our initial research has been completed.

  16. Future testing of active safety systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, F.M.; Pelders, H.A.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Active safety systems are increasingly becoming available in trucks and passenger vehicles. Developments in the field of active safety are shifting from increasing driver comfort towards increasing occupant safety. Furthermore, this shift is seen within active safety systems: safety functions are

  17. Participatory design of a preliminary safety checklist for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Ferguson, Julie; MacLeod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; de Wet, Carl; McNab, Duncan; Kelly, Moya; McKay, John; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    The use of checklists to minimise errors is well established in high reliability, safety-critical industries. In health care there is growing interest in checklists to standardise checking processes and ensure task completion, and so provide further systemic defences against error and patient harm. However, in UK general practice there is limited experience of safety checklist use. To identify workplace hazards that impact on safety, health and wellbeing, and performance, and codesign a standardised checklist process. Application of mixed methods to identify system hazards in Scottish general practices and develop a safety checklist based on human factors design principles. A multiprofessional 'expert' group (n = 7) and experienced front-line GPs, nurses, and practice managers (n = 18) identified system hazards and developed and validated a preliminary checklist using a combination of literature review, documentation review, consensus building workshops using a mini-Delphi process, and completion of content validity index exercise. A prototype safety checklist was developed and validated consisting of six safety domains (for example, medicines management), 22 sub-categories (for example, emergency drug supplies) and 78 related items (for example, stock balancing, secure drug storage, and cold chain temperature recording). Hazards in the general practice work system were prioritised that can potentially impact on the safety, health and wellbeing of patients, GP team members, and practice performance, and a necessary safety checklist prototype was designed. However, checklist efficacy in improving safety processes and outcomes is dependent on user commitment, and support from leaders and promotional champions. Although further usability development and testing is necessary, the concept should be of interest in the UK and internationally. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  18. Different design approaches to structural fire safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Budny, I.

    2013-01-01

    ) design for resistance class; ii) design for fully developed fire; iii) advanced design.The first two refer to well established procedures proposed by prescriptive regulations, and even if it seem possible to identify different unexpressed safety goals among the two, still it is not easy to a...... with reference to one frame of the considered car park, outlining the most problematic aspects in the modelling and in the interpretation of the results and making a focus on the collapse mechanisms of steel frames such has catenary action and sway and non-sway collapse....

  19. Preliminary safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER-600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. B.; Chang, W. P.; Suk, S. D.; Ha, K. S.; Jeong, H. Y.; Heo, S

    2004-03-01

    KAERI is developing the conceptual design of a Liquid Metal Reactor, KALIMER-600 (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term Nuclear R and D Program. KALIMER-600 addresses key issues regarding future nuclear power plants such as plant safety, economics, proliferation, and waste. In this report, key safety design features are described and safety analyses results for typical ATWS accidents in the KALIMER design with breakeven core are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in Chapter 1, and the event categorization and acceptance criteria for the KALIMER-600 safety analysis are described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER-600 conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER-600 core and plant system are designed to assure benign performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) have been performed using the SSC-K code to investigate the KALIMER-600 system response to the events. They are categorized as Bounding Events (BEs) because of their low probability of occurrence. In Chapter 4, the analysis of flow blockage for KALIMER-600 with the MATRA-LMR-FB code, which has been developed for the internal flow blockage in a LMR subassembly. The cases with a blockage of 6-subchannel, 24-subchannel, and 54-subchannel are analyzed.The performance analysis of the KALIMER-600 containment and some evaluations for the behaviors during HCDA will be performed later.

  20. Creative Design of Double Safety Shoes Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong Yih

    This paper is to synthesize the double safety shoes mechanisms of elevators for prompting passenger's safety. A systematic design methodology including type synthesis and mechanism skeletons technology is also presented based on the design requirements and design constraints. The design requirements include to avoiding from collision between shoes, and shoe can be pulled out independently not to drag the door. The design constraints are proposed for assigning link types and kinematic relations. An existing mechanism, which is designed with six links and seven joints, is investigated by mechanism kinematics and structure sketch to establish the topological structure. According to the creative method, all of the possible kinematic chains with the numbers of the vertices and edges are enumerated. Then the linkage numbers are assigned skillfully to the edges, and one of the kinematic pairs, for example, revolute pair, prismatic pair, and rolling pair, is chosen for every vertices. So every kinematic chain can be stretched out several particularized chains. Several mechanism skeletons are also sketched.

  1. The mobility and safety of walk-and-ride systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In this project we investigate the effect of traffic calming measures, such as crosswalks and sidewalks on the overall cost and safety of a multimodal transportation network system design. Our design problem includes auto, transit, and walking as mod...

  2. Avoiding bias in safety testing design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter

    2011-01-01

    All scientists are biased, no matter what their backgrounds or affiliations, so what is it about the scientific method that overcomes this and which makes science so successful? Key features are transparency and critical peer scrutiny. These general issues will be will be considered in terms of t...... of the scientific basis of risk assessment, including the design of safety testing procedures, particularly as applied to industrial chemicals....

  3. Firefighter Safety for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu

    2015-01-01

    An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic (PV) systems is that as long as the PV panels are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters that is independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switch....... The presence of these energized conductors on the dc side of the PV system can pose a danger to anyone performing maintenance or firefighting....

  4. The safety relief valve handbook design and use of process safety valves to ASME and International codes and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Valve Handbook is a professional reference for design, process, instrumentation, plant and maintenance engineers who work with fluid flow and transportation systems in the process industries, which covers the chemical, oil and gas, water, paper and pulp, food and bio products and energy sectors. It meets the need of engineers who have responsibilities for specifying, installing, inspecting or maintaining safety valves and flow control systems. It will also be an important reference for process safety and loss prevention engineers, environmental engineers, and plant and process designers who need to understand the operation of safety valves in a wider equipment or plant design context. . No other publication is dedicated to safety valves or to the extensive codes and standards that govern their installation and use. A single source means users save time in searching for specific information about safety valves. . The Safety Valve Handbook contains all of the vital technical and standards informat...

  5. Medication safety research by observational study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Kim S J; Chui, Celine S L; Man, Kenneth K C; Lau, Wallis C Y; Chan, Esther W; Wong, Ian C K

    2016-06-01

    Observational studies have been recognised to be essential for investigating the safety profile of medications. Numerous observational studies have been conducted on the platform of large population databases, which provide adequate sample size and follow-up length to detect infrequent and/or delayed clinical outcomes. Cohort and case-control are well-accepted traditional methodologies for hypothesis testing, while within-individual study designs are developing and evolving, addressing previous known methodological limitations to reduce confounding and bias. Respective examples of observational studies of different study designs using medical databases are shown. Methodology characteristics, study assumptions, strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed in this review.

  6. Applying visual attention theory to transportation safety research and design: evaluation of alternative automobile rear lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Scott E; Gugerty, Leo

    2014-06-01

    This field experiment takes a novel approach in applying methodologies and theories of visual search to the subject of conspicuity in automobile rear lighting. Traditional rear lighting research has not used the visual search paradigm in experimental design. It is our claim that the visual search design uniquely uncovers visual attention processes operating when drivers search the visual field that current designs fail to capture. This experiment is a validation and extension of previous simulator research on this same topic and demonstrates that detection of red automobile brake lamps will be improved if tail lamps are another color (in this test, amber) rather than the currently mandated red. Results indicate that when drivers miss brake lamp onset in low ambient light, RT and error are reduced in detecting the presence and absence of red brake lamps with multiple lead vehicles when tail lamps are not red compared to current rear lighting which mandates red tail lamps. This performance improvement is attributed to efficient visual processing that automatically segregates tail (amber) and brake (red) lamp colors into distractors and targets respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Robert P.; Bulau, Scott E.; Shimko, Steve; Williams, Timothy R.

    2014-08-01

    System safety for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is the joint responsibility of a Maui-based safety team and the Tucson-based systems engineering group. The DKIST project is committed to the philosophy of "Safety by Design". To that end the project has implemented an aggressive hazard analysis, risk assessment, and mitigation system. It was initially based on MIL-STD-882D, but has since been augmented in a way that lends itself to direct application to the design of our Global Interlock System (GIS). This was accomplished by adopting the American National Standard for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems (ANSI/RIA R15.06) for all identified hazards that involve potential injury to personnel. In this paper we describe the details of our augmented hazard analysis system and its use by the project. Since most of the major hardware for the DKIST (e.g., the enclosure, and telescope mount assembly) has been designed and is being constructed by external contractors, the DKIST project has required our contractors to perform a uniform hazard analysis of their designs using our methods. This paper also describes the review and follow-up process implemented by the project that is applied to both internal and external subsystem designs. Our own weekly hazard analysis team meetings have now largely turned to system-level hazards and hazards related to specific tasks that will be encountered during integration, test, and commissioning and maintenance operations. Finally we discuss a few lessons learned, describing things we might do differently if we were starting over today.

  8. The ATLAS Detector Safety System

    CERN Multimedia

    Helfried Burckhart; Kathy Pommes; Heidi Sandaker

    The ATLAS Detector Safety System (DSS) has the mandate to put the detector in a safe state in case an abnormal situation arises which could be potentially dangerous for the detector. It covers the CERN alarm severity levels 1 and 2, which address serious risks for the equipment. The highest level 3, which also includes danger for persons, is the responsibility of the CERN-wide system CSAM, which always triggers an intervention by the CERN fire brigade. DSS works independently from and hence complements the Detector Control System, which is the tool to operate the experiment. The DSS is organized in a Front- End (FE), which fulfills autonomously the safety functions and a Back-End (BE) for interaction and configuration. The overall layout is shown in the picture below. ATLAS DSS configuration The FE implementation is based on a redundant Programmable Logical Crate (PLC) system which is used also in industry for such safety applications. Each of the two PLCs alone, one located underground and one at the s...

  9. A simple model of driver behaviour to sustain design and safety assessment of automated systems in automotive environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciabue, Pietro Carlo; Carsten, Oliver

    2010-03-01

    This paper proposes a structure for an "active" model of driver that enables to predict behaviour and performances in dynamic changing traffic conditions, with potential application both offline and online. A simple prototype of the system has been realised in software, and has been compared against observed data in a rudimentary validation. The comparison reveals that the software's outputs accord reasonably with the observed values, not only in terms of central tendency but also in terms of capability to predict the between-driver variability. The next step is to create a system capable of identifying driver characteristics and state from observed data. However, further research is needed in order to expand the model in several dimensions, primarily to represent more complex scenarios in the presence of advanced automation technologies.

  10. Human error risk management for engineering systems: a methodology for design, safety assessment, accident investigation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciabue, P.C

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to tackle methodological issues associated with the inclusion of cognitive and dynamic considerations into Human Reliability methods. A methodology called Human Error Risk Management for Engineering Systems is presented that offers a 'roadmap' for selecting and consistently applying Human Factors approaches in different areas of application and contains also a 'body' of possible methods and techniques of its own. Two types of possible application are discussed to demonstrate practical applications of the methodology. Specific attention is dedicated to the issue of data collection and definition from specific field assessment.

  11. The Health and Safety Benefits of New Technologies in Mining: A Review and Strategy for Designing and Deploying Effective User-Centred Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Horberry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining is currently experiencing a rapid growth in the development and uptake of automation and other new technologies (such as collision detection systems; however, they are often developed from a technology-centred perspective that does not explicitly consider the end-user. This paper first presents a review of the technologies currently available (or near-market and the likely human factors issues associated with them. The second part of the paper presents a potential long term strategy for research and development that aims to maximise the safety and health benefits for operators of such new technologies. The strategy includes a four stage research and development process, this covers: better understanding the needs for technology, user requirements and risk/cost analysis; human element design, procurement and deployment processes; evaluation and verification of the strategy; and dissemination of it to relevant stakeholders (including equipment manufacturers, mine site purchasers and regulators. The paper concludes by stressing the importance of considering the human element with respect to new mining technologies and the likely benefits of adopting the type of strategy proposed here. The overall vision is for mining to become safer and healthier through effective user-centred design and deployment of new technologies that serve both operator needs and the demands of the workplace.

  12. System of its indicator economic safety

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrova, A.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is devoted to the scientific and methodological decision of problem of formulation peculiarity economic safety’s guarantying of Ukraine in regional aspect. The scientific ground of optimization economic safety’s management are design. This work describes the bases of research economic safety, define the structure of this category, system of its indicators. Regional features of social and economical development are determined. Various between social and economical development of reg...

  13. Safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER-600 design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong-Bum; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, E. K.; Suk, S. D.; Chang, W. P.; Joeng, H. Y.; Ha, K. S.; Heo, S

    2005-03-01

    KAERI is developing the conceptual design of a Liquid Metal Reactor, KALIMER-600 (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term Nuclear R and D Program. KALIMER-600 addresses key issues regarding future nuclear power plants such as plant safety, economics, proliferation, and waste. In this report, key safety design features are described and safety analyses results for typical ATWS accidents, containment design basis accidents, and flow blockages in the KALIMER design are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal and main design features of KALIMER-600 are introduced in Chapter 1, and the event categorization and acceptance criteria for the KALIMER-600 safety analysis are described in Chapter 2, In Chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER-600 conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER-600 core and plant system are designed to assure benign performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) have been performed using the SSC-K code to investigate the KALIMER-600 system response to the events. The objectives of Chapter 4, are to assess the response of KALIMER-600 containment to the design basis accidents and to evaluate whether the consequences are acceptable or not in the aspect of structural integrity and the exposure dose rate. In Chapter 5, the analysis of flow blockage for KALIMER-600 with the MATRA-LMR-FB code, which has been developed for the internal flow blockage in a LMR subassembly, are described. The cases with a blockage of 6-subchannel, 24-subchannel, and 54-subchannel are analyzed.

  14. [Safety culture: definition, models and design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Holger; Hammer, Antje; Ernstmann, Nicole; Kowalski, Christoph; Ommen, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Safety culture is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. Safety culture of a healthcare organization is high if it has a common stock in knowledge, values and symbols in regard to patients' safety. The article intends to define safety culture in the first step and, in the second step, demonstrate the effects of safety culture. We present the model of safety behaviour and show how safety culture can affect behaviour and produce safe behaviour. In the third step we will look at the causes of safety culture and present the safety-culture-model. The main hypothesis of this model is that the safety culture of a healthcare organization strongly depends on its communication culture and its social capital. Finally, we will investigate how the safety culture of a healthcare organization can be improved. Based on the safety culture model six measures to improve safety culture will be presented.

  15. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  16. Software for the occupational health and safety integrated management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vătăsescu, Mihaela [University Politehnica Timisoara, Department of Engineering and Management, 5 Revolutiei street, 331128 Hunedoara (Romania)

    2015-03-10

    This paper intends to present the design and the production of a software for the Occupational Health and Safety Integrated Management System with the view to a rapid drawing up of the system documents in the field of occupational health and safety.

  17. Learning Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Harold G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need to learn how to design learning systems involving the synthesis of systems thinking and design actions. Design intelligence is considered, based on theories of multiple intelligence; new models of the information age that require systems design are discussed; and the roles of symbolic analysts and symbolic synthesists are…

  18. System Safety Analysis Application Guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Safety analyses are performed to identify hazards and potential accidents; to analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate hazards; and to evaluate potential accidents and determine associated risks. Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) are prepared to document the safety analysis to ensure facilities can be operated safely and in accordance with regulations. SARs include Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), which are specific technical and administrative requirements that prescribe limits and controls to ensure safe operation of DOE facilities. These documented descriptions and analyses contribute to the authorization basis for facility operation. Energy Systems has established a process to perform Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations (USQDs) for planned changes and as-found conditions that are not described and analyzed in existing safety analyses. The process evaluates changes and as-found conditions to determine whether revisions to the authorization basis must be reviewed and approved by DOE. There is an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) if a change introduces conditions not bounded by the facility authorization basis. When it is necessary to request DOE approval to revise the authorization basis, preparation of a System Safety Analysis (SSA) is recommended. This application guide describes the process of preparing an SSA and the desired contents of an SSA. Guidance is provided on how to identify items and practices which are important to safety; how to determine the credibility and significance of consequences of proposed accident scenarios; how to evaluate accident prevention and mitigation features of the planned change; and how to establish special requirements to ensure that a change can be implemented with adequate safety.

  19. Design of Safety Injection Tanks Using Axiomatic Design and TRIZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Design can be categorized into two steps: 'synthesis' and 'analysis'. While synthesis is the process of decision-making on design parameters, analysis is the process of optimizing the parameters selected. It is known from experience that the mistakes made in the synthesis process are hardly corrected in the analysis process. 'Systematic synthesis' is, therefore, easy to overlook but an important topic. 'Systematic' is interpreted as 'minimizing' uncertainty and subjectivity. This paper will introduce the design product achieved by using Axiomatic Design (AD) and TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving romanized acronym for Russian), which is a new design of Safety Injection Tank (SIT). In designing a large-capacity SIT which should play an important role in mitigating the large break loss of coolant accidents, there are three issues: 1) the excessively large plenum for pressurized nitrogen gas; 2) the difficulties maintaining the high initial injection flow rate; and 3) the non-condensable nitrogen gas in the coolant. This study proposes a conceptual idea for SITs that are pressurized by the chemical reaction of solid propellants. The AD theory and the principles of TRIZ enable new approach in problem-solving for those three issues in an innovative way. The paper made an effort to clarify the systematic synthesis process to reach the final design solution. (authors)

  20. 76 FR 14592 - Safety Management System; Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... in response to the ANPRM. The comment period closed on October 21, 2009. The Airline Safety and..., and 145 RIN 2120-AJ15 Safety Management System; Withdrawal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... (``product/ service providers'') to develop a Safety Management System (SMS). The FAA is withdrawing the...

  1. Software Design Analyzer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    CRISP80 software design analyzer system a set of programs that supports top-down, hierarchic, modular structured design, and programing methodologies. CRISP80 allows for expression of design as picture of program.

  2. Comprehensive Lifecycle for Assuring System Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John C.; Rowanhill, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    CLASS is a novel approach to the enhancement of system safety in which the system safety case becomes the focus of safety engineering throughout the system lifecycle. CLASS also expands the role of the safety case across all phases of the system's lifetime, from concept formation to decommissioning. As CLASS has been developed, the concept has been generalized to a more comprehensive notion of assurance becoming the driving goal, where safety is an important special case. This report summarizes major aspects of CLASS and contains a bibliography of papers that provide additional details.

  3. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Thermal hydraulic tests for reactor safety system-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Moon Kee; Park, Choon Kyung; Yang, Sun Kyoo; Chun, Se Yung; Song, Chul Hwa; Jun, Hyung Kil; Jung, Heung Joon; Won, Soon Yun; Cho, Yung Roh; Min, Kyung Hoh; Jung, Jang Hwan; Jang, Suk Kyoo; Kim, Bok Deuk; Kim, Wooi Kyung; Huh, Jin; Kim, Sook Kwan; Moon, Sang Kee; Lee, Sang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    The present research aims at the development of the thermal hydraulic verification test technology for the safety system of the conventional and advanced nuclear power plant and the development of the advanced thermal hydraulic measuring techniques. In this research, test facilities simulating the primary coolant system and safety system are being constructed for the design verification tests of the existing and advanced nuclear power plant. 97 figs, 14 tabs, 65 refs. (Author).

  4. Conceptual design of safety injection tanks using saturated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Min; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Won Joon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Safety Injection Tanks (SITs) which is the one of Safety Injection System (SIS) play an important role in mitigating the Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). APR1400 has the advanced 4 SITs directly connected to a reactor vessel. We expect the capacity of the SITs is getting more important since the coolant from SITs equipped with a FD during LBLOCA can replace the injection from low pressure safety injection pumps (LPSIPs). In designing a larger capacity SIT, we may have three problems; the excessively large volume for pressurized N{sub 2} gas, which is about 1/3 of the total volume, the difficulties controlling injection flowrate and the solubility of the non-condensable N{sub 2} gas in the coolant. In here, there is the contradiction which is 'there must be nitrogen gas for pressurization but there must not be nitrogen gas for more coolant.' For this problem, the axiomatic design (AD) theory enabled us to define or regularize the intrinsic problem which is termed the coupling and the contradiction. TRIZ facilitates creating solutions on the contradiction. This study proposes a conceptual design of SITs which are pressurized by steam from the saturated water as a demonstration of the conceptual design framework, AD theory and TRIZ. The purpose of this conceptual design is to increase coolant volume and to reduce N{sub 2} gas volume in SITs. In order to investigate the feasibility of the proposed design, we derived an analytical model to find the heat loss of saturated water and thermo-hydraulic safety analysis using MARS3.1. To confirm the safety and integrity of core, we conducted LBLOCA simulation to find peak cladding temperature (PCT) of design using the proposed SITs comparing with the conventional SITs. From the analysis results, the benefits of the new SIT design were observed in terms of the PCT, the quenching time and the size. And the new SIT design may enable emergency core cooling water to be injected

  5. Simplified safety and containment systems for the iris reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, L.E. [Westinghouse Electric Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.; Oriani, L. [Polytechnic of Milan, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Milan (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a 100 - 300 MW modular type pressurized water reactor supported by the U.S. DOE NERI Program. IRIS features a long-life core to provide proliferation resistance and to reduce the volume of spent fuel, as well as reduce maintenance requirements. IRIS utilizes an integral reactor vessel that contains all major primary system components. This integral reactor vessel makes it possible to reduce containment size; making the IRIS more cost competitive. IRIS is being designed to enhance reactor safety, and therefore a key aspect of the IRIS program is the development of the safety and containment systems. These systems are being designed to maximize containment integrity, prevent core uncover following postulated accidents, minimize the probability and consequences of severe accidents, and provide a significant simplification over current safety system designs. The design of the IRIS containment and safety systems has been identified and preliminary analyses have been completed. The IRIS safety concept employs some unique features that minimize the consequences of postulated design basis events. This paper will provide a description of the containment design and safety systems, and will summarize the analysis results. (author)

  6. NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 1; System Safety Framework and Concepts for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Benjamin, Allan; Everett, Christopher; Smith, Curtis; Stamatelatos, Michael; Youngblood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    System safety assessment is defined in NPR 8715.3C, NASA General Safety Program Requirements as a disciplined, systematic approach to the analysis of risks resulting from hazards that can affect humans, the environment, and mission assets. Achievement of the highest practicable degree of system safety is one of NASA's highest priorities. Traditionally, system safety assessment at NASA and elsewhere has focused on the application of a set of safety analysis tools to identify safety risks and formulate effective controls.1 Familiar tools used for this purpose include various forms of hazard analyses, failure modes and effects analyses, and probabilistic safety assessment (commonly also referred to as probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)). In the past, it has been assumed that to show that a system is safe, it is sufficient to provide assurance that the process for identifying the hazards has been as comprehensive as possible and that each identified hazard has one or more associated controls. The NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) has made several statements in its annual reports supporting a more holistic approach. In 2006, it recommended that "... a comprehensive risk assessment, communication and acceptance process be implemented to ensure that overall launch risk is considered in an integrated and consistent manner." In 2009, it advocated for "... a process for using a risk-informed design approach to produce a design that is optimally and sufficiently safe." As a rationale for the latter advocacy, it stated that "... the ASAP applauds switching to a performance-based approach because it emphasizes early risk identification to guide designs, thus enabling creative design approaches that might be more efficient, safer, or both." For purposes of this preface, it is worth mentioning three areas where the handbook emphasizes a more holistic type of thinking. First, the handbook takes the position that it is important to not just focus on risk on an individual

  7. Simulation of data safety components for corporative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaremko, Svetlana A.; Kuzmina, Elena M.; Savchuk, Tamara O.; Krivonosov, Valeriy E.; Smolarz, Andrzej; Arman, Abenov; Smailova, Saule; Kalizhanova, Aliya

    2017-08-01

    The article deals with research of designing data safety components for corporations by means of mathematical simulations and modern information technologies. Simulation of threats ranks has been done which is based on definite values of data components. The rules of safety policy for corporative information systems have been presented. The ways of realization of safety policy rules have been proposed on the basis of taken conditions and appropriate class of valuable data protection.

  8. INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SAFETY CULTURE IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD JA JR

    2009-01-16

    In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) identified safety culture as one of their top Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) related priorities. A team was formed to address this issue. The team identified a consensus set of safety culture principles, along with implementation practices that could be used by DOE, NNSA, and their contractors. Documented improvement tools were identified and communicated to contractors participating in a year long pilot project. After a year, lessons learned will be collected and a path forward determined. The goal of this effort was to achieve improved safety and mission performance through ISMS continuous improvement. The focus of ISMS improvement was safety culture improvement building on operating experience from similar industries such as the domestic and international commercial nuclear and chemical industry.

  9. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  10. Design of a user-centered voluntary patient safety reporting system: understanding the time and response variances by retrospective think-aloud protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Gong, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Usability is critical to the success of computerized systems, and yet it has received little attention in the field of voluntary patient safety reporting. Failures in this regard may largely account for the issues of low user acceptance and low-quality data that currently confront the system. In this study, we examined the three usability aspects of efficiency, effectiveness and user attitudes on a typical safety reporting system. The system usability was evaluated using the retrospective think-aloud testing method, which measures execution time and response consistency with think-aloud protocols. Ten end-users were recruited for the test. The descriptive statistics on users' time and response variances unveiled system features that influenced the system's reporting efficiency and effectiveness. The think-aloud protocols that reflected users' attitudes helped identify nine categories of usability problems associated with the response variances and system features. In the end, the observed semantic ambiguity, terminology complexity and carry-over effect are noted as challenges and opportunities for further usability improvements.

  11. Safety Characteristics in System Application Software for Human Rated Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and its industry and international partners are embarking on a bold and inspiring development effort to design and build an exploration class space system. The space system is made up of the Orion system, the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) system. All are highly coupled together and dependent on each other for the combined safety of the space system. A key area of system safety focus needs to be in the ground and flight application software system (GFAS). In the development, certification and operations of GFAS, there are a series of safety characteristics that define the approach to ensure mission success. This paper will explore and examine the safety characteristics of the GFAS development.

  12. Design data and safety features of commerical nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1976-06-01

    Design data, safety features, and site characteristics are summarized for 34 nuclear power units in 17 power stations in the United States. Six pages of data are presented for each plant, consisting of thermal-hydraulic and nuclear factors, containment features, emergency-core-cooling systems, site features, circulating water system data, and miscellaneous factors. An aerial perspective is also presented for each plant. This volume covers Light Water Reactors (LWRs) with dockets 50-508 through 50-549, four HTGRs--50-171, 50-267, 50-450/451, 50-463/464, the Atlantic Floating Station 50-477/478, and the Clinch River Breeder 50-537.

  13. Roadway and roadside design for enhancing mobilitity and safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    Safety barriers are often used on motorways. Accident figures, however, show that a safety barrier is involved in approximately 20% of all fatal accidents. This paper considers safety barriers within the context of safe designs for shoulders on motorways. This research is related to the European

  14. Designing photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.J.

    1987-03-22

    Photovoltaic system design understanding has matured rapidly in the last decade. Initially the design process emphasized detailed modeling, load match, and on-site energy storage. This entire approach ended once the systems were allowed to operate interactively with the utility. Current design thinking emphasizes system energy cost in relation to utility avoided cost. This leads to a new logic that allows for much simplified design procedures. This paper reviews these procedures for the two types of grid-connected photovoltaic systems and presents a brief discussion of balance-of-system options.

  15. Automation for System Safety Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David; Thronesbery, Carroll; Flores, Joshua; Bennett, Ted; Wennberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes work to integrate a set of tools to support early model-based analysis of failures and hazards due to system-software interactions. The tools perform and assist analysts in the following tasks: 1) extract model parts from text for architecture and safety/hazard models; 2) combine the parts with library information to develop the models for visualization and analysis; 3) perform graph analysis and simulation to identify and evaluate possible paths from hazard sources to vulnerable entities and functions, in nominal and anomalous system-software configurations and scenarios; and 4) identify resulting candidate scenarios for software integration testing. There has been significant technical progress in model extraction from Orion program text sources, architecture model derivation (components and connections) and documentation of extraction sources. Models have been derived from Internal Interface Requirements Documents (IIRDs) and FMEA documents. Linguistic text processing is used to extract model parts and relationships, and the Aerospace Ontology also aids automated model development from the extracted information. Visualizations of these models assist analysts in requirements overview and in checking consistency and completeness.

  16. Clothing Systems Design Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Clothing Systems Design Lab houses facilities for the design and rapid prototyping of military protective apparel.Other focuses include: creation of patterns and...

  17. Development of the Advanced Nuclear Safety Information Management (ANSIM) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jae Min; Ko, Young Cheol; Song, Tai Gil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Korea has become a technically independent nuclear country and has grown into an exporter of nuclear technologies. Thus, nuclear facilities are increasing in significance at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), and it is time to address the nuclear safety. The importance of nuclear safety cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, a management system is needed urgently to manage the safety of nuclear facilities and to enhance the efficiency of nuclear information. We have established ISP (Information Strategy Planning) for the Integrated Information System of nuclear facility and safety management. The purpose of this paper is to develop a management system for nuclear safety. Therefore, we developed the Advanced Nuclear Safety Information Management system (hereinafter referred to as the 'ANSIM system'). The ANSIM system has been designed and implemented to computerize nuclear safety information for standardization, integration, and sharing in real-time. Figure 1 shows the main home page of the ANSIM system. In this paper, we describe the design requirements, contents, configurations, and utilizations of the ANSIM system

  18. Safety and security aspects in design of digital safety I and C in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yongjian [University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. of Electrical Engineering; Waedt, Karl [Areva GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). PEAS-G

    2016-05-15

    The paper describes a safety objective oriented systematic design approach of digital (computerized) safety I and C in modern nuclear power plants which considers the plant safety requirements as well as cybersecurity needs. The defence in depth philosophy is applied by using different defence lines in the I and C architecture and protection zones in the plant IT environment.

  19. The Pre-warning Analysis of Packaging Design Safety of Jelly Food

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Wang; Huaxi Chen

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of enhancing evaluation of packaging design safety of jelly food, this thesis follows relevant experts’ opinions, explores the fuzzy clustering analysis and principal component analysis to build pre-warning system of jelly food’s packaging design safety, then use the triangular fuzzy AHP analysis to empower the various indicators of the pre-warning system, combines with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to create pre-warning model of the jelly food’s packaging design safet...

  20. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  1. Toxicogenomics and Systems Toxicology Databases and Resources: Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) and Data Integration by Applying Models on Design and Safety (DIAMONDS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fostel, J.; Someren, E. van; Pronk, T.; Pennings, J.; Schmeits, P.; Shao, J.; Kroese, D.; Stierum, R.

    2014-01-01

    Systems toxicology relies on data integration from a variety of disciplines. These include the toxicological phenotype and in vitro assay data, together with a system-wide response such as transcriptomics data. To facilitate this, databases to capture a variety of phenotypic data, along with

  2. Occupant safety design approaches using physical testing and numerical simulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linzmaier, L.C.; Carvalho, J.R.; Benar, M.; Vilela, D.; Altamore, P.

    2001-01-01

    The vehicle design environment from a crashworthiness and safety perspective has become increasingly complex in recent years. New legal requirements imposed by the European Union (EU) and the United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) have created a design space of great

  3. Opportunistic Sensing in Train Safety Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Bakker, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Train safety systems are complex and expensive, and changing them requires huge investments. Changes are evolutionary and small. Current developments, like faster - high speed - trains and a higher train density on the railway network, have initiated research on safety systems that can cope with the

  4. 77 FR 70409 - System Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 270 2130-AC31 System Safety Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad... commuter and intercity passenger railroads to develop and implement a system safety program (SSP) to...

  5. Health and Safety Audit Design Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, Mark P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langley, Brandon R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Accawi, Gina K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Malhotra, Mini [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Health and Safety Audit is an electronic audit tool developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in the identification and selection of health and safety measures when a home is being weatherized (i.e., receiving home energy upgrades), especially as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program, or during home energy-efficiency retrofit or remodeling jobs. The audit is specifically applicable to existing single-family homes (including mobile homes), and is generally applicable to individual dwelling units in low-rise multifamily buildings. The health and safety issues covered in the audit are grouped in nine categories: mold and moisture, lead, radon, asbestos, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), combustion, pest infestation, safety, and ventilation. Development of the audit was supported by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control and the DOE Weatherization Assistance Program.

  6. Systems Thinking and Patient Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schyve, Paul M

    2005-01-01

    Patient safety is a prominent theme in health care delivery today. This should come as no surprise, given that "first, do no harm" has been the ethical watchword throughout the history of medicine, nursing, and pharmacy...

  7. HVAC systems design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Thoroughly updated with the latest codes, technologies, and practices, this all-in-one resource provides details, calculations, and specifications for designing efficient and effective residential, commercial, and industrial HVAC systems. HVAC Systems Design Handbook, Fifth Edition, features new information on energy conservation and computer usage for design and control, as well as the most recent International Code Council (ICC) Mechanical Code requirements. Detailed illustrations, tables, and essential HVAC equations are also included. This comprehensive guide contains everything you need to design, operate, and maintain peak-performing HVAC systems.

  8. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  9. Recommendations for the LHC safety alarm system

    CERN Document Server

    Laeger, H

    1999-01-01

    A working group was set up to define the LHC safety alarm system, also known as Alarm-of-Level-3-System (AL3S). The mandate asked for recommendations to be elaborated on four items: the overall concept of the AL3S for machine and experiments, the transmission and display of safety alarms, the AL3S during civil engineering construction, and the transition from the present LEP to the final LHC safety alarm system. The members of the working group represented a wide range of interest and experience including the CERN Fire Brigade, safety officers from experiments and machines, and specialists for safety and control systems. The recommendations highlight the need for a clear definition of responsibilities and procedures, well-engineered homogeneous systems across CERN, and they point to several important issues outside the mandate of the working group. These recommendations were presented, discussed and accepted by several CERN and LHC committees.

  10. Rectenna system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. C.; Dickinson, R. M.; Nalos, E. J.; Ott, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The function of the rectenna in the solar power satellite system is described and the basic design choices based on the desired microwave field concentration and ground clearance requirements are given. One important area of concern, from the EMI point of view, harmonic reradiation and scattering from the rectenna is also designed. An optimization of a rectenna system design to minimize costs was performed. The rectenna cost breakdown for a 56 w installation is given as an example.

  11. Safety-critical Java for embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the motivation for and outcomes of an engineering research project on certifiable Javafor embedded systems. The project supports the upcoming standard for safety-critical Java, which defines asubset of Java and libraries aiming for development of high criticality systems....... The outcome of this projectinclude prototype safety-critical Java implementations, a time-predictable Java processor, analysis tools formemory safety, and example applications to explore the usability of safety-critical Java for this applicationarea. The text summarizes developments and key contributions...

  12. Design of combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    )] This paper addresses an experimentally and theoretically investigation of three different marketed combi systems. Two different combi systems, based on the above mentioned system design, with units where the auxiliary energy supply system is built into the same cabinet as the hot-water tank and one combi...... with constant daily hot water consumption, consumption patterns and space heating demand for all days, and the results are used to validate TrnSys models. Based on simulation models of the combi systems, the thermal behavior is simulated and the thermal performance and the solar fraction of the systems...... simulation models where a number of different design-, control- and consumption parameters are varied....

  13. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  14. Psychology of system design

    CERN Document Server

    Meister, D

    2014-01-01

    This is a book about systems, including: systems in which humans control machines; systems in which humans interact with humans and the machine component is relatively unimportant; systems which are heavily computerized and those that are not; and governmental, industrial, military and social systems. The book deals with both traditional systems like farming, fishing and the military, and with systems just now tentatively emerging, like the expert and the interactive computer system. The emphasis is on the system concept and its implications for analysis, design and evaluation of these many di

  15. OBTAINING FOOD SAFETY BY APPLYING HACCP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION CRIVEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the confidence of the trading partners and consumers in the products which are sold on the market, enterprises producing food are required to implement the food safety system HACCP,a particularly useful system because the manufacturer is not able to fully control finished products . SR EN ISO 22000:2005 establishes requirements for a food safety management system where an organization in the food chain needs to proove its ability to control food safety hazards in order to ensure that food is safe at the time of human consumption. This paper presents the main steps which ensure food safety using the HACCP system, and SR EN ISO 20000:2005 requirements for food safety.

  16. Development of Safety Grade Control Platforms for Safety I and C System Against Common Cause Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Gyun; Kim, Chang Hoi [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Two diverse control platforms have been developed for application to safety I and C systems which have capability to mitigate CCFs under the project funded by the Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy. In this project Susan E and S develops the microprocessor based control platform named SPLC and Doosan Heavy Industry is in charge of developing the FPGA based control platform named DFLC-N. This paper describes the typical diversity strategies which can be implemented in safety I and C systems and introduces two safety grade control platforms being developed to improve the diversity of safety I and C systems. Two control platforms have been developed for application to safety I and C systems under the project funded by the Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy. In this project Susan E and S develops the microprocessor based control platform and Doosan Heavy Industry is in charge of developing the FPGA based control platform In this paper the typical diversity strategies implemented in safety I and C systems were described and the design concept of two safety grade platforms was introduced for mitigating the CCF vulnerabilities.

  17. AMTV headway sensor and safety design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.; Nelson, M.; Cassell, P.; Herridge, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    A headway sensing system for an automated mixed traffic vehicle (AMTV) employing an array of optical proximity sensor elements is described, and its performance is presented in terms of object detection profiles. The problem of sensing in turns is explored experimentally and requirements for future turn sensors are discussed. A recommended headway sensor configuration, employing multiple source elements in the focal plane of one lens operating together with a similar detector unit, is described. Alternative concepts including laser radar, ultrasonic sensing, imaging techniques, and radar are compared to the present proximity sensor approach. Design concepts for an AMTV body which will minimize the probability of injury to pedestrians or passengers in the event of a collision are presented.

  18. Residential photovoltaic system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. All of these systems utilize a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allow excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Residential photovoltaic system design issues are discussed and specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented.

  19. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  20. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  1. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) collects, analyzes, and distributes de-identified safety information provided through confidentially submitted reports from frontline aviation personnel. Since its inception in 1976, the ASRS has collected over 1.4 million reports and has never breached the identity of the people sharing their information about events or safety issues. From this volume of data, the ASRS has released over 6,000 aviation safety alerts concerning potential hazards and safety concerns. The ASRS processes these reports, evaluates the information, and provides selected de-identified report information through the online ASRS Database at http:asrs.arc.nasa.gov. The NASA ASRS is also a founding member of the International Confidential Aviation Safety Systems (ICASS) group which is a collection of other national aviation reporting systems throughout the world. The ASRS model has also been replicated for application to improving safety in railroad, medical, fire fighting, and other domains. This presentation will discuss confidential, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting systems and their advantages in providing information for safety improvements.

  2. Prestandardisation Activities for Computer Based Safety Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, J. R.; Bologna, S.; Ehrenberger, W.

    1981-01-01

    Questions of technical safety become more and more important. Due to the higher complexity of their functions computer based safety systems have special problems. Researchers, producers, licensing personnel and customers have met on a European basis to exchange knowledge and formulate positions...

  3. System safety based on a coordinated principle-based theme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.A.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a logical progression for the identification of assets, threats, vulnerabilities, and protective measures, based on a structured approach that incorporates the results of the previous paper. The authors utilize a logical structure for identifying the constituents of the problem, derive appropriate applicable principles, and demonstrate a technique for incorporating the principles into a coordinated safety theme. They also show how to qualitatively assess such generally non-quantifiable items such as safety-component and safety-system response to severe abnormal environments. An illustrative example is followed step-by-step through to a safety system design approach and a safety assessment approach. The general approach is illustrated here through an example, generally representing a test rocket launch scenario, where the concern is the potential for loss of life.

  4. Engineering systems reliability, safety, and maintenance an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, B S

    2017-01-01

    Today, engineering systems are an important element of the world economy and each year billions of dollars are spent to develop, manufacture, operate, and maintain various types of engineering systems around the globe. Many of these systems are highly sophisticated and contain millions of parts. For example, a Boeing jumbo 747 is made up of approximately 4.5 million parts including fasteners. Needless to say, reliability, safety, and maintenance of systems such as this have become more important than ever before.  Global competition and other factors are forcing manufacturers to produce highly reliable, safe, and maintainable engineering products. Therefore, there is a definite need for the reliability, safety, and maintenance professionals to work closely during design and other phases. Engineering Systems Reliability, Safety, and Maintenance: An Integrated Approach eliminates the need to consult many different and diverse sources in the hunt for the information required to design better engineering syste...

  5. Technology-facilitated depression care management among predominantly Latino diabetes patients within a public safety net care system: comparative effectiveness trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinyi; Ell, Kathleen; Gross-Schulman, Sandra G; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Katon, Wayne J; Nezu, Art M; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Vidyanti, Irene; Chou, Chih-Ping; Guterman, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    Health disparities in minority populations are well recognized. Hispanics and Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the United States; a significant proportion receives their care via a safety net. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and comorbid depression is high among this group, but the uptake of evidence-based collaborative depression care management has been suboptimal. The study design and baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample in the Diabetes-Depression Care-management Adoption Trial (DCAT) establishes a quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research clinical trial aimed at accelerating the adoption of collaborative depression care in safety net clinics. The study was conducted in collaboration with the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services at eight county-operated clinics. DCAT has enrolled 1406 low-income, predominantly Hispanic/Latino patients with diabetes to test a translational model of depression care management. This three-group study compares usual care with a collaborative care team support model and a technology-facilitated depression care model that provides automated telephonic depression screening and monitoring tailored to patient conditions and preferences. Call results are integrated into a diabetes disease management registry that delivers provider notifications, generates tasks, and issues critical alerts. All subjects receive comprehensive assessments at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months by independent English-Spanish bilingual interviewers. Study outcomes include depression outcomes, treatment adherence, satisfaction, acceptance of assessment and monitoring technology, social and economic stress reduction, diabetes self-care management, health care utilization, and care management model cost and cost-effectiveness comparisons. DCAT's goal is to optimize depression screening, treatment, follow-up, outcomes, and cost savings to reduce health disparities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Designing Menu Selection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Ben

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on the multiple design issues involved in creating successful menu selection systems: semantic organization, response time, display rates, shortcuts for frequent users, titles, phrasing of menu items, graphic layout, and selection mechanisms. Pop-up and embedded menus, experimental results, and design guidelines are also covered.…

  7. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  8. Telecommunications systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The general configuration of deep space telecommunication systems is reviewed with regard to the design criteria necessary to insure the integrity of the system's telemetry, command, and tracking functions. The signal to noise spectral density ratios that characterize telecommunications performance are defined in terms of the link parameters. For design control, a statistical approach to predict link performance and to assess its uncertainty is described.

  9. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY... Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... design quality in software used in safety systems in nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  10. Safety status system for operating room devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédon, Annetje C P; Wauben, Linda S G L; Overvelde, Marlies; Blok, Joleen H; van der Elst, Maarten; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2014-01-01

    Since the increase of the number of technological aids in the operating room (OR), equipment-related incidents have come to be a common kind of adverse events. This underlines the importance of adequate equipment management to improve the safety in the OR. A system was developed to monitor the safety status (periodic maintenance and registered malfunctions) of OR devices and to facilitate the notification of malfunctions. The objective was to assess whether the system is suitable for use in an busy OR setting and to analyse its effect on the notification of malfunctions. The system checks automatically the safety status of OR devices through constant communication with the technical facility management system, informs the OR staff real-time and facilitates notification of malfunctions. The system was tested for a pilot period of six months in four ORs of a Dutch teaching hospital and 17 users were interviewed on the usability of the system. The users provided positive feedback on the usability. For 86.6% of total time, the localisation of OR devices was accurate. 62 malfunctions of OR devices were reported, an increase of 12 notifications compared to the previous year. The safety status system was suitable for an OR complex, both from a usability and technical point of view, and an increase of reported malfunctions was observed. The system eases monitoring the safety status of equipment and is a promising tool to improve the safety related to OR devices.

  11. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  12. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., injury or other loss to citizens or institutions of the United States. Block certification means SAFETY... homeland security may be deemed a technology. SAFETY Act certification means a determination by DHS... Designation/Certification. 52.250-3 Section 52.250-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

  13. Safety effects of road design standards in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in cooperation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The aims

  14. Generic radiation safety design for SSRL synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C. [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)]. E-mail: james@slac.stanford.edu; Fasso, Alberto [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Khater, Hesham [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Prinz, Alyssa [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Rokni, Sayed [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    To allow for a conservative, simple, uniform, consistent, efficient radiation safety design for all SSRL beamlines, a generic approach has been developed, considering both synchrotron radiation (SR) and gas bremsstrahlung (GB) hazards. To develop the methodology and rules needed for generic beamline design, analytic models, the STAC8 code, and the FLUKA Monte Carlo code were used to pre-calculate sets of curves and tables that can be looked up for each beamline safety design. Conservative beam parameters and standard targets and geometries were used in the calculations. This paper presents the SPEAR3 beamline parameters that were considered in the design, the safety design considerations, and the main pre-calculated results that are needed for generic shielding design. In the end, the rules and practices for generic SSRL beamline design are summarized.

  15. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2001-05-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details.

  16. Designing Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2010-01-01

    the potential to revitalize and transform citizen engagement in democracy.  Although the majority of web 2.0 systems enable these discourses to some extent, government institutions commission and manage specialized deliberation systems (information systems designed to support participative discourse) intended...... to promote citizen engagement.  The most common examples of these are political discussion forums.  Though usually considered trivial adaptations of well-known technologies, these types of deliberative systems are often unsuccessful, and present a distinct set of design and management challenges.......  In this article we analyze the issues involved in establishing political deliberation systems under four headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, service management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement.  We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study...

  17. Safety in passenger ships: The influence of environmental design characteristics on people's perception of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Markus; Mugge, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    Although objective safety is a widely studied topic in ergonomics, subjective safety has received far less research attention. Nevertheless, most of human decision-making and behavior depends on how we perceive our environment. This study investigates the effects of various environmental design characteristics on people's safety perception in a passenger ship context. Five different environmental design characteristics were manipulated to increase the openness of the space or to create more clear navigation, resulting in 20 different cabin corridors for a passenger ship. Ninety-seven respondents were asked to rate these corridors on the perceived safety in an experiment. The results showed that people feel more safe when the corridors have a curved ceiling, when the walls do not have a split-level design, and when there is a view to the outside. Designers can use these insights when designing future environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proactive Management of Aviation System Safety Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aviation safety systems have undergone dramatic changes over the past fifty years. If you take a look at the early technology in this area, you'll see that there was...

  19. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  20. Generation III reactors safety requirements and the design solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, P.

    2009-03-01

    Nuclear energy's public acceptance, and hence its development, depends on its safety. As a reactor designer, we will first briefly remind the basic safety principles of nuclear reactors' design. We will then show how the industry, and in particular Areva with its EPR, made design evolution in the wake of the Three Miles Island accident in 1979. In particular, for this new generation of reactors, severe accidents are taken into account beyond the standard design basis accidents. Today, Areva's EPR meets all so-called "generation III" safety requirements and was licensed by several nuclear safety authorities in the world. Many innovative solutions are integrated in the EPR, some of which will be introduced here.

  1. Information about robustness, reliability and safety in early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster

    methods, and an industrial case to assess how the use of information about robustness, reliability and safety as practised by current methods influences concept development. Current methods cannot be used in early design phases due to their dependence on detailed design information for the identification...... of attributes of robustness, reliability and safety. The uncertainty and ambiguity that are inherent to concept development impede the evaluation and improvement of attributes of robustness, reliability and safety in early design. A taxonomy was therefore developed to assess the information about...... these attributes that current methods require, and to address the need for clarity about design issues that result in risks. The concept development phase fosters ambiguity on how to satisfy requirements of robustness, reliability and safety, which is exacerbated by complexity in the individual solution...

  2. Creating a Culture of Patient Safety through Innovative Hospital Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reiling, John G

    2005-01-01

    When SynergyHealth, St. Joseph's Hospital of West Bend, Wisconsin, decided to relocate and build an 82-bed acute care facility, they recognized the opportunity to design a hospital that focused on patient safety...

  3. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  4. Reinforcement Data for Fire Safety Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2004-01-01

    Idealized materials data are derived from a number of test series reported in the literature and made by the author. The data cover a variety of reinforcing steels from mild steel, deformed bars and cold worked bars to cold drawn prestressing steels. Processes are described, which are responsible...... for the deterioration of the materials when they are heated and cooled down. A simple expression is established for the description of deterioration curves for fire-exposed materials such as concrete and reinforcement by means of 5 parameters, which may be used as input data for structural fire safety calculations...

  5. 77 FR 74196 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Product Design To Minimize Medication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Product Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance for industry entitled ``Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication Errors... using a systems approach to minimize medication errors relating to product design. The draft guidance...

  6. Evaluating software for safety systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Persons, W.L.; Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gallagher, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    1994-01-11

    In 1991, LLNL was asked by the NRC to provide technical assistance in various aspects of computer technology that apply to computer-based reactor protection systems. This has involved the review of safety aspects of new reactor designs and the provision of technical advice on the use of computer technology in systems important to reactor safety. The latter includes determining and documenting state-of-the-art subjects that require regulatory involvement by the NRC because of their importance in the development and implementation of digital computer safety systems. These subjects include data communications, formal methods, testing, software hazards analysis, verification and validation, computer security, performance, software complexity and others. One topic software reliability and safety is the subject of this paper.

  7. Graphical symbols -- Safety colours and safety signs -- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard establishes the safety identification colours and design principles for safety signs to be used in workplaces and in public areas for the purpose of accident prevention, fire protection, health hazard information and emergency evacuation. It also establishes the basic principles to be applied when developing standards containing safety signs. This part of ISO 3864 is applicable to workplaces and all locations and all sectors where safety-related questions may be posed. However, it is not applicable to the signalling used for guiding rail, road, river, maritime and air traffic and, generally speaking, to those sectors subject to a regulation which may differ.

  8. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  9. Diagnosis operational safety of a transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej WOROPAY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport systems are sociotechnical systems in which the direct realization of the tasks is dealt with by an executive subsystem consisting of the elementary subsystems of a human – a technical object (an operator – a means of transport type realizing the tasks within the system environment. In respect of a human located within a transport system the most significant criterion in the evaluation of transport being realized is their safety.The safety level of the task realization is influenced by the risks resulting from the interaction of the forcing factors, affecting an elementary executive subsystem.These factors may be divided into [8]:-working;-external;-antropotechnical.Due to the complexity of the systems being analysed in the paper, it has been attempted to evaluate the influence of the forcing factors on the safety of this system operation.

  10. System for controlling child safety seat environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system is provided to control the environment experienced by a child in a child safety seat. Each of a plurality of thermoelectric elements is individually controllable to be one of heated and cooled relative to an ambient temperature. A first portion of the thermoelectric elements are positioned on the child safety seat such that a child sitting therein is positioned thereover. A ventilator coupled to the child safety seat moves air past a second portion of the thermoelectric elements and filters the air moved therepast. One or more jets coupled to the ventilator receive the filtered air. Each jet is coupled to the child safety seat and can be positioned to direct the heated/cooled filtered air to the vicinity of the head of the child sitting in the child safety seat.

  11. Classification of Aeronautics System Health and Safety Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most complex aerospace systems have many text reports on safety, maintenance, and associated issues. The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) spans several...

  12. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  13. EHF SATCOM system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. Jamil

    Future satellite systems will differ considerably from the current versions. The impetus for change is a result of the need for more capacity, wider bandwidth requirements for enhanced services, increasing demand for mobile communications, advances in technology, developments in satellite payload systems, and a demand for secure military communications. To a large extent all of these needs can be satisfied by the use of extremely high frequency satellite communication (EHF Satcom) systems. EHF Satcom system design, features, pros and cons of using the system, particularly for military applications, and the current status of EHF SATCOM in Canada, U.S., Europe, and Japan are examined. The demand for bandwidth will continue to increase due to the growth of communication as well as due to enhanced services for business and entertainment. The increased bandwidth needs will be met by operating at higher frequencies, and perhaps by using extremely high frequency/superhigh frequency (EHF/SHF) satellites. Design of such systems involves a consideration of numerous aspects of design, technology, cost, and services. Advances in technology will make EHF/SHF systems feasible for military applications, as well as commercial mobile terminals, and high data rate terminals. The use of higher frequencies and small antennas will aid mobile communications. On-board processing will be akin to putting a switch in the space, providing flexibility of rates, connectivity, and services.

  14. Passive modular gas safety system for a reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abalin, S.S.; Isaev, I.F.; Kulakov, A.A.; Sivokon, V.P.; Udovenko, A.N.; Ionaitis, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Reactor safety systems have developed gradually. Today in particular, auxiliary systems are being developed which are based on nontraditional operational concepts, by using gaseous neutron absorbers. The Scientific-Research and Design Institute of Power Technology (NIKIET) and the Institute of Nuclear Reactors, Kurchatov Institute Reactor Science Center (RNTs), have done preliminary development and experimental verification of separate elements of this system, in which helium is used as the absorber. This article presents a rapid passive safety system based on gaseous absorber, which is made as autonomous modules as the final stage of reactor safety. Its effectiveness is discussed by using an RBMK reactor as an example. As opposed to traditional active, systems, it does not require a functioning power supply and information signals from outside the reactors system, which makes it stable against unsanctioned actions by personnel, the influence of other systems, and also outside actions (sabotage and natural calamities which could destroy the the nuclear power plant structure). Because the gas safety system can operate instantaneously (0.1-0.3 sec), in principle, it can shut down the reactor even with fast-neutron runaway, where traditional safety systems are ineffective.

  15. System Safety in an IT Service Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mike; Scutt, Simon

    Within Logica UK, over 30 IT service projects are considered safetyrelated. These include operational IT services for airports, railway infrastructure asset management, nationwide radiation monitoring and hospital medical records services. A recent internal audit examined the processes and documents used to manage system safety on these services and made a series of recommendations for improvement. This paper looks at the changes and the challenges to introducing them, especially where the service is provided by multiple units supporting both safety and non-safety related services from multiple locations around the world. The recommendations include improvements to service agreements, improved process definitions, routine safety assessment of changes, enhanced call logging, improved staff competency and training, and increased safety awareness. Progress is reported as of today, together with a road map for implementation of the improvements to the service safety management system. A proposal for service assurance levels (SALs) is discussed as a way forward to cover the wide variety of services and associated safety risks.

  16. Issues associated with a total systems approach to designing dependable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    A total system approach, developed by the nuclear-reactor-safety community, is extrapolated to the design of complex, critical systems. The essential properties of these systems are described, and a generic paradigm for subsequent designs is proposed.

  17. Designing continuous safety improvement within chemical industrial areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Ale, B. J.M.; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    This article provides support in organizing and implementing novel concepts for enhancing safety on a cluster level of chemical plants. The paper elaborates the requirements for integrating Safety Management Systems of chemical plants situated within a so-called chemical cluster. Recommendations of

  18. Safety critical systems handbook a straightforward guide to functional safety : IEC 61508 (2010 edition) and related standards

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David J

    2010-01-01

    Electrical, electronic and programmable electronic systems increasingly carry out safety functions to guard workers and the public against injury or death and the environment against pollution. The international functional safety standard IEC 61508 was revised in 2010, and this is the first comprehensive guide available to the revised standard. As functional safety is applicable to many industries, this book will have a wide readership beyond the chemical and process sector, including oil and gas, power generation, nuclear, aircraft, and automotive industries, plus project, instrumentation, design, and control engineers. * The only comprehensive guide to IEC 61508, updated to cover the 2010 amendments, that will ensure engineers are compliant with the latest process safety systems design and operation standards* Helps readers understand the process required to apply safety critical systems standards* Real-world approach helps users to interpret the standard, with case studies and best practice design examples...

  19. Reflections on system safety and the law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, D. F., Sr.

    1971-01-01

    The application of law to the determination of what constitutes safeness is discussed. The numerous factors are analyzed which enter into the decisions of courts in deciding what is safe and what is unsafe. It is pointed out that as technology changes, legal interpretations of safety also change. Arguements are given for the use of system safety techniques and better engineering analyses as instruments of defense against liability.

  20. Patient Safety Learning Systems: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A patient safety learning system (sometimes called a critical incident reporting system) refers to structured reporting, collation, and analysis of critical incidents. To inform a provincial working group's recommendations for an Ontario Patient Safety Event Learning System, a systematic review was undertaken to determine design features that would optimize its adoption into the health care system and would inform implementation strategies. The objective of this review was to address two research questions: (a) what are the barriers to and facilitators of successful adoption of a patient safety learning system reported by health professionals and (b) what design components maximize successful adoption and implementation? To answer the first question, we used a published systematic review. To answer the second question, we used scoping study methodology. Common barriers reported in the literature by health care professionals included fear of blame, legal penalties, the perception that incident reporting does not improve patient safety, lack of organizational support, inadequate feedback, lack of knowledge about incident reporting systems, and lack of understanding about what constitutes an error. Common facilitators included a non-accusatory environment, the perception that incident reporting improves safety, clarification of the route of reporting and of how the system uses reports, enhanced feedback, role models (such as managers) using and promoting reporting, legislated protection of those who report, ability to report anonymously, education and training opportunities, and clear guidelines on what to report. Components of a patient safety learning system that increased successful adoption and implementation were emphasis on a blame-free culture that encourages reporting and learning, clear guidelines on how and what to report, making sure the system is user-friendly, organizational development support for data analysis to generate meaningful learning outcomes

  1. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-06-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  2. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Primary Coolant Pump and Motor Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-06-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  3. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 6: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 6, in conjunction with Volume 7, provides a description of engineered safety features.

  4. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems-without resorting to point......-wise discretisation. Moreover, being based on arbitrary abstractions computed by tools for the analysis of non-probabilistic hybrid systems, improvements in effectivity of such tools directly carry over to improvements in effectivity of the technique we describe. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach...

  5. Integrated safety management system verification: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R.F.

    1998-08-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Policy (P) 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, commits to institutionalization of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex. The DOE Acquisition Regulations (DEAR, 48 CFR 970) requires contractors to manage and perform work in accordance with a documented Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). Guidance and expectations have been provided to PNNL by incorporation into the operating contract (Contract DE-ACM-76FL0 1830) and by letter. The contract requires that the contractor submit a description of their ISMS for approval by DOE. PNNL submitted their proposed Safety Management System Description for approval on November 25,1997. RL tentatively approved acceptance of the description pursuant to a favorable recommendation from this review. The Integrated Safety Management System Verification is a review of the adequacy of the ISMS description in fulfilling the requirements of the DEAR and the DOE Policy. The purpose of this review is to provide the Richland Operations Office Manager with a recommendation for approval of the ISMS description of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory based upon compliance with the requirements of 49 CFR 970.5204(-2 and -78); and to verify the extent and maturity of ISMS implementation within the Laboratory. Further the review will provide a model for other DOE laboratories managed by the Office of Assistant Secretary for Energy Research.

  6. Safety Design and Evaluation in a Large-Scale Japan Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yamano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a next-generation plant, a large-scale Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR adopts a number of innovative technologies in order to achieve economic competitiveness, enhanced reliability, and safety. This paper describes safety requirements for JSFR conformed to the defense-in-depth principle in IAEA. Specific design features of JSFR are a passive reactor shutdown system and a recriticality-free concept against anticipated transients without scram (ATWS in design extension conditions (DECs. A fully passive decay heat removal system with natural circulation is also introduced for design-basis events (DBEs and DECs. In this paper, the safety design accommodation in JSFR was validated by safety analyses for representative DBEs: primary pump seizure and long-term loss-of-offsite power accidents. The safety analysis also showed the effectiveness of the passive shutdown system against a typical ATWS. Severe accident analysis supported by safety experiments and phenomenological consideration led to the feasibility of in-vessel retention without energetic recriticality. Moreover, a probabilistic safety assessment indicated to satisfy the risk target.

  7. The PIANC Safety Factor System for Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the recommendations for implementation of safety in breakwater designs given by the PIANC PTC IT Working Group No 12 on Analysis of Rubble Mound Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls. The working groups developed for the most important failure modes...

  8. Traffic safety effects of navigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.J.; Hogema, J.H.; Vonk, T.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract— To investigate effects of navigation systems on traffic safety, a literature search, a damages database analysis, a user survey and an instrumented car study were conducted. This paper presents the instrumented car study to investigate the effects of a navigation system on driving behavior

  9. Safety Analysis of Stochastic Dynamical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for verifying the safety of a stochastic system. In particular, we show how to compute the largest set of initial conditions such that a given stochastic system is safe with probability p. To compute the set of initial conditions we rely on the moment method that via...

  10. Thinking Tracks for Integrated Systems Design

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Denkena, B.; Gausemeijer, J.; Scholz-Reiter, B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates systems thinking and systems engineering. After a short literature review, the paper presents, as a means for systems thinking, twelve thinking tracks. The tracks can be used as creativity starter, checklist, and as means to investigate effects of design decisions taken early in the process. Tracks include thinking about time, risk and safety, and different types of life-cycles. The thinking tracks are based on literature, teaching experience and practice as a system de...

  11. Advanced analysis and design for fire safety of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Analysis and Design for Fire Safety of Steel Structures systematically presents the latest findings on behaviours of steel structural components in a fire, such as the catenary actions of restrained steel beams, the design methods for restrained steel columns, and the membrane actions of concrete floor slabs with steel decks. Using a systematic description of structural fire safety engineering principles, the authors illustrate the important difference between behaviours of an isolated structural element and the restrained component in a complete structure under fire conditions. The book will be an essential resource for structural engineers who wish to improve their understanding of steel buildings exposed to fires. It is also an ideal textbook for introductory courses in fire safety for master’s degree programs in structural engineering, and is excellent reading material for final-year undergraduate students in civil engineering and fire safety engineering. Furthermore, it successfully bridges th...

  12. Applying Systems Thinking to Law Enforcement Safety: Recommendation for a Comprehensive Safety Management Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    THINKING TO LAW ENFORCEMENT SAFETY: RECOMMENDATION FOR A COMPREHENSIVE SAFETY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK by Maggie A. DeBoard December 2015...2. REPORT DATE December 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE APPLYING SYSTEMS THINKING TO LAW...deaths, systems thinking , safety management systems, risk management, fire safety officer, after-action review, firefighter culture, OSHA

  13. Safety by design: production of engineering surface modified nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Delpivo, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis focused on nanomaterial (NM) engineering for occupational health and safety, in the frame of the EU project “Safe Nano Worker Exposure Scenarios (SANOWORK)”. Following a safety by design approach, surface engineering (surface coating, purification process, colloidal force control, wet milling, film coating deposition and granulation) were proposed as risk remediation strategies (RRS) to decrease toxicity and emission potential of NMs within real processing lines. In the fir...

  14. Partial Safety Factors for Fatigue Design of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper calibration of partial safety factors for fatigue design of wind turbine blades is considered. The stochastic models for the physical uncertainties on the material properties are based on constant amplitude fatigue tests and the uncertainty on Miners rule for linear damage ac...... of the partial safety factors depending on the level of model and statistical uncertainty. This could be useful for manufactures that perform additional measurements or calculations in order to bring down the model and statistical uncertainties....

  15. Recent advances in systems safety and security

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatescu, Grigore

    2016-01-01

    This book represents a timely overview of advances in systems safety and security, based on selected, revised and extended contributions from the 2nd and 3rd editions of the International Workshop on Systems Safety and Security – IWSSS, held in 2014 and 2015, respectively, in Bucharest, Romania. It includes 14 chapters, co-authored by 34 researchers from 7 countries. The book provides an useful reference from both theoretical and applied perspectives in what concerns recent progress in this area of critical interest. Contributions, broadly grouped by core topic, address challenges related to information theoretic methods for assuring systems safety and security, cloud-based solutions, image processing approaches, distributed sensor networks and legal or risk analysis viewpoints. These are mostly accompanied by associated case studies providing additional practical value and underlying the broad relevance and impact of the field.

  16. Modelling safety of multistate systems with ageing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    An innovative approach to safety analysis of multistate ageing systems is presented. Basic notions of the ageing multistate systems safety analysis are introduced. The system components and the system multistate safety functions are defined. The mean values and variances of the multistate systems lifetimes in the safety state subsets and the mean values of their lifetimes in the particular safety states are defined. The multi-state system risk function and the moment of exceeding by the system the critical safety state are introduced. Applications of the proposed multistate system safety models to the evaluation and prediction of the safty characteristics of the consecutive "m out of n: F" is presented as well.

  17. Safety effects of navigation systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of drivers are using navigation systems in their cars. The advantages to the user are obvious: you can get to your destination via the fastest and shortest route. This reduces stress and exposure to other traffic. However, there are also some (unintended) negative effects. For

  18. Integrating Safeguards and Security with Safety into Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Bean; John W. Hockert; David J. Hebditch

    2009-05-01

    There is a need to minimize security risks, proliferation hazards, and safety risks in the design of new nuclear facilities in a global environment of nuclear power expansion, while improving the synergy of major design features and raising operational efficiency. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) launched the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) covering many safeguards areas. One of these, launched by NNSA with support of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, was a multi-laboratory project, led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), to develop safeguards by design. The proposed Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process has been developed as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient, and cost effective integration of international safeguards and other nonproliferation barriers with national material control and accountability, physical security, and safety objectives into the overall design process for the nuclear facility lifecycle. A graded, iterative process was developed to integrate these areas throughout the project phases. It identified activities, deliverables, interfaces, and hold points covering both domestic regulatory requirements and international safeguards using the DOE regulatory environment as exemplar to provide a framework and guidance for project management and integration of safety with security during design. Further work, reported in this paper, created a generalized SBD process which could also be employed within the licensed nuclear industry and internationally for design of new facilities. Several tools for integrating safeguards, safety, and security into design are discussed here. SBD appears complementary to the EFCOG TROSSI process for security and safety integration created in 2006, which focuses on standardized upgrades to enable existing DOE facilities to meet a more severe design basis threat. A collaborative approach is suggested.

  19. Systems engineering agile design methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the paradigm of the engineering design process. The authors discuss agile systems and engineering design. The book captures the entire design process (functionbases), context, and requirements to affect real reuse. It provides a methodology for an engineering design process foundation for modern and future systems design. This book captures design patterns with context for actual Systems Engineering Design Reuse and contains a new paradigm in Design Knowledge Management.

  20. Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsir, Khairina; Yazid, Putranto Ilham; Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi

    2014-09-01

    Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.

  1. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the

  2. Segmentation Scheme for Safety Enhancement of Engineered Safety Features Component Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangseok; Sohn, Kwangyoung [Korea Reliability Technology and System, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junku; Park, Geunok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Common Caused Failure (CCF) or undetectable failure would adversely impact safety functions of ESF-CCS in the existing nuclear power plants. We propose the segmentation scheme to solve these problems. Main function assignment to segments in the proposed segmentation scheme is based on functional dependency and critical function success path by using the dependency depth matrix. The segment has functional independence and physical isolation. The segmentation structure is that prohibit failure propagation to others from undetectable failures. Therefore, the segmentation system structure has robustness to undetectable failures. The segmentation system structure has functional diversity. The specific function in the segment defected by CCF, the specific function could be maintained by diverse control function that assigned to other segments. Device level control signals and system level control signals are separated and also control signal and status signals are separated due to signal transmission paths are allocated independently based on signal type. In this kind of design, single device failure or failures on signal path in the channel couldn't result in the loss of all segmented functions simultaneously. Thus the proposed segmentation function is the design scheme that improves availability of safety functions. In conventional ESF-CCS, the single controller generates the signal to control the multiple safety functions, and the reliability is achieved by multiplication within the channel. This design has a drawback causing the loss of multiple functions due to the CCF (Common Cause Failure) and single failure Heterogeneous controller guarantees the diversity ensuring the execution of safety functions against the CCF and single failure, but requiring a lot of resources like manpower and cost. The segmentation technology based on the compartmentalization and functional diversification decreases the CCF and single failure nonetheless the identical types of

  3. Towards the Design of Safety-Critical Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rafeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Safety is the most important factor when developing software for safety-critical systems. Traditional approaches attempted to achieve safety through testing the software. However, there might be some bugs in the software not revealed in the test procedure. Formal verification is a new trend in developing safe software. In this paper, we propose a multi-phase formal approach for safety management in safety-critical software. We use timed transition Petri-net as a formal means to specify the properties of the model and their relations in each component of the software. In addition, we use the Z language to specify textual and mathematical specifications of the model, as a representative model to evaluate the proposed approach; we chose continuous infusion insulin pump (CIIP.

  4. Effect of structural discontinuities on coal pillar strength as a basis for improving safety in the design of coal pillar systems.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esterhuizen, GS

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of underground coal mines depends on the integrity of the pillars which are required to support the overlying strata. Should the pillars collapse, the safety of the persons in the workings will be threatened. The strength of a coal...

  5. Safety management of a complex R and D ground operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, J. F.; Maurer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A perspective on safety program management was developed for a complex R&D operating system, such as the NASA-Lewis Research Center. Using a systems approach, hazardous operations are subjected to third-party reviews by designated-area safety committees and are maintained under safety permit controls. To insure personnel alertness, emergency containment forces and employees are trained in dry-run emergency simulation exercises. The keys to real safety effectiveness are top management support and visibility of residual risks.

  6. Railway automatic safety protection system based on GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Hai Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic protection system of railway safety is designed for the railway construction workers to protect alarm, and the safety protection device by using GPS satellite positioning system to acquire location information of the operating point, through the CTC/TDCS system and computer monitoring system for the running of the train position and the arithmetic distance. Achieving timely and continuously forecasts about the distance of the train which is apart from the operating point to prompt the voice alarm of the approaching train. Using digital technology to realize the function of the traditional analog interphone, eliminates the quality problems of the call. With the GSM-R, mobile wireless transmission channel and terminal technology, it overcomes the restrictions of the analog interphone which influenced by communication distance and more problems of blind areas. Finally to achieve practical, convenient, applicable and adaptable design goals.

  7. Integrated safety management system verification: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R.F.

    1998-08-12

    Department of Energy (DOE) Policy (P) 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, commits to institutionalizing an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex. The DOE Acquisition Regulations (DEAR 48 CFR 970) requires contractors to manage and perform work in accordance with a documented Integrated Safety Management System. The Manager, Richland Operations Office (RL), initiated a combined Phase 1 and Phase 2 Integrated Safety Management Verification review to confirm that PNNL had successfully submitted a description of their ISMS and had implemented ISMS within the laboratory facilities and processes. A combined review was directed by the Manager, RL, based upon the progress PNNL had made in the implementation of ISM. This report documents the results of the review conducted to verify: (1) that the PNNL integrated safety management system description and enabling documents and processes conform to the guidance provided by the Manager, RL; (2) that corporate policy is implemented by line managers; (3) that PNNL has provided tailored direction to the facility management; and (4) the Manager, RL, has documented processes that integrate their safety activities and oversight with those of PNNL. The general conduct of the review was consistent with the direction provided by the Under Secretary`s Draft Safety Management System Review and Approval Protocol. The purpose of this review was to provide the Manager, RL, with a recommendation to the adequacy of the ISMS description of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory based upon compliance with the requirements of 49 CFR 970.5204(-2 and -78); and, to provide an evaluation of the extent and maturity of ISMS implementation within the Laboratory. Further, this review was intended to provide a model for other DOE Laboratories. In an effort to reduce the time and travel costs associated with ISM verification the team agreed to conduct preliminary training and orientation electronically and by phone. These

  8. 77 FR 11120 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From UAB Health System Patient Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From UAB Health System Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... relinquishment from the UAB Health System Patient Safety Organization of its status as a Patient Safety...

  9. Proceedings of the Digital Systems Reliability and Nuclear Safety Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, D. R.; Cuthill, B. B.; Ippolito, L. M. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Beltracchi, L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States) ed.

    1994-03-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in cooperation with the National Institute of Standards and Technology conducted the.Digital Systems Reliability and Nuclear Safety Workshop on September 13--14, 1993, in Rockville, Maryland. The workshop provided a forum for the exchange of information among experts within the nuclear industry, experts from other industries, regulators and academia. The information presented at this workshop provided in-depth exposure of the NRC staff and the nuclear industry to digital systems design safety issues and also provided feedback to the NRC from outside experts regarding identified safety issues, proposed regulatory positions, and intended research associated with the use of digital systems in nuclear power plants. Technical presentations provided insights on areas where current software engineering practices may be inadequate for safety-critical systems, on potential solutions for development issues, and on methods for reducing risk in safety-critical systems. This report contains an analysis of results of the workshop, the papers presented panel presentations, and summaries of, discussions at this workshop. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  10. A fundamental study for safety in advanced PWR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Goon Cherl; Kang, C. S.; Lee, E. C.; Kim, S. N.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, M. H.; Chae, W. S.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, D. H.; No, S. T.; Jeon, G. D.; Lee, T. H.; Kim, B. S.; Park, H. J.; Yoon, J. I.; Kim, J. H.; Jeon, J. H.; Jang, W. H.; Sa, Y. C.; Lee, H. W.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, S. W.; Yang, C. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Ha, J. B.; Son, M. S.; An, Y. C.; Bae, S. W. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    For the development of integral type small and medium reactor which is remarkably safer than existing plants, the operability of passive safety systems should be studied and its applicability to the integral type reactor should be evaluated. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the characteristics of various passive safety systems and provide the proper data for the future design with performing experiments and developing analytical methodology. Thus in this study, the following techniques for small reactors and passive safety systems subject to this study are evaluated and a part of basic experiments and numerical works necessary to the experiments were performed, First, heat pipes used in containment vessel which removes hear by passive mechanism during accidents, second, natural circulation characteristics for the passive safety analysis of integrated reactor, third, heat evaluation of the effective function of hydraulic valve in passive decay heat removal systems, fifth, the determination of the improved source term for the integral reactor, and the last, passive containment cooling system, which is the first step in the analysis of the integrated safety and the environmental impacts of nuclear power plant. 184 refs., 49 tabs., 188 figs. (author)

  11. Comparison of three small-break loss-of-coolant accident tests with different break locations using the system-integrated modular advanced reactor-integral test loop facility to estimate the safety of the smart design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Bae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA tests with safety injection pumps were carried out using the integral-effect test loop for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor, i.e., the SMART-ITL facility. The types of break are a safety injection system line break, shutdown cooling system line break, and pressurizer safety valve line break. The thermal–hydraulic phenomena show a traditional behavior to decrease the temperature and pressure whereas the local phenomena are slightly different during the early stage of the transient after a break simulation. A safety injection using a high-pressure pump effectively cools down and recovers the inventory of a reactor coolant system. The global trends show reproducible results for an SBLOCA scenario with three different break locations. It was confirmed that the safety injection system is robustly safe enough to protect from a core uncovery.

  12. Comparison of three small-break loss-of-coolant accident tests with different break locations using the system-integrated modular advanced reactor-integral test loop facility to estimate the safety of the smart design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung Uk; Yi, Sung Jae; Park, Hyun Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Eok [Dept. of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests with safety injection pumps were carried out using the integral-effect test loop for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), i.e., the SMART-ITL facility. The types of break are a safety injection system line break, shutdown cooling system line break, and pressurizer safety valve line break. The thermal–hydraulic phenomena show a traditional behavior to decrease the temperature and pressure whereas the local phenomena are slightly different during the early stage of the transient after a break simulation. A safety injection using a high-pressure pump effectively cools down and recovers the inventory of a reactor coolant system. The global trends show reproducible results for an SBLOCA scenario with three different break locations. It was confirmed that the safety injection system is robustly safe enough to protect from a core uncovery.

  13. Safety Analysis for Key Design Features of KALIMER-600 Design Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, E. K.; Suk, S. D.; Chang, W. P.; Jeong, H. Y.; Ha, K. S

    2007-02-15

    This report contains the safety analyses of the KALIMER-600 conceptual design which KAERI has been developing under the Long-term Nuclear R and D Program. The analyses have been performed reflecting the design developments during the second year of the 4th design phase in the program. The specific presentations are the key design features with the safety principles for achieving the safety objectives, the event categorization and safety criteria, and results on the safety analyses for the DBAs and ATWS events, the containment performance, and the channel blockages. The safety analyses for both the DBAs and ATWS events have been performed using SSC-K version 1.3., and the results have shown the fulfillment of the safety criteria for DBAs with conservative assumptions. The safety margins as well as the inherent safety also have been confirmed for the ATWS events. For the containment performance analysis, ORIGEN-2.1 and CONTAIN-LMR have been used. In results, the structural integrity has been acceptable and the evaluated exposure dose rate has been complied with 10 CFR 100 and PAG limits. The analysis results for flow blockages of 6-subchannels, 24-subchannels, and 54- subchannels with the MATRA-LMR-FB code, have assured the integrity of subassemblies.

  14. Information systems in food safety management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMeekin, T.A.; Baranyi, J.; Bowman, J.; Dalgaard, P.; Kirk, M.; Ross, T.; Schmid, S.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Information systems are concerned with data capture, storage, analysis and retrieval. In the context of food safety management they are vital to assist decision making in a short time frame, potentially allowing decisions to be made and practices to be actioned in real time. Databases with

  15. Children's choice: Color associations in children's safety sign design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung; Wong, Yi Lin

    2017-03-01

    Color has been more identified as a key consideration in ergonomics. Color conveys messages and is an important element in safety signs, as it provides extra information to users. However, very limited recent research has focused on children and their color association in the context of safety signs. This study thus examined how children use colors in drawing different safety signs and how they associate colors with different concepts and objects that appear in safety signs. Drawing was used to extract children's use of color and the associations they made between signs and colors. The child participants were given 12 referents of different safety signs and were asked to design and draw the signs using different colored felt-tip pens. They were also asked to give reasons for their choices of colors. Significant associations were found between red and 'don't', orange and 'hands', and blue and 'water'. The child participants were only able to attribute the reasons for the use of yellow, green, blue and black through concrete identification and concrete association, and red through abstract association. The children's use of color quite differs from that shown in the ISO registered signs. There is a need to consider the use of colors carefully when designing signs specifically for children. Sign designers should take children's color associations in consideration and be aware if there are any misunderstandings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the researches conducted in the field of safety management systems.Safety management system framework, methods and tools for safety analysis in Air Traffic Control have been reviewed.Principles of development of Integrated safety management system in Air Traffic Services have been proposed.

  17. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 2: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 2, in conjunction with Volume 3, provides the design of structures, components, equipment and systems.

  18. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinnell, J. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Klein, J. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  19. A Unified System for Ensuring Drug Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Cave, Neil G.

    2002-01-01

    There are currently two systems in the United States to ensure the safety of pharmaceutical products: tort and regulation. The shared goal of tort law and Food and Drug Administrative (“FDAâ€) regulation is to make beneficial drugs available to patients while keeping unsafe drugs off the market. This goal will be better served if the two are combined into a unified system, wherein each functions in the role best suited to its relative strengths and weaknesses. In...

  20. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  1. Partial Safety Factors for Fatigue Design of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper calibration of partial safety factors for fatigue design of wind turbine blades is considered. The stochastic models for the physical uncertainties on the material properties are based on constant amplitude fatigue tests and the uncertainty on Miners rule for linear damage...

  2. Designing for the Elderly User: Internet Safety Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelt, Lianne C.

    2016-01-01

    The following qualitative study examines the usability of a custom-designed Internet safety tutorial, targeted at elderly individuals who use the Internet regularly, for effectively conveying critical information regarding online fraud, scams, and other cyber security. The elderly population is especially at risk when it comes to fraudulent…

  3. Design of sustainable chemical processes incorporating the principles of inherent safety

    OpenAIRE

    Amat Bernabéu, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the incorporation of safety concepts in the design of chemical plants, together the economic criterion, is a priority within the area of process systems engineering. An inherently safer chemical process avoids or reduces the hazards, rather than managing by adding layers of protection with safety devices. In this work, a systematic methodology is proposed for obtaining the optimal operation conditions that simultaneously seek for the minimization of the inherently safer index and th...

  4. Formal Modeling of Safety Requirements in the Model-Driven Development of Safety Critical Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sojer, Dominik;Buckl, Christian;Knoll, Alois

    2017-01-01

    Safety requirements are a very important artifact in the developmentof safety critical embedded systems. They are usually identifiedduring safety analyses and are used by experts as a basis for thecorrect selection and implementation of safety mechanisms. Varioussafety analysis research groups have worked on formal modeling ofsafety requirements with the goal of determining if a system canmeet these requirements. In this abstract, we propose the applicationof formal models of safety requireme...

  5. Intelligent Tutoring Systems as Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Albert K. W.; Lee, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes the notion of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) as design in order to engage ITS development with more rigor. Topics include engineering design versus ITS design; systems approach; design as problem solving; a hierarchy of paradigms; the emergence of an agent-theoretic approach; and the need for an ITS design notation. (Author/LRW)

  6. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed.

  7. Designing a Safety Reporting Smartphone Application to Improve Patient Safety After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumsvik, Ole Andreas; Babic, Ankica

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a safety reporting smartphone application which is expected to reduce the occurrence of postoperative adverse events after total hip arthroplasty (THA). A user-centered design approach was utilized to facilitate optimal user experience. Two main implemented functionalities capture patient pain levels and well-being, the two dimensions of patient status that are intuitive and commonly checked. For these and other functionalities, mobile technology could enable timely safety reporting and collection of patient data out of a hospital setting. The HCI expert, and healthcare professionals from the Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen have assessed the design with respect to the interaction flow, information content, and self-reporting functionalities. They have found it to be practical, intuitive, sufficient and simple for users. Patient self-reporting could help recognizing safety issues and adverse events.

  8. Does the concept of safety culture help or hinder systems thinking in safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Teemu; Rollenhagen, Carl

    2014-07-01

    The concept of safety culture has become established in safety management applications in all major safety-critical domains. The idea that safety culture somehow represents a "systemic view" on safety is seldom explicitly spoken out, but nevertheless seem to linger behind many safety culture discourses. However, in this paper we argue that the "new" contribution to safety management from safety culture never really became integrated with classical engineering principles and concepts. This integration would have been necessary for the development of a more genuine systems-oriented view on safety; e.g. a conception of safety in which human, technological, organisational and cultural factors are understood as mutually interacting elements. Without of this integration, researchers and the users of the various tools and methods associated with safety culture have sometimes fostered a belief that "safety culture" in fact represents such a systemic view about safety. This belief is, however, not backed up by theoretical or empirical evidence. It is true that safety culture, at least in some sense, represents a holistic term-a totality of factors that include human, organisational and technological aspects. However, the departure for such safety culture models is still human and organisational factors rather than technology (or safety) itself. The aim of this paper is to critically review the various uses of the concept of safety culture as representing a systemic view on safety. The article will take a look at the concepts of culture and safety culture based on previous studies, and outlines in more detail the theoretical challenges in safety culture as a systems concept. The paper also presents recommendations on how to make safety culture more systemic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety of Hydrogen Systems Installed in Outdoor Enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrogen Safety Panel brings a broad cross-section of expertise from the industrial, government, and academic sectors to help advise the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office through its work in hydrogen safety, codes, and standards. The Panel’s initiatives in reviewing safety plans, conducting safety evaluations, identifying safety-related technical data gaps, and supporting safety knowledge tools and databases cover the gamut from research and development to demonstration and deployment. The Panel’s recent work has focused on the safe deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in support of DOE efforts to accelerate fuel cell commercialization in early market applications: vehicle refueling, material handling equipment, backup power for warehouses and telecommunication sites, and portable power devices. This paper resulted from observations and considerations stemming from the Panel’s work on early market applications. This paper focuses on hydrogen system components that are installed in outdoor enclosures. These enclosures might alternatively be called “cabinets,” but for simplicity, they are all referred to as “enclosures” in this paper. These enclosures can provide a space where a flammable mixture of hydrogen and air might accumulate, creating the potential for a fire or explosion should an ignition occur. If the enclosure is large enough for a person to enter, and ventilation is inadequate, the hydrogen concentration could be high enough to asphyxiate a person who entered the space. Manufacturers, users, and government authorities rely on requirements described in codes to guide safe design and installation of such systems. Except for small enclosures used for hydrogen gas cylinders (gas cabinets), fuel cell power systems, and the enclosures that most people would describe as buildings, there are no hydrogen safety requirements for these enclosures, leaving gaps that must be addressed. This paper proposes that

  10. The Safety of Unmanned Systems: The Development of Safety Precepts for Unmanned Systems (UMS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    English, Thomas P; Shampine, David J; Adams, Julie A; Muniak, Charles G; Kratovil, Edward W

    2008-01-01

    ...), and a concern for safety when these systems, primarily unmanned air vehicles, were operated over populated areas, or in proximity to other aircraft, both military and civilian, and when configured...

  11. Partial Safety Factors for Fatigue Design of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper calibration of partial safety factors for fatigue design of wind turbine blades is considered. The stochastic models for the physical uncertainties on the material properties are based on constant amplitude fatigue tests and the uncertainty on Miners rule for linear damage...... the influence from each of these. In general model uncertainty on the aerodynamics has the largest influence on the partial safety factors followed by the physical uncertainty on the material properties and the model uncertainty on Miners rule. In the paper a framework is presented for determination...

  12. Research on safety analysis for airborne system based on extended functional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread use of embedded system in safety critical areas, system safety assurance has become one of the research hotspots of engineering technologies. System safety analysis mainly concentrates on the requirement specification and the recent design, and in the process of the actual development of the software, safety requirement analysis and design are two independent processes. This article expands the safety requirements described by fault tree into state diagram and proposes the new concept “fault state diagram,” which can unify safety requirement model and functional model. Based on the fault state diagram, this article proposes the method of airborne system safety analysis, including the following: gives out one method for abstracting and describing safety requirements from system fault tree based on Backus Normal Form; defines the transformation rules from fault tree logic gates and continuous time into state diagram elements; designs safety requirement information mapping table which translates safety requirements into state diagram elements; and designs the automatic construction algorithm of fault state diagram, which is based on the transformation rules and mapping table. Finally, a small gas stove control system case using the method proves the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. A Review of Safety and Design Requirements of the Artificial Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauw, Helga; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Koops, Robin; DeVries, J Hans

    2016-11-01

    As clinical studies with artificial pancreas systems for automated blood glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes move to unsupervised real-life settings, product development will be a focus of companies over the coming years. Directions or requirements regarding safety in the design of an artificial pancreas are, however, lacking. This review aims to provide an overview and discussion of safety and design requirements of the artificial pancreas. We performed a structured literature search based on three search components-type 1 diabetes, artificial pancreas, and safety or design-and extended the discussion with our own experiences in developing artificial pancreas systems. The main hazards of the artificial pancreas are over- and under-dosing of insulin and, in case of a bi-hormonal system, of glucagon or other hormones. For each component of an artificial pancreas and for the complete system we identified safety issues related to these hazards and proposed control measures. Prerequisites that enable the control algorithms to provide safe closed-loop control are accurate and reliable input of glucose values, assured hormone delivery and an efficient user interface. In addition, the system configuration has important implications for safety, as close cooperation and data exchange between the different components is essential.

  14. Antisideslip and Antirollover Safety Speed Controller Design for Vehicle on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the drivers cannot be aware of the existing of forthcoming curved roads and fail to regulate their safety speeds accordingly, sideslip or rollover may occur with high probability. The antisideslip and antirollover control of vehicle on curved road in automatic highway systems is studied. The safety speed warning system is set before entering the curved road firstly. The speed adhesion control is adopted to shorten the braking distance while decelerating and to guarantee the safety speed. The velocity controller when decelerating on the straight path and the posture controller when driving on curved road are designed, respectively, utilizing integral backstepping technology. Simulation results demonstrate that this control system is characterized by quick and precise tracking and global stability. Consequently, it is able to avoid the dangerous operating conditions, such as sideslip and rollover, and guarantee the safety and directional stability when driving on curved road.

  15. ADVANCED DRIVER SAFETY SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR THE URBAN TYPE VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna JEZIERSKA-KRUPA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart Power Team is currently working on the design of an urban electric vehicle designed to compete in the Shell Eco-marathon. One important aspect of this type of vehicle characteristics is it safety. The project of advanced driver assistance systems has included some proposals of such systems and the concept of their execution. The first concept, BLIS (Blind Spot Information System, is to build a system of informing a driver about vehicles appearing in the blind spot. The system constitutes a second concept, CDIS (Collision Detection and Information System, and it is designed to detect a vehicle collision and inform the team. Further systems are: DPMS (Dew Point Measurement System - a system which does not allow a situation, where the windows are fogged, OHRS (Overtaking Horn Reminder System - a system which checks overtaking and MSS (main supervision system - a supervisory system. These concepts are based on the assumption of the use of laser sensors, photoelectric, humidity and temperature, and other commercially available systems. The article presents a detailed description of driver assistance systems and virtual prototyping methodology for these systems, as well as the numerical results of the verification of one of the systems.

  16. A hybrid multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method for robust safety design of a rail vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejlaoui, Mohamed; Houidi, Ajmi; Affi, Zouhaier; Romdhane, Lotfi

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the robust safety design optimization of a rail vehicle system moving in short radius curved tracks. A combined multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method is developed and used for the robust multi-objective optimization of the rail vehicle system. This robust optimization of rail vehicle safety considers simultaneously the derailment angle and its standard deviation where the design parameters uncertainties are considered. The obtained results showed that the robust design reduces significantly the sensitivity of the rail vehicle safety to the design parameters uncertainties compared to the determinist one and to the literature results.

  17. [Expert investigation on food safety standard system framework construction in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Yan, Weixing; Fan, Yongxiang; Zeng, Biao; Peng, Zhen; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Through investigating food safety standard framework among food safety experts, to summarize the basic elements and principles of food safety standard system, and provide policy advices for food safety standards framework. A survey was carried out among 415 experts from government, professional institutions and the food industry/enterprises using the National Food Safety Standard System Construction Consultation Questionnaire designed in the name of the Secretariat of National Food Safety Standard Committee. Experts have different advices in each group about the principles of food product standards, food additive product standards, food related product standards, hygienic practice, test methods. According to the results, the best solution not only may reflect experts awareness of the work of food safety standards situation, but also provide advices for setting and revision of food safety standards for the next. Through experts investigation, the framework and guiding principles of food safety standard had been built.

  18. A Framework for Systemic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As designers move upstream from traditional product and service design to engage with challenges characterised by complexity, uniqueness, value conflict, and ambiguity over objectives, they have increasingly integrated systems approaches into their practice. This synthesis of systems thinking with design thinking is forming a distinct new field of systemic design. This paper presents a framework for systemic design as a mindset, methodology, and set of methods that together enable teams to learn, innovate, and adapt to a complex and dynamic environment. We suggest that a systemic design mindset is inquiring, open, integrative, collaborative, and centred. We propose a systemic design methodology composed of six main activities: framing, formulating, generating, reflecting, inquiring, and facilitating. We view systemic design methods as a flexible and open-ended set of procedures for facilitating group collaboration that are both systemic and designerly.  

  19. An approach for functional safety improvement of an existing automotive system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khabbaz Saberi, A.; Luo, Y.; Pawel Cichosz, F.; Brand, M. van den; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2015-01-01

    Safety of automotive systems is becoming more involved, specially for the case of autonomous vehicles. The ISO 26262 standard offers a systematic approach for designing a safe road vehicle (or subsystems of a car) from design phase through its production. However, providing functional safety

  20. Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

  1. Issues in holistic system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia L.; Probst, Christian W.; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2006-01-01

    The coordination of layers in computer and software systems is one of the main challenges in designing such systems today. In this paper we consider Holistic System Design as a way of integrating requirements and facilities of different system layers. We also discuss some of the challenges...... that this kind of system design poses for computer science in general as well as programming languages and operating systems in particular....

  2. Overall System Description and Safety Characteristics of Prototype Gen IV Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoon Yoo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prototype Gen IV sodium cooled fast reactor (PGSFR has been developed for the last 4 years, fulfilling the technology demonstration of the burning capability of transuranic elements included in light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. The PGSFR design has been focused on the robustness of safety systems by enhancing inherent safety characteristics of metal fuel and strengthening passive safety features using natural circulation and thermal expansion. The preliminary safety information document as a major outcome of the first design phase of PGSFR development was issued at the end of 2015. The project entered the second design phase at the beginning of 2016. This paper summarizes the overall structures, systems, and components of nuclear steam supply system and safety characteristics of the PGSFR. The research and development activities to demonstrate the safety performance are also briefly introduced in the paper.

  3. Energy Storage System Safety: Plan Review and Inspection Checklist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pam C (PNNL); Conover, David R (PNNL)

    2017-03-01

    Codes, standards, and regulations (CSR) governing the design, construction, installation, commissioning, and operation of the built environment are intended to protect the public health, safety, and welfare. While these documents change over time to address new technology and new safety challenges, there is generally some lag time between the introduction of a technology into the market and the time it is specifically covered in model codes and standards developed in the voluntary sector. After their development, there is also a timeframe of at least a year or two until the codes and standards are adopted. Until existing model codes and standards are updated or new ones are developed and then adopted, one seeking to deploy energy storage technologies or needing to verify the safety of an installation may be challenged in trying to apply currently implemented CSRs to an energy storage system (ESS). The Energy Storage System Guide for Compliance with Safety Codes and Standards1 (CG), developed in June 2016, is intended to help address the acceptability of the design and construction of stationary ESSs, their component parts, and the siting, installation, commissioning, operations, maintenance, and repair/renovation of ESS within the built environment.

  4. Can cyclist safety be improved with intelligent transport systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Anne; Leden, Lars; Rämä, Pirkko; Scholliers, Johan; Van Noort, Martijn; Bell, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) have assisted in the decrease of road traffic fatalities, particularly amongst passenger car occupants. Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) such as pedestrians, cyclists, moped riders and motorcyclists, however, have not been that much in focus when developing ITS. Therefore, there is a clear need for ITS which specifically address VRUs as an integrated element of the traffic system. This paper presents the results of a quantitative safety impact assessment of five systems that were estimated to have high potential to improve the safety of cyclists, namely: Blind Spot Detection (BSD), Bicycle to Vehicle communication (B2V), Intersection safety (INS), Pedestrian and Cyclist Detection System+Emergency Braking (PCDS+EBR) and VRU Beacon System (VBS). An ex-ante assessment method proposed by Kulmala (2010) targeted to assess the effects of ITS for cars was applied and further developed in this study to assess the safety impacts of ITS specifically designed for VRUs. The main results of the assessment showed that all investigated systems affect cyclist safety in a positive way by preventing fatalities and injuries. The estimates considering 2012 accident data and full penetration showed that the highest effects could be obtained by the implementation of PCDS+EBR and B2V, whereas VBS had the lowest effect. The estimated yearly reduction in cyclist fatalities in the EU-28 varied between 77 and 286 per system. A forecast for 2030, taking into accounts the estimated accident trends and penetration rates, showed the highest effects for PCDS+EBR and BSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. System safety engineering in the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnzen, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    Applications of system safety engineering to the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles are described. As a pertinent example, the paper describes a safety engineering efforts tailored to the particular design and test requirements of the Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The test results obtained from this unique research vehicle provide significant design data directly applicable to the development of future tracked air cushion vehicles that will carry passengers in comfort and safety at speeds up to 300 miles per hour.

  6. Safety of High Speed Ground Transportation Systems - Human Factors Phase II: Design and Evaluation of Decision Aids for Control of High-Speed Trains: Experiments and Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Although the speed of some guided ground transportation systems continues to : increase, the reaction time and the sensory and information processing : capacities of railroad personnel remain constant. This second report in a : series examining criti...

  7. Partial Safety Factors for Fatigue Design of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    In the present paper calibration of partial safety factors for fatigue design of wind turbine blades is considered. The stochastic models for the physical uncertainties on the material properties are based on constant amplitude fatigue tests and the uncertainty on Miners rule for linear damage...... from rainflow-counting of simulated time series for a 5MW reference wind turbine [1]. A possible influence of a complex stress state in the blade is not taken into account and only longitudinal stresses are considered....... accumulation is determined from variable amplitude fatigue tests with the Wisper and Wisperx spectra. The statistical uncertainty for the assessment of the fatigue loads is also investigated. The partial safety factors are calibrated for design load case 1.2 in IEC 61400-1. The fatigue loads are determined...

  8. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 9: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 9 discusses Electric Power and Auxiliary Systems.

  9. Total Quality Management and the System Safety Secretary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Suzan E.

    1993-01-01

    The system safety secretary is a valuable member of the system safety team. As downsizing occurs to meet economic constraints, the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach is frequently adopted as a formula for success and, in some cases, for survival.

  10. A prospective evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the TAXUS Element paclitaxel-eluting coronary stent system for the treatment of de novo coronary artery lesions: Design and statistical methods of the PERSEUS clinical program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehrenberg Scott

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paclitaxel-eluting stents decrease angiographic and clinical restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention compared to bare metal stents. TAXUS Element is a third-generation paclitaxel-eluting stent which incorporates a novel, thinner-strut, platinum-enriched metal alloy platform. The stent is intended to have enhanced radiopacity and improved deliverability compared to other paclitaxel-eluting stents. The safety and efficacy of the TAXUS Element stent are being evaluated in the pivotal PERSEUS clinical trials. Methods/Design The PERSEUS trials include two parallel studies of the TAXUS Element stent in single, de novo coronary atherosclerotic lesions. The PERSEUS Workhorse study is a prospective, randomized (3:1, single-blind, non-inferiority trial in subjects with lesion length ≤28 mm and vessel diameter ≥2.75 mm to ≤4.0 mm which compares TAXUS Element to the TAXUS Express2 paclitaxel-eluting stent system. The Workhorse study employs a novel Bayesian statistical approach that uses prior information to limit the number of study subjects exposed to the investigational device and thus provide a safer and more efficient analysis of the TAXUS Element stent. PERSEUS Small Vessel is a prospective, single-arm, superiority trial in subjects with lesion length ≤20 mm and vessel diameter ≥2.25 mm to Discussion The TAXUS PERSEUS clinical trial program uses a novel statistical approach to evaluate whether design and metal alloy iterations in the TAXUS Element stent platform provide comparable safety and improved procedural performance compared to the previous generation Express stent. PERSEUS trial enrollment is complete and primary endpoint data are expected in 2010. PERSEUS Workhorse and Small Vessel are registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, identification numbers NCT00484315 and NCT00489541.

  11. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 16: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design. This Volume 16 details the application of Human Factors Engineering in the design process.

  12. A design thinking approach to effective vaccine safety communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Lea; Michl, Bettina; Rundblad, Gabriella; Trusko, Brett; Schnjakin, Maxim; Meinel, Christoph; Weinberg, Ulrich; Gaedicke, Gerhard; Rath, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex and controversial topic of vaccine safety communication warrants innovative, user-centered solutions that would start with gaining mutual respect while taking into account the needs, concerns and underlying motives of patients, parents and physicians. To this end, a non-profit collaborative project was conducted by The Vienna Vaccine Safety Initiative, an international think tank aiming to promote vaccine safety research and communication, and the School of Design Thinking in Potsdam, Germany, the first school for innovation in Europe. The revolutionary concept of the Design Thinking approach is to group students in small multi-disciplinary teams. As a result they can generate ground-breaking ideas by combining their expertise and different points of view. The team agreed to address the following design challenge question: "How might we enable physicians to encourage parents and children to prevent infectious diseases?" The current article describes, step-by step, the ideation and innovation process as well as first tangible outcomes of the project.

  13. A Review of Safety and Design Requirements of the Artificial Pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw, Helga; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Koops, Robin; DeVries, J. Hans

    2016-01-01

    As clinical studies with artificial pancreas systems for automated blood glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes move to unsupervised real-life settings, product development will be a focus of companies over the coming years. Directions or requirements regarding safety in the design of an

  14. Nitric Acid Revamp and Upgrading of the Alarm & Protection Safety System at Petrokemija, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoško, I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Every industrial production, particularly chemical processing, demands special attention in conducting the technological process with regard to the security requirements. For this reason, production processes should be continuously monitored by means of control and alarm safety instrumented systems. In the production of nitric acid at Petrokemija d. d., the original alarm safety system was designed as a combination of an electrical relay safety system and transistorized alarm module system. In order to increase safety requirements and modernize the technological process of nitric acid production, revamping and upgrading of the existing alarm safety system was initiated with a new microprocessor system. The newly derived alarm safety system, Simatic PCS 7, links the function of "classically" distributed control (DCS and logical systems in a common hardware and software platform with integrated engineering tools and operator interface to meet the minimum safety standards with safety integrity level 2 (SIL2 up to level 3 (SIL3, according to IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. This professional paper demonstrates the methodology of upgrading the logic of the alarm safety system in the production of nitric acid in the form of a logical diagram, which was the basis for a further step in its design and construction. Based on the mentioned logical diagram and defined security requirements, the project was implemented in three phases: analysis and testing, installation of the safety equipment and system, and commissioning. Developed also was a verification system of all safety conditions, which could be applied to other facilities for production of nitric acid. With the revamped and upgraded interlock alarm safety system, a new and improved safety boundary in the production of nitric acid was set, which created the foundation for further improvement of the production process in terms of improved analysis.

  15. Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

    2011-10-01

    Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

  16. Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Auditing of patient safety aims at early detection of risks of adverse events and is intended to encourage the continuous improvement of patient safety. The auditing should be an independent, objective assurance and consulting system. Auditing helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance. Audits are broadly conducted in hospitals, but little is known about their effects on the behaviour of healthcare professionals and patient safety outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of patient safety auditing in hospital care and to explore the processes and mechanisms underlying these effects. Methods and design Our study aims to evaluate an audit system to monitor and improve patient safety in a hospital setting. We are using a mixed-method evaluation with a before-and-after study design in eight departments of one university hospital in the period October 2011–July 2014. We measure several outcomes 3 months before the audit and 15 months after the audit. The primary outcomes are adverse events and complications. The secondary outcomes are experiences of patients, the standardised mortality ratio, prolonged hospital stay, patient safety culture, and team climate. We use medical record reviews, questionnaires, hospital administrative data, and observations to assess the outcomes. A process evaluation will be used to find out which components of internal auditing determine the effects. Discussion We report a study protocol of an effect and process evaluation to determine whether auditing improves patient safety in hospital care. Because auditing is a complex intervention targeted on several levels, we are using a combination of methods to collect qualitative and quantitative data about patient safety at the patient, professional, and department levels. This study is relevant for hospitals that want to

  17. Overview of Risk Mitigation for Safety-Critical Computer-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a high-level overview of a general strategy to mitigate the risks from threats to safety-critical computer-based systems. In this context, a safety threat is a process or phenomenon that can cause operational safety hazards in the form of computational system failures. This report is intended to provide insight into the safety-risk mitigation problem and the characteristics of potential solutions. The limitations of the general risk mitigation strategy are discussed and some options to overcome these limitations are provided. This work is part of an ongoing effort to enable well-founded assurance of safety-related properties of complex safety-critical computer-based aircraft systems by developing an effective capability to model and reason about the safety implications of system requirements and design.

  18. Design for Safety - The Ares Launch Vehicles Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Maggio, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    The lessons learned from the S&MA early involvement in the Ares I launch vehicle design phases proved that performing an in-line function jointly with engineering is critical for S&MA to have an effective role in supporting the system, element, and component design. These lessons learned were used to effectively support the Ares V conceptual design phase and planning for post conceptual design phases. The Top level Conceptual LOM assessment for Ares V performed by the S&MA community jointly with the engineering Advanced Concept Office (ACO) was influential in the final selection of the Ares V system configuration. Post conceptual phase, extensive reliability effort should be planned to support future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) design. In-depth reliability analysis involving the design, manufacturing, and system engineering communities is critical to understand design and process uncertainties and system integrated failures.

  19. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  20. An Integrated Project Management Life Cycle Supporting System Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschürtz, Hans; Schedl, Gabriele

    System failures in safety-critical domains can lead to harmful consequences for humans, the environment and for the system itself. The field of 'system safety' provides relief and aims at identifying possible risks already during the project planning phase of the system development. This requires modern project management support. The realisation of innovative ideas in software often in-creases the complexity and increasingly leads to dangerous system states or even system failures that put the safety of the system at risk.

  1. DESIGNING INFORMATION SYSTEM IN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna WALASEK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to approach essential issues in designing modern information systems. The key to successful information system is good design. A modern design requires looking from a number of different perspectives. Different people use different information in different contexts. These problems should be analyzed and requirements should be documented before solutions are designed and implemented. Satisfying the business needs is a baseline standard for information system.

  2. Preliminary design review: Brayton Isotope Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1977-03-01

    The design aspects covered include flight system design, design criteria/margins/reliability, GDS design, system analysis, materials, system assembly procedure, and government furnished equipment-BTPS. (TFD)

  3. Computer System Design System-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of computer system designers will be less concerned about details of processors and memories, and more concerned about the elements of a system tailored to particular applications. These designers will have a fundamental knowledge of processors and other elements in the system, but the success of their design will depend on the skills in making system-level tradeoffs that optimize the cost, performance and other attributes to meet application requirements. This book provides a new treatment of computer system design, particularly for System-on-Chip (SOC), which addresses th

  4. ISO 22000 FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Başaran, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the level of welfare of the countriesand the awareness of the consumers have forced the firms in the food sector toseek for new pursuits. In this re­gard, ISO 22000 is the most commonlypreferred food safety system. This study aims to contribute the share­holdersand the researchers studying this topic by in­terpreting the lateststudies in this field and determine the critical relationships inorder to picture an effective and productive implementation ofISO22000 which is one of ...

  5. Information systems in food safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeekin, T A; Baranyi, J; Bowman, J; Dalgaard, P; Kirk, M; Ross, T; Schmid, S; Zwietering, M H

    2006-12-01

    Information systems are concerned with data capture, storage, analysis and retrieval. In the context of food safety management they are vital to assist decision making in a short time frame, potentially allowing decisions to be made and practices to be actioned in real time. Databases with information on microorganisms pertinent to the identification of foodborne pathogens, response of microbial populations to the environment and characteristics of foods and processing conditions are the cornerstone of food safety management systems. Such databases find application in: Identifying pathogens in food at the genus or species level using applied systematics in automated ways. Identifying pathogens below the species level by molecular subtyping, an approach successfully applied in epidemiological investigations of foodborne disease and the basis for national surveillance programs. Predictive modelling software, such as the Pathogen Modeling Program and Growth Predictor (that took over the main functions of Food Micromodel) the raw data of which were combined as the genesis of an international web based searchable database (ComBase). Expert systems combining databases on microbial characteristics, food composition and processing information with the resulting "pattern match" indicating problems that may arise from changes in product formulation or processing conditions. Computer software packages to aid the practical application of HACCP and risk assessment and decision trees to bring logical sequences to establishing and modifying food safety management practices. In addition there are many other uses of information systems that benefit food safety more globally, including: Rapid dissemination of information on foodborne disease outbreaks via websites or list servers carrying commentary from many sources, including the press and interest groups, on the reasons for and consequences of foodborne disease incidents. Active surveillance networks allowing rapid dissemination

  6. Safety-Critical Java for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo

    for Java aims at providing a reduced set of the Java programming language that can be used for systems that need to be certified at the highest levels of criticality. Safety-critical Java (SCJ) restricts how a developer can structure an application by providing a specific programming model...... and by restricting the set of methods and libraries that can be used. Furthermore, its memory model do not use a garbage-collected heap but scoped memories. In this thesis we examine the use of the SCJ specification through an implementation in a time-predictable, FPGA-based Java processor. The specification is now...

  7. Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2005-01-01

    -to-market, and reduce development and manufacturing costs. In this paper, the author introduces several embedded systems design problems, and shows how they can be formulated as optimization problems. Solving such challenging design optimization problems are the key to the success of the embedded systems design...... of designing such systems is becoming increasingly important and difficult at the same time. New automated design optimization techniques are needed, which are able to: successfully manage the complexity of embedded systems, meet the constraints imposed by the application domain, shorten the time...

  8. System Design for Telecommunication Gateways

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmutsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    System Design for Telecommunication Gateways provides a thorough review of designing telecommunication network equipment based on the latest hardware designs and software methods available on the market. Focusing on high-end efficient designs that challenge all aspects of the system architecture, this book helps readers to understand a broader view of the system design, analyze all its most critical components, and select the parts that best fit a particular application. In many cases new technology trends, potential future developments, system flexibility and capability extensions are outline

  9. Review and Analysis of Development of "Safety by Design" Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Scott A.; Hockert, John

    2009-10-20

    This report, the deliverable for Task 4 of the NA-243 Safeguards by Design Work Plan for Fiscal Year 2009, develops the lessons to be learned for the institutionalization of Safeguards By Design (SBD) from the Department of Energy (DOE) experience developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. This experience was selected for study because of the similarity of the challenges of integrating safety and safeguards into the design process. Development of DOE-STD-1189 began in January 2006 and the standard was issued for implementation in March 2008. The process was much more time consuming than originally anticipated and might not have come to fruition had senior DOE management been less committed to its success. Potentially valuable lessons can be learned from both the content and presentation of the integration approach in DOE-STD-1189 and from the DOE experience in developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189. These lessons are important because the instutionalization of SBD does not yet appear to have the level of senior management commitment afforded development and implementation of DOE-STD-1189.

  10. Modelling safety of multistate systems with ageing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Mathematics ul. Morska 81-87, Gdynia 81-225 Poland (Poland)

    2016-06-08

    An innovative approach to safety analysis of multistate ageing systems is presented. Basic notions of the ageing multistate systems safety analysis are introduced. The system components and the system multistate safety functions are defined. The mean values and variances of the multistate systems lifetimes in the safety state subsets and the mean values of their lifetimes in the particular safety states are defined. The multi-state system risk function and the moment of exceeding by the system the critical safety state are introduced. Applications of the proposed multistate system safety models to the evaluation and prediction of the safty characteristics of the consecutive “m out of n: F” is presented as well.

  11. Evaluation of intelligent transport systems impact on school transport safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated system of safe transport of children to school using Intelligent Transport Systems was developed and implemented in four locations across Europe under the Safeway2School (SW2S project, funded by the EU. The SW2S system evaluation included speed measurements and an eye-tracking experiment carried out among drivers who used the school bus route, where selected elements of the system were tested. The subject of the evaluation were the following system elements: pedestrian safety system at the bus stop (Intelligent Bus Stop and tags for children, Driver Support System, applications for parents’ and students’ mobile phones, bus stop inventory tool and data server. A new sign designed for buses and bus stops to inform about child transportation/children waiting at the bus stop was added to the system. Training schemes for system users were also provided. The article presents evaluation results of the impact of selected elements of the SW2S system on school transport safety in Poland.

  12. Demonstrating the Safety and Reliability of a New System or Spacecraft: Incorporating Analyses and Reviews of the Design and Processing in Determining the Number of Tests to be Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, William E.; Colon, Alfredo E.

    2010-01-01

    Design Safety/Reliability is associated with the probability of no failure-causing faults existing in a design. Confidence in the non-existence of failure-causing faults is increased by performing tests with no failure. Reliability-Growth testing requirements are based on initial assurance and fault detection probability. Using binomial tables generally gives too many required tests compared to reliability-growth requirements. Reliability-Growth testing requirements are based on reliability principles and factors and should be used.

  13. Does user-centred design affect the efficiency, usability and safety of CPOE order sets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julie; Shojania, Kaveh G; Easty, Anthony C; Etchells, Edward E

    2011-05-01

    Application of user-centred design principles to Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems may improve task efficiency, usability or safety, but there is limited evaluative research of its impact on CPOE systems. We evaluated the task efficiency, usability, and safety of three order set formats: our hospital's planned CPOE order sets (CPOE Test), computer order sets based on user-centred design principles (User Centred Design), and existing pre-printed paper order sets (Paper). 27 staff physicians, residents and medical students. Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, an academic hospital in Toronto, Canada. Methods Participants completed four simulated order set tasks with three order set formats (two CPOE Test tasks, one User Centred Design, and one Paper). Order of presentation of order set formats and tasks was randomized. Users received individual training for the CPOE Test format only. Completion time (efficiency), requests for assistance (usability), and errors in the submitted orders (safety). 27 study participants completed 108 order sets. Mean task times were: User Centred Design format 273 s, Paper format 293 s (p=0.73 compared to UCD format), and CPOE Test format 637 s (pUsers requested assistance in 31% of the CPOE Test format tasks, whereas no assistance was needed for the other formats (pUser Centred Design format was more efficient and usable than the CPOE Test format even though training was provided for the latter. We conclude that application of user-centred design principles can enhance task efficiency and usability, increasing the likelihood of successful implementation.

  14. The dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test (DARHT) facility personnel safety system (PSS) control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquez, Edward B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the Dual Axis Radiograph Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility is to conduct experiments on dynamic events of extremely dense materials. The PSS control system is designed specifically to prevent personnel from becoming exposed to radiation and explosive hazards during machine operations and/or the firing site operation. This paper will outline the Radiation Safety System (RSS) and the High Explosive Safety System (HESS) which are computer-controlled sets of positive interlocks, warning devices, and other exclusion mechanisms that together form the PSS.

  15. Safety of street: The role of street design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Suhaila Abdul; Wahab, Mohammad Hussaini; Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd.; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-10-01

    Living in the cities poses many challenges for the vulnerable group of user especially women where they are exposed to many issues related to safety. With the changing of lifestyle and demands, women are expected to play multiple roles in the society and working is one of the tasks. When women are expected to be working as men do, they are no longer occupied at one place. Women nowadays travel on a daily basis and being in the streets is one of the important activities. With the influx of diverse group of people into the country, our streets are dominated by different types of people from different background. Due to these factors, there are possibilities of challenges and threats for users especially women. Therefore, city spaces especially the street become an important public realm for women. The design of the street should be able to make women feel safe as these are the public space where they spend time getting to and from work. The way women perceived their environment might be different from men especially when they fear of crime. Perception of safety will affect the quality of life where fear is an important psychological factor in human life. Living in fear will restrict human's freedom. Therefore, this study aimed to explore women's perception of safety in the streets of Kuala Lumpur. The study adopted a mixed-method approach of qualitative and quantitative in order to understand the safety perception among women that will later establish the relationship between built environment and human psychology. 120 respondents were selected randomly around Jalan Benteng, Jalan Tun Perak, Jalan Melaka and Jalan Melayu. Questionnaire survey forms were distributed and structured observation was conducted at interval period at these streets to examined and assess women's behavior. Finding shows that fear does affect women's perception and physical design of the streets are important in affecting their behavior.

  16. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 3 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean system technology) (WE-NET) (total system conceptual design/safety measures/evaluation technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 3 zentai system gainen sekkei - anzen taisaku hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the study of safety measures in WE-NET, the paper described the fiscal 1997 results. For drawing up a policy for safety design, technology of preserving hydrogen at high temperature/pressure, continuing collecting information on existing plants (liquid hydrogen, LNG). Investigating manuals of NASA and NASDA and also referring to people`s opinions at chemical plants, etc., the study entered into the setting-up of the safety policy and design standards. Examples of anomalies/accidents were extracted, and classification/arrangement were commenced of the measures for anomalies of detection/prevention/protection. Toward the diffusion of hydrogen and the enhancement and unification of explosion/fire simulation models, the extraction of problems has been almost finished. The second mini work shop on safety was held in the U.S., and exchanges of information were made among researchers of each country. All agreed on the importance of collecting data as the base of safety standards. As to safety measures in various tests using combustor evaluation experimental facilities, experimental equipment for materials under liquid hydrogen and experimental equipment of thermal insulation under liquid hydrogen, problems were extracted between researchers and people concerned with safety measures, and the measures to solve them were studied. 18 refs., 31 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Lofar information system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, E.; Belikov, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    The Lofar Information System is a solution for Lofar Long Term Archive that is capable to store and handle PBs of raw and processed data. The newly created information system is based on Astro-WISE - the information system for wide field astronomy. We review an adaptation of Astro-WISE for the new

  18. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  19. Examining the Relationship between Safety Management System Implementation and Safety Culture in Collegiate Flight Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Mike Fuller

    2017-01-01

    Safety Management Systems (SMS) are becoming the industry standard for safety management throughout the aviation industry. As the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) continues to mandate SMS for different segments, the assessment of an organization's safety culture becomes more important. An SMS can facilitate the development of a strong…

  20. Software safety analysis techniques for developing safety critical software in the digital protection system of the LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Cheon, Se Woo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Sim, Yun Sub

    2001-02-01

    This report has described the software safety analysis techniques and the engineering guidelines for developing safety critical software to identify the state of the art in this field and to give the software safety engineer a trail map between the code and standards layer and the design methodology and documents layer. We have surveyed the management aspects of software safety activities during the software lifecycle in order to improve the safety. After identifying the conventional safety analysis techniques for systems, we have surveyed in details the software safety analysis techniques, software FMEA(Failure Mode and Effects Analysis), software HAZOP(Hazard and Operability Analysis), and software FTA(Fault Tree Analysis). We have also surveyed the state of the art in the software reliability assessment techniques. The most important results from the reliability techniques are not the specific probability numbers generated, but the insights into the risk importance of software features. To defend against potential common-mode failures, high quality, defense-in-depth, and diversity are considered to be key elements in digital I and C system design. To minimize the possibility of CMFs and thus increase the plant reliability, we have provided D-in-D and D analysis guidelines.

  1. Model-based safety architecture framework for complex systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitemaker, K.; Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; Braakhuis, J.G.; Podofilini, Luca; Sudret, Bruno; Stojadinovic, Bozidar; Zio, Enrico; Kröger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The shift to transparency and rising need of the general public for safety, together with the increasing complexity and interdisciplinarity of modern safety-critical Systems of Systems (SoS) have resulted in a Model-Based Safety Architecture Framework (MBSAF) for capturing and sharing architectural

  2. Developing and maintaining national food safety control systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of effective food safety systems is pivotal to ensuring the safety of the national food supply as well as food products for regional and international trade. The development, structure and implementation of modern food safety systems have been driven over the years by a number of developments.

  3. System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation. Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzhanov, Vasily; Fokau, Andrei; Persson, Calle; Runevall, Odd; Sandberg, Nils; Tesinsky, Milan; Wallenius, Janne; Youpeng Zhang (Div. of Reactor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    Within the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation', research on design and safety of sub-critical reactors for recycling of minor actinides is performed. During 2007, the reactor physics division at KTH has calculated safety parameters for EFIT-400 with cermet fuel, permitting to start the transient safety analysis. The accuracy of different reactivity meters applied to the YALINA facility was assessed and neutron detection studies were performed. A model to address deviations from point kinetic behaviour was developed. Studies of basic radiation damage physics included calculations of vacancy formation and activation enthalpies in bcc niobium. In order to predict the oxygen potential of inert matrix fuels, a thermo-chemical model for mixed actinide oxides was implemented in a phase equilibrium code

  4. The detector safety system for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schmeling, Sascha; Lüders, S; Morpurgo, Giulio

    2004-01-01

    The Detector Safety System (DSS), currently being developed at CERN under the auspices of the Joint Controls Project (JCOP), will be responsible for assuring the protection of equipment for the four Large Hadron Collider (LHC)**1 experiments. Thus, the DSS will require a high degree of both availability and reliability. After evaluation of various possible solutions, a prototype is being built based on a redundant Siemens PLC**2 front-end, to which the safety- critical part of the DSS task is delegated. This is then supervised by a PVSS**3 SCADA**4 system via an OPC**5 server. The PLC front-end is capable of running autonomously and of automatically taking predefined protective actions whenever required. The supervisory layer provides the operator with a status display and with limited online reconfiguration capabilities. Configuration of the code running in the PLCs will be completely data driven via the contents of a "configuration database." Thus, the DSS can easily adapt to the different and constantly ev...

  5. Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

  6. Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanskamp-Sebregts, Mirelle; Zegers, Marieke; Boeijen, Wilma; Westert, Gert P; van Gurp, Petra J; Wollersheim, Hub

    2013-06-22

    Auditing of patient safety aims at early detection of risks of adverse events and is intended to encourage the continuous improvement of patient safety. The auditing should be an independent, objective assurance and consulting system. Auditing helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance. Audits are broadly conducted in hospitals, but little is known about their effects on the behaviour of healthcare professionals and patient safety outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of patient safety auditing in hospital care and to explore the processes and mechanisms underlying these effects. Our study aims to evaluate an audit system to monitor and improve patient safety in a hospital setting. We are using a mixed-method evaluation with a before-and-after study design in eight departments of one university hospital in the period October 2011-July 2014. We measure several outcomes 3 months before the audit and 15 months after the audit. The primary outcomes are adverse events and complications. The secondary outcomes are experiences of patients, the standardised mortality ratio, prolonged hospital stay, patient safety culture, and team climate. We use medical record reviews, questionnaires, hospital administrative data, and observations to assess the outcomes. A process evaluation will be used to find out which components of internal auditing determine the effects. We report a study protocol of an effect and process evaluation to determine whether auditing improves patient safety in hospital care. Because auditing is a complex intervention targeted on several levels, we are using a combination of methods to collect qualitative and quantitative data about patient safety at the patient, professional, and department levels. This study is relevant for hospitals that want to early detect unsafe care and improve patient

  7. Assessment of Safety Standards for Automotive Electronic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study that assessed and compared six industry and government safety standards relevant to the safety and reliability of automotive electronic control systems. These standards include ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - ...

  8. Quantifying Pilot Contribution to Flight Safety during Hydraulic Systems Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Etherington, Timothy J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Kennedy, Kellie D.

    2017-01-01

    Accident statistics cite the flight crew as a causal factor in over 60% of large transport aircraft fatal accidents. Yet, a well-trained and well-qualified pilot is acknowledged as the critical center point of aircraft systems safety and an integral safety component of the entire commercial aviation system. The latter statement, while generally accepted, cannot be verified because little or no quantitative data exists on how and how many accidents/incidents are averted by crew actions. A joint NASA/FAA high-fidelity motion-base human-in-the-loop test was conducted using a Level D certified Boeing 737-800 simulator to evaluate the pilot's contribution to safety-of-flight during routine air carrier flight operations and in response to aircraft system failures. To quantify the human's contribution, crew complement (two-crew, reduced crew, single pilot) was used as the independent variable in a between-subjects design. This paper details the crew's actions, including decision-making, and responses while dealing with a hydraulic systems leak - one of 6 total non-normal events that were simulated in this experiment.

  9. Design of Hack-Resistant Diabetes Devices and Disclosure of Their Cyber Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackner-Bernstein, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    The focus of the medical device industry and regulatory bodies on cyber security parallels that in other industries, primarily on risk assessment and user education as well as the recognition and response to infiltration. However, transparency of the safety of marketed devices is lacking and developers are not embracing optimal design practices with new devices. Achieving cyber safe diabetes devices: To improve understanding of cyber safety by clinicians and patients, and inform decision making on use practices of medical devices requires disclosure by device manufacturers of the results of their cyber security testing. Furthermore, developers should immediately shift their design processes to deliver better cyber safety, exemplified by use of state of the art encryption, secure operating systems, and memory protections from malware.

  10. Microwave systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Awang, Zaiki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this book is to serve as a design reference for students and as an up-to-date reference for researchers. It also acts as an excellent introduction for newcomers to the field and offers established rf/microwave engineers a comprehensive refresher.  The content is roughly classified into two – the first two chapters provide the necessary fundamentals, while the last three chapters focus on design and applications. Chapter 2 covers detailed treatment of transmission lines. The Smith chart is utilized in this chapter as an important tool in the synthesis of matching networks for microwave amplifiers. Chapter 3 contains an exhaustive review of microstrip circuits, culled from various references. Chapter 4 offers practical design information on solid state amplifiers, while Chapter 5 contains topics on the design of modern planar filters, some of which were seldom published previously. A set of problems at the end of each chapter provides the readers with exercises which were compiled from actual uni...

  11. Fire safety evaluation system for NASA office/laboratory buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H. E.

    1986-11-01

    A fire safety evaluation system for office/laboratory buildings is developed. The system is a life safety grading system. The system scores building construction, hazardous areas, vertical openings, sprinklers, detectors, alarms, interior finish, smoke control, exit systems, compartmentation, and emergency preparedness.

  12. On the safety of aircraft systems: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1997-05-14

    An airplane is a highly engineered system incorporating control- and feedback-loops which often, and realistically, are non-linear because the equations describing such feedback contain products of state variables, trigonometric or square-root functions, or other types of non-linear terms. The feedback provided by the pilot (crew) of the airplane also is typically non-linear because it has the same mathematical characteristics. An airplane is designed with systems to prevent and mitigate undesired events. If an undesired triggering event occurs, an accident may process in different ways depending on the effectiveness of such systems. In addition, the progression of some accidents requires that the operating crew take corrective action(s), which may modify the configuration of some systems. The safety assessment of an aircraft system typically is carried out using ARP (Aerospace Recommended Practice) 4761 (SAE, 1995) methods, such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Such methods may be called static because they model an aircraft system on its nominal configuration during a mission time, but they do not incorporate the action(s) taken by the operating crew, nor the dynamic behavior (non-linearities) of the system (airplane) as a function of time. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), also known as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been applied to highly engineered systems, such as aircraft and nuclear power plants. PSA encompasses a wide variety of methods, including event tree analysis (ETA), FTA, and common-cause analysis, among others. PSA should not be confused with ARP 4761`s proposed PSSA (Preliminary System Safety Assessment); as its name implies, PSSA is a preliminary assessment at the system level consisting of FTA and FMEA.

  13. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  14. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 8: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 8 provides a description of instrumentation and controls.

  15. Inductive Communication System Design Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    The report documents the experience obtained during the design and development of the Inductive Communications System used in the Morgantown People Mover. The Inductive Communications System is used to provide wayside-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-waysid...

  16. Embedded Systems Design with FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Pnevmatikatos, Dionisios; Sklavos, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This book presents methodologies for modern applications of embedded systems design, using field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices.  Coverage includes state-of-the-art research from academia and industry on a wide range of topics, including advanced electronic design automation (EDA), novel system architectures, embedded processors, arithmetic, dynamic reconfiguration and applications. Describes a variety of methodologies for modern embedded systems design;  Implements methodologies presented on FPGAs; Covers a wide variety of applications for reconfigurable embedded systems, including Bioinformatics, Communications and networking, Application acceleration, Medical solutions, Experiments for high energy physics, Astronomy, Aerospace, Biologically inspired systems and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  17. Design of Distributed Voting Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meter, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Countries like Estonia, Norway or Australia developed electronic voting systems, which could be used to realize parliamentary elections with the help of personal computers and the Internet. These systems are completely different in their design and their way to solve the same problem. In this thesis, we analyze some of the largest real-world systems, describe their building blocks and their general design to focus on possible problems in these electronic voting systems. Furthermore, we presen...

  18. Software for CCTV systems design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamek Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the software, which is used in the design of the CCTV systems. It shows tools available online, tools for PC and mobile applications. It describes the basic components of the camera systems, their characteristics and current trends in CCTV systems. Moreover, it compares two selected software tools, their features and supported functions. In the practical part, these tools are used for the design of a CCTV system and the whole process is described in detail.

  19. Safety Justification of Software Systems. Software Based Safety Systems. Regulatory Inspection Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahll, Gustav (OECD Halden Project, Halden (NO)); Liwaang, Bo (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)); Wainwright, Norman (Wainwright Safety Advice (GB))

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of new software based technology in the safety systems in nuclear power plants also makes it necessary to develop new strategies for regulatory review and assessment of these new systems that is more focused on reviewing the processes at the different phases in design phases during the system life cycle. It is a general requirement that the licensee shall perform different kinds of reviews. From a regulatory point of view it is more cost effective to assess that the design activities at the suppliers and the review activities within the development project are performed with good quality. But the change from more technical reviews over to the development process oriented approach also cause problems. When reviewing development and quality aspects there are no 'hard facts' that can be judged against some specified criteria, the issues are more 'soft' and are more to build up structure of arguments and evidences that the requirements are met. The regulatory review strategy must therefore change to follow the development process over the whole life cycle from concept phase until installation and operation. Even if we know what factors that is of interest we need some guidance on how to interpret and judge the information.For that purpose SKl started research activities in this area at the end of the 1990s. In the first phase, in co-operation with Gustav Dahll at the Halden project, a life cycle model was selected. For the different phases a qualitative influence net was constructed of the type that is used in Bayesian Believe Network together with a discussion on different issues involved. In the second phase of the research work, in co-operation with Norman Wainwright, a former NII inspector, information from a selection of the most important sources as guidelines, IAEA and EC reports etc, was mapped into the influence net structure (the total list on used sources are in the report). The result is presented in the form of

  20. Software-Design-Analyzer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    CRISP-90 software-design-analyzer system, update of CRISP-80, is set of computer programs constituting software tool for design and documentation of other software and supporting top-down, hierarchical, modular, structured methodologies for design and programming. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

  1. HYPER system design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won S.; Han, Seok J.; Song, Tae Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    KAERI is developing ADS, named HYPER for the transmutation of nuclear waste. HYPER is designed to produce 1000 MWth with the subcriticality of 0.97. HYPER adopts a hollow cylinder type metal fuel and require 1.0GeV, 16mA proton beams. Pb-Bi is used as coolant and the inlet and outlet temperatures are 340 deg C, 510 deg C, respectively. In addition, Pb-Bi coolant is used as spallation target also. HYPER is expected to incinerate about 380 kg of TRU a year, which is corresponding to the support ratio 5 {approx} 6. 23 refs., 50 figs., 31 tabs. (Author)

  2. Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

  3. Fundamentals of electronic systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Lienig, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This textbook covers the design of electronic systems from the ground up, from drawing and CAD essentials to recycling requirements. Chapter by chapter, it deals with the challenges any modern system designer faces: the design process and its fundamentals, such as technical drawings and CAD, electronic system levels, assembly and packaging issues and appliance protection classes, reliability analysis, thermal management and cooling, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), all the way to recycling requirements and environmental-friendly design principles. Enables readers to face various challenges of designing electronic systems, including coverage from various engineering disciplines; Written to be accessible to readers of varying backgrounds; Uses illustrations extensively to reinforce fundamental concepts; Organized to follow essential design process, although chapters are self-contained and can be read in any order.

  4. Role of systems safety in maintaining affordable safety in the 1980's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, H.; Trauth, C.A. Jr.

    1979-07-10

    Historically, the Department of Energy and its predecessors have used and supported the development of systems safety programs, practices, and principles, finding them by and large adequate, effective, and managerially efficient. Today, attempts are bing made to resolve increasingly complex environmental, safety, and health problems by turning to increasingly complex and detailed regulation as the primary governmental answer. It is increasingly doubtful that such an approach will provide management of these issues and problems that is either effective or efficient. Challenge is issued to those in systems safety to develop and apply systems safety principles and practices more broadly to total operational systems and not just to hardware and to environmental and health protection and not just to safety, so that the total universe of environmental, safety, and health can be managed effectively and efficiently with encouragement of innovation and creativity, using a relatively brief and concise, but adequate, regulatory base.

  5. Aspects of safety and reliability for fusion magnet systems first annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J. (ed.)

    1976-01-15

    General systems aspects of fusion magnet safety are examined first, followed by specific detailed analyses covering structural, thermal, electrical, and other aspects of fusion magnet safety. The design examples chosen for analysis are illustrative and are not intended to be definitive, since fusion magnet designs are rapidly evolving. Included is a comprehensive collection of design and operating data relating to the safety of existing superconducting magnet systems. The remainder of the overview lists the main conclusions developed from the work to date. These should be regarded as initial steps. Since this study has concentrated on examining potential safety concerns, it may tend to overemphasize the problems of fusion magnets. In fact, many aspects of fusion magnets are well developed and are consistent with good safety practice. A short summary of the findings of this study is given.

  6. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  7. Design Theory in Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Gregor

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore an important category of information systems knowledge that is termed “design theory”. This knowledge is distinguished as the fifth of five types of theory: (i) theory for analysing and describing, (ii) theory for understanding, (iii) theory for predicting, (iv) theory for explaining and predicting, and (v) theory for design and action. Examples of design theory in information systems are provided, with associated research methods. The limited understanding...

  8. Systems design for remote healthcare

    CERN Document Server

    Bonfiglio, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a multidisciplinary overview of the design and implementation of systems for remote patient monitoring and healthcare. Readers are guided step-by-step through the components of such a system and shown how they could be integrated in a coherent framework for deployment in practice. The authors explain planning from subsystem design to complete integration and deployment, given particular application constraints. Readers will benefit from descriptions of the clinical requirements underpinning the entire application scenario, physiological parameter sensing techniques, information processing approaches and overall, application dependent system integration. Each chapter ends with a discussion of practical design challenges and two case studies are included to provide practical examples and design methods for two remote healthcare systems with different needs. ·         Provides a multi-disciplinary overview of next-generation mobile healthcare system design; ·         Includes...

  9. Designing for Reliability and Safety: The Ares Launch Vehicles Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal; Maggio, Gaspare

    2010-09-01

    In the past, S&MA performed an assurance function with little or no in-line engineering role. Lessons learned from S&MA early involvement in the Ares I launch vehicle design phases proved that performing an in-line function jointly with engineering is critical for S&MA to have an effective role in supporting the system, element, and component design. This paper discusses the S&MA Ares I paradigm change and the early involvement of S&MA in the conceptual phase of the Ares V. Specifically, this paper discusses the top-down functional performance-based analysis that has been developed by S&MA and its support contractor, Information Systems Laboratories(ISL), to evaluate the safety and reliability of Ares V as part of the performance(vehicle sizing and trajectory) analysis process. The techniques employ parametric methods that utilize the products of the performance analysis process to rapidly provide relative comparisons of safety and reliability estimates across the various design options considered in conceptual phase. The paper also addresses safety and reliability analyses needed to support NASA launch vehicles design beyond the conceptual design.

  10. Study on systematic integration technology of design and safety assessment for HLW geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ito, Takaya; Kohanawa, Osamu; Kuwayama, Yuki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The present study was carried out relating to basic design of the Geological Disposal Technology Integration System' that will be systematized as knowledge base for analysis and assessment of geological disposal by integrating organically and hierarchically analysis and evaluation method in three study field. The key conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) The examination to construct the virtual geological disposal system which contained the geological environment on the computer was executed aiming at the development of integration and the analysis systems which became working common basic to execute the design and the performance assessment of the geological disposal system. (2) Technological information (I/O information) which became the base was associated with work (evaluation) item of 'Disposal technology (design)' and 'Performance assessment' in the Second Progress Report by JNC, and the evaluation flow by which a series of work concerning the design and the safety assessment of the geological disposal system was brought together was made. (3) The subject concerning the detailed model development in the R and D activity of the geological disposal system in the future was extracted aiming at the systematization of the performance and safety assessment, and was arranged as information to take these detailed models into the 'Geological Disposal Technology Integration System'. (author)

  11. Reconfigurable system design and verification

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Huang, Chun-Hsian

    2009-01-01

    Reconfigurable systems have pervaded nearly all fields of computation and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Reconfigurable System Design and Verification provides a compendium of design and verification techniques for reconfigurable systems, allowing you to quickly search for a technique and determine if it is appropriate to the task at hand. It bridges the gap between the need for reconfigurable computing education and the burgeoning development of numerous different techniques in the design and verification of reconfigurable systems in various application domains. The text e

  12. Safety-Enclosure System For MOCVD Process Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletery, James, Jr.; Velasquez, Hugo; Warner, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Safety-enclosure system filled with nitrogen surrounds reaction chamber in which metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) performed. Designed to protect against explosions and/or escaping toxic gases and particulates. Gas-purification subsystem ensures during loading and unloading of process materials, interior of MOCVD chamber exposed to less than 1 ppm of oxygen and less than 5 ppm of water in nitrogen atmosphere. Toxic byproducts of MOCVD process collected within inert atmosphere. Enclosure strong enough to contain any fragments in unlikely event of explosion.

  13. 49 CFR 659.15 - System safety program standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the..., policies, and roles and responsibilities for providing safety and security oversight of the rail transit... safety and security reviews. This section shall specify the role of the oversight agency in overseeing...

  14. Analysis of road safety management systems in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhlrad, N. Vallet, G. Butler, I. Gitelman, V. Doveh, E. Dupont, E. Thomas, P. Talbot, R. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Persia, L. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. & Bax, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of road safety management in European countries and the identification of “good practice”. A road safety management investigation model was created, based on several “good practice” criteria. Road safety management systems have been thoroughly investigated

  15. Radiation methods in decision support system for food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migdal Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model is the basis for computer decision support system (DSS connected with food security strategy, in which food irradiation is one of the methods used for elimination of substance with pathogens. Such system can support an organisation of many different activities in the area of food safety. It can be designed for a specific region, country, etc., and is addressed to State Sanitary Inspection offices. The paper demonstrates the capabilities of the system in modeling activities of sanitary inspection teams aimed at pathogen elimination with the use of electron beam irradiation in procedures of utilisation of animal originated food, related packaging, or other microbiologically contaminated materials. It describes new application of both computer supported decision systems and radiation processing. The elaborated mathematical models show human activities in the process of microbiological contamination elimination.

  16. Modular system design and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Mark Sh

    2015-01-01

    This book examines seven key combinatorial engineering frameworks (composite schemes consisting of algorithms and/or interactive procedures) for hierarchical modular (composite) systems. These frameworks are based on combinatorial optimization problems (e.g., knapsack problem, multiple choice problem, assignment problem, morphological clique problem), with the author’s version of morphological design approach – Hierarchical Morphological Multicritieria Design (HMMD) – providing a conceptual lens with which to elucidate the examples discussed. This approach is based on ordinal estimates of design alternatives for systems parts/components, however, the book also puts forward an original version of HMMD that is based on new interval multiset estimates for the design alternatives with special attention paid to the aggregation of modular solutions (system versions). The second part of ‘Modular System Design and Evaluation’ provides ten information technology case studies that enriches understanding of th...

  17. Linking better shiftwork arrangements with safety and health management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2004-12-01

    Various support measures useful for promoting joint change approaches to the improvement of both shiftworking arrangements and safety and health management systems were reviewed. A particular focus was placed on enterprise-level risk reduction measures linking working hours and management systems. Voluntary industry-based guidelines on night and shift work for department stores and the chemical, automobile and electrical equipment industries were examined. Survey results that had led to the compilation of practicable measures to be included in these guidelines were also examined. The common support measures were then compared with ergonomic checkpoints for plant maintenance work involving irregular nightshifts. On the basis of this analysis, a new night and shift work checklist was designed. Both the guidelines and the plant maintenance work checkpoints were found to commonly cover multiple issues including work schedules and various job-related risks. This close link between shiftwork arrangements and risk management was important as shiftworkers in these industries considered teamwork and welfare services to be essential for managing risks associated with night and shift work. Four areas found suitable for participatory improvement by managers and workers were work schedules, ergonomic work tasks, work environment and training. The checklist designed to facilitate participatory change processes covered all these areas. The checklist developed to describe feasible workplace actions was suitable for integration with comprehensive safety and health management systems and offered valuable opportunities for improving working time arrangements and job content together.

  18. Safety climate and culture: Integrating psychological and systems perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Tristan; Griffin, Mark A; Flatau Harrison, Huw; Neal, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Safety climate research has reached a mature stage of development, with a number of meta-analyses demonstrating the link between safety climate and safety outcomes. More recently, there has been interest from systems theorists in integrating the concept of safety culture and to a lesser extent, safety climate into systems-based models of organizational safety. Such models represent a theoretical and practical development of the safety climate concept by positioning climate as part of a dynamic work system in which perceptions of safety act to constrain and shape employee behavior. We propose safety climate and safety culture constitute part of the enabling capitals through which organizations build safety capability. We discuss how organizations can deploy different configurations of enabling capital to exert control over work systems and maintain safe and productive performance. We outline 4 key strategies through which organizations to reconcile the system control problems of promotion versus prevention, and stability versus flexibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Relating Systems Thinking & Design 2013. Emerging Contexts for Systemic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Sevaldson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AHO – Oslo School of Architecture & Design, Norway, invites to the Relating Systems Thinking and Design to a free and open symposium over two days 9th-11th October 2013, with a preceding full day with diverse workshops and a subsequent special issue in FORMakademisk.

  20. Safeguard By Design Lessons Learned from DOE Experience Integrating Safety into Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockert, John; Burbank, Roberta L.

    2010-04-13

    This paper identifies the lessons to be learned for the institutionalization of Safeguards by Design (SBD) from the Department of Energy (DOE) experience developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. The experience is valuable because of the similarity of the challenges of integrating safety and safeguards into the design process. The paper reviews the content and development of DOE-STD-1189-2008 from its initial concept in January 2006 to its issuance in March 2008. Lessons learned are identified in the areas of the development and structure of requirements for the SBD process; the target audience for SBD requirements and guidance, the need for a graded approach to SBD, and a possible strategy for development and implementation of SBD within DOE.

  1. Rapid Prototyping of the Central Safety System for Nuclear Risk in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scibile, L. [ITER Organization, 13 - St. Paul lez Durance (France); Ambrosino, G.; De Tommasi, G.; Pironti, A. [Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the current ITER Baseline design, the Central Safety System for Nuclear Risk (CSS-N) is the safety control system in charge to assure nuclear safety for the plant, personnel and environment. In particular it is envisaged that the CSS shall interface to the plant safety systems for nuclear risk and shall coordinate the individual protection provided by the intervention of these systems by the activation, where required, of additional protections. The design of such a system, together with its implementation, strongly depends on the requirements, particularly in terms of reliability. The CSS-N is a safety critical system, thus its validation and commissioning play a very important role, since the required level of reliability must be demonstrated. In such a scenario, where a new and non-conventional system has to be deployed, it is strongly recommended to use modeling and simulation tools since the early design phase. Indeed, the modeling tools will help in the definition of the system requirements, and they will be used to test and validate the control logic. Furthermore these tools can be used to rapid design the safety system and to carry out hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations, which permit to assess the performance of the control hardware against a plant simulator. Both a control system prototype and a safety system oriented plant simulator have been developed to assess first the requirements and then the performance of the CSS-N. In particular the presented SW/HW framework permits to design and verify the CSS protection logics and to test and validate these logics by means of HIL simulations. This work introduces both the prototype and plant simulator architectures, together with the methodology adopted to design and implement these validation tools. (authors)

  2. Safety Design for Smart Electric Vehicle Charging with Current and Multiplexing Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Youn, Edward; Chynoweth, Joshua; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-21

    As Electric Vehicles (EVs) increase, charging infrastructure becomes more important. When during the day there is a power shortage, the charging infrastructure should have the options to either shut off the power to the charging stations or to lower the power to the EVs in order to satisfy the needs of the grid. This paper proposes a design for a smart charging infrastructure capable of providing power to several EVs from one circuit by multiplexing power and providing charge control and safety systems to prevent electric shock. The safety design is implemented in different levels that include both the server and the smart charging stations. With this smart charging infrastructure, the shortage of energy in a local grid could be solved by our EV charging management system.

  3. Launch vehicle systems design analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  4. Automated extraction system design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, H.L.; Eklund, J.D.; Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.

    1979-03-01

    The Automated Extraction System (AES) is an advanced fullface continuous mining system designed and built by National Mine Service Co. Since initial testing in a coal mine revealed operational problems, a design review was conducted. Two potential conceptual problems were identified: the roof control concept and the hydraulic sumping concept. It is felt that the combination of uneven and cyclic roof loading may promote roof failure even in bolted roof areas. Critical design problem areas include weight and balance, friction-induced excessive sumping forces, and design complexity.

  5. Vehicle Safety Enhancement System: Sensing and Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Huihuan Qian; Yongquan Chen; Yuandong Sun; Niansheng Liu; Ning Ding; Yangsheng Xu; Guoqing Xu; Yunjian Tang; Jingyu Yan

    2013-01-01

    With the substantial increase of vehicles on road, driving safety and transportation efficiency have become increasingly concerned focus from drivers, passengers, and governments. Wireless networks constructed by vehicles and infrastructures provide abundant information to share for the sake of both enhanced safety and network efficiency. This paper presents the systematic research to enhance the vehicle safety by wireless communication, in the aspects of information acquisition through vehic...

  6. Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS) is a repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee accident data. Many types of...

  7. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  8. Design Theory in Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Gregor

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore an important category of information systems knowledge that is termed “design theory”. This knowledge is distinguished as the fifth of five types of theory: (i theory for analysing and describing, (ii theory for understanding, (iii theory for predicting, (iv theory for explaining and predicting, and (v theory for design and action. Examples of design theory in information systems are provided, with associated research methods. The limited understanding and recognition of this type of theory in information systems indicates that further debate concerning its nature and role in our discipline is needed.

  9. Development of Non-safety System Architecture and Evaluation of Components/Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I. S.; Lee, C. K.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, D. Y.; Park, W. M.; Hwang, I. K.; Hur, S.; Kim, J. T.; Park, J. C.; Lee, J. W

    2007-10-15

    We describe in this report the works performed for a technical evaluation of the non-safety digital control system of the KNICS, the non-safety process control system of the KNICS, a communication load analysis for the MMIS (including both the non-safety and the safety systems) of the KNICS, the development of MMI and an implementation of the logic for the CVCS, and the works performed to support writing a proposal needed for bidding an I and C system based on the KNICS. The technical evaluation results were aimed to be used by the designers to detect parts needed to be corrected or to be newly inserted, and also by the developers during the development phase. The requirement specifications and the data requirement characteristics have been identified for each subsystem of the determined KNICS structure. For each communication node, the specifications related to the data transfer including the data capacity for interfaces, delay time for the data transfer, and the marginal availability of its performance capabilities have been analyzed to identify the amount of data transfer and hence to verify that both of the designed structures for the safety related communications network and for the digital communications network are appropriate. The results of the supporting work performed for writing the technical specifications related to each subsystem of the KNICS structure, are expected to be useful in writing a proposal for the expected Uljin new units 1 and 2, and in the I and C upgrade for any of the existing nuclear power plants under operation. Also included in this report are the descriptions on a design of the chemical volume control system (CVCS), on the supporting work performed to draw the logic diagrams for CVCS using the tool ISaGRAF, and on the generation of a set of system displays to be used as references.

  10. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  11. JACoW Safety instrumented systems and the AWAKE plasma control as a use case

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco Viñuela, Enrique; Fernández Adiego, Borja; Speroni, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Safety is likely the most critical concern in many process industries, yet there is a general uncertainty on the proper engineering to reduce the risks and ensure the safety of persons or material at the same time as providing the process control system. Some of the reasons for this misperception are unclear requirements, lack of functional safety engineering knowledge or incorrect protection functionalities attributed to the BPCS (Basic Process Control System). Occasionally the control engineers are not aware of the hazards inherent to an industrial process and this causes an incorrect design of the overall controls. This paper illustrates the engineering of the SIS (Safety Instrumented System) and the BPCS of the plasma vapour controls of the AWAKE R&D; project, the first proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment in the world. The controls design and implementation refers to the IEC61511/ISA84 standard, including technological choices, design, operation and maintenance. Finally, the publica...

  12. Cochlear implants: system design, integration, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Rebscher, Stephen; Harrison, William; Sun, Xiaoan; Feng, Haihong

    2008-01-01

    As the most successful neural prosthesis, cochlear implants have provided partial hearing to more than 120000 persons worldwide; half of which being pediatric users who are able to develop nearly normal language. Biomedical engineers have played a central role in the design, integration and evaluation of the cochlear implant system, but the overall success is a result of collaborative work with physiologists, psychologists, physicians, educators, and entrepreneurs. This review presents broad yet in-depth academic and industrial perspectives on the underlying research and ongoing development of cochlear implants. The introduction accounts for major events and advances in cochlear implants, including dynamic interplays among engineers, scientists, physicians, and policy makers. The review takes a system approach to address critical issues in cochlear implant research and development. First, the cochlear implant system design and specifications are laid out. Second, the design goals, principles, and methods of the subsystem components are identified from the external speech processor and radio frequency transmission link to the internal receiver, stimulator and electrode arrays. Third, system integration and functional evaluation are presented with respect to safety, reliability, and challenges facing the present and future cochlear implant designers and users. Finally, issues beyond cochlear implants are discussed to address treatment options for the entire spectrum of hearing impairment as well as to use the cochlear implant as a model to design and evaluate other similar neural prostheses such as vestibular and retinal implants.

  13. Managing Safety and Operations: The Effect of Joint Management System Practices on Safety and Operational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Robson, Lynda; Sarnocinska-Hart, Anna; Klassen, Robert; Shevchenko, Anton; Sharma, Sharvani; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Amick, Benjamin C; Johnston, David A; Veltri, Anthony; Pagell, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether management system practices directed at both occupational health and safety (OHS) and operations (joint management system [JMS] practices) result in better outcomes in both areas than in alternative practices. Separate regressions were estimated for OHS and operational outcomes using data from a survey along with administrative records on injuries and illnesses. Organizations with JMS practices had better operational and safety outcomes than organizations without these practices. They had similar OHS outcomes as those with operations-weak practices, and in some cases, better outcomes than organizations with safety-weak practices. They had similar operational outcomes as those with safety-weak practices, and better outcomes than those with operations-weak practices. Safety and operations appear complementary in organizations with JMS practices in that there is no penalty for either safety or operational outcomes.

  14. Safety Evalution of Cryptography Modules within Safety Related Control Systems for Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franekova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of safety evaluation of cryptographic modules used within safety-related control system for applications with increasing safety integrity level. The requirements to cryptographic techniques in safety-related communication for railway application are describe. The mainly part is oriented to description of mathematical apparatus for an error probability of cryptography code with a safety code, used in an additional safety communication layer. The practical results are related with the quantitative evaluation of an average error probability of code word for Euroradio protocol recommended for communication in European Train Control System.

  15. Validation study on reliability analysis of main safety system in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nam Jin; Cho, Chang Keun; Kim, Yong Hui; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Hong, Seo Kee; Park, Keon Woo; Park, Chang Jea [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Woo Sik [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Kyu [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The scope and contents of this validation study are to review the design changes of the four main safety systems in Wolsong 2/3/4 Nuclear Power Plants, to review the consideration of the above design changes in the AECL reports, the structure of fault trees, and the data base used in the quantification of the fault trees, to quantify the unavailabilities of main safety systems and check them if they meet the requirements, and to recommend desirable design changes in the emergency core cooling system to reduce the unavailability.

  16. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies (SSAT) Project asked the AvSP Systems and Portfolio Analysis Team to identify SSAT-related trends. SSAT had four technical challenges: advance safety assurance to enable deployment of NextGen systems; automated discovery of precursors to aviation safety incidents; increasing safety of human-automation interaction by incorporating human performance, and prognostic algorithm design for safety assurance. This report reviews incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) for system-component-failure- or-malfunction- (SCFM-) related and human-factor-related incidents for commercial or cargo air carriers (Part 121), commuter airlines (Part 135), and general aviation (Part 91). The data was analyzed by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) part, phase of flight, SCFM category, human factor category, and a variety of anomalies and results. There were 38 894 SCFM-related incidents and 83 478 human-factorrelated incidents analyzed between January 1993 and April 2011.

  17. The safety assurance method of railway control systems using object oriented languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiła, Marek; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with introduction of safety rules to the software designed for railway control systems. The basic assumption is related to software designed using high level language UML with possibility of modelling, verification, functional testing and simulation in CASE environment. The object methodology - the base of UML regards the software implementation with respect to safety and real time control corresponding to UIC recommendations and CENELEC standards.

  18. Decay Power Calculation for Safety Analysis of Innovative Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shwageraus, E.; Fridman, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, we verified the decay heat calculation capabilities of BGCore computer code system developed recently at Ben-Gurion University. Decay power was calculated for a typical UO{sub 2} fuel in Pressurized Water Reactor environment using BGCore code and using procedure prescribed by the ANS/ANSI-2005 standard. Very good agreement between the two methods was obtained. Once BGCore calculation capabilities were verified, we calculated decay power as a function of time after shutdown for various reactors with innovative fuels, for which no standard procedure is currently available. Notable differences were observed for decay power of the advanced reactors as compared with conventional UO{sub 2} LWR. The observed differences suggest that the design of new reactors safety systems must be based on corresponding decay power curves for each individual case in order to assure the desired performance of such systems. (authors)

  19. Designing a Campus Signage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll Univ Bus, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Explains a new system that combines architectural and graphic skills to direct, inform, and control the increasing numbers of people who attend various campus activities. Article was prepared by Interior Space Designers (ISD), Incorporated of New York. (WM)

  20. Photovoltaic stand-alone systems: Preliminary engineering design handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, H. L.; Ruzek, J. B.; Costello, F. A.

    1981-08-01

    Component design and engineering information, including estimation and reduction strategies, FV array characteristics, and material on batteries, power handling equipment, and back up systems are presented. The data needed to begin the design process and preliminary system design considerations are discussed. These considerations include analysis of insolation and siting, system sizing, feasibility assessment and reliability engineering approaches. Information on system design procedures and applicable codes and standards is presented. Information on system installation, operation, maintenance issues, personnel and facility safety requirements and various means of calculating insolation, including computer software and statistical computations are emphasized.

  1. System principles, mathematical models and methods to ensure high reliability of safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskyi, V.

    2017-04-01

    Modern safety and security systems are composed of a large number of various components designed for detection, localization, tracking, collecting, and processing of information from the systems of monitoring, telemetry, control, etc. They are required to be highly reliable in a view to correctly perform data aggregation, processing and analysis for subsequent decision making support. On design and construction phases of the manufacturing of such systems a various types of components (elements, devices, and subsystems) are considered and used to ensure high reliability of signals detection, noise isolation, and erroneous commands reduction. When generating design solutions for highly reliable systems a number of restrictions and conditions such as types of components and various constrains on resources should be considered. Various types of components perform identical functions; however, they are implemented using diverse principles, approaches and have distinct technical and economic indicators such as cost or power consumption. The systematic use of different component types increases the probability of tasks performing and eliminates the common cause failure. We consider type-variety principle as an engineering principle of system analysis, mathematical models based on this principle, and algorithms for solving optimization problems of highly reliable safety and security systems design. Mathematical models are formalized in a class of two-level discrete optimization problems of large dimension. The proposed approach, mathematical models, algorithms can be used for problem solving of optimal redundancy on the basis of a variety of methods and control devices for fault and defects detection in technical systems, telecommunication networks, and energy systems.

  2. System design projects for undergraduate design education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batill, S. M.; Pinkelman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Design education has received considerable in the recent past. This paper is intended to address one aspect of undergraduate design education and that is the selection and development of the design project for a capstone design course. Specific goals for a capstone design course are presented and their influence on the project selection are discussed. The evolution of a series of projects based upon the design of remotely piloted aircraft is presented along with students' perspective on the capstone experience.

  3. Safety aspects of intermediate heat transport and decay heat removal systems of sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chander Chetal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs have provided valuable experience in design, licensing, and operation. This paper summarizes the important safety criteria and safety guidelines of intermediate sodium systems, steam generators, decay heat removal systems and associated construction materials and in-service inspection. The safety criteria and guidelines provide a sufficient framework for design and licensing, in particular by new entrants in SFRs.

  4. Food safety performance indicators to benchmark food safety output of food safety management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.; Devlieghere, F.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Luning, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses.

  5. Supplementary safety system 1/4 scale testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, R.L.; Paik, I.K.

    1993-09-01

    During the course of updating the K-Reactor Safety Analysis Report Chapter 15 in 1990, it was identified that the current Supplementary Safety System (SSS) may not be adequate in protecting the reactor during the process water pump coastdown initiated by a loss of AC power when the safety rods are assumed to fail. A SSS modification project was initiated to add an additional ink injection pathway near the pump suction. In addition, the Department of Energy raised a question on the thermal buoyancy effects on moderator flow pattern and ink dispersion in the moderator space. The development and documentation of a two-dimensional code called MODFLOW was undertaken to describe the problem. This report discusses the results of the moderator flow and ink (Gadolinium Poison Solution - GPS) dispersion tests designed to provide qualified data for validation and benchmarking of the MODFLOW computer code with the secondary objectives being the development of concentration profiles and video footage of simulated GPS dispersion under steady-state and transient flow conditions.

  6. A concurrent diagnosis of microbiological food safety output and food safety management system performance: Cases from meat processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Uyttendaele, M.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Stakeholder requirements force companies to analyse their food safety management system (FSMS) performance to improve food safety. Performance is commonly analysed by checking compliance against preset requirements via audits/inspections, or actual food safety (FS) output is analysed by

  7. Development of fluid system design technology for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. J.; Chang, M. H.; Kang, D. J. and others

    1999-03-01

    This study presents the technology development of the system design concepts of SMART, a multi-purposed integral reactor with enhanced safety and operability, for use in diverse usages and applications of the nuclear energy. This report contains the following; - Design characteristics - Performance and safety related design criteria - System description: Primary system, Secondary system, Residual heat removal system, Make-up system, Component cooling system, Safety system - Development of design computer code: Steam generator performance(ONCESG), Pressurizer performance(COLDPZR), Steam generator flow instability(SGINS) - Development of component module and modeling using MMS computer code - Design calculation: Steam generator thermal sizing, Analysis of feed-water temperature increase at a low flow rate, Evaluation of thermal efficiency in the secondary system, Inlet orifice throttling coefficient for the prevention of steam generator flow instability, Analysis of Nitrogen gas temperature in the pressurizer during heat-up process, evaluation of water chemistry and erosion etc. The results of this study can be utilized not only for the foundation technology of the next phase basic system design of the SMART but also for the basic model in optimizing the system concepts for future advanced reactors. (author)

  8. Combining System Safety and Reliability to Ensure NASA CoNNeCT's Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenhill, Maria; Fernandez, Rene; Zampino, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Hazard Analysis, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), the Limited-Life Items List (LLIL), and the Single Point Failure (SPF) List were applied by System Safety and Reliability engineers on NASA's Communications, Navigation, and Networking reConfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) Project. The integrated approach involving cross reviews of these reports by System Safety, Reliability, and Design engineers resulted in the mitigation of all identified hazards. The outcome was that the system met all the safety requirements it was required to meet.

  9. System safety theory and human factors approach to patient safety for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou, S.C. [Univ. of Minnesota, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept., Duluth, Minnesota (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The research questions in this study while developing modern medical technology for safer applications of radiation therapy are - what medical and radiobiological effects and their quantitative models must be taken into account while defining the radiation risk. The uncertainty in the expression of these consequences for the delayed effects is one of the important problems the solution of which is necessary for radiation safety. The main principles of ensuring the radiation safety and the assessment of software technological risk developed on the basis of the intrinsic compatibility with safety systems theory, as an example, those which follow the concept of 'Inherent safety' are presented in this paper. (author)

  10. FAULT-TOLERANT DESIGN FOR ADVANCED DIVERSE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG GYUN OH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For the improvement of APR1400 Diverse Protection System (DPS design, the Advanced DPS (ADPS has recently been developed to enhance the fault tolerance capability of the system. Major fault masking features of the ADPS compared with the APR1400 DPS are the changes to the channel configuration and reactor trip actuation equipment. To minimize the fault occurrences within the ADPS, and to mitigate the consequences of common-cause failures (CCF within the safety I&C systems, several fault avoidance design features have been applied in the ADPS. The fault avoidance design features include the changes to the system software classification, communication methods, equipment platform, MMI equipment, etc. In addition, the fault detection, location, containment, and recovery processes have been incorporated in the ADPS design. Therefore, it is expected that the ADPS can provide an enhanced fault tolerance capability against the possible faults within the system and its input/output equipment, and the CCF of safety systems.

  11. Towards predictive cardiovascular safety : a systems pharmacology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, Nelleke

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular safety issues related to changes in blood pressure, arise frequently in drug development. In the thesis “Towards predictive cardiovascular safety – a systems pharmacology approach”, a system-specific model is described to quantify drug effects on the interrelationship between mean

  12. Developing and Testing the Health Care Safety Hotline: A Prototype Consumer Reporting System for Patient Safety Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eric C; Ridgely, M Susan; Quigley, Denise D; Hunter, Lauren E; Leuschner, Kristin J; Weingart, Saul N; Weissman, Joel S; Zimmer, Karen P; Giannini, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    This article describes the design, development, and testing of the Health Care Safety Hotline, a prototype consumer reporting system for patient safety events. The prototype was designed and developed with ongoing review by a technical expert panel and feedback obtained during a public comment period. Two health care delivery organizations in one metropolitan area collaborated with the researchers to demonstrate and evaluate the system. The prototype was deployed and elicited information from patients, family members, and caregivers through a website or an 800 phone number. The reports were considered useful and had little overlap with information received by the health care organizations through their usual risk management, customer service, and patient safety monitoring systems. However, the frequency of reporting was lower than anticipated, suggesting that further refinements, including efforts to raise awareness by actively soliciting reports from subjects, might be necessary to substantially increase the volume of useful reports. It is possible that a single technology platform could be built to meet a variety of different patient safety objectives, but it may not be possible to achieve several objectives simultaneously through a single consumer reporting system while also establishing trust with patients, caregivers, and providers.

  13. 77 FR 55371 - System Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ..., controlling, and continually assessing risk; and promotion of safety culture.'' Id. Under FAA's proposed... inclined toward the RSAC recommendation. However, FRA is in no way bound to follow the recommendation and...

  14. Frequency of target crashes for IntelliDrive safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report estimates the frequency of different crash types that would potentially be addressed by various categories of Intelligent Transportation Systems as part of the IntelliDriveSM safety systems program. Crash types include light-vehicle crash...

  15. AUTOMATION DESIGN FOR MONORAIL - BASED SYSTEM PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunda BESA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, conventional methods of decline development put enormous cost pressure on the profitability of mining operations. This is the case with narrow vein ore bodies where current methods and mine design of decline development may be too expensive to support economic extraction of the ore. According to studies, the time it takes to drill, clean and blast an end in conventional decline development can be up to 224 minutes. This is because once an end is blasted, cleaning should first be completed before drilling can commence, resulting in low advance rates per shift. Improvements in advance rates during decline development can be achieved by application of the Electric Monorail Transport System (EMTS based drilling system. The system consists of the drilling and loading components that use monorail technology to drill and clean the face during decline development. The two systems work simultaneously at the face in such a way that as the top part of the face is being drilled the pneumatic loading system cleans the face. However, to improve the efficiency of the two systems, critical processes performed by the two systems during mining operations must be automated. Automation increases safety and productivity, reduces operator fatigue and also reduces the labour costs of the system. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to describe automation designs of the two processes performed by the monorail drilling and loading systems during operations. During automation design, critical processes performed by the two systems and control requirements necessary to allow the two systems execute such processes automatically have also been identified.

  16. Design of biomedical devices and systems

    CERN Document Server

    King, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to Biomedical Engineering Design. Fundamental Design Tools. Design Team Management, Reporting, and Documentation. Product Definition. Product Documentation. Product Development. Hardware Development Methods and Tools. Software Development Methods and Tools. Human Factors. Industrial Design. Biomaterials and Material Testing. Safety Engineering: Devices and Processes. Testing. Analysis of Test Data. Reliability and Liability. Food and Drug Administration. Regulations and Standards. Licensing, Patents, Copyrights, and Trade Secrets. Manufacturing and Quality Control. Miscellaneous Issues. Product Issues. Professional Issues. Design Case Studies. Future Design Issues.

  17. Declarative Rule-based Safety for Robotic Perception Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Johann Thor Ingibergsson; Kraft, Dirk; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2017-01-01

    Mobile robots are used across many domains from personal care to agriculture. Working in dynamic open-ended environments puts high constraints on the robot perception system, which is critical for the safety of the system as a whole. To achieve the required safety levels the perception system needs....... The language allows developers to increase trustworthiness in the robot perception system, which we argue would increase compliance with safety standards. We demonstrate the usage of the language to improve reliability in a perception pipeline and evaluate it against manually written rules on embedded hardware...

  18. An integrated risk sensing system for geo-structural safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.W. Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, geo-structures are experiencing a rapid development in China. The potential risks inherent in the huge amount of construction and asset operation projects in China were well managed in the major project, i.e. the project of Shanghai Yangtze tunnel in 2002. Since then, risk assessment of geo-structures has been gradually developed from a qualitative manner to a quantitative manner. However, the current practices of risk management have been paid considerable attention to the assessment, but little on risk control. As a result, the responses to risks occurrences after a comprehensive assessment are basically too late. In this paper, a smart system for risk sensing incorporating the wireless sensor network (WSN on-site visualization techniques and the resilience-based repair strategy was proposed. The merit of this system is the real-time monitoring for geo-structural performance and dynamic pre-warning for safety of on-site workers. The sectional convergence, joint opening, and seepage of segmental lining of shield tunnel were monitored by the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS based sensors. The light emitting diode (LED coupling with the above WSN system was used to indicate different risk levels on site. By sensing the risks and telling the risks in real time, the geo-risks could be controlled and the safety of geo-structures could be assured to a certain degree. Finally, a resilience-based analysis model was proposed for designing the repair strategy by using the measured data from the WSN system. The application and efficiency of this system have been validated by two cases including Shanghai metro tunnel and underwater road tunnel.

  19. Tank waste remediation system nuclear criticality safety program management review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRADY RAAP, M.C.

    1999-06-24

    This document provides the results of an internal management review of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) criticality safety program, performed in advance of the DOE/RL assessment for closure of the TWRS Nuclear Criticality Safety Issue, March 1994. Resolution of the safety issue was identified as Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-40-12, due September 1999.

  20. Safety considerations in the design of Spacelab refrigerator/freezer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hye, A.

    1985-01-01

    A vapor compression refrigerator/freezer has been designed for Spacelab to conduct life sciences experiments. It is equipped with different safety features to eliminate all probable types of failures. The whole Freon loop is enclosed in a second containment so that any leakage of Freon can be contained. The unit is provided with an 'Emergency On' switch to actuate during backup mode which provides the spacecraft power directly to the compressor and the cooling fans while removing the power supply and all normal control elements from the circuit. During this mode, the compressor runs continuously when operating as a freezer (-22 C) and is controlled by a thermostat to cycle when operating as a refrigerator (4 C). It has a push button switch at the front panel to momentarily power the thermometer by a battery to monitor the inside temperature during an emergency. It has a door switch which shuts off the internal cooling fans when the door is opened. All the important critical performance data will be downlinked through a data connector to monitor during mission.

  1. Networking systems design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Effectively integrating theory and hands-on practice, Networking Systems Design and Development provides students and IT professionals with the knowledge and skills needed to design, implement, and manage fully functioning network systems using readily available Linux networking tools. Recognizing that most students are beginners in the field of networking, the text provides step-by-step instruction for setting up a virtual lab environment at home. Grounded in real-world applications, this book provides the ideal blend of conceptual instruction and lab work to give students and IT professional

  2. Handbook of driver assistance systems basic information, components and systems for active safety and comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Hakuli, Stephan; Lotz, Felix; Singer, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This fundamental work explains in detail systems for active safety and driver assistance, considering both their structure and their function. These include the well-known standard systems such as Anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (ESC) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). But it includes also new systems for protecting collisions protection, for changing the lane, or for convenient parking. The book aims at giving a complete picture focusing on the entire system. First, it describes the components which are necessary for assistance systems, such as sensors, actuators, mechatronic subsystems, and control elements. Then, it explains key features for the user-friendly design of human-machine interfaces between driver and assistance system. Finally, important characteristic features of driver assistance systems for particular vehicles are presented: Systems for commercial vehicles and motorcycles.

  3. Electromagnetic compatibility and safety design of a patient compliance-free, inductive implant charger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, Michael P; Mollov, Stefan V

    2014-10-01

    This article presents the design of a domestic, radiofrequency induction charger for implants toward compliance with the Federal Communications Commission safety and electromagnetic compatibility regulations. The suggested arrangement does not impose any patient compliance requirements other than the use of a designated bed for night sleep, and therefore can find a domestic use. The method can be applied to a number of applications; a rechargeable pacemaker is considered as a case study. The presented work has proven that it is possible to realize a fully compliant inductive charging system with minimal patient interaction, and has generated important information for consideration by the designers of inductive charging systems. Experimental results have verified the validity of the theoretical findings.

  4. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY CONCEPTUAL SYSTEM DESIGN DESCRIPTION FOR THE BUILDING ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1968-07-03

    The Building Electrical Power System, transmits, distributes and controls the electrical power utilized by the equipment of all of the FFTF system. Included are system functions and design requirements, the physical description of the system, safety considerations, principles of operations, and maintenance principles.

  5. Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1999-05-24

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems.

  6. Human-system safety methods for development of advanced air traffic management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, William R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

    1999-05-15

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems (author) (ml)

  7. Requirements analysis and system design

    CERN Document Server

    Maciaszek, Leszek A

    2007-01-01

    An examination of the methods and techniques used in the analysis and design phases of Information System development. Emphasis is placed upon the application of object technology in enterprise information systems (EIS) with UML being used throughout. Through its excellent balance of practical explanation and theoretical insight the book manages to avoid unnecessary, complicating details without sacrificing rigor. Examples of real-world scenarios are used throughout, giving the reader an understanding of what really goes on within the field of Software Engineering.

  8. METIS: Dependable Cooperative Systems for Public Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.J.; Laar, P.J.L.J. van de

    2013-01-01

    Much, if not most, information needed to assess a crisis situation originates these days from cooperative sources such as the Internet and social networks. Public safety authorities face the challenge to compile this information of uncertain origin and quality in their situation understanding and

  9. Communication and Networking Techniques for Traffic Safety Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chisalita, Ioan

    2006-01-01

    Accident statistics indicate that every year a significant number of casualties and extensive property losses occur due to traffic accidents. Consequently, efforts are directed towards developing passive and active safety systems that help reduce the severity of crashes, or prevent vehicles from colliding with one another. To develop these systems, technologies such as sensor systems, computer vision and vehicular communication have been proposed. Safety vehicular communication is defined as ...

  10. A management system integrating radiation protection and safety supporting safety culture in the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almén, A; Lundh, C

    2015-04-01

    Quality assurance has been identified as an important part of radiation protection and safety for a considerable time period. A rational expansion and improvement of quality assurance is to integrate radiation protection and safety in a management system. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing the implementing strategy when introducing a management system including radiation protection and safety in hospitals and to outline benefits of such a system. The main experience from developing a management system is that it is possible to create a vast number of common policies and routines for the whole hospital, resulting in a cost-efficient system. One of the key benefits is the involvement of management at all levels, including the hospital director. Furthermore, a transparent system will involve staff throughout the organisation as well. A management system supports a common view on what should be done, who should do it and how the activities are reviewed. An integrated management system for radiation protection and safety includes key elements supporting a safety culture. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Fatigue Criterion for System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeretsky, E. V.

    1986-01-01

    Report discusses principles of structural-life prediction. Generalized methodology developed for structural life prediction, design, and reliability, based upon fatigue criterion. Approach incorporates computed life of elemental stress volumes of complex machine elements to predict system life. Results of coupon fatigue testing incorporated into analysis, allowing for life prediction and component or structural renewal rates, with reasonable statistical certainty.

  12. Occupational Safety and Health Systems: A Three-Country Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, W. T.

    1983-01-01

    This article compares the occupational safety and health systems of Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States, looking at the origins of their legislation and its effects on occupational safety and health, with a view to determining what lessons may emerge, particularly for developing countries. (Author/SSH)

  13. Approaches to construction of systems of safety management in airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents three approaches of building a safety management system (SMS in airlines in the framework of implementation of ICAO SARPs that apply methods of risk assessment based on use of operational activity of airline taking into account existing and implementing "protections" or "safety barriers".

  14. Fasten seat belts: Do car safety systems cause positive externalities?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Berlemann; Andreas Matthes

    2011-01-01

    Although traffic safety belongs to the quite intensively regulated sectors, there has been little discussion about the adequacy of the arguments underlying these regulations. We argue that passive and active car safety systems might cause positive externalities for other traffic participants and present empirical evidence in favour of this hypothesis.

  15. Development of a Comprehensive Database System for Safety Analyst

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paz, Alexander; Veeramisti, Naveen; Khanal, Indira; Baker, Justin; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    ... not widely used due to a number of challenges as described in this paper. As part of this study, a comprehensive database system and tools to provide data to multiple traffic safety applications, with a focus on Safety Analyst, were developed...

  16. The Research on Safety Management Information System of Railway Passenger Based on Risk Management Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenmin; Jia, Yuanhua

    2018-01-01

    Based on the risk management theory and the PDCA cycle model, requirements of the railway passenger transport safety production is analyzed, and the establishment of the security risk assessment team is proposed to manage risk by FTA with Delphi from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The safety production committee is also established to accomplish performance appraisal, which is for further ensuring the correctness of risk management results, optimizing the safety management business processes and improving risk management capabilities. The basic framework and risk information database of risk management information system of railway passenger transport safety are designed by Ajax, Web Services and SQL technologies. The system realizes functions about risk management, performance appraisal and data management, and provides an efficient and convenient information management platform for railway passenger safety manager.

  17. Perspectives in quality: designing the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Thomas G; Haynes, Alex B; Lashoher, Angela; Dziekan, Gerald; Boorman, Daniel J; Berry, William R; Gawande, Atul A

    2010-10-01

    The World Health Organization's Patient Safety Programme created an initiative to improve the safety of surgery around the world. In order to accomplish this goal the programme team developed a checklist with items that could and, if at all possible, should be practised in all settings where surgery takes place. There is little guidance in the literature regarding methods for creating a medical checklist. The airline industry, however, has more than 70 years of experience in developing and using checklists. The authors of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist drew lessons from the aviation experience to create a safety tool that supports essential clinical practice. In order to inform the methodology for development of future checklists in health care, we review how we applied lessons learned from the aviation experience in checklist development to the development of the Surgical Safety Checklist and also discuss the differences that exist between aviation and medicine that impact the use of checklists in health care.

  18. Design of interpretable fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cpałka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book shows that the term “interpretability” goes far beyond the concept of readability of a fuzzy set and fuzzy rules. It focuses on novel and precise operators of aggregation, inference, and defuzzification leading to flexible Mamdani-type and logical-type systems that can achieve the required accuracy using a less complex rule base. The individual chapters describe various aspects of interpretability, including appropriate selection of the structure of a fuzzy system, focusing on improving the interpretability of fuzzy systems designed using both gradient-learning and evolutionary algorithms. It also demonstrates how to eliminate various system components, such as inputs, rules and fuzzy sets, whose reduction does not adversely affect system accuracy. It illustrates the performance of the developed algorithms and methods with commonly used benchmarks. The book provides valuable tools for possible applications in many fields including expert systems, automatic control and robotics.

  19. Development of a Comprehensive Database System for Safety Analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Alexander; Veeramisti, Naveen; Khanal, Indira; Baker, Justin; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed barriers associated with the use of Safety Analyst, a state-of-the-art tool that has been developed to assist during the entire Traffic Safety Management process but that is not widely used due to a number of challenges as described in this paper. As part of this study, a comprehensive database system and tools to provide data to multiple traffic safety applications, with a focus on Safety Analyst, were developed. A number of data management tools were developed to extract, collect, transform, integrate, and load the data. The system includes consistency-checking capabilities to ensure the adequate insertion and update of data into the database. This system focused on data from roadways, ramps, intersections, and traffic characteristics for Safety Analyst. To test the proposed system and tools, data from Clark County, which is the largest county in Nevada and includes the cities of Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City, and North Las Vegas, was used. The database and Safety Analyst together help identify the sites with the potential for safety improvements. Specifically, this study examined the results from two case studies. The first case study, which identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, included all roadway elements and used default and calibrated Safety Performance Functions (SPFs). The second case study identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, specifically regarding intersections; it used default and calibrated SPFs as well. Conclusions were developed for the calibration of safety performance functions and the classification of site subtypes. Guidelines were provided about the selection of a particular network screening type or performance measure for network screening.

  20. Consistent Design of Dependable Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    1996-01-01

    Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented.......Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented....

  1. Safety equipment list for the light duty utility arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-03-02

    The initial issue (Revision 0) of this Safety Equipment List (SEL) for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) requires an explanation for both its existence and its being what it is. All LDUA documentation leading up to creation of this SEL, and the SEL itself, is predicated on the LDUA only being approved for use in waste tanks designated as Facility Group 3, i.e., it is not approved for use in Facility Group 1 or 2 waste tanks. Facility Group 3 tanks are those in which a spontaneous or induced hydrogen gas release would be small, localized, and would not exceed 25% of the LFL when mixed with the remaining air volume in the dome space; exceeding these parameters is considered unlikely. Thus, from a NFPA flammable gas environment perspective the waste tank interior is not classified as a hazardous location. Furthermore, a hazards identification and evaluation (HNF-SD-WM-HIE-010, REV 0) performed for the LDUA system concluded that the consequences of actual LDUA system postulated accidents in Flammable Gas Facility Group 3 waste tanks would have either NO IMPACT or LOW IMPACT on the offsite public and onsite worker. Therefore, from a flammable gas perspective, there is not a rationale for classifying any of SSCs associated with the LDUA as either Safety Class (SC) or Safety Significant (SS) SSCs, which, by default, categorizes them as General Service (GS) SSCs. It follows then, based on current PHMC procedures (HNF-PRO-704 and HNF-IP-0842, Vol IV, Section 5.2) for SEL creation and content, and from a flammable gas perspective, that an SEL is NOT REQ@D HOWEVER!!! There is both a precedent and a prudency to capture all SSCS, which although GS, contribute to a Defense-In-Depth (DID) approach to the design and use of equipment in potentially flammable gas environments. This Revision 0 of the LDUA SEL has been created to capture these SSCs and they are designated as GS-DID in this document. The specific reasons for doing this are listed.

  2. Microminiature inertial measurement system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gang; Gu, Qitai

    2000-05-01

    The microminiature inertial measurement system, a new style of the inertial measurement system, has many advantages compared with the traditional one, such as small size, light weight, low cost, little power consumption, high bearing capacity and long life. Undoubtedly, it will have wider applications in military and commercial fields. However, it is a pity that current micro inertial sensors do not have enough accuracy. Therefore, its applications were limited to some extent. This paper described a design of microminiature inertial measurement system and its composing and operating theory. In addition, its performance and applications were evaluated.

  3. Identifiable piezoelectric security system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-10-01

    Directing at the disadvantages of low environmental suitability, inferior anti-interference ability and being easy to be found and destroyed in existing security product, a kind of identifiable piezoelectric security system based on piezoelectric cable is designed. The present system gathers vibration signals of different moving bodies, such as human, vehicles, animals and so on, with piezoelectric cable buried under -ground and distinguishes the different moving bodies through recognition algorithm and thus giving an alarm. As is shown in experiments, the present system has the features of good concealment and high accuracy in distinguishing moving bodies.

  4. Advancing rig design: latest rig technologies improving efficiency and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenaway, R.

    1997-12-01

    Recent advances in drilling rig technologies that improve the ways for finding oil and natural gas, and are also solving some safety and transportation problems, have been reviewed. The coiled tubing drilling rig developed by joint venture TransOcean Ensign Drilling Technology was one of the innovations described. It is able to run a three-and-a-quarter inch coiled tubing, the only system capable of doing this in a land-based application. Tesco Corporation`s new casing drilling rig, which is expected to lower the cost of moving the rig, and Brinkerhoff Drilling`s new generation modular (NGM)-rig, claimed to be the most mobile rig in North America, are other new developments worthy of note. Tesco`s casing drilling rig has the potential to reduce drilling costs by as much as 30 to 40 per cent, while the NGM-rig could reduce rig mobilization time by 50 to 80 per cent, and the number of wells drilled by the same rig could increase by 20 per cent, due to the NGM-rig`s versatility and flexibility.

  5. Data Analysis of Occupational Health and Safety Management and Total Quality Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yakut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, Total Quality Management, Occupational Health and Safety on the effects of the construction industry, building sites of Istanbul evaluated with the results of the survey of 25 firms. For Occupational Health and Safety program, walked healthy, active employees in her role increased and will increase the importance of education. Due to non-implementation of the OHS system in our country enough, work-related accidents and deaths and injuries resulting from these accidents is very high. Firms as a result of the analysis, an effective health and safety management system needs to be able to fulfill their responsibilities. This system is designated as OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Safety Management System and the construction industry can be regarded as the imperatives.

  6. Linking Safety Analysis to Safety Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Mark

    Software for safety critical systems must deal with the hazards identified by safety analysistechniques: Fault trees, event trees,and cause consequence diagrams can be interpreted as safety requirements and used in the design activity. We propose that the safety analysis and the system design use...... the same system model and that this model is formalized in a real-time, interval logic, based on a conventional dynamic systems model with a state over time. The three safety analysis techniques are interpreted in this model and it is shown how to derive safety requirements for components of a system....

  7. Adaptive designs from a Data Safety Monitoring Board perspective: Some controversies and some case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Bruce W

    2017-10-01

    This article describes vignettes concerning interactions with Data Safety Monitoring Boards during the design and monitoring of some clinical trials with an adaptive design. Most reflect personal experiences by the author.

  8. How to Use an Optimization-Based Method Capable of Balancing Safety, Reliability, and Weight in an Aircraft Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Johansson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to help decision-makers in the early design phase to improve and make more cost-efficient system safety and reliability baselines of aircraft design concepts, a method (Multi-objective Optimization for Safety and Reliability Trade-off that is able to handle trade-offs such as system safety, system reliability, and other characteristics, for instance weight and cost, is used. Multi-objective Optimization for Safety and Reliability Trade-off has been developed and implemented at SAAB Aeronautics. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the implemented method might work to aid the selection of optimal design alternatives. The method is a three-step method: step 1 involves the modelling of each considered target, step 2 is optimization, and step 3 is the visualization and selection of results (results processing. The analysis is performed within Architecture Design and Preliminary Design steps, according to the company's Product Development Process. The lessons learned regarding the use of the implemented trade-off method in the three cases are presented. The results are a handful of solutions, a basis to aid in the selection of a design alternative. While the implementation of the trade-off method is performed for companies, there is nothing to prevent adapting this method, with minimal modifications, for use in other industrial applications.

  9. How to use an optimization-based method capable of balancing safety, reliability, and weight in an aircraft design process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Cristina [Mendeley, Broderna Ugglasgatan, Linkoping (Sweden); Derelov, Micael; Olvander, Johan [Linkoping University, IEI, Dept. of Machine Design, Linkoping (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    In order to help decision-makers in the early design phase to improve and make more cost-efficient system safety and reliability baselines of aircraft design concepts, a method (Multi-objective Optimization for Safety and Reliability Trade-off) that is able to handle trade-offs such as system safety, system reliability, and other characteristics, for instance weight and cost, is used. Multi-objective Optimization for Safety and Reliability Trade-off has been developed and implemented at SAAB Aeronautics. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the implemented method might work to aid the selection of optimal design alternatives. The method is a three-step method: step 1 involves the modelling of each considered target, step 2 is optimization, and step 3 is the visualization and selection of results (results processing). The analysis is performed within Architecture Design and Preliminary Design steps, according to the company's Product Development Process. The lessons learned regarding the use of the implemented trade-off method in the three cases are presented. The results are a handful of solutions, a basis to aid in the selection of a design alternative. While the implementation of the trade-off method is performed for companies, there is nothing to prevent adapting this method, with minimal modifications, for use in other industrial applications.

  10. Engineering Design Information System (EDIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.S.; Short, R.D.; Schwarz, R.K.

    1990-11-01

    This manual is a guide to the use of the Engineering Design Information System (EDIS) Phase I. The system runs on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., IBM 3081 unclassified computer. This is the first phase in the implementation of EDIS, which is an index, storage, and retrieval system for engineering documents produced at various plants and laboratories operated by Energy Systems for the Department of Energy. This manual presents on overview of EDIS, describing the system's purpose; the functions it performs; hardware, software, and security requirements; and help and error functions. This manual describes how to access EDIS and how to operate system functions using Database 2 (DB2), Time Sharing Option (TSO), Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF), and Soft Master viewing features employed by this system. Appendix A contains a description of the Soft Master viewing capabilities provided through the EDIS View function. Appendix B provides examples of the system error screens and help screens for valid codes used for screen entry. Appendix C contains a dictionary of data elements and descriptions.

  11. The Danish patient safety experience: the Act on Patient Safety in the Danish Health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Mette; Rabøl, Louise; Jensen, Elisabeth Agnete Brøgger

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the process that lead to the passing of the Act for Patient Safety in the Danisk health care sytem, the contents of the act and how the act is used in the Danish health care system. The act obligates frontline health care personnel to report adverse events, hospital owners...... to act on the reports and the National Board of Health to commuicate the learning nationally. The act protects health care providers from sanctions as a result of reporting. In January 2004, the Act on Patient Safety in the Danish health care system was put into force. In the first twelve months 5740...... adverse events were reported. the reports were analyzed locally (hospital and region), anonymized ad then sent to the National Board af Health. The Act on Patient Safety has driven the work with patient safety forward but there is room for improvement. Continuous and improved feedback from all parts...

  12. Safety and Comfort for Moon and MARS Habitats: Key Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, T. V.; Bannova, O. K.

    2017-10-01

    Safety requirements are critical in designing for any extreme environment and especially for habitats in space and on Moon or Mars. But safety alone is not enough when designing for long-term missions in extreme environments on Earth and in space.

  13. Verification of Overall Safety Factors In Deterministic Design Of Model Tested Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with concepts of safety implementation in design. An overall safety factor concept is evaluated on the basis of a reliability analysis of a model tested rubble mound breakwater with monolithic super structure. Also discussed are design load identification and failure mode limit st...

  14. A series of student design projects for improving and modernizing safety helmets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K.M.M. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Stilma, M. (Margot); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2014-01-01

    The Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology employs many students during research projects. This paper discusses a series of student design projects on safety helmets in the Safety@Work project. At construction sites workers are required to wear personal protective equipment during their

  15. A comparison between prescriptive- and performance-based approaches in fire safety design of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budny, Iwona; Giuliani, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    A provision of an adequate consideration of both the people and structure safety is a crucial goal in a rational fire design. However, only a partial agreement concerning the general structural fire safety approach exists, and several meaningful discrepancies concerning the design and verification...

  16. Telecommunications Systems Design Techniques Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, R. E. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) increasingly supports deep space missions sponsored and managed by organizations without long experience in DSN design and operation. The document is intended as a textbook for those DSN users inexperienced in the design and specification of a DSN-compatible spacecraft telecommunications system. For experienced DSN users, the document provides a reference source of telecommunication information which summarizes knowledge previously available only in a multitude of sources. Extensive references are quoted for those who wish to explore specific areas more deeply.

  17. On the Safety of Machine Learning: Cyber-Physical Systems, Decision Sciences, and Data Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Kush R; Alemzadeh, Homa

    2017-09-01

    Machine learning algorithms increasingly influence our decisions and interact with us in all parts of our daily lives. Therefore, just as we consider the safety of power plants, highways, and a variety of other engineered socio-technical systems, we must also take into account the safety of systems involving machine learning. Heretofore, the definition of safety has not been formalized in a machine learning context. In this article, we do so by defining machine learning safety in terms of risk, epistemic uncertainty, and the harm incurred by unwanted outcomes. We then use this definition to examine safety in all sorts of applications in cyber-physical systems, decision sciences, and data products. We find that the foundational principle of modern statistical machine learning, empirical risk minimization, is not always a sufficient objective. We discuss how four different categories of strategies for achieving safety in engineering, including inherently safe design, safety reserves, safe fail, and procedural safeguards can be mapped to a machine learning context. We then discuss example techniques that can be adopted in each category, such as considering interpretability and causality of predictive models, objective functions beyond expected prediction accuracy, human involvement for labeling difficult or rare examples, and user experience design of software and open data.

  18. Safety inspections in construction sites: A systems thinking perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu

    2016-08-01

    Although safety inspections carried out by government officers are important for the prevention of accidents, there is little in-depth knowledge on their outcomes and processes leading to these. This research deals with this gap by using systems thinking (ST) as a lens for obtaining insights into safety inspections in construction sites. Thirteen case studies of sites with prohibited works were carried out, discussing how four attributes of ST were used in the inspections. The studies were undertaken over 6 years, and sources of evidence involved participant observation, direct observations, analysis of documents and interviews. Two complementary ways for obtaining insights into inspections, based on ST, were identified: (i) the design of the study itself needs to be in line with ST; and (ii) data collection and analysis should focus on the agents involved in the inspections, the interactions between agents, the constraints and opportunities faced by agents, the outcomes of interactions, and the recommendations for influencing interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integration of Safety in the Building Delivery System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Sander, Dag; Staghøj, Aage

    2010-01-01

    recommended as the most suitable for a construction process, since it ensures that considerations for health and safety at work do not conflict with considerations for economical, efficiency wise, quality wise and architectural objectives. The goal is to have the considerations for health and safety at work...... become a natural part of the construction process and thereby also have them incorporated into the detailed design process. The practical value of the concept depends on how you manage and organise the detailed design process. Keeping health and safety at work in mind through all phases...... of the construction process will ensure due considerations with regard to organisation, demands for the outcome, analysing and fulfilling demands for buildability and thereby incorporating the demands for health and safety at work into the project material....

  20. ARGOS laser system mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deysenroth, M.; Honsberg, M.; Gemperlein, H.; Ziegleder, J.; Raab, W.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Borelli, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    ARGOS, a multi-star adaptive optics system is designed for the wide-field imager and multi-object spectrograph LUCI on the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope). Based on Rayleigh scattering the laser constellation images 3 artificial stars (at 532 nm) per each of the 2 eyes of the LBT, focused at a height of 12 km (Ground Layer Adaptive Optics). The stars are nominally positioned on a circle 2' in radius, but each star can be moved by up to 0.5' in any direction. For all of these needs are following main subsystems necessary: 1. A laser system with its 3 Lasers (Nd:YAG ~18W each) for delivering strong collimated light as for LGS indispensable. 2. The Launch system to project 3 beams per main mirror as a 40 cm telescope to the sky. 3. The Wave Front Sensor with a dichroic mirror. 4. The dichroic mirror unit to grab and interpret the data. 5. A Calibration Unit to adjust the system independently also during day time. 6. Racks + platforms for the WFS units. 7. Platforms and ladders for a secure access. This paper should mainly demonstrate how the ARGOS Laser System is configured and designed to support all other systems.

  1. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

  2. Evaluation of bypass lane safety, operations, and design in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The construction of bypass lanes at rural intersections has typically been considered a low-cost highway safety : improvement by the transportation community. However, this needs to be quantitatively evaluated so that decisions can be made : on wheth...

  3. Rationale of a novel study design for the BIOFLOW V study, a prospective, randomized multicenter study to assess the safety and efficacy of the Orsiro sirolimus-eluting coronary stent system using a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doros, Gheorghe; Massaro, Joseph M; Kandzari, David E; Waksman, Ron; Koolen, Jacques J; Cutlip, Donald E; Mauri, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Traditional study design submitted to the Food and Drug Administration to test newer drug-eluting stents (DES) for marketing approval is the prospective randomized controlled trial. However, several DES have extensive clinical data from trials conducted outside the United States that have led to utilization of a novel design using the Bayesian approach. This design was proposed for testing DES with bioresorbable polymer compared with DES most commonly in use today that use durable polymers for drug elution. This prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial is designed to assess the safety and efficacy of the Orsiro bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (BP SES). Up to 1,334 subjects with up to 3 de novo or restenotic coronary artery lesions who qualify for percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting will be randomized 2:1 to the BP SES versus the Xience durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (DP EES). Data from this trial will be combined with data from 2 similarly designed trials that also randomize subjects to BP SES and DP EES (BIOFLOW II, N=452 and BIOFLOW IV, N=579) by using a Bayesian approach. The primary end point is target lesion failure at 12 months post index procedure, defined as cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically driven target lesion revascularization, and the primary analysis is a test of noninferiority of the BP SES versus DP EES on the primary end point according to a noninferiority delta of 3.85%. Secondary end points include stent thrombosis and the individual components of target lesion failure. Subjects will be followed for 5 years after randomization. The BIOFLOW V trial offers an opportunity to assess clinical outcomes in patients treated with coronary revascularization using the Orsiro BP SES relative to a commonly used DP EES. The use of a Bayesian analysis combines a large randomized cohort of patients 2 two smaller contributing randomized trials to augment the efficiency of the

  4. Software reliability and safety in nuclear reactor protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Planning the development, use and regulation of computer systems in nuclear reactor protection systems in such a way as to enhance reliability and safety is a complex issue. This report is one of a series of reports from the Computer Safety and Reliability Group, Lawrence Livermore that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor National Laboratory, that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor protection systems. There are two central themes in the report, First, software considerations cannot be fully understood in isolation from computer hardware and application considerations. Second, the process of engineering reliability and safety into a computer system requires activities to be carried out throughout the software life cycle. The report discusses the many activities that can be carried out during the software life cycle to improve the safety and reliability of the resulting product. The viewpoint is primarily that of the assessor, or auditor.

  5. Analyzing Software Errors in Safety-Critical Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safty-related software faults identified as potentially hazardous to the system are distributed somewhat differently over the set of possible error causes than non-safety-related software faults.

  6. Automated Flight Safety Inference Engine (AFSIE) System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative Autonomous Flight Safety Inference Engine (AFSIE) system to autonomously and reliably terminate the flight of an errant launch...

  7. Cloud/Fog Computing System Architecture and Key Technologies for South-North Water Transfer Project Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoling Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the real-time and distributed features of Internet of Things (IoT safety system in water conservancy engineering, this study proposed a new safety system architecture for water conservancy engineering based on cloud/fog computing and put forward a method of data reliability detection for the false alarm caused by false abnormal data from the bottom sensors. Designed for the South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP, the architecture integrated project safety, water quality safety, and human safety. Using IoT devices, fog computing layer was constructed between cloud server and safety detection devices in water conservancy projects. Technologies such as real-time sensing, intelligent processing, and information interconnection were developed. Therefore, accurate forecasting, accurate positioning, and efficient management were implemented as required by safety prevention of the SNWTP, and safety protection of water conservancy projects was effectively improved, and intelligential water conservancy engineering was developed.

  8. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is in...

  9. What is Clinical Safety in Electronic Health Care Record Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, George

    There is mounting public awareness of an increasing number of adverse clinical incidents within the National Health Service (NHS), but at the same time, large health care projects like the National Programme for IT (NPFIT) are claiming that safer care is one of the benefits of the project and that health software systems in particular have the potential to reduce the likelihood of accidental or unintentional harm to patients. This paper outlines the approach to clinical safety management taken by CSC, a major supplier to NPFIT; discusses acceptable levels of risk and clinical safety as an end-to-end concept; and touches on the future for clinical safety in health systems software.

  10. Reactor Design for Bioelectrochemical Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Mohanakrishna, G.

    2017-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are novel hybrid systems which are designed to generate renewable energy from the low cost substrate in a sustainable way. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are the well studied application of BES systems that generate electricity from the wide variety of organic components and wastewaters. MFC mechanism deals with the microbial oxidation of organic molecules for the production of electrons and protons. The MFC design helps to build the electrochemical gradient on anode and cathode which leads for the bioelectricity generation. As whole reactions of MFCs happen at mild environmental and operating conditions and using waste organics as the substrate, it is defined as the sustainable and alternative option for global energy needs and attracted worldwide researchers into this research area. Apart from MFC, BES has other applications such as microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) for biohydrogen production, microbial desalinations cells (MDCs) for water desalination, and microbial electrosynthesis cells (MEC) for value added products formation. All these applications are designed to perform efficiently under mild operational conditions. Specific strains of bacteria or specifically enriched microbial consortia are acting as the biocatalyst for the oxidation and reduction of BES. Detailed function of the biocatalyst has been discussed in the other chapters of this book.

  11. Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.G. [Software Engineering Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1991-11-15

    As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.

  12. Distributed Persistent Identifiers System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Golodoniuc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementation, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have, by in large, catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, and persistence, regardless of the identifier’s application domain. Trustworthiness of these systems has been measured by the criteria first defined by Bütikofer (2009 and further elaborated by Golodoniuc 'et al'. (2016 and Car 'et al'. (2017. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by a single organisation they faced challenges for widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. We believe that a cause of PID systems that were once successful fading away is the centralisation of support infrastructure – both organisational and computing and data storage systems. In this paper, we propose a PID system design that implements the pillars of a trustworthy system – ensuring identifiers’ independence of any particular technology or organisation, implementation of core PID system functions, separation from data delivery, and enabling the system to adapt for future change. We propose decentralisation at all levels — persistent identifiers and information objects registration, resolution, and data delivery — using Distributed Hash Tables and traditional peer-to-peer networks with information replication and caching mechanisms, thus eliminating the need for a central PID data store. This will increase overall system fault tolerance thus ensuring its trustworthiness. We also discuss important aspects of the distributed system’s governance, such as the notion of the authoritative source and data integrity

  13. Systems Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence; Leone, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A three-month study (February to April 2010) of the NASA Aviation Safety (AvSafe) program was conducted. This study comprised three components: (1) a statistical analysis of currently available civilian subsonic aircraft data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) system to identify any significant or overlooked aviation safety issues; (2) a high-level qualitative identification of future safety risks, with an assessment of the potential impact of the NASA AvSafe research on the National Airspace System (NAS) based on these risks; and (3) a detailed, top-down analysis of the NASA AvSafe program using an established and peer-reviewed systems analysis methodology. The statistical analysis identified the top aviation "tall poles" based on NTSB accident and FAA incident data from 1997 to 2006. A separate examination of medical helicopter accidents in the United States was also conducted. Multiple external sources were used to develop a compilation of ten "tall poles" in future safety issues/risks. The top-down analysis of the AvSafe was conducted by using a modification of the Gibson methodology. Of the 17 challenging safety issues that were identified, 11 were directly addressed by the AvSafe program research portfolio.

  14. Development of a Safety Assessment Information System for the Management of Periodic Safety Assessment Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tae Young [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    At present, the 10-year Periodic Safety Review(PSR) has been performing to confirm all the aspects of safety issues for all the operating plants in compliance with domestic nuclear law of article 23, subarticle 3. For each plant, in addition, Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) and Severe Accident Management Guideline(SAMG) are being implemented and revised periodically to reflect the latest safety level according to principle fulfillment of severe accident policy statement. The assessment reports, as one of outcomes from these activities, are submitted into and reviewed by domestic regulatory body. During reviewing (in-office duty) and licensing (regulatory duty) process, a large number of outcomes of which most are the formal technical reports and licensing materials, are inevitably produced. Moreover, repeated review process over the plants can make them accumulated and produce a variety of documents additionally. This circumstance motivates to develop effective tool or system for the management of these reports and related technical documents for the future use in licensing process and for subsequent plant assessments. This paper presents the development status of Safety Assessment Information System(SAIS) which manages safety-related documents of PSR, PSA and SAMG for practical use for experienced engineers in charge of these areas.

  15. Towards the Verification of Safety-critical Autonomous Systems in Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Aniculaesei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing necessity to deploy autonomous systems in highly heterogeneous, dynamic environments, e.g. service robots in hospitals or autonomous cars on highways. Due to the uncertainty in these environments, the verification results obtained with respect to the system and environment models at design-time might not be transferable to the system behavior at run time. For autonomous systems operating in dynamic environments, safety of motion and collision avoidance are critical requirements. With regard to these requirements, Macek et al. [6] define the passive safety property, which requires that no collision can occur while the autonomous system is moving. To verify this property, we adopt a two phase process which combines static verification methods, used at design time, with dynamic ones, used at run time. In the design phase, we exploit UPPAAL to formalize the autonomous system and its environment as timed automata and the safety property as TCTL formula and to verify the correctness of these models with respect to this property. For the runtime phase, we build a monitor to check whether the assumptions made at design time are also correct at run time. If the current system observations of the environment do not correspond to the initial system assumptions, the monitor sends feedback to the system and the system enters a passive safe state.

  16. Design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents new tools and methods for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). ADASs aim to improve driving comfort and traffic safety by assisting the driver in recognizing and reacting to potentially dangerous traffic situations. A major challenge in

  17. Fear patterns: a new approach to designing road safety advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algie, Jennifer; Rossiter, John R

    2010-01-01

    This research studies fear patterns within fear appeal anti-speeding television commercials. A pattern of fear is the sequence of fear arousal and fear reduction, if any, that is felt by the viewing audience when exposed to a fear appeal advertisement. Many road safety advertisers use fear appeals, such as "shock" advertising, that result in fear arousal, leaving the viewer feeling extremely tense. The moment-to-moment reactions of young drivers to 12 road safety commercials are gauged using a dynamic, temporal measure of fear. The fear patterns generated from each ad are analyzed and a new perspective on creating fear appeal road safety advertisements, with an emphasis on fear-relief, fear-partial relief, and fear-only patterns, is discussed.

  18. Ethical issues in engineering design processes ; regulative frameworks for safety and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, A. van

    2007-01-01

    The ways designers deal with ethical issues that arise in their consideration of safety and sustainability in engineering design processes are described. In the case studies, upon which this article is based, a difference can be seen between normal and radical design. Designers refer to regulative

  19. Rapid prototyping of the Central Safety System for Nuclear Risk in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scibile, L. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, St. Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Ambrosino, G. [Consorzio CREATE, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125, Napoli (Italy); De Tommasi, G., E-mail: detommas@unina.i [Consorzio CREATE, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125, Napoli (Italy); Pironti, A. [Consorzio CREATE, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    The Central Safety System for Nuclear Risk (CSS-N) coordinates the safety control systems to ensure nuclear safety for the ITER complex. Since the CSS-N is a safety critical system, its validation and commissioning play a very important role; in particular the required level of reliability must be demonstrated. In such a scenario, it is strongly recommended to use modeling and simulation tools since the early design phase. Indeed, the modeling tools will help in the definition of the control system requirements. Furthermore the models can than be used for the rapid prototyping of the safety system. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations can also be performed in order to assess the performance of the control hardware against a plant simulator. The proposed approach relies on the availability of a plant simulator to develop the prototype of the control system. This paper introduces the methodology used to design and develop both the CSS-N Oriented Plant Simulator and the CSS-N Prototype.

  20. Stakeholder Safety in Information Systems Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Barbour

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Communication Technology (ICT researchers adapt and use tools from reference and cognate disciplines. This application of existing tools outside the context of their development has implications beyond the immediate problem context. ICT researchers have access to a wide variety of data sources including newer ones, such as the Internet, that may bring unexpected outcomes. ICT research can impact on researchers, their institutions and the researched in unexpected ways. People so affected are the stakeholders in ICT research activities. Reputations, welfare and property may be put at risk by unplanned events described in this paper. Legal aspects of ICT research are broadly identified and linked to the tort of negligence. The Social Research Association’s Code for researcher safety is described and its application extended to include the Internet as a potential data source. A common set of underlying ethical principles is identified suggesting that the ICT researcher can refine particular research protocols for specific social contexts.

  1. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John C; McCormick, Norman J

    2011-01-01

    ...), and failure modes of systems. All of this material is general enough that it could be used in non-nuclear applications, although there is an emphasis placed on the analysis of nuclear systems...

  2. Editorial: emerging issues in sociotechnical systems thinking and workplace safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Y Ian; Hettinger, Lawrence J; Dainoff, Marvin J; Carayon, Pascale; Leveson, Nancy G; Robertson, Michelle M; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    The burden of on-the-job accidents and fatalities and the harm of associated human suffering continue to present an important challenge for safety researchers and practitioners. While significant improvements have been achieved in recent decades, the workplace accident rate remains unacceptably high. This has spurred interest in the development of novel research approaches, with particular interest in the systemic influences of social/organisational and technological factors. In response, the Hopkinton Conference on Sociotechnical Systems and Safety was organised to assess the current state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. Over the course of several months prior to the conference, leading international experts drafted collaborative, state-of-the-art reviews covering various aspects of sociotechnical systems and safety. These papers, presented in this special issue, cover topics ranging from the identification of key concepts and definitions to sociotechnical characteristics of safe and unsafe organisations. This paper provides an overview of the conference and introduces key themes and topics. Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety are intended to draw practitioners' attention to the critical influence that systemic social/organisational and technological factors exert on safety-relevant outcomes. This paper introduces major themes addressed in the Hopkinton Conference within the context of current workplace safety research and practice challenges.

  3. System Engineering principles of estimation of ecological safety of environment at construction and reconstruction of automobile roads

    OpenAIRE

    Ugnenko, E.

    2005-01-01

    Basic system engineering principles of an estimation of ecological safety at designing, construction and reconstruction of highways are shown. A complex approach to the definition of settlement visibility on highways is offered.

  4. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Boyraz, Pinar; Takeda, Kazuya; Abut, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Compiled from papers of the 4th Biennial Workshop on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety this edited collection features world-class experts from diverse fields focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety presents new approaches on how to reduce driver inattention and prevent road accidents. The material addresses DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, in-vehicle dialogue systems, human machine interfaces, video and audio processing, and in-vehicle speech systems. The volume also features: Recent advances in Smart-Car technology – vehicles that take into account and conform to the driver Driver-vehicle interfaces that take into account the driving task and cognitive load of the driver Best practices for In-Vehicle Corpus Development and distribution Information on multi-sensor analysis and fusion techniques for robust driver monitoring and driver recognition ...

  5. Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

    2010-01-01

    System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

  6. Design for sustainable development : environmental management and safety and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.; Bos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is a report on the EU's environmental management and audit scheme and its interaction with the management of safety and health. The focus is on the interactions at company and at policy level. To illustrate the relevance of the interactions at company level, the Annex includes five case studies

  7. safety in structural design introduction representation of reality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (h) Rule 3 would imply increased safety so that failure does not occur. Other opinions about the problem of choosing decision rules are expressed as follows: (a) Obtain a probability of failure equal to zero. Theoretically this result could be obtained if the distribution functions of load and resistance did not intemect. where,.

  8. CESAR cost-efficient methods and processes for safety-relevant embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The book summarizes the findings and contributions of the European ARTEMIS project, CESAR, for improving and enabling interoperability of methods, tools, and processes to meet the demands in embedded systems development across four domains - avionics, automotive, automation, and rail. The contributions give insight to an improved engineering and safety process life-cycle for the development of safety critical systems. They present new concept of engineering tools integration platform to improve the development of safety critical embedded systems and illustrate capacity of this framework for end-user instantiation to specific domain needs and processes. They also advance state-of-the-art in component-based development as well as component and system validation and verification, with tool support. And finally they describe industry relevant evaluated processes and methods especially designed for the embedded systems sector as well as easy adoptable common interoperability principles for software tool integratio...

  9. The design, construction, and observation of permanently installed safety booms in ice covered waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelnour, R.; Abdelnour, E.; Comfort, G. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd., Kanata (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    In order to minimize potential accidents resulting from accidental intrusion, safety booms have been deployed near hydroelectric power plants to warn boaters of fast water currents. In cold regions, the booms are installed in early June and removed in October to avoid ice damage. However, in some years substantial delays caused by high river flow have meant that the booms were installed only after the summer boating season was underway. In addition, because the window of opportunity between the desired date of removal of these booms and the start of ice formation is sometimes quite short, it can be difficult to decide on a removal date. This paper described the design, construction, and observation of a typical safety boom that was installed in the summer of 2006 at the headpond of the Bark Lake flow control dam operated by Ontario Power Generation. The boom design considerations included prevailing ice conditions at the site; historical water discharge and associated currents; water level fluctuations; and the ice observed during the winter of 2007. Design challenges and improvements were also discussed. The boom has performed as expected and has remained in the water year-round for the past 2 years. It was concluded that the project has achieved success in providing river users with a warning system that remains in place until the beginning of the ice freeze up and is ready again in the spring as soon as the ice disappears. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  10. The Westinghouse AP1000 plant design: a generation III+ reactor with unique proven passive safety technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demetri, K. J.; Leipner, C. I.; Marshall, M. L., E-mail: demetrkj@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The AP1000 plant is an 1100-M We pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications and standardization that simplify construction, operation, maintenance, safety, and cost. The AP1000 plant is based on proven pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology, with an emphasis on safety features that rely solely on natural forces. These passive safety features are combined with simple, active, defense-in-depth systems used during normal plant operations which also provide the first level of defense against more probable events. This paper focuses on specific safety and licensing topics: the AP1000 plant robustness to be prepared for extreme events that may lead to catastrophic loss of infrastructure, such as the Fukushima Dai-ichi event, and the AP1000 plant compliance with the safety objectives for new plants. The first deployment of the AP1000 plant formally began in July 2007 when Westinghouse Electric Company and its consortium partner, the Shaw Group, signed contracts for four AP1000 units on coastal sites of Sanmen and Haiyang, China. Both sites have the planned ability to accommodate at least six AP1000 units; construction is largely concurrent for all four units. Additionally, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued combined licenses (COLs) to allow Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC) and South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE and G) to construct and operate AP1000 plants. Within this paper, the various factors that contribute to an unparalleled level of design, construction, delivery, and licensing certainty for any new AP1000 plant projects are described. These include: 1) How the AP1000 plant design development and reviews undertaken in the United States, China and Europe increase licensing certainty. 2) How the AP1000 passive plant robustness against extreme events that result in large loss of infrastructure further contributes to the licensing certainty in a post

  11. High Cooling Water Temperature Effects on Design and Operational Safety of NPPs in the Gulf Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Koo [Khalifa Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The Arabian Gulf region has one of the highest ocean temperatures, reaching above 35 degrees and ambient temperatures over 50 degrees in the summer. Two nuclear power plants (NPP) are being introduced in the region for the first time, one at Bushehr (1,000 MWe PWR plant from Russia), and a much larger one at Barakah (4Χ1,400 MWe PWR from Korea). Both plants take seawater from the Gulf for condenser cooling, having to modify the secondary/tertiary side cooling systems design by increasing the heat transfer surface area from the country of origin. This paper analyses the secondary side of a typical PWR plant operating under the Rankine cycle with a simplified thermal-hydraulic model. Parametric study of ocean cooling temperatures is conducted to estimate thermal efficiency variations and its associated design changes for the secondary side. Operational safety is reviewed to deliver rated power output with acceptable safety margins in line with technical specifications, mainly in the auxiliary systems together with the cooling water temperature. Impact on the Gulf seawater as the ultimate heat sink is considered negligible, affecting only the adjacent water near the NPP site, when compared to the solar radiation on the sea surface.

  12. HIGH COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL SAFETY OF NPPS IN THE GULF REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BYUNG KOO KIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf region has one of the highest ocean temperatures, reaching above 35 degrees and ambient temperatures over 50 degrees in the summer. Two nuclear power plants (NPP are being introduced in the region for the first time, one at Bushehr (1,000 MWe PWR plant from Russia, and a much larger one at Barakah (4X1,400 MWe PWR from Korea. Both plants take seawater from the Gulf for condenser cooling, having to modify the secondary/tertiary side cooling systems design by increasing the heat transfer surface area from the country of origin. This paper analyses the secondary side of a typical PWR plant operating under the Rankine cycle with a simplified thermal-hydraulic model. Parametric study of ocean cooling temperatures is conducted to estimate thermal efficiency variations and its associated design changes for the secondary side. Operational safety is reviewed to deliver rated power output with acceptable safety margins in line with technical specifications, mainly in the auxiliary systems together with the cooling water temperature. Impact on the Gulf seawater as the ultimate heat sink is considered negligible, affecting only the adjacent water near the NPP site, when compared to the solar radiation on the sea surface.

  13. [New international initiatives to create systems of effective risk prediction and food safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimochkinal, N R; Bagryantseva, E C; Dupouy, E C; Khotimchenko, S A; Permyakov, E V; Sheveleva, S A; Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is one of the most important problems that is directly related to health protection of the population. The problem is particularly relevant on aglobalscale because ofincreasingnumberoffood-borne diseases andimportance of the health consequence early detection. In accordance with the position of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, food safety concept also includes quality. In this case, creation of the national, supranational and international early warning systems related to the food safety, designed with the purpose to prevent or minimize risks on different stages of the food value chain in various countries, regions and climate zones specific to national nutrition and lifestyle in different groups of population, gains particular importance. The article describes the principles and working examples of international, supranational and national food safety early warning systems. Great importance is given to the hazards of microbial origin - emergent pathogens. Example of the rapid reaction to the appearance of cases, related to the melanin presence in infant formula, are presented. Analysis of the current food safety and quality control system in Russian Federation shows that main improvements are mostly related to the development of the efficient monitoring, diagnostics and rapid alert procedures forfood safety on interregional and international levels that will allow to estimate real contamination of food with the most dangerous pathogens, chemical and biological contaminants, and the development of the electronic database and scientifically proved algorithms for food safety and quality management for targeted prevention activities against existing and emerging microbiological and other etiology risks, and public health protection.

  14. A CONCEPT OF SOLAR TRACKER SYSTEM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Meita Rumbayan *, Muhamad Dwisnanto Putro

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of solar panel efficiency is an ongoing research work recently. Maximizing the output power by integrating with the solar tracker system becomes a interest point of the research. This paper presents the concept in designing a solar tracker system applied to solar panel. The development of solar panel tracker system design that consist of system display prototype design, hardware design, and algorithm design. This concept is useful as the control system for solar tracker to improve...

  15. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays and the user`s prospective model of a system. The studies involve a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming and its use in expanding design choices from the operator`s perspective image. The contents of this paper focuses on the studies and how they are applicable to the safety of operating reactors.

  16. Computerized Adaptive Testing System Design: Preliminary Design Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Paul R.

    A functional design model for a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system was developed and presented through a series of hierarchy plus input-process-output (HIPO) diagrams. System functions were translated into system structure: specifically, into 34 software components. Implementation of the design in a physical system was addressed through…

  17. Modelling of Safety Factors in the Design of GRP Composite Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babu, B.J.C.; Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage

    2010-01-01

    An attempt has been made in this paper to arrive at the safety factor design of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GRP) composite products using graph theoretic model. In the conventional design and recommendations of the standards, these design factors affecting properties have been considered as i...... that the proposed overall factor of safety is an appropriate and comprehensive measure of factor of safety. The proposed methodology is illustrated for a typical resin transfer moulded (RTM) fume hood. The concept can easily be extended for other applications....

  18. Towards a Usability and Error "Safety Net": A Multi-Phased Multi-Method Approach to Ensuring System Usability and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre; Senathirajah, Yalini; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The usability and safety of health information systems have become major issues in the design and implementation of useful healthcare IT. In this paper we describe a multi-phased multi-method approach to integrating usability engineering methods into system testing to ensure both usability and safety of healthcare IT upon widespread deployment. The approach involves usability testing followed by clinical simulation (conducted in-situ) and "near-live" recording of user interactions with systems. At key stages in this process, usability problems are identified and rectified forming a usability and technology-induced error "safety net" that catches different types of usability and safety problems prior to releasing systems widely in healthcare settings.

  19. FAULT TREE ANALYSIS FEATURES IN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Iosif MORARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fault tree analysis is useful both in designing new products/services or in dealing with identified problems in existing ones. In the quality planning process, the analysis can be used to optimize process features and goals and to design for critical factors and human error. As part of safety process improvement, as it is emphasized in the present paper, it can be used to help identify root causes of undesired events such as occupational injuries and illnesses. A case study of application in industrial safety systems illustrates the aim, principle and structure of the technique, allowing better prevention measures selection and implementation.

  20. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Many developments are taking place in the area of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) for traffic purposes. Many of the current ITS applications are mainly aimed at increasing comfort while driving and at improving accessibility. In addition, systems like the alcolock and the seatbelt lock are being

  1. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Ventera VT10 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  2. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  3. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. C. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Hazelwood, K. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Morris, D. K. [Fermilab; Murphy, M. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. [Fermilab; Yang, M-J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  4. A systematic process for assessing human spacecraft conceptual designs in terms of relative safety and operational characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Kevin Paul

    The research efforts in this dissertation are focused on reducing uncertainty in the conceptual design phase through a process of establishing a minimum functionality baseline before trading Safety and Operability in proposed spacecraft configurations. The challenge in human spacecraft development is how to combine the parts into a working design that complies with many requirements for top level mission objectives, safety, and mission success. The design methodologies presented here provides designers and decision makers with additional methods that provide an overall view of candidate design concepts. This work establishes a definition for a minimum functional design and is the first to group the fundamental mass parameters of a human spacecraft in the categories of Physics, Physiology, Safety, and Operability. The minimum functional baseline configuration described in this work is different from previous approaches because it eliminates the bias toward a minimum set of requirements. The amount of Safety in the spacecraft is the mass dedicated to safety through similar or dissimilar redundancy, safety components, margins, and dispersions. The amount of Operability in the spacecraft is the mass used to perform mission objectives and make functions easier or efficient. Because human spacecraft are highly coupled systems, the introduction of mass in one subsystem has downstream effects on other subsystems that are not easily recognized by designers and the use of rapidly reconfigurable prototypes allows designers and multidisciplinary teams to utilize Boundary Objects as a means of communication for maturing designs. The mass addition process coupled with the minimum functionality approach creates a tradespace of spacecraft configurations and provides designers with an overall view of how various levels of Safety or Operability will affect the overall spacecraft mass. The decisions made in the conceptual design phase are critical to the success of the program and

  5. Driver monitoring system for automotive safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lörincz, A. E.; Risteiu, M. N.; Ionica, A.; Leba, M.

    2018-01-01

    The lifestyle of a person is a very active one from all points of view. He travels great distance every day, with car or on foot. Tiredness and stress is found in every person. These can cause major problems when driving up and driving in small or big distances by car. A system developed to prevent the dangers we are prone to in these situations is very useful. System that can be used and implemented both in the production of current cars and the use of those not equipped with this system.

  6. An investigation of safety design practices of metal machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrugalska, Beata; Arezes, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Machinery safety issues are a challenge facing manufacturers who are supposed to create and provide products in a better and faster way. In spite of their construction and technological advance, they still contribute to many potential hazards for operators and those nearby. The aim of this study is to investigate safety aspects of metal machinery offered for sale on Internet market according to compliance with minimum and fundamental requirements. The study was carried out with the application of a checklist prepared on the basis of Directive 2006/42/EC and Directive 2009/104/EC and regulations enforcing them into Polish law. On the basis of the study it was possible to reveal the safety aspects that were not met in practice. It appeared that in the case of minimum requirements the most relevant problems concerned information, signal and control elements, technology and machinery operations, whereas as far as fundamental aspects are concerned it was hard to assure safe work process. In spite of the fact that more and more legal acts binding in the Member Countries of the European Union are being introduced to alleviate the phenomenon, these regulations are often not fulfilled.

  7. Safety restraint systems in heavy truck rollover scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, P.M.A.; Coo, P.J.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Safety restraint systems have been widely applied in the passenger car industry. The heavy truck industry has followed along, integrating the seat belts in the seat system. The effectiveness of seat belts, in particular in rollover scenarios, was studied for a number of heavy truck rollover

  8. Continuous restraint control systems: safety improvement for various occupants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E. van der; Jager, B. de; Veldpaus, F.; Steinbuch, M.; Nunen, E. van; Willemsen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Occupant safety can be significantly improved by continuous restraint control systems. These restraint systems adjust their configuration during the impact according to the actual operating conditions, such as occupant size, weight, occupant position, belt usage and crash severity. In this study,

  9. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John C; McCormick, Norman J

    2011-01-01

    .... The first half of the book covers the principles of risk analysis, the techniques used to develop and update a reliability data base, the reliability of multi-component systems, Markov methods used...

  10. Embedded Control System Design A Model Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Forrai, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Control system design is a challenging task for practicing engineers. It requires knowledge of different engineering fields, a good understanding of technical specifications and good communication skills. The current book introduces the reader into practical control system design, bridging  the gap between theory and practice.  The control design techniques presented in the book are all model based., considering the needs and possibilities of practicing engineers. Classical control design techniques are reviewed and methods are presented how to verify the robustness of the design. It is how the designed control algorithm can be implemented in real-time and tested, fulfilling different safety requirements. Good design practices and the systematic software development process are emphasized in the book according to the generic standard IEC61508. The book is mainly addressed to practicing control and embedded software engineers - working in research and development – as well as graduate students who are face...

  11. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY CONCEPTUAL SYSTEM DESIGN DESCRIPTION FOR THE HEATING AND VENTILATION SYSTEM NO. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1969-12-05

    The Heating and Ventilation System provides the atmospheric conditions in FFTF as required to assure that plant objectives can be met in a safe and practical manner. Included are functions and design requirements, a physical description of the system, safety considerations, principles of operation, and maintenance principles.

  12. Design correctness of digital systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, C.

    1998-01-01

    Transformational design is a formal technique directed at design correctness. It integrates design and verification by the use of pre-proven behaviour preserving transformations as design steps. A formal framework is necessary but hidden for the designer. Five formal aspects are integrated in the

  13. A novel series connected batteries state of high voltage safety monitor system for electric vehicle application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  14. A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Jiaxi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle, are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS, the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  15. Forklift safety, traffic engineering and intelligent transport systems: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberry, Tim; Larsson, Tore J; Johnston, Ian; Lambert, John

    2004-11-01

    This paper details a forklift safety demonstration project undertaken at two manufacturing sites in Victoria, Australia. The purpose of the work was both to help improve safety at the two sites, and, more broadly, to develop, help implement and evaluate a series of human-centred design interventions involving vehicles and pedestrian workers. The 'before' and 'after' case study presented here summarises the background to the research and introduces the test sites. Thereafter, it describes the overall nature of the safety interventions proposed and introduces the methods developed to assess safety. For the traffic engineering interventions, positive safety results were found in terms of reductions in the number of potentially hazardous interactions involving forklifts. Similarly, for the vehicle interventions, the research found that forklift drivers and managers considered the newly developed and installed Intelligent Transport Systems to be broadly acceptable in operational conditions, and the systems' intended safety benefits were well understood. The results are discussed and conclusions are drawn regarding human factors aspects of forklift safety.

  16. The demonstration of a theory-based approach to the design of localized patient safety interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Natalie; Lawton, Rebecca; Slater, Beverley; Foy, Robbie

    2013-01-01

    ...) approach for co-designing patient safety interventions. We worked with three hospitals to support the implementation of evidence-based guidance to reduce the risk of feeding into misplaced nasogastric feeding tubes...

  17. Exploring teacher's instructional design practices from a systems design perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogveld, Bert; Paas, Fred; Jochems, Wim; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Hoogveld, A. W. M., Paas, F., Jochems, W. M. G., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2002). Exploring teacher's instructional design practices from a systems design perspective. Instructionals Science, 30, 291-305.

  18. Systems Thinking in Design: Service Design and self-Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Darzentas; Jenny Siobhane Darzentas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, it seeks to use a practical real-world example to demonstrate the power of a systems thinking perspective in design, and more specifically in the design of services...

  19. Health and safety. Preliminary comparative assessment of the satellite power system (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1980-04-01

    Existing data on the health and safety risks of a satellite power system and four electrical generation systems are analyzed: a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine, a fission power system with fuel reprocessing, a central-station, terrestrial, solar-photovoltaic power system, and a first-generation design for a fusion power system. The systems are compared on the basis of expected deaths and person-days lost per year associated with 1000 MW of average electricity generation and the number of health and safety risks that are identified as potentially significant but unquantifiable. The appendices provide more detailed information on risks, uncertainties, additional research needed, and references for the identified impacts of each system.

  20. Systems Design Perspective of Healthcare Provision in Humanitarian Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of Systems Design in addressing the challenges of healthcare provision by international emergency relief organizations in developing countries. More specifically the challenges related to the safety and performance of medical equipment that is transferred in the aftermath of a humanitarian crisis. The aim of this paper is to describe the transfer of medical equipment and its associated challenges from a systems perspective and to reflect on the value of Systems Design as an approach to humanitarian innovation, addressing the identified systemic challenges. The concepts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, and Product-Service Systems will be presented as valuable contributions to support designers in handling a larger degree of complexity throughout the design process and to support them to make informed choices regarding this particular context.