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Sample records for russian-american gallium experiment

  1. Russian-American Experience in Science Education and Volcanological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E. I.; Vesna, E. B.

    2007-12-01

    After five years experience in bringing American students to meet and learn with Russian students in Kamchatka and bringing Russian students to meet and learn with American students in Alaska, it is possible to make some generalizations about the problems and benefits this growing program. Some 200 students, including many from other countries besides the United States and Russian Federation, have now had this experience. The context of their collaboration is the International Volcanological Field School, sponsored by the University of Alaska Fairbanks, Kamchatka State University, and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, and also a comparison of Mount St Helens, Bezymianny, and Shiveluch volcanoes under the National Science Foundation's Partnerships in International Research in Education, with important support from the Russian Academy of Sciences, Far East Division. Elements of these two projects are adaptation to unfamiliar, harsh, and remote environments; intensive courses in Russian language, history, geography, and culture; and sharing of research and education experiences among students. The challenges faced by the program are: · Slow and complex visa processes. · Demise of a direct airline connection, necessitating round-the-world travel to go 3000 km. · Adequately communicating to students beforehand the need for physical fitness, mental fortitude in uncomfortable conditions, and patience when bad weather limits mobility. Benefits of the projects have been: · Experiences that students report to be career- and life-changing. · Much more positive perceptions of Russia and Russian people by American students and of America and Americans by Russian students. · Introduction to the "expedition style" volcanology necessary in challenging environments. · Development of long-lasting collaborations and friendships in the context of international science. Students often comment that hearing about what their peers have done or are doing in research at

  2. Gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Schulte, Ruth F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. Gallium is used in a wide variety of products that have microelectronic components containing either gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium nitride (GaN). GaAs is able to change electricity directly into laser light and is used in the manufacture of optoelectronic devices (laser diodes, light-emitting diodes [LEDs], photo detectors, and solar cells), which are important for aerospace and telecommunications applications and industrial and medical equipment. GaAs is also used in the production of highly specialized integrated circuits, semiconductors, and transistors; these are necessary for defense applications and high-performance computers. For example, cell phones with advanced personal computer-like functionality (smartphones) use GaAs-rich semiconductor components. GaN is used principally in the manufacture of LEDs and laser diodes, power electronics, and radio-frequency electronics. Because GaN power transistors operate at higher voltages and with a higher power density than GaAs devices, the uses for advanced GaN-based products are expected to increase in the future. Gallium technologies also have large power-handling capabilities and are used for cable television transmission, commercial wireless infrastructure, power electronics, and satellites. Gallium is also used for such familiar applications as screen backlighting for computer notebooks, flat-screen televisions, and desktop computer monitors.Gallium is dispersed in small amounts in many minerals and rocks where it substitutes for elements of similar size and charge, such as aluminum and zinc. For example, gallium is found in small amounts (about 50 parts per million) in such aluminum-bearing minerals as diaspore-boehmite and gibbsite, which form bauxite deposits, and in the zinc-sulfide mineral sphalerite, which is found in many mineral deposits. At the present time, gallium metal is derived mainly as a

  3. Gallium Arsenide solar cell radiation damage experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.; Herbert, G. A.; Meulenberg, A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells for space applications from three different manufactures were irradiated with 10 MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. The electrical performance of the cells was measured at several fluence levels and compared. Silicon cells were included for reference and comparison. All the GaAs cell types performed similarly throughout the testing and showed a 36 to 56 percent power areal density advantage over the silicon cells. Thinner (8-mil versus 12-mil) GaAs cells provide a significant weight reduction. The use of germanium (Ge) substrates to improve mechanical integrity can be implemented with little impact on end of life performance in a radiation environment.

  4. Excerpt from Transnational Russian-American Travel Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita D. Marinova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Margarita Marinova’s text is excerpted from her new work Transnational Russian-American Travel Writing. The work’s purpose is to examine “the diverse practices of crossing boundaries, tactics of translation, and experiences of double and multiple political and national attachments” found in a group of writings about encounters between Russians and Americans between 1865 and the Russian Revolution of 1905. (These encounters provide a prelude to the more famous American travelogue of 1930s Soviet satirical writers Ilya Ilf and Evgeny Petrov, Odnoetazhnaia Amerika [Single-Storied America]. Contrasting viewpoints on race and ethnicity form an important element of Marinova’s corpus, and one fine example is the extract shown here, which treats the encounter of Russian-Jewish revolutionary Vladimir Bogoraz (Tan with a Black American student working as a Pullman porter, and the Russian’s unwittingly humorous incapacity to view him outside of stereotypes (in a fashion that anticipates the character of the mother in Shirley Jackson’s mordant short story “After You, My Dear Alphonse”.

  5. Gallium-68 DOTATATE Production with Automated PET Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System: A Three Year Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Aslani; Snowdon, Graeme M; Bailey, Dale L; Schembri, Geoffrey P; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Paul J Roach

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Gallium-68 (Ga-68) is an ideal research and hospital-based PET radioisotope. Currently, the main form of Ga-68 radiopharmaceutical that is being synthesised in-house is Ga-68 conjugated with DOTA based derivatives. The development of automated synthesis systems has increased the reliability, reproducibility and safety of radiopharmaceutical productions. Here we report on our three year, 500 syntheses experience with an automated system for Ga-68 DOTATATE. Methods: The automated ...

  6. Two years of on-orbit gallium arsenide performance from the LIPS solar cell panel experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R. W.; Betz, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    The LIPS on-orbit performance of the gallium arsenide panel experiment was analyzed from flight operation telemetry data. Algorithms were developed to calculate the daily maximum power and associated solar array parameters by two independent methods. The first technique utilizes a least mean square polynomial fit to the power curve obtained with intensity and temperature corrected currents and voltages; whereas, the second incorporates an empirical expression for fill factor based on an open circuit voltage and the calculated series resistance. Maximum power, fill factor, open circuit voltage, short circuit current and series resistance of the solar cell array are examined as a function of flight time. Trends are analyzed with respect to possible mechanisms which may affect successive periods of output power during 2 years of flight operation. Degradation factors responsible for the on-orbit performance characteristics of gallium arsenide are discussed in relation to the calculated solar cell parameters. Performance trends and the potential degradation mechanisms are correlated with existing laboratory and flight data on both gallium arsenide and silicon solar cells for similar environments.

  7. Investigations in gallium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, C.V.; Pitt, W.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Beard, C.A. [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Gallium present in weapons plutonium must be removed before it can be used for the production of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear reactor fuel. The main goal of the preliminary studies conducted at Texas A and M University was to assist in the development of a thermal process to remove gallium from a gallium oxide/plutonium oxide matrix. This effort is being conducted in close consultation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel involved in the development of this process for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Simple experiments were performed on gallium oxide, and cerium-oxide/gallium-oxide mixtures, heated to temperatures ranging from 700--900 C in a reducing environment, and a method for collecting the gallium vapors under these conditions was demonstrated.

  8. Registration of 71Ge rare decays in radiochemical gallium experiments SAGE and BEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhin, A. A.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Yants, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    Registration systems of rare events from 71Ge decay in radiochemical gallium experiments SAGE and BEST are presented, where miniature proportional counters are used as detectors. The registration of the events is provided by eight counting channels simultaneously in the energy range of 0.4-15 keV which includes the 71Ge decays in the region of the L and K peaks with total efficiency up to 75%. Data analysis is based on full charge pulse shape recording using digital oscilloscope. Effective background discrimination is basically obtained due to low noise (100 MHz) of the system electronics. The design and main parameters of base components of the registration systems, description of electronics and comparison of their electrical and counting characteristics are given.

  9. Violence on the Russian & American Media Screen and Youth Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of the Russian and American experience regarding media violence, standards for rating Russian media programs, and a course of study on media violence for students will have a significant impact upon Russian society, will raise Russian societal and governmental attention to the infringement of the Rights of the Child on the Russian…

  10. Low energy solar neutrino experiments: The Soviet American Gallium Experiment (SAGE). Final report, August 12, 1988--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Two {sup 71}Ga experiments are currently in operation. The first is the 60 ton Soviet American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) at Baksan, which has recently reported a signal level of 73+18/{minus}16(stat)+5/{minus}7(syst) SNU; the second is the 30 ton GALLEX experiment at Gran Sasso, which sees 87{+-}14{+-}7 SNU. Both results are consistent, and both suggest a neutrino flux level low compared to the total expected from standard solar model calculations. It is not possible, however, to make a case for flux levels lower than the p-p prediction. Assuming the experiments are correct (Neutrino source calibrations are planned for both SAGE and GALLEX in the near future.), it is not at all clear yet whether the answer lies with the neutrino physics, solar physics, or a combination of both. Nevertheless, though solar model effects cannot be ruled out, if the Homestake and Kamiokande results are taken at face value, then these two experiments alone imply that neutrino oscillations or some similar particle physics result must be present to some degree. This report reviews the SAGE experiment and recent results. Non-radiochemical experiments are also discussed, with an emphasis on the Kamiokande water Cerenkov results.

  11. Experience in staging testis tumors with bleomycin cobalt 57 and present role of gallium 67 scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerjee, M.G.; Mittemeyer, B.T.

    1976-10-01

    A technique was developed using bleomycin and cobalt 57 to study nodal metastases in testis tumors. Comparative studies were made on 15 cases with gallium 67, lymphangiography, supraclavicular node biopsy, liver and spleen scans, chest x-ray, excretory urogram, bone survey and pathological study of surgical specimens when possible. The results with the bleomycin-cobalt 57 complex and gallium 67 were discouraging. The bleomycin-cobalt 57 study was discontinued. Pathological staging is still the most accurate of all modalities available for staging testicular malignancies.

  12. Gallium-68 DOTATATE Production with Automated PET Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System: A Three Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Alireza; Snowdon, Graeme M; Bailey, Dale L; Schembri, Geoffrey P; Bailey, Elizabeth A; Roach, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Gallium-68 (Ga-68) is an ideal research and hospital-based PET radioisotope. Currently, the main form of Ga-68 radiopharmaceutical that is being synthesised in-house is Ga-68 conjugated with DOTA based derivatives. The development of automated synthesis systems has increased the reliability, reproducibility and safety of radiopharmaceutical productions. Here we report on our three year, 500 syntheses experience with an automated system for Ga-68 DOTATATE. The automated synthesis system we use is divided into three parts of a) servomotor modules, b) single use sterile synthesis cassettes and, c) a computerised system that runs the modules. An audit trail is produced by the system as a requirement for GMP production. The required reagents and chemicals are made in-. The Germanium breakthrough is determined on a weekly basis. Production yields for each synthesis are calculated to monitor the performance and efficiency of the synthesis. The quality of the final product is assessed after each synthesis by ITLC-SG and HPLC methods. A total of 500 Ga-68 DOTATATE syntheses (>800 patient doses) were performed between March 2011 and February 2014. The average generator yield was 81.3±0.2% for 2011, 76.7±0.4% for 2012 and 75.0±0.3% for 2013. Ga-68 DOTATATE yields for 2011, 2012, and 2013 were 81.8±0.4%, 82.2±0.4% and 87.9±0.4%, respectively. These exceed the manufacturer's expected value of approximately 70%. Germanium breakthrough averaged 8.6×10(-6)% of total activity which is well below the recommended level of 0.001%. The average ITLC-measured radiochemical purity was above 98.5% and the average HPLC-measured radiochemical purity was above 99.5%. Although there were some system failures during synthesis, there were only eight occasions where the patient scans needed to be rescheduled. In our experience the automated synthesis system performs reliably with a relatively low incident of failures. Our system had a consistent and reliable Ga-68 DOTATATE output with high

  13. Proof-of-Concept Experiments on a Gallium-Based Ignitron for Pulsed Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. K.; Hanson, V. S.; Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    ignitron designs have used mercury as the liquid metal cathode, owing to its presence as a liquid at room temperatures and a vapor pressure of 10 Pa (75 mtorr) at room temperature. While these are favorable properties, there are obvious environmental and personal safety concerns with the storage, handling, and use of mercury and its compounds. The purpose of the present work was to fabricate and test an ignitron that used as its cathode an alternate liquid metal that was safe to handle and store. To that end, an ignitron test article that used liquid gallium as the cathode material was developed and tested. Gallium is a metal that has a melting temperature of 29.76 C, which is slightly above room temperature, and a boiling point of over 2,300 C at atmospheric pressure. This property makes gallium the element with the largest relative difference between melting and boiling points. Gallium has a limited role in biology, and when ingested, it will be subsequently processed by the body and expelled rather than accumulating to toxic levels. The next section of this Technical Memorandum (TM) provides background information on the development of mercury-based ignitrons, which serves as the starting point for the development of the gallium-based variant. Afterwards, the experimental hardware and setup used in proof-of-concept testing of a basic gallium ignitron are presented. Experimental data, consisting of discharge voltage and current waveforms as well as high-speed imaging of the gallium arc discharge in the gallium ignitron test article, are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the concept. Discussion of the data and suggestions on improvements for future iterations of the design are presented in the final two sections of this TM.

  14. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2003-06-01

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  15. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-05-07

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  16. Search for sterile neutrinos in gallium experiments with artificial neutrino sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, V. N.; Cleveland, B. T.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Veretenkin, E. P.

    2017-11-01

    The possibility of the BEST experiment on electron neutrino disappearance with intense artificial sources of electron neutrino 51Cr is considered. BEST has the great potential to search for transitions of active neutrinos to sterile states with Δ m 2 ˜ 1 eV2 and to set the limits on short baseline electron neutrino disappearance oscillation parameters. The possibility of the further constraints the oscillation parameters region with using 65Zn source is discussed.

  17. Prospects of the Syria conflict’s settlement in the context of the exasperation of Russian-American relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospects of the Syria conflict’s settlement in the context of exasperation of Russian-American relations have been investigated. Nowadays this conflict is one of the largest centers of danger in the world. Moreover, after the intervention of Russian Federation and United States of America in the conflict, it gained even greater complexity, contradictions and urgency. We should say that after analyzing the positions of participants of the conflict, it is clear that the rapid resolution of the situation shouldn’t be expected. Such factors as differences in views and positions, antagonistic mood, uncompromising, aggressive behavior, the prevalence of power factor, terrorist activity and others do not allow improving the performance reconciliation of the parties’ process. Important thing is that exasperation of Russian-American relations is one of the key negative external factors, which makes it impossible to establish meaningful strategic dialogue between the conflicting parties. The process of further settlement will depend on how quickly Russian and American parties will find understanding regarding key issues of the conflict. Not less important is the conflict settlement processes. Now this process seems to be very complicated. Divergence of interests and views of direct participants and key «players» Russia and the United States do not allow to speak about the presence of compromise and constructive dialogue. If they are not achieved soon, it can lead to unpredictable consequences, such as the expansion of «geography» of the conflict or its transfer to other areas. We should pay attention to the fact that further exasperation of Russian-American relations may cause open military confrontation between this two countries about which people have recently started talking more often. This confrontation complicates not only the progress of the conflict, but also creates some additional problems that affect negatively the dynamic of

  18. Gallium-68-dotatate PET/CT is better than CT in the management of somatostatin expressing tumors: First experience in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ismaheel O; Ololade, Kehinde O; Lengana, Thabo; Reyneke, Florette; Ankrah, Alfred O; Ebenhan, Thomas; Vorster, Mariza; Sathekge, Mike M

    2017-01-01

    In this study we aimed to present our experience on the use of Gallium-68-dotatate with positron emission tomography, computed tomography ((68) Ga-dotatate PET/CT) in the management of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and other somatostatin expressing tumors. We retrospectively reviewed patients with histologically confirmed or biochemically suspected NET and other somatostatin expressing (SSTR) tumors imaged at our department with (68)Ga-dotatate PET/CT. We determined the performance of this imaging technique as well as its impact on patients management. A total of 203 patients were studied: 103 females, 100 males median age 52years. The commonest tumor type was gastroenteropancreatic NET (41% of patients) and the commonest sites of distant metastases were lymph nodes and the liver 34.0% and 30.5% respectively. Positron emission tomography detected foci of disease in 19 patients where CT was falsely negative. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of (68) Ga-dotatate PET/CT imaging of NET and other SST expressing tumors were 94.16%, 91.89%, 95.55%, 89.47% and 96.55% respectively. Gallium-68-dotatate PET/CT was better than CT in detecting primary sites of the disease and highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis and treatment of NET and other SSTR expressing tumors.

  19. Gallium nitride optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    The growth of bulk gallium nitride crystals was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride. Gallium nitride single crystals up to 2.5 x 0.5 cm in size were produced. The crystals are suitable as substrates for the epitaxial growth of gallium nitride. The epitaxial growth of gallium nitride on sapphire substrates with main faces of (0001) and (1T02) orientations was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride in a gas flow system. The grown layers had electron concentrations in the range of 1 to 3 x 10 to the 19th power/cu cm and Hall mobilities in the range of 50 to 100 sq cm/v/sec at room temperature.

  20. Project proposals on the creation of Russian-American joint enterprise for investigation, development and manufacture of power plants on the basis of solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smotrov, N.V.; Kleschev, Yu.N.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a joint Russian-American enterprise for performing scientific investigations, development, and manufacture of fuel cell power plants on the basis of the solid oxide fuel cell. RASOFCo. Russian-American Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Company. RASOFCo will provide the series output of the electrochemical generator (ECG) of 1kW power, then of 5kW and 10kW as well as the development and the output of 10kW power plant with the subsequent output of a power plant of greater power. An ECG based on solid oxide fuel cells uses methane as a fuel. Predicted technical characteristics, market analysis, assessment of potential demands for power plants of low power for Tyumentransgas, participants of the joint enterprise and their founding contributions, strategy for manufacture and financing, and management of RASOFCo are discussed.

  1. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal, part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Steven Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keY of 65.4{sup +3.1}{sub 3.0} (stat) {sup +2.6}{sub -2.8} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neUlrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 {+-} 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.88 {+-} 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63--67 SNU with an uncertainly of about 5%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the pp neutrino flux produced in the Sun to be {phi}{sup {circle_dot}}{sub pp} = (6.1 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  2. Electrodeposition of gallium for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.

    2016-08-09

    An electroplating solution and method for producing an electroplating solution containing a gallium salt, an ionic compound and a solvent that results in a gallium thin film that can be deposited on a substrate.

  3. Clinical Applications of Gallium-68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    Gallium-68 is a positron-emitting radioisotope that is produced from a 68Ge/68Ga generator. As such it is conveniently used, decoupling radiopharmacies from the need for a cyclotron on site. Gallium-68-labeled peptides have been recognized as a new class of radiopharmaceuticals showing fast target localization and blood clearance. 68Ga-DOTATOC, 8Ga-DOTATATE, 68Ga-DOTANOC, are the most prominent radiopharmaceuticals currently in use for imaging and differentiating lesions of various somatostatin receptor subtypes, overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of clinical studies with 68Ga over the past few years around the world, including within the United States. An estimated ~10,000 scans are being performed yearly in Europe at about 100 centers utilizing 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs within clinical trials. Two academic sites within the US have also begun to undertake human studies. This review will focus on the clinical experience of selected, well-established and recently applied 68Ga-labeled imaging agents used in nuclear medicine. PMID:23522791

  4. Clinical applications of Gallium-68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G

    2013-06-01

    Gallium-68 is a positron-emitting radioisotope that is produced from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. As such it is conveniently used, decoupling radiopharmacies from the need for a cyclotron on site. Gallium-68-labeled peptides have been recognized as a new class of radiopharmaceuticals showing fast target localization and blood clearance. (68)Ga-DOTATOC, (8)Ga-DOTATATE, (68)Ga-DOTANOC, are the most prominent radiopharmaceuticals currently in use for imaging and differentiating lesions of various somatostatin receptor subtypes, overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of clinical studies with (68)Ga over the past few years around the world, including within the United States. An estimated ∼10,000 scans are being performed yearly in Europe at about 100 centers utilizing (68)Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs within clinical trials. Two academic sites within the US have also begun to undertake human studies. This review will focus on the clinical experience of selected, well-established and recently applied (68)Ga-labeled imaging agents used in nuclear medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2012-06-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks crossresistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed.

  6. Gallium--A smart metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. The French chemist Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovered gallium in sphalerite (a zinc-sulfide mineral) in 1875 using spectroscopy. He named the element "gallia" after his native land of France (formerly Gaul; in Latin, Gallia). The existence of gallium had been predicted in 1871 by Dmitri Mendeleev, the Russian chemist who published the first periodic table of the elements. Mendeleev noted a gap in his table and named the missing element "eka-aluminum" because he determined that its location was one place away from aluminum in the table. Mendeleev thought that the missing element (gallium) would be very much like aluminum in its chemical properties, and he was right. Solid gallium has a low melting temperature (~29 degrees Celsius, or °C) and an unusually high boiling point (~2,204 °C). Because of these properties, the earliest uses of gallium were in high-temperature thermometers and in designing metal alloys that melt easily. The development of a gallium-based direct band-gap semiconductor in the 1960s led to what is now one of the most well-known applications for gallium-based products--the manufacture of smartphones and data-centric networks.

  7. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, P. E.; DiNetta, Louis C.; DuganCavanagh, K.; Goetz, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Betavoltaic power supplies based on gallium phosphide can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. Results are presented for GaP devices powered by Ni-63 and tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/cm(exp 2) have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. A small demonstration system has been assembled that generates and stores enough electricity to light up an LED.

  8. Optical Properties of Gallium-Doped Zinc Oxide—A Low-Loss Plasmonic Material: First-Principles Theory and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongbum Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching for better materials for plasmonic and metamaterial applications is an inverse design problem where theoretical studies are necessary. Using basic models of impurity doping in semiconductors, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs are identified as low-loss plasmonic materials in the near-infrared wavelength range. A more sophisticated theoretical study would help not only to improve the properties of TCOs but also to design further lower-loss materials. In this study, optical functions of one such TCO, gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO, are studied both experimentally and by first-principles density-functional calculations. Pulsed-laser-deposited GZO films are studied by the x-ray diffraction and generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry. Theoretical studies are performed by the total-energy-minimization method for the equilibrium atomic structure of GZO and random phase approximation with the quasiparticle gap correction. Plasma excitation effects are also included for optical functions. This study identifies mechanisms other than doping, such as alloying effects, that significantly influence the optical properties of GZO films. It also indicates that ultraheavy Ga doping of ZnO results in a new alloy material, rather than just degenerately doped ZnO. This work is the first step to achieve a fundamental understanding of the connection between material, structural, and optical properties of highly doped TCOs to tailor those materials for various plasmonic applications.

  9. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings which meet the...

  10. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use. PMID:20623028

  11. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Chitambar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  12. A FETISH for gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, A.R. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An overview of the development of a new dielectric material, cubic-GaS, from the synthesis of new organometallic compounds to the fabrication of a new class of gallium arsenide based transistor is presented as a representative example of the possibility that inorganic chemistry can directly effect the development of new semiconductor devices. The gallium sulfido compound [({sup t}Bu)GaS]{sub 4}, readily prepared from tri-tert-butyl gallium, may be used as a precursor for the growth of GaS thin films by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Photoluminescence and electronic measurements indicate that this material provides a passivation coating for GaAs. Furthermore, the insulating properties of cubic-GaS make it suitable as the insulating gate layer in a new class of GaAs transistor: a field effect transistor with a sulfide heterojunction (FETISH).

  13. Mineral resource of the month: gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, Brian W.

    2009-01-01

    The metal element gallium occurs in very small concentrations in rocks and ores of other metals — native gallium is not known. As society gets more and more high-tech, gallium becomes more useful. Gallium is one of only five metals that are liquid at or close to room temperature. It has one of the longest liquid ranges of any metal (29.8 degrees Celsius to 2204 degrees Celsius) and has a low vapor pressure even at high temperatures. Ultra-pure gallium has a brilliant silvery appearance, and the solid metal exhibits conchoidal fracture similar to glass.

  14. The Effect of Gallium Nitrate on Arresting Blood Flow from a Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Goodley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel application of gallium nitrate, hitherto unreported, in reducing bleeding time from an open wound is presented. Experiments performed using simple punctures in the forearm demonstrated a very substantial reduction in bleeding time when a solution of gallium nitrate was applied relative to a control. This outcome was shown to be unaffected by the anticoagulant properties of warfarin. The mechanism for such action of gallium nitrate is unknown and merits further investigation, as do the possibilities for such an application to improve both civilian and defense trauma treatment modalities.

  15. Four Terminal Gallium Nitride MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veety, Matthew Thomas

    All reported gallium nitride (GaN) transistors to date have been three-terminal devices with source, drain, and gate electrodes. In the case of GaN MOSFETs, this leaves the bulk of the device at a floating potential which can impact device threshold voltage. In more traditional silicon-based MOSFET fabrication a bulk contact can be made on the back side of the silicon wafer. For GaN grown on sapphire substrates, however, this is not possible and an alternate, front-side bulk contact must be investigated. GaN is a III-V, wide band gap semiconductor that as promising material parameters for use in high frequency and high power applications. Possible applications are in the 1 to 10 GHz frequency band and power inverters for next generation grid solid state transformers and inverters. GaN has seen significant academic and commercial research for use in Heterojunction Field Effect Transistors (HFETs). These devices however are depletion-mode, meaning the device is considered "on" at zero gate bias. A MOSFET structure allows for enhancement mode operation, which is normally off. This mode is preferrable in high power applications as the device has lower off-state power consumption and is easier to implement in circuits. Proper surface passivation of seminconductor surface interface states is an important processing step for any device. Preliminary research on surface treatments using GaN wet etches and depletion-mode GaN devices utilizing this process are discussed. Devices pretreated with potassium pursulfate prior to gate dielectric deposition show significant device improvements. This process can be applied to any current GaN FET. Enhancement-mode GaN MOSFETs were fabricated on magnesium doped p-type Wurtzite gallium nitride grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates. Devices utilized ion implant source and drain which was activated under NH3 overpressure in MOCVD. Also, devices were fabricated with a SiO2 gate dielectric

  16. Oligonuclear gallium nitrogen cage compounds: molecular intermediates on the way from gallium hydrazides to gallium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Werner; Abel, Thomas; Hagemeier, Elke; Hepp, Alexander; Layh, Marcus; Rezaeirad, Babak; Luftmann, Heinrich

    2011-01-03

    Gallium hydrazides are potentially applicable as facile starting compounds for the generation of GaN by thermolysis. The decomposition pathways are, however, complicated and depend strongly on the substituents attached to the gallium atoms and the hydrazido groups. This paper describes some systematic investigations into the thermolysis of the gallium hydrazine adduct Bu(t)(3)Ga←NH(2)-NHMe (1a) and the dimeric gallium hydrazides [R(2)Ga(N(2)H(2)R')](2) (2b, R = Bu(t), R' = Bu(t); 2c, R = Pr(i), R' = Ph; 2d, R = Me, R' = Bu(t)) which have four- or five-membered heterocycles in their molecular cores. Heating of the adduct 1a to 170 °C gave the heterocyclic compound Bu(t)(2)Ga(μ-NH(2))[μ-N(Me)-N(=CH(2))]GaBu(t)(2) (3) by cleavage of N-N bonds and rearrangement. 3 was further converted at 400 °C into the tetrameric gallium cyanide (Bu(t)(2)GaCN)(4) (4). The thermolysis of the hydrazide (Bu(t)(2)Ga)(2)(NH-NHBu(t))(2) (2b) at temperatures between 270 and 420 °C resulted in cleavage of all N-N bonds and the formation of an octanuclear gallium imide, (Bu(t)GaNH)(8) (6). The trimeric dialkylgallium amide (Bu(t)(2)GaNH(2))(3) (5) was isolated as an intermediate. Thermolysis of the hydrazides (Pr(i)(2)Ga)(2)(NH-NHPh)(NH(2)-NPh) (2c) and (Me(2)Ga)(2)(NH-NHBu(t))(2) (2d) proceeded in contrast with retention of the N-N bonds and afforded a variety of novel gallium hydrazido cage compounds with four gallium atoms and up to four hydrazido groups in a single molecule: (Pr(i)Ga)(4)(NH-NPh)(3)NH (7), (MeGa)(4)(NH-NBu(t))(4) (8), (MeGa)(4)(NH-NBu(t))(3)NBu(t) (9), and (MeGa)(4)(NHNBu(t))(3)NH (10). Partial hydrolysis gave reproducibly the unique octanuclear mixed hydrazido oxo compound (MeGa)(8)(NHNBu(t))(4)O(4) (11).

  17. Initial multicentre experience of 68 gallium-PSMA PET/CT guided robot-assisted salvage lymphadenectomy: acceptable safety profile but oncological benefit appears limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardana, Amila; Thompson, James; van Leeuwen, Pim J; Doig, Shaela; Kalsbeek, Anton; Emmett, Louise; Delprado, Warick; Wong, David; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Coughlin, Geoff; Stricker, Phillip

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the safety and short-term oncological outcomes of 68 gallium-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (68 Ga-PSMA) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-directed robot-assisted salvage node dissection (RASND) for prostate cancer oligometastatic nodal recurrence. Between February 2014 and April 2016, 35 patients across two centres underwent RASND for 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT-detected oligometastatic nodal recurrence. RASND was performed using targeted pelvic dissection, unilateral extended pelvic template or bilateral extended pelvic template dissection, depending on previous pelvic treatment and extent/location of nodal disease. Complications were reported using the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Definitions of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) treatment response to RASND were defined as 6-week PSA 0.2 ng/mL or PSA > nadir, for those who had undergone primary prostatectomy and primary radiotherapy, respectively. Predictors of treatment response were analysed using univariate binary logistic regression. A total of 58 lesions suspicious for lymph node metastases (LNM) in 35 patients were detected on 68 Ga-PSMA imaging. A total of 32 patients (91%) had histopathologically proven LNM at RASND, with a total of 87 LNM and a median (interquartile range) of 2 (1-3) LNM per patient. In all, eight patients (23%) experienced complications, all Clavien-Dindo grade ≤2. Treatment response was seen in 15 (43%) and 11 patients (31%), using the broad and strict definitions, respectively. BCR-free survival and clinical recurrence-free survival at a median follow-up of 12 months were 23% and 66%, respectively, for the entire cohort. Bilateral template dissection was the only significant univariate predictor of treatment response in our cohort. Although RASND appears safe and feasible, less than half of our cohort had a treatment response, and less than a quarter experienced BCR-free survival at 12-month median follow-up. 68 Ga-PSMA imaging

  18. Common features of gallium perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksiyko, R; Berkowski, M; Byszewski, P; Dabrowski, B; Diduszko, R; Fink-Finowicki, J; Vasylechko, LO

    2001-01-01

    The Czochralski and floating zone methods have been used to grow single crystals of gallium perovskites solid solutions with rare earth elements La, Pr, Nd, Sm and with Sr. The structure of the crystals has been investigated by powder X-ray, synchrotron radiation and neutron diffraction methods over

  19. Gallium scan in intracerebral sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhija, M.C.; Anayiotos, C.P.

    1981-07-01

    Sarcoidosis involving the nervous system probably occurs in about 4% of patients. The usefulness of brain scintigraphy in these cases has been suggested. In this case of cerebral sarcoid granuloma, gallium imaging demonstrated the lesion before treatment and showed disappearance of the lesion after corticosteroid treatment, which correlated with the patient's clinical improvement.

  20. P-type gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  1. Gallium-67 citrate scan in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wanyu [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hsieh Jihfang [Chi-Mei Foundation Hospital, Tainan (Taiwan)

    1999-07-01

    Aim: Whole-body gallium scan was performed to evaluate the usefulness of gallium scan for detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with extrapulmonary TB were included in this study. Four patients were found to have two lesions. Totally, 41 lesions were identified, including 19 TB arthritis, 8 spinal TB, 5 TB meningitis, 3 TB lymphadenopathy, 2 TB pericarditis, 1 TB peritonitis, 1 intestinal TB, 1 skin TB and 1 renal TB. Results: Of the 41 extrapulmonary TB lesions, gallium scan detected 32 lesions with a sensitivity of 78%. All the patients with TB meningitis showed negative gallium scan. When the five cases of TB meningitis were excluded, the detection sensitivity of gallium scan increased to 88.9% (32/36). Conclusion: Our data revealed that gallium scan is a convenient and useful method for evaluating extrapulmonary TB lesions other than TB-meningitis. We suggest that gallium scan be included in the clinical routine for patients with suspected extrapulmonary TB. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Es wurden Ganzkoerper-Gallium-Szintigramme angefertigt, um den Nutzen der Gallium-Szintigraphie zur Erfassung von extrapulmonalen Tuberkuloseherden (TB) zu erfassen. Methoden: 37 Patienten mit extrapulmonaler TB wurden eingeschlossen. 4 Patienten hatten 2 Laesionen. Insgesamt wurden 41 Laesionen identifiziert, hierunter 19 TB-Arthritis, 8 spinale TB, 5 TB-Meningitis, 3 TB-Lymphadenopathie, 2 TB-Perikarditis, 1 TB-Peritonitis, 1 intestinale TB, 1 Haut-TB und eine Nieren-TB. Ergebnisse: Von den 41 extrapulmonalen TB-Herden erfasste die Gallium-Szintigraphie 32 Herde mit einer Sensitivitaet von 78%. Alle Patienten mit TB-Meningitis zeigten einen negativen Gallium-Scan. Wenn die 5 Faelle mit TB-Meningitis ausgeschlossen wurden, stieg die Sensitivititaet der Gallium-Szintigraphie auf 88,9% (32/36). Schlussfolgerung: Die Daten zeigen, dass die Gallium-Szintigraphie eine einfache und nuetzliche Methode zur Erfassung extrapulmonaler TB-Herde ist

  2. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thrustor Concept and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design of a new type of two-stage pulsed electromagnetic accelerator, the gallium electromagnetic (GEM) thruster. A schematic illustration of the GEM thruster concept is given in Fig. 1. In this concept, liquid gallium propellant is pumped into the first stage through a porous metal electrode using an electromagneticpump[l]. At a designated time, a pulsed discharge (approx.10-50 J) is initiated in the first stage, ablating the liquid gallium from the porous electrode surface and ejecting a dense thermal gallium plasma into the second state. The presence of the gallium plasma in the second stage serves to trigger the high-energy (approx.500 I), send-stage puke which provides the primary electromagnetic (j x B) acceleration.

  3. Gallium nitride on gallium oxide substrate for integrated nonlinear optics

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.

    2017-11-22

    Gallium Nitride (GaN), being a direct bandgap semiconductor with a wide bandgap and high thermal stability, is attractive for optoelectronic and electronic applications. Furthermore, due to its high optical nonlinearity — the characteristic of all 111-V semiconductors — GaN is also expected to be a suitable candidate for integrated nonlinear photonic circuits for a plethora of apphcations, ranging from on-chip wavelength conversion to quantum computing. Although GaN devices are in commercial production, it still suffers from lack of a suitable substrate material to reduce structural defects like high densities of threading dislocations (TDs), stacking faults, and grain boundaries. These defects significandy deteriorate the optical quality of the epi-grown GaN layer, since they act as non-radiative recombination centers. Recent studies have shown that GaN grown on (−201) β-Gallium Oxide (Ga2O3) has superior optical quality due to a better lattice matching as compared to GaN grown on Sapphire (Al2O3) [1-3]. In this work, we report on the fabrication of GaN waveguides on GaiOj substrate and their optical characterization to assess their feasibihty for efficient four-wave mixing (FWM).

  4. Indium gallium nitride multijunction solar cell simulation using silvaco atlas

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Baldomero

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential use of wurtzite Indium Gallium Nitride as photovoltaic material. Silvaco Atlas was used to simulate a quad-junction solar cell. Each of the junctions was made up of Indium Gallium Nitride. The band gap of each junction was dependent on the composition percentage of Indium Nitride and Gallium Nitride within Indium Gallium Nitride. The findings of this research show that Indium Gallium Nitride is a promising semiconductor for solar cell use. United...

  5. Testing of gallium arsenide solar cells on the CRRES vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, T. M.

    A flight experiment was designed to determine the optimum design for gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell panels in a radiation environment. Elements of the experiment design include, different coverglass material and thicknesses, welded and soldered interconnects, different solar cell efficiencies, different solar cell types, and measurement of annealing properties. This experiment is scheduled to fly on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). This satellite will simultaneously measure the radiation environment and provide engineering data on solar cell degradation that can be directly related to radiation damage.

  6. Subcutaneous injection of thallium-201 chloride and gallium-67 citrate at acupuncture point K-3; An animal experiment and human-being study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johg, Shiang-Bin; Wu, Chung-Chieng; Chen, Ming-Feng; Wu, Sheng-Nan (Kaohsiung Medical Coll., Taiwan (China))

    1992-09-01

    Subcutaneous (SC) injection of [sup 99m]Tc pertechnetate ([sup 99m]Tc) at acupuncture points K-3 is a new method of lower-limb radionuclide venography. To investigate the mechanism of absorption of [sup 99m]Tc from SC injected sites into vascular system, various radioisotopes such as [sup 201]Tl chloride ([sup 201]Tl) and [sup 67]Ga citrate ([sup 67]Ga) were SC injected at K-3 points in animal and human-beings experiments. It was found that [sup 99m]Tc and [sup 201]Tl were absorbed rapidly from K-3 points through venous system and into whole body soft tissue. However, [sup 67]Ga with a larger effective ionic radius than [sup 201]Tl was not absorbed throughout the observation of 5 minutes. Furthermore, intravenous administration of digitalis, a Na[sup +]-K[sup +] pump blocker, did not inhibit the absorption of [sup 99m]Tc and [sup 201]Tl after SC injection at K-3 points. These results suggest that absorption of radionuclides on SC injection at K-3 points is mainly through the passive pathway of diffusion rather than the active transport, and the effective ionic radius may be a major factor influencing the absorption rate of the radionuclides. (author).

  7. Initial Experience With Gallium-68 DOTA-Octreotate PET/CT and Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy for Pediatric Patients With Refractory Metastatic Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Hofman, Michael S; Murray, William K; Wilson, Sharyn; Wood, Paul; Downie, Peter; Super, Leanne; Hogg, Annette; Eu, Peter; Hicks, Rodney J

    2016-03-01

    Pediatric patients with refractory neuroblastoma have limited therapeutic options. Neuroblastoma may express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) allowing imaging with 68Ga-DOTA-Octreotate (GaTATE) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). We reviewed our experience with this theranostic combination. GaTATE studies (8 patients; 2 to 9 years old) were reviewed and compared with 123I-MIBG or posttreatment 131I-MIBG studies. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for SSTR subtype 2 was performed in 5 patients. Four patients received PRRT. GaTATE PET showed additional disease in 38% (3/8 patients), and upstaged 1 patient by detecting marrow involvement. IHC detected SSTR 2 in all patients assessed. Six patients were deemed suitable for PRRT on imaging. Four patients received 17 cycles of palliative PRRT (10 111In-DOTATATE; 5 177Lu-DOTATATE; 1 combined 111In and 177Lu-DOTATATE; 1 combined 177Lu and 90Y-DOTATATE) with no significant toxicity attributed to PRRT. All had objective responses. Two survivors are now 40 and 56 months from PRRT commencement. GaTATE PET was positive in a high proportion of patients with refractory neuroblastoma, correlating with SSTR 2 on IHC, with additional disease identified compared with MIBG imaging. PRRT seems safe, feasible, with responses observed in patients with progression despite multimodality treatment. These data support ongoing clinical trials in such patients.

  8. Influence of novel gallium complexes on the homeostasis of some biochemical and hematological parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gârban, Gabriela; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Ioniţă, Hortensia; Gârban, Zeno; Hădărugă, Nicoleta-Gabriela; Ghibu, George-Daniel; Baltă, Cornel; Simiz, Florin-Dan; Mitar, Carmen

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to detect possible homeostasis changes in some biochemical and hematological parameters after the administration of gallium (Ga) complexes C (24) and C (85) on an experimental animal model (Wistar strain rats). In order to observe chronobiological aspects, a morning (m) and an evening (e) animal series were constituted. Further on, each series were divided into three groups: control (C), experimental I (EI), and experimental II (EII). Both Ga complexes were solubilized in a carrier solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, water, and ethanol. Animals of the C groups received the carrier solution by intraperitoneal injection, those from the EI groups received the solubilized C(24) gallium complex, and those of the EII groups received the solubilized C(85) gallium complex. At the end of the experiment, blood and tissue samples were taken and the following parameters were determined: serum concentration of the nonprotein nitrogenous compounds (uric acid, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen), hematological parameters (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, leukocytes, and platelets), and the kidney tissue concentration of three essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, and Zn). With the exception of uric acid, the results revealed increased concentrations of the nonprotein nitrogenous compounds both in the morning and in the evening experimental groups. Hematological data showed increased levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and leukocytes and decreased platelet levels in the experimental group given the C(24) gallium complex in the morning (EI-m) group; increased levels of leukocytes and decreased levels of the other parameters in the experimental group given the C(24) gallium complex in the evening (EI-e) group; and increased levels of all hematological parameters in the experimental groups receiving the C(85) gallium complex in the morning (EII-m) group and in the evening (EII-e) group. Decreased kidney tissue concentrations of metals were found in all

  9. Glutathione role in gallium induced toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asim

    2012-01-26

    GSH) present in tissues. It is very important and interesting to study the reaction of gallium nitrate and glutathione as biomarker of glutathione role in detoxification and conjugation in whole blood components (plasma and ...

  10. Crystal Orientation Dependence of Gallium Nitride Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guosong; Sun, Wei; Song, Renbo; Tansu, Nelson; Krick, Brandon A

    2017-10-26

    We explore how crystallographic order and orientation affect the tribological (friction and wear) performance of gallium nitride (GaN), through experiments and theory. Friction and wear were measured in every direction on the c-plane of GaN through rotary wear experiment. This revealed a strong crystallographic orientation dependence of the sliding properties of GaN; a 60° periodicity of wear rate and friction coefficient was observed. The origin of this periodicity is rooted in the symmetry presented in wurtzite hexagonal lattice structure of III-nitrides. The lowest wear rate was found as 0.6 × 10 -7 mm 3 /Nm with , while the wear rate associated with had the highest wear rate of 1.4 × 10 -7 mm 3 /Nm. On the contrary, higher friction coefficient can be observed along while lower friction coefficient always appeared along . We developed a simple molecular statics approach to understand energy barriers associated with sliding and material removal; this calculated change of free energy associated with sliding revealed that there were smaller energy barriers sliding along as compared to the direction.

  11. Gallium beam lithography for superconductive structure formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael David; Lewis, Rupert M.

    2018-01-30

    The present invention relates to the use of gallium beam lithography to form superconductive structures. Generally, the method includes exposing a surface to gallium to form an implanted region and then removing material adjacent to and/or below that implanted region. In particular embodiments, the methods herein provide microstructures and nanostructures in any useful substrate, such as those including niobium, tantalum, tungsten, or titanium.

  12. Gallium poisoning: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Ivanoff, Athena E; Hottel, Timothy L

    2012-02-01

    The authors present a case of a college student who suffered acute gallium poisoning as a result of accidental exposure to gallium halide complexes. This is extremely rare and has never been reported in the literature. Acute symptoms after the incident, which initially presented as dermatitis and appeared relatively not life-threatening, rapidly progressed to dangerous episodes of tachycardia, tremors, dyspnea, vertigo, and unexpected black-outs. Had there been effective emergency medical care protocols, diagnostic testing, treatment and antidotes, the latent manifestations of irreversible cardiomyopathy may have been prevented. Given how quickly exposure led to morbidity, this article aims to raise an awareness of the toxic potential of gallium. This has particular relevance for workers involved in the production of semiconductors where there is a potential for accidental exposure to gallium by-products during device processing. It may also have implications for dentists who use gallium alloys to replace mercury containing amalgam. In the absence of threshold limit values and exposure limits for humans, as well as emergency medical guidelines for treatment of poisoning, the case calls on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to establish guidelines and medical management protocols specific for gallium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

  14. Speed gallium arsenide photoconductors; Photoconducteurs rapides en arseniure de gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulon, F.; Pochet, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Electronique et d`Instrumentation Nucleaire; Brullot, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    1993-12-31

    Gallium arsenide detectors are one of the most efficient gamma and X ray detectors at room temperature. Due to the high carrier mobility and short carrier lifetime, GaAs can be used for the detection of ultrafast gamma, X or laser pulses. GaAs photoconductors allow both pulse shape and intensity measurements. In this paper, we review the results of studies carried out jointly by the CEA/LETI/DEIN and CEA/DAM/CEM in France to improve the response of such detectors. The geometry of the photodetectors and their electrical contacts have been optimized for specific radiation measurements: low energy X rays (< 1 KeV), gamma rays or protons. It has been shown that a pre-irradiation treatment with fission neutrons at doses above 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} induces a significant improvement of the response speed. This result from defect generation in the material and the subsequent carrier life time decrease. Detectors with sensitivities of about 10{sup -8} A/R.s for gamma rays and 10{sup -16} coulomb/proton, response times below 100 ps and good linearity over more than five decades are currently fabricated in our laboratory. (authors). 18 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Correction: Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sujoy; Sampath, S

    2016-05-28

    Correction for 'Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control' by Sujoy Sarkar et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 6407-6410.

  16. Development of a Multi-layer Anti-reflective Coating for Gallium Arsenide/Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells by Kimberley A Olver Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Development of a Multi-layer Anti-reflective Coating for Gallium Arsenide/Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells by Kimberley A Olver...Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (AlGaAs) Solar Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kimberley A Olver

  17. Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sujoy; Sampath, S

    2016-05-11

    A ternary, ionically conducting, deep eutectic solvent based on acetamide, urea and gallium nitrate is reported for the electrodeposition of gallium nitride/gallium indium nitride under ambient conditions; blue and white light emitting photoluminescent deposits are obtained under potential control.

  18. Capacitive Behavior of Single Gallium Oxide Nanobelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Haitao; Liu, Hang; Zhu, Huichao; Shao, Pai; Hou, Changmin

    2015-08-17

    In this research, monocrystalline gallium oxide (Ga₂O₃) nanobelts were synthesized through oxidation of metal gallium at high temperature. An electronic device, based on an individual Ga₂O₃ nanobelt on Pt interdigital electrodes (IDEs), was fabricated to investigate the electrical characteristics of the Ga2O3 nanobelt in a dry atmosphere at room temperature. The current-voltage (I-V) and I/V-t characteristics show the capacitive behavior of the Ga₂O₃ nanobelt, indicating the existence of capacitive elements in the Pt/Ga₂O₃/Pt structure.

  19. Two-Dimensional Modeling of Aluminum Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holmes, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT's) are microwave power devices that have the performance characteristics to improve the capabilities of current and future Navy radar and communication systems...

  20. Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy of Gallium in Bladder Tissue following Gallium Maltolate Administration during Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L.; Blyth, Robert I. R.; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M.; Thompson, Julie

    2013-01-01

    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived at the transitional epithelium, a potential site of uropathogenic E. coli infection. Gallium and iron were similarly but not identically distributed in the tissues, suggesting that at least some distribution mechanisms are not common between the two elements. The results of this study indicate that gallium maltolate may be a suitable candidate for further development as a novel antimicrobial therapy for urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23877680

  1. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, T.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  2. Gallium-67 imaging in pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhija, M.C.; Davis, G.

    1984-03-01

    Gallium-67 citrate has been known to localize in the lungs in a variety of pulmonary diseases. Abnormal lung activity implies active underlying disease. Serial Ga-67 lung scans may be helpful when steroids are used as therapeutic agents. A case of pulmonary eosinophic granuloma is reported here with diffuse bilateral Ga-67 pulmonary activity.

  3. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolper, John C.; Shul, Randy J.

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  4. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge current, terminal voltage, and mass bit measurements are performed on a coaxial gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 7-23 kA. It is found that the mass bit varies quadratically with the discharge current which yields a constant exhaust velocity of 20 km/s. Increasing the electrode radius ratio of the thruster from to 2.6 to 3.4 increases the thruster efficiency from 21% to 30%. When operating with a central gallium anode, macroparticles are ejected at all energy levels tested. A central gallium cathode ejects macroparticles when the current density exceeds 3.7 10(exp 8) A/square m . A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in the discharge, as well as annular electrode species at higher energy levels. Axial Langmuir triple probe measurements yield electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV and electron densities in the range of 8 x 10(exp )20 to 1.6 x 10(exp 21) m(exp -3) . Triple probe measurements suggest an exhaust plume with a divergence angle of 9 , and a completely doubly ionized plasma at the ablating thruster cathode.

  5. Thermodynamic binding constants for gallium transferrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W.R.; Pecoraro, V.L.

    1983-01-18

    Gallium-67 is widely used as an imaging agent for tumors and inflammatory abscesses. It is well stablished that Ga/sup 3 +/ travels through the circulatory system bound to the serum iron transport protein transferrin and that this protein binding is an essential step in tumor localization. However, there have been conflicting reports on the magnitude of the gallium-transferrin binding constants. Therefore, thermodynamic binding constants for gallium complexation at the two specific metal binding sites of human serum transferrin at pH 7.4 and 5 mM NaHCO/sub 3/ have been determined by UV difference spectroscopy. The conditional constants calculated for 27 mM NaHCO/sub 3/ are log K/sub 1/* = 20.3 and log K/sub 2/* = 19.3. These results are discussed in relation to the thermodynamics of transferrin binding of Fe/sup 3 +/ and to previous reports on gallium binding. The strength of transferrin complexation is also compared to that of a series of low molecular weight ligands by using calculated pM values (pM = -log (Ga(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6/)) to express the effective binding strength at pH 7.4.

  6. Gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakir, A.A.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Levy, P.S.; Rhee, H.L.; Dunea, G.

    1988-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease, 45 patients with various glomerulopathies, excluding lupus nephritis and renal vasculitis, were studied. Persistent renal visualization 48 hours after the gallium injection, a positive scintigram, was graded as + (less than), ++ (equal to), and +++ (greater than) the hepatic uptake. Positive scintigrams were seen in ten of 16 cases of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, six of 11 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis, and one case of minimal change, and one of two cases of membranous nephropathy; also in three of six cases of sickle glomerulopathy, two cases of diabetic neuropathy, one of two cases of amyloidosis, and one case of mild chronic allograft rejection. The 25 patients with positive scans were younger than the 20 with negative scans (31 +/- 12 v 42 +/- 17 years; P less than 0.01), and exhibited greater proteinuria (8.19 +/- 7.96 v 2.9 +/- 2.3 S/d; P less than 0.01) and lower serum creatinine values (2 +/- 2 v 4.1 +/- 2.8 mg/dL; P less than 0.01). The amount of proteinuria correlated directly with the intensity grade of the gallium image (P less than 0.02), but there was no correlation between the biopsy diagnosis and the outcome of the gallium scan. It was concluded that gallium scintigraphy is not useful in the differential diagnosis of the glomerular diseases under discussion. Younger patients with good renal function and heavy proteinuria are likely to have a positive renal scintigram regardless of the underlying glomerulopathy.

  7. Serum and tissue concentrations of gallium after oral administration of gallium nitrate and gallium maltolate to neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Caroline S; Sweeney, Raymond W; Bernstein, Lawrence R; Fecteau, Marie-Eve

    2016-02-01

    To determine serum and tissue concentrations of gallium (Ga) after oral administration of gallium nitrate (GaN) and gallium maltolate (GaM) to neonatal calves. 8 healthy neonatal calves. Calves were assigned to 1 of 2 groups (4 calves/group). Gallium (50 mg/kg) was administered as GaN or GaM (equivalent to 13.15 mg of Ga/kg for GaN and 7.85 mg of Ga/kg for GaM) by oral gavage once daily for 5 days. Blood samples were collected 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after Ga administration on day 1; 4 and 24 hours after Ga administration on days 2, 3, and 4; and 4, 12, and 24 hours after Ga administration on day 5. On day 6, calves were euthanized and tissue samples were obtained. Serum and tissue Ga concentrations were measured by use of mass spectrometry. Data were adjusted for total Ga dose, and comparisons were made between the 2 groups. Calves receiving GaM had a significantly higher dose-adjusted area under the curve and dose-adjusted maximum serum Ga concentration than did calves receiving GaN. Despite receiving less Ga per dose, calves receiving GaM had tissue Ga concentrations similar to those for calves receiving GaN. In this study, calves receiving GaM had significantly higher Ga absorption than did calves receiving GaN. These findings suggested that GaM might be useful as a prophylactic agent against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in neonatal calves.

  8. Survey of the market, supply and availability of gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the present consumption and supply of gallium, its potential availability in the satellite power system (SPS) implementation time frame, and commercial and new processing methods for increasing the production of gallium. Findings are reported in detail. The findings strongly suggest that with proper long range planning adequate gallium would be available from free-enterprise world supplies of bauxite for SPS implementation.

  9. Gallium and its competing roles with iron in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2016-08-01

    Gallium, a group IIIa metal, shares chemical properties with iron. Studies have shown that gallium-based compounds have potential therapeutic activity against certain cancers and infectious microorganisms. By functioning as an iron mimetic, gallium perturbs iron-dependent proliferation processes in tumor cells. Gallium's action on iron homeostasis leads to disruption of ribonucleotide reductase, mitochondrial function, and the regulation of transferrin receptor and ferritin. In addition, gallium nitrate stimulates an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in cells which triggers downstream upregulation of metallothionein and hemoxygenase-1. Gallium's anti-infective activity against bacteria and fungi results from disruption of microbial iron utilization through mechanisms which include gallium binding to siderophores and downregulation of bacterial iron uptake. Gallium compounds lack cross-resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and antibiotics thus making them attractive agents for drug development. This review will focus on the mechanisms of action of gallium with emphasis on its interaction with iron and iron proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Photonuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Gallium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Akkoyun, Serkan

    2014-01-01

    The photon induced reactions which are named as photonuclear reactions have a great importance in many field of nuclear, radiation physics and related fields. Since we have planned to perform photonuclear reaction on gallium target with bremmstrahlung photons from clinical linear accelerator in the future, the cross-sections of neutron (photo-neutron ({\\gamma},xn)) and proton (photo-proton ({\\gamma},xn)) productions after photon activation have been calculated by using TALYS 1.2 computer code in this study. The target nucleus has been considered gallium which has two stable isotopes, 69Ga and 71Ga. According to the results, we have seen that the calculations are in harmony in the limited literature values. Furthermore, the pre-equilibrium and compound process contributions to the total cross-section have been investigated.

  11. Surface magnetism of gallium arsenide nanofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Huan; Yu, Jin; Guo, Wanlin

    2017-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is the widest used second generation semiconductor with a direct band gap and increasingly used as nanofilms. However, the magnetic properties of GaAs nanofilms have never been studied. Here we find by comprehensive density functional theory calculations that GaAs nanofilms cleaved along the and directions become intrinsically metallic films with strong surface magnetism and magnetoelectric (ME) effect. The surface magnetism and electrical conductivity are realized v...

  12. Gallium Nitride Crystals: Novel Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouzhi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Lv, Jiaxin; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2016-05-01

    A type of single-crystal gallium nitride mesoporous membrane is fabricated and its supercapacitor properties are demonstrated for the first time. The supercapacitors exhibit high-rate capability, stable cycling life at high rates, and ultrahigh power density. This study may expand the range of crystals as high-performance electrode materials in the field of energy storage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Temperature-dependent structure evolution in liquid gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, L. H.; Wang, X. D.; Yu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, F.; Sun, Y.; Cao, Q. P.; Xie, H. L.; Xiao, T. Q.; Zhang, D. X.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Ren, Y.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2017-04-01

    Temperature-dependent atomistic structure evolution of liquid gallium (Ga) has been investigated by using in situ high energy X-ray diffraction experiment and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. Both experimental and theoretical results reveal the existence of a liquid structural change around 1000 K in liquid Ga. Below and above this temperature the liquid exhibits differences in activation energy for selfdiffusion, temperature-dependent heat capacity, coordination numbers, density, viscosity, electric resistivity and thermoelectric power, which are reflected from structural changes of the bond-orientational order parameter Q6, fraction of covalent dimers, averaged string length and local atomic packing. This finding will trigger more studies on the liquid-to-liquid crossover in metallic melts.

  14. Low-threshold indium gallium nitride quantum dot microcavity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Alexander J.

    Gallium nitride (GaN) microcavities with embedded optical emitters have long been sought after as visible light sources as well as platforms for cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) experiments. Specifically, materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots (QDs) offer an outstanding platform to study light matter interactions and realize practical devices, such as on-chip light emitting diodes and nanolasers. Inherent advantages of nitride-based microcavities include low surface recombination velocities, enhanced room-temperature performance (due to their high exciton binding energy, as high as 67 meV for InGaN QDs), and emission wavelengths in the blue region of the visible spectrum. In spite of these advantages, several challenges must be overcome in order to capitalize on the potential of this material system. Such diffculties include the processing of GaN into high-quality devices due to the chemical inertness of the material, low material quality as a result of strain-induced defects, reduced carrier recombination effciencies due to internal fields, and a lack of characterization of the InGaN QDs themselves due to the diffculty of their growth and therefore lack of development relative to other semiconductor QDs. In this thesis we seek to understand and address such issues by investigating the interaction of light coupled to InGaN QDs via a GaN microcavity resonator. Such coupling led us to the demonstration of the first InGaN QD microcavity laser, whose performance offers insights into the properties and current limitations of the nitride materials and their emitters. This work is organized into three main sections. Part I outlines the key advantages and challenges regarding indium gallium nitride (InGaN) emitters embedded within gallium nitride (GaN) optical microcavities. Previous work is also discussed which establishes context for the work presented here. Part II includes the fundamentals related to laser operation, including the

  15. Glutathione role in gallium induced toxicity | Ahmad | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of gallium metal on glutathione in blood components was discussed in this study in in vitro condition as a model for in vivo condition. Key words: Gallium nitrate, reduced glutathione (GSH), whole blood, plasma, cytosolic fraction (CF), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), Di-thiobis- dinitro-benzoic acid (DTNB).

  16. Magnetostriction and Magnetic Heterogeneities in Iron-Gallium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laver, Mark; Mudivarthi, C.; Cullen, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Iron-gallium alloys Fe1-xGax exhibit an exceptional increase in magnetostriction with gallium content. We present small-angle neutron scattering investigations on a Fe0.81Ga0.19 single crystal. We uncover heterogeneities with an average spacing of 15 nm and with magnetizations distinct from the m...

  17. Gallium alloy films investigated for use as boundary lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Gallium alloyed with other low melting point metals has excellent lubricant properties of fluidity and low vapor pressure for high temperature or vacuum environments. The addition of other soft metals reduces the corrosivity and formation of undesirable alloys normally found with gallium.

  18. Repurposing of gallium-based drugs for antibacterial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchi, Carlo; Imperi, Francesco; Minandri, Fabrizia; Visca, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    While the occurrence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is vanishing current anti-infective therapies, the antibiotic discovery pipeline is drying up. In the last years, the repurposing of existing drugs for new clinical applications has become a major research area in drug discovery, also in the field of anti-infectives. This review discusses the potential of repurposing previously approved gallium formulations in antibacterial chemotherapy. Gallium has no proven function in biological systems, but it can act as an iron-mimetic in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The activity of gallium mostly relies on its ability to replace iron in redox enzymes, thus impairing their function and ultimately hampering cell growth. Cancer cells and bacteria are preferential gallium targets due to their active metabolism and fast growth. The wealth of knowledge on the pharmacological properties of gallium has opened the door to the repurposing of gallium-based drugs for the treatment of infections sustained by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. The promising antibacterial activity of gallium both in vitro and in different animal models of infection raises the hope that gallium will confirm its efficacy in clinical trials, and will become a valuable therapeutic option to cure otherwise untreatable bacterial infections. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. Gallium in the detection and localization of tumours | Berelowitz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Gallium c:trate and gamma-imaging with a gamma camera as a diagnostic procedure for the detection and localization of malignant disease has been evaluated in 64 patients with malignant disease. From the results obtained it can be concluded that Gallium citrate can play an extremely useful diagnostic role as ...

  20. 67Gallium • the D,etection and Localization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-12-11

    Dec 11, 1971 ... ]n this article we report the results obtained in scanning patients with malignant disease using ;;'Gallium citrate and we compare our results with those of other published series. MATERIALS AND METHODS. ;;'Gallium citrate was obtained from the Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity Division at the National ...

  1. Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0048 TR-2015-0048 SUPERLATTICE INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELL ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE Alexandre Freundlich...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-13-1-0232 Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  2. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hee Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gallium nitride (GaN nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO33∙xH2O was used as a raw material and NH3 gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C3H6N6 powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga2O3. Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C3H6N6. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing.

  3. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Sooseok; Park, Dong-Wha

    2016-02-24

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO₃)₃∙ x H₂O) was used as a raw material and NH₃ gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C₃H₆N₆) powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga₂O₃). Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C₃H₆N₆. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing.

  4. Contribution the scintigraphy with gallium 67 in the sarcoidosis; Apport de la scintigraphie au gallium 67 dans la sarcoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbez, I.; Sellem, A.; Rejeb, O.; Elkadri, N.; Hammami, H. [Service de medecine nucleaire, hopital militaire, Tunis, (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    The objective is to show the interest of the scintigraphy with citrates of gallium 67 in the diagnosis and follow up of sarcoidosis injuries. The conclusions are that the scintigraphy with gallium 67 constitutes an imaging technique of good performance, non invasive in the diagnosis, le injuries evaluation and the sarcoidosis follow-up. (N.C.)

  5. Fast neutron scattering on Gallium target at 14.8 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Han, R; Chen, Z; Nie, Y; Liu, X; Zhang, S; Ren, P; Jia, B; Tian, G; Luo, F; Lin, W; Liu, J; Shi, F; Huang, M; Ruan, X; Ren, J; Zhou, Z; Huang, H; Bao, J; Zhang, K; Hu, B

    2014-01-01

    Benchmarking of evaluated nuclear data libraries was performed for $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons on Gallium targets. The experiments were performed at China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE). Solid samples of natural Gallium (3.2 cm and 6.4 cm thick) were bombarded by $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons and leakage neutron energy spectra were measured at 60$^{\\circ}$ and 120$^{\\circ}$. The measured spectra are rather well reproduced by MCNP-4C simulations with the CENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-4.0 evaluated nuclear data libraries, except for the inelastic contributions around $E_{n} = 10-13$ MeV. All three libraries significantly underestimate the inelastic contributions. The inelastic contributions are further studied, using the Talys simulation code and the experimental spectra are reproduced reasonably well in the whole energy range by the Talys calculation, including the inelastic contributions.

  6. Heat blocking gallium arsenide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, F.; Farmer, C. D.; Schmidt, C.; Pfaff, G.; Stanley, C. R.

    2008-02-01

    The solar cell industry is witnessing an era of unprecedented growth and this trend is set to continue for the foreseeable future. Here we describe a heat reflection pigment-coated single-junction gallium arsenide solar cell that is capable of reflecting heat-inducing near-infrared radiation. The cell maintains its performance better than non-coated cells when exposed to infrared-rich radiant flux. In situations where solar cells get heated mainly from incident infrared radiation, these cells exhibit superior performance. The heat reflecting pigment, cell structure, coating process and cell performance have been described.

  7. Gallium induces the production of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Pérez-Eretza, Berenice; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Coria-Jiménez, Rafael; Rangel-Vega, Adrián; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-02-01

    The novel antimicrobial gallium is a nonredox iron III analogue with bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties, effective for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo in mouse and rabbit infection models. It interferes with iron metabolism, transport, and presumably its homeostasis. As gallium exerts its antimicrobial effects by competing with iron, we hypothesized that it ultimately will lead cells to an iron deficiency status. As iron deficiency promotes the expression of virulence factors in vitro and promotes the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa in animal models, it is anticipated that treatment with gallium will also promote the production of virulence factors. To test this hypothesis, the reference strain PA14 and two clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis were exposed to gallium, and their production of pyocyanin, rhamnolipids, elastase, alkaline protease, alginate, pyoverdine, and biofilm was determined. Gallium treatment induced the production of all the virulence factors tested in the three strains except for pyoverdine. In addition, as the Ga-induced virulence factors are quorum sensing controlled, co-administration of Ga and the quorum quencher brominated furanone C-30 was assayed, and it was found that C-30 alleviated growth inhibition from gallium. Hence, adding both C-30 and gallium may be more effective in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A study on the production of high purity gallium (IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Wung; Son, Yong Un; Park, Kyung Ho; Choi, Young Youn; Yoo, Yeon Tae; Nam, Chul Woo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Gallium from GaAs semiconductor scrap was recovered by thermal-decomposition with packing tower type vacuum furnace. And then refined by the electro deposition using fused slat (GaCl{sub 2}). The important result obtained from the study are follows; 1) In the thermal-decomposition process, the recovery of gallium decreased with increasing temperature of the melting point of gallium (1,237 deg. C). At the temperature higher than this, the rate of thermal-decomposition of GaAs became faster and recovery of gallium increased because of the destroy of GaAs structure. 2) The thermal-decomposition of packing tower furnace was carried out with 30 kg sample. The optimum conditions are pressure 5 x 10{sup -2} mmHg, temperature 1,250 deg. C, reaction time 4 hours. At this condition the yield and purity of gallium are higher then 98 % and 99.994 %. 3) The activation energy of fused salt electrorefining for gallium is 16.6 K joule/mole. in the temperature range between 164 deg. C and 197 deg. C. 4) High purity gallium (99.9999%) is obtained at cell voltage 100 mV{approx} 300 mV, current density 1.5 A/cm{sup 2} and the temperature of 473 deg. K with fused GaCl{sub 2}. 5) With purification of GaCl{sub 2} and electro-deposition using fused salt the continues refining process of gallium developed. 6) the flowchart of the high purity gallium recovery process was developed in the study. (author). 24 refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Direct conversion of fission energy into electricity in liquid gallium contact potential cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, T., E-mail: tes211@mail.usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Sohtech R& D Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear fission of uranium releases about 93% of its energy in the form of highly charged (up to 20+) and highly energetic fission fragment (83.5MeV average) and other ionizing radiations, including beta and gamma radiations. Liquid gallium is a semimetal that had been previously explored as a self recovering ionization media for alphavoltiac contact potential cell (CPC), and had been evaluated as a suitable replacement coolant for the next generation of fast reactor. By improving the neutronic aspect of a Liquid Gallium CPC (LGaCPC) with low neutron absorption construction materials, and by using a heterogeneous mixture of CANDU fuel grade uranium oxide powder (provided by CAMECO Inc.) and liquid gallium as its junction material, the direct conversion of fission energy to electricity has been observed when irradiated by the thermal neutron flux of the SLOWPOKE-II Research Reactor at the Saskatchewan Research Council. To further explore the effect of temperature on the operation of the LGaCPC, a High Temperature LGaCPC (HTLGaCPC), and a 6 meter high monolithic Large Volume Submersible Neutron Irradiation Chamber (LVSNIC) have been designed and constructed, which allow high temperature fission experiment up to 623K with a thermal neutron flux of 1.18 x 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2}/s and the result is presented here, along with discussions on the operating principle of the LGaCPC, and on the construction and measurement techniques used in this study. (author)

  10. Antitumor effect of novel gallium compounds and efficacy of nanoparticle-mediated gallium delivery in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrung, Daniel; Oyewumi, Moses O

    2012-02-01

    The widespread application of gallium (Ga) in cancer therapy has been greatly hampered by lack of specificity resulting in poor tumor accumulation and retention. To address the challenge, two lipophilic gallium (III) compounds (gallium hexanedione; GaH and gallium acetylacetonate; GaAcAc) were synthesized and antitumor studies were conducted in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Nanoparticles (NPs) containing various concentrations of the Ga compounds were prepared using a binary mixture of Gelucire 44/14 and cetyl alcohol as matrix materials. NPs were characterized based on size, morphology, stability and biocompatibility. Antitumor effects of free or NP-loaded Ga compounds were investigated based on cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species and reduction of mitochondrial potential. Compared to free Ga compounds, cytotoxicity of NP-loaded Ga (5-150 microg/ml) was less dependent on concentration and incubation time (exposure) with A549 cells. NP-mediated delivery (5-150 microg Ga/ml) enhanced antitumor effects of Ga compounds and the effect was pronounced at: (i) shorter incubation times; and (ii) at low concentrations of gallium (approximately 50 microg/ml) (p 0.13) suggesting the potential in overcoming gallium resistance in some tumors. In general, preparation of stable and biocompatible NPs that facilitated Ga tumor uptake and antitumor effects could be effective in gallium-based cancer therapy.

  11. Fabrication of Aluminum Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride MESFET And It's Applications in Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alur, Siddharth

    Gallium Nitride has been researched extensively for the past three decades for its application in Light Emitting Diodes (LED's), power devices and UV photodetectors. With the recent developments in crystal growth technology and the ability to control the doping there has been an increased interest in heterostructures formed between Gallium nitride and it's alloy Aluminium Gallium Nitride. These heterostructures due to the combined effect of spontaneous and piezoelectric effect can form a high density and a high mobility electron gas channel without any intentional doping. This high density electron gas makes these heterostructures ideal to be used as sensors. Gallium Nitride is also chemically very stable. Detection of biomolecules in a fast and reliable manner is very important in the areas of food safety and medical research. For biomolecular detection it is paramount to have a robust binding of the probes on the sensor surface. Therefore, in this dissertation, the fabrication and application of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors for the detection of DNA and Organophosphate hydrolase enzyme is discussed. In order to use these AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors capable of working in a liquid environment photodefinable polydimethyl-siloxane is used as an encapsulant. The immobilization conditions for a robust binding of thiolated DNA and the catalytic receptor enzyme organophosphate hydrolase on gold surfaces is developed with the help of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. DNA and OPH are detected by measuring the change in the drain current of the device as a function of time.

  12. Gallium (III) and indium (III) dithiolate complexes: Versatile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of classical and organometallic complexes of gallium and indium with dithiolate ligands, i.e., dithiocarboxylates, xanthates, dithiocarbamates, dithiophosphates, dithiophophinates and dithioarsenates, has been reviewed. Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural aspects of these complexes are described.

  13. Usefulness of gallium-67 citrate scanning in testicular seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willan, B.D.; Penney, H.; Castor, W.R.; McGowan, D.G.

    1987-10-01

    An analysis of 77 consecutive patients with a histologic diagnosis of seminoma testis, assessed and treated at the Cross Cancer Institute between 1977 and 1982, is presented. Ga-67 citrate was first used in the assessment of patients with malignant testicular tumors in 1973. Following three years of study that supported the observation of the gallium-avid nature of seminoma, gallium scans became routine in the initial staging assessment and were used also when recurrence was suspected. From 1977 through 1982, 72 patients with biopsy-proven seminoma testis were assessed initially for extent of disease by Ga-67 scanning. Comparison with intravenous pyelography and bipedal lymphography was possible for accuracy of tumor assessment. The scan sensitivity was 83%, and the specificity was 95%. During the same period, gallium was studied in nonseminomatous testicular tumors but the results were disappointing and its use was discontinued. The gallium-avid nature of seminoma testis may be useful in determining the extent of disease.

  14. Ellipsometric study of silicon nitride on gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Bu-Abbud, G. H.; Woollam, J. A.; Liu, D.; Chung, Y.; Langer, D.

    1982-01-01

    A method for optimizing the sensitivity of ellipsometric measurements for thin dielectric films on semiconductors is described in simple physical terms. The technique is demonstrated for the case of sputtered silicon nitride films on gallium arsenide.

  15. Multiple scaling power in liquid gallium under pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Renfeng; Wang, Luhong; Li, Liangliang; Yu, Tony; Zhao, Haiyan; Chapman, Karena W.; Rivers, Mark L.; Chupas, Peter J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Liu, Haozhe

    2017-06-01

    Generally, a single scaling exponent, Df, can characterize the fractal structures of metallic glasses according to the scaling power law. However, when the scaling power law is applied to liquid gallium upon compression, the results show multiple scaling exponents and the values are beyond 3 within the first four coordination spheres in real space, indicating that the power law fails to describe the fractal feature in liquid gallium. The increase in the first coordination number with pressure leads to the fact that first coordination spheres at different pressures are not similar to each other in a geometrical sense. This multiple scaling power behavior is confined within a correlation length of ξ ≈ 14–15 Å at applied pressure according to decay of G(r) in liquid gallium. Beyond this length the liquid gallium system could roughly be viewed as homogeneous, as indicated by the scaling exponent, Ds, which is close to 3 beyond the first four coordination spheres.

  16. Organo-gallium and indium complexes with dithiolate and oxo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of organo-gallium and indium complexes with dithiolate and internally functionalised oxo ligands has been explored. With 1,1-dithiolate ligands both classical and organometallic complexes of gallium and indium, [M(S ∩ S)3], [RM(S ∩ S)2] and [R2M(S ∩ S)] (where R = Me or Et; M = Ga or In; S ∩ S = RCS2, ...

  17. Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Chang; Li, Guan-Hua; Lin, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Ching-Wen; Wadekar, Paritosh; Chen, Quark Yung-Sung; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Tchernycheva, Maria; Julien, François Henri; Tu, Li-Wei

    2011-12-14

    Gallium nitride [GaN] nanorods grown on a Si(111) substrate at 720°C via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were studied by field-emission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence [CL]. The surface topography and optical properties of the GaN nanorod cluster and single GaN nanorod were measured and discussed. The defect-related CL spectra of GaN nanorods and their dependence on temperature were investigated. The CL spectra along the length of the individual GaN nanorod were also studied. The results reveal that the 3.2-eV peak comes from the structural defect at the interface between the GaN nanorod and Si substrate. The surface state emission of the single GaN nanorod is stronger as the diameter of the GaN nanorod becomes smaller due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio.

  18. Surface magnetism of gallium arsenide nanofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huan; Yu, Jin; Guo, Wanlin

    2017-11-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is the most widely used second-generation semiconductor with a direct band gap, and it is being increasingly used as nanofilms. However, the magnetic properties of GaAs nanofilms have never been studied. Here we find by comprehensive density-functional-theory calculations that GaAs nanofilms cleaved along the 〈111 〉 and 〈100 〉 directions become intrinsically metallic films with strong surface magnetism and the magnetoelectric effect. Surface magnetism and electrical conductivity are realized via a combined effect of charge transfer induced by spontaneous electric polarization through the film thickness and spin-polarized surface states. The surface magnetism of 〈111 〉 nanofilms can be significantly and linearly tuned by a vertically applied electric field, endowing the nanofilms with unexpectedly high magnetoelectric coefficients, which are tens of times higher than those of ferromagnetic metals and transition-metal oxides.

  19. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Gallium isotope fractionation during Ga adsorption on calcite and goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Saldi, Giuseppe D.; Chen, JiuBin; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino; Birck, Jean-Louis; Liu, Yujie; Schott, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Gallium (Ga) isotopic fractionation during its adsorption on calcite and goethite was investigated at 20 °C as a function of the solution pH, Ga aqueous concentration and speciation, and the solid to solution ratio. In all experiments Ga was found to be enriched in light isotopes at the solid surface with isotope fractionation △71Gasolid-solution up to -1.27‰ and -0.89‰ for calcite and goethite, respectively. Comparison of Ga isotopic data of this study with predictions for 'closed system' equilibrium and 'Rayleigh fractionation' models indicates that the experimental data are consistent with a 'closed system' equilibrium exchange between the fluid and the solid. The results of this study can be interpreted based on Ga aqueous speciation and the structure of Ga complexes formed at the solid surfaces. For calcite, Ga isotope fractionation is mainly triggered by increased Ga coordination and Ga-O bond length, which vary respectively from 4 and 1.84 Å in Ga(OH)4- to 6 and 1.94 Å in the >Ca-O-GaOH(OH2)4+ surface complex. For goethite, despite the formation of Ga hexa-coordinated >FeOGa(OH)20 surface complexes (Ga-O distances of 1.96-1.98 Å) both at acid and alkaline pH, a similar extent of isotope fractionation was found at acid and alkaline pH, suggesting that Ga(OH)4- is preferentially adsorbed on goethite for all investigated pH conditions. In addition, the observed decrease of Ga isotope fractionation magnitude observed with increasing Ga surface coverage for both calcite and goethite is likely related to the formation of Ga surface polymers and/or hydroxides with reduced Ga-O distances. This first study of Ga isotope fractionation during solid-fluid interactions suggests that the adsorption of Ga by oxides, carbonates or clay minerals could yield significant Ga isotope fractionation between secondary minerals and surficial fluids including seawater. Ga isotopes thus should help to better characterize the surficial biogeochemical cycles of gallium and its

  1. Bulk neutrinos as an alternative cause of the gallium and reactor anti-neutrino anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, P. A. N.; Nunokawa, H.; Pereira dos Santos, F. A.; Funchal, R. Zukanovich

    2012-04-01

    We consider an alternative explanation for the deficit of νe in Ga solar neutrino calibration experiments and of the ν¯e in short-baseline reactor experiments by a model where neutrinos can oscillate into sterile Kaluza-Klein modes that can propagate in compactified submicrometer flat extra dimensions. We have analyzed the results of the gallium radioactive source experiments and 19 reactor experiments with baseline shorter than 100 m, and showed that these data can be fit into this scenario. The values of the lightest neutrino mass and of the size of the largest extra dimension that are compatible with these experiments are mostly not excluded by other neutrino oscillation experiments.

  2. Gallium Potentiates the Antibacterial Effect of Gentamicin against Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Helena; Sjöstedt, Anders

    2015-10-26

    The reasons why aminoglycosides are bactericidal have not been not fully elucidated, and evidence indicates that the cidal effects are at least partly dependent on iron. We demonstrate that availability of iron markedly affects the susceptibility of the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 to the aminoglycoside gentamicin. Specifically, the intracellular depots of iron were inversely correlated to gentamicin susceptibility, whereas the extracellular iron concentrations were directly correlated to the susceptibility. Further proof of the intimate link between iron availability and antibiotic susceptibility were the findings that a ΔfslA mutant, which is defective for siderophore-dependent uptake of ferric iron, showed enhanced gentamicin susceptibility and that a ΔfeoB mutant, which is defective for uptake of ferrous iron, displayed complete growth arrest in the presence of gentamicin. Based on the aforementioned findings, it was hypothesized that gallium could potentiate the effect of gentamicin, since gallium is sequestered by iron uptake systems. The ferrozine assay demonstrated that the presence of gallium inhibited >70% of the iron uptake. Addition of gentamicin and/or gallium to infected bone marrow-derived macrophages showed that both 100 μM gallium and 10 μg/ml of gentamicin inhibited intracellular growth of SCHU S4 and that the combined treatment acted synergistically. Moreover, treatment of F. tularensis-infected mice with gentamicin and gallium showed an additive effect. Collectively, the data demonstrate that SCHU S4 is dependent on iron to minimize the effects of gentamicin and that gallium, by inhibiting the iron uptake, potentiates the bactericidal effect of gentamicin in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, B.

    1996-07-01

    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  4. Study of the stability of the gallium isotopes beyond the N = 50 neutron shell closure

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the stability of the nuclear structure beyond N = 50 and Z = 28 with beams of neutron-rich gallium isotopes at the CRIS experiment at ISOLDE. The study of their hyperne structure and isotope shift will provide spins, magnetic dipole moments, electric quadrupole moments and changes in the mean-square charge radii. The $\\beta$-decay of $^{80}$Ga will be unambiguously measured using the technique of Laser Assisted Nuclear Decay Spectroscopy (LANDS). The half-lives of the very neutron-rich isotopes with N > 54 will be measured for their impact on the astrophysical ${r}$-process.

  5. Analysis on the Performance of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) Based Photovoltaic Thermal

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkepli Afzam; Yong Lim Wei; Taib Mohd Yusof; Azran Zafri; Basrawi Firdaus

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the efficiency improvement of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) Photovoltaic (PV) and also solar thermal collector. Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) can improve overall efficiency for PV and also solve the problem of limited roof space at urban area. Objective of this study is to clarify the effect of mass flow rate on the efficiency of the PV/T system. A CIGS solar cell is used with rated output power 65 W and 1.18 m2 of area. 4 set of experiments were carried out, which...

  6. Gallium based low-interaction anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Wayne A.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

  7. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  8. Caries inhibition around gallium alloy by fluoride releasing resin cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasman Nur'alim

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride-releasing materials inhibit secondary caries. Gallium alloy has been developed to replace mercury-based amalgam. The purpose of this study was to test a new F releasing resin-ionomer cement for inhibition of 24 extracted human premolars. The experimental cavity (ARG were filled using etching, priming, and F releasing resin-ionomer cement (All-bond 2 & Presinomer, Bisco followed by condensation of gallium alloy (G Tokuriki Honten, Japan. Three different controls were used: gallium alloy only (G, no etching, Presinomer, gallium alloy (RG, etching, priming, non-F cement (All-bond C&B, Bisco and gallium alloy (ACG The teeth were thermocycled 500x, stored in humidor 28 days, then exposed to artificial caries for 21 days using a strep. mutans culture. Next, they were sectioned and examined by microradiography. The microradiographs were examined for the presence of a caries inhibition zone near the restoration and classified as strongly inhibited (SI, moderately inhibited (MI or not inhibited (N at the enamel and dentin wall. A Chi-square analysis showed that G is different from ARG, ACG is different from ARG, and RG is different from ACG (p<0.05. The results show that the fluoride-releasing resin-ionomer cement provided caries inhibition with or without etching and bonding and that etching and bonding alone is not as effective as fluoride release.

  9. Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, P. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom) and Nano-Electronics Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.mistry@surrey.ac.uk; Gomez-Morilla, I. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Smith, R.C. [Nano-Electronics Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thomson, D. [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Grime, G.W. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Webb, R.P. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Gwilliam, R. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jeynes, C. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Cansell, A. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Merchant, M. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kirkby, K.J. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Proton beam writing (PBW) is a direct write technique that employs a focused MeV proton beam which is scanned in a pre-determined pattern over a target material which is subsequently electrochemically etched or chemically developed. By changing the energy of the protons the range of the protons can be changed. The ultimate depth of the structure is determined by the range of the protons in the material and this allows structures to be formed to different depths. PBW has been successfully employed on etchable glasses, polymers and semiconductor materials such as silicon (Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). This study reports on PBW in p-type GaAs and compares experimental results with computer simulations using the Atlas (copy right) semiconductor device package from SILVACO. It has already been proven that hole transport is required for the electrochemical etching of GaAs using Tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-m-benzenedisulfonic acid, di-sodium salt). PBW in GaAs results in carrier removal in the irradiated regions and consequently minimal hole transport (in these regions) during electrochemical etching. As a result the irradiated regions are significantly more etch resistant than the non-irradiated regions. This allows high aspect ratio structures to be formed.

  10. Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of gallium arsenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomhard, Ernst M; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Schenk, Hermann; Williams, Gary M; Cohen, Samuel M

    2013-05-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is an important semiconductor material. In 2-year inhalation studies, GaAs increased the incidence of lung tumors in female rats, but not in male rats or male and female mice. Alveolar proteinosis followed by chronic active inflammation was the predominant non-neoplastic pulmonary findings. IARC classified GaAs as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) based on the assumption that As and Ga ions are bioavailable. The European Chemical Agency Risk Assessment Committee concluded that GaAs should be classified into Carcinogenicity Category 1B (presumed to have carcinogenic potential for humans; ECHA). We evaluate whether these classifications are justified. Physico-chemical properties of GaAs particles and the degree of mechanical treatment are critical in this evaluation. The available data on mode of action (MOA), genotoxicity and bioavailability do not support the contribution of As or Ga ions to the lung tumors in female rats. Most toxicological studies utilized small particles produced by strong mechanical treatment, destroying the crystalline structure. The resulting amorphous GaAs is not relevant to crystalline GaAs at production and processing sites. The likely tumorigenic MOA is lung toxicity related to particulate-induced inflammation and increased proliferation. It is concluded that there is no evidence for a primary carcinogenic effect of GaAs.

  11. Gallium nitride based logpile photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Li, Qiming; Lee, Yun-Ju; Figiel, Jeffrey J; Wang, George T; Fischer, Arthur J

    2011-11-09

    We demonstrate a nine-layer logpile three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) composed of single crystalline gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods, ∼100 nm in size with lattice constants of 260, 280, and 300 nm with photonic band gap in the visible region. This unique GaN structure is created through a combined approach of a layer-by-layer template fabrication technique and selective metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). These GaN 3DPC exhibit a stacking direction band gap characterized by strong optical reflectance between 380 and 500 nm. By introducing a "line-defect" cavity in the fifth (middle) layer of the 3DPC, a localized transmission mode with a quality factor of 25-30 is also observed within the photonic band gap. The realization of a group III nitride 3DPC with uniform features and a band gap at wavelengths in the visible region is an important step toward realizing complete control of the electromagnetic environment for group III nitride based optoelectronic devices.

  12. Simple method for cleaning gallium nitride (0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, Francisco; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, P.; Spicer, W. E.; Pease, R. F. W.

    2002-09-01

    Achieving clean surfaces is a major and challenging requirement for the study of surfaces and surface reactions. We describe the use of synchrotron radiation (SR) to probe the electronic structure of the gallium nitride (GaN) (0001) surface that has undergone wet chemical cleaning sequences followed by heating. By using SR in the range of 200-1000 eV the core levels of Ga, N, O, and C are monitored. Immersion in a 4:1 solution of sulfuric acid (51%) to hydrogen peroxide (30%) followed by a 700 degC (200 degC below decomposition temperature) vacuum anneal (less-than-or-equal10-10 Torr) results in a reduction of carbon and oxygen coverage to a few percent of a monolayer. This suggests a weakly bound oxide of carbon being chemisorbed to the GaN surface after the sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide treatment and it is removed by the heating. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

  13. Native gallium adatoms discovered on atomically-smooth gallium nitride surfaces at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Khan; Foley, Andrew; Smith, Arthur R

    2015-03-11

    In advanced compound semiconductor devices, such as in quantum dot and quantum well systems, detailed atomic configurations at the growth surfaces are vital in determining the structural and electronic properties. Therefore, it is important to investigate the surface reconstructions in order to make further technological advancements. Usually, conventional semiconductor surfaces (e.g., arsenides, phosphides, and antimonides) are highly reactive due to the existence of a high density of group V (anion) surface dangling bonds. However, in the case of nitrides, group III rich growth conditions in molecular beam epitaxy are usually preferred leading to group III (Ga)-rich surfaces. Here, we use low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy to reveal a uniform distribution of native gallium adatoms with a density of 0.3%-0.5% of a monolayer on the clean, as-grown surface of nitrogen polar GaN(0001̅) having the centered 6 × 12 reconstruction. Unseen at room temperature, these Ga adatoms are strongly bound to the surface but move with an extremely low surface diffusion barrier and a high density saturation coverage in thermodynamic equilibrium with Ga droplets. Furthermore, the Ga adatoms reveal an intrinsic surface chirality and an asymmetric site occupation. These observations can have important impacts in the understanding of gallium nitride surfaces.

  14. Competitive segregation of gallium and indium at heterophase Cu-MnO interfaces studied with transmission electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mogck, S.; Kooi, B.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the possible segregation of indium and gallium and competitive segregation of gallium and indium at atomically flat parallel {111}-oriented Cu-MnO interfaces. The segregation of gallium at Cu-MnO interfaces after introduction of gallium in the copper matrix of internally

  15. Antibacterial effect of gallium and silver on Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with gallium-silver-phosphate-based glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Higham, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses were evaluated for antibacterial effect on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a leading cause of opportunistic infections. The glasses were produced by conventional melt quenching methods at 1100°C for 1 h. Glass degradation studies were conducted by weight loss method. Disc diffusion assay and cell viability assay displayed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.0005) effect on P. aeruginosa growth which increased with decreasing calcium content in the glasses. The gallium ion release rates (1.83, 0.69 and 0.48 ppm·h(-1)) and silver ion release rates (2.97, 2.84 and 2.47 ppm·h(-1)) were found to account for this variation. Constant depth film fermentor was used to evaluate the anti-biofilm properties of the glasses. Both gallium and silver in the glass contributed to biofilm growth inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa (up to 2.68 reduction in log 10 values of the viable counts compared with controls). The glasses were found to deliver gallium and silver in a controlled way and exerted cumulative antibacterial action on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. The antibacterial, especially anti-biofilm, properties of the gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses make them a potential candidate to combat infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  16. Thoracic gallium uptake in patients with lymphomatoid granulomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, R.; Moore, W.H.; Glasser, L.M.; Dhekne, R.D.; Long, S.E.

    1988-12-01

    Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LG) is a rare condition with histological similarities to Wegener's granulomatosis and malignant lymphoma. Characteristically there is an angiocentric, angiodestructive lymphoreticular cell infiltrate. The lungs are usually affected, and, less frequently, the skin, nervous system, kidney, and bowel are involved. The prognosis is poor and frank lymphoma develops, in some cases terminally. The usual radiological appearance of the lungs consists of bilateral nodular lower zone opacities. The authors report two patients (siblings) with LG, and their gallium scans are presented. In each case there was a significant accumulation of gallium in the lungs at times of clinically active disease. The limited role of gallium imaging in this disease is discussed.

  17. Photoconductive Properties of Brush Plated Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Subiramaniyam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS films were deposited for the first time by the brush electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction studies indicated the formation of single phase chalcopyrite CIGS. Lattice parameters, dislocation density, and strain were calculated. Band gap of the films increased from 1.12 eV to 1.63 eV as the gallium concentration increased. Room temperature transport parameters of the films, namely, resistivity increased from 0.10 ohm cm to 12 ohm cm, mobility decreased from 125 cm2V−1s−1 to 20.9 cm2V−1s−1, and carrier concentration decreased from 4.99 × 1017 cm−3 to 2.49 × 1016 cm−3 as the gallium concentration increased. Photosensitivity of the films increased linearly with intensity of illumination and with increase of applied voltage.

  18. Gallium scintigraphy in Hansen's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, F.J.H.N. (Hopital Henri-Mondor, 75 - Paris (France). Service de Biophysique de Medecine Nucleaire Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Centro de Medicina Nuclear); Araejo, E.B.; Camargo, E.E. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Centro de Medicina Nuclear); Tedesco-Marchesi, L.C.M.; Rivitti, M.C.M. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Servicio de Dermatologia); Bouladour, H.; Galle, P. (Hopital Henri-Mondor, 75 - Paris (France). Service de Biophysique de Medecine Nucleaire)

    1991-11-01

    Gallium 67 imaging was used in 12 patients with documented Hansen's disease undergoing treatment or not in an attempt to determine the pattern of the disease. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in all patients. The Mitsuda reaction was seen in all patients. Specific nuclear studies were performed when needed to evaluate particular organs better. Gallium 67 images show homogeneous, diffuse and moderate accumulation over the entire skin surface (except for the face) of untreated patients with multibacillary disease. The face skin in these cases presented homogeneous, diffuse but very marked uptake of gallium. Internal organ involvement was variable. There was a very good correlation among clinical, scintigraphical, immunological and histopathological data. The pattern of the body skin ('skin outlining') and face skin ('beard distribution') may be distinct for untreated patients with multibacillary leprosy. (orig.).

  19. Extremely-efficient, miniaturized, long-lived alpha-voltaic power source using liquid gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Patel, Jagdishbhai (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A power source converts .alpha.-particle energy to electricity for use in electrical systems. Liquid gallium or other liquid medium is subjected to .alpha.-particle emissions. Electrons are freed by collision from neutral gallium atoms to provide gallium ions. The electrons migrate to a cathode while the gallium ions migrate to an anode. A current and/or voltage difference then arises between the cathode and anode because of the work function difference of the cathode and anode. Gallium atoms are regenerated by the receiving of electrons from the anode enabling the generation of additional electrons from additional .alpha.-particle collisions.

  20. Laser spectroscopy of gallium isotopes using the ISCOOL RFQ cooler

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Kowalska, M; Ware, T; Procter, T J

    2007-01-01

    We propose to study the radioisotopes of gallium (Z=31) by collinear laser spectroscopy using the ISCOOL RFQ ion cooler. The proposed measurements on $^{62-83}$Ga will span both neutron-deficient and neutron-rich isotopes. Of key interest is the suggested development of a proton-skin in the neutron-deficient isotopes. The isotope shifts measured by laser spectroscopy will be uniquely sensitive to this feature. The measurements will also provide a wealth of new information on the gallium nuclear spins, static moments and nuclear charge radii.

  1. Renal lymphoma imaged by ultrasound and Gallium-67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirkhoda, A.; Staab, E.V.; Mittelstaedt, C.A.

    1980-10-01

    Lymphomatous involvement of the kidneys, usually a secondary process, may be seen as single or multiple sonolucent or weakly echogenic masses on ultrasound. The majority of these patients have a known diagnosis of lymphoma and are being evaluated for change in nodal mass size, flank pain, and/or deteriorating renal function. Occasionally, these masses are discovered on an excretory urogram and are further investigated with ultrasound. The ultrasound findings may be confirmed with gallium scanning. Five such cases are presented along with the ultrasonic and gallium scan findings.

  2. Pseudomembranous colitis: a possible role for Gallium scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, E.L.; Charap, M.; Sanger, J.J.; Tiu, S.S.

    1983-10-01

    A case of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis is presented in which the Gallium scan was the first diagnostic modality to alert the clinicians to the existence of an inflammatory bowel process. The mechanism of localization of the radiopharmaceutical in inflammatory bowel disease is discussed. Although colonoscopy is far more specific and should be the first-line diagnostic tool used in assessing the presence of pseudomembranous colitis, Gallium scanning may have a role in the follow-up of treatment and in cases of relapse.

  3. Dehydrogenation of propane in the presence of carbon dioxide over chromium and gallium oxides catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Gaidai, N.A.; Nekrasov, N.V.; Menshova, M.V.; Kunusova, R.M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Effective chromium and gallium oxides supported catalysts were prepared and tested in longduration experiments for propane dehydrogenation in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The optimal concentrations of active metals were found. It was shown that the activity, selectivity and stability of chromium oxides catalysts were higher than these parameters for gallium ones. Mechanism of propane oxidative dehydrogenation was studied over both catalysts using unstationary and spectroscopic methods. The employment of these methods allowed to establish the differences in process mechanism. It was shown that surface hydroxides took participation in propene formation over Cr-catalysts and hydrides - over Ga-ones. Propane and carbon dioxide participated in the reaction from the adsorbed state over both catalysts but they were differed by the adsorption capacity of the reaction components: CO2 was tied more firmly than C{sub 3}H{sub 6} over both catalysts, CO{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} were tied more strongly with Cr-catalysts than with Ga-ones. It was shown that CO{sub 2} took active participation in reverse watergas shift reaction and in oxidation of catalyst surface over chromium oxides catalysts. The main role of CO{sub 2} in propane dehydrogenation over gallium catalysts consisted in a decrease of coke formation. Step-schemes of propene and cracking products formation were proposed on the basis of literature and obtained data: via the redox mechanism over Cr-catalysts and through a heterolytic dissociation reaction pathway over Ga-ones. (orig.)

  4. Construction of an electrode modified with gallium(III) for voltammetric detection of ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Okusawa, Makoto; Takano, Yusaku; Kadoya, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Electrodes modified with gallium(III) complexes were constructed to detect ovalbumin (OVA). For immobilization of a gallium(III)-nitrilotriacetate (NTA) complex, the electrode was first covered with collagen film. After the amino groups of the film had reacted with isothiocyanobenzyl-NTA, the gallium(III) was then able to combine with the NTA moieties. Another design featured an electrode cast with a gallium(III)-acetylacetonate (AA) complex. The amount of gallium(III) in the NTA complex was equivalent to one-quarter of the gallium(III) that could be utilized from an AA complex. However, the calibration curves of OVA using gallium(III)-NTA and gallium(III)-AA complexes were linear in the ranges of 7.0 × 10(-11) - 3.0 × 10(-9) M and 5.0 × 10(-10) - 8.0 × 10(-9) M, respectively. The gallium(III) on the electrode with NTA complex had high flexibility due to the existence of a spacer between the NTA and the collagen film, and, therefore, the reactivity of the gallium(III) to OVA was superior to that of the gallium(III)-AA complex with no spacer.

  5. Gallium-based anti-infectives: targeting microbial iron-uptake mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelson, Andrew B; Carnevali, Maia; Truong-Le, Vu

    2013-10-01

    Microbes have evolved elaborate iron-acquisition systems to sequester iron from the host environment using siderophores and heme uptake systems. Gallium(III) is structurally similar to iron(III), except that it cannot be reduced under physiological conditions, therefore gallium has the potential to serve as an iron analog, and thus an anti-microbial. Because Ga(III) can bind to virtually any complex that binds Fe(III), simple gallium salts as well as more complex siderophores and hemes are potential carriers to deliver Ga(III) to the microbes. These gallium complexes represent a new class of anti-infectives that is different in mechanism of action from conventional antibiotics. Simple gallium salts such as gallium nitrate, maltolate, and simple gallium siderophore complexes such as gallium citrate have shown good antibacterial activities. The most studied complex has been gallium citrate, which exhibits broad activity against many Gram negative bacteria at ∼1-5μg/ml MICs, strong biofilm activity, low drug resistance, and efficacy in vivo. Using the structural features of specific siderophore and heme made by pathogenic bacteria and fungi, researchers have begun to evaluate new gallium complexes to target key pathogens. This review will summarize potential iron-acquisition system targets and recent research on gallium-based anti-infectives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovery of gallium and arsenic from gallium arsenide waste in the electronics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ting [Doctoral Program, Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), Douliou, Yunlin (China); Tsai, Lung-Chang; Shu, Chi-Min [Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, NYUST, Douliou, Yunlin (China); Tsai, Fang-Chang [Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan (China)

    2012-05-15

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) has both high saturated electron velocity and high electron mobility, making it useful as a semiconductor material in a variety of applications, including light-emitting diodes (LEDs), integrated circuits (ICs), and microwave appliances. A side effect of the use of gallium (Ga) is the production of a relatively large amount of hazardous waste. This study aimed at the recovery of Ga and arsenic (As) from GaAs waste using hydrometallurgical methods involving leaching and coagulation and a dry annealing process that involves annealing, vacuum separation, and sublimation by heating. Our research has shown that GaAs can be leached using nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) to obtain 100% Ga and As with a leaching solution at pH 0.1, with subsequent adjustment of the leaching solution to pH 3 with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Another method used a leaching solution at pH 2, then adjusting to pH 11 using NaOH. Ferric hydroxide (FeO(OH)) was added at 90 C after NaOH was added to the leaching solution. At pH 2 and 11, 55.5 and 21.9% of the As could be removed from the hazardous waste, respectively. The Ga could also be precipitated. When GaAs powder was heated to 1000 C over 3 h, 100% As removal was achieved, and 92.6% of the Ga was removed by formation of 99.9% gallium trioxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Arsenic was vaporized when the temperature was elevated to 1000 C, allowing arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to condense with 99.2% purity. The Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder produced was then dissolved and electrolyzed, allowing for 95.9% recovery of Ga with a purity of 99.9%. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Eric D.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.

  8. Optical and Micro-Structural Characterization of MBE Grown Indium Gallium Nitride Polar Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    El Afandy, Rami

    2011-07-07

    Gallium nitride and related materials have ushered in scientific and technological breakthrough for lighting, mass data storage and high power electronic applications. These III-nitride materials have found their niche in blue light emitting diodes and blue laser diodes. Despite the current development, there are still technological problems that still impede the performance of such devices. Three-dimensional nanostructures are proposed to improve the electrical and thermal properties of III-nitride optical devices. This thesis consolidates the characterization results and unveils the unique physical properties of polar indium gallium nitride quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique. In this thesis, a theoretical overview of the physical, structural and optical properties of polar III-nitrides quantum dots will be presented. Particular emphasis will be given to properties that distinguish truncated-pyramidal III-nitride quantum dots from other III-V semiconductor based quantum dots. The optical properties of indium gallium nitride quantum dots are mainly dominated by large polarization fields, as well as quantum confinement effects. Hence, the experimental investigations for such quantum dots require performing bandgap calculations taking into account the internal strain fields, polarization fields and confinement effects. The experiments conducted in this investigation involved the transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. The analysis of the temperature dependence and excitation power dependence of the PL spectra sheds light on the carrier dynamics within the quantum dots, and its underlying wetting layer. A further analysis shows that indium gallium nitride quantum dots through three-dimensional confinements are able to prevent the electronic carriers from getting thermalized into defects which grants III-nitrides quantum dot based light emitting diodes superior thermally induced optical

  9. Electrooptic Waveguide Directional Coupler Modulator in Aluminum Gallium Arsenide-Gallium Arsenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mujibun Nisa

    A novel optical waveguide intensity modulator in aluminum gallium arsenide and gallium arsenide material system is modeled, designed, and experimentally demonstrated at 0.83 μm wavelength. The modulator utilizes the linear electrooptic effect in a coupled waveguide structure to achieve high extinction ratio at low drive voltage. The device structure consists of a differentially -etched ridge directional coupler, where the ridge height in the gap is smaller that that of the outer sides. The effective index and semivectorial finite difference modeling techniques are developed to analyze the single ridge guides and directional coupler structures. The mode structure results from the two models are compared and the limitations of the effective index method are determined. The differential -etch design is employed to reduce the length as well as the drive voltage of the modulator. A modulation voltage of 2 volts for a 3.5-mm-long device is achieved, which is the lowest reported in literature. These results are compared with those obtained from the simplified analytical expressions for conventional couplers, and higher performance expected from the differential-etch design is verified. The modulator extinction ratio is measured to be 13 dB at 2 volts. The measured optical propagation loss of approximately 3.4 dB/cm for the modulator is speculated to be primarily due to the surface morphology of the epitaxially-grown material, and the light scattering from rough ridge walls produced during the anisotropic dry etching process. The high microwave loss of 15 dB/cm calculated for the modulator electrode design suggests a trade-off between the modulation voltage and the bandwidth, which is expected to be limited to 500 MHz. The measurement of the modulator frequency response up to 100 KHz is presented, because of the test limitations at higher frequencies due to the weak modulated intensity signals.

  10. Gallium-Nitride-Based Light-Emitting Diodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 7. Gallium-Nitride-Based Light-Emitting Diodes: 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics. Kota V R M Murali Vinayak Bharat Naik Deepanjan Datta. General Article Volume 20 Issue 7 July 2015 pp 605-616 ...

  11. Targeting Gallium to Cancer Cells through the Folate Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerissa Viola-Villegas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of gallium(III compounds as anti-cancer agents for both treatment and diagnosis is a rapidly developing field of research. Problems remain in exploring the full potential of gallium(III as a safe and successful therapeutic agent or as an imaging agent. One of the major issues is that gallium(III compounds have little tropism for cancer cells. We have combined the targeting properties of folic acid (FA with long chain liquid polymer poly(ethylene glycol (PEG 'spacers’. This FA-PEG unit has been coupled to the gallium coordination complex of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo-dodecane-N, N′, N′, N′′-tetraacetic acid (DOTA through amide linkages for delivery into target cells overexpressing the folate receptor (FR. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were conducted against a multi-drug resistant ovarian cell line (A2780/AD that overexpresses the FR and contrasted against a FR free Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line. Results are rationalized taking into account stability studies conducted in RPMI 1640 media and HEPES buffer at pH 7.4.

  12. Gallium scintigraphy in the diagnosis and total lymphoid irradiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stranded DNA, antinuclear factor, rheumatoid factor, anticardiolipin ... superimposed uptake of central bony structures sUG:h as the vertebrae and ... Clinical and angio-. TA. Evidence of. Initial. Gallium scan. Surgical. Other management. cF. ;: No, origin. Sex presentation graphic features type tuberculosis. ESR pre TU.

  13. Discovery of Gallium, Germanium, Lutetium, and Hafnium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, J L

    2011-01-01

    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  14. Targeting Gallium to Cancer Cells through the Folate Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerissa Viola-Villegas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of gallium(III compounds as anti-cancer agents for both treatment and diagnosis is a rapidly developing field of research. Problems remain in exploring the full potential of gallium(III as a safe and successful therapeutic agent or as an imaging agent. One of the major issues is that gallium(III compounds have little tropism for cancer cells. We have combined the targeting properties of folic acid (FA with long chain liquid polymer poly(ethylene glycol (PEG ‘spacers’. This FA-PEG unit has been coupled to the gallium coordination complex of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo-dodecane-N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetraacetic acid (DOTA through amide linkages for delivery into target cells overexpressing the folate receptor (FR. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were conducted against a multi-drug resistant ovarian cell line (A2780/AD that overexpresses the FR and contrasted against a FR free Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line. Results are rationalized taking into account stability studies conducted in RPMI 1640 media and HEPES buffer at pH 7.4.

  15. Isolation and characterization of gallium resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Contreras, R; Lira-Silva, E; Jasso-Chávez, R; Hernández-González, I.L.; Maeda, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Boogerd, F.C.; Sheng, L; Wood, TK; Moreno-Sánchez, R

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 cells resistant to the novel antimicrobial gallium nitrate (Ga) were developed using transposon mutagenesis and by selecting spontaneous mutants. The mutants showing the highest growth in the presence of Ga were selected for further characterization. These mutants showed

  16. Electrical and optical properties of silicon-doped gallium nitride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 1. Electrical and optical properties of silicon-doped gallium nitride polycrystalline films. S R Bhattacharyya A K Pal. Thin Films Volume ... Electrical, optical and microstructural properties were studied for these films. It was observed that films deposited at room ...

  17. Biocompatible nano-gallium/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite with antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtjak, Mario; Vukomanović, Marija; Kramer, Lovro; Suvorov, Danilo

    2016-11-01

    Intensive research in the area of medical nanotechnology, especially to cope with the bacterial resistance against conventional antibiotics, has shown strong antimicrobial action of metallic and metal-oxide nanomaterials towards a wide variety of bacteria. However, the important remaining problem is that nanomaterials with highest antibacterial activity generally express also a high level of cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Here we present gallium nanoparticles as a new solution to this problem. We developed a nanocomposite from bioactive hydroxyapatite nanorods (84 wt %) and antibacterial nanospheres of elemental gallium (16 wt %) with mode diameter of 22 ± 11 nm. In direct comparison, such nanocomposite with gallium nanoparticles exhibited better antibacterial properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and lower in-vitro cytotoxicity for human lung fibroblasts IMR-90 and mouse fibroblasts L929 (efficient antibacterial action and low toxicity from 0.1 to 1 g/L) than the nanocomposite of hydroxyapatite and silver nanoparticles (efficient antibacterial action and low toxicity from 0.2 to 0.25 g/L). This is the first report of a biomaterial composite with gallium nanoparticles. The observed strong antibacterial properties and low cytotoxicity make the investigated material promising for the prevention of implantation-induced infections that are frequently caused by P. aeruginosa.

  18. Cellular uptake and anticancer activity of carboxylated gallium corroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribisko, Melanie; Palmer, Joshua; Grubbs, Robert H; Gray, Harry B; Termini, John; Lim, Punnajit

    2016-04-19

    We report derivatives of gallium(III) tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole, 1 [Ga(tpfc)], with either sulfonic (2) or carboxylic acids (3, 4) as macrocyclic ring substituents: the aminocaproate derivative, 3 [Ga(ACtpfc)], demonstrated high cytotoxic activity against all NCI60 cell lines derived from nine tumor types and confirmed very high toxicity against melanoma cells, specifically the LOX IMVI and SK-MEL-28 cell lines. The toxicities of 1, 2, 3, and 4 [Ga(3-ctpfc)] toward prostate (DU-145), melanoma (SK-MEL-28), breast (MDA-MB-231), and ovarian (OVCAR-3) cancer cells revealed a dependence on the ring substituent: IC50values ranged from 4.8 to >200 µM; and they correlated with the rates of uptake, extent of intracellular accumulation, and lipophilicity. Carboxylated corroles 3 and 4, which exhibited about 10-fold lower IC50values (gallium corroles by all human cancer cells that followed the order: 4 > 3 > 2 > 1 (intracellular accumulation of gallium corroles was fastest in melanoma cells). We conclude that carboxylated gallium corroles are promising chemotherapeutics with the advantage that they also can be used for tumor imaging.

  19. Growth and characterization of indium antimonide and gallium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of ampoule shapes and diameters on the crystallinity and homogeneity was studied. The grown crystals were characterized using X-ray analysis, EDAX, chemical etching, Hall effect and conductivity measurements. In the case of gallium antimonide, effect of dopants (Te and In) on transport and photoluminescence ...

  20. Growth and characterization of indium antimonide and gallium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Growth and characterization of indium antimonide and gallium antimonide crystals. N K UDAYASHANKAR* and H L BHAT†. Department of Physics, Karnataka Regional Engineering College, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar 574 157, India. †Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  1. Gallium Nitride MMICs for mm-Wave Power Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quay, R.; Maroldt, S.; Haupt, C.; Heijningen, M. van; Tessmann, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a Gallium Nitride MMIC technology for high-power amplifiers between 27 GHz and 101 GHz based on 150 nm- and 100 nm-gate technologies is presented. The GaN HEMT MMICs are designed using coplanar waveguide transmission-line-technology on 3-inch semi-insulating SiC substrates. The

  2. Abnormal gallium scintigraphy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, S.D.; White, D.A.; Stover-Pepe, D.E.; Caravelli, J.F.; Van Uitert, C.; Benua, R.S.

    1987-04-01

    A patient with medulloblastoma of the cerebellum developed dyspnea and hypoxemia. Pulmonary function tests showed decreased lung volume and diffusing capacity, while the chest radiographs initially showed only mild interstitial infiltrates. Repeated gallium scans showed diffuse lung uptake and diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis was made by open lung biopsy.

  3. Self- and zinc diffusion in gallium antimonide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicols, Samuel Piers [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The technological age has in large part been driven by the applications of semiconductors, and most notably by silicon. Our lives have been thoroughly changed by devices using the broad range of semiconductor technology developed over the past forty years. Much of the technological development has its foundation in research carried out on the different semiconductors whose properties can be exploited to make transistors, lasers, and many other devices. While the technological focus has largely been on silicon, many other semiconductor systems have applications in industry and offer formidable academic challenges. Diffusion studies belong to the most basic studies in semiconductors, important from both an application as well as research standpoint. Diffusion processes govern the junctions formed for device applications. As the device dimensions are decreased and the dopant concentrations increased, keeping pace with Moore's Law, a deeper understanding of diffusion is necessary to establish and maintain the sharp dopant profiles engineered for optimal device performance. From an academic viewpoint, diffusion in semiconductors allows for the study of point defects. Very few techniques exist which allow for the extraction of as much information of their properties. This study focuses on diffusion in the semiconductor gallium antimonide (GaSb). As will become clear, this compound semiconductor proves to be a powerful one for investigating both self- and foreign atom diffusion. While the results have direct applications for work on GaSb devices, the results should also be taken in the broader context of III-V semiconductors. Results here can be compared and contrasted to results in systems such as GaAs and even GaN, indicating trends within this common group of semiconductors. The results also have direct importance for ternary and quaternary semiconductor systems used in devices such as high speed InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBT

  4. Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High Temperature Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintalapalle, Ramana V. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were produced by sputter deposition by varying the substrate temperature (Ts) in a wide range (Ts=25-800 °C). The structural characteristics and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and spectrophotometric measurements. The effect of growth temperature is significant on the chemistry, crystal structure and morphology of Ga2O3 films. XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the Ga2O3 films grown at lower temperatures were amorphous while those grown at Ts≥500 oC were nanocrystalline. RBS measurements indicate the well-maintained stoichiometry of Ga2O3 films at Ts=300-800 °C. The electronic structure determination indicated that the nanocrystalline Ga2O3films exhibit a band gap of ~5 eV. Tungsten (W) incorporated Ga2O3 films were produced by co-sputter deposition. W-concentration was varied by the applied sputtering-power. No secondary phase formation was observed in W-incorporated Ga2O3 films. W-induced effects were significant on the structure and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films. The band gap of Ga2O3 films without W-incorporation was ~5 eV. Oxygen sensor characteristics evaluated using optical and electrical methods indicate a faster response in W-doped Ga2O3 films compared to intrinsic Ga2O3 films. The results demonstrate the applicability of both intrinsic and W-doped Ga-oxide films for oxygen sensor application at temperatures ≥700 °C.

  5. A Two-Dimensional Liquid Structure Explains the Elevated Melting Temperatures of Gallium Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Krista G; Gaston, Nicola

    2016-01-13

    Melting in finite-sized materials differs in two ways from the solid-liquid phase transition in bulk systems. First, there is an inherent scaling of the melting temperature below that of the bulk, known as melting point depression. Second, at small sizes changes in melting temperature become nonmonotonic and show a size-dependence that is sensitive to the structure of the particle. Melting temperatures that exceed those of the bulk material have been shown to occur for a very limited range of nanoclusters, including gallium, but have still never been ascribed a convincing physical explanation. Here, we analyze the structure of the liquid phase in gallium clusters based on molecular dynamics simulations that reproduce the greater-than-bulk melting behavior observed in experiments. We observe persistent nonspherical shape distortion indicating a stabilization of the surface, which invalidates the paradigm of melting point depression. This shape distortion suggests that the surface acts as a constraint on the liquid state that lowers its entropy relative to that of the bulk liquid and thus raises the melting temperature.

  6. Effect of gallium-arsenide laser, gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser and healing ointment on cutaneous wound healing in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Gonçalves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs, gallium-arsenide laser (GaAs and Dersani® healing ointment on skin wounds in Wistar rats. The parameters analyzed were: type I and III collagen fiber concentrations as well as the rate of wound closure. Five wounds, 12 mm in diameter, were made on the animals’ backs. The depth of the surgical incision was controlled by removing the epithelial tissue until the dorsal muscular fascia was exposed. The animals were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine via intraperitoneal injection. The rats were randomly divided into five groups of 6 animals each, according to the treatment received. Group 1 (L4: GaAs laser (4 J/cm²; group 2 (L30: GaAlAs laser (30 J/cm²; group 3 (L60: GaAlAs laser (60 J/cm²; group 4 (D: Dersani® ointment; group 5 (control: 0.9% saline. The applications were made daily over a period of 20 days. Tissue fragments were stained with picrosirius to distinguish type I collagen from type III collagen. The collagen fibers were photo-documented and analyzed using the Quantum software based on the primary color spectrum (red, yellow and blue. Significant results for wound closing rate were obtained for group 1 (L4, 7.37 mm/day. The highest concentration of type III collagen fibers was observed in group 2 (L30; 37.80 ± 7.10%, which differed from control (29.86 ± 5.15% on the 20th day of treatment. The type I collagen fibers of group 1 (L4; 2.67 ± 2.23% and group 2 (L30; 2.87 ± 2.40% differed significantly from control (1.77 ± 2.97% on the 20th day of the experiment.

  7. Synthesis of gallium nitride nanostructures by nitridation of electrochemically deposited gallium oxide on silicon substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Norizzawati Mohd; Yasui, Kanji; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2014-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by the nitridation of the electrochemically deposited gallium oxide (Ga2O3) through the utilization of a so-called ammoniating process. Ga2O3 nanostructures were firstly deposited on Si substrate by a simple two-terminal electrochemical technique at a constant current density of 0.15 A/cm(2) using a mixture of Ga2O3, HCl, NH4OH and H2O for 2 h. Then, the deposited Ga2O3 sample was ammoniated in a horizontal quartz tube single zone furnace at various ammoniating times and temperatures. The complete nitridation of Ga2O3 nanostructures at temperatures of 850°C and below was not observed even the ammoniating time was kept up to 45 min. After the ammoniating process at temperature of 900°C for 15 min, several prominent diffraction peaks correspond to hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) planes were detected, while no diffraction peak of Ga2O3 structure was detected, suggesting a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN. Thus, temperature seems to be a key parameter in a nitridation process where the deoxidization rate of Ga2O3 to generate gaseous Ga2O increase with temperature. The growth mechanism for the transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN was proposed and discussed. It was found that a complete transformation can not be realized without a complete deoxidization of Ga2O3. A significant change of morphological structures takes place after a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN where the original nanorod structures of Ga2O3 diminish, and a new nanowire-like GaN structures appear. These results show that the presented method seems to be promising in producing high-quality h-GaN nanostructures on Si.

  8. In vitro and in vivo biological activities of iron chelators and gallium nitrate against Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Léséleuc, Louis; Harris, Greg; KuoLee, Rhonda; Chen, Wangxue

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the ability of compounds interfering with iron metabolism to inhibit the growth of Acinetobacter baumannii. Iron restriction with transferrin or 2,2-bipyridyl significantly inhibited A. baumannii growth in vitro. Gallium nitrate alone was moderately effective at reducing A. baumannii growth but became bacteriostatic in the presence of serum or transferrin. More importantly, gallium nitrate treatment reduced lung bacterial burdens in mice. The use of gallium-based therapies shows promise for the control of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii.

  9. Cutaneous gallium uptake in patients with AIDS with mycobacterium avium-intracellulare septicemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwright, S.J.; Chapman, P.R.; Antico, V.F.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1988-07-01

    Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection.

  10. Gallium nitrate ameliorates type II collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hyeog; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Roh, Kug-Hwan; Seo, Su-Kil; Choi, Il-Whan; Park, Sae-Gwang; Lim, Jun-Goo; Lee, Won-Jin; Kim, Myoung-Hun; Cho, Kwang-rae; Kim, Young-Jae

    2014-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease. Gallium nitrate has been reported to reserve immunosuppressive activities. Therefore, we assessed the therapeutic effects of gallium nitrate in the mouse model of developed type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced by bovine type II collagen with Complete Freund's adjuvant. CIA mice were intraperitoneally treated from day 36 to day 49 after immunization with 3.5mg/kg/day, 7mg/kg/day gallium nitrate or vehicle. Gallium nitrate ameliorated the progression of mice with CIA. The clinical symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis did not progress after treatment with gallium nitrate. Gallium nitrate inhibited the increase of CD4(+) T cell populations (pGallium nitrate reduced the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ (pgallium nitrate inhibits the activation of NF-κB by blocking IκB degradation. These data suggest that gallium nitrate is a potential therapeutic agent for autoimmune inflammatory arthritis through its inhibition of the NF-κB pathway, and these results may help to elucidate gallium nitrate-mediated mechanisms of immunosuppression in patients with RA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the in vitro activity of gallium nitrate against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Fyock, Terry L; McAdams, Susan C; Boston, Raymond C; Whitlock, Robert H; Sweeney, Raymond W

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of various field isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) to gallium nitrate. 10 isolates of MAP, including 4 isolated from cattle, 2 isolated from bison, 1 isolated from an alpaca, and 3 isolated from humans. The in vitro susceptibility to gallium nitrate was tested by use of broth culture with detection of MAP growth by means of a nonradiometric automated detection method. For each MAP isolate, a series of 7 dilutions of gallium nitrate (concentrations ranging from 200 to 1,000 μM) were tested. Gallium nitrate was considered to have caused 90% and 99% inhibition of the MAP growth when the time to detection for culture of the MAP stock solution and a specific concentration of gallium nitrate was delayed and was similar to that obtained for culture of the MAP stock solution (without the addition of gallium nitrate) diluted 1:10 and 1:100, respectively. Gallium nitrate inhibited MAP growth in all 10 isolates. The susceptibility to gallium nitrate was variable among isolates, and all isolates of MAP were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the concentration that resulted in 90% inhibition ranged from Gallium nitrate had activity against all 10 isolates of MAP tested in vitro and could potentially be used as a prophylactic agent to aid in the control of MAP infections during the neonatal period.

  12. Gallium assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardo, I; Roessler, J; Frimmer, M; Fontcuberta i Morral, A [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Yu, L; Alet, Pierre Jean; Roca i Cabarrocas, P [LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Conesa-Boj, S; Estrade, S; Peiro, F; Arbiol, J; Morante, J R [EME/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departamento d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, MartIi Franques, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    Silicon nanowires have been grown with gallium as catalyst by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The morphology and crystalline structure has been studied by electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy as a function of growth temperature and catalyst thickness. We observe that the crystalline quality of the wires increases with the temperature at which they have been synthesized. The crystalline growth direction has been found to vary between <111> and <112>, depending on both the growth temperature and catalyst thickness. Gallium has been found at the end of the nanowires, as expected from the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. These results represent good progress towards finding alternative catalysts to gold for the synthesis of nanowires.

  13. Gallium scanning in sarcoidosis. [/sup 67/Ga tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israel, H.L.; Park, C.H.; Mansfield, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake of gallium-67 by pulmonary sarcoidosis was noted by Langhammer et al. in 1972 and by McKusick et al. in 1973. Heshiki et al. studied the application of this procedure in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis and concluded that although gallium-67 uptake in lungs and hilar regions correlated poorly with clinical activity, its measurement might prove useful in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis and in the measurement of response to therapy. We have undertaken to evaluate further the clinical usefulness of this technique. Thirty-six patients, 27 of whom had sarcoidosis, were given intravenous injections of 3 ml of commercially obtained (/sup 67/Ga) citrate. None were receiving corticosteroid therapy at the time of the initial study. Three days later simultaneous anterior and posterior scans of the thorax and the upper abdomen were performed in the supine position. 1 table.

  14. Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Atsumi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to α-rays but poor sensitivity to γ-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in a neutron-detection signal after α-rays were generated by the capture of neutrons by the B atoms. These results prove that BGaN is useful as a neutron-detecting semiconductor material.

  15. Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO32, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes.

  16. Ultra-low threshold gallium nitride photonic crystal nanobeam laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Nan, E-mail: nanniu@fas.harvard.edu; Woolf, Alexander; Wang, Danqing; Hu, Evelyn L. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Zhu, Tongtong; Oliver, Rachel A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Quan, Qimin [Rowland Institute at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    We report exceptionally low thresholds (9.1 μJ/cm{sup 2}) for room temperature lasing at ∼450 nm in optically pumped Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanobeam cavity structures. The nanobeam cavity geometry provides high theoretical Q (>100 000) with small modal volume, leading to a high spontaneous emission factor, β = 0.94. The active layer materials are Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) fragmented quantum wells (fQWs), a critical factor in achieving the low thresholds, which are an order-of-magnitude lower than obtainable with continuous QW active layers. We suggest that the extra confinement of photo-generated carriers for fQWs (compared to QWs) is responsible for the excellent performance.

  17. Gallium Nitride Direct Energy Conversion Betavoltaic Modeling and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Gallium Nitride Direct Energy Conversion Betavoltaic Modeling and Optimization William B. Ray II1, Marc S. Litz2, Johnny A. Russo Jr.2, Stephen B...betavoltaic; wide- bandgap betavoltaic; beta-photovoltaic; betaphotovoltaic; tritium; low power high energy battery; betavoltaic battery; Silvaco ATLAS...semiconductor device simulation; MCNPX Introduction A growing problem in power electronics is high energy density, long lasting power sources where the

  18. Trap influence on the performance of gallium arsenide radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Polenta, L. [Univ. of Bologna (Italy); Canali, C.; Nava, F. [Univ. of Modena (Italy); Papa, C. del [Univ. of Udine (Italy). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Ohmic contacts play an important role in the performance of LEC gallium arsenide particle detectors since they possibly control the injection of charge carriers. Contact characteristics have been compared and related to electrically active defects induced during contact preparation and to the detector efficiency. The electric field distribution has also been analyzed. Spectroscopic investigations have put into evidence that the contact fabrication process significantly influences the trap density whilst it does not change their signatures.

  19. Pyochelin Potentiates the Inhibitory Activity of Gallium on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Bonchi, Carlo; Minandri, Fabrizia; Imperi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Gallium (Ga) is an iron mimetic that has successfully been repurposed for antibacterial chemotherapy. To improve the antibacterial potency of Ga on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the effect of complexation with a variety of siderophores and synthetic chelators was tested. Ga complexed with the pyochelin siderophore (at a 1:2 ratio) was more efficient than Ga(NO3)3 in inhibiting P. aeruginosa growth, and its activity was dependent on increased Ga entrance into the cell through the pyochelin translocon. PMID:24957826

  20. Terahertz Cherenkov radiation from ultrafast magnetization in terbium gallium garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, S. D.; Mashkovich, E. A.; Tsarev, M. V.; Bakunov, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental observation of terahertz Cherenkov radiation from a moving magnetic moment produced in terbium gallium garnet by a circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulse via the inverse Faraday effect. Contrary to some existing theoretical predictions, the polarity of the observed radiation unambiguously demonstrates the paramagnetic, rather than diamagnetic, nature of the ultrafast inverse Faraday effect. From measurements of the radiation field, the Verdet constant in the subpicosecond regime is ˜3-10 times smaller than its table quasistatic value.

  1. Electrodeposition of photoactive 1D gallium selenide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gujar, T.P. [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: gujar_tp@yahoo.com; Shinde, V.R. [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Won [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); The Industrial Chemistry, University of Sang-Myung, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Kyung [Industrial Chemistry, University of Sang-Myung, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kwang-Deog [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Oh-Shim [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: joocat@kist.re.kr

    2008-12-30

    One-dimensional (1D) quantum dots of gallium selenide have been obtained by cathodic electrodeposition onto the tin doped indium oxide (ITO) glass substrates from aqueous acidic solutions at room temperature. Characterizations of the as-deposited films by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy confirm a selenium rich chemistry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that mixture of phases like GaSe/Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, and optical spectroscopy shows a direct optical band gap of 2.85 eV with intermediate transition energy at 1.9 eV. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the films show the one-dimensional quantum dots chains in grains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate dimorphous placement of nanoparticles. The elementals surface analysis of the core-shell nanoparticles determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) supported the EDX results and confirmed the chemical nature of the material. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies of gallium selenide films were carried out and the nanocrystalline gallium selenide films were found to be photoactive in aqueous sodium thiosulphate solution.

  2. Appraisal of lupus nephritis by renal imaging with gallium-67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakir, A.A.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Hryhorczuk, D.O.; Rhee, H.L.; Dunea, G.

    1985-08-01

    To assess the activity of lupus nephritis, 43 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were studied by gallium imaging. Delayed renal visualization 48 hours after the gallium injection, a positive result, was noted in 25 of 48 scans. Active renal disease was defined by the presence of hematuria, pyuria (10 or more red blood cells or white blood cells per high-power field), proteinuria (1 g or more per 24 hours), a rising serum creatinine level, or a recent biopsy specimen showing proliferative and/or necrotizing lesions involving more than 20 percent of glomeruli. Renal disease was active in 18 instances, inactive in 23, and undetermined in seven (a total of 48 scans). Sixteen of the 18 scans (89 percent) in patients with active renal disease showed positive findings, as compared with only four of 23 scans (17 percent) in patients with inactive renal disease (p less than 0.001). Patients with positive scanning results had a higher rate of hypertension (p = 0.02), nephrotic proteinuria (p = 0.01), and progressive renal failure (p = 0.02). Mild mesangial nephritis (World Health Organization classes I and II) was noted only in the patients with negative scanning results (p = 0.02) who, however, showed a higher incidence of severe extrarenal SLE (p = 0.04). It is concluded that gallium imaging is a useful tool in evaluating the activity of lupus nephritis.

  3. Evaluation of the male reproductive toxicity of gallium arsenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomhard, Ernst M; Cohen, Samuel M; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Williams, Gary M

    2012-10-01

    Gallium arsenide is an important semiconductor material marketed in the shape of wafers and thus is not hazardous to the end user. Exposure to GaAs particles may, however, occur during manufacture and processing. Potential hazards require evaluation. In 14-week inhalation studies with small GaAs particles, testicular effects have been reported in rats and mice. These effects occurred only in animals whose lungs showed marked inflammation and also had hematologic changes indicating anemia and hemolysis. The time- and concentration-dependent progressive nature of the lung and blood effects together with bioavailability data on gallium and arsenic lead us to conclude that the testicular/sperm effects are secondary to hypoxemia resulting from lung damage rather than due to a direct chemical effect of gallium or arsenide. Conditions leading to such primary effects are not expected to occur in humans at production and processing sites. This has to be taken into consideration for any classification decision for reproductive toxicity; especially a category 1 according to the EU CLP system is not warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aqueous stability of Ga- and N-polar gallium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Corey M; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-01-08

    The stability of III-nitride semiconductors in various solutions becomes important as researchers begin to integrate them into sensing platforms. This study quantitatively compares the stability of GaN surfaces with different polarities. This type of quantification is important because it represents the first step toward designing semiconductor material interfaces compatible with solution conditions. A stability study of Ga- and N-polar GaN was conducted by immersion of the surfaces in deionized H(2)O, pH 5, pH 9, and H(2)O(2) solutions for 7 days. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of the solutions was conducted to determine the amount of gallium leached from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to compare the treated surfaces to untreated surfaces. The results show that both gallium nitride surface types exhibit the greatest stability in acidic and neutral solutions. Gallium polar surfaces were found to exhibit superior stability to nitrogen polar surfaces in the solutions studied. Our findings highlight the need for further research on surface passivation and functionalization techniques for polar III-nitride semiconductors.

  5. Resistive switching characteristics of gallium oxide for nonvolatile memory application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jyun-Bao [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jheng-Jie; Chen, Shih-Ching [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Yang, Po-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ting [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hsueh-Chih [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Sze, Simon M. [Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ming-Jinn [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    This study investigates bipolar resistance switching memory in a fabricated Pt/GaO{sub x}/TiN device. Gallium oxide sputtered in ambient Ar shows a change in resistance ratio of two orders of magnitude. The enhancement of resistance ratio is also observed in the gallium oxide layer when deposited in ambient Ar/O{sub 2}. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that this gallium oxide in ambient Ar/O{sub 2} can reduce the number of defects and enhance the stability of switching behavior. An analysis of current transport mechanism in the high resistance state indicates that the larger effective thickness can be attributed to the higher oxygen concentration, and can increase the resistance value of the high resistance state. - Highlights: ► Study on the switching mechanisms in a Pt/GaO{sub x}/TiN device ► Pt/GaO{sub x}/TiN exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior. ► The bipolar behavior originates from conduction associated to oxygen vacancies. ► Additional oxygen can enhance the effective thickness.

  6. Phytotoxicity and Transport of Gallium (Ga) in Rice Seedlings for 2-Day of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Feng, Xing-Hui; Feng, Yu-Xi

    2015-07-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted with rice seedlings to investigate the accumulation and phytotoxicity of gallium nitrate. A linear decrease in relative growth rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency was observed in rice seedlings with increasing Ga concentrations. However, inhibition of these selected parameters was noted different at different Ga treatments. Relative growth rate was more sensitive towards Ga treatments. Phyto-transport of Ga was apparent, but recovery of Ga in different parts of rice seedlings varied significantly: roots were dominant site for Ga accumulation. The total accumulation rates of Ga were positively correlated to Ga concentrations. Results indicated that the addition of Ga did not cause deleterious effects on plant physiological functions over a 2-day exposure period. Large amounts of Ga were removed from the hydroponic solution through rice seedlings. Accumulation of Ga in plant tissues resulted in growth inhibition of rice seedlings.

  7. Proton Energy Dependence of the Light Output in Gallium Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. M.; Estan, D.; Erhardt, L. S.; Houdayer, A.; Carlone, C.; Ionascut-Nedelcescu, A.; Messenger, S. R.; Walters, R. J.; Summers, G. P.; Warner, J. H.; Jun, Insoo

    2004-10-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN)-based blue-emitting diodes (CREE Model C430-DH85) were irradiated at room temperature with protons in the energy range 2 to 115 MeV at fluences varying from 1/spl times/10/sup 11/ to 1/spl times/10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/. Light output degradation curves were obtained for each energy and the damage constant (A) associated with these curves was determined according to the theory of Rose and Barnes. For proton energies less than 10 MeV, A varies inversely with the proton energy (E). At higher energies, A is consistently above the 1/E relationship. The change in nature of the energy dependence is attributed to nuclear interactions. Nonionizing energy loss calculations for the case of protons on GaN are presented. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.

  8. Challenges for critical raw material recovery from WEEE - The case study of gallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberschaar, Maximilian; Otto, Sarah Julie; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2017-02-01

    Gallium and gallium compounds are more frequently used in future oriented technologies such as photovoltaics, light diodes and semiconductor technology. In the long term the supply risk is estimated to be critical. Germany is one of the major primary gallium producer, recycler of gallium from new scrap and GaAs wafer producer. Therefore, new concepts for a resource saving handling of gallium and appropriate recycling strategies have to be designed. This study focus on options for a possible recycling of gallium from waste electric and electronic equipment. To identify first starting points, a substance flow analysis was carried out for gallium applied in integrated circuits applied on printed circuit boards and for LEDs used for background lighting in Germany in 2012. Moreover, integrated circuits (radio amplifier chips) were investigated in detail to deduce first approaches for a recycling of such components. An analysis of recycling barriers was carried out in order to investigate general opportunities and risks for the recycling of gallium from chips and LEDs. Results show, that significant gallium losses arose in primary production and in waste management. 93±11%, equivalent to 43,000±4700kg of the total gallium potential was lost over the whole primary production process until applied in electronic goods. The largest share of 14,000±2300kggallium was lost in the production process of primary raw materials. The subsequent refining process was related to additional 6900±3700kg and the chip and wafer production to 21,700±3200kg lost gallium. Results for the waste management revealed only low collection rates for related end-of-life devices. Not collected devices held 300 ± 200 kg gallium. Due to the fact, that current waste management processes do not recover gallium, further 80 ± 10 kg gallium were lost. A thermal pre-treatment of the chips, followed by a manual separation allowed an isolation of gallium rich fractions, with gallium mass fractions up to

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY THROUGH RECOVERY AND RECYCLING OF GALLIUM AND ARSENIC FROM GAAS POLISHING WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A process was developed for the recovery of both arsenic and gallium from gallium arsenide polishing wastes. The economics associated with the current disposal techniques utilizing ferric hydroxide precipitation dictate that sequential recovery of toxic arsenic and valuble galliu...

  10. Comparison of the antimicrobial activities of gallium nitrate and gallium maltolate against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Aceto, Helen W; Bernstein, Lawrence R; Sweeney, Raymond W

    2014-10-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is an enteric infection of cattle and other ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study compared the antimicrobial activities of gallium nitrate (GaN) and gallium maltolate (GaM) against two field MAP isolates by use of broth culture. The concentrations that resulted in 99% growth inhibition of isolates 1 and 2 were, respectively, 636 µM and 183 µM for GaN, and 251 µM and 142 µM for GaM. For both isolates, time to detection was significantly higher for GaM than GaN. These results suggest that GaM is more efficient than GaN in inhibiting MAP growth in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gallium-67 scanning of malignant lymphomas. Apport de la scintigraphie au gallium-67 dans les lymphomes malins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-Haguenauer, O.; Brice, P.; Gaci, M.; Le Pailleur, A.; Cheval, E.; Bris, C.; Frija, J.; Gisselbrecht, C.; Rain, J.D.; Najean, Y. (Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France))

    1993-03-01

    The presence of a residual mass is a frequent and difficult problem in the treatment of Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: since it is of major importance to determine whether the lesion is a fibrous mass or a still progressing tumour requiring additional therapy. Gallium-67 scanning, performed in a series of 52 patients, provides an answer to this question since there is an excellent correlation between gallium uptake by the tumoral masses and their progressiveness. Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out in half of our patients: the finding of a low-intensity signal on T2-weighted sequences proved that the residual mass was fibrous, whereas a high-intensity signal on T2-weighted sequences did not distinguish between fibrous and tumour masses. The priceless information provided by the simple and non invasive method that is gallium scanning is extremely useful to evaluate the extension of lymphomas and to determine whether residual masses are tumoral or fibrous.

  12. Bis(2-mercapto-1-R-imidazolyl)hydroborato complexes of aluminium, gallium, indium and thallium: compounds possessing gallium-gallium bonds and a trivalent thallium alkyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkerwich, Kevin; Coleman, Fergal; Parkin, Gerard

    2010-08-14

    The reactions of bis(mercaptoimidazolyl)hydroborato derivatives [Bm(R)]M' (R = Me, Bu(t); M' = Li, Na, Tl) with MX(3) trihalides of aluminium, gallium and indium yield both 1:1 and 2:1 complexes of the types [Bm(R)]MX(2) and [Bm(R)](2)MX, respectively. Structurally characterized examples of the [Bm(R)]MX(2) series include [Bm(Me)]AlCl(2), [Bm(Me)]GaI(2), [Bm(Me)]InI(2), [Bm(Bu(t))]AlCl(2) and [Bm(Bu(t))]GaX(2) (X = Cl, Br, I), while structurally characterized examples of the [Bm(R)](2)MX series include [Bm(Bu(t))](2)InX (X = Cl, Br, I). In addition to the halide complexes, the trivalent dimethyl thallium complex [Bm(Bu(t))]TlMe(2) has been synthesized via the reaction of [Bm(Bu(t))]Tl with Me(2)TlCl. The reactions of [Bm(R)]M' with the monovalent halides, "GaI", InCl and InI, result in disproportionation. In the case of indium, the mononuclear complexes [Bm(Bu(t))](2)InI and [Bm(Bu(t))]InCl(kappa(2)-mim(Bu(t))) are obtained, whereas for gallium, dinuclear compounds that feature Ga-Ga bonds, namely [Bm(R)](GaI)(GaI)[Bm(R)] (R = Me, Bu(t)) have been isolated.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of functional multicomponent nanosized gallium chelated gold crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambre, Ajit; Silva, Francisco; Upendran, Anandhi; Afrasiabi, Zahra; Xin, Yan; Paulo, António; Kannan, Raghuraman

    2014-03-28

    In this communication, we describe a novel synthetic method for fabricating multicomponent gold nanoparticles containing both gallium ions and biomolecules on the surface. Detailed compositional analysis, using STEM-HAADF and EELS spectroscopy, confirmed the crystalline nature of gold and chelation of gallium ions. The presence of the biomolecule was validated using conventional ELISA.

  14. Value of Gallium-67 Scanning in Monitoring Therapeutic Effectiveness in a Patient with Relapsing Polychondritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Chang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a 57-year-old man who had low-grade fever and painful, swollen and erythematous ears. Gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy (gallium scan performed prior to the commencement of treatment showed increased gallium uptake in bilateral external ears, neck, mediastinum and bilateral pulmonary hili. The results of ultrasonography of both ears were compatible with the diagnosis of chondritis. The patient's clinical condition and laboratory data improved after a course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids. Gallium scan performed after treatment showed a diminished uptake in the external ears, neck, and mediastinum. Gallium scintigraphy is a valuable tool for evaluating inflammatory activity and monitoring therapeutic response in patients with relapsing polychondritis.

  15. Development of anodic stripping voltammetry for determination of gallium in U Ga alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, T. K.; Sharma, H. S.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    2007-03-01

    Deposition potential, deposition time, square-wave frequency, rotation speed of the rotating disc electrode and gallium concentration have been studied in detail, for trace concentration level determination of gallium metal in U-Ga alloy by square-wave voltammetry anodic stripping analysis, in 1 M NaClO 4 + 0.5 M NaSCN at mercury film electrode (MFE). Optimum conditions have been found for Ga(III) determination by obtaining calibration graphs for the range 1-10 × 10 -7 M gallium. Error and standard deviation less than 1% were assessed of this method with all gallium standard solutions. The developed methodology was applied successfully as a subsidiary method for the determination of gallium content in synthetic U-Ga samples with very good precision and accuracy (under 1% error and std. dev.).

  16. The Inhibition of Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation by Gallium Nitrate-Modified Titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Yan; Chen, Ruiqi; Liao, Lianming

    2015-08-01

    Periprosthetic infections are notoriously difficult to treat due to biofilm formation. Previously, we reported that gallium-EDTA attached to PVC (polyvinyl chloride) surface could prevent bacterial colonization. Herein we examined the effect of this gallium-EDTA complex on Escherichia coli biofilm formation on titanium. It was clearly demonstrated that gallium nitrate significantly inhibited the growth and auto-aggregation of Escherichia coli. Furthermore, titanium with gallium-EDTA coating resisted bacterial colonization as indicated by crystal violet staining. When the chips were immersed in human serum and incubated at 37 °C, they demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity after more than 28 days of incubation. These findings indicate that gallium-EDTA coating of implants can result in a surface that can resist bacterial colonization. This technology holds great promise for the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infections.

  17. Extraction of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by trioctylammonium-based mixed ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Okai, Miho; Yoshimoto, Yuki; Kudo, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The extractabilities of aluminium(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions were investigated using a mixture of two protic ionic liquids, trioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([TOAH][NTf(2)]) and trioctylammonium nitrate ([TOAH][NO(3)]). At a HCl concentration of 4 mol L(-1) or more, gallium(III) was nearly quantitatively extracted and the extractability order was Ga > Al > In. The extractability of gallium(III) increased with increasing [TOAH][NO(3)] content in the mixed ionic liquid. The extracted gallium(III) was quantitatively stripped with aqueous nitric acid solutions. The separation and recovery of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions containing excess indium(III) was demonstrated using the mixed ionic liquid.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of gallium oxide nanowires via a hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan Yu; Fang Dong; Zhang Xueying; Liu Suqin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Huang Kelong, E-mail: csufangdong@gmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Single-crystalline gallium oxide hydroxide (GaOOH) nanowires could be successfully synthesized in large quantities through a hydrothermal synthetic method using gallium nitrate as the gallium source and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as the surfactant. Gallium oxide {alpha}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires could be obtained by thermal decomposition method using gallium oxide hydroxide nanowires as the precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and photoluminescence (PL) were employed to characterize the resulting samples. Detailed results and possible mechanism are presented.

  19. Russian-American relations and the future of arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenin, D

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the progressive drift of the US-Russia nuclear military policies, the implications for Russia of the US missile defense program (MDP) and its progress in the framework of President Bush administration, Russia's strategy and tactics to incite the US to continue strategic weapons reduction, the Russian theater missile defense (TMD) proposal and its philosophy, and the future necessary collaboration between the US, the EU and Russia to deal with the challenge of proliferation. (J.S.)

  20. Proceedings of the joint Russian-American hydrogeology seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.F. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Mironenko, V. [ed.] [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Environmental Geology; Pozdniakov, S. [ed.] [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogeology research has been very active in both Russia and the US because of the concerns for migration of radioactive and chemical contaminants in soils and geologic formations, as well as for water problems related to mining and other industrial operations. Russian hydrogeologists have developed various analysis and field testing techniques, sometimes in parallel with US counterparts. These Proceedings come out of a Seminar held to bring together a small group (about 15) of active Russian researchers in geologic flow and transport associated with the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes either on the soils or through deep injection wells, with a corresponding group (about 25) of American hydrogeologists. The meeting was intentionally kept small to enable informal, detailed and in-depth discussions on hydrogeological issues of common interest. Out of this interaction, the authors hope that, firstly, they will have learned from each other and secondly, that research collaborations will be established where there is the opportunity. This proceedings presents the summaries and viewgraphs from the presentations. What cannot be conveyed here is the warm and cooperative atmosphere of these interactions, both inside and outside the formal sessions, which may well lead to future collaborations.

  1. Gallium modulates osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro without affecting osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verron, Elise; Masson, Martial; Khoshniat, Solmaz; Duplomb, Laurence; Wittrant, Yohann; Baud'huin, Marc; Badran, Zahi; Bujoli, Bruno; Janvier, Pascal; Scimeca, Jean-Claude; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Guicheux, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Gallium (Ga) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of disorders associated with accelerated bone loss, including cancer-related hypercalcemia and Paget's disease. These clinical applications suggest that Ga could reduce bone resorption. However, few studies have studied the effects of Ga on osteoclastic resorption. Here, we have explored the effects of Ga on bone cells in vitro. Experimental approach: In different osteoclastic models [osteoclasts isolated from long bones of neonatal rabbits (RBC), murine RAW 264.7 cells and human CD14-positive cells], we have performed resorption activity tests, staining for tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, viability and apoptotic assays. We also evaluated the effect of Ga on osteoblasts in terms of proliferation, viability and activity by using an osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) and primary mouse osteoblasts. Key results: Gallium dose-dependently (0–100 µM) inhibited the in vitro resorption activity of RBC and induced a significant decrease in the expression level of transcripts coding for osteoclastic markers in RAW 264.7 cells. Ga also dramatically reduced the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells. Ga down-regulated in a dose-dependant manner the expression of the transcription factor NFATc1. However, Ga did not affect the viability or activity of primary and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Conclusions and implications: Gallium exhibits a dose-dependent anti-osteoclastic effect by reducing in vitro osteoclastic resorption, differentiation and formation without negatively affecting osteoblasts. We provide evidence that this inhibitory mechanism involves down-regulation of NFATc1 expression, a master regulator of RANK-induced osteoclastic differentiation. PMID:20397300

  2. Ultrafast photocurrents and terahertz radiation in gallium arsenide and carbon based nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtel, Hans Leonhard

    2011-08-15

    of about hundred picoseconds. Furthermore, we showed that in optically pumped graphene electromagnetic radiation up to 1THz is generated. We also investigated the time-integrated photocurrent and photoconductance processes of suspended p-doped gallium arsenide nanowires contacted by a focused ion beam deposition technique. The observed photocurrent is generated at the Schottky contacts between the nanowire and metal source-drain electrodes, while the observed photoconductance signal can be explained by a photogating effect induced by optically generated charge carriers located at the surface of the nanowire. Both optoelectronic effects are sensitive to the polarization of the exciting laser field. We furthermore studied the time-resolved photocurrent dynamics of p- doped gallium arsenide nanowires lying on a sapphire substrate and contacted by optical lithography. In the experiments we were able to resolve displacement currents, transport currents of holes, as well as carrier lifetime limited currents. We were able to spatially relate the time-integrated measurements to the time-resolved measurements. We discovered that the time-integrated measurements are dominated by a transport current, which is limited by the recombination lifetime of photo electrons and holes in the GaAs nanowire. The data further suggested that a photo-thermoelectric current is generated in the nanowires for excitation close to the contacts. There, we found a photocurrent with an exponential decay of only a few picoseconds. (orig.)

  3. Laser and electron beam processing of silicon and gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, J.

    1979-10-01

    Laser (photon) and electron beams provide a controlled source of heat by which surface layers of silicon and gallium arsenide can be rapidly melted and cooled with rates exceeding 10/sup 80/C/sec. The melting process has been used to remove displacement damage in ion implanted Si and GaAs, to remove dislocations, loops and precipitates in silicon and to study impurity segregation and solubility limits. The mechanisms associated with various phenomena will be examined. The possible impact of laser and electron beam processing on device technology, particularly with respect to solar cells is discussed.

  4. Anomalous tensoelectric effects in gallium arsenide tunnel diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, Z.M.; Vyatkin, A.P.; Krivorotov, N.P.; Shchegol' , A.A.

    1988-02-01

    Anomalous tensoelectric phenomena induced in a tunnel p-n junction by a concentrated load and by hydrostatic compression were studied. The anomalous tensoelectric effects are caused by the action of concentrators of mechanical stresses in the vicinity of the p-n junction, giving rise to local microplastic strain. Under the conditions of hydrostatic compression prolate inclusions approx.100-200 A long play the role of concentrators. Analysis of irreversible changes in the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel p-n junctions made it possible to separate the energy levels of the defects produced with plastic strain of gallium arsenide.

  5. Anomalous tensoelectric effects in gallium arsenide tunnel diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Z. M.; Vyatkin, A. P.; Krivorotov, N. P.; Shchegol', A. A.

    1987-08-01

    Anomalous tensoelectric phenomena induced in a tunnel p-n junction by a concentrated load and by hydrostatic compression were studied. The anomalous tensoelectric effects are caused by the action of concentrators of mechanical stresses in the vicinity of the p-n junction, giving rise to local microplastic strain. Under the conditions of hydrostatic compression prolate inclusions ∿100 200 å long play the role of concentrators. Analysis of irreversible changes in the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel p-n junctions made it possible to separate the energy levels of the defects produced with plastic strain of gallium arsenide.

  6. Electronic transport properties of graphene doped by gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, J.; Procházka, P.; Bartošík, M.; Nezval, D.; Piastek, J.; Hulva, J.; Švarc, V.; Konečný, M.; Kormoš, L.; Šikola, T.

    2017-10-01

    In this work we present the effect of low dose gallium (Ga) deposition (graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. In situ graphene transport measurements performed with a graphene field-effect transistor structure show that at low Ga coverages a graphene layer tends to be strongly n-doped with an efficiency of 0.64 electrons per one Ga atom, while the further deposition and Ga cluster formation results in removing electrons from graphene (less n-doping). The experimental results are supported by the density functional theory calculations and explained as a consequence of distinct interaction between graphene and Ga atoms in case of individual atoms, layers, or clusters.

  7. A gallium phosphide high-temperature bipolar junction transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipperian, T. E.; Dawson, L. R.; Chaffin, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported on the development of a high temperature (350 C) gallium phosphide bipolar junction transistor (BJT) for geothermal and other energy applications. This four-layer p(+)n(-)pp(+) structure was formed by liquid phase epitaxy using a supercooling technique to insure uniform nucleation of the thin layers. Magnesium was used as the p-type dopant to avoid excessive out-diffusion into the lightly doped base. By appropriate choice of electrodes, the device may also be driven as an n-channel junction field-effect transistor. The initial design suffers from a series resistance problem which limits the transistor's usefulness at high temperatures.

  8. Gallium Phosphide as a material for visible and infrared optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václavík J.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Gallium phosphide is interesting material for optical system working in both visible and MWIR or LWIR spectral ranges. Number of a material available for these applications is limited. They are typically salts, fluorides or sulphides and usually exhibit unfavorable properties like brittleness; softness; solubility in water and small chemical resistance. Although GaP has do not offer best optical parameters excels over most other material in mechanical and chemical resistance. The article describes its most important characteristics and outlines some applications where GaP should prove useful.

  9. Lasing action in gallium nitride quasicrystal nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Pang; Sou, Kuok-Pan; Chen, Chieh-Han; Cheng, Yuh-Jen; Huang, Ji-Kai; Lin, Chung-Hsiang; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen; Hsieh, Wen-Feng

    2012-05-21

    We report the observation of lasing action from an optically pumped gallium nitride quasicrystal nanorod arrays. The nanorods were fabricated from a GaN substrate by patterned etching, followed by epitaxial regrowth. The nanorods were arranged in a 12-fold symmetric quasicrystal pattern. The regrowth grew hexagonal crystalline facets and core-shell multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on nanorods. Under optical pumping, multiple lasing peaks resembling random lasing were observed. The lasing was identified to be from the emission of MQWs on the nanorod sidewalls. The resonant spectrum and mode field of the 12-fold symmetric photonic quasicrystal nanorod arrays is discussed.

  10. Gallium nitride electrodes for membrane-based electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, T; Steinhoff, G; von Ribbeck, H-G; Stutzmannn, M; Eickhoff, M; Tanaka, M

    2009-10-01

    We report on the deposition of planar lipid bilayers (supported membranes) on gallium nitride (GaN) electrodes for potential applications as membrane-based biosensors. The kinetics of the lipid membrane formation upon vesicle fusion were monitored by simultaneous measurements of resistance and capacitance of the membrane using AC impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range between 50 mHz and 50 kHz. We could identify a two-step process of membrane spreading and self-healing. Despite its relatively low resistance, the membrane can be modeled by a parallel combination of an ideal resistor and capacitor, indicating that the membrane efficiently blocks the diffusion of ions.

  11. Pure spin current transport in gallium doped zinc oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Althammer, Matthias; Mukherjee, Joynarayan; Geprägs, Stephan; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Opel, Matthias; Rao, M. S. Ramachandra; Gross, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    We study the flow of a pure spin current through zinc oxide by measuring the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in thin film trilayer samples consisting of bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG), gallium-doped zinc oxide (Ga:ZnO), and platinum. We investigate the dependence of the SMR magnitude on the thickness of the Ga:ZnO interlayer and compare to a Bi:YIG/Pt bilayer. We find that the SMR magnitude is reduced by almost one order of magnitude upon inserting a Ga:ZnO interlayer, and...

  12. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the surface chemistry and treatments of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Craig; Nordlund, Dennis; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Contreras, Miguel; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Mansfield, Lorelle; Hurst, Katherine E.; Dameron, Arrelaine; Ramanathan, Kannan; Prendergast, David; Christensen, Steven T.

    2017-02-01

    The surface and near surface structure of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) absorber layers is integral to the producing a high-quality photovoltaic junction. By using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and monitoring multiple elemental absorption edges with both theory and experiment, we are able to identify several features of the surface of CIGS as a function of composition and surface treatments. The XAS data shows trends in the near surface region of oxygen, copper, indium and gallium species as the copper content is varied in the films. The oxygen surface species are also monitored through a series of experiments that systematically investigates the effects of water and various solutions of: ammonium hydroxide, cadmium sulfate, and thiourea. These being components of cadmium sulfide chemical bath deposition (CBD). Characteristics of the CBD are correlated with a restorative effect that produces as normalized, uniform surface chemistry as measured by XAS. This surface chemistry is found in CIGS solar cells with excellent power conversion efficiency (<19%). The results provide new insight for CIGS processing strategies that seek to replace CBD and/or cadmium sulfide.

  13. The impact of gallium content on degradation, bioactivity, and antibacterial potency of zinc borate bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimnejad Yazdi, Alireza; Torkan, Lawrence; Stone, Wendy; Towler, Mark R

    2017-02-02

    Zinc borate glasses with increasing gallium content (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 Wt % Ga) were synthesized and their degradation, bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), and antibacterial properties were investigated. ICP measurements showed that increased gallium content in the glass resulted in increased gallium ion release and decreased release of other ions. Degradability declined with the addition of gallium, indicating the formation of more symmetric BO3 units with three bridging oxygens and asymmetric BO3 units with two bridging oxygens in the glass network as the gallium content in the series increased. The formation of amorphous CaP on the glass surface after 24 h of incubation in SBF was confirmed by SEM, XRD, and FTIR analyses. Finally, antibacterial evaluation of the glasses using the agar disc-diffusion method demonstrated that the addition of gallium increased the antibacterial potency of the glasses against P. aeruginosa (Gram-negative) while decreasing it against S. epidermidis (Gram-positive); considering the ion release trends, this indicates that the gallium ion is responsible for the glasses' antibacterial behavior against P. aeruginosa while the zinc ion controls the antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis. The statistical significance of the observed trends in the measurements were confirmed by applying the Kruskal-Wallis H Test. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mechanisms of thermal induced gallium removal (TIGR) from plutonium dioxide. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1998-08-07

    This study was initiated in order to determine the advantages of using a mixed-bed rather than a fixed-bed reactor (i.e. furnace) for separation of gallium from PuO{sub 2} by the Thermal Induced Gallium Removal (TIGR) process. The TIGR process is based upon vaporization of gallium suboxide (Ga{sub 2}O). from essentially nonvolatile PuO{sub 2}. The gallium suboxide is formed by passing a reducing gas (i.e. hydrogen) over the PuO{sub 2} particles. Several mechanisms are involved in the reduction and convective vaporization of the gallium suboxide. If the mass transfer of the gallium suboxide across the solid to gas interface significantly affects the processing time, it may be advantageous to use a mixed-bed reactor rather than a fixed-bed reactor. However, due to the difficulty of handling PuO{sub 2} powder, a mixed-bed reactor should be used only if significant advantages can be demonstrated. Based on available data, the results of this study provide strong evidence that a mixed-bed reactor (i.e. furnace) would provide little advantage over a fixed-bed reactor. This is due to the conclusion that the mechanism of internal gallium diffusion within the particle has the predominant affect on the processing time. This is an important conclusion since the use of a mixed-bed would require development of more complex hardware than for a fixed-bed.

  15. Byproduct Metal Availability Constrained by Dynamics of Carrier Metal Cycle: The Gallium-Aluminum Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvik, Amund N; Restrepo, Eliette; Müller, Daniel B

    2016-08-16

    Future availability of byproduct metals is not limited by geological stocks, but by the rate of primary production of their carrier metals, which in turn depends on the development of their in-use stocks, the product lifetimes, and the recycling rates. This linkage, while recognized conceptually in past studies, has not been adequately taken into account in resource availability estimates. Here, we determine the global supply potential for gallium up to 2050 based on scenarios for the global aluminum cycle, and compare it with scenarios for gallium demand derived from a dynamic model of the gallium cycle. We found that the gallium supply potential is heavily influenced by the development of the in-use stocks and recycling rates of aluminum. With current applications, a shortage of gallium is unlikely by 2050. However, the gallium industry may need to introduce ambitious recycling- and material efficiency strategies to meet its demand. If in-use stocks of aluminum saturate or decline, a shift to other gallium sources such as zinc or coal fly ash may be required.

  16. Crystallographic alignment of high-density gallium nitride nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter J; Zhang, Yanfeng; Goldberger, Joshua; Sirbuly, Donald; Denlinger, Jonathan; Yang, Peidong

    2004-08-01

    Single-crystalline, one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are considered to be one of the critical building blocks for nanoscale optoelectronics. Elucidation of the vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanism has already enabled precise control over nanowire position and size, yet to date, no reports have demonstrated the ability to choose from different crystallographic growth directions of a nanowire array. Control over the nanowire growth direction is extremely desirable, in that anisotropic parameters such as thermal and electrical conductivity, index of refraction, piezoelectric polarization, and bandgap may be used to tune the physical properties of nanowires made from a given material. Here we demonstrate the use of metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and appropriate substrate selection to control the crystallographic growth directions of high-density arrays of gallium nitride nanowires with distinct geometric and physical properties. Epitaxial growth of wurtzite gallium nitride on (100) gamma-LiAlO(2) and (111) MgO single-crystal substrates resulted in the selective growth of nanowires in the orthogonal [1\\[Evec]0] and [001] directions, exhibiting triangular and hexagonal cross-sections and drastically different optical emission. The MOCVD process is entirely compatible with the current GaN thin-film technology, which would lead to easy scale-up and device integration.

  17. Macroscopic diffusion models for precipitation in crystalline gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmerle, Sven-Joachim Wolfgang

    2009-09-21

    Based on a thermodynamically consistent model for precipitation in gallium arsenide crystals including surface tension and bulk stresses by Dreyer and Duderstadt, we propose two different mathematical models to describe the size evolution of liquid droplets in a crystalline solid. The first model treats the diffusion-controlled regime of interface motion, while the second model is concerned with the interface-controlled regime of interface motion. Our models take care of conservation of mass and substance. These models generalise the well-known Mullins- Sekerka model for Ostwald ripening. We concentrate on arsenic-rich liquid spherical droplets in a gallium arsenide crystal. Droplets can shrink or grow with time but the centres of droplets remain fixed. The liquid is assumed to be homogeneous in space. Due to different scales for typical distances between droplets and typical radii of liquid droplets we can derive formally so-called mean field models. For a model in the diffusion-controlled regime we prove this limit by homogenisation techniques under plausible assumptions. These mean field models generalise the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model, which can be derived from the Mullins-Sekerka model rigorously, and is well understood. Mean field models capture the main properties of our system and are well adapted for numerics and further analysis. We determine possible equilibria and discuss their stability. Numerical evidence suggests in which case which one of the two regimes might be appropriate to the experimental situation. (orig.)

  18. Role of ferritin in the intracellular distribution of gallium 67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Kawaguchi, H.; Shimizu, K.; Orii, H.

    1984-05-01

    The binding of gallium 67 or iron 59 to ferritin in vitro was investigated using equilibrium dialysis. Gallium 67 did not bind to apo-ferritin until the protein was transformed into ferritin in the presence of iron citrate. Apotransferrin inhibited the binding of /sup 67/Ga to ferritin, especially in the presence of sodium bicarbonate and citrate, thus indicating that /sup 67/Ga has not gained access to ferritin from its complex with transferrin. Similar inhibition was observed for ferritin-/sup 59/Fe. The release of /sup 59/Fe from its transferrin complex was enhanced by ATP, citrate, or ascorbic acid, while these reagents did not stimulate the dissociation of /sup 67/Ga from its transferrin complex. On the other hand, /sup 67/Ga injected intravenously in vivo was not found in the ferritin fractions of rate liver, kidney, and tumor. The difference between experimental results in vivo and in vitro supports the hypothesis that /sup 67/Ga in the cytoplasm is not labile enough to be found to ferritin. We have indicated a significant role of ferritin in distinguishing between /sup 67/Ga and /sup 59/Fe in the cell, and provided some clues to interpret the chemical forms of /sup 67/Ga in the cytoplasm.

  19. Gallium nanoparticles colloids synthesis for UV bio-optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucciarelli, Flavio; Bravo, Iria; Vázquez, Luis; Lorenzo, Encarnación; Pau, Jose Luis

    2017-05-01

    A new method for the synthesis of colloidal gallium nanoparticles (Ga NPs) based on the thermal evaporation of Ga on an expendable aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) layer is presented here. The growth of AZO layers was investigated on different substrates at room temperature and 300 °C. By means of physical evaporation process, nanoparticles were deposited with a distribution ranging from 10 nm to 80 nm in diameter. A study of their endurance in acidic environment was carried out in order to assure the NPs shape and size stability during the etching process. Smaller particles start to disappear between 1h and 2h immersion time in a pH=1 solution, while bigger particles reduce their dimension. The NPs were dispersed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) organic solvent and optically characterized, showing strong UV absorption with a band centered at 280 nm. The colloids size distribution of as-evaporated samples was compared with the distribution obtained in droplets of the solution after drop-casting. By Dipole Discrete Approximation simulations, a close relationship between the UV absorption and the NPs with diameter smaller than 40 nm was found. Because of the gallium oxide (Ga1-xOx) outer shell that surrounds the Ga NPs, an enhancement of their hydrophobicity occurs. Hence, the low agglomeration state between NPs in tetrahydrofuran allows to obtain narrow absorption band in the optical spectrum.

  20. High-surface Thermally Stable Mesoporous Gallium Phosphates Constituted by Nanoparticles as Primary Building Blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Parvulescu; V Parvulescu; D Ciuparu; C Hardacre; H Garcia

    2011-12-31

    In constant, search for micro/mesoporous materials, gallium phosphates, have attracted continued interest due to the large pore size reported for some of these solids in comparison with analogous aluminum phosphates. However up to now, the porosity of gallium phosphates collapsed upon template removal or exposure to the ambient moisture. In the present work, we describe high-surface thermally stable mesoporous gallium phosphates synthesized from gallium propoxide and PCl{sub 3} and different templating agents such as amines (dipropylamine, piperidine and aminopiperidine) and quaternary ammonium salts (C{sub 16}H{sub 33}(CH{sub 3})3NBr and C{sub 16}PyCl). These highly reactive precursors have so far not been used as gallium and phosphate sources for the synthesis of gallophosphates. Conceptually, our present synthetic procedure is based on the fast formation of gallium phosphate nanoparticles via the reaction of gallium propoxide with PCl{sub 3} and subsequent construction of the porous material with nanoparticles as building blocks. The organization of the gallophosphate nanoparticles in stable porous structures is effected by the templates. Different experimental procedures varying the molar composition of the sol-gel, pH and the pretreatment of gallium precursor were assayed, most of them leading to satisfactory materials in terms of thermal stability and porosity. In this way, a series of gallium phosphates with surface are above 200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and narrow pore size from 3 to 6 nm and remarkable thermal stability (up to 550 C) have been prepared. In some cases, the structure tends to show some periodicity and regularity as determined by XRD. The remarkable stability has allowed us to test the catalytic activity of gallophosphates for the aerobic oxidation of alkylaromatics with notable good results. Our report reopens the interest for gallophosphates in heterogeneous catalysis.

  1. Characterization of Gallium Indium Phosphide and Progress of Aluminum Gallium Indium Phosphide System Quantum-Well Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    Highly ordered gallium indium phosphide layers with the low bandgap have been successfully grown on the (100) GaAs substrates, the misorientation toward [01−1] direction, using the low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition method. It is found that the optical properties of the layers are same as those of the disordered ones, essentially different from the ordered ones having two orientations towards [1−11] and [11−1] directions grown on (100) gallium arsenide substrates, which were previously reported. The bandgap at 300 K is 1.791 eV. The value is the smallest ever reported, to our knowledge. The high performance transverse stabilized AlGaInP laser diodes with strain compensated quantum well structure, which is developed in 1992, have been successfully obtained by controlling the misorientation angle and directions of GaAs substrates. The structure is applied to quantum dots laser diodes. This paper also describes the development history of the quantum well and the quantum dots laser diodes, and their future prospects. PMID:28773227

  2. Clinical evaluation of chest x-rays, gallium-67 scans and CT scans in sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S.; Maeda, T. (Kochi Medical School (Japan)); Itoh, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Machida, K.

    1981-10-01

    A comparative study of the accuracy of chest X-rays, Gallium-67 scans and CT scans for mediastinal lymphadenopathy of pulmonary sarcoidosis was performed. The ability of each examination to detect the lymphadenopathy of following 5 lymph node groups was evaluated, such as paratracheal, aorto-pulmonic window, subcarinal and both hilar lymph nodes. The results on 5 patients indicated that in the detection of right paratracheal and subcarinal lymphadenopathy, Gallium scans and CT scans were more sensitive than chest x-rays. Chest x-rays and Gallium scans were superior than CT in detecting bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. In the involvement of aorto-pulmonic window nodes, Gallium scans and chest x-rays were more informative than CT. Combination of these three examination is effective in the detection of the above described lymphadenopathy.

  3. High-power X- and Ka-band Gallium Nitride Amplifiers with Exceptional Efficiency Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Achieving very high-power amplification with maximum efficiency at X- and Ka-band is challenging using solid-state technology. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) has been the...

  4. Homogeneous dispersion of gallium nitride nanoparticles in a boron nitride matrix by nitridation with urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunose, Takafumi; Sekino, Tohru; Ando, Yoichi

    2010-07-01

    A Gallium Nitride (GaN) dispersed boron nitride (BN) nanocomposite powder was synthesized by heating a mixture of gallium nitrate, boric acid, and urea in a hydrogen atmosphere. Before heat treatment, crystalline phases of urea, boric acid, and gallium nitrate were recognized, but an amorphous material was produced by heat treatment at 400 degrees C, and then was transformed into GaN and turbostratic BN (t-BN) by further heat treatment at 800 degrees C. TEM obsevations of this composite powder revealed that single nanosized GaN particles were homogeneously dispersed in a BN matrix. Homogeneous dispersion of GaN nanoparticles was thought to be attained by simultaneously nitriding gallium nitrate and boric acid to GaN and BN with urea.

  5. Two-in-One Biointerfaces-Antimicrobial and Bioactive Nanoporous Gallium Titanate Layers for Titanium Implants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seiji Yamaguchi; Shekhar Nath; Yoko Sugawara; Kamini Divakarla; Theerthankar Das; Jim Manos; Wojciech Chrzanowski; Tomiharu Matsushita; Tadashi Kokubo

    2017-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of gallium (Ga) ions on bone resorption and their superior microbial activity are attractive and sought-after features for the vast majority of implantable devices, in particular for implants used for hard tissue...

  6. 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT Scanning Results in Patients with MEN1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Samira M; Millo, Corina; Cottle-Delisle, Candice; Merkel, Roxanne; Yang, Lily A; Herscovitch, Peter; Pacak, Karel; Simonds, William F; Marx, Stephen J; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is recommended to detect primary and metastatic tumors, which can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The utility of somatostatin receptor imaging 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT in patients with MEN1 is not known. The aim of this study was to prospectively determine the accuracy of 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT versus 111In-pentetreotide SPECT/CT and anatomic imaging in patients with MEN1. Study design Prospective study comparing 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT, 111In-pentetreotide SPECT/CT, and triphasic CT scan to clinical, biochemical and pathological data in 26 patients with MEN1. Results 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT detected 107 lesions; 111In- pentetreotide SPECT/CT detected 33 lesions; and CT scan detected 48 lesions. Lesions detected on 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT had high SUVmax (median SUVmax = 72.8 [range 19–191]). In 7 of the 26 patients (27%), 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT was positive with a negative 111In-pentetreotide SPECT/CT, and in 10 patients (38.5%), additional metastases were detected (range 0.3 cm to 1.5 cm). In 8 of the 26 patients (31%), there was a change in management recommendations as a result of the findings on 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT that were not seen on 111In- pentetreotide SPECT/CT and CT scan. Conclusions 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT is more sensitive for detecting NETs than 111In-pentetreotide SPECT/CT and CT scan in patients with MEN1. This imaging technique should be integrated into radiologic screening and surveillance of patients with MEN1, as it can significantly alter management recommendations. PMID:26206648

  7. Heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Detection by gallium scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drane, W E; Tipler, B M

    1987-06-01

    A case of heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) secondary to the central nervous system complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported. Because of the overwhelming suspicion of infection in this patient, this diagnosis was not considered until a gallium scan revealed the typical findings of heterotopic ossification. Because of the increasing utilization of gallium imaging in the AIDS population, every imaging specialist should be aware of this potential disorder.

  8. The Role of Gallium Scanning in the Detection of Bone and Joint Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, Anna; Laird, J. D.; Roberts, S D

    1984-01-01

    The value of gallium (67Ga) scanning in the diagnosis of septic disease of bone or joint was assessed in 34 patients. The results show a sensitivity of 60 per cent and specificity of 64 per cent. The low accuracy of this method for the detection of bone and joint sepsis (62 per cent) means that gallium scanning can be used only as an adjunct to other investigative techniques.

  9. Detection of insulinoma using 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowski, Samira M.; Neychev, Vladimir; Cottle-Delisle, Candice; Merkel, Roxanne; Yang, Lily A.; Quezado, Martha M.; Chang, Richard; Kebebew, Electron

    2014-01-01

    Insulinomas are the most common cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in non-diabetic adults. They are most often benign, small and difficult to localize with current imaging techniques. This is of high importance, as complete surgical resection is the only curative treatment. Anatomic imaging, 111In-pentetreotide scan and 68Gallium-DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were compared in a patient with insulinoma. 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT and selective...

  10. Recognition of distinctive patterns of gallium-67 distribution in sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulavik, S.B.; Spencer, R.P.; Weed, D.A.; Shapiro, H.R.; Shiue, S.T.; Castriotta, R.J. (Univ. of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Assessment of gallium-67 ({sup 67}Ga) uptake in the salivary and lacrimal glands and intrathoracic lymph nodes was made in 605 consecutive patients including 65 with sarcoidosis. A distinctive intrathoracic lymph node {sup 67}Ga uptake pattern, resembling the Greek letter lambda, was observed only in sarcoidosis (72%). Symmetrical lacrimal gland and parotid gland {sup 67}Ga uptake (panda appearance) was noted in 79% of sarcoidosis patients. A simultaneous lambda and panda pattern (62%) or a panda appearance with radiographic bilateral, symmetrical, hilar lymphadenopathy (6%) was present only in sarcoidosis patients. The presence of either of these patterns was particularly prevalent in roentgen Stages I (80%) or II (74%). We conclude that simultaneous (a) lambda and panda images, or (b) a panda image with bilateral symmetrical hilar lymphadenopathy on chest X-ray represent distinctive patterns which are highly specific for sarcoidosis, and may obviate the need for invasive diagnostic procedures.

  11. Compilation of gallium resource data for bauxite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Foley, Nora K.

    2014-01-01

    Gallium (Ga) concentrations for bauxite deposits worldwide have been compiled from the literature to provide a basis for research regarding the occurrence and distribution of Ga worldwide, as well as between types of bauxite deposits. In addition, this report is an attempt to bring together reported Ga concentration data into one database to supplement ongoing U.S. Geological Survey studies of critical mineral resources. The compilation of Ga data consists of location, deposit size, bauxite type and host rock, development status, major oxide data, trace element (Ga) data and analytical method(s) used to derive the data, and tonnage values for deposits within bauxite provinces and districts worldwide. The range in Ga concentrations for bauxite deposits worldwide is

  12. Design and Performance Estimates of an Ablative Gallium Electromagnetic Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study details the high-power condensable propellant research being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center. The gallium electromagnetic thruster is an ablative coaxial accelerator designed to operate at arc discharge currents in the range of 10-25 kA. The thruster is driven by a four-parallel line pulse forming network capable of producing a 250 microsec pulse with a 60 kA amplitude. A torsional-type thrust stand is used to measure the impulse of a coaxial GEM thruster. Tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber 1.5 m in diameter and 4.5 m long with a background pressure of 2 microtorr. Electromagnetic scaling calculations predict a thruster efficiency of 50% at a specific impulse of 2800 seconds.

  13. Modeling and simulation of bulk gallium nitride power semiconductor devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sabui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bulk gallium nitride (GaN power semiconductor devices are gaining significant interest in recent years, creating the need for technology computer aided design (TCAD simulation to accurately model and optimize these devices. This paper comprehensively reviews and compares different GaN physical models and model parameters in the literature, and discusses the appropriate selection of these models and parameters for TCAD simulation. 2-D drift-diffusion semi-classical simulation is carried out for 2.6 kV and 3.7 kV bulk GaN vertical PN diodes. The simulated forward current-voltage and reverse breakdown characteristics are in good agreement with the measurement data even over a wide temperature range.

  14. Localized surface phonon polariton resonances in polar gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Kaijun, E-mail: kfeng@nd.edu; Islam, S. M.; Verma, Jai; Hoffman, Anthony J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Streyer, William; Wasserman, Daniel [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Jena, Debdeep [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

    2015-08-24

    We demonstrate the excitation of localized surface phonon polaritons in an array of sub-diffraction pucks fabricated in an epitaxial layer of gallium nitride (GaN) on a silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. The array is characterized via polarization- and angle-dependent reflection spectroscopy in the mid-infrared, and coupling to several localized modes is observed in the GaN Reststrahlen band (13.4–18.0 μm). The same structure is simulated using finite element methods and the charge density of the modes are studied; transverse dipole modes are identified for the transverse electric and magnetic polarizations and a quadrupole mode is identified for the transverse magnetic polarization. The measured mid-infrared spectrum agrees well with numerically simulated spectra. This work could enable optoelectronic structures and devices that support surface modes at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths.

  15. Gallium-doped zinc oxide prepared by the Pechini method

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Agnaldo de Souza [UNESP; Lima, Sergio Antonio Marques de [UNESP; Davolos, Marian Rosaly [UNESP

    2002-01-01

    Óxido de zinco dopado com gálio (ZnO:Ga) foi preparado pelo método Pechini a partir de citrato de zinco e hidróxido de gálio. Utilizsando este método, foi possível obter ZnO:Ga cristalino pela calcinação do precursor polimérico em ar a 900ºC por 4 horas. A resina homogênea contendo 2% de dopante só pôde ser obtida com a adição de ácido etilenodiaminotetracético (edta). A adição do edta, também, ocasionou a diminuição de tamanho de partícula do óxido. Gallium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ga) was p...

  16. Gallium Nitride Electrical Characteristics Extraction and Uniformity Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyr-Long Jeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the output electrical characteristics—current-voltage (I-V output, threshold voltage, and parasitic capacitance—of novel gallium nitride (GaN power transistors. Experimental measurements revealed that both enhanced- and depletion-mode GaN field-effect transistors (FETs containing different components of identical specifications yielded varied turn-off impedance; hence, the FET quality was inconsistent. Establishing standardized electrical measurements can provide necessary information for designers, and measuring transistor electrical characteristics establishes its equivalent-circuit model for circuit simulations. Moreover, high power output requires multiple parallel power transistors, and sorting the difference between similar electrical characteristics is critical in a power system. An isolated gate driver detection method is proposed for sorting the uniformity from the option of the turn-off characteristic. In addition, an equivalent-circuit model for GaN FETs is established on the basis of the measured electrical characteristics and verified experimentally.

  17. Fabrication and properties of gallium phosphide variable colour displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effer, D.; Macdonald, R. A.; Macgregor, G. M.; Webb, W. A.; Kennedy, D. I.

    1973-01-01

    The unique properties of single-junction gallium phosphide devices incorporating both red and green radiative recombination centers were investigated in application to the fabrication of monolithic 5 x 7 displays capable of displaying symbolic and alphanumeric information in a multicolor format. A number of potentially suitable material preparation techniques were evaluated in terms of both material properties and device performance. Optimum results were obtained for double liquid-phase-epitaxial process in which an open-tube dipping technique was used for n-layer growth and a sealed tipping procedure for subsequent p-layer growth. It was demonstrated that to prepare devices exhibiting a satisfactory range of dominant wavelengths which can be perceived as distinct emission colors extending from the red through green region of the visible spectrum involves a compromise between the material properties necessary for efficient red emission and those considered optimum for efficient green emission.

  18. Preparation of gallium oxynitride powder and its nanofibers by the nitridation of a gallium oxide precursor doped with nickel or cobalt obtained via the citrate route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaake, A; Masubuchi, Y; Takeda, T; Motohashi, T; Kikkawa, S

    2010-07-14

    Acicular crystals were grown in gallium oxynitride powder prepared by ammonia nitridation of amorphous gallium oxide precursors containing less than 5 at% of either Ni or Co, via the citrate route. The crystals were several tens of nanometres wide, several micrometres long, and grown in the temperature range 750 to 850 degrees C in a flow of ammonia of less than 200 mL min(-1). The crystal structure of the gallium oxynitride was a highly disordered 2H wurtzite-type with some 3C zinc blende-type stacking faults. The crystals grew in their basal plane changing their aspect ratio with the supplying method of small amounts of Ni or Co and an amount of residual carbon. The acicular crystals were grown by the catalytic behavior of Ni or Co to enhance one-dimensional growth in the hexagonal c-plane.

  19. Novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate containing 6-fold coordinated gallium atoms with unusual four equatorial Ga–N bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre-Fernández, Laura [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Espina, Aránzazu; Khainakov, Sergei A.; Amghouz, Zakariae [Servicios Científico Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); García, José R. [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); García-Granda, Santiago, E-mail: sgg@uniovi.es [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    A novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate, formulated as Ga(H{sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure, including hydrogen positions, was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic, a=9.4886(3) Å, b=6.0374(2) Å, c=10.2874(3) Å, and β=104.226(3)°, space group Pc) and the bulk was characterized by chemical (Ga–P–C–H–N) and thermal analysis (TG–MS and DSC), including activation energy data of its thermo-oxidative degradation, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, SAED/NBD, and STEM BF-EDX). The crystal structure is built up of infinite zig-zag chains running along the c-axis, formed by vertex-shared (PO{sub 4}) and (GaO{sub 2}N{sub 4}) polyhedra. The new compound is characterized by unusual four equatorial Ga–N bonds coming from two nonequivalent ethylenediamine molecules and exhibits strong blue emission at 430 nm (λ{sub ex}=350 nm) in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of a new ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate, Ga(H{sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, were obtained and the structural features presented. This structure is one of the scarce examples of GaPO with Ga–N bonds reported. - Highlights: • A novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate was hydrothermally synthesized. • The new compound is characterized by unusual four equatorial Ga–N bonds. • Void-volume analysis shows cages and channels with sizes ideally suited to accommodate small molecules. • The new compound exhibits strong blue emission.

  20. Gallium phosphinoarylbisthiolato complexes counteract drug resistance of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Vălean, Ana-Maria; Virag, Piroska; Ilea, Petru; Tatomir, Corina; Imre-Lucaci, Florica; Schrepler, Maria Perde; Krausz, Ludovic Tibor; Tudoran, Lucian Barbu; Precup, Calin George; Lupan, Iulia; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminita

    2014-04-01

    In cancer therapy the platinum-based drugs are used frequently with a good clinical outcome, but besides unwanted side effects which occur, the tumour cells subjected to treatment are prone to develop tolerance or even multidrug resistance (MDR). Metal compounds with a central atom other than platinum are efficient in targeting the chemoresistant cells, therefore the biological outcome of two recently synthesized gallium phosphinoarylbisthiolato complexes was studied, having the formula [X][Ga{PPh(2-SC6H4)2-κ(3)S,S',P}{PPh(2-SC6H4)2-κ(2)S,S'}] where [X] is either the NEt3H (1) or PPh4 (2) cation. Compounds 1 and 2 display in vitro cytotoxicity against both platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant cell lines (A2780 and A2780cis). Morphological and ultrastructural evidence points toward their capacity to impair tumour cells survival. This behaviour is based on malignant cells capacity to selectively intake gallium, and to bind to the cellular DNA. They are able to cause massive DNA damage in treated cancer cells, focusing on 7-methylguanine and 8-oxoguanine sites and oxidizing the pyrimidine bases; this leads to early apoptosis of a significant percent of treated cells. The intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are influenced through the modulation of gene expression following the treatment with complexes 1 and 2, which accompanies the negative regulation of P-glycoprotein 1 (Pgp-1), an important cellular ABC-type transporter from the multidrug resistance (MDR) family. The studied Ga(III) compounds demonstrated the capacity to counteract the chemoresistance mechanisms in the tumours defiant to standard drug action. Compound 2 shows a good anticancer potential and it could represent an alternative to platinum-based drugs especially in the situation of standard treatment failure.

  1. High-Temperature Decomposition of Brønsted Acid Sites in Gallium-Substituted Zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Al-majnouni; N Hould; W Lonergan; D Vlachos; R Lobo

    2011-12-31

    The dehydroxylation of Broensted acid sites (BAS) in Ga-substituted zeolites was investigated at temperatures up to 850 C using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectrometry-temperature programmed desorption (MS-TPD). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) revealed that the majority of gallium has tetrahedral coordination even after complete dehydroxylation. The interatomic gallium-oxygen distance and gallium coordination number determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are consistent with gallium in tetrahedral coordination at low T (< 550 C). Upon heating Ga-Beta and Ga-ZSM5 to 850 C, analysis of the EXAFS showed that 70 and 80% of the gallium was still in tetrahedral coordination. The remainder of the gallium was found to be in octahedral coordination. No trigonal Ga atoms were observed. FTIR measurements carried out at similar temperatures show that the intensity of the OH vibration due to BAS has been eliminated. MS-TPD revealed that hydrogen in addition to water evolved from the samples during dehydroxylation. This shows that dehydrogenation in addition to dehydration is a mechanism that contributes to BAS decomposition. Dehydrogenation was further confirmed by exposing the sample to hydrogen to regenerate some of the BAS as monitored by FTIR and MS-TPD.

  2. Design and properties of novel gallium-doped injectable apatitic cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellier, Charlotte; Fayon, Franck; Boukhechba, Florian; Verron, Elise; LeFerrec, Myriam; Montavon, Gilles; Lesoeur, Julie; Schnitzler, Verena; Massiot, Dominique; Janvier, Pascal; Gauthier, Olivier; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Bujoli, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    Different possible options were investigated to combine an apatitic calcium phosphate cement with gallium ions, known as bone resorption inhibitors. Gallium can be either chemisorbed onto calcium-deficient apatite or inserted in the structure of β-tricalcium phosphate, and addition of these gallium-doped components into the cement formulation did not significantly affect the main properties of the biomaterial, in terms of injectability and setting time. Under in vitro conditions, the amount of gallium released from the resulting cement pellets was found to be low, but increased in the presence of osteoclastic cells. When implanted in rabbit bone critical defects, a remodeling process of the gallium-doped implant started and an excellent bone interface was observed. The integration of drugs and materials is a growing force in the medical industry. The incorporation of pharmaceutical products not only promises to expand the therapeutic scope of biomaterials technology but to design a new generation of true combination products whose therapeutic value stem equally from both the structural attributes of the material and the intrinsic therapy of the drug. In this context, for the first time an injectable calcium phosphate cement containing gallium was designed with properties suitable for practical application as a local delivery system, implantable by minimally invasive surgery. This important and original paper reports the design and in-depth chemical and physical characterization of this groundbreaking technology. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation of self-organized nanoporous anodic oxide from metallic gallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bipin; Thapa, Prem S; Higgins, Daniel A; Ito, Takashi

    2012-09-25

    This paper reports the formation of self-organized nanoporous gallium oxide by anodization of solid gallium metal. Because of its low melting point (ca. 30 °C), metallic gallium can be shaped into flexible structures, permitting the fabrication of nanoporous anodic oxide monoliths within confined spaces like the inside of a microchannel. Here, solid gallium films prepared on planar substrates were employed to investigate the effects of anodization voltage (1, 5, 10, 15 V) and H(2)SO(4) concentration (1, 2, 4, 6 M) on anodic oxide morphology. Self-organized nanopores aligned perpendicular to the film surface were obtained upon anodization of gallium films in ice-cooled 4 and 6 M aqueous H(2)SO(4) at 10 and 15 V. Nanopore formation could be recognized by an increase in anodic current after a current decrease reflecting barrier oxide formation. The average pore diameter was in the range of 18-40 nm with a narrow diameter distribution (relative standard deviation ca. 10-20%), and was larger at lower H(2)SO(4) concentration and higher applied voltage. The maximum thickness of nanoporous anodic oxide was ca. 2 μm. In addition, anodic formation of self-organized nanopores was demonstrated for a solid gallium monolith incorporated at the end of a glass capillary. Nanoporous anodic oxide monoliths formed from a fusible metal will lead to future development of unique devices for chemical sensing and catalysis.

  4. Monte Carlo Evaluation of Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN) Direct Energy Conversion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Monte Carlo Evaluation of Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN) Direct Energy Conversion Devices by Marc Litz...MD 20783-1138 ARL-TR-7082 September 2014 Monte Carlo Evaluation of Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN...Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN) Direct Energy Conversion Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  5. Epitaxially-grown Gallium Nitride on Gallium Oxide substrate for photon pair generation in visible and telecomm wavelengths

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.

    2016-08-11

    Gallium Nitride (GaN), along with other III-Nitrides, is attractive for optoelectronic and electronic applications due to its wide direct energy bandgap, as well as high thermal stability. GaN is transparent over a wide wavelength range from infra-red to the visible band, which makes it suitable for lasers and LEDs. It is also expected to be a suitable candidate for integrated nonlinear photonic circuits for a wide range of applications from all-optical signal processing to quantum computing and on-chip wavelength conversion. Despite its abundant use in commercial devices, there is still need for suitable substrate materials to reduce high densities of threading dislocations (TDs) and other structural defects like stacking faults, and grain boundaries. All these defects degrade the optical quality of the epi-grown GaN layer as they act as non-radiative recombination centers.

  6. Potential use of gallium-doped phosphate-based glass material for periodontitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahdev, Rohan; Ansari, Tahera I; Higham, Susan M; Valappil, Sabeel P

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the potential effect of gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses towards periodontitis-associated bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and matrix metalloproteinase-13. Periodontitis describes a group of inflammatory diseases of the gingiva and supporting structures of the periodontium. They are initiated by the accumulation of plaque bacteria, such as the putative periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, but the host immune response such as elevated matrix metalloproteinases are the major contributing factor for destruction of periodontal tissues. Antibacterial assays of gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses were conducted on Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 using disc diffusion assay on fastidious anaerobe agar and liquid broth assay in a modified tryptic soy broth. In vitro study investigated the effect of gallium on purified recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase-13 activity using matrix metalloproteinase assay kit. In vivo biocompatibility of gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glass was evaluated in rats as subcutaneous implants. Antibacterial assay of gallium displayed activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis (inhibition zone of 22 ± 0.5 mm compared with 0 mm for control glass, c-PBG). Gallium in the glass contributed to growth inhibitory effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis (up to 1.30 reductions in log 10 values of the viable counts compared with control) in a modified tryptic soy broth. In vitro study showed gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses inhibited matrix metalloproteinase activity significantly (p ≤ 0.01) compared with c-PBG. Evaluation of in vivo biocompatibility of gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses in rats showed a non-toxic and foreign body response after 2 weeks of implantation. The results indicate that gallium ions might act on multiple targets of biological mechanisms underlying periodontal disease. Moreover, gallium-incorporated phosphate-based glasses

  7. Numerical Analysis of Copper-Indium-Gallium-Diselenide-Based Solar Cells by SCAPS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ouédraogo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a one-dimensional simulation program Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator in 1 Dimension (SCAPS-1D to investigate Copper-Indium-Gallium-Diselenide- (CIGS- based solar cells properties. Starting with a conventional ZnO-B/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS structure, we simulated the parameters of current-voltage characteristics and showed how the absorber layer thickness, hole density, and band gap influence the short-circuit current density (Jsc, open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and efficiency of solar cell. Our simulation results showed that all electrical parameters are greatly affected by the absorber thickness (w below 1000 nm, due to the increase of back-contact recombination and very poor absorption. Increasing hole density (p or absorber band gap (Eg improves Voc and leads to high efficiency, which equals value of 16.1% when p = 1016 cm−3 and Eg=1.2 eV. In order to reduce back-contact recombination, the effect of a very thin layer with high band gap inserted near the back contact and acting as electrons reflector, the so-called back-electron reflector (EBR, has been investigated. The performances of the solar cells are significantly improved, when ultrathin absorbers (w < 500 nm are used; the corresponding gain of Jsc due to the EBR is 3 mA/cm2. Our results are in good agreement with those reported in the literature from experiments.

  8. Fabrication and applications of orientation-patterned gallium arsenide for mid-infrared generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisard, A.; Gutty, F.; Lallier, E. [Thales Research and Technology France, 1 av. Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Gerard, B. [III-V Lab, 1 av. Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Jimenez, J. [GdS Optronlab, Fisica Materia Condensada, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2012-07-15

    Nonlinear optical materials play a key role in the development of coherent sources of radiation, by frequency conversion of light from other light sources, e.g. diode, solid-state, and fiber lasers, into spectral ranges where few lasers exist or perform poorly. Based on the principle of the quasi-phase matching, the design and fabrication of orientation-patterned Gallium Arsenide crystals (OP-GaAs) has recently led to demonstrations of second harmonic generation, optical parametric generation, amplification and oscillation from 1 to 12 {mu}m. The most efficient fabrication route for these crystals relies on the use of the near-equilibrium growth process HVPE (Hydride Vapour Phase Epitaxy), by orientation-selective regrowth on OP-GaAs template wafers with a thickness suited to bulk nonlinear optics. This work deals with recent characterizations based on optical experiments and cathodoluminescence measurements, targeting the identification of the main defects, their spatial distribution, and their relation to the optical propagation losses. Latest improvements of the HVPE growth step have enabled to reach an unprecedented level of losses, below 0.016 cm{sup -1}, and a large range of available QPM periods and thickness of structures (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Platinum nanoparticles on gallium nitride surfaces: effect of semiconductor doping on nanoparticle reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Susanne; Wyrzgol, Sonja A; Caterino, Roberta; Jentys, Andreas; Schoell, Sebastian J; Hävecker, Michael; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Lercher, Johannes A; Sharp, Ian D; Stutzmann, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on n- and p-type gallium nitride (GaN) are investigated as novel hybrid systems for the electronic control of catalytic activity via electronic interactions with the semiconductor support. In situ oxidation and reduction were studied with high pressure photoemission spectroscopy. The experiments revealed that the underlying wide-band-gap semiconductor has a large influence on the chemical composition and oxygen affinity of supported nanoparticles under X-ray irradiation. For as-deposited Pt cuboctahedra supported on n-type GaN, a higher fraction of oxidized surface atoms was observed compared to cuboctahedral particles supported on p-type GaN. Under an oxygen atmosphere, immediate oxidation was recorded for nanoparticles on n-type GaN, whereas little oxidation was observed for nanoparticles on p-type GaN. Together, these results indicate that changes in the Pt chemical state under X-ray irradiation depend on the type of GaN doping. The strong interaction between the nanoparticles and the support is consistent with charge transfer of X-ray photogenerated free carriers at the semiconductor-nanoparticle interface and suggests that GaN is a promising wide-band-gap support material for photocatalysis and electronic control of catalysis.

  10. Effect of Cryogenic Cooling for Gallium Nitride Film Placed in Argon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Daisuke; Nakano, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Keiji

    2014-10-01

    There is no doubt for a gallium nitride (GaN) film to have plasma-induced damage (PID) when exposed in a plasma discharge. Our technique to make in-situ monitoring on a GaN film exposed in argon plasma is valuable toward to reveal the evolution of the damage. We evaluated the PID with photoluminescence (PL) that is excited with a ultra-violet light source. Our preliminary result showed that the PL intensity at the blue luminescence band (BL: 400--480 nm) increased while the intensity at yellow luminescence (YL: 480--700 nm) decreased as the plasma exposure time increased. Chen et al. previously found that PL spectrum changes due to both PID and substrate temperature. However, BL intensity is independent from the substrate temperature, while BL intensity is dependent on the degree of PID. In this experiment, we performed the plasma exposure to a GaN film under the situation when the substrate temperature was cooled with liquid nitrogen. The substrate temperature is set at -110 degC and exposed plasma in 15 minutes. In this condition, our BL stayed almost constant. This is an indication that we might be able to avoid the damage in the wavelength shorter than 480 nm. We will show more details from this results and further progresses in this presentation.

  11. Gallium-containing phospho-silicate glasses: synthesis and in vitro bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Mirco; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Menabue, Ledi

    2012-08-01

    A series of Ga-containing phospho-silicate glasses based on Bioglass 45S5, having molar formula 46.2SiO2·24.3Na2O·26.9CaO·2.6P2O5·xGa2O3 (x=1.0, 1.6, 3.5), were prepared by fusion method. The reference Bioglass 45S5 without gallium was also prepared. The synthesized glasses were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 30 days in order to observe ion release and hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. All Ga-containing glasses maintain the ability of HA formation as indicated by main X-ray diffractometric peaks and/or electronic scanning microscopy results. HA layer was formed after 1 day of SBF soaking in 45S5 glass containing up to 1.6% Ga2O3 content. Moreover, gallium released by the glasses was found to be partially precipitated on the glass surface as gallium phosphate. Further increase in gallium content reduced the ion release in SBF. The maximum of Ga(3+) concentration measured in solution is ~6 ppm determined for 3.5% Ga2O3 content. This amount is about half of the toxic level (14 ppm) of gallium and the glasses release gallium till 30 days of immersion in SBF. Considering the above results, the studied materials can be proposed as bioactive glasses with additional antimicrobial effect of gallium having no toxic outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antitumor efficacy and tolerability of systemically administered gallium acetylacetonate-loaded gelucire-stabilized nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrung, Daniel; Bi, Lipeng; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Oyewumi, Moses O

    2013-06-01

    The widespread clinical success with most gallium compounds in cancer therapy is markedly hampered by lack of tumor specific accumulation, poor tumor permeability and undesirable toxicity to healthy tissues. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time antitumor mechanism of a new gallium compound (gallium acetylacetonate; GaAcAc) while assessing effectiveness of gelucire-stabilized nanoparticles (NPs) for potential application in gallium-based lung cancer therapy. NPs loaded with GaAcAc (Ga-NPs) were prepared using mixtures of cetyl alcohol with Gelucire 44/14 (Ga-NP-1) or Gelucire 53/13 (Ga-NP-2) as matrix materials. Of special note from this work is the direct evidence of involvement of microtubule disruption in antitumor effects of GaAcAc on human lung adenocarcinoma (A549). In-vivo tolerability studies were based on plasma ALT, creatinine levels and histopathological examination of tissues. The superior in-vivo antitumor efficacy of Ga-NPs over GaAcAc was depicted in marked reduction of tumor weight and tumor volume as well as histological assessment of excised tumors. Compared to free GaAcAc, Ga-NPs showed a 3-fold increase in tumor-to-blood gallium concentrations with minimized overall exposure to healthy tissues. Overall, enhancement of antitumor effects of GaAcAc by gelucire-stabilized NPs coupled with reduced exposure of healthy tissues to gallium would likely ensure desired therapeutic outcomes and safety of gallium-based cancer treatment.

  13. In vitro bio-functionality of gallium nitride sensors for radiation biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Markus; Howgate, John; Schmid, Martin; Schoell, Sebastian; Sachsenhauser, Matthias; Adigüzel, Denis; Stutzmann, Martin; Sharp, Ian D; Thalhammer, Stefan

    2012-07-27

    There is an increasing interest in the integration of hybrid bio-semiconductor systems for the non-invasive evaluation of physiological parameters. High quality gallium nitride and its alloys show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Nevertheless, such applications not only request appropriate sensing capabilities but also the biocompatibility and especially the biofunctionality of materials. Here we show extensive biocompatibility studies of gallium nitride and, for the first time, a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Analytical sensor devices are used in medical settings, as well as for cell- and tissue engineering. Within these fields, semiconductor devices have increasingly been applied for online biosensing on a cellular and tissue level. Integration of advanced materials such as gallium nitride into these systems has the potential to increase the range of applicability for a multitude of test devices and greatly enhance sensitivity and functionality. However, for such applications it is necessary to optimize cell-surface interactions and to verify the biocompatibility of the semiconductor. In this work, we present studies of mouse fibroblast cell activity grown on gallium nitride surfaces after applying external noxa. Cell-semiconductor hybrids were irradiated with X-rays at air kerma doses up to 250 mGy and the DNA repair dynamics, cell proliferation, and cell growth dynamics of adherent cells were compared to control samples. The impact of ionizing radiation on DNA, along with the associated cellular repair mechanisms, is well characterized and serves as a reference tool for evaluation of substrate effects. The results indicate that gallium nitride does not require specific surface treatments to ensure biocompatibility and suggest that cell signaling is not affected by micro-environmental alterations arising from gallium nitride-cell interactions. The observation that gallium nitride provides no bio-functional influence on

  14. Investigating the effect of gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin complexes on the structure, function and oxidative stability of the peroxidase enzyme and their anticancer and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangoshaei, Parisa; Hassani, Leila; Mohammadi, Fakhrossadat; Hamidi, Akram; Mohammadi, Khosro

    2015-10-01

    Curcumin has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Complexation of curcumin with metals has gained attention in recent years for improvement of its stability. In this study, the effect of gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin on the structure, function and oxidative stability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme were evaluated by spectroscopic techniques. In addition to the enzymatic investigation, the cytotoxic effect of the complexes was assessed on bladder, MCF-7 breast cancer and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cell lines by MTT assay. Furthermore, antibacterial activity of the complexes against S. aureus and E. coli was explored by dilution test method. The results showed that the complexes improve activity of HRP and also increase its tolerance against the oxidative condition. After addition of the complexes, affinity of HRP for hydrogen peroxide substrate decreases, while the affinity increases for phenol substrate. Circular dichroism, intrinsic and synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the enzyme structure around the catalytic heme group becomes less compact and also the distance between the heme group and tryptophan residues increases due to binding of the complexes to HRP. On the whole, it can be concluded that the change in the enzyme structure upon binding to the gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin complexes results in an increase in the antioxidant efficiency and activity of the peroxidise enzyme. The result of anticancer and antibacterial activities suggested that the complexes exhibit the potential for cancer treatment, but they have no significant antibacterial activity.

  15. Investigating change of properties in gallium ion irradiation patterned single-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Quan, E-mail: wangq@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Dong, Jinyao; Bai, Bing [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xie, Guoxin [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-10-14

    Besides its excellent physical properties, graphene promises to play a significant role in electronics with superior properties, which requires patterning of graphene for device integration. Here, we presented the changes in properties of single-layer graphene before and after patterning using gallium ion beam. Combined with Raman spectra of graphene, the scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) image confirmed that a metal–insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. The changes in work function and Raman spectra of graphene indicated that the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. The patterning width of graphene presented an increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate. - Highlights: • The scanning capacitance microscopy image confirmed a metal–insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. • The changes indicated the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. • The patterning width of graphene presented a increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate.

  16. Bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy in patients with adult still's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanegae, Futoshi; Tada, Yoshifumi; Ohta, Akihide; Ushiyama, Osamu; Suzuki; Noriaki; Koarada, Syuichi; Haruta, Yoshio; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Nagasawa, Kohei [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We investigated the features and the usefulness of gallium scintigraphy in the diagnosis and the assessment of Adult Still's disease (ASD) by retrospective case review. Gallium scintigraphy have been done for 11 cases of ASD (3 males and 8 females) and 4 females were positive. Among these, 67 Ga-citrate was accumulated to the bone marrow in all 4 cases and to the major joints in 2 cases. Positive cases were rather serious and administered more immunosuppressants than negative cases. In order to characterize gallium scintigraphy findings of ASD, i.e. bone marrow accumulation, we analyzed 130 cases of collagen vascular disease. Although 101 cases (77.7%) were positive, only 7 cases (5.4%) showed the accumulation of {sup 67}Ga-citrate to the bone marrow. These include 3 cases with ASD, and 1 case with systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener's granulomatosis and Sjogren's syndrome. We also accumulated 18 patients who exhibited bone marrow accumulation of {sup 69}Ga-citrate, and found that 7 patients had collagen vascular and their related diseases. In conclusion, bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy is a specific feature of collagen vascular diseases, especially ASD, and it is suggested that cases with positive gallium scintigraphy in ASD can be serious and resistant to treatment. (author)

  17. The global anthropogenic gallium system: determinants of demand, supply and efficiency improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvik, Amund N; Restrepo, Eliette; Müller, Daniel B

    2015-05-05

    Gallium has been labeled as a critical metal due to rapidly growing consumption, importance for low-carbon technologies such as solid state lighting and photovoltaics, and being produced only as a byproduct of other metals (mainly aluminum). The global system of primary production, manufacturing, use and recycling has not yet been described or quantified in the literature. This prevents predictions of future demand, supply and possibilities for efficiency improvements on a system level. We present a description of the global anthropogenic gallium system and quantify the system using a combination of statistical data and technical parameters. We estimated that gallium was produced from 8 to 21% of alumina plants in 2011. The most important applications of gallium are NdFeB permanent magnets, integrated circuits and GaAs/GaP-based light-emitting diodes, demanding 22-37%, 16-27%, and 11-21% of primary metal production, respectively. GaN-based light-emitting diodes and photovoltaics are less important, both with 2-6%. We estimated that 120-170 tons, corresponding to 40-60% of primary production, ended up in production wastes that were either disposed of or stored. While demand for gallium is expected to rise in the future, our results indicated that it is possible to increase primary production substantially with conventional technology, as well as improve the system-wide material efficiency.

  18. Cell behavior on gallium nitride surfaces: peptide affinity attachment versus covalent functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Corey M; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-07-02

    Gallium nitride is a wide band gap semiconductor that demonstrates a unique set of optical and electrical properties as well as aqueous stability and biocompatibility. This combination of properties makes gallium nitride a strong candidate for use in chemical and biological applications such as sensors and neural interfaces. Molecular modification can be used to enhance the functionality and properties of the gallium nitride surface. Here, gallium nitride surfaces were functionalized with a PC12 cell adhesion promoting peptide using covalent and affinity driven attachment methods. The covalent scheme proceeded by Grignard reaction and olefin metathesis while the affinity driven scheme utilized the recognition peptide isolated through phage display. This study shows that the method of attaching the adhesion peptide influences PC12 cell adhesion and differentiation as measured by cell density and morphological analysis. Covalent attachment promoted monolayer and dispersed cell adhesion while affinity driven attachment promoted multilayer cell agglomeration. Higher cell density was observed on surfaces modified using the recognition peptide. The results suggest that the covalent and affinity driven attachment methods are both suitable for promoting PC12 cell adhesion to the gallium nitride surface, though each method may be preferentially suited for distinct applications.

  19. Biofilm formation on titanium implants counteracted by grafting gallium and silver ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochis, Andrea; Azzimonti, Barbara; Della Valle, Cinzia; Chiesa, Roberto; Arciola, Carla Renata; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-03-01

    Biofilm-associated infections remain the leading cause of implant failure. Thanks to its established biocompatibility and biomechanical properties, titanium has become one of the most widely used materials for bone implants. Engineered surface modifications of titanium able to thwart biofilm formation while endowing a safe anchorage to eukaryotic cells are being progressively developed. Here surfaces of disks of commercial grade 2 titanium for bone implant were grafted with gallium and silver ions by anodic spark deposition. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface morphology and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for characterization. Gallium-grafted titanium was evaluated in comparison with silver-grafted titanium for both in vivo and in vitro antibiofilm properties and for in vitro compatibility with human primary gingival fibroblasts. Surface-modified materials showed: (i) homogeneous porous morphology, with pores of micrometric size; (ii) absence of cytotoxic effects; (iii) ability to support in vitro the adhesion and spreading of gingival fibroblasts; and (iv) antibiofilm properties. Although both silver and gallium exhibited in vitro strong antibacterial properties, in vivo gallium was significantly more effective than silver in reducing number and viability of biofilm bacteria colonies. Gallium-based treatments represent promising titanium antibiofilm coatings to develop new bone implantable devices for oral, maxillofacial, and orthopedic applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Novel solution-phase structures of gallium-containing pyrogallol[4]arene scaffolds**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Harshita; Kline, Steven R.; Wycoff, Wei G.; Paul, Rick L.; Mossine, Andrew V.; Deakyne, Carol A.; Atwood, Jerry L.

    2012-01-01

    The variations in architecture of gallium-seamed (PgC4Ga) and gallium-zinc-seamed (PgC4GaZn) C-butylpyrogallol[4]arene nanoassemblies in solution (SANS/NMR) versus the solid state (XRD) have been investigated. Rearrangement from the solid-state spheroidal to the solution-phase toroidal shape differentiates the gallium-containing pyrogallol[4]arene nanoassemblies from all other PgCnM nanocapsules studied thus far. Different structural arrangements of the metals and arenes of PgC4Ga versus PgC4GaZn have been deduced from the different toroidal dimensions, C–H proton environments and guest encapsulation of the two toroids. PGAA of mixed-metal hexamers reveals a decrease in gallium-to-metal ratio as the second metal varies from cobalt to zinc. Overall, the combined study demonstrates the versatility of gallium in directing the self-assembly of pyrogallol[4]arenes into novel nanoarchitectures. PMID:22511521

  1. Optical Properties of Strained Wurtzite Gallium Phosphide Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Greil, J.

    2016-06-08

    Wurtzite gallium phosphide (WZ GaP) has been predicted to exhibit a direct bandgap in the green spectral range. Optical transitions, however, are only weakly allowed by the symmetry of the bands. While efficient luminescence has been experimentally shown, the nature of the transitions is not yet clear. Here we apply tensile strain up to 6% and investigate the evolution of the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of WZ GaP nanowires (NWs). The pressure and polarization dependence of the emission together with a theoretical analysis of strain effects is employed to establish the nature and symmetry of the transitions. We identify the emission lines to be related to localized states with significant admixture of Γ7c symmetry and not exclusively related to the Γ8c conduction band minimum (CBM). The results emphasize the importance of strongly bound state-related emission in the pseudodirect semiconductor WZ GaP and contribute significantly to the understanding of the optoelectronic properties of this novel material.

  2. Piezoelectric effect on the thermal conductivity of monolayer gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations, in this work, we find that the heat transport property of the monolayer gallium nitride (GaN) can be efficiently tailored by external electric field due to its unique piezoelectric characteristic. As the monolayer GaN possesses different piezoelectric properties in armchair and zigzag directions, different effects of the external electric field on thermal conductivity are observed when it is applied in the armchair and zigzag directions. Our further study reveals that due to the elastoelectric effect in the monolayer GaN, the external electric field changes the Young's modulus and therefore changes the phonon group velocity. Also, due to the inverse piezoelectric effect, the applied electric field induces in-plane stress in the monolayer GaN subject to a length constraint, which results in the change in the lattice anharmonicity and therefore affects the phonon mean free path. Furthermore, for relatively long GaN monolayers, the in-plane stress may trigger the buckling instability, which can significantly reduce the phonon mean free path.

  3. Mechanochemical activation and gallium and indiaarsenides surface catalycity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirovskaya, I. A.; Mironova, E. V.; Umansky, I. V.; Brueva, O. Yu; Murashova, A. O.; Yureva, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The present work has been carried out in terms of determining the possibilities for a clearer identification of the active sites nature, intermediate surface compounds nature, functional groups during adsorption and catalysis, activation of the diamond-like semiconductors surface (in particular, the AIIIBV type) based on mechanochemical studies of the “reaction medium (H2O, iso-C3H7OH) - dispersible semiconductor (GaAs, InAs)” systems. As a result, according to the read kinetic curves of dispersion in water, both acidification and alkalinization of the medium have been established and explained; increased activity of the newly formed surface has been noted; intermediate surface compounds, functional groups appearing on the real surface and under H2O adsorption conditions, adsorption and catalytic decomposition of iso-C3H7OH have been found (with explanation of the origin). The unconcealed role of coordinatively unsaturated atoms as active sites of these processes has been shown; the relative catalytic activity of the semiconductors studied has been evaluated. Practical recommendations on the preferred use of gallium arsenide in semiconductor gas analysis and semiconductor catalysis have been given in literature searches, great care should be taken in constructing both.

  4. Investigation of a Gallium MPD Thruster with an Ablating Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    Arc impedance, exhaust velocity, and plasma probe measurements are presented. The thruster is driven by a 50 microsecond pulse from a 6.2 milliohm pulse forming network, and gallium is supplied to the discharge by evaporation of the cathode. The arc voltage is found to vary linearly with the discharge current with an arc impedance of 6.5 milliohms. Electrostatic probes yield an exhaust velocity that is invariant with the discharge current and has a peak value of 20 kilometers per second, which is in reasonable agreement with the value (16 plus or minus 1 kilometer per second) calculated from the mass bit and discharge current data. Triple probe measurements yield on axis electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV, electron densities in the range of 1.6 x 10(exp 21) to 2.1 x 10(exp 22) per cubic meter, and a divergence half angle of 16 degrees. Measurements within the interelectrode region yield a peak magnetic field of 0.8 T, and the observed radial trends are consistent with an azimuthally symmetric current distribution. A cathode power balance model is coupled with an ablative heat conduction model predicting mass bit values that are within 20% of the experimental values.

  5. The hyperfine properties of iron-gallium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzain, M., E-mail: elzain@squ.edu.om; Gismelseed, A.; Al-Rawas, A.; Yousif, A.; Widatallah, H.; Al-Azri, Maya [Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Physics (Oman); Al-Barwani, M. [NYU Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-12-15

    The hyperfine properties at Fe site in iron-gallium alloy are calculated using the full-potential linear-augmented-plane-waves method. We have calculated the Fermi contact field (B{sub hf}) and isomer shift (δ) at the Fe site versus the number of neighbouring Ga atoms. We found that B{sub hf} decrease whereas δ increases with increasing number of neighbouring G atom. In addition we have calculated the hyperfine properties of FeGa system with DO{sub 3} structure, where various distributions of 4 the Ga atoms in the conventional unit cell are considered (including the regular DO{sub 3} structure). We found that the DO{sub 3} structure has the lowest energy as compared to the other configurations. The two distinct A and D sites of the ordered DO{sub 3} conventional unit cell have two distinct values for B{sub hf} and δ. On changing the atomic arrangement of the Ga atoms within the conventional unit cell, the configuration of the A site is maintained whereas that of the D site becomes imperfect. The contact magnetic hyperfine fields of the D-like sites in the imperfect structures are lower than that of the DO{sub 3}D site.

  6. Layer transfer of bulk gallium nitride by controlled spalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, S. W.; Lauro, P.; Ott, J. A.; Fogel, K.; Sadana, D. K.

    2017-07-01

    Successful wafer-scale layer transfer from high-quality 2-in. diameter bulk gallium nitride substrates was demonstrated using the Controlled Spalling technique. The crystal quality of both the as-fractured bulk substrate and the spalled GaN film was assessed using transmission electron microscopy analysis, and the defect density was below the detection limit (mid 107 cm-2) for both samples. By using the experimentally determined critical conditions for tensile stress and thickness of the Ni stressor layer, an effective fracture toughness KIC of 1.7 MPa √{m } could be calculated for [0001] fracture using the Suo and Hutchinson mechanical model. The resulting in-plane contraction of the GaN film after spalling permitted a novel method for measuring film strain without knowledge of the elastic properties of the material. This was used to measure the Raman E2(high) peak shift coefficient of Δω(cm-1) = 1411ɛ which, when converted to a stress coefficient (2.95 cm-1/GPa), was in agreement with only one other literature value.

  7. Photoelectrochemical etching of gallium nitride surface by complexation dissolution mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao-Rong; Hou, Fei; Wang, Zu-Gang; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2017-07-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) surface was etched by 0.3 M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-2Na) via photoelectrochemical etching technique. SEM images reveal the etched GaN surface becomes rough and irregular. The pore density is up to 1.9 × 109 per square centimeter after simple acid post-treatment. The difference of XPS spectra of Ga 3d, N 1s and O 1s between the non-etched and freshly etched GaN surfaces can be attributed to the formation of Ga-EDTA complex at the etching interface between GaN and EDTA-2Na. The proposed complexation dissolution mechanism can be broadly applicable to almost all neutral etchants under the prerequisite of strong light and electric field. From the point of view of environment, safety and energy, EDTA-2Na has obvious advantages over conventionally corrosive etchants. Moreover, as the further and deeper study of such nearly neutral etchants, GaN etching technology has better application prospect in photoelectric micro-device fabrication.

  8. Pure spin current transport in gallium doped zinc oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althammer, Matthias; Mukherjee, Joynarayan; Geprägs, Stephan; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Opel, Matthias; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Gross, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    We study the flow of a pure spin current through zinc oxide by measuring the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in thin film trilayer samples consisting of bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG), gallium-doped zinc oxide (Ga:ZnO), and platinum. We investigate the dependence of the SMR magnitude on the thickness of the Ga:ZnO interlayer and compare to a Bi:YIG/Pt bilayer. We find that the SMR magnitude is reduced by almost one order of magnitude upon inserting a Ga:ZnO interlayer and continuously decreases with increasing interlayer thickness. Nevertheless, the SMR stays finite even for a 12 nm thick Ga:ZnO interlayer. These results show that a pure spin current indeed can propagate through a several nm-thick degenerately doped zinc oxide layer. We also observe differences in both the temperature and the field dependence of the SMR when comparing tri- and bilayers. Finally, we compare our data to the predictions of a model based on spin diffusion. This shows that interface resistances play a crucial role for the SMR magnitude in these trilayer structures.

  9. Schottky Barrier Transport for Multiphase Gallium Nitride Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Steven; Xie, Kan; Liu, Zhun; Ayres, Virginia

    2013-03-01

    Our group has shown that gallium nitride nanowires grown by catalyst-free vapor deposition at 850oC have multiple internal crystalline regions that may be zinc blende or wurtzite phase. Stability is enabled by one or more totally coherent (0001)/(111) internal interfaces. Cross-section HRTEM has further demonstrated that, while the transverse nanowire profile appears triangular, it is actually made up of two or more surface orientations corresponding to the multi-phase internal regions. We present results of a transport investigation of these multiphase nanowires within a nanoFET circuit architecture, focusing on injection from the contacts into the nanowires. Experimental results demonstrated that a variety of surface state derived Schottky barriers could be present at the contact-nanowire interfaces. Transport across the Schottky barriers was modeled using a combined thermionic emission-tunnelling approach, leading to information about barrier height, carrier concentrations, and expected temperature behavior. The experimental and theoretical results indicate that with optimal design taking surface and internal structures into account, high current densities can be supported.

  10. Lacrimal gland uptake of (67)Ga-gallium citrate correlates with biopsy results in patients with suspected sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Bradford L; Kolomeyer, Anton M; Turbin, Roger E; Frohman, Larry; Langer, Paul D; Oh, Cheongeun; Ghesani, Nasrin V; Zuckier, Lionel S; Chu, David S

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether lacrimal gland uptake on (67)Ga-gallium citrate scintigraphy correlates with histopathologic evidence of sarcoidosis. A retrospective, pilot study of 31 patients with suspected sarcoidosis who underwent gallium scintigraphy and lacrimal gland biopsy. Lacrimal gland gallium uptake was assessed by subjective visual scoring (SVS) and lacrimal uptake ratio (LUR). Eleven (36%) patients had lacrimal gland biopsies containing noncaseating granulomas. A statistically significant correlation was found between lacrimal gland gallium uptake and biopsy positivity using SVS (p = 0.03) or LUR (p = 0.01). Using SVS, biopsy positivity rate increased from 0 to 50% in patients with mild to intense uptake. Using LUR, biopsy positivity rate increased linearly as the ratio increased from 13% (LUR  8). Lacrimal biopsy positivity rate significantly correlated with gallium uptake on scintigraphy. Both SVS and LUR methods appear to correlate with histologic results and may potentially aid in patient selection for biopsy.

  11. Gallium nitrate induces fibrinogen flocculation: an explanation for its hemostatic effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, A; Holt, D J; Zerbib, P; Rogosnitzky, M

    2013-12-01

    A novel hemostatic effect of gallium nitrate has recently been discovered. Our aim was to perform a preliminary investigation into its mode of action. Thromboelastography® showed no effect on coagulation but pointed instead to changes in fibrinogen concentration. We measured functional fibrinogen in whole blood after addition of gallium nitrate and nitric acid. We found that gallium nitrate induces fibrinogen precipitation in whole blood to a significantly higher degree than solutions of nitric acid alone. This precipitate is not primarily pH driven, and appears to occur via flocculation. This behavior is in line with the generally observed ability of metals to induce fibrinogen precipitation. Further investigation is required into this novel phenomenon.

  12. Magnetoelectric effect in layered structures of amorphous ferromagnetic alloy and gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichurin, M.I., E-mail: mirza.bichurin@novsu.ru; Petrov, V.M.; Leontiev, V.S.; Ivanov, S.N.; Sokolov, O.V.

    2017-02-15

    A paper devotes to theoretical and experimental studying the magnetoelectric interaction in layered structures of amorphous ferromagnetic alloy and single- crystal gallium arsenide. The authors investigated the magnetoelectric effect in the (100) plane of gallium arsenide in the electromechanical resonance range of 200–240 kHz and obtained maximal ME voltage coefficient of 120 V/A at bias field equaled 3.6 kA/m for the direction parallel to the [011] axis. Also the magnetoelectric effect in the (110) and (111) planes is discussed. The results can be used for design of new electronic devices based on the magnetostrictive-semiconductor materials. - Highlights: • Theoretical modeling of ME interaction was conducted. • Experimental dependencies in the resonance range were done. • Maximal ME effect of gallium arsenide was observed.

  13. Czochralski crystal growth and aluminum segregation coefficient in yttrium gallium aluminum garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabkowski, A.; Berkowski, M.; Jasiołek, G.

    1985-04-01

    The aluminum distribution coefficient and the amount of octahedral yttrium aluminum gallium garnet single crystals obtained by the Czochralski method have been determined from lattice constant variations during crystal growth. The value of the aluminum distribution coefficient was close to 2 for those parts of the crystal with a convex solid-liquid interface and it was close to 1 for those with a flat solid-liquid interface. The large difference between these values can be explained by chemical stresses in the crystal in the meltback region and small changes of the lattice constant in the part of crystal with a flat solid-liquid interface. Single crystals of yttrium aluminum gallium garnet with a lattice constant appropriate for LPE film growth of yttrium gallium garnet have been grown.

  14. Gallium-Based Room-Temperature Liquid Metals: Actuation and Manipulation of Droplets and Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Majidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gallium-based room-temperature liquid metals possess extremely valuable properties, such as low toxicity, low vapor pressure, and high thermal and electrical conductivity enabling them to become suitable substitutes for mercury and beyond in wide range of applications. When exposed to air, a native oxide layer forms on the surface of gallium-based liquid metals which mechanically stabilizes the liquid. By removing or reconstructing the oxide skin, shape and state of liquid metal droplets and flows can be manipulated/actuated desirably. This can occur manually or in the presence/absence of a magnetic/electric field. These methods lead to numerous useful applications such as soft electronics, reconfigurable devices, and soft robots. In this mini-review, we summarize the most recent progresses achieved on liquid metal droplet generation and actuation of gallium-based liquid metals with/without an external force.

  15. Renal gallium accumulation in rats with antibiotic-induced nephritis: clinical implications. Concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.; Nelson, H.; Vasquez, M.; Hollenbeck, J.

    1980-07-01

    To determine the effect of antibiotic-induced nephrotoxicity on the renal accumulation of gallium, groups of ten Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of gentamycin, amphotericin, or neomycin for a period of 16 to 21 days. In all cases, mild to moderate nephrotoxicity was documented by one or more of the following parameters: serum creatinine, renal weight, urine volume (renal concentrating ability), light microscopy, and electron microscopy. In none of these cases was the renal accumulation of gallium increased over control values. Consequently, diffuse renal accumulation of gallium in patients with subclinical or mild nephrotoxicity is unlikely to be related to short-term treatment with aminoglycosides or amphotericin. In such cases, the physician should seek some other clinical explanation, such as infection.

  16. Surface-enhanced gallium arsenide photonic resonator with a quality factor of six million

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Biswarup; Cadiz, Fabian; Morgenroth, Laurence; Ulin, Vladimir; Berkovitz, Vladimir; Lemaître, Aristide; Gomez, Carmen; Amo, Alberto; Combrié, Sylvian; Gérard, Bruno; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Gallium Arsenide and related compound semiconductors lie at the heart of optoelectronics and integrated laser technologies. Shaped at the micro and nano-scale, they allow strong interaction with quantum dots and quantum wells, and promise to result in stunning devices. However gallium arsenide optical structures presently exhibit lower performances than their silicon-based counterparts, notably in nanophotonics where the surface plays a chief role. Here we report on advanced surface control of miniature gallium arsenide optical resonators, using two distinct techniques that produce permanent results. One leads to extend the lifetime of free-carriers and enhance luminescence, while the other strongly reduces surface absorption originating from mid-gap states and enables ultra-low optical dissipation devices. With such surface control, the quality factor of wavelength-sized optical disk resonators is observed to rise up to six million at telecom wavelength, greatly surpassing previous realizations and opening n...

  17. Ohmic contact formation process on low n-type gallium arsenide (GaAs) using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seong-Uk [Samsung-SKKU Graphene Center and School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Product and Test Engineering Team, System LSI Division, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, Yongin 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo-Shik [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lee, In-Yeal; Jung, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Gil-Ho [Samsung-SKKU Graphene Center and School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Hong, E-mail: jhpark9@skku.edu [Samsung-SKKU Graphene Center and School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • We propose a method to fabricate non-gold Ohmic contact on low n-type GaAs with IGZO. • 0.15 A/cm{sup 2} on-current and 1.5 on/off-current ratio are achieved in the junction. • InAs and InGaAs formed by this process decrease an electron barrier height. • Traps generated by diffused O atoms also induce a trap-assisted tunneling phenomenon. - Abstract: Here, an excellent non-gold Ohmic contact on low n-type GaAs is demonstrated by using indium gallium zinc oxide and investigating through time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, J–V measurement, and H [enthalpy], S [entropy], Cp [heat capacity] chemistry simulation. In is diffused through GaAs during annealing and reacts with As, forming InAs and InGaAs phases with lower energy bandgap. As a result, it decreases the electron barrier height, eventually increasing the reverse current. In addition, traps generated by diffused O atoms induce a trap-assisted tunneling phenomenon, increasing generation current and subsequently the reverse current. Therefore, an excellent Ohmic contact with 0.15 A/cm{sup 2} on-current density and 1.5 on/off-current ratio is achieved on n-type GaAs.

  18. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, P{sub max} was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  19. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna

    2015-05-01

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, Pmax was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  20. Formation of Flexible and Transparent Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide/Ag/Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Multilayer Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Da-Som; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Yoo, Young-Zo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Sang-Woo; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the electrical, optical, and bending characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)/Ag/IGZO (39 nm/19 nm/39 nm) multilayer films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate at room temperature were investigated and compared with those of Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) (100 nm thick) films. At 500 nm the ITO film transmitted 91.3% and the IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film transmitted 88.8%. The calculated transmittance spectrum of the multilayer film was similar to the experimental result. The ITO film and IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film, respectively, showed carrier concentrations of 1.79 × 1020 and 7.68 × 1021 cm-3 and mobilities of 27.18 cm2/V s and 18.17 cm2/V s. The ITO film had a sheet resistance of 134.9 Ω/sq and the IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film one of 5.09 Ω/sq. Haacke's figure of merit (FOM) was calculated to be 1.94 × 10-3 for the ITO film and 45.02 × 10-3 Ω-1 for the IGZO/Ag/IGZO multilayer film. The resistance change of 100 nm-thick ITO film was unstable even after five cycles, while that of the IGZO/Ag/IGZO film was constant up to 1000 cycles.

  1. Effect of novel antibacterial gallium-carboxymethyl cellulose on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Yiu, Humphrey H P; Bouffier, Laurent; Hope, Christopher K; Evans, Gary; Claridge, John B; Higham, Susan M; Rosseinsky, Matthew J

    2013-02-07

    Gallium has emerged as a new therapeutic agent due partly to the scarcity in development of new antibiotics. In this study, a novel antibacterial gallium exchanged carboxymethyl cellulose (Ga-CMC) has been developed and tested for the susceptibility on a common bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results show that an increase in average molecular weight (MW) from 90 k, 250 k to 700 k of Ga-CMC caused a decrease in antimicrobial activity against planktonic P. aeruginosa. Gallium loading of the Ga-CMC (250 k) samples was altered by varying the amount of functionality (0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 acid groups per mole of carbohydrate) which affected also its antimicrobial activity against planktonic P. aeruginosa. Further, the ability to prevent the growth of biofilms of P. aeruginosa was tested on MW = 250 k samples with 0.9 acid groups per mole of carbohydrate as this sample showed the most promising activity against planktonic P. aeruginosa. Gallium was found to reduce biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa with a maximum effect (0.85 log(10) CFU reduction compared to sodium-carboxymethyl cellulose, Na-CMC) after 24 h. Results of the solubility and ion exchange studies show that this compound is suitable for the controlled release of Ga(3+) upon their breakdown in the presence of bacteria. SEM EDX analysis confirmed that Ga(3+) ions are evenly exchanged on the cellulose surface and systematic controls were carried out to ensure that antibacterial activity is solely due to the presence of gallium as samples intrinsic acidity or nature of counterion did not affect the activity. The results presented here highlight that Ga-CMC may be useful in controlled drug delivery applications, to deliver gallium ions in order to prevent infections due to P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  2. Semi-quantitative evaluation of gallium-67 scintigraphy in lupus nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wanyu [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Dept. of Radiological Technology, Chung-Tai College of Medical Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Hsieh Jihfang [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Chi-Mei Foundation Hospital, Yunk Kang City, Tainan (Taiwan); Tsai Shihchuan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Lan Joungliang [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Cheng Kaiyuan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Chung-Tai College of Medical Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Wang Shyhjen [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2000-11-01

    Within nuclear medicine there is a trend towards quantitative analysis. Gallium renal scan has been reported to be useful in monitoring the disease activity of lupus nephritis. However, only visual interpretation using a four-grade scale has been performed in previous studies, and this method is not sensitive enough for follow-up. In this study, we developed a semi-quantitative method for gallium renal scintigraphy to find a potential parameter for the evaluation of lupus nephritis. Forty-eight patients with lupus nephritis underwent renal biopsy to determine World Health Organization classification, activity index (AI) and chronicity index (CI). A delayed 48-h gallium scan was also performed and interpreted by visual and semi-quantitative methods. For semi-quantitative analysis of the gallium uptake in both kidneys, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over both kidneys, the right forearm and the adjacent spine. The uptake ratios between these ROIs were calculated and expressed as the ''kidney/spine ratio (K/S ratio)'' or the ''kidney/arm ratio (K/A ratio)''. Spearman's rank correlation test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Our data showed a good correlation between the semi-quantitative gallium scan and the results of visual interpretation. K/S ratios showed a better correlation with AI than did K/A ratios. Furthermore, the left K/S ratio displayed a better correlation with AI than did the right K/S ratio. In contrast, CI did not correlate well with the results of semi-quantitative gallium scan. In conclusion, semi-quantitative gallium renal scan is easy to perform and shows a good correlation with the results of visual interpretation and renal biopsy. The left K/S ratio from semi-quantitative renal gallium scintigraphy displays the best correlation with AI and is a useful parameter in evaluating the disease activity in lupus nephritis. (orig.)

  3. Gallium-containing phospho-silicate glasses: Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchini, Mirco; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca, E-mail: gmalavasi@unimo.it; Menabue, Ledi

    2012-08-01

    A series of Ga-containing phospho-silicate glasses based on Bioglass 45S5, having molar formula 46.2SiO{sub 2}{center_dot}24.3Na{sub 2}O{center_dot}26.9CaO{center_dot}2.6P{sub 2}O{sub 5}{center_dot}xGa{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 1.0, 1.6, 3.5), were prepared by fusion method. The reference Bioglass 45S5 without gallium was also prepared. The synthesized glasses were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 30 days in order to observe ion release and hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. All Ga-containing glasses maintain the ability of HA formation as indicated by main X-ray diffractometric peaks and/or electronic scanning microscopy results. HA layer was formed after 1 day of SBF soaking in 45S5 glass containing up to 1.6% Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. Moreover, gallium released by the glasses was found to be partially precipitated on the glass surface as gallium phosphate. Further increase in gallium content reduced the ion release in SBF. The maximum of Ga{sup 3+} concentration measured in solution is {approx} 6 ppm determined for 3.5% Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. This amount is about half of the toxic level (14 ppm) of gallium and the glasses release gallium till 30 days of immersion in SBF. Considering the above results, the studied materials can be proposed as bioactive glasses with additional antimicrobial effect of gallium having no toxic outcome. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new class of potential bioactive glasses gallium content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlled ions release from the glass surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content on bioactivity (hydroxyapatite formation). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of calcite when the phosphate concentration is low in SBF.

  4. Gallium-SPECT in the detection of prosthetic valve endocarditis and aortic ring abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, K.; Barnes, D.; Martin, R.H.; Rae, J.R. (Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Victoria General Hospital Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1991-09-01

    A 52-yr-old man who had a bioprosthetic aortic valve developed Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Despite antibiotic therapy he had persistent pyrexia and developed new conduction system disturbances. Echocardiography did not demonstrate vegetations on the valve or an abscess, but gallium scintigraphy using SPECT clearly identified a focus of intense activity in the region of the aortic valve. The presence of valvular vegetations and a septal abscess was confirmed at autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy, using SPECT, provided a useful noninvasive method for the demonstration of endocarditis and the associated valve ring abscess.

  5. Development of a Free Carrier Absorption Measurement Instrument for Indium Phosphide and Gallium Arsenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-27

    AD-A174 ř DEVELOPMENT OF R FREE CARRIER ABSORPTION MEASUREMENT 1/2 INSTRUMENT FOR INDTU (U) EAGLE-PICHER RESEARCH LAB MIAMI OK SPECIALTY MATERIALS...SOBI S D Final Report Development of a Free Carrier Absorption Measurement Instrument For Indium Phosphide and Gallium Arsenide EAGLE PICHER R ES EA R CH...i P r OTic S D L C T DEC 0 3 ang Final Report Development of a Free Carrier Absorption Measurement Instrument For Indium Phosphide and Gallium

  6. Results of the Gallium-Clad Phase 3 and Phase 4 tasks (canceled prior to completion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.N.

    1998-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Gallium-Clad interactions Phase 3 and 4 tasks. Both tasks were to involve examining the out-of-pile stability of residual gallium in short fuel rods with an imposed thermal gradient. The thermal environment was to be created by an electrical heater in the center of the fuel rod and coolant flow on the rod outer cladding. Both tasks were canceled due to difficulties with fuel pellet fabrication, delays in the preparation of the test apparatus, and changes in the Fissile Materials Disposition program budget.

  7. Thermal Cycling and High Temperature Reverse Bias Testing of Control and Irradiated Gallium Nitride Power Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Boomer, Kristen T.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling and testing under high temperature reverse bias conditions in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Result of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  8. Role of Oxidative Stress in the Induction of Metallothionein-2A and Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Expression by the Antineoplastic Agent Gallium Nitrate in Human Lymphoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meiying; Chitambar, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of action of gallium nitrate, an antineoplastic drug, are only partly understood. Using a DNA microarray to examine genes induced by gallium nitrate in CCRF-CEM cells, we found that gallium increased metallothionein-2A (MT2A) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression and altered the levels of other stress-related genes. MT2A and HO-1 were increased after 6 and 16 h of incubation with gallium nitrate. An increase in oxidative stress, evidenced by a decrease in cellular GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, and an increase in dichlorodihydrofluoroscein (DCF) fluorescence, was seen after 1 – 4 h incubation of cells with gallium nitrate. DCF fluorescence was blocked by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone. N-acetyl-L-cysteine blocked gallium-induced MT2A and HO-1 expression and increased gallium’s cytotoxicity. Studies with a zinc-specific fluoroprobe suggested that gallium produced an expansion of an intracellular labile zinc pool, suggesting an action of gallium on zinc homeostasis. Gallium nitrate increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and activated Nrf-2, a regulator of HO-1 gene transcription. Gallium-induced Nrf-2 activation and HO-1 expression were diminished by a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor. We conclude that gallium nitrate induces cellular oxidative stress as an early event which then triggers the expression of HO-1 and MT2A through different pathways. PMID:18586083

  9. Photoelectrochemical etching of gallium nitride surface by complexation dissolution mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao-Rong [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215123 Suzhou (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Hou, Fei; Wang, Zu-Gang; Zhang, Shao-Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215123 Suzhou (China); Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Pan, Ge-Bo, E-mail: gbpan2008@sinano.ac.cn [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215123 Suzhou (China)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: GaN surface was etched by 0.3 M EDTA-2Na. The proposed complexation dissolution mechanism can be applicable to almost all neutral etchants under the prerequisite of strong light and electric field. - Highlights: • GaN surface was etched by EDTA-2Na. • GaN may be dissolved into EDTA-2Na by forming Ga–EDTA complex. • We propose the complexation dissolution mechanism for the first time. - Abstract: Gallium nitride (GaN) surface was etched by 0.3 M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-2Na) via photoelectrochemical etching technique. SEM images reveal the etched GaN surface becomes rough and irregular. The pore density is up to 1.9 × 10{sup 9} per square centimeter after simple acid post-treatment. The difference of XPS spectra of Ga 3d, N 1s and O 1s between the non-etched and freshly etched GaN surfaces can be attributed to the formation of Ga–EDTA complex at the etching interface between GaN and EDTA-2Na. The proposed complexation dissolution mechanism can be broadly applicable to almost all neutral etchants under the prerequisite of strong light and electric field. From the point of view of environment, safety and energy, EDTA-2Na has obvious advantages over conventionally corrosive etchants. Moreover, as the further and deeper study of such nearly neutral etchants, GaN etching technology has better application prospect in photoelectric micro-device fabrication.

  10. Gallium enhances reconstructive properties of a calcium phosphate bone biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazic Geljic, Ivana; Melis, Nicolas; Boukhechba, Florian; Schaub, Sébastien; Mellier, Charlotte; Janvier, Pascal; Laugier, Jean-Pierre; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Verron, Elise; Scimeca, Jean-Claude

    2018-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP)-based biomaterials are commonly used in bone reconstructive surgery to replace the damaged tissue, and can also serve as vectors for local drug delivery. Due to its inhibitory action on osteoclasts, the semi-metallic element gallium (Ga) is used for the systemic treatment of disorders associated with accelerated bone resorption. As it was demonstrated that Ga could be incorporated in the structure of CaP biomaterials, we investigated the biological properties of Ga-loaded CaP biomaterials. Culturing bone cells on Ga-CaP, we observed a decrease in osteoclast number and a downregulation of late osteoclastic markers expression, while Ga-CaP upregulated the expression of osteoblastic marker genes involved in the maturation of bone matrix. We next investigated in vivo bone reconstructive properties of different Ga-loaded biomaterials using a murine bone defect healing model. All implanted biomaterials showed a good osseointegration into the surrounding host tissue, accompanied by a successful bone ingrowth and bone marrow reconstruction, as evidenced by histological analysis. Moreover, quantitative micro-computed tomography analysis of implants revealed that Ga enhanced total defect filling. Lastly, we took advantage for the first time of a particular mode of non-linear microscopy (second harmonic generation) to quantify in vivo bone tissue reconstruction within a CaP bone substitute. By doing so, we showed that Ga exerted a positive impact on mature organized collagen synthesis. As a whole, our data support the hypothesis that Ga represents an attractive additive to CaP biomaterials for bone reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Supersonic jet epitaxy of gallium nitride using triethylgallium and ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Arthur J.; Thomson, Darren; Banks, Andrew; Preble, Edward; Davis, Robert F.; Lamb, H. Henry

    2003-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films were grown on GaN(0001)/AlN/6H-SiC composite substrates at 700-780 °C by supersonic jet epitaxy using triethylgallium (TEG) and NH3. TEG was seeded in He and N2 supersonic free jets to obtain kinetic energies of ~2.1 and ~0.5 eV, respectively, and NH3 was supplied from a variable leak valve. Higher TEG beam intensities (by about a factor of 5) were obtained by seeding in He. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction indicated a transition from three-dimensional to two-dimensional (2D) growth between 730 and 750 °C for films grown using TEG seeded in He and a constant NH3/TEG flux ratio. Ex situ atomic force microscopy of films grown at 730 and 750 °C revealed smooth surfaces comprised of quasi-2D islands with irregular perimeters. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy evidenced that the film grown at 750 °C was homoepitaxial α-GaN with a high density of planar lattice defects. Secondary ion mass spectrometry detected high residual carbon concentrations in the films. The GaN growth rate at 750 °C was found to depend on TEG flux and NH3 pressure in a manner consistent with Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Films grown under NH3-rich conditions were faceted and microscopically rough, whereas nonfaceted, basal-plane growth was observed under Ga-rich conditions. The first-order dependence of growth rate on TEG flux under NH3-rich conditions was used to estimate Ga incorporation efficiencies for high- and low-energy TEG beams. The Ga incorporation efficiency is lower for high-energy TEG beams, consistent with a decrease in the sticking coefficient for dissociative chemisorption.

  12. Sensor of hydrostatic pressure based on gallium antimonide microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, silicon and germanium, the most common materials in the production of discrete semiconductor devices and integrated circuits, do not always meet all the requirements to the sensing elements of mechanical quantities sensors. Therefore, it is logical to research the properties of other semiconductor materials that could be used as sensing elements in such sensors. A3B5 semiconductor compounds seem promising for such purpose. Effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 5000 bar on the resistance of n-type antimonide gallium whiskers doped by Se or Te was studied. Coefficient of hydrostatic pressure for this crystals was determined, it equals Kh = (16,5—20,0•10–5 bar–1 at 20°N. Temperature dependence of resistance and coefficient Kh for this crystals in the temperature range ±60°N was studied. Design of the developed hydrostatic pressure sensor based on GaSb whiskers and its characteristics are presented. The possibility to decrease the temperature dependence of sensitive element resistance by mounting GaSb whiskers on the substrates fabricated from materials with different temperature coefficient of expansion was examined. It was shown that mounting of GaSb crystals on Cu substrate gives the optimal result, in this case the temperature coefficient decrease to 0,05%•°N–1, that leads to decrease of output temperature dependence. The main advantages of developed pressure sensor are: the simplified design in comparison with pressure sensors with strain gauges mounted on spring elements; the high sensitivity to pressure that is constant in the wide pressure range; the improvement of sensors metrological characteristics owing to hysteresis absence. The possible application fields of developed sensors are measuring of high and extremely high pressure, chemical and oil industries, measuring of pressure in oil bore-holes, investigation of explosive processes.

  13. Isolation and characterization of gallium resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Hernández-González, Ismael L; Maeda, Toshinari; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Boogerd, Fred C; Sheng, Lili; Wood, Thomas K; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 cells resistant to the novel antimicrobial gallium nitrate (Ga) were developed using transposon mutagenesis and by selecting spontaneous mutants. The mutants showing the highest growth in the presence of Ga were selected for further characterization. These mutants showed 4- to 12-fold higher Ga minimal inhibitory growth concentrations and a greater than 8-fold increase in the minimum biofilm eliminating Ga concentration. Both types of mutants produced Ga resistant biofilms whereas the formation of wild-type biofilms was strongly inhibited by Ga. The gene interrupted in the transposon mutant was hitA, which encodes a periplasmic iron binding protein that delivers Fe³⁺ to the HitB iron permease; complementation of the mutant with the hitA gene restored the Ga sensitivity. This hitA mutant showed a 14-fold decrease in Ga internalization versus the wild-type strain, indicating that the HitAB system is also involved in the Ga uptake. Ga uptake in the spontaneous mutant was also lower, although no mutations were found in the hitAB genes. Instead, this mutant harbored 64 non-silent mutations in several genes including those of the phenazine pyocyanin biosynthesis. The spontaneous mutant produced 2-fold higher pyocyanin basal levels than the wild-type; the addition of this phenazine to wild-type cultures protected them from the Ga bacteriostatic effect. The present data indicate that mutations affecting Ga transport and probably pyocyanin biosynthesis enable cells to develop resistance to Ga. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Progress to a Gallium-Arsenide Deep-Center Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Pan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although photoluminescence from gallium-arsenide (GaAs deep-centers was first observed in the 1960s, semiconductor lasers have always utilized conduction-to-valence-band transitions. Here we review recent materials studies leading to the first GaAs deep-center laser. First, we summarize well-known properties: nature of deep-center complexes, Franck-Condon effect, hotoluminescence. Second, we describe our recent work: insensitivity of photoluminescence with heating, striking differences between electroluminescence and photoluminescence, correlation between transitions to deep-states and absence of bandgap-emission. Room-temperature stimulated-emission from GaAs deep-centers was observed at low electrical injection, and could be tuned from the bandgap to half-the-bandgap (900–1,600 nm by changing the electrical injection. The first GaAs deep-center laser was demonstrated with electrical injection, and exhibited a threshold of less than 27 mA/cm2 in continuous-wave mode at room temperature at the important 1.54 μm fiber-optic wavelength. This small injection for laser action was explained by fast depopulation of the lower state of the optical transition (fast capture of free holes onto deep-centers, which maintains the population inversion. The evidence for laser action included: superlinear L-I curve, quasi-Fermi level separations satisfying Bernard-Duraffourg’s criterion, optical gains larger than known significant losses, clamping of the optical-emission from lossy modes unable to reach laser action, pinning of the population distribution during laser action.

  15. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  16. Transferrin receptors and gallium-67 uptake in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.C.P.; Newman, B.; Turkall, R.M.; Tsan, M.F.

    1982-12-01

    The relationship was studied between the number of transferrin-receptor positive cells and in vitro uptake of /sup 67/Ga and /sup 125/I-labeled transferrin in human cell lines, including two normal cell lines (WI-38 and foreskin fibroblasts), two transformed cell lines (AV-3 amnionic cells and Chang liver cells), and two neoplastic cell lines (HEp-2, larynx cancer and HeLa, cervical cancer). Transferrin receptors were determined by an indirect immunofluoresence technique based on their ability to bind purified human transferrin. Gallium-67 uptake was determined after a 24-h incubation of cells with Ga-67 in the presence and absence of transferrin (0-2.5 mg/mI). /sup 125/I-labeled transferrin uptake was also obtained after a 24-h incubation. The fraction of cells with transferrin receptors was low in normal cell lines (3% and 9%), intermediate with transformed cell lines (33% and 49%), and high in neoplastic cell lines (59% and 61%). Transferrin stimulated /sup 67/Ga uptake by all six cell lines. However, there was poor correlation between the number of transferrin-receptor positive cells and /sup 67/Ga uptake either in the presence (r=0.21) or absence (r=0.46) of human transferrin. Likewise, there was poor correlation between the number of transferrin-receptor positive cells and /sup 125/I-labeled transferrin uptake (r=0.35). In contrast, the correlation between /sup 67/Ga uptake (in the presence of transferrin) and /sup 125/I-labeled transferrin uptake was highly significant (r=0.96). These results suggest that human cell lines in culture are capable of both transferrin-dependent and transferrin-independent uptake of /sup 67/Ga.

  17. Gallium Arsenate Dihydrate under Pressure: Elastic Properties, Compression Mechanism, and Hydrogen Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elinor C; Soghomonian, Victoria; Ross, Nancy L

    2015-08-03

    Gallium arsenate dihydrate is a member of a class of isostructural compounds, with the general formula M(3+)AsO4·2H2O (M(3+) = Fe, Al, In, or Ga), which are being considered as potential solid-state storage media for the sequestration of toxic arsenic cations. We report the first high-pressure structural analysis of a metal arsenate dihydrate, namely, GaAsO4·2H2O. This compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with Z = 8. Accurate unit cell parameters as a function of pressure were obtained by high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and a bulk modulus of 51.1(3) GPa for GaAsO4·2H2O was determined from a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state fit to the P-V data. Assessment of the pressure dependencies of the unit cell lengths showed that the compressibility of the structure along the axial directions increases in the order of [010] < [100] < [001]. This order was found to correlate well with the proposed compression mechanism for GaAsO4·2H2O, which involves deformation of the internal channel void spaces of the polyhedral helices that lie parallel to the [010] direction, and increased distortion of the GaO6 octahedra. The findings of the high-pressure diffraction experiment were further supported by the results from variable-pressure Raman analysis of GaAsO4·2H2O. Moreover, we propose a revised and more complex model for the hydrogen-bonding scheme in GaAsO4·2H2O, and on the basis of this revision, we reassigned the peaks in the OH stretching regions of previously published Raman spectra of this compound.

  18. Analysis on the Performance of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS Based Photovoltaic Thermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the efficiency improvement of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS Photovoltaic (PV and also solar thermal collector. Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T can improve overall efficiency for PV and also solve the problem of limited roof space at urban area. Objective of this study is to clarify the effect of mass flow rate on the efficiency of the PV/T system. A CIGS solar cell is used with rated output power 65 W and 1.18 m2 of area. 4 set of experiments were carried out, which were: thermal collector with 0.12 kg/s flow rate, PV/T with 0.12 kg/s flow rate, PV/T with 0.09 kg/s flow rate and PV. It was found that PV/T with 0.12 kg/s flow rate had the highest electrical efficiency, 2.92 %. PV/T with 0.09 kg/s flow rate had the lowest electrical efficiency, 2.68 %. It also had 2 % higher overall efficiency. The efficiency gained is low due to several factors. The rated output power of the PV is low for the area of 1.18 m2. The packing factor of the PV also need to be considered as it may not be operated at the optimal packing factor. Furthermore, aluminium sheet of the PV may affect the PV temperature due to high thermal conductivity. Further study on more values of mass flow rate and also other parameters that affect the efficiency of the PV/T is necessary.

  19. Gallium-cladding compatibility testing plan: Phase 3 -- Test plan for centrally heated surrogate rodlet test. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.N.; Baldwin, C.A.; Wilson, D.F.

    1998-07-01

    The Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) is investigating the use of weapons grade plutonium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for light-water reactors (LWR). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons derived fuel may differ from the previous commercial fuels because of small amounts of gallium impurities. A concern presently exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel, react with and weaken the clad, and thereby promote loss of fuel pin integrity. Phases 1 and 2 of the gallium task are presently underway to investigate the types of reactions that occur between gallium and clad materials. This is a Level-2 document as defined in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light-Water Reactor Mixed-Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan. This Plan summarizes the projected Phase 3 Gallium-Cladding compatibility heating test and the follow-on post test examination (PTE). This work will be performed using centrally-heated surrogate pellets, to avoid unnecessary complexities and costs associated with working with plutonium and an irradiation environment. Two sets of rodlets containing pellets prepared by two different methods will be heated. Both sets will have an initial bulk gallium content of approximately 10 ppm. The major emphasis of the PTE task will be to examine the material interactions, particularly indications of gallium transport from the pellets to the clad.

  20. Hydrogen Production from Water by Photolysis, Sonolysis and Sonophotolysis with Solid Solutions of Rare Earth, Gallium and Indium Oxides as Heterogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Penconi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the hydrogen production by photolysis, sonolysis and sonophotolysis of water in the presence of newly synthesized solid solutions of rare earth, gallium and indium oxides playing as catalysts. From the experiments of photolysis, we found that the best photocatalyst is the solid solution Y0.8Ga0.2InO3 doped by sulphur atoms. In experiments of sonolysis, we optimized the rate of hydrogen production by changing the amount of water, adding ethanol and tuning the power of our piezoelectric transducer. Finally, we performed sonolysis and sonophotolysis experiments in the presence of S:Y0.8Ga0.2InO3 finding a promising synergistic effect of UV-visible electromagnetic waves and 38 kHz ultrasound waves in producing H2.

  1. Iron-Targeting Antitumor Activity of Gallium Compounds and Novel Insights Into Triapine®-Metal Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antholine, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Despite advances made in the treatment of cancer, a significant number of patients succumb to this disease every year. Hence, there is a great need to develop new anticancer agents. Recent Advances: Emerging data show that malignant cells have a greater requirement for iron than normal cells do and that proteins involved in iron import, export, and storage may be altered in cancer cells. Therefore, strategies to perturb these iron-dependent steps in malignant cells hold promise for the treatment of cancer. Recent studies show that gallium compounds and metal-thiosemicarbazone complexes inhibit tumor cell growth by targeting iron homeostasis, including iron-dependent ribonucleotide reductase. Chemical similarities of gallium(III) with iron(III) enable the former to mimic the latter and interpose itself in critical iron-dependent steps in cellular proliferation. Newer gallium compounds have emerged with additional mechanisms of action. In clinical trials, the first-generation-compound gallium nitrate has exhibited activity against bladder cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, while the thiosemicarbazone Triapine® has demonstrated activity against other tumors. Critical Issues: Novel gallium compounds with greater cytotoxicity and a broader spectrum of antineoplastic activity than gallium nitrate should continue to be developed. Future Directions: The antineoplastic activity and toxicity of the existing novel gallium compounds and thiosemicarbazone-metal complexes should be tested in animal tumor models and advanced to Phase I and II clinical trials. Future research should identify biologic markers that predict tumor sensitivity to gallium compounds. This will help direct gallium-based therapy to cancer patients who are most likely to benefit from it. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000–000. PMID:22900955

  2. Iron-targeting antitumor activity of gallium compounds and novel insights into triapine(®)-metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Christopher R; Antholine, William E

    2013-03-10

    Despite advances made in the treatment of cancer, a significant number of patients succumb to this disease every year. Hence, there is a great need to develop new anticancer agents. Emerging data show that malignant cells have a greater requirement for iron than normal cells do and that proteins involved in iron import, export, and storage may be altered in cancer cells. Therefore, strategies to perturb these iron-dependent steps in malignant cells hold promise for the treatment of cancer. Recent studies show that gallium compounds and metal-thiosemicarbazone complexes inhibit tumor cell growth by targeting iron homeostasis, including iron-dependent ribonucleotide reductase. Chemical similarities of gallium(III) with iron(III) enable the former to mimic the latter and interpose itself in critical iron-dependent steps in cellular proliferation. Newer gallium compounds have emerged with additional mechanisms of action. In clinical trials, the first-generation-compound gallium nitrate has exhibited activity against bladder cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, while the thiosemicarbazone Triapine(®) has demonstrated activity against other tumors. Novel gallium compounds with greater cytotoxicity and a broader spectrum of antineoplastic activity than gallium nitrate should continue to be developed. The antineoplastic activity and toxicity of the existing novel gallium compounds and thiosemicarbazone-metal complexes should be tested in animal tumor models and advanced to Phase I and II clinical trials. Future research should identify biologic markers that predict tumor sensitivity to gallium compounds. This will help direct gallium-based therapy to cancer patients who are most likely to benefit from it.

  3. Wavelength dependence of light diffusion in strongly scattering macroporous gallium phosphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, W.H.; Vellekoop, Ivo Micha; Mosk, Allard; Lagendijk, Aart

    2008-01-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of light transport through strongly scattering macroporous gallium phosphide at various vacuum wavelengths between 705 nm and 855 nm. Within this range the transport mean free path is strongly wavelength dependent, whereas the observed energy velocity is shown

  4. Impact of atmospheric species on copper indium gallium selenide solar cell stability: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the measurement techniques and results of studies on the stability of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) solar cells and their individual layers in the presence of atmospheric species is presented: in these studies, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, their molybdenum back contact, and their

  5. Gallium(III) and indium(III) dithiolate complexes: Versatile precursors ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. The chemistry of classical and organometallic complexes of gallium and indium with di- thiolate ligands, i.e., dithiocarboxylates, xanthates, dithiocarbamates, dithiophosphates, dithiophophinates and dithioarsenates, has been reviewed. Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural aspects of these com- plexes are ...

  6. Infected cyst localization with gallium SPECT imaging in polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amesur, P.; Castronuovo, J.J.; Chandramouly, B.

    1988-01-01

    This case report describes a 43-year-old woman with polycystic renal disease and cyst infection. Infected cysts of the left kidney were successfully localized with Ga-67 citrate SPECT imaging and CT. Other imaging, including planar gallium imaging, was helpful diagnostically, but could not determine the exact location of infection within the kidney.

  7. Low Temperature Flux Growth of 2H-SiC and Beta-Gallium Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Su, Ching-Hua; Arnold, Bradley; Kelly, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    We present brief overview of our study on the low temperature flux growth of two very important novel wide bandgap materials 2H-SiC and Beta-gallium oxide (Beta-Ga2O3). We have synthesized and grown 5 millimeter to 1 centimeter size single crystals of Beta-gallium oxide (Beta-Ga2O3). We used a flux and semi wet method to grow transparent good quality crystals. In the semi-wet method Ga2O3 was synthesized with starting gallium nitrate solution and urea as a nucleation agent. In the flux method we used tin and other metallic flux. This crystal was placed in an alumina crucible and temperature was raised above 1050 degrees Centigrade. After a time period of thirty hours, we observed prismatic and needle shaped crystals of gallium oxide. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed step growth morphology. Crystal was polished to measure the properties. Bandgap was measured 4.7electronvolts using the optical absorption curve. Another wide bandgap hexagonal 2H-SiC was grown by using Si-Al eutectic flux in the graphite crucible. We used slight AlN also as the impurity in the flux. The temperature was raised up to 1050 degrees Centigrade and slowly cooled to 850 degrees Centigrade. Preliminary characterization results of this material are also reported.

  8. Gallium/sup 67/ scintigraphy in fibrinous pericarditis associated with bacterial endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.; Verhas, M.; Devriendt, J.; Goffin, Y.

    1982-04-01

    An 80-year-old man presented with pyrexia, progressive cardiac failure and inflammation. A diagnosis of pericarditis associated with bacterial endocarditis was suggested from Gallium 67 scintigraphy and confirmed at autopsy. This case of fibrinous pericarditis without effusion could not be diagnosed by echography or routine cardiopulmonary scintigraphy.

  9. [Determination of trace gallium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L Z; Fu, S; Gao, S Q; He, G W

    2016-06-20

    To establish a method for determination trace gallium in urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The ammonium dihydrogen phosphate was matrix modifier. The temperature effect about pyrolysis (Tpyr) and atomization temperature were optimized for determination of trace gallium. The method of technical standard about within-run, between-run and recoveries of standard were optimized. The method showed a linear relationship within the range of 0.20~80.00 μg/L (r=0.998). The within-run and between-run relative standard deviations (RSD) of repetitive measurement at 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 μg/L concentration levels were 2.1%~5.5% and 2.3%~3.0%. The detection limit was 0.06 μg/L. The recoveries of gallium were 98.2%~101.1%. This method is simple, low detection limit, accurate, reliable and reproducible. It has been applied for determination of trace gallium in urine samples those who need occupation health examination or poisoning diagnosis.

  10. Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Amanuel M; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Bodrog, Zoltán; Fiedler, Saskia; Schröder, Tim; Triviño, Noelia Vico; Palacios, Tomás; Gali, Adam; Toth, Milos; Englund, Dirk; Aharonovich, Igor

    2017-03-01

    Room-temperature quantum emitters in gallium nitride (GaN) are reported. The emitters originate from cubic inclusions in hexagonal lattice and exhibit narrowband luminescence in the red spectral range. The sources are found in different GaN substrates, and therefore are promising for scalable quantum technologies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Outphasing Control of Gallium Nitride based Very High Frequency Resonant Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Perreault, David J.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    and purely resistive loading of the inverters. Combined with a proper design of the inverters that, insures they can achieve zero voltage switching across a wide load range, and gallium nitride FETs for the switching devices, this makes it possible to achieve more than 90% efficiency across most of the input...

  12. Properties of Erbium and Ytterbium Doped Gallium Nitride Layers Fabricated by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prajzler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report about some properties of erbium and erbium/ytterbium doped gallium nitride (GaN layers fabricated by magnetron sputtering onsilicon, quartz and Corning glass substrates. For fabricating GaN layers two types of targets were used - gallium in a stainless steel cup anda Ga2O3 target. Deposition was carried out in the Ar+N2 gas mixture. For erbium and ytterbium doping into GaN layers, erbium metallicpowder and ytterbium powder or Er2O3 and Yb2O3 pellets were laid on the top of the target. The samples were characterized by X-raydiffraction (XRD, photoluminescence spectra and nuclear analytical methods. While the use of a metallic gallium target ensured thedeposition of well-developed polycrystalline layers, the use of gallium oxide target provided GaN films with poorly developed crystals. Bothapproaches enabled doping with erbium and ytterbium ions during deposition, and typical emission at 1 530 nm due to the Er3+ intra-4f 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition was observed.

  13. Effects of erbium‑and chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High‑magnification SEM ... Key words: Erbium chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet, diode laser, restorative dental materials, scanning electron ... garnet (Nd: YAG) and carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers on indirect ...

  14. Gallium arsenide integrated optical devices for high-speed diagnostic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWright, G.; Lowry, M.; Takeuchi, E.; Murphy, G.; Tindall, W.; Koo, J.; Roeske, F.

    1987-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and evaluation of waveguide electro-optic modulators in gallium arsenide for application to high-speed diagnostic systems are discussed specifically. This paper is focused on high bandwidth, single event analog modulation, and radiation susceptibility of these devices.

  15. Adaptive behavior of a redox-active gallium carbenoid in complexes with molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedushkin, Igor L; Sokolov, Vladimir G; Piskunov, Alexander V; Makarov, Valentine M; Baranov, Eugeny V; Abakumov, Gleb A

    2014-09-11

    A gallium(I) carbenoid derived from redox-active diimine 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene (dpp-bian) in complexes with molybdenum may serve either as a neutral [(dpp-bian)Ga:] or an anionic [(dpp-bian)Ga:](-) two-electron donor depending on the electronic state of the transition metal.

  16. Organo-gallium and indium complexes with dithiolate and oxo ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    distorted geometries (scheme 3) due to restricted bite of dithio ligand. The tris complexes of gallium and indium are isostructural in nature acquiring a dis- torted octahedral configuration (figure 1). The In-S distances in tris complexes of indium varies between. 2.554(4) and 2.652(5) Å with the progressively open- ing up ...

  17. Gallium-67 imaging in a patient with paracoccidioidomycosis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Beatriz Marinho de Jesus; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo; Lima, Mariana Cunha Lopes de; Santos, Allan de Oliveira; Pires, Bruno Cunha; Valenca Junior, Jose Telmo; Ramos, Celso Dario; Camargo, Edwaldo E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: elba@mn-d.com

    2000-06-01

    A 26 year-old female was admitted with abdominal pain, fever and weight loss. The clinical and laboratory investigations led to the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. Gallium-67 whole body images correlated well with the clinical course of the disease and with the patient's prognosis. (author)

  18. Spectral properties of proton irradiated gallium nitride blue diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, F.; Carlone, C.; Houdayer, A.; Khanna, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    The permanent damage induced by 2 MeV proton irradiation at room temperature is reported for gallium nitride based blue emitting diodes (CREE model C430-DH85). Both optical and electrical device characteristics were measured. The I-V dependence was obtained as a function of temperature. At low voltages, the current is proportional to the exponential of the voltage at a constant temperature and the slope of the I-V curve is independent of temperature for the range 75-350 K, confirming the tunneling mechanism of the carrier injection. The room-temperature curve was studied as a function of 2-MeV proton irradiation in the fluence range 10/sup 11/ to 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/. It is hardly affected up to a fluence of 3/spl times/10/sup 12/ cm/sup -2/. Higher fluences do not affect the tunneling mechanism, but proton irradiation affects the saturation value of the current. The integrated electroluminescence versus voltage curves were obtained as a function of fluence, but the results were not amenable to a degradation constant interpretation. To gain insight into the degradation mechanism, the electroluminescence was analyzed spectrally and found to be the sum of the band-to-band transition in blue color at /spl ap/430 nm and a parasitic yellow band. The contribution of each transition was determined. The ratio of the contributions depends on driving current, temperature, and fluence. Treated individually, both the band-to-band and the yellow transition are related to fluence. The 2-MeV proton radiation damage constant is (7/spl plusmn/1)/spl times/10/sup -14/ cm/sup -2/ for the band-to-band and (2.0/spl plusmn/0.4)/spl times/10/sup -14/ cm/sup -2/ for the yellow transitions. The degradation of space charge recombination and diffusion of minority carriers cause the degradation of the electroluminescence. GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are about two orders of magnitude more resistant to 2-MeV proton irradiation than GaAs LEDs.

  19. Structure and Properties of Epitaxial Dielectrics on gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Virginia Danielle

    GaN is recognized as a possible material for metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) used in high temperature, high power and high speed electronic applications. However, high gate leakage and low device breakdown voltages limit their use in these applications. The use of high-kappa dielectrics, which have both a high permittivity (ε) and high band gap energy (Eg), can reduce the leakage current density that adversely affects MOS devices. La2O3 and Sc2O 3 are rare earth oxides with a large Eg (6.18 eV and 6.3 eV respectively) and a relatively high ε (27 and 14.1 respectively), which make them good candidates for enhancing MOSFET performance. Epitaxial growth of oxides is a possible approach to reducing leakage current and Fermi level pinning related to a high density of interface states for dielectrics on compound semiconductors. In this work, La2O3 and Sc2O 3 were characterized structurally and electronically as potential epitaxial gate dielectrics for use in GaN based MOSFETs. GaN surface treatments were examined as a means for additional interface passivation and influencing subsequent oxide formation. Potassium persulfate (K2(SO4)2) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were explored as a way to achieve improved passivation and desired surface termination for GaN films deposited on sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that KOH left a nitrogen-rich interface, while K2(SO 4)2 left a gallium-rich interface, which provides a way to control surface oxide formation. K2(SO4)2 exhibited a shift in the O1s peak indicating the formation of a gallium-rich GaOx at the surface with decreased carbon contaminants. GaO x acts as a passivating layer prior to dielectric deposition, which resulted in an order of magnitude reduction in leakage current, a reduced hysteresis window, and an overall improvement in device performance. Furthermore, K2(SO4)2 resulted in an additional 0.4 eV of

  20. Diagnostic role of Gallium-68 DOTATOC and Gallium-68 DOTATATE PET in patients with neuroendocrine tumors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jigang; Kan, Ying; Ge, Benjamin H; Yuan, Leilei; Li, Chunlin; Zhao, Wenrui

    2014-05-01

    Gallium-68 somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography (PET) has been used in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The compounds often used in molecular imaging of NETs with PET are 68Ga-DOTATOC, 68Ga-DOTATATE, and 68Ga-DOTANOC. There is varying affinity to different somatostatin receptors. To systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of published data regarding the diagnostic role of 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET in the diagnosis of NETs. A comprehensive literature search of studies published through 30 April 2013 regarding 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET in the diagnosis of NETs was performed using the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus databases. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET in the diagnosis of NETs were calculated. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to measure the accuracy of 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET in the diagnosis of NETs. Ten studies comprising 416 patients with NETs were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET in the diagnosis of NETs calculated on a per-patient-based analysis was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI] 89-96%) and 96% (95% CI 91-99%). The pooled specificity of 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET in diagnosing NETs was 85% (95% CI 74-93%) and 100% (95% CI 82-100%). The area under the ROC curve of 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET was 0.96 and 0.98, respectively, on a per-patient-based analysis. The molecular imaging agents 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of NETs on PET scan. Although both are accurate tools in the diagnosis of NETs, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET may be more sensitive and specific than 68Ga-DOTATOC PET scan.

  1. Advanced W-Band Gallium Nitride Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) for Cloud Doppler Radar Supporting ACE Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop W-band Gallium Nitride (GaN) MMICs to enable the advanced cross-track scanning, dual-frequency Doppler cloud radar concept in support of the...

  2. Exposure Potential and Health Impacts of Indium and Gallium, Metals Critical to Emerging Electronics and Energy Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah Jane O; Shine, James P

    2016-12-01

    The rapid growth of new electronics and energy technologies requires the use of rare elements of the periodic table. For many of these elements, little is known about their environmental behavior or human health impacts. This is true for indium and gallium, two technology critical elements. Increased environmental concentrations of both indium and gallium create the potential for increased environmental exposure, though little is known about the extent of this exposure. Evidence is mounting that indium and gallium can have substantial toxicity, including in occupational settings where indium lung disease has been recognized as a potentially fatal disease caused by the inhalation of indium particles. This paper aims to review the basic chemistry, changing environmental concentrations, potential for human exposure, and known health effects of indium and gallium.

  3. Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion: Measurement and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Betavoltaic Energy Conversion : Measurement and Analysis by M Litz, W Ray, J Russo, S Kelley, and J Smith Approved for public...SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion ...Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion : Measurement and Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  4. Results of (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT Scanning in Patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Samira M; Millo, Corina; Cottle-Delisle, Candice; Merkel, Roxanne; Yang, Lily A; Herscovitch, Peter; Pacak, Karel; Simonds, William F; Marx, Stephen J; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-08-01

    Screening for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is recommended to detect primary and metastatic tumors, which can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The utility of somatostatin receptor imaging (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT in patients with MEN1 is not known. The aim of this study was to prospectively determine the accuracy of (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT vs (111)In- pentetreotide single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT and anatomic imaging in patients with MEN1. We performed a prospective study comparing (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT, (111)In-pentetreotide SPECT/CT, and triphasic CT scan to clinical, biochemical, and pathologic data in 26 patients with MEN1. (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT detected 107 lesions; (111)In-pentetreotide SPECT/CT detected 33 lesions; and CT scan detected 48 lesions. Lesions detected on (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT had high standard uptake value (SUV)(max) (median SUV(max) = 72.8 [range 19 to 191]). In 7 of the 26 patients (27%), (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT was positive, with a negative (111)In-pentetreotide SPECT/CT, and in 10 patients (38.5%), additional metastases were detected (range 0.3 cm to 1.5 cm). In 8 of the 26 patients (31%), there was a change in management recommendations as a result of the findings on (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT that were not seen on (111)In-pentetreotide SPECT/CT and CT scan. (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT is more sensitive for detecting NETs than (111)In-pentetreotide SPECT/CT and CT scan in patients with MEN1. This imaging technique should be integrated into radiologic screening and surveillance of patients with MEN1 because it can significantly alter management recommendations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Design and construction of a gallium fixed-point blackbody at CENAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas G, D., E-mail: dcardena@cenam.mx [Centro Nacional de Metrologia, Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cues, El Marques, 76246 Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    For temperatures below silver fixed-point defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990, a transfer radiation thermometer can be calibrated using either of two calibration schemes: a variable temperature blackbody with a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a reference, or with a set of fixed-point blackbodies. CENAM is presently working with the first scheme, and it is developing fixed-point blackbodies to have the capability to work with the second scheme too. For this purpose a gallium fixed-point blackbody to calibrate CENAM transfer radiation thermometer was designed and constructed. The blackbody cavity has a cylinder-cone shape with effective emissivity equal to 0.9992±0.0004 in the 8 μm to 14 μm wavelength range. The radiance temperature of the gallium fixed-point blackbody was estimated to have and expanded uncertainty of 54 m K, with a coverage factor k = 2. (Author)

  6. Osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies: differentiation by combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundsen, T.R.; Siegel, M.J.; Siegel, B.A.

    1984-12-01

    Clinical records and scintigrams were reviewed of 18 patients with sickle cell hemoglobinophaties who had undergone combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy during 22 separate episodes of suspected osseous infection. The combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis in four studies. Of 18 studies in patients with infarction, the combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted in 16 and showed either no local accumulation of Ga-67 or less accumulation than that of Tc-99m MDP at symptomatic sites. In the other two studies, the scintigrams were falsely interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis and showed congruent, increased accumulation of both Tc-99, MDP and Ga-67. This pattern must be considered indeterminate. Overall, the results indicate that the combination of technetium and gallium scintigraphy is an effective means to distinguish osteomyelitis from infarction in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies.

  7. Iron implantation in gadolinium gallium garnet studied by conversion-electron Moessbauer spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Szucs, I; Fetzer, C; Langouche, G

    1998-01-01

    Gadolinium gallium garnet single crystals were implanted with doses of sup 5 sup 7 Fe ions in the range 8x10 sup 1 sup 5 - 6x10 sup 1 sup 6 atoms cm sup - sup 2. Depending on the dose, iron with Fe sup 2 sup + or Fe sup 3 sup + charge states was found to have formed after the implantation. After a subsequent annealing in air, the iron oxidized to Fe sup 3 sup +. The Moessbauer and channelling measurements showed lattice recrystallization taking place at 600 deg. C. After recrystallization, the iron was found to have substituted for gallium ions both at the octahedral and at the tetrahedral positions. The relative concentration of the two types of iron at the two sites shifted towards the equilibrium distribution upon high-temperature annealing. (author)

  8. Large spin accumulation and crystallographic dependence of spin transport in single crystal gallium nitride nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Eon; Park, Youn Ho; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Sung Wook; Park, Hee Gyum; Min, Byoung-Chul; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Choi, Heon-Jin; Han, Suk Hee; Johnson, Mark; Chang, Joonyeon

    2017-06-01

    Semiconductor spintronics is an alternative to conventional electronics that offers devices with high performance, low power and multiple functionality. Although a large number of devices with mesoscopic dimensions have been successfully demonstrated at low temperatures for decades, room-temperature operation still needs to go further. Here we study spin injection in single-crystal gallium nitride nanowires and report robust spin accumulation at room temperature with enhanced spin injection polarization of 9%. A large Overhauser coupling between the electron spin accumulation and the lattice nuclei is observed. Finally, our single-crystal gallium nitride samples have a trigonal cross-section defined by the (001), () and () planes. Using the Hanle effect, we show that the spin accumulation is significantly different for injection across the (001) and () (or ()) planes. This provides a technique for increasing room temperature spin injection in mesoscopic systems.

  9. Homoepitaxial n-core: p-shell gallium nitride nanowires: HVPE overgrowth on MBE nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Aric; Blanchard, Paul; Bertness, Kris; Brubaker, Matthew; Dodson, Christopher; Harvey, Todd; Herrero, Andrew; Rourke, Devin; Schlager, John; Sanford, Norman; Chiaramonti, Ann N; Davydov, Albert; Motayed, Abhishek; Tsvetkov, Denis

    2011-11-18

    We present the homoepitaxial growth of p-type, magnesium doped gallium nitride shells by use of halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on n-type gallium nitride nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Scanning electron microscopy shows clear dopant contrast between the core and shell of the nanowire. The growth of magnesium doped nanowire shells shows little or no effect on the lattice parameters of the underlying nanowires, as measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence measurements of the nanowires show the appearance of sub-bandgap features in the blue and the ultraviolet, indicating the presence of acceptors. Finally, electrical measurements confirm the presence of electrically active holes in the nanowires.

  10. Thermodynamic property evaluation and magnetic refrigeration cycle analysis for gadolinium gallium garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.

    1994-12-01

    Based on relevant material property data and previous model formulations, a magnetothermodynamic property map for gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}) was adapted for refrigeration cycle analysis in the temperature range 4-40 K and the magnetic field range 0-6 T. Employing methods similar to those previously developed for other materials and temperature ranges, assessments of limitations and relative performance were made for Carnot, ideal regenerative, and pseudo-constant field regenerative cycles. It was found that although Carnot cycle limitations on available temperature lift for gadolinium gallium garnet are not as severe as the limitations for materials previously examined, considerable improvement in cooling capacity and temperature lift combinations can be achieved by using regenerative cycles if serious loss mechanisms are avoided.

  11. Gallium antimonide texturing for enhanced light extraction from infrared optoelectronics devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Wassweiler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of gallium antimonide (GaSb is increasing, especially for optoelectronic devices in the infrared wavelengths. It has been demonstrated in gallium nitride (GaN devices operating at ultraviolet (UV wavelengths, that surface textures increase the overall device efficiency. In this work, we fabricated eight different surface textures in GaSb to be used in enhancing efficiency in infrared wavelength devices. Through chemical etching with hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and tartaric acid we characterize the types of surface textures formed and the removal rate of entire layers of GaSb. Through optimization of the etching recipes we lower the reflectivity from 35.7% to 1% at 4 μm wavelength for bare and textured GaSb, respectively. In addition, we simulate surface textures using ray optics in finite element method solver software to provide explanation of our experimental findings.

  12. Ionothermal synthesis, characterization of a new layered gallium phosphate with an unusual heptamer SBU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Huang, Liangliang; Ma, Yike; Jiao, Shufei; Jiang, Yansong; Bi, Yanfeng

    2017-10-01

    A new layered gallium phosphate Ga3(PO4)4(C2N2H8)·(H2C2N2H8)2·Cl (compound 1), has been ionothermally synthesized in the presence of deep eutectic solvent (DES) comprising mixtures of choline chloride and 2-imidazolidone (IMI). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound 1 shows 2D layered framework with 10-ring windows, which is constructed from unusual heptamer second building units (SBUs). The ethylenediamine (en) units deriving from the decomposition of IMI, play a dual role as bidentate ligands coordinated with 6-fold coordinate gallium atoms and the templates. Additionally, compound 1 shows photoluminescence property in solid state at room temperature.

  13. Hodgkin`s disease: internal mammary lymph nodes relapse diagnosed by Gallium-67 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Hernandez, G.; Ampudia, J.; Castillo, F.J.; Romero, C. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Valencia (Spain). Servicio de Medicina Nuclear; Pallardo, Y. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Valencia (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Garcia Conde, J. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Valencia (Spain). Servicio de Hematologia y Oncologia Medica; Ramos, D. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Valencia (Spain). Servicio de Anatomia Patologica

    1999-04-01

    This article presents the case of a 62-year-old man with treated Hodgkin`s disease who had internal mammary lymph nodes relapse after a complete initial response. These masses were gallium avid. These findings were explained by histologically documented Hodgkin`s relapse, the first such case reported in that localization without chest wall involvement. The literature on mediastinal Hodgkin`s disease and diagnostic procedures are reviewed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Beschrieben wird der Fall eines 62jaehrigen Mannes, der nach initial erfolgreicher Therapie eines Morbus Hodgkin ein Lymphknotenrezidiv im Bereich der Brust aufweist. Die Lymphknoten reicherten Gallium an. Histologisch wurde das Hodgkinrezidiv gesichert. Es handelt sich um den ersten in diesem Bereich beschriebenen Fall ohne Infiltration der Brustwand. Die Literatur ueber mediastinalen Morbus Hodgkin und diagnostisches Vorgehen wurde ueberprueft. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, and Processing of Copper, Indium, and Gallium Dithiocarbamates for Energy Conversion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraj, S. A.; Duffy, N. V.; Hepp, A. F.; Cowen, J. E.; Hoops, M. D.; Brothrs, S. M.; Baird, M. J.; Fanwick, P. E.; Harris, J. D.; Jin, M. H.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Ten dithiocarbamate complexes of indium(III) and gallium(III) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and melting point. Each complex was decomposed thermally and its decomposition products separated and identified with the combination of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Their potential utility as photovoltaic materials precursors was assessed. Bis(dibenzyldithiocarbamato)- and bis(diethyldithiocarbamato)copper(II), Cu(S2CN(CH2C6H5)2)2 and Cu(S2CN(C2H5)2)2 respectively, have also been examined for their suitability as precursors for copper sulfides for the fabrication of photovoltaic materials. Each complex was decomposed thermally and the products analyzed by GC/MS, TGA and FTIR. The dibenzyl derivative complex decomposed at a lower temperature (225-320 C) to yield CuS as the product. The diethyl derivative complex decomposed at a higher temperature (260-325 C) to yield Cu2S. No Cu containing fragments were noted in the mass spectra. Unusual recombination fragments were observed in the mass spectra of the diethyl derivative. Tris(bis(phenylmethyl)carbamodithioato-S,S'), commonly referred to as tris(N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamato)indium(III), In(S2CNBz2)3, was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1(bar) with two molecules per unit cell. The material was further characterized using a novel analytical system employing the combined powers of thermogravimetric analysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to investigate its potential use as a precursor for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of thin film materials for photovoltaic applications. Upon heating, the material thermally decomposes to release CS2 and benzyl moieties in to the gas phase, resulting in bulk In2S3. Preliminary spray CVD experiments indicate that In(S2CNBz2)3 decomposed on a Cu substrate reacts to produce

  15. Comparison of Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors Modeling in Two and Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    15. NUMBER OF PAGES 77 14. SUBJECT TERMS Gallium Nitride, HEMT, High Electron Mobility Transistor, Silvaco , ATLAS , modeling. 16. PRICE...Chapter II of this thesis and the Silvaco Atlas Manual from 2007 [21]. The present ATLASTM program incorporates modifications specifically for the...IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 47, pp. 2031–2036, November 2000. [21] Silvaco International, “ Silvaco International, ATLAS User’s Manual

  16. Interaction of vector solitons and beam break up at thin film gallium-silica waveguide structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Arvind, E-mail: arvindsharma230771@gmail.com; Nagar, A. K., E-mail: ajaya.nagar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Dungar College Bikaner, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    We investigate the interaction of optical vector soliton with a symmetric thin-film gallium-silica waveguide structure using the equivalent particle theory. The relevant nonlinear Schrodinger equation has been solved by the method of phase plane analysis. The analysis shows beam break up into transmitted, reflected and nonlinear surface waves at the interface. The stability properties of the solitons so formed have been discussed.

  17. Optimal indium-gallium-nitride Schottky-barrier thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tom H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Monk, Peter B.

    2017-08-01

    A two-dimensional model was developed to simulate the optoelectronic characteristics of indium-gallium-nitride (InξGa1-ξN), thin-film, Schottky-barrier-junction solar cells. The solar cell comprises a window designed to reduce the reflection of incident light, Schottky-barrier and ohmic front electrodes, an n-doped InξGa1-ξN wafer, and a metallic periodically corrugated back-reflector (PCBR). The ratio of indium to gallium in the wafer varies periodically in the thickness direction, and thus the optical and electrical constitutive properties of the alloy also vary periodically. This material nonhomogeneity could be physically achieved by varying the fractional composition of indium and gallium during deposition. Empirical models for indium nitride and gallium nitride, combined with Vegard's law, were used to calculate the optical and electrical constitutive properties of the alloy. The periodic nonhomogeneity aids charge separation and, in conjunction with the PCBR, enables incident light to couple to multiple surface plasmon-polariton waves and waveguide modes. The profile of the resulting chargecarrier-generation rate when the solar cell is illuminated by the AM1.5G spectrum was calculated using the rigorous coupled-wave approach. The steady-state drift-diffusion equations were solved using COMSOL, which employs finite-element methods, to calculate the current density as a function of the voltage. Mid-band Shockley- Read-Hall, Auger, and radiative recombination rates were taken to be the dominant methods of recombination. The model was used to study the effects of the solar-cell geometry and the shape of the periodic material nonhomogeneity on efficiency. The solar-cell efficiency was optimized using the differential evolution algorithm.

  18. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of gallium nitrate against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Luísa C S; Imperi, Francesco; Minandri, Fabrizia; Visca, Paolo

    2012-11-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii poses a tremendous challenge to traditional antibiotic therapy. Due to the crucial role of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, we investigated iron metabolism as a possible target for anti-A. baumannii chemotherapy using gallium as an iron mimetic. Due to chemical similarity, gallium competes with iron for binding to several redox enzymes, thereby interfering with a number of essential biological reactions. We found that Ga(NO(3))(3), the active component of an FDA-approved drug (Ganite), inhibits the growth of a collection of 58 A. baumannii strains in both chemically defined medium and human serum, at concentrations ranging from 2 to 80 μM and from 4 to 64 μM, respectively. Ga(NO(3))(3) delayed the entry of A. baumannii into the exponential phase and drastically reduced bacterial growth rates. Ga(NO(3))(3) activity was strongly dependent on iron availability in the culture medium, though the mechanism of growth inhibition was independent of dysregulation of gene expression controlled by the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Ga(NO(3))(3) also protected Galleria mellonella larvae from lethal A. baumannii infection, with survival rates of ≥75%. At therapeutic concentrations for humans (28 μM plasma levels), Ga(NO(3))(3) inhibited the growth in human serum of 76% of the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates tested by ≥90%, raising expectations on the therapeutic potential of gallium for the treatment of A. baumannii bloodstream infections. Ga(NO(3))(3) also showed strong synergism with colistin, suggesting that a colistin-gallium combination holds promise as a last-resort therapy for infections caused by pan-resistant A. baumannii.

  19. On the photon annealing of silicon-implanted gallium-nitride layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seleznev, B. I., E-mail: Boris.Seleznev@novsu.ru [Novgorod State University (Russian Federation); Moskalev, G. Ya. [OKB-Planeta, Inc. (Russian Federation); Fedorov, D. G. [Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The conditions for the formation of ion-doped layers in gallium nitride upon the incorporation of silicon ions followed by photon annealing in the presence of silicon dioxide and nitride coatings are analyzed. The conditions of the formation of ion-doped layers with a high degree of impurity activation are established. The temperature dependences of the surface concentration and mobility of charge carriers in ion-doped GaN layers annealed at different temperatures are studied.

  20. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Li Qiang Guo; Li Qiang Zhu; Jian Ning Ding; Yu Kai Huang

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO2 electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO2 electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous informati...

  1. Uniformity of gallium doped zinc oxide thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Umeda, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Norihiro; Ikegami, Tomoaki; ミツギ, フミアキ; ウメダ, ヨシヒロ; サカイ, ノリヒロ; イケガミ, トモアキ; 光木, 文秋; 梅田, 佳宏; 坂井, 徳浩; 池上, 知顯

    2010-01-01

    Recently, transparent conducting oxide thin films have attracted attention for the application to transparent conducting electrodes. In this work, we evaluated the uniformity of electrical, optical and structural properties for gallium doped zinc oxide thin films prepared on the 10 × 10 cm2 silica glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The resistivity, carrier concentration, mobility, bonding state and atomic composition of the film were uniform along in-plane and depth direction over th...

  2. An advanced space photovoltaic concentrator array using Fresnel lenses, gallium arsenide cells, and prismatic cell covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark J.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    The current status of a space concentrator array which uses refractive optics, gallium arsenide cells, and prismatic cell covers to achieve excellent performance at a very low array mass is documented. The prismatically covered cells have established records for space cell performance (24.2 percent efficient at 100 AM0 suns and 25 C) and terrestrial single-junction cell performance (29.3 percent efficient at 200 AM1.5 suns and 25 C).

  3. The Effects of Thermal Cycling on Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Devices for Aerospace Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work efficiently and reliably under harsh environment conditions. These Include radiation, extreme temperatures, thermal cycling, to name a few. Preliminary data obtained on new Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide power devices under exposure to radiation followed by long term thermal cycling are presented. This work was done in collaboration with GSFC and JPL in support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program

  4. A novel three-jet microreactor for localized metal-organic chemical vapour deposition of gallium arsenide: design and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakov, S. A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    We present a novel three-jet microreactor design for localized deposition of gallium arsenide (GaAs) by low-pressure Metal-Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) for semiconductor devices, microelectronics and solar cells. Our approach is advantageous compared to the standard lithography and etching technology, since it preserves the nanostructure of the deposited material, it is less time-consuming and less expensive. We designed two versions of reactor geometry with a 10-micron central microchannel for precursor supply and with two side jets of a dilutant to control the deposition area. To aid future experiments, we performed computational modeling of a simplified-geometry (twodimensional axisymmetric) microreactor, based on Navier-Stokes equations for a laminar flow of chemically reacting gas mixture of Ga(CH3)3-AsH3-H2. Simulation results show that we can achieve a high-rate deposition (over 0.3 μm/min) on a small area (less than 30 μm diameter). This technology can be used in material production for microelectronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, solar cells, etc.

  5. New techniques of laser spectroscopy on exotic isotopes of gallium and francium

    CERN Document Server

    Procter, Thomas John

    The neutron-deficient gallium isotopes down to ${N}$=32 have had their hyperfine structures and isotope shifts measured via collinear laser spectroscopy using the COLLAPS (COllinear LAser sPectroScopy) beam line. The ground-state spin of $^{63}$Ga has been determined as ${I}$ = 3/2 and its magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments were measured to be $\\mu$ = +1.469(5) $_{\\mu N}$ and ${ Q}$s = +0.212(14) b respectively. The nuclear moments of $^{70}$Ga were measured to be ${\\mu}$= +0.571(2) $_{\\mu}$ and ${Q}$s = +0.105(7) b. New isotope shift results were combined with previously measured values of the neutron-rich isotopes and the changes in mean-square charge radii of the entire gallium isotope chain were investigated. Analysis of the trend in the neutron-deficient charge radii demonstrated that there is no evidence of anomalous charge radii behaviour in gallium in the region of ${N}$=32. A sudden increase of the charge radii was observed at the ${N}$=50 shell gap and an inversion of the normal odd-eve...

  6. Performance of a Medipix3RX spectroscopic pixel detector with a high resistivity gallium arsenide sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Elias; Koenig, Thomas; Zuber, Marcus; Cecilia, Angelica; Tyazhev, Anton; Tolbanov, Oleg; Procz, Simon; Fauler, Alex; Baumbach, Tilo; Fiederle, Michael

    2015-03-01

    High resistivity gallium arsenide is considered a suitable sensor material for spectroscopic X-ray imaging detectors. These sensors typically have thicknesses between a few hundred μm and 1 mm to ensure a high photon detection efficiency. However, for small pixel sizes down to several tens of μm, an effect called charge sharing reduces a detector's spectroscopic performance. The recently developed Medipix3RX readout chip overcomes this limitation by implementing a charge summing circuit, which allows the reconstruction of the full energy information of a photon interaction in a single pixel. In this work, we present the characterization of the first Medipix3RX detector assembly with a 500 μm thick high resistivity, chromium compensated gallium arsenide sensor. We analyze its properties and demonstrate the functionality of the charge summing mode by means of energy response functions recorded at a synchrotron. Furthermore, the imaging properties of the detector, in terms of its modulation transfer functions and signal-to-noise ratios, are investigated. After more than one decade of attempts to establish gallium arsenide as a sensor material for photon counting detectors, our results represent a breakthrough in obtaining detector-grade material. The sensor we introduce is therefore suitable for high resolution X-ray imaging applications.

  7. Activity of Gallium Meso- and Protoporphyrin IX against Biofilms of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a challenging pathogen due to antimicrobial resistance and biofilm development. The role of iron in bacterial physiology has prompted the evaluation of iron-modulation as an antimicrobial strategy. The non-reducible iron analog gallium(III nitrate, Ga(NO33, has been shown to inhibit A. baumannii planktonic growth; however, utilization of heme-iron by clinical isolates has been associated with development of tolerance. These observations prompted the evaluation of iron-heme sources on planktonic and biofilm growth, as well as antimicrobial activities of gallium meso- and protoporphyrin IX (Ga-MPIX and Ga-PPIX, metal heme derivatives against planktonic and biofilm bacteria of multidrug-resistant (MDR clinical isolates of A. baumannii in vitro. Ga(NO33 was moderately effective at reducing planktonic bacteria (64 to 128 µM with little activity against biofilms (≥512 µM. In contrast, Ga-MPIX and Ga-PPIX were highly active against planktonic bacteria (0.25 to 8 µM. Cytotoxic effects in human fibroblasts were observed following exposure to concentrations exceeding 128 µM of Ga-MPIX and Ga-PPIX. We observed that the gallium metal heme conjugates were more active against planktonic and biofilm bacteria, possibly due to utilization of heme-iron as demonstrated by the enhanced effects on bacterial growth and biofilm formation.

  8. Proton and gallium(III) binding properties of a biologically active salicylidene acylhydrazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Shoghik; Boily, Jean-François; Ramstedt, Madeleine

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation causes a range of problems in our society, especially in health care. Salicylidene acylhydrazides (hydrazones) are promising antivirulence drugs targeting secretion systems used during bacterial infection of host cells. When mixed with the gallium ion they become especially potent as bacterial and biofilm growth-suppressing agents, although the mechanisms through which this occurs are not fully understood. At the base of this uncertainty lies the nature of hydrazone-metal interactions. This study addresses this issue by resolving the equilibrium speciation of hydrazone-gallium aqueous solutions. The protonation constants of the target 2-oxo-2-[N-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazino]-acetamide (ME0163) hydrazone species and of its 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde and oxamic acid hydrazide building blocks were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry to achieve this goal. These studies show that the hydrazone is an excessively strong complexing agent for gallium and that its antivirulence properties are predominantly ascribed to monomeric 1:1Ga-ME0163 complexes of various Ga hydrolysis and ME0163 protonation states. The chelation of Ga(III) to the hydrazone also increased the stability of the compounds against acid-induced hydrolysis, making this group of compounds very interesting for biological applications where the Fe-antagonist action of both Ga(III) and the hydrazone can be combined for enhanced biological effect. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Conversion of n-Butane to iso-Butene on Gallium/HZSM-5 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Gheno

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of n-butane to iso-butene on gallium/HZSM-5 catalysts at 350ºC and WHSV=2.5h8-1 was studied. The catalysts were prepared by ion exchange from a Ga(NO32 solution and further submitted to calcination in air at 530ºC. TEM analysis with an EDAX detector and TPR-H2 data showed that after calcination the Ga species were present mainly as Ga2O3, which are reduced to Ga2O at temperatures near 610ºC. The specific acid activity (SAA of the catalysts increased with the increase in aluminum content in the zeolite, and for a fixed Si/Al ratio, the SAA increased with Ga content. Values for specific hydro/dehydrogenation activity (SH/DHA were significantly higher than those for SAA, indicating that the catalytic process is controlled by the kinetics on acid sites. Moreover, the production of iso-butene with a selectivity higher than 25% was a evidence that in gallium/HZSM-5-based catalysts the rate of the hydrogenation reaction is lower than that of the dehydrogenation reaction; this behavior confirmed the dehydrogenation nature of gallium species, thereby showing great promise for iso-butene production.

  10. Ingestion of gallium phosphide nanowires has no adverse effect on Drosophila tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Karl; Schneider, Martina; Hammarin, Greger; Häcker, Udo; Prinz, Christelle N

    2013-07-19

    Engineered nanoparticles have been under increasing scrutiny in recent years. High aspect ratio nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires have raised safety concerns due to their geometrical similarity to asbestos fibers. III-V epitaxial semiconductor nanowires are expected to be utilized in devices such as LEDs and solar cells and will thus be available to the public. In addition, clean-room staff fabricating and characterizing the nanowires are at risk of exposure, emphasizing the importance of investigating their possible toxicity. Here we investigated the effects of gallium phosphide nanowires on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila larvae and/or adults were exposed to gallium phosphide nanowires by ingestion with food. The toxicity and tissue interaction of the nanowires was evaluated by investigating tissue distribution, activation of immune response, genome-wide gene expression, life span, fecundity and somatic mutation rates. Our results show that gallium phosphide nanowires applied through the diet are not taken up into Drosophila tissues, do not elicit a measurable immune response or changes in genome-wide gene expression and do not significantly affect life span or somatic mutation rate.

  11. A gallium(III) Schiff base-curcumin complex that binds to amyloid-β plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jaclyn L; Hayne, David J; Roselt, Peter; McLean, Catriona A; White, Jonathan M; Donnelly, Paul S

    2016-09-01

    Gallium-68 is a positron-emitting isotope that can be used in positron-emission tomography imaging agents. Alzheimer's disease is associated with the formation of plaques in the brain primarily comprised of aggregates of a 42 amino acid protein called amyloid-β. With the goal of synthesising charge neutral, low molecular weight, lipophilic gallium complexes with the potential to cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to Aβ plaques we have used an ancillary tetradentate N2O2 Schiff base ligand and the β-diketone curcumin as a bidentate ligand to give a six-coordinate Ga3+ complex. The tetradentate Schiff base ligand adopts the cis-β configuration with deprotonated curcumin acting as a bidentate ligand. The complex binds to amyloid-β plaques in human brain tissue and it is possible that extension of this chemistry to positron-emitting gallium-68 could provide useful imaging agents for Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of silver or gallium doped titanium against the multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochis, A; Azzimonti, B; Della Valle, C; De Giglio, E; Bloise, N; Visai, L; Cometa, S; Rimondini, L; Chiesa, R

    2016-02-01

    Implant-related infection of biomaterials is one of the main causes of arthroplasty and osteosynthesis failure. Bacteria, such as the rapidly-emerging Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) pathogen Acinetobacter Baumannii, initiate the infection by adhering to biomaterials and forming a biofilm. Since the implant surface plays a crucial role in early bacterial adhesion phases, titanium was electrochemically modified by an Anodic Spark Deposition (ASD) treatment, developed previously and thought to provide osseo-integrative properties. In this study, the treatment was modified to insert gallium or silver onto the titanium surface, to provide antibacterial properties. The material was characterized morphologically, chemically, and mechanically; biological properties were investigated by direct cytocompatibility assay, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Immunofluorescent (IF) analysis; antibacterial activity was determined by counting Colony Forming Units, and viability assay. The various ASD-treated surfaces showed similar morphology, micrometric pore size, and uniform pore distribution. Of the treatments studied, gallium-doped specimens showed the best ALP synthesis and antibacterial properties. This study demonstrates the possibility of successfully doping the surface of titanium with gallium or silver, using the ASD technique; this approach can provide antibacterial properties and maintain high osseo-integrative potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of gallium nitride surfaces for atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A J; Chagarov, E; Gu, S; Kaufman-Osborn, T; Madisetti, S; Wu, J; Asbeck, P M; Oktyabrsky, S; Kummel, A C

    2014-09-14

    A combined wet and dry cleaning process for GaN(0001) has been investigated with XPS and DFT-MD modeling to determine the molecular-level mechanisms for cleaning and the subsequent nucleation of gate oxide atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ XPS studies show that for the wet sulfur treatment on GaN(0001), sulfur desorbs at room temperature in vacuum prior to gate oxide deposition. Angle resolved depth profiling XPS post-ALD deposition shows that the a-Al2O3 gate oxide bonds directly to the GaN substrate leaving both the gallium surface atoms and the oxide interfacial atoms with XPS chemical shifts consistent with bulk-like charge. These results are in agreement with DFT calculations that predict the oxide/GaN(0001) interface will have bulk-like charges and a low density of band gap states. This passivation is consistent with the oxide restoring the surface gallium atoms to tetrahedral bonding by eliminating the gallium empty dangling bonds on bulk terminated GaN(0001).

  14. Ingestion of gallium phosphide nanowires has no adverse effect on Drosophila tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Karl; Schneider, Martina; Hammarin, Greger; Häcker, Udo; Prinz, Christelle N.

    2013-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles have been under increasing scrutiny in recent years. High aspect ratio nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires have raised safety concerns due to their geometrical similarity to asbestos fibers. III-V epitaxial semiconductor nanowires are expected to be utilized in devices such as LEDs and solar cells and will thus be available to the public. In addition, clean-room staff fabricating and characterizing the nanowires are at risk of exposure, emphasizing the importance of investigating their possible toxicity. Here we investigated the effects of gallium phosphide nanowires on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila larvae and/or adults were exposed to gallium phosphide nanowires by ingestion with food. The toxicity and tissue interaction of the nanowires was evaluated by investigating tissue distribution, activation of immune response, genome-wide gene expression, life span, fecundity and somatic mutation rates. Our results show that gallium phosphide nanowires applied through the diet are not taken up into Drosophila tissues, do not elicit a measurable immune response or changes in genome-wide gene expression and do not significantly affect life span or somatic mutation rate.

  15. Deposition of metallic gallium on re-crystallized ceramic material during focused ion beam milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Tabares, J.A., E-mail: j.a.munoz.tabares@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n, Cd Universitaria, 04510 México DF, México (Mexico); Anglada, M. [Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647 (ETSEIB), 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Reyes-Gasga, J. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n, Cd Universitaria, 04510 México DF, México (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    We report a new kind of artifact observed in the preparation of a TEM sample of zirconia by FIB, which consists in the deposition of metallic gallium nano-dots on the TEM sample surface. High resolution TEM images showed a microstructure of fine equiaxed grains of ∼ 5 nm, with some of them possessing two particular characteristics: high contrast and well-defined fast Fourier transform. These grains could not be identified as any phase of zirconia but it was possible to identify them as gallium crystals in the zone axis [110]. Based on HRTEM simulations, the possible orientations between zirconia substrate and deposited gallium are discussed in terms of lattice mismatch and oxygen affinity. - Highlights: • We show a new type of artifact induced during preparation of TEM samples by FIB. • Deposition of Ga occurs due to its high affinity for oxygen. • Materials with small grain size (∼ 5 nm) could promote Ga deposition. • Small grain size permits the elastic accommodation of deposited Ga.

  16. Detection of insulinoma using (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Samira M; Neychev, Vladimir; Cottle-Delisle, Candice; Merkel, Roxanne; Yang, Lily A; Quezado, Martha M; Chang, Richard; Kebebew, Electron

    2014-11-01

    Insulinomas are the most common cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in non-diabetic adults. They are most often benign, small and difficult to localize with current imaging techniques. This is of high importance, as complete surgical resection is the only curative treatment. Anatomic imaging, (111)In-pentetreotide scan and (68)Gallium-DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were compared in a patient with insulinoma. (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT and selective arterial calcium stimulation localized the insulinoma. At surgery, a tumor in the anterior aspect of the pancreatic body was found which confirmed the preoperative localization, and a 2.1 cm tumor was enucleated, World Health Organization (WHO) grade I insulinoma. The patient remains euglycemic and free of symptoms at last follow up. In conclusion, (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging may be a useful adjunct localizing study for insulinomas. It is a non-invasive preoperative localization study that could guide surgical exploration for successful therapy.

  17. Gallium-modified chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) bilayer coatings for improved titanium implant performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Maria A; Cometa, Stefania; Dicarlo, Manuela; Baruzzi, Federico; de Candia, Silvia; Gloria, Antonio; Giangregorio, Maria M; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; De Giglio, Elvira

    2017-06-15

    A gallium-modified chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) bilayer was obtained by electrochemical techniques on titanium to reduce orthopaedic and/or dental implants failure. The bilayer in vitro antibacterial properties and biocompatibility were evaluated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and on MG63 osteoblast-like cells, respectively. Gallium loading into the bilayer was carefully tuned by the electrochemical deposition time to ensure the best balance between antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility. The 30min deposition time was able to reduce in vitro the viable cell counts of E. coli and P. aeruginosa of 2 and 3 log cfu/sheet, respectively. Our results evidenced that the developed antibacterial coating did not considerably alter the mechanical flexural properties of titanium substrates and, in addition, influenced positively MG63 adhesion and proliferation. Therefore, the gallium-modified chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) bilayer can be exploited as a promising titanium coating to limit bacterial adhesion and proliferation, while maintaining osseointegrative potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Greater-than-bulk melting temperatures explained: Gallium melts Gangnam style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Nicola; Steenbergen, Krista

    2014-03-01

    The experimental discovery of superheating in gallium clusters contradicted the clear and well-demonstrated paradigm that the melting temperature of a particle should decrease with its size. However the extremely sensitive dependence of melting temperature on size also goes to the heart of cluster science, and the interplay between the effects of electronic and geometric structure. We have performed extensive first-principles molecular dynamics calculations, incorporating parallel tempering for an efficient exploration of configurational phase space. This is necessary, due to the complicated energy landscape of gallium. In the nanoparticles, melting is preceded by a transitions between phases. A structural feature, referred to here as the Gangnam motif, is found to increase with the latent heat and appears throughout the observed phase changes of this curious metal. We will present our detailed analysis of the solid-state isomers, performed using extensive statistical sampling of the trajectory data for the assignment of cluster structures to known phases of gallium. Finally, we explain the greater-than-bulk melting through analysis of the factors that stabilise the liquid structures.

  19. Effect of gallium on growth of Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 and dental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, S P; Owens, G J; Miles, E J; Farmer, N L; Cooper, L; Miller, G; Clowes, R; Lynch, R J M; Higham, S M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium-doped phosphate-based glasses (Ga-PBG) were assessed for their impact on Streptococcus mutans and dental mineralisation, firstly by disc diffusion assays followed by biofilms grown on nitrocellulose filter membrane (NFM) and constant-depth film fermentor (CDFF). Short-time exposure (10 min) effects of Ga-PBG on S. mutans biofilm were compared with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. The effects of Ga-PBG on bovine enamel (which was investigated under pH-cycling condition) and dentine were analysed using transverse microradiography (TMR), profilometry and inductively coupled plasma optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The disc diffusion assays showed inhibition zones of 24.5 ± 0.5 mm for Ga-PBG compared with controls (C-PBG). Ga-PBG showed statistically significant growth inhibition of S. mutans biofilms on NFM (p = 0.001) and CDFF (p gallium adsorption into dentine by calcium displacement. The results confirmed that gallium inhibited S. mutans growth and appears to have the potential to protect the enamel surface under conditions representative of the oral environment. Further work is needed to establish whether it has an application in daily oral hygiene procedures to prevent or reduce caries.

  20. Refractive index and dispersion control of ultrafast laser inscribed waveguides in gallium lanthanum sulphide for near and mid-infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriou, Giorgos; Berube, Jean-Philippe; Vallee, Real

    2016-01-01

    The powerful ultrafast laser inscription technique is used to fabricate optical waveguides in gallium lanthanum sulphide substrates. For the first time the refractive index profile and the dispersion of such ultrafast laser inscribed waveguides are experimentally measured. In addition the Zero...... in gallium lanthanum sulphide glasses for near and mid-IR applications. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  1. GALAXI: Gallium anode low-angle x-ray instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kentzinger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The high brilliance laboratory small angle X-ray scattering instrument GALAXI, which is operated by JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich, permits the investigation of chemical correlations in bulk materials or of structures deposited on a surface at nanometre and mesoscopic length scales. The instrument is capable to perform GISAXS experiments in reflection at grazing incidence as well as SAXS experiments in transmission geometry. The X-ray flux on sample is comparable or higher than the one obtained at a comparable beamline at a second generation synchrotron radiation source.

  2. The gallium complex KP46 exerts strong activity against primary explanted melanoma cells and induces apoptosis in melanoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiahdi, Seied Mojtaba; Heffeter, Petra; Jakupec, Michael A.; Marculescu, Rodrig; Berger, Walter; Rappersberger, Klemens; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2012-01-01

    The antineoplastic properties of gallium are well documented. Owing to their robust accumulation of gallium, melanoma cells should be amenable to gallium-based anticancer drugs. With the aim of improving the disappointingly low activity of inorganic gallium salts, we have developed the orally bioavailable gallium complex KP46 [tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III)] that was already successfully studied in a phase I clinical trial. To assess its therapeutic potential in malignant melanoma, its antiproliferative effects were investigated in series of human cell lines and primary explanted melanoma samples by means of the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and the Human Tumor Cloning Assay, respectively. When compared with other cell lines, the majority of melanoma cells rank among the KP46-sensitive cell lines (50% inhibitory concentration values: 0.8–3.7 μmol/l). Clinically achievable concentrations of KP46 proved to be highly effective in melanoma cells from primary explants of cutaneous and lymph node metastases. Colony growth was inhibited in 10 of 10 specimens by 5 lmol/l KP46 (corresponding to the steady-state plasma concentration measured earlier in a study patient) and in four of 10 specimens by 0.5 μmol/l KP46. In-vitro potency of KP46 is higher than that of dacarbazine or fotemustine and comparable with that of cisplatin. The effects induced by KP46 in melanoma cell lines involve cell cycle perturbations (S-phase arrest) and apoptosis (activation of caspase-9, PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage, formation of apoptotic bodies). No effects on DNA secondary structure could be observed in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay using double-stranded plasmid DNA. Thus, further studies on the therapeutic applicability of KP46 in malignant melanoma are warranted. PMID:19584767

  3. Lead-gallium glasses and glass-ceramics doped with SiO2 for near infrared transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczewska, Agnieszka; Środa, Marcin; Nocuń, Marek; Sulikowski, Bogdan

    2015-07-01

    Lead-gallium glasses, due to the absence of typical glass-forming components, are characterized by an increased tendency to crystallization. Despite this, they are interesting materials due to a shift of IR absorption edge up to 6-7 μm. The paper considers how the SiO2 dopant affects thermal stability and the UV-VIS and IR transmittance of lead-gallium glasses. The base lead-gallium glass (0.75PbO·0.25Ga2O3) was modified by the addition of 5, 10 and 15 mol% SiO2, respectively. DTA/DSC data showed that the glasses are characterized by the multi-stage crystallization, which is changed with the amount of silica doped. The XRD analysis confirmed that: (i) different forms of lead oxide crystallize after heat treatment of the glass, and (ii) the Ga2PbO4 phase is formed at higher temperatures. The silica admixture allowed inserting a few percent of BaF2 into the lead-gallium glass structure. It was found that a transparent glass-ceramic based on the lead-gallium glass with a low phonon barium fluoride phase can be obtained during the thermal treatment. The study of UV-VIS-IR transmittance shows that 10-15 mol% SiO2 in the lead-gallium glasses diminishes the absorption band in the range of 2.6-4 μm due to the presence of hydroxyl groups and simultaneously reduces transmittance in the range of 5-6.5 μm from 10 to 20%. Introduction of SiO2 to the glass results in the increase of transmittance in the shorter wavelength region and the UV-edge shift is observed. It was also confirmed that the BaF2 nanocrystallites exert no effect on the transmittance of the spectrum analyzed.

  4. Photoluminescence Study of Ion Implantation Damage in Gallium Arsenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    The completion of this thesis was a very gratifying and educational experience. It provided valuable exposure to topics which were heretofore...Engjineering, Air Force, Institute of Technology, December 1978. 21. Yu , P. W . and Y’. S. Park. "PhoLel uminlescence in M11- implmnted GaiAs --anm...1946 in Caracas, Venezuela, the son of Edward and Margaret Key. Ile received his high school education at Riverside Military Academy in Gainesville

  5. Cerium, gallium and zinc containing mesoporous bioactive glass coating deposited on titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shruti, S., E-mail: biotech.shruti@gmail.com; Andreatta, F.; Furlani, E.; Marin, E.; Maschio, S.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Mesoporous bioactive glass substituted with Ce, Ga or Zn coated on Ti6Al4 V alloy. • Ce, Ga and Zn play vital role in bone metabolism. • Coating was homogenous and crack free retaining the characteristics of glass samples. • Apatite layer formed on unsubstituted, Ce and Ga substituted samples by 15 d. • Zn substituted samples lack apatite layer formation ability. - Abstract: Surface modification is one of the methods for improving the performance of medical implants in biological environment. In this study, cerium, gallium and zinc substituted 80%SiO{sub 2}-15%CaO-5%P{sub 2}O{sub 5} mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) in combination with polycaprolactone (PCL) were coated over Ti6Al4 V substrates by dip-coating method in order to obtain an inorganic—organic hybrid coating (MBG-PCL). Structural characterization was performed using XRD, nitrogen adsorption, SEM-EDXS, FTIR. The MBG-PCL coating uniformly covered the substrate with the thickness found to be more than 1 μm. Glass and polymer phases were detected in the coating along with the presence of biologically potent elements cerium, gallium and zinc. In addition, in vitro bioactivity was investigated by soaking the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 30 days at 37 °C. The apatite-like layer was monitored by FTIR, SEM-EDXS and ICP measurements and it formed in all the samples within 15 days except zinc samples. In this way, an attempt was made to develop a new biomaterial with improved in vitro bioactive response due to bioactive glass coating and good mechanical strength of Ti6Al4 V alloy along with inherent biological properties of cerium, gallium and zinc.

  6. Pneumocystis pneumonia: importance of gallium scan for early diagnosis and description of a new immunoperoxidase technique to demonstrate Pneumocystis carinii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, M.; McLeod, R.; Young, Q.; Abrahams, C.; Chambliss, M.; Walzer, P.; Kabins, S.A.

    1983-07-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia presented in a homosexual with fever, a normal chest radiograph, and pulmonary gallium uptake. Bronchial washings yielded Mycobaterium tuberculosis, but despite antituberculosis therapy he remained febrile, and gallium uptake in the lung increased. Subsequently, silver stain of transbronchial lung biopsy obtained 2 months earlier at the time that tuberculosis was diagnosed showed many Pneumocystis cysts in alveolar spaces. In contrast to Pneumocystis cysts in infected lung tissue from other humans, our patient's Pneumocystis cysts reacted more avidly with antiserum to rat Pneumocystis than with antiserum to human pneumocystis, raising the possibility that organisms that infect humans may have varied surface antigenic properties.

  7. Study of MHD Effects on Surface Waves in Liquid Gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, W.; Ji, H.; Pace, D.; Rappaport, H.

    2001-10-01

    The liquid metal experiment (LMX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has been constructed to study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects on the propagation of surface waves in liquid metals in an imposed horizontal magnetic field. The physics of liquid metal is of interest generally as a regime of small magnetic Reynolds number MHD and more specifically contributes basic knowledge to the applications of liquid lithium walls in a fusion reactor. Surface waves are driven by a wave driver controlled by a PC-based Labview system. A non-invasive diagnostic measures surface fluctuations at multiple locations accurately by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface and onto a screen recorded by an ICCD camera. The real part of the dispersion relation has been measured precisely and agrees well with a linear theory, revealing the role of surface oxidation. Experiments have also confirmed that a transverse magnetic field does not affect wave propagation, and have qualitatively observed MHD damping (a non-zero imaginary component of the dispersion relation) of waves propagating in a parallel magnetic field. Planned upgrades to LMX will enable quantitative measurement of this MHD damping rate as well as experiments on two-dimensional waves and nonlinear waves. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors will be discussed.

  8. The role of the ohmic contact on the efficiency of gallium arsenide radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, A. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Phys.; Cavallini, A. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Phys.; Polenta, L. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Phys.; Canali, C. [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Modena, Via Campi 213/B, Modena (Italy); Del Papa, C. [Department of Physics, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze, Udine (Italy); Nava, F. [Department of Physics, University of Modena, Via Campi 213/A, Modena (Italy)

    1997-04-01

    It has recently been found that in gallium arsenide radiation detectors injecting ohmic contacts impede charge collection efficiency to get 100%, since breakdown occurs as soon as the electric field reaches the contact itself. In the present contribution, this phenomenon is investigated by comparing two sets of ohmic contacts realized by different technological procedures. While the overall defective state results to be nearly the same for both contacts, their performance significantly differs. Deep level junction spectroscopy shows that the defects are the same in both sets whilst there is much difference in density between a few of them. (orig.).

  9. Investigating Enhancement Mode Gallium Nitride Power FETs in High Voltage, High Frequency Soft Switching Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Yasser; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2016-01-01

    of using enhancement mode gallium nitride switches to form a 50V quasi-square-wave zero-voltage-switching buck converter running at 2-6 MHz under full load. The designed converter achieved 83% efficiency converting 50V input voltage to 12.2V at 9W load.......An increased attention has been detected to develop smaller and lighter high voltage power converters in the range of 50V to 400V domain. The main applications for these converters are mainly focused for Power over Ethernet (PoE), LED lighting and AC adapters. This work will discuss a study...

  10. Electromagnetic properties of terbium gallium garnet at millikelvin temperatures and low photon energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostylev, Nikita; Goryachev, Maxim; Bushev, Pavel; Tobar, Michael E.

    2017-07-01

    Electromagnetic properties of single crystal terbium gallium garnet are characterised from room down to millikelvin temperatures using the whispering gallery mode method. Microwave spectroscopy is performed at low powers equivalent to a few photons in energy and conducted as functions of the magnetic field and temperature. A phase transition is detected close to the temperature of 3.5 K. This is observed for multiple whispering gallery modes causing an abrupt negative frequency shift and a change in transmission due to extra losses in the new phase caused by a change in complex magnetic susceptibility.

  11. Size and Shape Dependence on Melting Temperature of Gallium Nitride Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paneerselvam Antoniammal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variation of the size and shape effect on the melting property of gallium nitride nanoparticles with their spherical and cylindrical geometrical feature is theoretically explored. A numerical thermodynamical model has been devoted for the study. A comparative investigation is made between the two shapes, at the range of ~3 nm dia. The cylindrical GaN nanoparticles, whose melting point has been reported to decrease with decreasing particle radius, become larger than spherical-shaped nanoparticles. The melting temperature obtained in the present study is in line with the function of radius of curvature.

  12. Efficiency Enhancement of Gallium Arsenide Photovoltaics Using Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Light Scattering Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangsen Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a high-throughput, solution-based process for subwavelength surface texturing of a III-V compound solar cell. A zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticle ink is spray-coated directly on top of a gallium arsenide (GaAs solar cell. The nanostructured ZnO films have demonstrated antireflection and light scattering properties over the visible/near-infrared (NIR spectrum. The results show a broadband spectral enhancement of the solar cell external quantum efficiency (EQE, a 16% enhancement of short circuit current, and a 10% increase in photovoltaic efficiency.

  13. Frequency-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Injecting Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn) Liquid Metal Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Kenyu; Kim, Hyung Ki; Yoo, Minyeong; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a new class of frequency-switchable metamaterial absorber in the X-band. Eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn), a liquid metal alloy, was injected in a microfluidic channel engraved on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to achieve frequency switching. Numerical simulation and experimental results are presented for two cases: when the microfluidic channels are empty, and when they are filled with liquid metal. To evaluate the performance of the fabricated absorber prototype, it is tested with a rectangular waveguide. The resonant frequency was successfully switched from 10.96 GHz to 10.61 GHz after injecting liquid metal while maintaining absorptivity higher than 98%. PMID:26561815

  14. Investigating Enhancement Mode Gallium Nitride Power FETs in High Voltage, High Frequency Soft Switching Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Yasser; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2016-01-01

    An increased attention has been detected to develop smaller and lighter high voltage power converters in the range of 50V to 400V domain. The main applications for these converters are mainly focused for Power over Ethernet (PoE), LED lighting and AC adapters. This work will discuss a study of us...... of using enhancement mode gallium nitride switches to form a 50V quasi-square-wave zero-voltage-switching buck converter running at 2-6 MHz under full load. The designed converter achieved 83% efficiency converting 50V input voltage to 12.2V at 9W load....

  15. Acinetobacter baumannii Biofilm Formation in Human Serum and Disruption by Gallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runci, Federica; Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Visaggio, Daniela; Visca, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm-associated infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii are extremely recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. We report that A. baumannii develops a mature biofilm when grown in complement-free human serum (HS). We demonstrate that 16 μM gallium nitrate (GaN) drastically reduces A. baumannii growth and biofilm formation in HS, whereas 64 μM GaN causes massive disruption of preformed A. baumannii biofilm. These findings pave the way to the repurposing of GaN as an antibiofilm agent for A. baumannii. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Effects of Radiation and Long-Term Thermal Cycling on EPC 1001 Gallium Nitride Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work efficiently and reliably under harsh environment conditions. These include radiation, extreme temperatures, and thermal cycling, to name a few. Data obtained on long-term thermal cycling of new un-irradiated and irradiated samples of EPC1001 gallium nitride enhancement-mode transistors are presented. This work was done by a collaborative effort including GRC, GSFC, and support the NASA www.nasa.gov 1 JPL in of Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program

  17. Synthesis of graphene nanoribbons from amyloid templates by gallium vapor-assisted solid-phase graphitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Katsuhisa, E-mail: k.murakami@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Dong, Tianchen; Kajiwara, Yuya; Takahashi, Teppei; Fujita, Jun-ichi [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Hiyama, Takaki; Takai, Eisuke; Ohashi, Gai; Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-06-16

    Single- and double-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with widths of around 10 nm were synthesized directly onto an insulating substrate by solid-phase graphitization using a gallium vapor catalyst and carbon templates made of amyloid fibrils. Subsequent investigation revealed that the crystallinity, conductivity, and carrier mobility were all improved by increasing the temperature of synthesis. The carrier mobility of the GNR synthesized at 1050 °C was 0.83 cm{sup 2}/V s, which is lower than that of mechanically exfoliated graphene. This is considered to be most likely due to electron scattering by the defects and edges of the GNRs.

  18. A Gallium Oxide-Graphene Oxide Hybrid Composite for Enhanced Photocatalytic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungdu Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composites (HCs made up of gallium oxide (GaO and graphene oxide (GO were investigated with the intent of enhancing a photocatalytic reaction under ultraviolet (UV radiation. The material properties of both GaO and GO were preserved, even after the formation of the HCs. The incorporation of the GO into the GaO significantly enhanced the photocatalytic reaction, as indicated by the amount of methylene blue (MB degradation. The improvements in the reaction were discussed in terms of increased surface area and the retarded recombination of generated charged carriers.

  19. Near-infrared gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal platform on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, I.; Zeng, Y.; Han, Z.; Checoury, X.; Blin, C.; El Kurdi, M.; Ghrib, A.; Sauvage, S.; Boucaud, P., E-mail: philippe.boucaud@ief.u-psud.fr [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS - Univ. Paris Sud 11, Bâtiment 220, F-91405 Orsay (France); Gayral, B. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M, CEA-CNRS group “Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs,” F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SP2M, CEA-CNRS group “Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs,” F-38000 Grenoble (France); Brimont, C.; Guillet, T. [Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34905 Montpellier (France); Semond, F. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Grégory, F-06560 Valbonne (France)

    2014-07-07

    We demonstrate a two-dimensional free-standing gallium nitride photonic crystal platform operating around 1550 nm and fabricated on a silicon substrate. Width-modulated waveguide cavities are integrated and exhibit loaded quality factors up to 34 000 at 1575 nm. We show the resonance tunability by varying the ratio of air hole radius to periodicity, and cavity hole displacement. We deduce a ∼7.9 dB/cm linear absorption loss for the suspended nitride structure from the power dependence of the cavity in-plane transmission.

  20. Near-infrared characterization of gallium nitride photonic-crystal waveguides and cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharanipathy, U; Vico Triviño, N; Yan, C; Diao, Z; Carlin, J-F; Grandjean, N; Houdré, R

    2012-11-15

    We report the design and optical characterization of fully suspended wire waveguides and photonic crystal (PhC) membranes fabricated on a gallium nitride layer grown on silicon substrate operating at 1.5 μm. W1-type PhC waveguides are coupled with suspended wires and are investigated using a standard end-fire setup. The experimental and theoretical dispersion properties of the propagating modes in the wires and photonic-crystal waveguides are shown. Modified L3 cavities with quality factors of up to 2200 and heterostructure cavities with quality factors of up to 5400 are experimentally demonstrated.

  1. Optical polarization based logic functions (XOR or XNOR) with nonlinear Gallium nitride nanoslab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, F A; Larciprete, M C; Giardina, M; Belardini, A; Centini, M; Sibilia, C; Bertolotti, M; Passaseo, A; Tasco, V

    2009-10-26

    We present a scheme of XOR/XNOR logic gate, based on non phase-matched noncollinear second harmonic generation from a medium of suitable crystalline symmetry, Gallium nitride. The polarization of the noncollinear generated beam is a function of the polarization of both pump beams, thus we experimentally investigated all possible polarization combinations, evidencing that only some of them are allowed and that the nonlinear interaction of optical signals behaves as a polarization based XOR. The experimental results show the peculiarity of the nonlinear optical response associated with noncollinear excitation, and are explained using the expression for the effective second order optical nonlinearity in noncollinear scheme.

  2. Frequency-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Injecting Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn) Liquid Metal Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Kenyu; Kim, Hyung Ki; Yoo, Minyeong; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-11-06

    In this study, we demonstrated a new class of frequency-switchable metamaterial absorber in the X-band. Eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn), a liquid metal alloy, was injected in a microfluidic channel engraved on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to achieve frequency switching. Numerical simulation and experimental results are presented for two cases: when the microfluidic channels are empty, and when they are filled with liquid metal. To evaluate the performance of the fabricated absorber prototype, it is tested with a rectangular waveguide. The resonant frequency was successfully switched from 10.96 GHz to 10.61 GHz after injecting liquid metal while maintaining absorptivity higher than 98%.

  3. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li Qiang, E-mail: guoliqiang@ujs.edu.cn; Ding, Jian Ning; Huang, Yu Kai [Micro/Nano Science & Technology Center, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO{sub 2} electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO{sub 2} electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  4. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li Qiang; Zhu, Li Qiang; Ding, Jian Ning; Huang, Yu Kai

    2015-08-01

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO2 electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO2 electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  5. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiang Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO2 electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO2 electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  6. A generator-produced gallium-68 radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of myocardial perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sharma

    Full Text Available Lipophilic cationic technetium-99m-complexes are widely used for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI. However, inherent uncertainties in the supply chain of molybdenum-99, the parent isotope required for manufacturing 99Mo/99mTc generators, intensifies the need for discovery of novel MPI agents incorporating alternative radionuclides. Recently, germanium/gallium (Ge/Ga generators capable of producing high quality 68Ga, an isotope with excellent emission characteristics for clinical PET imaging, have emerged. Herein, we report a novel 68Ga-complex identified through mechanism-based cell screening that holds promise as a generator-produced radiopharmaceutical for PET MPI.

  7. Electron flow generated by gas phase exothermic catalytic reactions using a platinum-gallium nitride nanodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaozhong; Zuppero, Anthony; Gidwani, Jawahar M; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2005-04-27

    We report steady-state conversion of chemical reaction energy into hot electrons by ballistic injection into a platinum-gallium nitride (Pt/GaN) nanodiode during the platinum-catalyzed oxidation of carbon monoxide. Surface catalytic reactions of molecules from the gas phase generated continuous steady-state hot electron currents with energies at least that of Schottky barrier energy ( approximately 1 eV). These hot electron currents were observed on two different nanodiodes (Pt/TiO2 and Pt/GaN) and represent a new method of chemical energy conversion.

  8. Surface plasma-enhanced internal photoemission in gallium arsenide Schottky diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosian, K M; Karakashian, A S; Teng, Y Y

    1987-07-01

    An aluminum on n-type gallium arsenide Schottky diode with a prism coupler on the front face was illuminated by a p-polarized Nd:YAG laser to excite the surface plasma resonance in the aluminum barrier contact. The internal photoemission current and reflectance were measured simultaneously as a function of the angle of incidence. The excitation of the surface plasma resonance was observed by a dip in the reflectance which occurred at the same angle as a peak in the photoemission current. These effects disappeared in the case of s-polarization. Enhancement in the photoemission current by as much as a factor of 3 was obtained.

  9. Improved performance of Schottky diodes on pendeoepitaxial gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, T.; Derenge, M.; Ewing, D.; Shah, P.; Jones, K.; Lee, U.; Robins, L.

    2008-09-01

    We designed experiments to investigate the role of dislocation density on the performance of Schottky diodes fabricated on a GaN material grown conventionally and by pendeo-epitaxy. Devices of varying geometries were fabricated on low defect density GaN regions grown selectively via pendeo-epitaxy. In addition, corresponding devices were fabricated on the conventional GaN material with a high density of dislocations. Schottky diodes fabricated on pendeo-material showed nearly two orders of magnitude lower leakage current and displayed improved ideality factor, while diodes built on a conventional material displayed nonideal characteristics.

  10. THE QUANTUM-WELL STRUCTURES OF SELF ELECTROOPTIC-EFFECT DEVICES AND GALLIUM-ARSENIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa TEMİZ

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple quantum-well (MQW electroabsorptive self electro optic-effect devices (SEEDs are being extensively studied for use in optical switching and computing. The self electro-optic-effect devices which has quantum-well structures is a new optoelectronic technology with capability to obtain both optical inputs and outputs for Gallium-Arsenide/Aluminum Gallium-Arsenide (GaAs/AlGaAs electronic circuits. The optical inputs and outputs are based on quantum-well absorptive properties. These quantum-well structures consist of many thin layers of semiconductors materials of GaAs/AlGaAs which have emerged some important directions recently. The most important advance in the physics of these materials since the early days has been invention of the heterojunction structures which is based at present on GaAs technology. GaAs/AlGaAs structures present some important advantages to relevant band gap and index of refraction which allow to form the quantum-well structures and also to make semiconductor lasers, dedectors and waveguide optical switches.

  11. Solvothermal synthesis of gallium-indium-zinc-oxide nanoparticles for electrolyte-gated transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lídia; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomás; Branquinho, Rita; Salgueiro, Daniela; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luís; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2015-01-14

    Solution-processed field-effect transistors are strategic building blocks when considering low-cost sustainable flexible electronics. Nevertheless, some challenges (e.g., processing temperature, reliability, reproducibility in large areas, and cost effectiveness) are requirements that must be surpassed in order to achieve high-performance transistors. The present work reports electrolyte-gated transistors using as channel layer gallium-indium-zinc-oxide nanoparticles produced by solvothermal synthesis combined with a solid-state electrolyte based on aqueous dispersions of vinyl acetate stabilized with cellulose derivatives, acrylic acid ester in styrene and lithium perchlorate. The devices fabricated using this approach display a ION/IOFF up to 1 × 10(6), threshold voltage (VTh) of 0.3-1.9 V, and mobility up to 1 cm(2)/(V s), as a function of gallium-indium-zinc-oxide ink formulation and two different annealing temperatures. These results validates the usage of electrolyte-gated transistors as a viable and promising alternative for nanoparticle based semiconductor devices as the electrolyte improves the interface and promotes a more efficient step coverage of the channel layer, reducing the operating voltage when compared with conventional dielectrics gating. Moreover, it is shown that by controlling the applied gate potential, the operation mechanism of the electrolyte-gated transistors can be modified from electric double layer to electrochemical doping.

  12. Morphology evolution of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures on gallium doping and their defect structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Hernandez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Escobedo-Morales, A., E-mail: alejandroescobedo@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Chigo-Anota, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2012-08-15

    In the present article, the effect of gallium doping on the morphology, structural, and vibrational properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures has been studied. It has been observed that incorporated gallium plays an important role on the growth kinetics and hence on the morphology evolution of the ZnO crystals. Ga doping in high concentration results in the contraction of ZnO unit cell, mainly along c-axis. Although Ga has high solubility in ZnO, heavy doping promotes the segregation of Ga atoms as a secondary phase. Incorporated Ga atoms strongly affect the vibrational characteristics of ZnO lattice and induce anomalous Raman modes. Possible mechanisms of morphology evolution and origin of anomalous Raman modes in Ga doped ZnO nanostructures are discussed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doped ZnO nanostructures were successfully grown by hydrothermal chemical route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doping has strong effect on the resulting morphology of ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anomalous vibrational modes in wurtzite ZnO lattice are induced by Ga doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporated Ga atoms accommodate at preferential lattice sites.

  13. Spectrophotometric Determination of Gallium(III with 4-(2-Pyridylazo-resorcinol and Nitron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya Vassileva Racheva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation and liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complex between gallium(III − 4-(2-pyridylazo-resorcinol (PAR – 1,4-diphenyl-3-(phenylamino-1H-1,2,4-triazole (nitron, Nt, water and chloroform were studied. The optimum conditions for gallium(III extraction as an ion-association complex, (NtH+[Ga3+(PAR2]-, were found: pH, concentration of the reagents and shaking time. The following key constants were calculated: constant of extraction (logKex = 6.28 ± 0.07, constant of association (logβ = 4.98 ± 0.05, constant of distribution (logKD = 1.30 ± 0.02 and recovery factor (R / % = 95.17 ± 0.02. Beerʼs law is obeyed for Ga(III concentration up to 0.8 μg cm-3 with apparent molar absorptivity of (10.3 ± 0.4×104 dm-3 mol-1 cm-1 at λmax = 510 nm. Some additional characteristics, such as limit of detection (LOD = 0.072 μg cm-3, limit of quantification (LOQ = 0.24 μg cm-3 and Sandellʼs sensitivity (SS = 0.000675 ng cm-2 were estimated as well.

  14. Chemical exfoliation and optical characterization of threading-dislocation-free gallium-nitride ultrathin nanomembranes

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.

    2014-11-13

    Semiconductor nanostructures have generated tremendous scientific interests as well as practical applications stemming from the engineering of low dimensional physics phenomena. Unlike 0D and 1D nanostructures, such as quantum dots and nanowires, respectively, 2D structures, such as nanomembranes, are unrivalled in their scalability for high yield manufacture and are less challenging in handling with the current transfer techniques. Furthermore, due to their planar geometry, nanomembranes are compatible with the current complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Due to these superior characteristics, there are currently different techniques in exfoliating nanomembranes with different crystallinities, thicknesses and compositions. In this work we demonstrate a new facile technique of exfoliating gallium nitride (GaN) nanomembranes with novel features, namely with the non-radiative cores of their threading-dislocations (TDs) being etched away. The exfoliation process is based on engineering the gallium vacancy (VGa) density during the GaN epitaxial growth with subsequent preferential etching. Based on scanning and transmission electron microscopies, as well as micro-photoluminescence measurements, a model is proposed to uncover the physical processes underlying the formation of the nanomembranes. Raman measurements are also performed to reveal the internal strain within the nanomembranes. After transferring these freely suspended 25 nm thin GaN nanomembranes to other substrates, we demonstrate the temperature dependence of their bandgap by photoluminescence technique, in order to shed light on the internal carrier dynamics. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  15. A hybrid density functional view of native vacancies in gallium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Roland; Robertson, John

    2013-10-09

    We investigated the transition energy levels of the vacancy defects in gallium nitride by means of a hybrid density functional theory approach (DFT). We show that, in contrast to predictions from a recent study on the level of purely local DFT, the inclusion of screened exchange stabilizes the triply positive charge state of the nitrogen vacancy for Fermi energies close to the valence band. On the other hand, the defect levels associated with the negative charge states of the nitrogen vacancy hybridize with the conduction band and turn out to be energetically unfavorable, except for high n-doping. For the gallium vacancy, the increased magnetic splitting between up-spin and down-spin bands due to stronger exchange interactions in sX-LDA pushes the defect levels deeper into the band gap and significantly increases the associated charge transition levels. Based on these results, we propose the ϵ(0| - 1) transition level as an alternative candidate for the yellow luminescence in GaN.

  16. Improved heat dissipation in gallium nitride light-emitting diodes with embedded graphene oxide pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Nam; Cuong, Tran Viet; Han, Min; Ryu, Beo Deul; Chandramohan, S; Park, Jong Bae; Kang, Ji Hye; Park, Young-Jae; Ko, Kang Bok; Kim, Hee Yun; Kim, Hyun Kyu; Ryu, Jae Hyoung; Katharria, Y S; Choi, Chel-Jong; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The future of solid-state lighting relies on how the performance parameters will be improved further for developing high-brightness light-emitting diodes. Eventually, heat removal is becoming a crucial issue because the requirement of high brightness necessitates high-operating current densities that would trigger more joule heating. Here we demonstrate that the embedded graphene oxide in a gallium nitride light-emitting diode alleviates the self-heating issues by virtue of its heat-spreading ability and reducing the thermal boundary resistance. The fabrication process involves the generation of scalable graphene oxide microscale patterns on a sapphire substrate, followed by its thermal reduction and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of gallium nitride in a metal-organic chemical vapour deposition system under one-step process. The device with embedded graphene oxide outperforms its conventional counterpart by emitting bright light with relatively low-junction temperature and thermal resistance. This facile strategy may enable integration of large-scale graphene into practical devices for effective heat removal.

  17. Preparation of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals for positron tomography. Progress report, November 1, 1977-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1980-06-01

    Although the germanium-68 ..-->.. gallium-68 generator is probably the only source of positron-emitting radionuclides that could enable the widespread application of positron tomography, the commercially available /sup 68/Ga//sup 68/Ge generator system suffers from several major disadvantages. The most important of these is that the generator is eluted with EDTA, which forms a very strong chelate with gallium. In order to produce radiopharmaceuticals other than /sup 68/Ga-EDTA, it is first necessary to break the stable EDTA complex and remove all traces of EDTA. This procedure adds several steps and a significant amount of time to procedures for preparing /sup 68/Ga-radiopharmaceuticals. We have developed a new generator using a solvent extraction system which will produce /sup 68/Ga-oxine (8-hydroxyquinoline), a weak chelate. Using this agent we have synthesized several /sup 68/Ga-radiopharmaceuticals and tested them in vitro and in vivo. We have also carried out some preliminary studies to compare generator systems which produce /sup 68/Ga in an ionic form. Attempts have been made using polarographic and chromatographic techniques, and in vivo distribution data to investigate the stability of radiogallium complexes with a series of potentially lipophilic complexing agents.

  18. Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patibandla, Nag; Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of this program, Applied Materials, Inc., with generous support from the United States Department of Energy, developed a world-class three chamber III-Nitride epi cluster tool for low-cost, high volume GaN growth for the solid state lighting industry. One of the major achievements of the program was to design, build, and demonstrate the world’s largest wafer capacity HVPE chamber suitable for repeatable high volume III-Nitride template and device manufacturing. Applied Materials’ experience in developing deposition chambers for the silicon chip industry over many decades resulted in many orders of magnitude reductions in the price of transistors. That experience and understanding was used in developing this GaN epi deposition tool. The multi-chamber approach, which continues to be unique in the ability of the each chamber to deposit a section of the full device structure, unlike other cluster tools, allows for extreme flexibility in the manufacturing process. This robust architecture is suitable for not just the LED industry, but GaN power devices as well, both horizontal and vertical designs. The new HVPE technology developed allows GaN to be grown at a rate unheard of with MOCVD, up to 20x the typical MOCVD rates of 3{micro}m per hour, with bulk crystal quality better than the highest-quality commercial GaN films grown by MOCVD at a much cheaper overall cost. This is a unique development as the HVPE process has been known for decades, but never successfully commercially developed for high volume manufacturing. This research shows the potential of the first commercial-grade HVPE chamber, an elusive goal for III-V researchers and those wanting to capitalize on the promise of HVPE. Additionally, in the course of this program, Applied Materials built two MOCVD chambers, in addition to the HVPE chamber, and a robot that moves wafers between them. The MOCVD chambers demonstrated industry-leading wavelength yield for GaN based LED wafers and industry

  19. A novel three-jet microreactor for localized metal-organic chemical vapour deposition of gallium arsenide : Design and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konakov, S.A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel three-jet microreactor design for localized deposition of gallium arsenide (GaAs) by low-pressure Metal-Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) for semiconductor devices, microelectronics and solar cells. Our approach is advantageous compared to the standard lithography and

  20. Enhanced, robust light-driven H2 generation by gallium-doped titania nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Si [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Upton; USA; Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook; USA; Nguyen-Phan, Thuy-Duong [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Upton; USA; Vovchok, Dimitriy [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Upton; USA; Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook; USA; Waluyo, Iradwikanari [Photon Sciences Division, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Upton; USA; Palomino, Robert M. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Upton; USA; Gamalski, Andrew D. [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Upton; USA; Barrio, Laura [CSIC – Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica Cantoblanco; E-28049 Madrid; Spain; Xu, Wenqian [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory; Argonne; USA; Polyansky, Dmitry E. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Upton; USA; Rodriguez, José A. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Upton; USA; Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook; USA; Senanayake, Sanjaya D. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Upton; USA

    2018-01-01

    Successful introduction of gallium ions into TiO2nanoparticles significantly promotes the H2evolution activity and stability, increasing the opportunities for designing promising photocatalysts for green fuel production.

  1. Catalysts based on platinum–tin and platinum–gallium in close contact for the selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837598; van Asten, D.M.P.; van der Eerden, A.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304840483; Mäki-Arvela, P.; Murzin, D.Y.; de Jong, K.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X; Bitter, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/160581435

    2009-01-01

    Bimetallic platinum–tin and platinum–gallium catalysts supported on carbon nanofibers (CNF) were prepared via reductive deposition precipitation and impregnation. Detailed EXAFS, TEM-EDX and XPS studies showed that reductive deposition precipitation resulted in a close contact of tin with platinum.

  2. Gallium oxide nanorods as novel, safe and durable anode material for Li- and Na-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meligrana, Giuseppina; Lueangchaichaweng, Warunee; Colo, Francesca; Destro, Matteo; Fiorilli, Sonia; Pescarmona, Paolo P.; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Gallium oxide nanorods prepared by template-free synthesis are reported for the first time as safe and durable anode material for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries. The ambient temperature electrochemical response of the nanorods, tested by cyclic voltammetry and constant-current reversible cycling,

  3. Serum resistance, gallium nitrate tolerance and extrapulmonary dissemination are linked to heme consumption in a bacteremic strain of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Léséleuc, Louis; Harris, Greg; KuoLee, Rhonda; Xu, H Howard; Chen, Wangxue

    2014-05-01

    Bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii is a highly lethal complication of hospital-acquired pneumonia. In the present study, we investigated the serum resistance, gallium nitrate tolerance and heme consumption of A. baumannii strain LAC-4 which was recently reported to display high virulence in a mouse pneumonia model with extrapulmonary dissemination leading to fatal bacteremia. This strain showed enhanced growth in mouse and fetal bovine serum that was independent of complement and was not observed with regular growth media. The LAC-4 strain was found to possess a high tolerance to gallium nitrate (GaN), whereas serum synergized with GaN in inhibiting A. baumannii strain ATCC 17978. We found that LAC-4 contains a heme oxygenase gene and expresses a highly efficient heme consumption system. This system can be fully blocked in vitro and in vivo by gallium protoporphyrin IX (GaPPIX). Inhibition of heme consumption by GaPPIX completely abrogated the growth advantage of LAC-4 in serum as well as its tolerance to GaN. More importantly, GaPPIX treatment of mice intranasally infected with LAC-4 prevented extrapulmonary dissemination and death. Thus, we propose that heme provides an additional source of iron for LAC-4 to bypass iron restriction caused by serum transferrin, lactoferrin or free gallium salts. Heme consumption systems in A. baumannii may constitute major virulence factors for lethal bacteremic isolates. Copyright © 2014 Crown Copyright and Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling the Growth of Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al)GaN) Films Grown on Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    cadmium zinc telluride ( CdZnTe or CZT) on Si using a superlattice (SL) in which the SL layers had different compositions (10). We found that the...Abbreviations, and Acronyms (Al)GaN aluminum gallium arsenide AlN aluminum nitride ARL U.S. Army Research Laboratory CdZnTe or CZT cadmium zinc

  5. Application of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Photovoltaic Cells to Extend the Endurance and Capabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Challenger (From [10]).............................................................................7 Figure 5. World Average Photovoltaic Module Cost per...Typical Configuration for a CdTe Cell (From [71]). .......................................51 Figure 55. Roll-to-Roll Manufacture of CIGS Solar Cells...Vehicle BDA Battle Damage Assessment BIPV Building Integrated Photovoltaics CdTe Cadmium Telluride CIGS Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide

  6. Compositional Control of the Mixed Anion Alloys in Gallium-Free InAs/InAsSb Superlattice Materials for Infrared Sensing (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0251 COMPOSITIONAL CONTROL OF THE MIXED ANION ALLOYS IN GALLIUM -FREE InAs/InAsSb SUPERLATTICE MATERIALS FOR...ANION ALLOYS IN GALLIUM -FREE InAs/InAsSb SUPERLATTICE MATERIALS FOR INFRARED SENSING (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-07-D-5800-0006 5b...proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org doi: 10.1117/12.2186188 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Gallium (Ga)-free InAs/InAsSb superlattices (SLs) are being actively explored for

  7. Spin dynamics of equilibrium electrons in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Georg Martin

    2010-12-08

    In this dissertation, spin noise spectroscopy is applied to study spin dynamics in GaAs based semiconductor structures close to thermal equilibrium. Semiconductor spin noise spectroscopy measures the stochastic spin polarization of the electron ensemble via off-resonant Faraday rotation. Correspondingly, no energy has to be deposited in the sample system contrary to other experimental techniques, in which the dephasing or the depolarization of an artificially injected spin polarization is measured. Since the spin fluctuations are measured in real-time, spin noise spectroscopy had been hitherto limited to frequencies below 1 GHz. This thesis introduces the experimental advancement of ultrafast spin noise spectroscopy, in which the fluctuations are probed by pulsed light, and detection of spin noise at frequencies up to 16 GHz is demonstrated. These frequencies exceed the bandwidth of the photoreceiver by a factor of around 200. To further explore the limitations of the finite bandwidth of the detection system, electrical frequency mixing is applied for down-conversion of the electrical spin noise signal. Furthermore, spin noise measurements are simulated revealing that also ultrafast digitizers with low resolution can be utilized for spectral analysis in spin noise spectroscopy without any significant loss of sensitivity. The spin dynamics in a symmetrically grown, modulation-doped, (110)-oriented GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structure are investigated in this work. This experiment represents the first spin noise measurements on a semiconductor system of reduced effective dimensionality. The Dyakonov-Perel mechanism that usually dominates spin dephasing of free electrons in GaAs is ineffective in (110)-oriented structures for spins along the growth direction. Nevertheless, the correspondingly anticipated long spin dephasing times in (110) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells at low temperatures are not accessible with conventional experiments that rely on optical spin

  8. Gallium and indium co-doping of epitaxial zinc oxide thin films grown in water at 90 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang Le, Hong; Chua, Soo Jin

    2011-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were intentionally co-doped with group III elements (gallium) in order to investigate and understand the effects of co-doping on the morphological, electrical and optical properties of gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) films. The co-doped films were grown on MgAl2O4 spinel substrates using a low-temperature solution-phase method known as hydrothermal synthesis. Gallium with indium co-doped ZnO (GIZO) films displayed a dramatic improvement in surface morphology as compared with the Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films due to the compensation effect of gallium and indium doping which reduced the lattice strain. The 0.0033M gallium with 3.3 × 10-4M indium co-doped film exhibited an electron concentration of 3.14 × 1020 cm-3 and resistivity of 7.4 × 10-4 Ω cm which were both enhancements of 1.5 times over the GZO film. These films were comparable to the films fabricated by more expensive and complicated vapour-phase methods. The figure of merit for this film was determined to be 1.63 × 10-2 sq/Ω which was very close to the indium tin oxide conducting films currently used commercially. Finally, the GIZO film was hydrothermally grown on a p-GaN film to form an n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diode (LED). This LED showed diode I-V characteristics and exhibited strong cool-white light emission which signified the prospect of using GIZO as an effective and low-cost n-type layer in LEDs.

  9. A systematic study of odd-odd Gallium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegro, P.R.P.; Medina, N.H.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Ribas, R.V.; Cybulska, E.W.; Seale, W.A.; Zagatto, V.A.B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Toufen, D.L. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Guarulhos, SP (Brazil); Zahn, G.S.; Genezini, F.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silveira, M.A.G. [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Tabor, S.; Bender, P.; Tripathi, V.; Baby, L. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Recently, many studies have been published attempting to explain the role of the 0g{sub 9/2} orbital in the high spin excited states of nuclei in the region of the mass A=50-80, especially very neutron rich nuclei like, for example {sup 59-66}Fe [1], {sup 65,67}Cu [2], {sup 70,80}Ge [3,4] nuclei and those with odd mass number like As, Ge and Ga [5]. Stefanescu et al. [6] demonstrated the presence of bands in the neutron-rich isotopes Ga formed from excitation of a proton to the 0g{sub 9/2} orbital and Cheal et al. [7] revealed, from the study of the spins and moments of the ground state, changes in nuclear structure of the odd Ga isotopes between N = 40 and N 50, indicating a change in the energy gap between the 0g{sub 9/2} orbital and the pf shell. In this work, we have performed a systematic study of odd-odd {sup 64,66,68,70}Ga nuclei to examine the behavior of the 0g{sub 9/2} orbital with an increasing number of neutrons. We have compared the predictions of the Large Scale Shell Model, obtained using the Antoine code [8] with the FPG [9] and JUN45 [10] effective interactions, with the experimental results obtained with in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments performed at University of Sao Paulo using SACI-PERERE spectrometer and at Florida State University using the Clover Array System. We have also performed calculations to study {sup 67}Ge, an odd nucleus in the same mass region, in order to verify the behavior of the effective interactions in a nucleus without the proton-neutron interaction. [1] S. Lunardi. et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 034303 (2007). [2] C. J. Chiara et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 024309 (2012). [3] M. Sugawara et al., Phys. Rev. C 81, 024309 (2010). [4] H. Iwasaki.et al., Phys. Rev. C 78, 021304(R) (2008). [5] N. Yoshinaga et al. Phys. Rev. C 78, 044320 (2008). [6] I. Stefanescu et al., Phys. Rev. C 79, 064302 (2009). [7] B. Cheal et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 252502 (2010). [8] E. Caurier and F. Nowacki, Acta Phys. Polonica B 30, 705

  10. Growth of thick lattice mismatched layers of gallium indium arsenic antimonide on gallium arsenide substrates from quaternary melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anika

    Compound semiconductors (III-V, II-VI, IV-IV) with variable band gaps are desirable to obtain high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices. Currently, lattice mismatched epilayers of variable bandgap semiconductors are grown on commercially available binary substrates by non-equilibrium growth techniques (such as MOCVD and MBE) using a variety of buffer layer schemes. Although thick epilayers are observed to result in lower dislocation densities even for large lattice mismatches, achieving thick epitaxial layers remains a challenge due to the slow growth rates of MBE and MOCVD techniques that are commonly used in the industry. Hence, there is a necessity for devising a technique that will grow thick layers of lattice mismatched compounds at high growth rates. In this research, we have demonstrated a new quaternary melt thermochemistry to grow thick layers of uniform composition of desired ternaries and quaternaries on commercially available binary substrates (such as GaAs). Using this approach, we have achieved the growth of thick (˜ 100 mum) uniform composition GaxIn1-xAs, InxGa1-xSb yAs1-y and InAs ySb1-y layers on GaAs substrate. The growth rates achieved in our growth experiments are significantly higher than any other traditional epitaxial growth process. One of the interesting features observed in our growth experiments is the occurance of a compositionally graded quaternary buffer layer between the substrate and the final layer (of uniform composition). This is found to efficiently relieve misfit strain and lead to lower dislocation densities in the epilayers. It is important to point out that no specific efforts were made to change growth conditions (during epi-growth) to compositionally grade the buffer layers, making this growth scheme extremely simple to implement for large scale applications. One of the key achievements of this work is the growth of thick In xGa1-xAs ySb1-y layers of constant composition with cut off wavelength of 10 mum on

  11. MOCVD growth of gallium nitride with indium surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Dong Jin

    grow beyond the critical radius. Thus, introduction of indium surfactant and Si doping was found to be the most favorable conditions for V-defect formation in Ga-polar GaN films grown on Si-face SiC substrates. The nucleation and growth model predicted that V-defects may not form in homoepitaxy because the energy barrier for V-defect formation approaches infinity due to zero misfit stress. When indium surfactant and Si dopant were introduced simultaneously during the homoepitaxial growth, V-defects did not form in 1.8 microm thick Ga-polar GaN films grown at 950 °C on bulk GaN that had very low threading dislocation density, as predicted by the nucleation and growth model. Ga-polar GaN films grown on Si(111) substrates using indium surfactant showed that additional tensile stress was induced by indium with respect to the reference GaN. Since cracking is known to be a stress relaxation mechanism for tension, the In-induced additional tensile stress is thus detrimental to the GaN films which experience the tensile thermal stress associated with the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between GaN and the substrate during cooling after growth. The generation of tensile stress by indium seemed correlated with a reduction of V-defects since a high density of V-defects formed under the initial compressive stress at the GaN nucleation stage and then V-defect density decreased as the film grew. Even though the initial misfit stress of the GaN film grown on Si(111) was lower than that of GaN grown on SiC, a high density of V-defects were created under the initial compressive stress. Therefore, the high density of threading dislocations was believed to strongly drive the V-defect formation under In-rich conditions. Consequently, without using high quality bulk GaN substrates, V-defects could not be avoided in Ga-polar GaN films grown on foreign substrates such as Si-face SiC and Si(111) in the presence of indium surfactant and Si dopants during growth. Thus, N

  12. Electron Transport Layer-Free Inverted Organic Solar Cells Fabricated with Highly Transparent Low-Resistance Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide/Ag/Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Multilayer Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, Sung-Nam; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Yoo, Young-Zo; Im, Hyeong-Seop; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2017-04-01

    Inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) have been fabricated with conventional Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) and amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO)/Ag/a-IGZO (39 nm/19 nm/39 nm) (a-IAI) electrodes and their electrical characteristics characterized. The ITO and optimized a-IAI electrodes showed high transmittance of 96% and 88% at 500 nm, respectively. The carrier concentration and sheet resistance of the ITO and a-IAI films were 8.46 × 1020 cm-3 and 7.96 × 1021 cm-3 and 14.18 Ω/sq and 4.24 Ω/sq, respectively. Electron transport layer (ETL)-free OSCs with the a-IAI electrode exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.66%, similar to that of ZnO ETL-based OSCs with ITO electrode (3.27%). However, the ETL-free OSCs with the a-IAI electrode showed much higher PCE than the ETL-free OSCs with the ITO electrode (0.84%). Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the work function of the a-IAI electrode was 4.15 eV. This improved performance was attributed to the various roles of the a-IAI electrode, e.g., as an effective ETL and a hole blocking layer.

  13. Experiment "Regeneration" Performed Aboard the Russian Spacecraft Foton-M2 in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Elonora; Almeida, Eduardo; Domaratskaya, Elena; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Aleinikova, Karina; Tairbekov, Murad; Mitashov, Victor

    2006-01-01

    The experiments on the newts performed earlier aboard Russian biosate llites showed that the rate of lens and tail regeneration in space wa s greater than on the ground. In parallel it was found that the numbe r of cells in S-phase was greater in space-flown animals than in the ground controls. However, it was unclear whether cell proliferation stimulation was induced by micro-g per se. Molecular mechanisms under lying the change also remained obscure. These issues were addressed b y the joint Russian-American experiment "Regeneration" flown on Foton -M2 in 2005. The method for in-flight delivering DNA precursor BrdU was developed. The experiment showed that during the flight the numbe r of S-phase cells in the regenerating eyes and tails increased. Thes e data together with those obtained earlier suggest that cell prolife ration increases in response to the effects of both micro-g and 1-g a fter return to Earth. The expression of bFGF in regenerating tissues of "flown" newts and ground controls was examined using immuno-histo chemistry. Obtained results suggest that this growth factor is a part icipant of the promotional effect of space flight upon cell prolifera tion in lens and tail regenerates.

  14. Molybdenum Disulfide as a Protection Layer and Catalyst for Gallium Indium Phosphide Solar Water Splitting Photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto, Reuben J.; Benck, Jesse D.; Young, James L.; Hahn, Christopher; Deutsch, Todd G.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-06-02

    Gallium indium phosphide (GaInP2) is a semiconductor with promising optical and electronic properties for solar water splitting, but its surface stability is problematic as it undergoes significant chemical and electrochemical corrosion in aqueous electrolytes. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanomaterials are promising to both protect GaInP2 and to improve catalysis since MoS2 is resistant to corrosion and also possesses high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this work, we demonstrate that GaInP2 photocathodes coated with thin MoS2 surface protecting layers exhibit excellent activity and stability for solar hydrogen production, with no loss in performance (photocurrent onset potential, fill factor, and light limited current density) after 60 hours of operation. This represents a five-hundred fold increase in stability compared to bare p-GaInP2 samples tested in identical conditions.

  15. Improvement of efficiency in graphene/gallium nitride nanowire on Silicon photoelectrode for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyojung; Rho, Hokyun; Min, Jung-Wook; Lee, Yong-Tak; Lee, Sang Hyun; Fujii, Katsushi; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Ha, Jun-Seok

    2017-11-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires are one of the most promising photoelectrode materials due to their high stability in acidic and basic electrolytes, and tunable band edge potentials. In this study, GaN nanowire arrays (GaN NWs) were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE); their large surface area enhanced the solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency. More significantly, graphene was grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which enhanced the electron transfer between NWs for water splitting and protected the GaN NW surface. Structural characterizations of the prepared composite were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocurrent density of Gr/GaN NWs exhibited a two-fold increase over pristine GaN NWs and sustained water splitting up to 70 min. These improvements may accelerate possible applications for hydrogen generation with high solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency.

  16. Aluminum Gallium Nitride Alloys Grown via Metalorganic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy Using a Digital Growth Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, L. E.; Korakakis, D.

    2011-04-01

    This work investigates the use of a digital growth technique as a viable method for achieving high-quality aluminum gallium nitride (Al x Ga1- x N) films via metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. Digital alloys are superlattice structures with period thicknesses of a few monolayers. Alloys with an AlN mole fraction ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 were grown by adjusting the thickness of the AlN layer in the superlattice. High-resolution x-ray diffraction was used to determine the superlattice period and c-lattice parameter of the structure, while reciprocal-space mapping was used to determine the a-lattice parameter and evaluate growth coherency. A comparison of the measured lattice parameter with both the nominal value and also the underlying buffer layer is discussed.

  17. EPR and ENDOR spectroscopic study of the reactions of aromatic azides with gallium trichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencivenni, Giorgio; Cesari, Riccardo; Nanni, Daniele; El Mkami, Hassane; Walton, John C

    2010-11-21

    The reactions of gallium trichloride with phenyl and deuterio-phenyl azides, as well as with 4-methoxyphenyl azide and deuterium isotopomers, were examined by product analysis, CW EPR spectroscopy and pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy. The products included the corresponding anilines together with 4-aminodiphenylamine type dimers, and polyanilines. Complex CW EPR spectra of the radical cations of the dimers [ArNHC(6)H(4)NH(2)](+)˙ and trimers [ArNHC(6)H(4)NHC(6)H(4)NH(2)](+)˙ were obtained. These EPR spectra were analysed with the help of data from the deuterium-substituted analogues as well as the pulse Davies ENDOR spectra. DFT computations of the radical cations provided corroborating evidence and suggested the unpaired electrons were accommodated in extensive π-delocalised orbitals. A mechanism to account for the reductive conversion of aromatic azides to the corresponding anilines and thence to the dimers and trimers is proposed.

  18. State-of-the-art technologies of gallium oxide power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiwaki, Masataka; Kuramata, Akito; Murakami, Hisashi; Kumagai, Yoshinao

    2017-08-01

    Gallium oxide (Ga2 O3 ) has gained increased attention for power devices due to its superior material properties and the availability of economical device-quality native substrates. This review illustrates recent advances in Ga2 O3 device technologies, beginning with an overview of the social circumstances that motivate the development of new-generation switching devices. Following an introduction to the material properties of Ga2 O3 from the viewpoint of power electronics, growth technologies of Ga2 O3 bulk single crystals and epitaxial thin films are discussed. The fabrication and performance of state-of-the-art Ga2 O3 transistors and diodes are then described. We conclude by identifying the directions and challenges of Ga2 O3 power device development in the near future.

  19. Microencapsulation of gallium-indium (Ga-In) liquid metal for self-healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiszik, B J; Jones, A R; Sottos, N R; White, S R

    2014-01-01

    Microcapsules containing a liquid metal alloy core of gallium-indium (Ga-In) are prepared via in situ urea-formaldehyde (UF) microencapsulation. The capsule size, shape, thermal properties, and shell wall thickness are investigated. We prepare ellipsoidal capsules with major and minor diameter aspect ratios ranging from 1.64 to 1.08 and with major diameters ranging from 245 µm to 3 µm. We observe that as the capsule major diameter decreases, the aspect ratio approaches 1. The thermal properties of the prepared microcapsules are investigated by thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Microcapsules are shown to survive incorporation into an epoxy matrix and to trigger via mechanical damage to the cured matrix. Microcapsules containing liquid metal cores may have diverse applications ranging from self-healing to contrast enhancement or the demonstration of mechano-adaptive circuitry.

  20. The potential of desferrioxamine-gallium as an anti-Pseudomonas therapeutic agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, Ehud; Lozinski, Alina; Brady, Keith M.; Berenshtein, Eduard; Butterfield, Phillip W.; Moshe, Maya; Chevion, Mordechai; Greenberg, Everett Peter; Banin, Eyal

    2008-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infections that are difficult to treat by antibiotic therapy. This bacterium can cause biofilm infections where it shows tolerance to antibiotics. Here we report the novel use of a metallo-complex, desferrioxamine-gallium (DFO-Ga) that targets P. aeruginosa iron metabolism. This complex kills free-living bacteria and blocks biofilm formation. A combination of DFO-Ga and the anti-Pseudomonas antibiotic gentamicin caused massive killing of P. aeruginosa cells in mature biofilms. In a P. aeruginosa rabbit corneal infection, topical administration of DFO-Ga together with gentamicin decreased both infiltrate and final scar size by about 50% compared to topical application of gentamicin alone. The use of DFO-Ga as a Trojan horse delivery system that interferes with iron metabolism shows promise as a treatment for P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:18931304

  1. Preliminary Development and Testing of a Self-Injecting Gallium MPD Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2008-01-01

    Discharge current and terminal voltage measurements were performed on a gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 20-54 kA. It was found that the arc impedance has a value of 6-7 m(Omega) at peak current. The absence of high-frequency oscillations in the terminal voltage trace indicates lack of the "onset" condition often seen in MPD arcs, suggesting that a sufficient number of charge carriers are present for current conduction. The mass ablated per pulse was not measured experimentally; however the mass flow rate was calculated using an ion current assumption and an anode power balance. Measurement of arc impedance predicts a temperature of 3.5 eV which from Saha equilibrium corresponds to Z = 2.0 - 3.5, and assuming Z = 2 yields an Isp of 3000 s and thrust efficiency of 50%.

  2. Photophysical properties gallium octacarboxy phthalocyanines conjugated to CdSe@ZnS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshangana, Charmaine; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-01-01

    L-Glutathione (GSH) capped core CdSe (2.3 nm) and core shell CdSe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs) (3.0 nm and 3.5 nm) were coordinated to gallium octacarboxy phthalocyanine (ClGaPc(COOH)8) to form ClGaPc(COOH)8-QDs conjugates. An efficient transfer of energy from the QDs to the Pcs was demonstrated through Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), the FRET efficiencies in all cases was above 50%. The photophysical parameters (triplet state and fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) were also determined for the conjugates. There was a decrease in the fluorescence lifetimes of ClGaPc(COOH)8 in the presence of all the QDs, due to the heavy atom effect. The triplet quantum yields increased in the conjugates. The lifetimes also became longer for the conjugates compared to Pc alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanoscale Footprints of Self-Running Gallium Droplets on GaAs Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M.; Li, Alvason Z.; Benamara, Mourad; Li, Shibin; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the nanoscale footprints of self-driven liquid gallium droplet movement on a GaAs (001) surface will be presented and analyzed. The nanoscale footprints of a primary droplet trail and ordered secondary droplets along primary droplet trails are observed on the GaAs surface. A well ordered nanoterrace from the trail is left behind by a running droplet. In addition, collision events between two running droplets are investigated. The exposed fresh surface after a collision demonstrates a superior evaporation property. Based on the observation of droplet evolution at different stages as well as nanoscale footprints, a schematic diagram of droplet evolution is outlined in an attempt to understand the phenomenon of stick-slip droplet motion on the GaAs surface. The present study adds another piece of work to obtain the physical picture of a stick-slip self-driven mechanism in nanoscale, bridging nano and micro systems. PMID:21673965

  4. Slot silicon-gallium nitride waveguide in MMI structures based 1x8 wavelength demultiplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Zaken, Bar Baruch; Zanzury, Tal; Malka, Dror

    2017-06-01

    We propose a novel 8-channel wavelength multimode interference (MMI) demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures that operated at 1530 nm, 1535 nm, 1540 nm, 1545 nm, 1550 nm, 1555 nm, 1560 nm and 1565 nm wavelengths. Gallium nitride (GaN) surrounded by silicon (Si) was founded as suitable materials for the slot-waveguide structures. The proposed device was designed by seven 1x2 MMI couplers, fourteen S-band and one input taper. Numerical investigations were carried out on the geometrical parameters by using a full vectorial-beam propagation method (FVBPM). Simulation results show that the proposed device can transmit 8-channel that works in the whole C-band (1530- 1565 nm) with low crosstalk ((-19.97)-(-13.77) dB) and bandwidth (1.8-3.6 nm). Thus, the device can be very useful in optical networking systems that work on dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology.

  5. Systems engineering and technical assistance in support of digital gallium arsenide insertion projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Daniel H.

    1992-04-01

    Booz-Allen provided a high level of support, including systems engineering analyses and technical assistance for systems insertion efforts using digital Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). Once insertion candidates were chosen, Booz-Allen supported the insertion efforts by acting as a liaison between the government and GaAs contractors, attending and arranging contractor reviews, providing meeting facilities, and producing presentation materials. A major accomplishment under this contract was the development of a methodology for appraising the likelihood of a successful technology insertion. This methodology is described in detail. Systems analyses and other work performed according to the terms of the statement of work is described as well. The conclusion discusses accomplishments under this project and of the DARPA digital GaAs insertion program generally.

  6. Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Y.; Roland, I.; Checoury, X.; Han, Z.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Boucaud, P., E-mail: philippe.boucaud@ief.u-psud.fr [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS - Univ. Paris Sud 11, Bâtiment 220, F-91405 Orsay (France); Gayral, B. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M, CEA-CNRS group Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SP2M, CEA-CNRS group Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Brimont, C.; Guillet, T. [Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34905 Montpellier (France); Mexis, M.; Semond, F. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Grégory, F-06560 Valbonne (France)

    2015-02-23

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride photonic crystal cavity embedded in a two-dimensional free-standing photonic crystal platform on silicon. The photonic crystal nanocavity is optically pumped with a continuous-wave laser at telecom wavelengths in the transparency window of the nitride material. The harmonic generation is evidenced by the spectral range of the emitted signal, the quadratic power dependence vs. input power, and the spectral dependence of second harmonic signal. The harmonic emission pattern is correlated to the harmonic polarization generated by the second-order nonlinear susceptibilities χ{sub zxx}{sup (2)}, χ{sub zyy}{sup (2)} and the electric fields of the fundamental cavity mode.

  7. Two-dimensional dopant profiling of gallium nitride p–n junctions by scanning capacitance microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamhamdi, M. [GREMAN UMR 7347-Université de Tours, 10 Rue Thales de Milet, BP 7155, 37071 Tours (France); Ecole national des sciences appliquées khouribga, Université Hassan 1er, 26000 Settat (Morocco); Cayrel, F. [GREMAN UMR 7347-Université de Tours, 10 Rue Thales de Milet, BP 7155, 37071 Tours (France); Frayssinet, E. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Grégory, Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne (France); Bazin, A.E.; Yvon, A.; Collard, E. [STMicroelectronics, 16 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, BP 7155, 37071 Tours (France); Cordier, Y. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Grégory, Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne (France); Alquier, D. [GREMAN UMR 7347-Université de Tours, 10 Rue Thales de Milet, BP 7155, 37071 Tours (France)

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional imaging of dopant profiles for n and p-type regions are relevant for the development of new power semiconductors, especially for gallium nitride (GaN) for which classical profiling techniques are not adapted. This is a challenging task since it needs a technique with simultaneously good sensitivity, high spatial resolution and high dopant gradient resolution. To face these challenges, scanning capacitance microscopy combined with Atomic Force Microscopy is a good candidate, presenting reproducible results, as demonstrated in literature. In this work, we attempt to distinguish reliably and qualitatively the various doping concentrations and type at p–n and unipolar junctions. For both p–n and unipolar junctions three kinds of samples were prepared and measured separately. The space-charge region of the p–n metallurgical junction, giving rise to different contrasts under SCM imaging, is clearly observed, enlightening the interest of the SCM technique.

  8. Thin Film Formation of Gallium Nitride Using Plasma-Sputter Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Flauta

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of gallium nitride (GaN thin film using plasma-sputter deposition technique has beenconfirmed. The GaN film deposited on a glass substrate at an optimum plasma condition has shown x-raydiffraction (XRD peaks at angles corresponding to that of (002 and (101 reflections of GaN. The remainingmaterial on the sputtering target exhibited XRD reflections corresponding to that of bulk GaN powder. Toimprove the system’s base pressure, a new UHV compatible system is being developed to minimize theimpurities in residual gases during deposition. The sputtering target configuration was altered to allow themonitoring of target temperature using a molybdenum (Mo holder, which is more stable against Gaamalgam formation than stainless steel.

  9. Gallium nitride nanoneedles grown in extremely non-equilibrium nitrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangla, O., E-mail: onkarmangla@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Physics Department, Hindu College, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Roy, S. [Physics Department, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In the present work, gallium nitride (GaN) nanoneedles are grown on quartz substrates using the high fluence ions of GaN produced by hot, dense and extremely non-equlibrium nitrogen plasma in a modified dense plasma focus device. The formation of nanoneedles is obtained from the scanning electron microscopy with mean size of the head of nanoneedles ~ 70 nm. The nanoneedles are found to be poly-crystalline when studied structurally through the X-ray diffraction. The optical properties of nanoneedles studied using absorption spectra which show more absorption for nanoneedles depsoited one shot of ions irradiation. In addition, the band gap of nanoneedles is found to be increased as compared to bulk GaN. The obtained nanoneedles with increased band gap have potential applications in detector systems.

  10. Low-energy ion beam-based deposition of gallium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, M R; Wada, M

    2016-02-01

    An ion source with a remote plasma chamber excited by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency power was used for low-energy broad ion beam extraction. Optical emission spectral analyses showed the sputtering and postionization of a liquid gallium (Ga) target placed in a chamber separated from the source bombarded by argon (Ar) plasma guided by a bent magnetic field. In addition, an E × B probe successfully showed the extraction of low-energy Ga and Ar ion beams using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. By introducing dilute amounts of nitrogen gas into the system, formation of thin Ga-based films on a silicon substrate was demonstrated as determined from X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity studies.

  11. Localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nano-patches on a gallium nitride substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Palma; Inchingolo, Alessio Vincenzo; Perna, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vito; Stomeo, Tiziana; De Vittorio, Massimo; Magno, Giovanni; Grande, Marco; Petruzzelli, Vincenzo; D'Orazio, Antonella

    2012-11-16

    In this paper we describe the design, fabrication and characterization of gold nano-patches, deposited on gallium nitride substrate, acting as optical nanoantennas able to efficiently localize the electric field at the metal-dielectric interface. We analyse the performance of the proposed device, evaluating the transmission and the electric field localization by means of a three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We detail the fabrication protocol and show the morphological characterization. We also investigate the near-field optical transmission by means of scanning near-field optical microscope measurements, which reveal the excitation of a localized surface plasmon resonance at a wavelength of 633 nm, as expected by the FDTD calculations. Such results highlight how the final device can pave the way for the realization of a single optical platform where the active material and the metal nanostructures are integrated together on the same chip.

  12. Simultaneous specimen current and time-dependent cathodoluminescence measurements on gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, E. M., E-mail: e.campo@bangor.ac.uk; Hopkins, L. [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom); Pophristic, M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of the Science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Ferguson, I. T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Time-dependent cathodoluminescence (CL) and specimen current (SC) are monitored to evaluate trapping behavior and evolution of charge storage. Examination of CL and SC suggests that the near band edge emission in GaN is reduced primarily by the activation of traps upon irradiation, and Gallium vacancies are prime candidates. At the steady state, measurement of the stored charge by empiric-analytical methods suggests that all available traps within the interaction volume have been filled, and that additional charge is being stored interstitially, necessarily beyond the interaction volume. Once established, the space charge region is responsible for the steady state CL emission and, prior to build up, it is responsible for the generation of diffusion currents. Since the non-recombination effects resulting from diffusion currents that develop early on are analogous to those leading to device failure upon aging, this study is fundamental toward a holistic insight into optical properties in GaN.

  13. Response of Gallium Nitride Chemiresistors to Carbon Monoxide is Due to Oxygen Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ravi Mohan; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; Barsan, Nicolae; Weimar, Udo; Gurlo, Aleksander

    2017-06-23

    We report on the influence of oxygen impurities on the gas sensing properties of gallium nitride (GaN) chemiresistors. As shown by XRD, elemental analysis, and TEM characterization, surface oxidation of GaN-for example, upon contact to ambient air atmosphere-creates an oxidative amorphous layer which provides the sites for the sensing toward CO. Treating this powder under dry ammonia at 800 °C converts the oxide layer in nitride, and consequently the sensing performance toward CO is dramatically reduced for ammonia treated GaN gas sensors. Hence the response of GaN sensors to CO is caused by oxygen in the form of amorphous surface oxide or oxynitride.

  14. Growth of gallium nitride and indium nitride nanowires on conductive and flexible carbon cloth substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Ling, Yichuan; Wang, Gongming; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2013-03-07

    We report a general strategy for synthesis of gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN) nanowires on conductive and flexible carbon cloth substrates. GaN and InN nanowires were prepared via a nanocluster-mediated growth method using a home built chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system with Ga and In metals as group III precursors and ammonia as a group V precursor. Electron microscopy studies reveal that the group III-nitride nanowires are single crystalline wurtzite structures. The morphology, density and growth mechanism of these nanowires are determined by the growth temperature. Importantly, a photoelectrode fabricated by contacting the GaN nanowires through a carbon cloth substrate shows pronounced photoactivity for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. The ability to synthesize group III-nitride nanowires on conductive and flexible substrates should open up new opportunities for nanoscale photonic, electronic and electrochemical devices.

  15. Fabrication of gallium nitride nanowires by metal-assisted photochemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao-Rong; Jiang, Qing-Mei; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Wang, Zu-Gang; Hou, Fei; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2017-11-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) were fabricated by metal-assisted photochemical etching (MaPEtch). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as metal catalyst were electrodeposited on the GaN substrate. SEM and HRTEM images show the surface of GaN NWs is smooth and clean without any impurity. SAED and FFT patterns demonstrate GaN NWs have single crystal structure, and the crystallographic orientation of GaN NWs is (0002) face. On the basis of the assumption of localized galvanic cells, combined with the energy levels and electrochemical potentials of reactants in this etching system, the generation, transfer and consumption of electron-hole pairs reveal the whole MaPEtch reaction process. Such easily fabricated GaN NWs have great potential for the assembly of GaN-based single-nanowire nanodevices.

  16. Forthcoming Gallium Nitride Based Power Devices in Prompting the Development of High Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, H. J.; Cheong, K. Y.; Hassan, Z.

    Recent advances in silicon technology have pushed the silicon properties to its theoretical limits. Therefore, wide band gap semiconductors, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) have been considered as a replacement for silicon. The discovery of these wide band gap semiconductors have given the new generation power devices a magnificent prospect of surviving under high temperature and hostile environments. The primary focuses of this review are the properties of GaN, the alternative substrates that can be used to deposit GaN and the substitution of SiO2 gate dielectric with high dielectric constant (k) film. The future perspectives of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are also discussed, providing that these structures are able to further enhance the performance of high power devices.

  17. Frequency-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Injecting Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn Liquid Metal Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyu Ling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrated a new class of frequency-switchable metamaterial absorber in the X-band. Eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn, a liquid metal alloy, was injected in a microfluidic channel engraved on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA to achieve frequency switching. Numerical simulation and experimental results are presented for two cases: when the microfluidic channels are empty, and when they are filled with liquid metal. To evaluate the performance of the fabricated absorber prototype, it is tested with a rectangular waveguide. The resonant frequency was successfully switched from 10.96 GHz to 10.61 GHz after injecting liquid metal while maintaining absorptivity higher than 98%.

  18. Effect of gallium environment on infrared emission in Er3+-doped gallium– antimony– sulfur glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qing; Li, Ge; Li, Lini; Lin, Changgui; Wang, Guoxiang; Liu, Zijun; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Tiefeng; Zhang, Qinyuan

    2017-01-01

    Gallium-based Ga–Sb–S sulfide glasses was elaborated and studied. A relationship between the structure, composition, and optical properties of the glass has been established. The effects of the introduction of Ga on the structure using infrared and Raman spectroscopies and on the Er3+-doped IR emission have been discussed. The results show that incorporation of Ga induced the dissociation of [SbS3] pyramids units and the formation of tetrahedral [GaS4] units. The dissolved rare earth ions are separated around the Ga–S bonding and the infrared emission quenching are controlled. Moreover, continuous introduction of Er ions into the glass forms more Er–S bonds through the further aggregation surrounding the [GaS4] units. In return, the infrared emission intensity decreased with excessive Er ion addition. This phenomenon is correlated with the recurrence concentration quenching effect induced by the increase of [GaS4] units. PMID:28106143

  19. Solvothermal synthesis of gallium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles with tunable infrared absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haifeng; Wang, Hua; Tian, Xingyou; Zheng, Kang; Xu, Fei; Su, Zheng; Tian, Konghu; li, Qiulong; Fang, Fei

    2014-12-01

    The doping of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) has been attracting a lot of attention both for fundamental studies and potential applications. In this manuscript, we report the preparation of gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) NPs through the solvothermal method. In order to obtain the effective Ga doping in the ZnO crystalline lattice, we identified the optimal reaction conditions in terms of different Zn precursors, temperature, and heating rate. The results show that GZO NPs with tunable infrared absorption can be received using different molar ratios of Ga(NO3)3 and zinc stearate (Zn[CH3(CH2)16COO]2, ZnSt2) kept in the sealed autoclaves at 160 °C for 8 h. Furthermore, the growth of the GZO NPs was investigated by monitoring the optical absorption spectral and the corresponding chemical composition of aliquots extracted at different reaction time intervals.

  20. Free-Standing Self-Assemblies of Gallium Nitride Nanoparticles: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Lan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gallium nitride (GaN is an III-V semiconductor with a direct band-gap of 3 . 4 e V . GaN has important potentials in white light-emitting diodes, blue lasers, and field effect transistors because of its super thermal stability and excellent optical properties, playing main roles in future lighting to reduce energy cost and sensors to resist radiations. GaN nanomaterials inherit bulk properties of the compound while possess novel photoelectric properties of nanomaterials. The review focuses on self-assemblies of GaN nanoparticles without templates, growth mechanisms of self-assemblies, and potential applications of the assembled nanostructures on renewable energy.

  1. Deep subgap feature in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Evidence against reduced indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallis, Shawn; Williams, Deborah S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 13902 (United States); Quackenbush, Nicholas F.; Senger, Mikell [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 13902 (United States); Woicik, Joseph C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 20899 (United States); White, Bruce E.; Piper, Louis F.J. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 13902 (United States); Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 13902 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) is the archetypal transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor. Despite the gains made with a-IGZO over amorphous silicon in the last decade, the presence of deep subgap states in a-IGZO active layers facilitate instabilities in thin film transistor properties under negative bias illumination stress. Several candidates could contribute to the formation of states within the band gap. Here, we present evidence against In{sup +} lone pair active electrons as the origin of the deep subgap features. No In{sup +} species are observed, only In{sup 0} nano-crystallites under certain oxygen deficient growth conditions. Our results further support under coordinated oxygen as the source of the deep subgap states. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Nanoscale footprints of self-running gallium droplets on GaAs surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wu

    Full Text Available In this work, the nanoscale footprints of self-driven liquid gallium droplet movement on a GaAs (001 surface will be presented and analyzed. The nanoscale footprints of a primary droplet trail and ordered secondary droplets along primary droplet trails are observed on the GaAs surface. A well ordered nanoterrace from the trail is left behind by a running droplet. In addition, collision events between two running droplets are investigated. The exposed fresh surface after a collision demonstrates a superior evaporation property. Based on the observation of droplet evolution at different stages as well as nanoscale footprints, a schematic diagram of droplet evolution is outlined in an attempt to understand the phenomenon of stick-slip droplet motion on the GaAs surface. The present study adds another piece of work to obtain the physical picture of a stick-slip self-driven mechanism in nanoscale, bridging nano and micro systems.

  3. A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Sujan; McKendry, Jonathan J. D.; Herrnsdorf, Johannes; Chun, Hyunchae; Faulkner, Grahame; Haas, Harald; Watson, Ian M.; O'Brien, Dominic; Dawson, Martin D.

    2017-02-01

    The field of visible light communications (VLC) has gained significant interest over the last decade, in both fibre and free-space embodiments. In fibre systems, the availability of low cost polymer optical fibre (POF) that is compatible with visible data communications has been a key enabler. In free-space applications, the availability of hundreds of THz of the unregulated spectrum makes VLC attractive for wireless communications. This paper provides an overview of the recent developments in VLC systems based on gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), covering aspects from sources to systems. The state-of-the-art technology enabling bandwidth of GaN LEDs in the range of >400 MHz is explored. Furthermore, advances in key technologies, including advanced modulation, equalisation, and multiplexing that have enabled free-space VLC data rates beyond 10 Gb s-1 are also outlined.

  4. Gallium arsenide quantum well-based far infrared array radiometric imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Kathrine A.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.

    1991-01-01

    We have built an array-based camera (FIRARI) for thermal imaging (lambda = 8 to 12 microns). FIRARI uses a square format 128 by 128 element array of aluminum gallium arsenide quantum well detectors that are indium bump bonded to a high capacity silicon multiplexer. The quantum well detectors offer good responsivity along with high response and noise uniformity, resulting in excellent thermal images without compensation for variation in pixel response. A noise equivalent temperature difference of 0.02 K at a scene temperature of 290 K was achieved with the array operating at 60 K. FIRARI demonstrated that AlGaAS quantum well detector technology can provide large format arrays with performance superior to mercury cadmium telluride at far less cost.

  5. First-principles study of thermoelectric transport properties of monolayer gallium chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xu-Jin; Qin, Dan; Yao, Kai-Lun; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2017-10-01

    Through first-principles calculations, we study the thermoelectric transport properties of monolayer gallium chalcogenides GaX with X being S, Se or Te. We show that, the Mexican-hat-shaped dispersion near the valence band maximum, absent in the bulk, effectively enhances their thermoelectric performance. We analyze these results using a simple model Hamiltonian, and show that it can be understood as an effective one-dimensional band structure emerging from these two-dimensional materials. These results support recent proposals of using low-dimensional electronic band in high-dimensional materials in the search of new high-performance thermoelectric materials. Moreover, for n-doping, we find that strain engineering could be an efficient way of tuning the position of conduction band minimum and the corresponding thermoelectric performance.

  6. Radiation and Thermal Cycling Effects on EPC1001 Gallium Nitride Power Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Lauenstein, Jean M.; Casey, Megan C.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work efficiently and reliably under harsh environment conditions. These include radiation, extreme temperatures, and thermal cycling, to name a few. Information pertaining to performance of electronic parts and systems under hostile environments is very scarce, especially for new devices. Such data is very critical so that proper design is implemented in order to ensure mission success and to mitigate risks associated with exposure of on-board systems to the operational environment. In this work, newly-developed enhancement-mode field effect transistors (FET) based on gallium nitride (GaN) technology were exposed to various particles of ionizing radiation and to long-term thermal cycling over a wide temperature range. Data obtained on control (un-irradiated) and irradiated samples of these power transistors are presented and the results are discussed.

  7. Ultralarge magneto-optic rotations and rotary dispersion in terbium gallium garnet single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Amrozia; Majeed, Hassaan; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh

    2015-06-10

    We report systematically acquired data on the Verdet constant of terbium gallium garnet for wavelengths ranging from visible to near-infrared (405-830 nm) regime. Our experimental method of Stokes polarimetry is based on the Fourier decomposition of the received light intensity and allows unambiguous determination of both the Faraday rotation and the ellipticity of the emergent light. Temperature-dependent investigations in the range of 8-300 K extend earlier reports and verify the Verdet's constant direct dependence on the magnetization, whose first-order approximation is simply a manifestation of the Curie's law. Further, a least-squares fitting of the experimental data correlates well with theoretical predictions. At a wavelength of 405 nm and temperature of 8 K, the rotation is approximately 500°.

  8. Water-soluble thin film transistors and circuits based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung Hun; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cho, In-Tak; Han, Sang Youn; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dong Joon; Shin, Jongmin; Baek, Geun Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Ho; Rogers, John A

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents device designs, circuit demonstrations, and dissolution kinetics for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) comprised completely of water-soluble materials, including SiNx, SiOx, molybdenum, and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Collections of these types of physically transient a-IGZO TFTs and 5-stage ring oscillators (ROs), constructed with them, show field effect mobilities (∼10 cm2/Vs), on/off ratios (∼2×10(6)), subthreshold slopes (∼220 mV/dec), Ohmic contact properties, and oscillation frequency of 5.67 kHz at supply voltages of 19 V, all comparable to otherwise similar devices constructed in conventional ways with standard, nontransient materials. Studies of dissolution kinetics for a-IGZO films in deionized water, bovine serum, and phosphate buffer saline solution provide data of relevance for the potential use of these materials and this technology in temporary biomedical implants.

  9. Physical-mechanical properties of ErBaCuO superconductors doped with gold and gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanaia, E E; Kutelia, E R; Darsavelidze, G Sh [Georgian Technical University, 77 Kostava str., 0175 Tbilisi (Georgia)], E-mail: e_sanaia@gtu.ge

    2008-02-01

    Physical-mechanical properties of non-doped ErBCO high temperature superconductor ceramics and doped with Ga and Au has been investigated using the complex method of low frequency internal friction and shear modulus measurements in the temperature range 20-700 deg. C. Near 200 deg. C internal friction relaxation maximum and shear modulus defect were found. It is established that the relaxation proccess is caused by movement of twin boundary, interacted with the oxygen atoms. It was established that activation energy of the relaxation processes is equal to {approx} 0.9eV and the frequency factor to 10{sup 12}sec{sup -1}. Doping by gold and gallium significantly increase internal friction temperature spectrum and thermal stability, activation characteristics of relaxation processes, and values of shear modulus and dislocation elastic limit.

  10. High Quality, Low Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates Grown by the Electrochemical Solution Growth Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seacrist, Michael [SunEdison Inc., St. Peters, MO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The objective of this project was to develop the Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) method conceived / patented at Sandia National Laboratory into a commercially viable bulk gallium nitride (GaN) growth process that can be scaled to low cost, high quality, and large area GaN wafer substrate manufacturing. The goal was to advance the ESG growth technology by demonstrating rotating seed growth at the lab scale and then transitioning process to prototype commercial system, while validating the GaN material and electronic / optical device quality. The desired outcome of the project is a prototype commercial process for US-based manufacturing of high quality, large area, and lower cost GaN substrates that can drive widespread deployment of energy efficient GaN-based power electronic and optical devices. In year 1 of the project (Sept 2012 – Dec 2013) the overall objective was to demonstrate crystalline GaN growth > 100um on a GaN seed crystal. The development plan included tasks to demonstrate and implement a method for purifying reagent grade salts, develop the reactor 1 process for rotating seed Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) of GaN, grow and characterize ESG GaN films, develop a fluid flow and reaction chemistry model for GaN film growth, and design / build an improved growth reactor capable of scaling to 50mm seed diameter. The first year’s project objectives were met in some task areas including salt purification, film characterization, modeling, and reactor 2 design / fabrication. However, the key project objective of the growth of a crystalline GaN film on the seed template was not achieved. Amorphous film growth on the order of a few tenths of a micron has been detected with a film composition including Ga and N, plus several other impurities originating from the process solution and hardware. The presence of these impurities, particularly the oxygen, has inhibited the demonstration of crystalline GaN film growth on the seed template. However, the

  11. In situ chemical functionalization of gallium nitride with phosphonic acid derivatives during etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stewart J; Greenough, Michelle; Arellano, Consuelo; Paskova, Tania; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2014-03-04

    In situ functionalization of polar (c plane) and nonpolar (a plane) gallium nitride (GaN) was performed by adding (3-bromopropyl) phosphonic acid or propyl phosphonic acid to a phosphoric acid etch. The target was to modulate the emission properties and oxide formation of GaN, which was explored through surface characterization with atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and water contact angle. The use of (3-bromopropyl) phosphonic acid and propyl phosphonic acid in phosphoric acid demonstrated lower amounts of gallium oxide formation and greater hydrophobicity for both sample sets, while also improving PL emission of polar GaN samples. In addition to crystal orientation, growth-related factors such as defect density in bulk GaN versus thin GaN films residing on sapphire substrates were investigated as well as their responses to in situ functionalization. Thin nonpolar GaN layers were the most sensitive to etching treatments due in part to higher defect densities (stacking faults and threading dislocations), which accounts for large surface depressions. High-quality GaN (both free-standing bulk polar and bulk nonpolar) demonstrated increased sensitivity to oxide formation. Room-temperature PL stands out as an excellent technique to identify nonradiative recombination as observed in the spectra of heteroepitaxially grown GaN samples. The chemical methods applied to tune optical and physical properties of GaN provide a quantitative framework for future novel chemical and biochemical sensor development.

  12. Pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to gallium in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Gallium is an iron mimetic which has recently been repurposed as an antibacterial agent due to its capability to disrupt bacterial iron metabolism. In this study, the antibacterial activity of gallium nitrate [Ga(NO3)3] was investigated in complement-free human serum (HS) on 55 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS was dependent on the bacterial ability to acquire iron from serum binding proteins (i.e., transferrin). The extent of serum protein degradation correlated well with P. aeruginosa growth in HS, while pyoverdine production did not. However, pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa strains were unable to grow in HS and overcome iron restriction, albeit capable of releasing proteases. Predigestion of HS with proteinase K promoted the growth of all strains, irrespective of their ability to produce proteases and/or pyoverdine. The MICs of Ga(NO3)3 were higher in HS than in an iron-poor Casamino Acids medium, where proteolysis does not affect iron availability. Coherently, strains displaying high proteolytic activity were less susceptible to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. Our data support a model in which both pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. The relatively high Ga(NO3)3 concentration required to inhibit the growth of highly proteolytic P. aeruginosa isolates in HS poses a limitation to the potential of Ga(NO3)3 in the treatment of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Nanostructural characteristics of oxide-cap GaN nanotips by iodine-gallium ions etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhan-Shuo [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hung, Fei-Yi, E-mail: fyhung@mail.mse.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shoou-Jinn, E-mail: changsj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, Center for Micr/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Huang, Bohr-Ran [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, Bo-Cheng [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuan-Jen; Hsu, Wen-I. [Institute of Microelectronics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > 1D GaN nanostructures have attracted great attention in recent years. The dry-etching process has several advantages because of its simplicity, safety and convenience. Besides, the formation mechanism of 1D GaN nanostructures prepared using the dry-etching method is worth to research. Notably, GaN nanotips can be applied to the field emission measurement. We found that oxide-capping GaN nanotips were able to improve the field emission properties (turn-on field was 2.2 V/{mu}m) due to the lower work function of GaN resulted from the distribution of electron existed the interface between GaN and GaO. So, the present oxide-cap GaN nanotips possessed better field emission property, so that it may be considered as a candidate for an advanced field emission displayer. - Abstract: GaN nanotips array was fabricated by an iodine-assist enhanced focused ions beam etching (IFIBE) via the double masks silver oxide (AgO) and gallium oxide (GaO). The function of AgO is used to protect from the elimination of GaO so as to remain GaO on GaN nanotip. The different size of silver cluster was able to assist the formation of GaN nanotips through the double mask process (AgO and GaO). After IFIBE process, the silver mask disappeared and only gallium oxide with a polycrystalline structure was left on top. Oxide-capping GaN nanotips were able to improve the field emission properties (turn-on field was 2.2 V/{mu}m) due to the lower work function of GaN resulted from the distribution of electron existed the interface between GaN and GaO.

  14. Distinctive signature of indium gallium nitride quantum dot lasing in microdisk cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Alexander; Puchtler, Tim; Aharonovich, Igor; Zhu, Tongtong; Niu, Nan; Wang, Danqing; Oliver, Rachel; Hu, Evelyn L

    2014-09-30

    Low-threshold lasers realized within compact, high-quality optical cavities enable a variety of nanophotonics applications. Gallium nitride materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots and quantum wells offer an outstanding platform to study light-matter interactions and realize practical devices such as efficient light-emitting diodes and nanolasers. Despite progress in the growth and characterization of InGaN quantum dots, their advantages as the gain medium in low-threshold lasers have not been clearly demonstrated. This work seeks to better understand the reasons for these limitations by focusing on the simpler, limited-mode microdisk cavities, and by carrying out comparisons of lasing dynamics in those cavities using varying gain media including InGaN quantum wells, fragmented quantum wells, and a combination of fragmented quantum wells with quantum dots. For each gain medium, we use the distinctive, high-quality (Q ∼ 5,500) modes of the cavities, and the change in the highest-intensity mode as a function of pump power to better understand the dominant radiative processes. The variations of threshold power and lasing wavelength as a function of gain medium help us identify the possible limitations to lower-threshold lasing with quantum dot active medium. In addition, we have identified a distinctive lasing signature for quantum dot materials, which consistently lase at wavelengths shorter than the peak of the room temperature gain emission. These findings not only provide better understanding of lasing in nitride-based quantum dot cavity systems but also shed insight into the more fundamental issues of light-matter coupling in such systems.

  15. Theoretical study of gallium nitride molecules, GaN2 and GaN4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeli, Demeter; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula; Petsalakis, Ioannis D

    2008-09-18

    The electronic and geometric structures of gallium dinitride GaN 2, and gallium tetranitride molecules, GaN 4, were systematically studied by employing density functional theory and perturbation theory (MP2, MP4) in conjunction with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. In addition, for the ground-state of GaN 4( (2)B 1) a density functional theory study was carried out combining different functionals with different basis sets. A total of 7 minima have been identified for GaN 2, while 37 structures were identified for GaN 4 corresponding to minima, transition states, and saddle points. We report geometries and dissociation energies for all the above structures as well as potential energy profiles, potential energy surfaces and bonding mechanisms for some low-lying electronic states of GaN 4. The dissociation energy of the ground-state GaN 2 ( X (2)Pi) is 1.1 kcal/mol with respect to Ga( (2)P) + N 2( X (1)Sigma g (+)). The ground-state and the first two excited minima of GaN 4 are of (2)B 1( C 2 v ), (2)A 1( C 2 v , five member ring), and (4)Sigma g (-)( D infinityh ) symmetry, respectively. The dissociation energy ( D e) of the ground-state of GaN 4, X (2)B 1, with respect to Ga( (2)P) + 2 N 2( X (1)Sigma g (+)), is 2.4 kcal/mol, whereas the D e of (4)Sigma g (-) with respect to Ga( (4)P) + 2 N 2( X (1)Sigma g (+)) is 17.6 kcal/mol.

  16. Subacute pulmonary toxicity of copper indium gallium diselenide following intratracheal instillations into the lungs of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the pulmonary toxicity of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells on 62 8-wk-old rats. Male Wistar rats were given 0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg of CIGS particles, intratracheally, 3 times for a week. Control rats were given vehicle, distilled water, only. These rats were euthanized 0, 1 or 3 wk after the final instillation serially, and toxicological effects were determined. None of the CIGS-treated groups exhibited suppression of body weight gain compared with the control group. The relative lung weight in the CIGS 5 mg/kg-treated and 50 mg/kg-treated groups were significantly increased compared with that in the control group throughout the observation period. Although serum copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) concentrations were not affected by instillations of CIGS particles, the indium (In) levels increased with the passage of time in the CIGS 5 mg/kg-treated and 50 mg/kg-treated groups. However, the serum gallium (Ga) levels decreased in the CIGS 50 mg/kg-treated group from 0 to 3 wk. The content of each metal in the lung increased depending on the dose instilled and was constant during observation periods. Histopathologically, foci of slight to severe pulmonary inflammatory response and exudation were present among all the CIGS-treated groups, and the severity of these lesions worsened with the passage of time. The present results clearly demonstrate that CIGS particles caused subacute pulmonary toxicity and that dissolution of CIGS particles in the lung was considerably slow when repeated intratracheal instillations were given to rats.

  17. Processing and electrical properties of gallium-substituted lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Sugato; Sharma, Pulkit; Sahoo, Sushrisangita; Rout, P. K.; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the effect of gallium (Ga) substitution on structural, microstructural, electrical conductivity of Pb(ZrTi)O3 (PZT) in the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region (i.e., Pb0.96Ga0.04(Zr0.48Ti0.52)0.99O3 (PGaZT-4)) was investigated. Increased grain density increases the resistivity of the Ga-modified PZT system. Preliminary structural analysis using X-ray diffraction pattern and data showed the existence of two phases [major tetragonal (T) and minor monoclinic (M)]. Field emission scanning electron micrograph (FESEM) showed the distribution of spherical as well as platelet type grains with small pores. The behavior of dielectric constant with temperature of PGaZT-4 exhibited the suppression of the ferroelectric phase transition [i.e., disappearance of Curie temperature ( T c)]. The complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique helped to investigate the impedance parameters of PGaZT-4 in MPB region in a wide range of temperature (250-500 °C) and frequency (1-1000 kHz) region. The impedance parameters of the material are found to be strongly dependent on frequency of AC electric field and temperature. The substitution of gallium at the Pb site of PZT generally enhances the dielectric constant and decreases loss tangent. The AC conductivity vs frequency ( f = ω2 π) in the region of dispersion follows the universal response of Jonscher's equation. Enhanced resistive characteristics were observed for Ga-substituted PZT in comparison to the pure PZT, which was well ensured from the studies of electrical parameters, such as impedance and AC conductivity.

  18. A proposed Russian-American NEPST program utilizing Russian launch and support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, Veniamin; Yefremov, Gennadi L.; Degtiariev, Yuri G.; Belousov, Stanislav Y.; Ogloblin, Boris G.; Bocharov, Anatoli F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research efforts on investigating the possibility of launching the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) spacecraft, designed by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of Johns Hopkins University, with the Russian ``Proton'' launch vehicle from the Baikonur launch site (Ponomarev-Stepnoi 1994). The NEPSTP spacecraft is designed to demonstrate a payload transportation to GEO using the TOPAZ II space nuclear power system and nuclear electric propulsion of different types (including those developed in the US, Great Britain and Russia) capable of providing spacecraft injection to GEO. The spacecraft's onboard instrumentation includes sensors to measure neutron and gamma radiation around the spacecraft, as well as positron fields surrounding the reactor, and neutral particles and the plasma resulting from operation of nuclear electric propulsion, powered by the nuclear power source. The analysis under study was prepared by the scientists from the Scientific Industrial Association (SIA) of ``Machine Building,'' RRC ``Kurchatov Institute,'' and the Central Design Bureau of Machine Building (CDBMB), on request and support of ``INERTEK'' Joint Stock Company.

  19. Russian-American Security Cooperation After St. Petersburg: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    16, 2006. 120. Maria Danolova, “Ukraine Wants to Begin Uranium En- richment,” January 13, 2006, at mmrs.fema.gov/news/threats/2006/ jan /nthr2006-01...Hodge, “Amid Regional Uncertainty, Officials Review Caspian Guard Initiative,” Defense Daily, August 4, 2005; and Joshua Kucera , “US Helps Forces, Gains

  20. Proceedings of the 5. joint Russian-American computational mathematics conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    These proceedings contain a record of the talks presented and papers submitted by participants. The conference participants represented three institutions from the United States, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and two from Russia, Russian Federal Nuclear Center--All Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF/Arzamas-16), and Russian Federal Nuclear Center--All Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics (RFNC-VNIITF/Chelyabinsk-70). The presentations and papers cover a wide range of applications from radiation transport to materials. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Russian-American Security Cooperation After St. Petersburg: Challenges and Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weitz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    .... It argues that, until a change of government occurs in both countries in 2008, the prospects for additional bilateral agreements to reduce strategic nuclear weapons, limit destabilizing military...

  2. Variation of crystallinity and stoichiometry in films of gallium oxide, gallium nitride and barium zirconate prepared by means of PLD; Variation von Kristallinitaet und Stoechiometrie in mittels PLD hergestellten Schichten aus Galliumoxid, Galliumnitrid und Bariumzirkonat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendt, Jochen

    2011-08-05

    Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is an ablation technique for thin film preparation of many materials. The film properties can be well controlled by the process parameters. Therefore, in many cases a given material can be deposited with different properties by changing one or more process parameters. In this thesis thin films of gallium oxide, gallium nitride and barium zirconate were deposited with a large variation in structure and stoichiometry by means of Pulsed Laser Deposition. The characterization of the film crystallinity, phase purity and short range structural order was completed by means of X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The stoichiometry was investigated using electron probe microanalysis. For analyzing the correlation between the structure and stoichiometry with the optical and electrical properties, optical absorption and electrical conductivity measurements were carried out. The investigation of all three material systems showed that very unique properties can be realized when combining an amorphous structure and a non-stoichiometric composition. For example, in amorphous and oxygen deficient gallium oxide an insulator-metal-transition can be induced by partial crystallization of the as prepared phase accomplished by annealing at about 400 C in argon atmosphere (as shown in literature). Furthermore, amorphous and highly non-stoichiometric barium zirconate has the ability to split water molecules to hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. A detailed analysis of both phenomena has been performed by means of photoemission and transmission electron microscopy in the case of gallium oxide and via X-ray absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography in the case of barium zirconate.

  3. Wet chemical functionalization of III-V semiconductor surfaces: alkylation of gallium arsenide and gallium nitride by a Grignard reaction sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peczonczyk, Sabrina L; Mukherjee, Jhindan; Carim, Azhar I; Maldonado, Stephen

    2012-03-13

    Crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs) (111)A and gallium nitride (GaN) (0001) surfaces have been functionalized with alkyl groups via a sequential wet chemical chlorine activation, Grignard reaction process. For GaAs(111)A, etching in HCl in diethyl ether effected both oxide removal and surface-bound Cl. X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectra demonstrated selective surface chlorination after exposure to 2 M HCl in diethyl ether for freshly etched GaAs(111)A but not GaAs(111)B surfaces. GaN(0001) surfaces exposed to PCl(5) in chlorobenzene showed reproducible XP spectroscopic evidence for Cl-termination. The Cl-activated GaAs(111)A and GaN(0001) surfaces were both reactive toward alkyl Grignard reagents, with pronounced decreases in detectable Cl signal as measured by XP spectroscopy. Sessile contact angle measurements between water and GaAs(111)A interfaces after various levels of treatment showed that GaAs(111)A surfaces became significantly more hydrophobic following reaction with C(n)H(2n-1)MgCl (n = 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 18). High-resolution As 3d XP spectra taken at various times during prolonged direct exposure to ambient lab air indicated that the resistance of GaAs(111)A to surface oxidation was greatly enhanced after reaction with Grignard reagents. GaAs(111)A surfaces terminated with C(18)H(37) groups were also used in Schottky heterojunctions with Hg. These heterojunctions exhibited better stability over repeated cycling than heterojunctions based on GaAs(111)A modified with C(18)H(37)S groups. Raman spectra were separately collected that suggested electronic passivation by surficial Ga-C bonds at GaAs(111)A. Specifically, GaAs(111)A surfaces reacted with alkyl Grignard reagents exhibited Raman signatures comparable to those of samples treated with 10% Na(2)S in tert-butanol. For GaN(0001), high-resolution C 1s spectra exhibited the characteristic low binding energy shoulder demonstrative of surface Ga-C bonds following reaction with CH(3)MgCl. In addition, 4

  4. In situ stress measurements during MOCVD growth of aluminum gallium nitride on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acord, Jeremy D.

    literature reports exist studying MOCVD of Al xGa1-xN on SiC using in situ techniques. The first portion of this study investigated the changes in the stress evolution as the Al-fraction of the AlxGa1-xN thin films was varied. Gallium-rich alloys were observed to follow the pattern reported previously in the literature determined by post-growth techniques. GaN deposited on AlN buffer layer initiated growth in compression due to epitaxial misfit that was partially relaxed by formation of misfit dislocations near the interface. The growth stress relaxed with increasing GaN thickness until the surface became largely stress-free at growth temperature after growth of approximately 3 mum. As a consequence of this direct measurement, it was determined that cracking in thick GaN layers is due solely to the CTE stress, and not due to any growth stress. In contrast, the growth stress in Al-rich AlxGa 1-xN deposited on AlN was strongly determined primarily by the stress and defect structure of the AlN buffer layer, in combination with a small epitaxial misfit. For sufficiently high Al-fraction, the AlxGa 1-xN growth stress was tensile from the start of growth. For compositions in between these two extremes, the stress evolution contained elements of both behaviors. This was termed "AlxGa1-xN" type behavior. As with Ga-rich films, the initial growth stress was compressive. However, the stress evolved into tension toward the end of growth. The mechanisms from the two previously discussed regimes were determined to be active, in addition to a mechanism described in the literature as "dislocation effective climb". This mechanism is active when pre-existing threading dislocations with an edge component propagate into the AlxGa 1-xN epilayer, becoming inclined as they do so leading to reduction in the initial compressive stress and eventually generation of tensile stress. This regime is also sensitive to the stress and structure of the AlN buffer layer. In the remainder of the study attempts

  5. Abnormal lung gallium-67 uptake preceding pulmonary physiologic impairment in an asymptomatic patient with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss, T.F.; Golden, J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was suggested by a diffuse, bilateral pulmonary uptake of gallium-67 in an asymptomatic, homosexual male with the antibody to the immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who was undergoing staging evaluation for lymphoma clinically localized to a left inguinal lymph node. Chest radiograph and pulmonary function evaluation, including lung volumes, diffusing capacity and arterial blood gases, were within normal limits. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed Pneumocystis carinii organisms. In this asymptomatic, HIV-positive patient, active alveolar infection, evidenced by abnormal gallium-67 scanning, predated pulmonary physiologic abnormalities. This observation raises questions concerning the natural history of this disease process and the specificity of physiologic tests for excluding disease. It also has implications for the treatment of neoplasia in the HIV-positive patient population.

  6. Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sabry Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on nonlinear frequency conversion from the telecom range via second harmonic generation (SHG and third harmonic generation (THG in suspended gallium nitride slab photonic crystal (PhC cavities on silicon, under continuous-wave resonant excitation. Optimized two-dimensional PhC cavities with augmented far-field coupling have been characterized with quality factors as high as 4.4 × 104, approaching the computed theoretical values. The strong enhancement in light confinement has enabled efficient SHG, achieving a normalized conversion efficiency of 2.4 × 10−3 W−1, as well as simultaneous THG. SHG emission power of up to 0.74 nW has been detected without saturation. The results herein validate the suitability of gallium nitride for integrated nonlinear optical processing.

  7. Surface characterization of gallium nitride modified with peptides before and after exposure to ionizing radiation in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Nora G; Nolan, Michael W; Paskova, Tania; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2014-12-30

    An aqueous surface modification of gallium nitride was employed to attach biomolecules to the surface. The modification was a simple two-step process using a single linker molecule and mild temperatures. The presence of the peptide on the surface was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Subsequently, the samples were placed in water baths and exposed to ionizing radiation to examine the effects of the radiation on the material in an environment similar to the body. Surface analysis confirmed degradation of the surface of GaN after radiation exposure in water; however, the peptide molecules successfully remained on the surface following exposure to ionizing radiation. We hypothesize that during radiation exposure of the samples, the radiolysis of water produces peroxide and other reactive species on the sample surface. Peroxide exposure promotes the formation of a more stable layer of gallium oxyhydroxide which passivates the surface better than other oxide species.

  8. Microwave gallium-68 radiochemistry for kinetically stable bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes: structural investigations and cellular uptake under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Israt S; Arrowsmith, Rory L; Cortezon-Tamarit, Fernando; Twyman, Frazer; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Botchway, Stanley W; Dilworth, Jonathan R; Carroll, Laurence; Aboagye, Eric O; Pascu, Sofia I

    2016-01-07

    We report the microwave synthesis of several bis(thiosemicarbazones) and the rapid gallium-68 incorporation to give the corresponding metal complexes. These proved kinetically stable under 'cold' and 'hot' biological assays and were investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and radioactive cell retention studies under normoxia and hypoxia. (68)Ga complex retention was found to be 34% higher in hypoxic cells than in normoxic cells over 30 min, further increasing to 53% at 120 min. Our data suggests that this class of gallium complexes show hypoxia selectivity suitable for imaging in living cells and in vivo tests by microPET in nude athymic mice showed that they are excreted within 1 h of their administration.

  9. Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q Gallium Nitride photonic crystal cavities on Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Mohamed Sabry; Carlin, Jean-François; Minkov, Momchil; Gerace, Dario; Savona, Vincenzo; Grandjean, Nicolas; Galli, Matteo; Houdré, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    We report on nonlinear frequency conversion from the telecom range via second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) in suspended gallium nitride slab photonic crystal (PhC) cavities on silicon, under continuous-wave resonant excitation. Optimized two-dimensional PhC cavities with augmented far-field coupling have been characterized with quality factors as high as 4.4$\\times10^{4}$, approaching the computed theoretical values. The strong enhancement in light confinement has enabled efficient SHG, achieving normalized conversion efficiency of 2.4$\\times10^{-3}$ $W^{-1}$, as well as simultaneous THG. SHG emission power of up to 0.74 nW has been detected without saturation. The results herein validate the suitability of gallium nitride for integrated nonlinear optical processing.

  10. Orbitally driven low thermal conductivity of monolayer gallium nitride (GaN) with planar honeycomb structure: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhenzhen; Qin, Guangzhao; Zuo, Xu; Xiong, Zhihua; Hu, Ming

    2017-03-23

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with graphene as a representative have been intensively studied for a long time. Recently, monolayer gallium nitride (ML GaN) with honeycomb structure was successfully fabricated in experiments, generating enormous research interest for its promising applications in nano- and opto-electronics. Considering all these applications are inevitably involved with thermal transport, systematic investigation of the phonon transport properties of 2D GaN is in demand. In this paper, by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) based on first-principles calculations, we performed a comprehensive study of the phonon transport properties of ML GaN, with detailed comparison to bulk GaN, 2D graphene, silicene and ML BN with similar honeycomb structure. Considering the similar planar structure of ML GaN to graphene, it is quite intriguing to find that the thermal conductivity (κ) of ML GaN (14.93 W mK(-1)) is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of graphene and is even lower than that of silicene with a buckled structure. Systematic analysis is performed based on the study of the contribution from phonon branches, comparison among the mode level phonon group velocity and lifetime, the detailed process and channels of phonon-phonon scattering, and phonon anharmonicity with potential energy well. We found that, different from graphene and ML BN, the phonon-phonon scattering selection rule in 2D GaN is slightly broken by the lowered symmetry due to the large difference in the atomic radius and mass between Ga and N atoms. Further deep insight is gained from the electronic structure. Resulting from the special sp orbital hybridization mediated by the Ga-d orbital in ML GaN, the strongly polarized Ga-N bond, localized charge density, and its inhomogeneous distribution induce large phonon anharmonicity and lead to the intrinsic low κ of ML GaN. The orbitally driven low κ of ML GaN unraveled in this work would make 2D GaN prospective for

  11. Magnesium alloy AZ63A reinforcement by alloying with gallium and using high-disperse ZrO2 particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Khokhlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to obtain an experimental magnesium alloy by remelting standard AZ63A alloy with addition of gallium ligatures and ZrO2 particles. This allowed reinforcement of alloy and increase its hardness and Young's modulus. The chemical analysis of this alloy shows two types of structures which are evenly distributed in volume. Thus we can conclude that reinforcing effect is the result of formation of intermetallic phase Mg5-Ga2.

  12. Electric and dielectric behavior of the eucryptite and gallium spodumene in vitreous phase; Comportamiento electrico y dielectrico de la eucriptita y espodumeno de galio en fase vitrea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, G.; Quintana, P.; Huanosta T, A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones en Materiales

    1999-05-01

    In this work we have made an electric and dielectric characterization of two glasses of lithium gallium silicates with eucryptite and spodumene composition. The characteristic parameters were obtained by ac measurements using discrete R and C elements, this technique was mainly applied for the bulk conductivity determination. Electric and dielectric behavior is presented in terms of different type of plots, such as Arrhenius plots, dielectric loss, etc. In the case of eucryptite we have also collected the electrical response from the crystalline phase, the obtained results are discussed between both physical states. Experiments were made from room temperature up to 400 Centigrade for the glassy phase, and close to 700 Centigrade for the crystalline material. The frequency range used was 5 Hz to 13 MHz, and the applied voltage 1 V. A remarkably difference in the conductivity behavior between the glassy and crystalline phases is found and it is discussed in terms of the modified random network model from G.N. Greaves (23). (Author)

  13. Evaluation of critical materials for five advanced design photovoltaic cells with an assessment of indium and gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Jamieson, W.M.; Long, L.W.; Pawlewicz, W.T.; Smith, S.A.; Teeter, R.R.

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. This report presents the results of the screening of the five following advanced PV cell designs: polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide frontwall, polycrystalline gallium arsenide MIS, and advanced concentrator-500X. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 GWe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online cpacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary basline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. Earlier DOE sponsored work on the assessment of critical materials in PV cells conclusively identtified indium and gallium as warranting further investigation as to their availability. Therefore, this report includes a discussion of the future availability of gallium and indium. (WHK)

  14. Investigation of an Electrochemical Method for Separation of Copper, Indium, and Gallium from Pretreated CIGS Solar Cell Waste Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Anna M. K.; Björefors, Fredrik; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of the semiconductor material copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is important to ensure a future supply of indium and gallium, which are relatively rare and therefore expensive elements. As a continuation of our previous work, where we recycled high purity selenium from CIGS waste materials, we now show that copper and indium can be recycled by electrodeposition from hydrochloric acid solutions of dissolved selenium-depleted material. Suitable potentials for the reduction of copper and indium were determined to be −0.5 V and −0.9 V (versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode), respectively, using cyclic voltammetry. Electrodeposition of first copper and then indium from a solution containing the dissolved residue from the selenium separation and ammonium chloride in 1 M HCl gave a copper yield of 100.1 ± 0.5% and an indium yield of 98.1 ± 2.5%. The separated copper and indium fractions contained no significant contamination of the other elements. Gallium remained in solution together with a small amount of indium after the separation of copper and indium and has to be recovered by an alternative method since electrowinning from the chloride-rich acid solution was not effective. PMID:26347901

  15. Recycling process for recovery of gallium from GaN an e-waste of LED industry through ball milling, annealing and leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon

    2015-04-01

    Waste dust generated during manufacturing of LED contains significant amounts of gallium and indium, needs suitable treatment and can be an important resource for recovery. The LED industry waste dust contains primarily gallium as GaN. Leaching followed by purification technology is the green and clean technology. To develop treatment and recycling technology of these GaN bearing e-waste, leaching is the primary stage. In our current investigation possible process for treatment and quantitative leaching of gallium and indium from the GaN bearing e-waste or waste of LED industry dust has been developed. To recycle the waste and quantitative leaching of gallium, two different process flow sheets have been proposed. In one, process first the GaN of the waste the LED industry dust was leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue was mixed with Na2CO3, ball milled followed by annealing, again leached to recover gallium. In the second process, the waste LED industry dust was mixed with Na2CO3, after ball milling and annealing, followed acidic leaching. Without pretreatment, the gallium leaching was only 4.91 w/w % using 4M HCl, 100°C and pulp density of 20g/L. After mechano-chemical processing, both these processes achieved 73.68 w/w % of gallium leaching at their optimum condition. The developed process can treat and recycle any e-waste containing GaN through ball milling, annealing and leaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spintronics: Towards room temperature ferromagnetic devices via manganese and rare earth doped gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luen, Melvyn Oliver

    Spintronics is a multidisciplinary field aimed at the active manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. The goal being the understanding of the interaction between the particle spin and its solid-state environment, and the making of useful devices based on the acquired knowledge. If Moore's law is to continue, then we need to find alternatives to conventional microelectronics. Where conventional electronic devices rely on manipulating charge to produce desired functions, spintronic devices would manipulate both the charge flow and electron spin within that flow. This would add an extra degree of freedom to microelectronics and usher in the era of truly nanoelectronic devices. Research aimed at a whole new generation of electronic devices is underway by introducing electron spin as a new or additional physical variable, and semiconductor devices that exploit this new freedom will operate faster and more efficiently than conventional microelectronic devices and offer new functionality that promises to revolutionize the electronics industry. Long recognized as the material of choice for next-generation solid-state lighting, gallium nitride (GaN) also has proven uses in the field of high power, high frequency field-effect transistors (FETs). But its promise as a material system for spintronic applications may be its ultimate legacy. In this dissertation, the growth of gallium-manganese-nitride (GaMnN) compound semiconductor alloy was investigated through the use of an in-house built metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor. Building on previous investigations of ferromagnetic mechanisms in GaMnN, where ferromagnetism was shown to be carrier mediated, a above room temperature ferromagnetic GaMnN i-p-n diode structure was conceived. This device proved to be the first of its kind in the world, where ferromagnetic properties are controlled via proximity of the mediating holes, upon voltage bias of adjacent structure layers

  17. Screening and identification of novel compounds with potential anti-proliferative effects on gallium-resistant lung cancer through an AXL kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Moses O; Alazizi, Adnan; Liva, Sophia; Lin, Li; Geldenhuys, Werner J

    2014-09-15

    The clinical application of gallium compounds as anticancer agents is hampered by development of resistance. As a potential strategy to overcome the limitation, eight series of compounds were identified through virtual screening of AXL kinase homology model. Anti-proliferative studies were carried using gallium-sensitive (S) and gallium-resistant (R) human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Compounds 5476423 and 7919469 were identified as leads. The IC50 values from treating R-cells showed compounds 5476423 and 7919469 had 80 fold and 13 fold increased potency, respectively, compared to gallium acetylacetonate (GaAcAc). The efficacy of GaAcAc against R-cells was increased 2 fold and 1.2 fold when combined with compounds 5476423 and 7919469, respectively. Compared with S-cells, R-cells showed elevated expression of AXL protein, which was significantly suppressed through treatments with the lead compounds. It is anticipated that the lead compounds could be applied in virtual screening programs to identify novel scaffolds for new therapeutic agents as well as combinatorial therapy agents in gallium resistant lung cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular orbital calculations for the formation of GaN layers on ultra-thin AlN/6H-SiC surface using alternating pulsative supply of gaseous trimethyl gallium (TMG) and NH sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Seong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The steps for the generation of very thin GaN films on ultrathin AlN/6H-SiC surface by alternating a pulsative supply (APS) of trimethyl gallium and NH sub 3 gases have been examined by ASED-MO calculations. We postulate that the gallium clusters was formed with the evaporation of CH sub 4 gases via the decomposition of trimethyl gallium (TMG), dimethyl gallium (DMG), and monomethyl gallium (MMG). During the injection of NH sub 3 gas into the reactor, the atomic hydrogens were produced from the thermal decomposition of NH sub 3 molecule. These hydrogen gases activated the Ga-C bond cleavage. An energetically stable GaN nucleation site was formed via nitrogen incorporation into the layer of gallium cluster. The nitrogen atoms produced from the thermal degradation of NH sub 3 were expected to incorporate into the edge of the gallium cluster since the galliums bind weakly to each other (0.19 eV). The structure was stabilized by 2.08 eV, as an adsorbed N atom incorporated into a tetrahedral site of the Ga cluster...

  19. Microstructure and micro-Raman studies of nitridation and structure transition of gallium oxide nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, J.Q. [Department of Physics and HKU-CAS Joint Laboratory on New Materials, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Xu, S.J., E-mail: sjxu@hku.hk [Department of Physics and HKU-CAS Joint Laboratory on New Materials, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Wang, P.W.; Song, Y.P.; Yu, D.P. [Electronic Microscopy Laboratory and State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, Hong Kong (China); Shan, Y.Y.; Lee, S.T. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yang, H. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-11-15

    Here we present a detailed study on nitridation and structure transition in monoclinic gallium oxide ({beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowires grown on Si substrates with chemical vapor phase epitaxy. The nanowires were systematically nitridated at different temperatures. Their morphologies and microstructures were precisely characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. It is found that heat treatment of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires in the gas of ammonia results in rich substructures including the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase, the crystalline GaN phase, and other meta structures. The identification of these structures helps to understand some interesting phenomena observed in nanostructures, such as the microstructural origin of the unknown Raman lines in GaN nanowires. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitridation and structure transition of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} significantly depend on temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-N bonds form at lower temperatures but the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice is still dominant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amorphous GaN coexists with crystalline Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} at higher temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline GaN with distinct morphology is obtained at much higher temperatures.

  20. Exfoliation of Threading Dislocation-Free, Single-Crystalline, Ultrathin Gallium Nitride Nanomembranes

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.

    2014-04-01

    Despite the recent progress in gallium nitride (GaN) growth technology, the excessively high threading dislocation (TD) density within the GaN crystal, caused by the reliance on heterogeneous substrates, impedes the development of high-efficiency, low-cost, GaN-based heterostructure devices. For the first time, the chemical exfoliation of completely TD-free, single-crystalline, ultrathin (tens of nanometers) GaN nanomembranes is demonstrated using UV-assisted electroless chemical etching. These nanomembranes can act as seeding layers for subsequent overgrowth of high-quality GaN. A model is proposed, based on scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as optical measurements to explain the physical processes behind the formation of the GaN nanomembranes. These novel nanomembranes, once transferred to other substrates, present a unique and technologically attractive path towards integrating high-efficiency GaN optical components along with silicon electronics. Interestingly, due to their nanoscale thickness and macroscopic sizes, these nanomembranes may enable the production of flexible GaN-based optoelectronics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Gallium-rich Pd-Ga phases as supported liquid metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccardi, N.; Grabau, M.; Debuschewitz, J.; Distaso, M.; Brandl, M.; Hock, R.; Maier, F.; Papp, C.; Erhard, J.; Neiss, C.; Peukert, W.; Görling, A.; Steinrück, H.-P.; Wasserscheid, P.

    2017-09-01

    A strategy to develop improved catalysts is to create systems that merge the advantages of heterogeneous and molecular catalysis. One such system involves supported liquid-phase catalysts, which feature a molecularly defined, catalytically active liquid film/droplet layer adsorbed on a porous solid support. In the past decade, this concept has also been extended to supported ionic liquid-phase catalysts. Here we develop this idea further and describe supported catalytically active liquid metal solutions (SCALMS). We report a liquid mixture of gallium and palladium deposited on porous glass that forms an active catalyst for alkane dehydrogenation that is resistant to coke formation and is thus highly stable. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, supported by theoretical calculations, confirm the liquid state of the catalytic phase under the reaction conditions. Unlike traditional heterogeneous catalysts, the supported liquid metal reported here is highly dynamic and catalysis does not proceed at the surface of the metal nanoparticles, but presumably at homogeneously distributed metal atoms at the surface of a liquid metallic phase.

  2. Copper-indium-gallium-diselenide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method for solar cell application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou Chuan-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chalcopyrite copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS nanoparticles are useful for photovoltaic applications. In this study, the synthesis of CIGS powder was examined, and the powder was successfully synthesized using a relatively simple and convenient elemental solvothermal route. From the reactions of elemental Cu, In, Se and Ga(NO33 powders in an autoclave with ethylenediamine as a solvent, spherical CIGS nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 20-40 nm, were obtained using a temperature of 200°C for 36h. The structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of the as-synthesized CIGS were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In this sample, the mole ratio of Cu:In:Ga:Se was equal to 0.89:0.71:0.29:2.01, and the optical band gap was found to be 1.18 eV. The solar cell obtained a power conversion efficiency of 5.62% under standard air mass 1.5 global illumination.

  3. Single-crystal gallium oxide-based biomolecular modified diode for nucleic acid sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tanzilur; Masui, Takekazu; Ichiki, Takanori

    2015-04-01

    A single-crystal gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) has been investigated for biosensing applications in the form of an electrolyte/oxide diode. β-Ga2O3, a transparent conducting oxide, has great potential to be used in upcoming bioelectronics technologies such as integrated biosensors. The surface of a β-Ga2O3 substrate was silanized with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) and modified with N-succinimidyl-6-maleimidylhexanoate (EMCS) to immobilize the capture probe DNA (thiol-terminated single-stranded DNA). A bimolecular diode formed by interfacing electrolytes with this β-Ga2O3 substrate can detect the increased threshold potential of the diode’s forward bias current and the charge transfer resistivity resulting from the surface modification. The capture probe modified surface has been used for target detection, and complementary DNA sequences could be distinguished from noncomplementary DNA with a nearly twentyfold relative resistivity difference observed through the diode characteristics. The sensing mechanism and detection ability demonstrated indicate the feasibility of the development of Ga2O3-based integrated bioelectronics.

  4. Surface properties and electromagnetic excitation of a piezoelectric gallium phosphate biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, Alina; Ballantyne, Scott M; Cheran, Larisa-Emilia; Thompson, Michael

    2005-02-01

    The surface properties of GaPO4 have been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electromagnetic acoustic wave excitation in order to explore the potential of this relatively new piezoelectric material as a biosensor. The X-ray photoelectron spectrum of the substrate shows a Ga-rich surface (Ga:P = 1.4), while the negative secondary ion mass spectrum is similar to that of other phosphates, with PO3- and PO2- being the main fragments derived from the substrate. Surface analysis reveals that the linker protein for biotinylated moieties, neutravidin, is both readily chemisorbed to bare gallium phosphate at pH 7.5 and attached to p-hydroxy benzaldehyde-treated devices, establishing the possibility to exploit the surface chemistry of the phosphate for the fabrication of an electrode-free acoustic wave biosensor. Preliminary results regarding the detection of the adsorption of neutravidin with an electromagnetic field-excited GaPO4 device incorporated in a FIA configuration showed comparable results with those obtained with a quartz-sensor equivalent. The frequency shift for the adsorbed protein layer at the device fundamental frequency was 200 Hz and the noise was routinely around 13 Hz. The possibility to use the electrodeless acoustic GaPO4 device at higher harmonics in the liquid phase has also been confirmed.

  5. Modelling of the small pixel effect in gallium arsenide X-ray imaging detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sellin, P J

    1999-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation has been carried out to investigate the small pixel effect in highly pixellated X-ray imaging detectors fabricated from semi-insulating gallium arsenide. The presence of highly non-uniform weighting fields in detectors with a small pixel geometry causes the majority of the induced signal to be generated when the moving charges are close to the pixellated contacts. The response of GaAs X-ray imaging detectors is further complicated by the presence of charge trapping, particularly of electrons. In this work detectors are modelled with a pixel pitch of 40 and 150 mu m, and with thicknesses of 300 and 500 mu m. Pulses induced in devices with 40 mu m pixels are due almost totally to the movement of the lightly-trapped holes and can exhibit significantly higher charge collection efficiencies than detectors with large electrodes, in which electron trapping is significant. Details of the charge collection efficiencies as a function of interaction depth in the detector and of the incident phot...

  6. Sonodynamically induced apoptosis and active oxygen generation by gallium-porphyrin complex, ATX-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumita, Nagahiko; Okudaira, Kazuho; Momose, Yasunori; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the induction of apoptosis by ultrasound in the presence of the photochemically active gallium-porphyrin complex, 7,12-bis(1-decyloxyethyl)-Ga(III)-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-porphyrin 2,18-dipropionyl diaspartic acid (ATX-70). HL-60 cells were exposed to ultrasound for up to 3 min in the presence and absence of ATX-70, and the induction of apoptosis was examined by analyzing cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activity. Cells treated with 80 μM ATX-70 and ultrasound clearly showed membrane blebbing and cell shrinkage, whereas significant morphologic changes were not observed in cells exposed to either ultrasound or ATX-70 alone. Also, DNA ladder formation and caspase-3 activation were observed in cells treated with both ultrasound and ATX-70 but not in cells treated with ultrasound or ATX-70 alone. In addition, the combination of ATX-70 and the same acoustical arrangement of ultrasound substantially enhanced nitroxide generation by the cells. Sonodynamically induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, and nitroxide generation were significantly suppressed by histidine. These results indicate that the combination of ultrasound and ATX-70 induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells. The significant reduction in sonodynamically induced apoptosis, nitroxide generation, and caspase-3 activation by histidine suggests that active species such as singlet oxygen are important in the sonodynamic induction of apoptosis.

  7. Magnetism in non-metal atoms adsorbed graphene-like gallium nitride monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wencheng; Sun, Minglei; Yu, Jin; Chou, Jyh-Pin

    2018-01-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of graphene-like gallium nitride (g-GaN) with adsorbed H, B, C, N, O, and F atoms were investigated using spin-polarized first-principles calculations. We found that H, B, C, N, O, and F atoms can be chemisorbed on a g-GaN monolayer. The total magnetic moments of 1.0, 2.0, 1.0, and 1.0 μB are founded in B-, C-, N-, and F-adsorbed g-GaN monolayers, respectively. In addition, a half-metallic state appears in the N- and F-adsorbed g-GaN, while a spin-polarized semiconducting state appears in other g-GaN monolayers after the adsorption of B or C. These findings demonstrate that the magnetic properties of g-GaN can be effectively tuned by the adsorption of non-metal atoms. In particular, the F-adsorbed system that exhibits a half-metallic state and high Curie temperature of 367 K has great potential for application in spintronics.

  8. Tunable plasmonic resonance of gallium nanoparticles by thermal oxidation at low temperaturas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Gómez, S.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Palomares, F. J.; Nucciarelli, F.; Pau, J. L.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of the oxidation of gallium nanoparticles (Ga NPs) on their plasmonic properties is investigated. Discrete dipole approximation has been used to study the wavelength of the out-of-plane localized surface plasmon resonance in hemispherical Ga NPs, deposited on silicon substrates, with oxide shell (Ga2O3) of different thickness. Thermal oxidation treatments, varying temperature and time, were carried out in order to increase experimentally the Ga2O3 shell thickness in the NPs. The optical, structural and chemical properties of the oxidized NPs have been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A clear redshift of the peak wavelength is observed, barely affecting the intensity of the plasmon resonance. A controllable increase of the Ga2O3 thickness as a consequence of the thermal annealing is achieved. In addition, simulations together with ellipsometry results have been used to determine the oxidation rate, whose kinetics is governed by a logarithmic dependence. These results support the tunable properties of the plasmon resonance wavelength in Ga NPs by thermal oxidation at low temperatures without significant reduction of the plasmon resonance intensity.

  9. High Ultraviolet Absorption in Colloidal Gallium Nanoparticles Prepared from Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Nucciarelli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New methods for the production of colloidal Ga nanoparticles (GaNPs are introduced based on the evaporation of gallium on expendable aluminum zinc oxide (AZO layer. The nanoparticles can be prepared in aqueous or organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran in order to be used in different sensing applications. The particles had a quasi mono-modal distribution with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 80 nm, and their aggregation status depended on the solvent nature. Compared to common chemical synthesis, our method assures higher yield with the possibility of tailoring particles size by adjusting the deposition time. The GaNPs have been studied by spectrophotometry to obtain the absorption spectra. The colloidal solutions exhibit strong plasmonic absorption in the ultra violet (UV region around 280 nm, whose width and intensity mainly depend on the nanoparticles dimensions and their aggregation state. With regard to the colloidal GaNPs flocculate behavior, the water solvent case has been investigated for different pH values, showing UV-visible absorption because of the formation of NPs clusters. Using discrete dipole approximation (DDA method simulations, a close connection between the UV absorption and NPs with a diameter smaller than ~40 nm was observed.

  10. Point contacts at the copper-indium-gallium-selenide interface—A theoretical outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercegol, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.bercegol@polytechnique.edu; Chacko, Binoy; Klenk, Reiner; Lauermann, Iver; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert Einstein Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Liero, Matthias [Weierstraß-Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-21

    For a long time, it has been assumed that recombination in the space-charge region of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) is dominant, at least in high efficiency solar cells with low band gap. The recent developments like potassium fluoride post deposition treatment and point-contact junction may call this into question. In this work, a theoretical outlook is made using three-dimensional simulations to investigate the effect of point-contact openings through a passivation layer on CIGS solar cell performance. A large set of solar cells is modeled under different scenarios for the charged defect levels and density, radius of the openings, interface quality, and conduction band offset. The positive surface charge created by the passivation layer induces band bending and this influences the contact (CdS) properties, making it beneficial for the open circuit voltage and efficiency, and the effect is even more pronounced when coverage area is more than 95%, and also makes a positive impact on the device performance, even in the presence of a spike at CIGS/CdS heterojunction.

  11. Evidencing the existence of intrinsic half-metallicity and ferromagnetism in zigzag gallium sulfide nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yungang; Li, Sean; Zhou, Weilie; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2014-07-01

    The achievement of half-metallicity with ferromagnetic (FM) coupling has become a key technology for the development of one-dimensional (1D) nanoribbons for spintronic applications. Unfortunately, in previous studies, such a half-metallicity always occurs upon certain external constraints. Here we, for the first time, demonstrate, via density functional theory (DFT), that the recent experimentally realized gallium sulfide nanoribbons (GaSNRs) can display an intrinsic half-metallic character with FM coupling, raised from Ga-4s, Ga-4p and S-3p states at the Ga-dominated edge. Furthermore, the novel half-metallic behavior with FM coupling here is rather robust, especially for GaSNRs with large width and thickness, and can be sustained to the room temperature. Thus, our results accidentally disclose a new 1D spin nanomaterial, which allows us to go beyond the current scope limited to the graphene, boron nitride (BN), zinc oxide (ZnO) and molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) nanoribbons, toward more realistic spintronic applications.

  12. Influence of water on the interfacial behavior of gallium liquid metal alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad R; Trlica, Chris; So, Ju-Hee; Valeri, Michael; Dickey, Michael D

    2014-12-24

    Eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) is a promising liquid metal for a variety of electrical and optical applications that take advantage of its soft and fluid properties. The presence of a rapidly forming oxide skin on the surface of the metal causes it to stick to many surfaces, which limits the ability to easily reconfigure its shape on demand. This paper shows that water can provide an interfacial slip layer between EGaIn and other surfaces, which allows the metal to flow smoothly through capillaries and across surfaces without sticking. Rheological and surface characterization shows that the presence of water also changes the chemical composition of the oxide skin and weakens its mechanical strength, although not enough to allow the metal to flow freely in microchannels without the slip layer. The slip layer provides new opportunities to control and actuate liquid metal plugs in microchannels-including the use of continuous electrowetting-enabling new possibilities for shape reconfigurable electronics, sensors, actuators, and antennas.

  13. Tunable plasmonic resonance of gallium nanoparticles by thermal oxidation at low temperaturas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Gómez, S; Redondo-Cubero, A; Palomares, F J; Nucciarelli, F; Pau, J L

    2017-10-06

    The effect of the oxidation of gallium nanoparticles (Ga NPs) on their plasmonic properties is investigated. Discrete dipole approximation has been used to study the wavelength of the out-of-plane localized surface plasmon resonance in hemispherical Ga NPs, deposited on silicon substrates, with oxide shell (Ga2O3) of different thickness. Thermal oxidation treatments, varying temperature and time, were carried out in order to increase experimentally the Ga2O3 shell thickness in the NPs. The optical, structural and chemical properties of the oxidized NPs have been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A clear redshift of the peak wavelength is observed, barely affecting the intensity of the plasmon resonance. A controllable increase of the Ga2O3 thickness as a consequence of the thermal annealing is achieved. In addition, simulations together with ellipsometry results have been used to determine the oxidation rate, whose kinetics is governed by a logarithmic dependence. These results support the tunable properties of the plasmon resonance wavelength in Ga NPs by thermal oxidation at low temperatures without significant reduction of the plasmon resonance intensity.

  14. Zinc-gallium oxynitride powders: effect of the oxide precursor synthesis route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. D. Figueiredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc-gallium oxynitride powders (ZnGaON were synthesized by nitridation of ZnGa2O4 oxide precursor obtained by polymeric precursors (PP and solid state reaction (SSR methods and the influence of the synthesis route of ZnGa2O4 on the final compound ZnGaON was investigated. Crystalline single phase ZnGa2O4 was obtained at 1100 ºC / 12 h by SSR and at 600 ºC / 2 h by PP with different grain sizes and specific surface areas according to the synthesis route. After nitridation, ZnGaON oxynitrides with a GaN würtzite-type structure were obtained in both cases, however at lower temperatures for PP samples. The microstructure and the specific surface area were strongly dependent on the oxide synthesis method and on the nitridation temperature (42 m²g-1 and 5 m²g-1 for PP and SSR oxides treated at 700 °C, respectively. The composition analyses showed a strong loss of Zn for the PP samples, favored by the increase of ammonolysis temperature and by the higher specific surface area.

  15. The effect of gallium substitution on the microstructure and magnetic properties of yttrium iron garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, N. Z. M., E-mail: zahirah24@gmail.com; Ibrahim, N. B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.edu.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor. Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Y{sub 3}Fe{sub (5-y)}Ga{sub y}O{sub 12} (y = 0, 0.4, 1.4 and 2,4) thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and annealed for 2h in oxygen. The thin film’s characteristic were studied by an X-ray diffraction (XRD), a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and a vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD show that all films have the garnet phase structure. The grain size particles measured using FESEM were between 45.08 nm to 51.58 nm, and the thickness were between 42 nm to 90 nm. The magnetic properties measured using VSM showed that result was shown with hysteresis loop. The magnetization saturation decreased from 144.26 to 2.76 emu/cm{sup 3} with the increasing substitution gallium. The substitution for y = 2.4 was shown the saturation magnetization was very low. The coercivity increased 35 to 75 Oe due the the increasing grain size.

  16. Monodisperse colloidal gallium nanoparticles: synthesis, low temperature crystallization, surface plasmon resonance and Li-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarema, Maksym; Wörle, Michael; Rossell, Marta D; Erni, Rolf; Caputo, Riccarda; Protesescu, Loredana; Kravchyk, Kostiantyn V; Dirin, Dmitry N; Lienau, Karla; von Rohr, Fabian; Schilling, Andreas; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2014-09-03

    We report a facile colloidal synthesis of gallium (Ga) nanoparticles with the mean size tunable in the range of 12-46 nm and with excellent size distribution as small as 7-8%. When stored under ambient conditions, Ga nanoparticles remain stable for months due to the formation of native and passivating Ga-oxide layer (2-3 nm). The mechanism of Ga nanoparticles formation is elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and with molecular dynamics simulations. Size-dependent crystallization and melting of Ga nanoparticles in the temperature range of 98-298 K are studied with X-ray powder diffraction, specific heat measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results point to delta (δ)-Ga polymorph as a single low-temperature phase, while phase transition is characterized by the large hysteresis and by the large undercooling of crystallization and melting points down to 140-145 and 240-250 K, respectively. We have observed size-tunable plasmon resonance in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions. We also report stable operation of Ga nanoparticles as anode material for Li-ion batteries with storage capacities of 600 mAh g(-1), 50% higher than those achieved for bulk Ga under identical testing conditions.

  17. Gallium nanoparticles facilitate phagosome maturation and inhibit growth of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seoung-Ryoung; Britigan, Bradley E; Moran, David M; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran

    2017-01-01

    New treatments and novel drugs are required to counter the growing problem of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Our approach against drug resistant M.tb, as well as other intracellular pathogens, is by targeted drug delivery using nanoformulations of drugs already in use, as well as drugs in development. Among the latter are gallium (III) (Ga)-based compounds. In the current work, six different types of Ga and rifampin nanoparticles were prepared in such a way as to enhance targeting of M.tb infected-macrophages. They were then tested for their ability to inhibit growth of a fully pathogenic strain (H37Rv) or a non-pathogenic strain (H37Ra) of M.tb. Encapsulating Ga in folate- or mannose-conjugated block copolymers provided sustained Ga release for 15 days and significantly inhibited M.tb growth in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Nanoformulations with dendrimers encapsulating Ga or rifampin also showed promising anti-tuberculous activity. The nanoparticles co-localized with M.tb containing phagosomes, as measured by detection of mature cathepsin D (34 kDa, lysosomal hydrogenase). They also promoted maturation of the phagosome, which would be expected to increase macrophage-mediated killing of the organism. Delivery of Ga or rifampin in the form of nanoparticles to macrophages offers a promising approach for the development of new therapeutic anti-tuberculous drugs.

  18. Gallium ion implantation greatly reduces thermal conductivity and enhances electronic one of ZnO nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minggang Xia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical and thermal conductivities are measured for individual zinc oxide (ZnO nanowires with and without gallium ion (Ga+ implantation at room temperature. Our results show that Ga+ implantation enhances electrical conductivity by one order of magnitude from 1.01 × 103 Ω−1m−1 to 1.46 × 104 Ω−1m−1 and reduces its thermal conductivity by one order of magnitude from 12.7 Wm−1K−1 to 1.22 Wm−1K−1 for ZnO nanowires of 100 nm in diameter. The measured thermal conductivities are in good agreement with those in theoretical simulation. The increase of electrical conductivity origins in electron donor doping by Ga+ implantation and the decrease of thermal conductivity is due to the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons scattering by Ga+ point scattering. For pristine ZnO nanowires, the thermal conductivity decreases only two times when its diameter reduces from 100 nm to 46 nm. Therefore, Ga+-implantation may be a more effective method than diameter reduction in improving thermoelectric performance.

  19. Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide as electron transport layer in organic photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, H. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Phelma–Grenoble INP, 3 Parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 01 (France); Malinowski, P. E., E-mail: pawel.malinowski@imec.be; Chasin, A.; Cheyns, D.; Steudel, S.; Schols, S. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heremans, P. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); ESAT, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-04-06

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) is demonstrated as an electron transport layer (ETL) in a high-performance organic photodetector (OPD). Dark current in the range of 10 nA/cm{sup 2} at a bias voltage of −2 V and a high photoresponse in the visible spectrum were obtained in inverted OPDs with poly(3-hexylthiophene) and phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester active layer. The best results were obtained for the optimum a-IGZO thickness of 7.5 nm with specific detectivity of 3 × 10{sup 12} Jones at the wavelength of 550 nm. The performance of the best OPD devices using a-IGZO was shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art devices based on TiO{sub x} as ETL, with higher rectification achieved in reverse bias. Yield and reproducibility were also enhanced with a-IGZO, facilitating fabrication of large area OPDs. Furthermore, easier integration with IGZO-based readout backplanes can be envisioned, where the channel material can be used as photodiode buffer layer after additional treatment.

  20. Enhanced thermal stability of alpha gallium oxide films supported by aluminum doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sam-Dong; Ito, Yoshito; Kaneko, Kentaro; Fujita, Shizuo

    2015-03-01

    In order to enhance the thermal stability of corundum-structured gallium oxide (α-Ga2O3), which is attractive for use in wide-band-gap heterostructure devices and amenable to band gap and function engineering but suffers from phase transformation in high-temperature growth (>500 °C) and treatments (>550 °C), we attempted aluminum (Al) doping. The thermal stability of the films was enhanced by increasing the Al doping concentration, and under the best doping conditions where the Al concentration was negligible compared with the basic chemical composition of Ga2O3, the growth and successive thermal treatment temperatures were increased to as high as 650 and 750 °C, respectively, without the marked appearance of the β-gallia phase. Under the doping conditions above, the inclusion of Al was not negligible at the growth temperature of 800 °C and the film composition was expressed as an alloy of α-(Al0.2Ga0.8)2O3, but this film remained as the α-phase at annealing temperatures up to 900 °C. Enhanced thermal stability widens the device process windows, contributing to the formation of various high-performance devices.

  1. Transport-reaction model for defect and carrier behavior within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel Maxwell,

    2014-02-01

    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were chosen through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Charging of the defects can produce high electric fields within the cluster which may influence transport and reaction of carriers and defects, and which may enhance carrier recombination through band-to-trap tunneling. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to pulsed neutron irradiation.

  2. Anomalous thermal expansion in rare-earth gallium perovskites: a comprehensive powder diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senyshyn, A; Trots, D M; Engel, J M; Ehrenberg, H; Fuess, H [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Vasylechko, L [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera Street, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Hansen, T [Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Berkowski, M [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-04-08

    Crystal structures of rare-earth gallium perovskites LaGaO{sub 3}, PrGaO{sub 3}, NdGaO{sub 3} and Pr{sub 1-x}Nd{sub x}GaO{sub 3} (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) solid solutions were investigated in the temperature range 12-300 K by high-resolution powder diffraction using synchrotron or neutron radiation. The previously reported negative thermal expansion in the b direction of the PrGaO{sub 3} lattice has been found to be persistent in Pr{sub 1-x}Nd{sub x}GaO{sub 3} solid solutions and its magnitude has been revealed as proportional to the amount of praseodymium. Evaluation of the obtained temperature evolution of cell dimensions indicated a weak anomalous behaviour of the b lattice parameter in NdGaO{sub 3}, and its origin is supposed to be the same as in PrGaO{sub 3}, i.e. a coupling of the crystal electric field levels with phonon excitations of about 23-25 meV energy. The performed bond length analysis revealed an anomalous behaviour of both LnO{sub 12} (Ln-rare-earth) and GaO{sub 6} coordination polyhedra, which can be a structural manifestation of anomalous thermal expansion in the considered compounds.

  3. [Optical and spectral parameters in Ce3+ -doped gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet glass-ceramics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hua; Zhao, Xin; Yu, Xiao-bo; Setsuhisa, Tanabe; Lin, Hai

    2010-01-01

    The crystalline phases of Ce3+ -doped gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet (GGAG) glass-ceramics were investigated by X-ray diffraction, and the fluorescence spectra were recorded under the pumping of blue light-emitting diode (LED) using an integrating sphere of 10-inch in diameter, which connected to a CCD detector. The spectral power distribution of the glass-ceramics was obtained from the measured spectra first, and then the quantum yield was derived based on the photon distribution. The quantum yield of Ce3+ emission in GGAG glass-ceramics is 29.2%, meanwhile, the color coordinates and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of combined white light were proved to be x = 0.319, y = 0.349 and 6086 K, respectively. Although the quantum yield is a little smaller than the value in Ce3+ -doped YAG glass-ceramics, the CCT of the combined white light is much smaller than that in the latter. The optical behavior of GGAG glass-ceramics provides new vision for developing comfortable LED lighting devices.

  4. Gallium nitride is biocompatible and non-toxic before and after functionalization with peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Scott A; Makowski, Matthew S; Andrews, Benjamin; Manfra, Michael J; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2012-02-01

    The toxicity of semiconductor materials can significantly hinder their use for in vitro and in vivo applications. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a material with remarkable properties, including excellent chemical stability. This work demonstrated that functionalized and etched GaN surfaces were stable in aqueous environments and leached a negligible amount of Ga in solution even in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Also, GaN surfaces in cell culture did not interfere with nearby cell growth, and etched GaN promoted the adhesion of cells compared to etched silicon surfaces. A model peptide, "IKVAV", covalently attached to GaN and silicon surfaces increased the adhesion of PC12 cells. Peptide terminated GaN promoted greater cell spreading and extension of neurites. The results suggest that peptide modified GaN is a biocompatible and non-toxic material that can be used to probe chemical and electrical stimuli associated with neural interfaces. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface Preparation and Deposited Gate Oxides for Gallium Nitride Based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. McIntyre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature on polar Gallium Nitride (GaN surfaces, surface treatments and gate dielectrics relevant to metal oxide semiconductor devices is reviewed. The significance of the GaN growth technique and growth parameters on the properties of GaN epilayers, the ability to modify GaN surface properties using in situ and ex situ processes and progress on the understanding and performance of GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS devices are presented and discussed. Although a reasonably consistent picture is emerging from focused studies on issues covered in each of these topics, future research can achieve a better understanding of the critical oxide-semiconductor interface by probing the connections between these topics. The challenges in analyzing defect concentrations and energies in GaN MOS gate stacks are discussed. Promising gate dielectric deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition, which is already accepted by the semiconductor industry for silicon CMOS device fabrication, coupled with more advanced physical and electrical characterization methods will likely accelerate the pace of learning required to develop future GaN-based MOS technology.

  6. Observation of surface plasmon polariton pumping of optical eigenmodes of gold-decorated gallium nitride nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Jency Pricilla; Bakharev, Pavel; Niraula, Ishwar; Kengne, Blaise Alexis Fouetio; MacPherson, Quinn; Sargent, Meredith; Hare, Brian; McIlroy, David N

    2012-10-10

    The photocurrent of individual gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires decorated with Au nanoparticles as function of the wavelength of light (405 nm (blue), 532 nm (green), and 632.8 nm (red)) and nanowire diameter (80 to 400 nm) is reported. The photocurrent scales with photon energy but oscillates with nanowire diameter. The oscillations are described in terms of the scattering of surface plasmon polaritons into allowed transverse magnetic electromagnetic modes of the nanowire that have maximum intensities in the undepleted region of the nanowire. These oscillations do not occur below a nanowire diameter of ~200 nm due to the depletion layer formed at the Au-GaN interface, which completely depletes the nanowire, that is, there is an insufficient density of carriers that can be excited into the conduction band. On the basis of estimations of the depletion depth and solutions of the Helmholtz equation, the maxima in the photocurrent for d > 200 nm are assigned to the two lowest azimuthally symmetric transverse magnetic eigenmodes: (m = 0, n = 1) and (m = 0, n = 2), which have maximum electric field intensities within the undepleted region of the GaN nanowire. The outcome of this work could have far reaching implications on the development of nanophotonics.

  7. The magneto-optical properties of semiconductors and the band structure of gallium nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Shields, P A

    2001-01-01

    the wells, and observing a resonant phenomenon from an undoped GaN/Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x N single heterojunction. The oscillating peak intensity was understood in terms of the changing screening efficiency of the two-dimensional electron gas. Finally, many-body effects within an electron-hole plasma in ln sub x Al sub y Ga sub 1 sub - sub x sub - sub y As quantum wells have been explored to study the effects of mass renormalisation at carrier densities typically present in laser devices. A peak in the mass renormalisation confirms the importance of excitonic correlations in the excited plasma. This thesis has applied magneto-optical techniques to enable a better understanding of the band structure of gallium nitride, particularly the complex behaviour expected as a result of strong valence band mixing. Effective hole masses are deduced from free excitonic-like transitions observed in magneto-reflectivity, to give a heavy A hole mass of 1.3 m sub o and the first experimental suggestion of a light B ban...

  8. Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon-sik; Brueckner, Eric; Song, Jizhou; Li, Yuhang; Kim, Seok; Lu, Chaofeng; Sulkin, Joshua; Choquette, Kent; Huang, Yonggang; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Properties that can now be achieved with advanced, blue indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) lead to their potential as replacements for existing infrastructure in general illumination, with important implications for efficient use of energy. Further advances in this technology will benefit from reexamination of the modes for incorporating this materials technology into lighting modules that manage light conversion, extraction, and distribution, in ways that minimize adverse thermal effects associated with operation, with packages that exploit the unique aspects of these light sources. We present here ideas in anisotropic etching, microscale device assembly/integration, and module configuration that address these challenges in unconventional ways. Various device demonstrations provide examples of the capabilities, including thin, flexible lighting “tapes” based on patterned phosphors and large collections of small light emitters on plastic substrates. Quantitative modeling and experimental evaluation of heat flow in such structures illustrates one particular, important aspect of their operation: small, distributed LEDs can be passively cooled simply by direct thermal transport through thin-film metallization used for electrical interconnect, providing an enhanced and scalable means to integrate these devices in modules for white light generation. PMID:21666096

  9. Electrosynthesis of bismuth nanodendrites/gallium nitride electrode for non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing-Mei; Zhang, Miao-Rong; Luo, Li-Qiang; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2017-08-15

    Bismuth nanodendrites (BiNDs) were electrodeposited on planar gallium nitride (GaN) electrode via a differential pulse voltammetric technique to fabricate the non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor. SEM images revealed that the as-obtained BiNDs had numerous dendrite sub-branches, whose diameters ranged from 136 to 152nm. The BiNDs/GaN electrode showed linear amperometric responses for H2O2 in the concentration range from 10µM to 1mM with the sensitivity of 60.0μAmM(-1)cm(-2). Another linear range was from 1 to 10mM with the sensitivity of 23.3μAmM(-1)cm(-2). The limit of detection (LOD) was 5µM with the signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The applicability of the sensor was investigated to the H2O2 detection in real samples such as fetal bovine serum and milk, and the sensor exhibited excellent anti-interference capacity. The achieved results indicate that the as-prepared BiNDs/GaN sensor with good reproducibility and long-term stability was promising for detecting H2O2 in practical environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and analysis of vertical-channel gallium nitride (GaN) junctionless nanowire transistors (JNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Hwan Gi; Yoo, Gwan Min; Jo, Young-Woo; Son, Dong-Hyeok; Lee, Jung-Hee; Cho, Eou-Sik; Cho, Seongjae; Kang, In Man

    2014-11-01

    Vertical-channel gallium nitride (GaN) junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT) has been designed and characterized by technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. Various characteristics such as wide bandgap, strong polariztion field, and high electron velocity make GaN one of the attractive materials in advanced electronics in recent times. Nanowire-structured GaN can be applicable to various transistors for enhanced electrical performances by its geometrical feature. In this paper, we analyze the direct-current (DC) characteristics depending on various channel doping concentrations (N(ch)) and nanowire radii (R(NW)). Furthermore, the radio-frequency (RF) characteristics under optimized conditions are extracted by small-signal equivalent circuit modeling. For the optimally designed vertical GaN JNT demonstrated on-state current (I(on)) of 345 μA/μm and off-state current (I(off)) of 3.7 x 10(-18) A/μm with a threshold voltage (V(t)) of 0.22 V, and subthreshold swing (S) of 68 mV/dec. Besides, f(T) and f(max) under different operating conditions (gate voltage, V(GS)) have been obtained.

  11. Two-dimensional gallium nitride realized via graphene encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Balushi, Zakaria Y; Wang, Ke; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Vilá, Rafael A; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Caldwell, Joshua D; Qin, Xiaoye; Lin, Yu-Chuan; DeSario, Paul A; Stone, Greg; Subramanian, Shruti; Paul, Dennis F; Wallace, Robert M; Datta, Suman; Redwing, Joan M; Robinson, Joshua A

    2016-11-01

    The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials 'beyond graphene' offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (∼5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing 2D devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical prediction of 2D nitrides 'beyond hBN' and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 2D gallium nitride (GaN) via a migration-enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate that the atomic structure of 2D GaN grown via MEEG is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct-bandgap (nearly 5.0 eV), 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.

  12. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using gallium nitride-titanium dioxide composite photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin-Rou; Huang, Tzu-Wei; Wang, Tzu-Hui; Tsai, Yu-Chen

    2014-08-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated with gallium nitride-titanium dioxide (GaN-TiO2) composite photoelectrodes to enhance the power conversion efficiency. The value of power conversion efficiency increases with the incorporation of GaN in TiO2 matrix and reaches a maximum at 0.05 wt% GaN. Internal resistance in the DSSC is characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the EIS of electrolyte/dye/GaN-TiO2 interface resistances under illumination and in the dark, a decrease in the charge transfer resistance and an increase in the charge recombination resistance of the DSSCs are obtained after the inclusion of GaN (0.01-0.05 wt%) in the TiO2 matrix. The power conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on the GaN (0.05 wt%)-TiO2 composite photoelectrode is enhanced by ∼61% in comparison with a pristine TiO2 photoelectrode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Electronic properties of blue phosphorene/graphene and blue phosphorene/graphene-like gallium nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minglei; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Yu, Jin; Tang, Wencheng

    2017-07-05

    Blue phosphorene (BlueP) is a graphene-like phosphorus nanosheet which was synthesized very recently for the first time [Nano Lett., 2016, 16, 4903-4908]. The combination of electronic properties of two different two-dimensional materials in an ultrathin van der Waals (vdW) vertical heterostructure has been proved to be an effective approach to the design of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Therefore, we used density functional theory to investigate the structural and electronic properties of two BlueP-based heterostructures - BlueP/graphene (BlueP/G) and BlueP/graphene-like gallium nitride (BlueP/g-GaN). Our results showed that the semiconducting nature of BlueP and the Dirac cone of G are well preserved in the BlueP/G vdW heterostructure. Moreover, by applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to tune the position of the Dirac cone of G with respect to the band edge of BlueP, resulting in the ability to control the Schottky barrier height. For the BlueP/g-GaN vdW heterostructure, BlueP forms an interface with g-GaN with a type-II band alignment, which is a promising feature for unipolar electronic device applications. Furthermore, we discovered that both G and g-GaN can be used as an active layer for BlueP to facilitate charge injection and enhance the device performance.

  14. Gallium Nitride Nanowires and Heterostructures: Toward Color-Tunable and White-Light Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, Tevye R; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Aloni, Shaul

    2015-10-14

    Gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes have enabled the commercialization of efficient solid-state lighting devices. Nonplanar nanomaterial architectures, such as nanowires and nanowire-based heterostructures, have the potential to significantly improve the performance of light-emitting devices through defect reduction, strain relaxation, and increased junction area. In addition, relaxation of internal strain caused by indium incorporation will facilitate pushing the emission wavelength into the red. This could eliminate inefficient phosphor conversion and enable color-tunable emission or white-light emission by combining blue, green, and red sources. Utilizing the waveguiding modes of the individual nanowires will further enhance light emission, and the properties of photonic structures formed by nanowire arrays can be implemented to improve light extraction. Recent advances in synthetic methods leading to better control over GaN and InGaN nanowire synthesis are described along with new concept devices leading to efficient white-light emission. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Photochemical functionalization of gallium nitride thin films with molecular and biomolecular layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heesuk; Colavita, Paula E; Metz, Kevin M; Nichols, Beth M; Sun, Bin; Uhlrich, John; Wang, Xiaoyu; Kuech, Thomas F; Hamers, Robert J

    2006-09-12

    We demonstrate that photochemical functionalization can be used to functionalize and photopattern the surface of gallium nitride crystalline thin films with well-defined molecular and biomolecular layers. GaN(0001) surfaces exposed to a hydrogen plasma will react with organic molecules bearing an alkene (C=C) group when illuminated with 254 nm light. Using a bifunctional molecule with an alkene group at one end and a protected amine group at the other, this process can be used to link the alkene group to the surface, leaving the protected amine exposed. Using a simple contact mask, we demonstrate the ability to directly pattern the spatial distribution of these protected amine groups on the surface with a lateral resolution of <12 mum. After deprotection of the amines, single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides were linked to the surface using a bifunctional cross-linker. Measurements using fluorescently labeled complementary and noncomplementary sequences show that the DNA-modified GaN surfaces exhibit excellent selectivity, while repeated cycles of hybridization and denaturation in urea show good stability. These results demonstrate that photochemical functionalization can be used as an attractive starting point for interfacing molecular and biomolecular systems with GaN and other compound semiconductors.

  16. High quality lamella preparation of gallium nitride compound semiconductor using Triple Beam™ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Nakano, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Torikawa, S.; Nakatani, I.; Kiyohara, M.; Isshiki, T.

    2017-09-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) compound semiconductors have been known to be very sensitive to Ga focused ion beam (FIB) processing. Due to the nature of GaN based materials it is often difficult to produce damage-free lamellae, therefore applying the Triple Beam™ system which incorporates an enhanced method for amorphous removal is presented to make a high quality lamella. The damage or distortion layer thickness of GaN single crystal prepared with 30 kV Ga FIB and 1 kV Ga FIB were about 17 nm and 1.5 nm respectively. The crystallinity at the uppermost surface remained unaffected when the condition of 1 kV Ar ion milling with the Triple Beam™ system was used. The technique of combining traditional Ga FIB processing with an enhanced method for amorphous layer removal by low energy Ar ion milling allows us to analyse the InGaN/GaN interface using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy at atomic resolution levels.

  17. Congruent melting of gallium nitride at 6 GPa and its application to single-crystal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Wataru; Saitoh, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Watanuki, Tetsu; Aoki, Katsutoshi; Shimomura, Osamu

    2003-11-01

    The synthesis of large single crystals of GaN (gallium nitride) is a matter of great importance in optoelectronic devices for blue-light-emitting diodes and lasers. Although high-quality bulk single crystals of GaN suitable for substrates are desired, the standard method of cooling its stoichiometric melt has been unsuccessful for GaN because it decomposes into Ga and N(2) at high temperatures before its melting point. Here we report that applying high pressure completely prevents the decomposition and allows the stoichiometric melting of GaN. At pressures above 6.0 GPa, congruent melting of GaN occurred at about 2,220 degrees C, and decreasing the temperature allowed the GaN melt to crystallize to the original structure, which was confirmed by in situ X-ray diffraction. Single crystals of GaN were formed by cooling the melt slowly under high pressures and were recovered at ambient conditions.

  18. Heat resistive dielectric multi-layer micro-mirror array in epitaxial lateral overgrowth gallium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Yang; Ku, Hao-Min; Liao, Wei-Tsai; Chao, Chu-Li; Tsay, Jenq-Dar; Chao, Shiuh

    2009-03-30

    Ta2O5 / SiO2 dielectric multi-layer micro-mirror array (MMA) with 3mm mirror size and 6mm array period was fabricated on c-plane sapphire substrate. The MMA was subjected to 1200 degrees C high temperature annealing and remained intact with high reflectance in contrast to the continuous multi-layer for which the layers have undergone severe damage by 1200 degrees C annealing. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of gallium nitride (GaN) was applied to the MMA that was deposited on both sapphire and sapphire with 2:56 mm GaN template. The MMA was fully embedded in the ELO GaN and remained intact. The result implies that our MMA is compatible to the high temperature growth environment of GaN and the MMA could be incorporated into the structure of the micro-LED array as a one to one micro backlight reflector, or as the patterned structure on the large area LED for controlling the output light.

  19. Giant piezoelectric size effects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride nanowires. A first principles investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ravi; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2011-02-09

    Nanowires made of materials with noncentrosymmetric crystal structure are under investigation for their piezoelectric properties and suitability as building blocks for next-generation self-powered nanodevices. In this work, we investigate the size dependence of piezoelectric coefficients in nanowires of two such materials - zinc oxide and gallium nitride. Nanowires, oriented along their polar axis, ranging from 0.6 to 2.4 nm in diameter were modeled quantum mechanically. A giant piezoelectric size effect is identified for both GaN and ZnO nanowires. However, GaN exhibits a larger and more extended size dependence than ZnO. The observed size effect is discussed in the context of charge redistribution near the free surfaces leading to changes in local polarization. The study reveals that local changes in polarization and reduction of unit cell volume with respect to bulk values lead to the observed size effect. These results have strong implication in the field of energy harvesting, as piezoelectric voltage output scales with the piezoelectric coefficient.

  20. Surface Preparation and Deposited Gate Oxides for Gallium Nitride Based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rathnait D.; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The literature on polar Gallium Nitride (GaN) surfaces, surface treatments and gate dielectrics relevant to metal oxide semiconductor devices is reviewed. The significance of the GaN growth technique and growth parameters on the properties of GaN epilayers, the ability to modify GaN surface properties using in situ and ex situ processes and progress on the understanding and performance of GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices are presented and discussed. Although a reasonably consistent picture is emerging from focused studies on issues covered in each of these topics, future research can achieve a better understanding of the critical oxide-semiconductor interface by probing the connections between these topics. The challenges in analyzing defect concentrations and energies in GaN MOS gate stacks are discussed. Promising gate dielectric deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition, which is already accepted by the semiconductor industry for silicon CMOS device fabrication, coupled with more advanced physical and electrical characterization methods will likely accelerate the pace of learning required to develop future GaN-based MOS technology.