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Sample records for rural residents trial

  1. Putting "Rural" into Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William A.; Pomerantz, Andrew; Schwartz, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Evidence indicates disparities in the number of psychiatrists practicing in rural America compared to urban areas suggesting the need for a greater emphasis on rural psychiatry in residency training programs. The authors offer suggestions for integrating a rural focus in psychiatry residency training to foster greater competency and…

  2. Attitudes to telehealth use among rural residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2008-01-01

    rural area. Method: A representative sample from the island of Ærø (n=1000) was selected and attitudes toward two telehealth applications were examined by structured telephone interviews regarding: 1) video consultation between patient and specialist, and 2) transfer of work tasks from local hospital....... One prerequisite for successful delivery of health care by means of telehealth is the existence of positive attitudes toward telehealth solutions among the potential end beneficiaries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward telehealth use among residents in a Danish...

  3. The Reported Value of Rural Internal Medicine Residency Electives and Factors That Influence Rural Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christine C.; DeWitt, Dawn E.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 58 medical residents participating in a 1-2 month rural elective and 51 matched nonparticipants found that participants' interest in rural practice increased significantly after the elective. Respondents suggested means to increase rural career choice, barriers to rural practice, and ways of increasing the rural elective's influence on…

  4. Does rural residence impact total ankle arthroplasty utilization and outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Ramachandaran, Rekha

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) utilization and outcomes by patient residence. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2003 to 2011 to compare utilization and outcomes (post-arthroplasty discharge disposition, length of hospitalization, and mortality) by rural vs. urban residence. Ten thousand eight hundred thirty-three patients in urban and 3,324 patients in rural area underwent TAA. Compared to rural residents, urban residents had: lower mean age, 62.4 vs. 61.8 years (p < 0.0001); higher percent of women, 49 vs. 56 % (p = 0.0008); and lower proportion of Whites, 93 vs. 86 % (p = 0.0005). There were rural-urban disparities in TAA utilization in 2003 (0.32 vs. 0.39/100,000; p = 0.021), but not in 2011 (1.19 vs. 1.17/100,00; p = 0.80). TAA outcomes did not differ by rural vs. urban residence: (1) 11.3 % rural vs. 14.2 % urban residents were discharged to an inpatient facility (p = 0.098); (2) length of hospital stay above the median stay, was 44.8 vs. 42.2 % (p = 0.30); and (3) mortality was 0.2 vs. 0.1 %, respectively (p = 0.81). Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models did not show any significant differences in discharge to home, length of stay, or mortality, by residence. Our study demonstrated an absence of any evidence of rural-urban differences in TAA outcomes. The rural-urban differences in TAA utilization noted in 2003 were no longer significant in 2011.

  5. Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania

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    Kurtinaitis Juozas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the cancer mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Lithuania. Methods Cancer mortality has been studied using the materials of the Lithuanian cancer registry. For the period 1993–2004 age-standardized urban and rural population mortality rates (World standard were calculated for all malignant neoplasm's and for stomach, colorectal, lung, prostate, breast and cervical cancers. The annual percentage change (APC was calculated using log-linear regression model, two-sided Mantel-Haenzel test was used to evaluate differences in cancer mortality among rural and urban populations. Results For males in rural population cancer mortality was higher than in urban (212.2 and 197.0 cases per 100000 and for females cancer mortality was higher in urban population (103.5 and 94.2 cases per 100000, p Conclusion This study shows that large rural and urban inequalities in cancer mortality exist in Lithuania. The contrast between the health of residents in urban and rural areas invites researchers for research projects to develop, implement, and enhance cancer prevention and early detection intervention strategies for rural populations.

  6. Quality of Community Life among Rural Residents: An Integrated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, Seongyeon; Cook, Christine C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the relationships among housing satisfaction, community attachment and community satisfaction and the complex mechanisms involved in predicting community satisfaction among residents in rural communities. The role of housing satisfaction and community attachment in predicting community satisfaction was…

  7. Chiropractic Use by Urban and Rural Residents with Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Bonnie K.; Diehr, Paula K.; Grembowski, David E.; Lafferty, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the use of chiropractic care by urban and rural residents in Washington state with musculoskeletal diagnoses, all of whom have insurance coverage for this care. The analyses investigate whether restricting the analyses to insured individuals attenuates previously reported differences in the prevalence of chiropractic use…

  8. Rural Villagers and Urban Residents Exposure to Poultry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection. PMID:24769673

  9. Rural villagers and urban residents exposure to poultry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhibin; Wu, Peng; Ge, Li; Fielding, Richard; Cheng, Xiaowen; Su, Weike; Ye, Min; Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection.

  10. Rural villagers and urban residents exposure to poultry in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Peng

    Full Text Available Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51% in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78% free-range. Around half of those households (40% allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9 and A(H5N1 virus infection.

  11. The Utah Rural Residency Study: A Blueprint for Evaluating Potential Sites for Development of a 4-4-4 Family Practice Residency Program in a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinella, A. Peter; Magill, Michael K.; Thiese, Steven M.; Turner, Deborah; Elison, Gar T.; Baden, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    Criteria were developed for evaluating rural Utah communities as potential sites for rural family practice residencies. Criteria were concerned with community facilities, physicians, numbers of patients, and physician and hospital commitment to teaching residents. Two of the 10 communities evaluated were found to be potentially capable of…

  12. The Income Gap among Rural Residents in Shaanxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the analysis on the current status of the income gap among rural residents in Shaanxi Province,it is found out that the income of rural residents in Shaanxi Province of China is not only lower than the average income level of China,but also far lower than the income level of urban residents and the income level of rural residents in developed areas.The low income is mainly caused by the increasing income gap among income groups and the income gap among rural residents in different areas.Based on this,causations for the income gap among rural residents are analyzed from three aspects of the cultural difference,the regional economic difference,and the industrial structure difference.Countermeasures for narrowing the income gap and increasing the farmers’ income in Shaanxi Province are put forward,such as vigorously developing the rural economy and speeding up the transfer of rural surplus labor forces in China.

  13. Research on Consumption Structure of Rural Residents in Gansu Province Based on ELES Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using cross-section data on consumption structure of rural residents in Gansu Province in 2007 and 2008,this paper adopts ELES model to conduct empirical analysis on consumption structure of rural residents in Gansu Province.It indicates that in the current consumption structure of rural residents in Gansu Province,food expenditure is still at the most important and basic level;the overall consumption level of rural residents in Gansu Province is not high;at present,the consumption of rural residents in Gansu Province still hinges in a large measure on income,vulnerable to the price fluctuation.Consequently,increasing farmers’ income and stabilizing the level of commodity price,turns out to be a foundation as well as an important approach to improve consumption structure of rural residents in Gansu Province.

  14. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences.......The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences....

  15. On the Consumption Structure of Rural Residents in Xi’an City Based on AIDS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuanghong; TANG; Xianli; XIA

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of the financial crisis,expanding domestic demand for stimulating economic role is self-evident. As China has a large rural population,increasing rural residents’ income and expanding their consumer demand is becoming the pinnacle of expanding domestic demand. The urban residents have good conditions than more countryside dwellers. Since few articles are dedicated to the research of this group,this article selects rural residents of Xi’an as object,uses AIDS model to analyze the consumption structure of rural residents,and draw the conclusion that increasing cultural recreation,medical and health spending is the main way to increase their incomes.

  16. Tourist Activity of Senior Citizens (60+ Residing in Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelan Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of place of permanent residence (urban or rural on the tourist activity of senior citizens (60+ of different socioeconomic statuses. The study involved 380 senior citizens (305 female and 75 male aged 60 years and older who were permanent residents of the region of Warmia and Mazury, Poland. In this group, 244 subjects resided in urban areas and 136 participants were rural dwellers. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their socioeconomic status (place of permanent residence, age, gender, educational attainment, financial status, membership in senior organizations, marital status, and professional activity and tourist activity. A significance test of two structure coefficients (α=0.05 was applied. Factors such as gender, professional activity, and marital status were not related with the travel propensity of seniors from different groups (urban and rural, but were significant when rural residents were compared with urban dwellers. Seniors residing in urban areas of Warmia and Mazury, Poland, were significantly more likely to travel for leisure than those residing in rural areas. The tourist activity of seniors decreased significantly (p<0.05 with the age (60-74 years and financial status of rural residents. The travel propensity of elderly people increased significantly (p<0.05 with educational attainment and membership in senior organizations. The study revealed considerable differences in the socioeconomic status and social characteristics of seniors residing in rural and urban areas, and those variations significantly influenced their propensity for travel: urban residents traveled more frequently than rural residents. It can be concluded that place of residence was a crucial factor determining the tourist behavior of senior citizens, and urban dwellers were more likely to travel.

  17. Empirical Study on the Relationship between Income and Consumption of Rural Residents in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the relevant data of the actual income and consumption of rural residents in Hebei Province from 1983 to 2007,the relationship between actual income and consumption of rural residents was tested by applying the co-integration theory and Granger causality test.The result shows that there is long-term stable equilibrium relationship between the net Income per capita and consumption expenditure per capita of rural residents in Hebei Province from 1983 to 2007;the result of Granger causality test shows that the actual Income of rural residents in Hebei Province has significant impact on the actual consumption,but the impact is weakened gradually;in short term,the impact of the actual consumption on the actual income is not so significant,but the impact will become significant gradually as time goes on.During the process of the mutual impact and function of the actual income and consumption of rural residents in Hebei Province,the impact of the actual income of rural residents on the actual consumption is mainly represented in short term;in middle term,the interactions between the actual Income and actual consumption are significant;in long term,the impact of the actual consumption on the actual income is mainly displayed.According to the result,in short term the government in Hebei Province can expand consumption through increasing the income of rural residents,while in long term the government can drive the economic growth by expanding domestic demands.

  18. Herpes simplex virus infections among rural residents in eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV has two types: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both infect epithelial cells and establish latent infections in neurons causing an infection that persists for life. Information on age- and gender-specific seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 is valuable for understanding HSV transmission dynamics and designing population-based prevention and intervention programs for HSV. However, such information is not available for China. Methods Cryopreserved serum samples of all subjects aged 5 to 60 years from two randomly selected rural villages in Zhejiang province in Eastern China who had participated in the China national seroepidemiological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection conducted in 2006 were tested. Seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections were determined by type-specific IgG antibody tests using an ELISA technique. Their 95% confidence intervals adjusted for the sampling fraction were calculated according to the Clopper-Pearson method. Results A total of 2,141 residents participated in the survey, with a response rate of 82.3%. HSV-1 seroprevalence was 92.0% overall, 89.1% for males and 94.2% for females. HSV-1 seroprevalence was 61.6% among children aged 5-9 years, 90.3% among 25-29 years, and nearly 100% among those aged > = 40 years. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 13.2% overall, 10.5% for males and 15.3% for females. No children aged 5-14 years were HSV-2 positive, and HSV-2 seroprevalence was 7.1% among 15-19 years and peaked at 24.3% among those aged 45-49 years. Neither HSV-1 nor HSV-2 infections were significantly different by gender. About 11.8% of study subjects were co-infected with both types of HSV. Among 549 participating couples, 8.6% were HSV-1 serodiscordant and 11.8% were HSV-2 serodiscordant. No one tested positive for HIV. The overall prevalence of HBsAg was 16.2%, 16.9% for males and 15.4% for females. Conclusions HSV-1 was highly prevalent among all rural residents aged between 5-60 years in

  19. Impact of rural residence and health system structure on quality of liver care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Rongey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specialist physician concentration in urban areas can affect access and quality of care for rural patients. As effective drug treatment for hepatitis C (HCV becomes increasingly available, the extent to which rural patients needing HCV specialists face access or quality deficits is unknown. We sought to determine the influence of rural residency on access to HCV specialists and quality of liver care. METHODS: The study used a national cohort of 151,965 Veterans Health Administration (VHA patients with HCV starting in 2005 and followed to 2009. The VHA's constant national benefit structure reduces the impact of insurance as an explanation for observed disparities. Multivariate cox proportion regression models for each quality indicator were performed. RESULTS: Thirty percent of VHA patients with HCV reside in rural and highly rural areas. Compared to urban residents, highly rural (HR 0.70, CI 0.65-0.75 and rural (HR 0.96, CI 0.94-0.97 residents were significantly less likely to access HCV specialty care. The quality indicators were more mixed. While rural residents were less likely to receive HIV screening, there were no significant differences in hepatitis vaccinations, endoscopic variceal and hepatocellular carcinoma screening between the geographic subgroups. Of note, highly rural (HR 1.31, CI 1.14-1.50 and rural residents (HR 1.06, CI 1.02-1.10 were more likely to receive HCV therapy. Of those treated for HCV, a third received therapy from a non-specialist provider. CONCLUSION: Rural patients have less access to HCV specialists, but this does not necessarily translate to quality deficits. The VHA's efforts to improve specialty care access, rural patient behavior and decentralization of HCV therapy beyond specialty providers may explain this contradiction. Lessons learned within the VHA are critical for US healthcare systems restructuring into accountable care organizations that acquire features of integrated systems.

  20. Impact of Rural Residence and Health System Structure on Quality of Liver Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongey, Catherine; Shen, Hui; Hamilton, Nathan; Backus, Lisa I.; Asch, Steve M.; Knight, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background Specialist physician concentration in urban areas can affect access and quality of care for rural patients. As effective drug treatment for hepatitis C (HCV) becomes increasingly available, the extent to which rural patients needing HCV specialists face access or quality deficits is unknown. We sought to determine the influence of rural residency on access to HCV specialists and quality of liver care. Methods The study used a national cohort of 151,965 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with HCV starting in 2005 and followed to 2009. The VHA’s constant national benefit structure reduces the impact of insurance as an explanation for observed disparities. Multivariate cox proportion regression models for each quality indicator were performed. Results Thirty percent of VHA patients with HCV reside in rural and highly rural areas. Compared to urban residents, highly rural (HR 0.70, CI 0.65-0.75) and rural (HR 0.96, CI 0.94-0.97) residents were significantly less likely to access HCV specialty care. The quality indicators were more mixed. While rural residents were less likely to receive HIV screening, there were no significant differences in hepatitis vaccinations, endoscopic variceal and hepatocellular carcinoma screening between the geographic subgroups. Of note, highly rural (HR 1.31, CI 1.14-1.50) and rural residents (HR 1.06, CI 1.02-1.10) were more likely to receive HCV therapy. Of those treated for HCV, a third received therapy from a non-specialist provider. Conclusion Rural patients have less access to HCV specialists, but this does not necessarily translate to quality deficits. The VHA's efforts to improve specialty care access, rural patient behavior and decentralization of HCV therapy beyond specialty providers may explain this contradiction. Lessons learned within the VHA are critical for US healthcare systems restructuring into accountable care organizations that acquire features of integrated systems. PMID:24386420

  1. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences. METHODS: 103 children living in Copenhagen and 101 children living in rural residences of Denmark......, the children excreted on average 0.07 [95% CI: 0.01-0.41] micromol urinary 1-hydroxypyrene per mol creatinine. Children living in urban residences excreted 0.02 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05] micromol more 1-hydroxypyrene than children living in rural residences. This was confirmed in the multiple regression analysis...... showing a 29% (95% CI: 2-64%) higher excretion among urban children than rural children. Moreover, the regression analysis showed that for each hour per day spent outside the children excreted 58% (1.58 [1.22-2.03]) more 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that children...

  2. Comprehensive Evaluation on Consumption Structure of Rural Residents with Principal Component Analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to make analysis on consumption structure of rural residents,the paper makes a principle component analysis on consumption expenditure per capita of rural residents in different areas of 2009 based on statistics of China statistical yearbook of 2010.Selecting a principal component,the paper arranges 31 provinces in China in order.Shanghai lists the 1st place with highest marks;coastal provinces in southeastern part,the Northeast,Beijing and Tianjin are at the top;the northern and central parts with Hebei,Shanxi,Hubei as representatives scores minus which is a little lower than that of average;the western part,such as Guizhou,Xizang,Gansu and so on are in far behind.The paper also makes analysis on the consumption structure of rural residents and proposes suggestions on how to accelerate consumption of rural residents.

  3. Research on the Consumption Function of Rural Residents in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature review,according to relevant consumption data in Hunan Statistical Yearbook and China Statistical Yearbook during1978-2009,the thesis selects three indexes involving the average income per rural resident,per capita living expenses of rural residents and percapita savings to conduct the unit root and co-integration test on the consumption and net income per rural residents in Hunan Province by adoptingthe generalized difference method and EVIEWS6.0,then according to the Modigliani Hypothesis of Consumption,Duesenberry Hypothesis of Con-sumption and Keynes Absolute Income Hypothesis,the thesis makes a fitting of Hunan consumption function model,aiming to find out the consump-tion function model suitable to Hunan Province.The results show that,Keynesian consumption function based on Absolute Income Hypothesis pas-ses the statistical test and econometric test,while the consumption function model based on Relative Income Hypothesis and that based on Life Cy-cle Hypothesis do not,which proves that the consumption function model based on Absolute Income Hypothesis is better suited for describing the re-lations between rural consumption and income in Hunan Province.Taking into account the low marginal propensity of consumption of the rural resi-dents in Hunan Province,the thesis proposes to expand consumption demand of rural residents:firstly,developing characteristic economy and im-proving the income level of rural residents;secondly,perfecting the social security system in rural areas and maintaining the consumption confi-dence of rural residents;thirdly,ameliorating the circulation system.

  4. Seasonal rural residence of Icelandic children Sendur í sveit

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    Jónína Einarsdóttir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research that focuses on children who migrate without a parent or legal guardian is most often carried out in low-income countries. Such migration is increasingly associated with child trafficking. In this article the Icelandic custom to send children to the country during the summer months in the last century will be examined. It is based on secondary documents such as journals, magazines, documents and reports from child protection authorities. The Icelandic population shared the opinion that seasonal rural residence for urban children was beneficial for the nation, the family and the child. In the country, the children would enjoy unspoiled nature, clean mountain air and nutritious food. In addition, they would learn to attend animals and proper work. Individuals, associations, charities and child protection authorities collaborated in an effort to organise rural residence for children during the summer months, either at farms or particular summer camps. Rural residence was considered to be particularly important for delinquent children, but also those who suffered from poverty, irresponsible parental behaviour and poor health. Data is lacking on the number of children sent to the country and their experiences however it is known to have varied greatly. Likewise, little is known about the considerations of the farmers who hosted the children and the children’s parents. This custom is typically per definition child migration without a parent or legal guardian. Care should be taken not to classify such customs routinely as child trafficking wherever they are practiced.Rannsóknir á búferlaflutningi barna til lengri eða skemmri tíma án samfylgdar foreldris eða löggilds forráðamanns beinast oftast að börnum sem flytja úr einum stað í annan innan eða milli lágtekjulanda. Slíkur flutningur er oft bendlaður við mansal. Hér er skoðaður siðurinn að senda íslensk börn í sveit þar sem þau dvöldu að sumri til hjá venslaf

  5. SOS--Satisfied or Stuck, Why Older Rural Residents Stay Put: Aging in Place or Stuck in Place in Rural Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lance D.; Call, Vaughn R. A.; Brown, Ralph B.

    2012-01-01

    As rural communities undergo substantial demographic and economic changes, understanding the migration intentions and their antecedents of rural elderly persons becomes increasingly important. Using data drawn from a survey of adults from 24 rural Utah communities conducted in 2008, we examine whether rural residents 60 years of age or older plan…

  6. Research on the Limit Value of Shape Coefficient of Rural Residences in Severe Cold Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jin; Kai Chen; Teng Shao

    2014-01-01

    Shape coefficient is a significant factor accounting for building energy consumption. In order to decrease the building energy consumption of rural residence in severe cold regions, this paper from the perspective of regulating the shape coefficient limit value, applies the field survey method to statistic and analyze the shape, width and depth of rural residence in severe cold regions and concludes the distribution characteristics and scope of building area. On this basis, though calculating and analyzing the relations between shape coefficient and length-width ratio under different building areas, meanwhile comprehensive considering the building function, farmers’ living mode and requirements etc, it put forward that the shape coefficient of rural residence in severe cold regions should below 0�8. It has important significance for guiding the rural energy-saving house design and construction of severe cold regions.

  7. Urban Residents' Subtle Prejudice towards Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China : The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Adaptation Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huadong; Tian, Lili; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Hofstra, Jacomijn; Wang, Qing

    2010-01-01

    The household registration system (Hukou) implemented by the Chinese government divides the Chinese society into two groups: urban residents and rural residents. Since the 1980s, millions of rural residents have migrated to cities without official permission. In this paper, we investigate urban resi

  8. Suggestions about expanding demands of rural residents of China%从农民消费行为看扩大内需的对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农调总队课题组

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the consumption, save and income of rural residents.The consumption behaviors of rural residents are analyzed. Some suggestions about expanding demands ofrural residents are put forward.

  9. Research and Analysis on Difference in Per Capita Net Income of Chinese Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; XUE; Yeping; ZHU; Huili; YUE

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to understand the variation of difference in per capita net income of rural residents during China’s economic development in recent years. The writer studies and analyzes rural residents’ income gap between 1997 and 2008 with relevant theories of income difference and the calculation of absolute difference index as well as relative difference index and obtains the conclusion that absolute difference of Chinese rural residents’ income experienced an upward trend while relative difference generally remained constant with slight fluctuation and growth, which reflects that rural residents’ income gap is increasing gradually. The writer also puts forward some related proposals and countermeasures.

  10. Physical activity of rurally residing children with a disability: A survey of parents and carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakely, Luke; Langham, Jessica; Johnston, Catherine; Rae, Kym

    2017-06-01

    Children residing in rural areas face unique barriers to physical activity participation. Further, while children with a disability who reside in metropolitan areas face barriers hindering physical activity, rurally residing children with a disability may face the augmented combination of these barriers that could have negative health implications. Parents are often the key advocates for children with disabilities and are likely to have valuable insight into the opportunities and barriers to physical activity for their child. The aim of this study was to investigate parents' perceptions of physical activity opportunities for their child with a disability in a rural area. A mixed method survey examining parent's perceptions of their child's physical activity and possible barriers to participation was mailed to rurally residing parents of children with a disability. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies and proportions. Qualitative data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. There were 34 completed surveys, a response rate of 37%. Participants' responses indicated 74% of children were not meeting daily recommendations of physical activity. Participation barriers including emotional, physical and environmental issues. Three main themes emerged from qualitative data; segregation, access to facilities and resources and barriers specific to the child. The children in this study were from rural areas and face similar barriers to children in metropolitan areas. However, they are also confronted with the same barriers children without a disability in rural areas face, participating in physical activity. This may have detrimental effects on their health and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonlinear Differential Equations and Feedback Control Design for the Urban-Rural Resident Pension Insurance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijian

    2015-12-01

    Facing many problems of the urban-rural resident pension insurance system in China, one should firstly make sure that this system can be optimized. This paper, based on the modern control theory, sets up differential equations as models to describe the urban-rural resident pension insurance system, and discusses the globally asymptotic stability in the sense of Liapunov for the urban-rural resident pension insurance system in the new equilibrium point. This research sets the stage for our further discussion, and it is theoretically important and convenient for optimizing the urban-rural resident pension insurance system.

  12. Overview of Research on Relationship between Income Level and Happiness of Chinese Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By conducting meta-analysis on the researches of relationship between income level and happiness at home and abroad,this paper researches the relationship between income level and happiness.The results show that the relationship between income level and happiness takes on U-shape curve,and it can be explained from adaptation,social comparison and psychological expectation.Finally,in order to promote rural residents’ income level and strengthen rural residents’ happiness in China,corresponding policy suggestions are put forward as follows:bridge gap of urban-rural residents’ income distribution;dilute the competitions for money and status among people;perfect rural social security system;endeavor to create a situation in which all rural residents do their best.

  13. The Artist Residency Program in Eastern Oregon: Emphasizing the Rural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Doug

    During a 1979-1980 pilot project, 13 nine-week residencies by professional artists were sponsored in 10 eastern Oregon school districts with Eastern Oregon State College serving as liaison, the Northwest Area Foundation of St. Paul (Minnesota) contributing $33,500, and participating school districts adding a total of $8,000 in funding. This low…

  14. An Analysis of the Consumer Demand Structure of Rural Residents in Chongqing City in the Context of New Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin; JIA

    2015-01-01

    Using ELES model and econometric methods,in the context of new urbanization,we use the time series data on the consumer spending of rural residents in Chongqing City to perform an empirical analysis of the consumer demand structure of rural residents,reveal the characteristics,differences and changes concerning the consumption structure of rural residents in Chongqing City,and set forth some policy recommendations such as carrying out the new rural construction,optimizing the consumption structure,establishing sound social security system and income growth mechanism,and stabilizing the price level.

  15. Ageing-Related Experiences of Adults with Learning Disability Resident in Rural Areas: One Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…

  16. Ageing-Related Experiences of Adults with Learning Disability Resident in Rural Areas: One Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…

  17. Rural resident income spatial-temporal variations for Guizhou Province using GIS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Feng, Qian; Zhang, Wenzhuan

    2015-12-01

    Based on the spatial autocorrelation (SA) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, the spatial differences of the rural economic development level was investigated by adopting the rural resident income data in Guizhou Province from 2009 to 2013. The results of global Moran's I value for rural resident income at county level showed that there existed significant positive spatial autocorrelation and significant spatial aggregation in the spatial distribution of rural resident income. However, the global Moran's I value showed the increasing trend during 2009 to 2013, indicating an enlarged spatial disparity of rural economy in Guizhou. The results of the local indicators of spatial association(LISA) cluster maps of 2009 and 2013 showed that most of counties were characterized by positive local spatial association , ie. They were located in the HH or the LL region. The significant HH counties were mostly to be found in the middle part of Guizhou. The significant LL counties were found in the Wuchuan county and Zhenfeng county, northwest and southwest of Guizhou.

  18. Antidepressant treatment of depression in rural nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Cindy Sullivan; Dyck, Mary J; Culp, Kennith R; Buckwalter, Kathleen

    2008-09-01

    Under-diagnosis and under-treatment of depression are major problems in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to determine antidepressant use among nursing home residents who were diagnosed with depression using three different methods: (1) the Geriatric Depression Scale, (2) Minimum Data Set, and (3) primary care provider assessments. As one would expect, the odds of being treated with an antidepressant were about eight times higher for those diagnosed as depressed by the primary care provider compared to the Geriatric Depression Scale or the Minimum Data Set. Men were less likely to be diagnosed and treated with antidepressants by their primary care provider than women. Depression detected by nurses through the Minimum Data Set was treated at a lower rate with antidepressants, which generates issues related to interprofessional communication, nursing staff communication, and the need for geropsychiatric role models in nursing homes.

  19. Impact of Natural Disasters on Livelihood Resilience of Sichuan Rural Residents and Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Livelihood resilience is defined as the capacity of all people across generations to sustain and improve their livelihood opportunities and well-being despite environmental, economic, social and political disturbances. Livelihood resilience has become a popular research and policy concept in the context of climate change. In this paper, we employ the structural dynamics method to describe livelihood resilience of Sichuan rural residents based on four components of livelihood quality, livelihood promotion, livelihood provision, and natural disasters pressure. Results indicate that: (i) The livelihood resilience of rural residents was significantly positively correlated with livelihood quality, livelihood promotion and livelihood provision, but there was a strong negative correlation with the natural disaster pressure. In the past 30 years, both livelihood promotion and livelihood provision declined, and the increase in disasters pressure offset the significant increase in the quality of livelihoods in Sichuan Province. The change curve of the livelihood resilience of rural residents showed the characteristics of first rising and then descending. (ii) The impact of different natural disasters on the resilience of livelihood is different. The contribution rates of earthquake, drought and flood disaster to the resilience of livelihood were -0.9 percent, -0.8 percent, and -0.3percent respectively. Due to the fact that the research area is not divided into earthquake-stricken area, non-earthquake-stricken area, heavy stricken area and light stricken area, to a certain extent, this has weakened the negative effect of earthquake disaster on the livelihood resilience of rural residents. (iii) From central government perspective, the reform of income distribution, tax system, and to change the reality of the income growth of rural residents behind national economic development are shown to be associated with highly significant and positive impact on livelihood resilience of

  20. Relationships among sense of coherence, resources, and mental health in urban and rural residents in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuno Yoko Sumikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salutogenic model states that coping resources are defined within sociocultural and historical contexts and that various social and historical factors influence the availability of such resources. Though previous studies have suggested the need for an interregional comparison of psychological and social resources, few studies have undertaken such an investigation. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations among coping resources, sense of coherence (SOC, and health status in a comparison of urban and rural residents. Methods General residents (aged 30–69 years in two areas were targeted for the current study. Through a random sampling selection, 1,000 residents from each area were picked, and an anonymous questionnaire was mailed to each resident. Ultimately, 269 and 363 valid responses from the urban and rural areas, respectively, were analyzed. SOC, both social and psychological resources, and mental health were assessed. To examine relationships between SOC and resources associated with mental health, mental health was defined as a dependent variable. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted with variables entered from sociodemographic characteristics, social and psychological resources, and SOC. Results Regarding regional characteristics, social capital and participation in community activities were significantly greater in the rural area than in the urban area. Urban residents reported significantly higher self-esteem and optimism than rural residents. SOC showed the most significant association with mental health in both areas. Mental health was significantly associated with physical activity limitations and life stressors in both areas. However, the associations were weakened when social and psychological resources and SOC were added, which demonstrated their buffering effect on the negative influence of life stressors on health. When SOC was added, the association of self-esteem with mental

  1. Evaluation System for Farmers’ Satisfaction Degree in the Green Energy Saving Rebuilding of Rural Residence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In view of the present situation of measuring a green residence just by energy saving and environmental protection,we propose that we should build the rural residence more from the farmer’s view and set up an evaluation system based on farmers satisfaction.A total of 16 factors affecting the farmers’ satisfaction degree of green energy saving rebuilding of rural residence are selected.Questionnaire survey on 110 peasant households is carried out under different situations in Guanzhong region in Shaanxi Province,so as to obtain the importance score of evaluation index.During constructing the evaluation system for farmers’ satisfaction degree,Factor Analysis Method is used to classify the related influencing factors.Subjective analysis of Analytic Hierarchy Process and the objective analysis of Factor Analysis Method are combined together to determine the weights of factors at different grades.Then,the final evaluation model is obtained,which provides guidance for the further green energy saving rebuilding of rural residence in China.

  2. Environmental Perceptions of Rural South African Residents: The Complex Nature of Environmental Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M.; Strife, Susie; Twine, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The state of the local environment shapes the well-being of millions of rural residents in developing nations. Still, we know little of these individuals’ environmental perceptions. This study analyzes survey data collected in an impoverished, rural region in northeast South Africa, to understand the factors that shape concern with local environmental issues. We use the “post-materialist thesis” to explore the different explanations for environmental concern in less developed regions of the world, with results revealing the importance of both cultural and physical context. In particular, gendered interaction with natural resources shapes perceptions, as does the local setting. Both theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:20514147

  3. Environmental Perceptions of Rural South African Residents: The Complex Nature of Environmental Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M; Strife, Susie; Twine, Wayne

    2010-06-01

    The state of the local environment shapes the well-being of millions of rural residents in developing nations. Still, we know little of these individuals' environmental perceptions. This study analyzes survey data collected in an impoverished, rural region in northeast South Africa, to understand the factors that shape concern with local environmental issues. We use the "post-materialist thesis" to explore the different explanations for environmental concern in less developed regions of the world, with results revealing the importance of both cultural and physical context. In particular, gendered interaction with natural resources shapes perceptions, as does the local setting. Both theoretical and policy implications are discussed.

  4. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    P. Johnelle Sparks; Sparks, Corey S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...

  5. Externally-resident daughters, social capital, and support for the elderly in rural Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Geoff; Goldstein, Melvyn C; Wangdui, Puchung

    2011-03-01

    This paper focuses on assistance that externally-resident daughters provide for their aging parents in rural Tibet, China, to challenge the notion that rapid modernization invariably threatens family-based care systems for the elderly. The authors discuss social and economic changes associated with modernization that have created new opportunities for parents to send daughters out of their natal households in ways that can benefit them in old age. By investing in a daughter's education so she can secure salaried employment, or by helping a daughter establish a small business so she can earn an independent livelihood, the authors demonstrate how some externally-resident daughters represent a novel form of social capital that parents can draw on for social support. Daughters with income and freedom from extended family obligations are now providing elderly parents with (1) leverage against co-resident children who do not treat them well, (2) temporary places of refuge from ill-treatment at home, (3) caretaking services and financial support when they require hospitalization, and (4) financial resources independent of their household which they can use to pursue age-appropriate activities like pilgrimage. The authors conclude that this new form of social capital vested in externally-resident daughters is having a positive impact on the lives of the elderly in rural Tibet.

  6. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Johnelle Sparks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults were obese in 2006 and that the odds of being obese were strongly associated with an individual's socioeconomic position, gender, place of residence, and the level of marginalization (areal deprivation in the place of residence. Surprisingly, areas of the country where areal deprivation was highest had lower risks of individual obesity outcomes. We suggest that programs oriented towards addressing the health benefits of traditional food systems over high-energy dense refined foods and sugary beverages be promoted as part of a public health program aimed at curbing the rising obesity prevalence in Mexico.

  7. An Analysis on the Disparity of the Private Investment in Human Capital between Urban and Rural Residents in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The constant growth of human capital is the essential force of Economic growth. The deep research on private investment in urban and rural human capital in Guangxi is necessary for developing economy and narrowing urban-rural gap. Through the analysis on the historic statistics, it is found that there were disparities total quantity and investment structure of private investment in human capital of urban and rural residents. By using the ELES model, the marginal investment trend, investment demand, elastic income, own-price elasticity and mutual-price elasticity of private investment in human capital of urban and rural residents are analyzed. It is pointed out that income is the key factor that affects the private investment in human capital of urban and rural residents. In Guangxi, the private investment and marginal investment in human capital of urban and township residents are higher than that of rural residents;the own-price elasticity and mutual price elasticity of rural residents’ private investment in human capital are all higher than that of urban residents’.

  8. Aerial ULV application of Dibrom against Aedes aegypti in simulated urban and rural residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaching endophilic Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors of dengue located in human residences with aerial ULV pesticide applications is a prominent complication in operational wide area public health mosquito control activities. We conducted separate trials with a military C-130 fixed wing aircraft fitte...

  9. Efficacy and effectiveness as aspects of cluster randomized trials with nursing home residents: Methodological insights from a pneumonia prevention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Peduzzi, Peter N.; Quagliarello, Vincent J.

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses how methodological aspects of study efficacy and effectiveness combine in cluster randomized trials in nursing homes. Discussion focuses on the relationships between these study aspects in the Pneumonia Reduction in Institutionalized Disabled Elders (PRIDE) trial, an ongoing cluster randomized clinical trial of pneumonia prevention among nursing home residents launched in October 2009 in Greater New Haven, Connecticut. This clinical trial has enrolled long-term care nurs...

  10. A cross-sectional comparison study on the iodine nutritional status between rural and urban residents in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Mo, Zhe; Zhu, Wenming; Mao, Guangming

    2014-06-26

    To evaluate the difference of iodine nutritional status between rural and urban residents under the universal salt iodisation policy. A multistage cluster sampling technique was employed in the present cross-sectional study. In total, 3300 rural and 3300 urban households were selected where the investigation was conducted. A total of 8553 rural and 8909 urban residents participated in this provincial survey. Spot urine samples were collected and the iodine concentration in urine was determined by the modified acid-digestion method. The median urinary iodine concentration of rural residents was 170.1 μg/L, which was higher than that of urban residents with 153.5 μg/L. For school-aged children, middle-aged people and older people, the median urinary iodine concentration of rural residents was 191.2, 160.2 and 154.0 μg/L, respectively, which was higher than that of urban residents with 166.2, 153.8 and 129.5 μg/L, respectively. Risk factors for urinary concentration of rural residents were age (OR=0.99), terrain (OR=0.83), usual intake of pickled products (OR=1.45) and non-iodised salt intake (OR=0.39), while those for urban residents were age (OR=0.99), terrain (OR=0.83), usual intake of aquatic products (OR=1.24) and non-iodised salt intake (OR=0.27) compared with iodised table salt intake. The median urinary iodine concentration of rural residents was higher than that of urban residents although they were both falls in optimal iodine status as recommended by WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Iodised salt intake is the major factor which influences the iodine nutritional status mostly for rural and urban residents. The ongoing monitoring of population iodine status remains crucially important. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Personal inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro-derivatives in rural residents in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakij, Walaiporn; Chetiyanukornkul, Thaneeya; Chuesaard, Thanyarat; Kaganoi, Yuichi; Uozaki, Waka; Homma, Chiharu; Boongla, Yaowatat; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2017-09-18

    A personal inhalation exposure and cancer risk assessment of rural residents in Lampang, Thailand, was conducted for the first time. This highlighted important factors that may be associated with the highest areal incidence of lung cancer. Personal exposure of rural residents to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro-derivatives (NPAHs) through inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated in addition to stationary air sampling in an urban area. The personal exposure of the subjects to PM2.5 ranged from 44.4 to 316 μg/m(3), and the concentrations of PAHs (4.2-224 ng/m(3)) and NPAHs (120-1449 pg/m(3)) were higher than those at the urban site, indicating that personal exposure was affected by microenvironments through individual activities. The smoking behaviors of the rural residents barely affected their exposure to PAHs and NPAHs compared to other sources. The most important factor concerning the exposure of rural populations to PAHs was cooking activity, especially the use of charcoal open fires. The emission sources for rural residents and urban air were evaluated using diagnostic ratios, 1-nitropyrene/pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene/benzo[ghi]perylene. Their analyses showed a significant contribution to emission from residents' personal activities in addition to the atmospheric environment. Furthermore, the personal inhalation cancer risks for all rural subjects exceeded the USEPA guideline value, suggesting that the residents have a potentially increased cancer risk. The use of open fires showed the highest cancer risk. A reduction in exposure to air pollutants for the residents could potentially be achieved by using clean fuel such as liquid petroleum gas or electricity for daily cooking.

  12. Accessing doctors at times of need-measuring the distance tolerance of rural residents for health-related travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew Richard; Humphreys, John Stirling; Ward, Bernadette

    2015-05-29

    Poor access to doctors at times of need remains a significant impediment to achieving good health for many rural residents. The two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method has emerged as a key tool for measuring healthcare access in rural areas. However, the choice of catchment size, a key component of the 2SFCA method, is problematic because little is known about the distance tolerance of rural residents for health-related travel. Our study sought new evidence to test the hypothesis that residents of sparsely settled rural areas are prepared to travel further than residents of closely settled rural areas when accessing primary health care at times of need. A questionnaire survey of residents in five small rural communities of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia was used. The two outcome measures were current travel time to visit their usual doctor and maximum time prepared to travel to visit a doctor, both for non-emergency care. Kaplan-Meier charts were used to compare the association between increased distance and decreased travel propensity for closely-settled and sparsely-settled areas, and ordinal multivariate regression models tested significance after controlling for health-related travel moderating factors and town clustering. A total of 1079 questionnaires were completed with 363 from residents in closely-settled locations and 716 from residents in sparsely-settled areas. Residents of sparsely-settled communities travel, on average, 10 min further than residents of closely-settled communities (26.3 vs 16.9 min, p time prepared to travel (54.1 vs 31.9 min, p time remained significant after controlling for demographic and other constraints to access, such as transport availability or difficulties getting doctor appointments, as well as after controlling for town clustering and current travel times. Improved geographical access remains a key issue underpinning health policies designed to improve the provision of rural primary health care

  13. Awareness, knowledge, and practice: A survey of glaucoma in north Indian rural residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Rewri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies done on the prevalence of glaucoma have reported a high proportion of undiagnosed patients. Late diagnosis is related to increased risk of glaucoma associated with visual disability. Lack of awareness and non-availability of appropriate screening procedures are among the major reasons for non-diagnosis or late diagnosis of glaucoma. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the level of awareness about glaucoma among the North Indian rural population. Materials and Methods: A group-administered, questionnaire-based survey, involving 5000 rural residents (aged 20 and above was conducted through random sampling. The questionnaire was structured to evaluate the level of awareness and knowledge about glaucoma and the effect of gender, education status, and glaucoma diagnosis was also studied. The source of awareness about glaucoma was also questioned. Results: Of the 5000 individuals enrolled for the survey, responses from 4927 (98.5%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 98.2 - 98.9 participants, including 3104 males (63%; 95% CI: 61.7 - 64.3 and 1823 females (37%; 95% CI: 35.7 - 38.3 were evaluated. A total of 409 (~8.3%; 95% CI: 7.6 - 9.14 respondents were aware about glaucoma and only 93 (1.89%; 95% CI: 1.55 - 2.31 were qualified as having knowledge about glaucoma as per the set questionnaire. Education was the only variable significantly correlated (P value < 0.001 with the awareness and knowledge of glaucoma out of the parameters included in this study. Close acquaintance with a glaucoma patient was the most common source of information. Conclusions: There is a lack of awareness about glaucoma among the rural residents of North India. The study findings stress the need to spread awareness about glaucoma for prevention of glaucoma-related blindness.

  14. Effect of rural residence on use of VHA mental health care among OEF/OIF veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Teresa J; Fortney, John C; Williams, James Silas; Austen, Mark A; Pope, Sandra K; Hayes, Corey J

    2014-12-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has worked to increase availability of mental health treatment for rural veterans. The objective was to understand the impact of rural residence on screening for, diagnosis of, and treatment for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) using VHA care. A cohort of veterans from a five-state region was identified whose first VHA clinic visit occurred between January 1, 2008, and March 17, 2009. The cohort was retrospectively followed for three months to identify a cohort who used VHA care at least twice. The sample included 4,782 OEF/OIF veterans known to be using VHA care; mean age was 31 years (range 18-64); most were male (88%). Screening rates were 85% for depression and 84% for PTSD. Compared with veterans in small or isolated rural towns, those in urban areas were less likely to be diagnosed as having PTSD (odds ratio [OR]=.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]=.66-.95, p<.05) and less likely to receive psychotropic medications (OR=.52, CI=.33-.79, p<.01) or psychotherapy (OR=.61, CI=.40-.94, p<.05) for PTSD. Veterans living in urban areas were also less likely to receive antidepressants (OR=.56, CI=.32-.98, p<.05) or psychotherapy (OR=.61, CI=.40-.93, p<.05) for treatment of depression. Among veterans who used VHA care at least twice, those living in urban areas were less likely than those living in rural areas to receive diagnoses of and treatment for PTSD and depression.

  15. Evidence-based medicine training during residency: a randomized controlled trial of efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been widely integrated into residency curricula, although results of randomized controlled trials and long term outcomes of EBM educational interventions are lacking. We sought to determine if an EBM workshop improved internal medicine residents' EBM knowledge and skills and use of secondary evidence resources. Methods This randomized controlled trial included 48 internal medicine residents at an academic medical center. Twenty-three residents were randomized to attend a 4-hour interactive workshop in their PGY-2 year. All residents completed a 25-item EBM knowledge and skills test and a self-reported survey of literature searching and resource usage in their PGY-1, PGY-2, and PGY-3 years. Results There was no difference in mean EBM test scores between the workshop and control groups at PGY-2 or PGY-3. However, mean EBM test scores significantly increased over time for both groups in PGY-2 and PGY-3. Literature searches, and resource usage also increased significantly in both groups after the PGY-1 year. Conclusions We were unable to detect a difference in EBM knowledge between residents who did and did not participate in our workshop. Significant improvement over time in EBM scores, however, suggests EBM skills were learned during residency. Future rigorous studies should determine the best methods for improving residents' EBM skills as well as their ability to apply evidence during clinical practice. PMID:20807453

  16. Promoting the Congregate Meal Program to the Next Generation of Rural-Residing Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Kara A; Francis, Sarah L; Margrett, Jennifer A; Peterson, Marc; Franke, Warren D

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing older adult population, Iowa Congregate Meal Program (CMP) participation has declined. Motivators and barriers to congregate mealsite participation and wellness programming preferences of baby boomers and older adults were examined to provide insight to how to revise and better promote the CMP for the next generation of older adults. Four focus group sessions were conducted with 27 primarily White, rural-residing adults, ages 48-88 years. Participation motivators included educational programs, food, and socialization while barriers included negative perceptions and stereotypes associated with congregate mealsites. Desired wellness programs were viewed as interactive and relevant. Healthcare was the leading wellness need with financial management and physical activity cited as the most-wanted topics of wellness programs. These results provide insight on factors, aside from funding, that may be adversely impacting CMP participation and identifies areas for further investigation.

  17. Efficacy and effectiveness as aspects of cluster randomized trials with nursing home residents: methodological insights from a pneumonia prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ness, Peter H; Peduzzi, Peter N; Quagliarello, Vincent J

    2012-11-01

    This report discusses how methodological aspects of study efficacy and effectiveness combine in cluster randomized trials in nursing homes. Discussion focuses on the relationships between these study aspects in the Pneumonia Reduction in Institutionalized Disabled Elders (PRIDE) trial, an ongoing cluster randomized clinical trial of pneumonia prevention among nursing home residents launched in October 2009 in Greater New Haven, Connecticut. This clinical trial has enrolled long-term care nursing home residents, over 65years in age, who have either inadequate oral care or swallowing difficulty, previously identified risk factors for pneumonia. It has used a multicomponent intervention consisting of manual tooth/gum brushing, 0.12% chlorhexidine oral rinse administered twice daily by nurses, and upright feeding positioning at meals to reduce rates of radiographically documented pneumonia. Cluster randomization is attractive for nursing home intervention studies because physical proximity and administrative arrangements make it difficult to deliver different interventions to residents of the same nursing home. Implementing an intervention in an entire home requires integration into the daily life of residents and into the administrative procedures of the nursing home. This characteristic of nursing home cluster randomized trials makes them approximate "real-world" research contexts, but implementation can be challenging. The PRIDE trial of pneumonia prevention utilized specific methodological choices that include both efficacy and effectiveness elements. Cluster randomized trials in nursing homes having elements of both efficacy and effectiveness (i.e., hybrid designs) can address some of the methodological challenges of conducting clinical research in nursing homes; they have distinctive advantages and some limitations.

  18. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271 were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  19. Geographic information systems and chronic kidney disease: racial disparities, rural residence and forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rudolph A; Hotchkiss, John R; O'Hare, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of health and health care provision in the United States vary substantially across regions, and there is substantial regional heterogeneity in population density, age distribution, disease prevalence, race and ethnicity, poverty and the ability to access care. Geocoding and geographic information systems (GIS) are important tools to link patient or population location to information regarding these characteristics. In this review, we provide an overview of basic GIS concepts and provide examples to illustrate how GIS techniques have been applied to the study of kidney disease, and in particular to understanding the interplay between race, poverty, rural residence and the planning of renal services for this population. The interplay of socioeconomic status and renal disease outcomes remains an important area for investigation and recent publications have explored this relationship utilizing GIS techniques to incorporate measures of socioeconomic status and racial composition of neighborhoods. In addition, there are many potential challenges in providing care to rural patients with chronic kidney disease including long travel times and sparse renal services such as transplant and dialysis centers. Geospatially fluent analytic approaches can also inform system level analyses of health care systems and these approaches can be applied to identify an optimal distribution of dialysis facilities. GIS analysis could help untangle the complex interplay between geography, socioeconomic status, and racial disparities in chronic kidney disease, and could inform policy decisions and resource allocation as the population ages and the prevalence of renal disease increases.

  20. Urinary Concentrations of Toxic and Essential Trace Elements among Rural Residents in Hainan Island, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Inoue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic element exposure and essential trace element consumption may have changed after the Chinese economy transformed to a market-oriented system. The objectives of this study were to measure urinary concentrations of toxic (arsenic, cadmium, lead and essential trace (selenium, zinc, copper elements among rural residents in Hainan, China and to examine if variations in economic development are linked to differences in toxic and trace element exposure. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey and undertook anthropometric measurements of residents aged ≥20 years (n = 599. Urinary samples were collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The median (μg/g creatinine element concentrations were: arsenic, 73.2; cadmium, 1.8; lead, 3.1; selenium, 36.5; zinc, 371; and copper, 11.0. Intra-community variation in element concentrations was explained by age (arsenic, cadmium, zinc and copper, sex (arsenic, cadmium and selenium: higher in females; zinc: higher in males, body mass index (cadmium and individual involvement in the market economy as indexed by agrochemical use (lead and selenium. The degree of community-level economic development, which was determined by the proportion of people living in better housing among the study communities, was positively associated with cadmium concentration. Conclusions: The degree of community-level economic development was positively associated with urinary cadmium concentration while individual involvement in the market economy was positively associated with lead and selenium.

  1. Cross-sectional survey on the acceptability of suicide among rural residents, urban residents and college students from three locations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianyun; Phillips, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Community attitudes about suicide and their relationship to suicidal behavior have not been adequately investigated in low- and middle-income countries. Aims Compare acceptability of suicide in different population cohorts in China, identify factors that affect the degree of acceptability, and assess the relationship of cohort-specific acceptability of suicide and suicide rates. Methods A multi-stage stratified random sample of 608 rural residents, 582 urban residents and 629 college students were administered a 25-item scale in which respondents stated the likelihood they would consider suicide (on a 5-point Likert scale) if they experienced a variety of stressors ranging from ‘being disciplined at work’ to ‘developing a chronic mental illness’. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the scale are excellent (Cronbach’s α =0.92, ICC=0.75). Results College students had the most permissive attitudes about suicide and urban residents were significantly more accepting of suicide as a response to serious life stressors than rural residents. Multivariate analysis found that the overall acceptability score was higher in women, decreased with age, and increased with years of education. Conclusions There was no clear relationship between cohort-specific acceptance of suicide and reported rates of suicide, highlighting the complexity of the relationship between attitudes about suicide (of which acceptability is only one component) and suicidal behavior. PMID:20801748

  2. Super Network on the Prairie The Discursive Framing of Broadband Connectivity by Policy Planners and Rural Residents in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bakardjieva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the case of the SuperNet, an infrastructure project designed and sponsored by the provincial government of Alberta, Canada with the objective of providing broadband connectivity to public facilities, businesses and residences in rural communities. The data were collected through individual interviews, focus groups, and town hall meetings in the course of a collaborative research initiative (The SuperNet Research Alliance that investigated the social construction of the broadband network from multiple perspectives. The objective of the paper is to examine in parallel the discourses in which the concept of broadband connectivity acquired meaning and substance at the levels of 1 provincial government and industry policy planners and 2 the residents of the rural communities who were the intended beneficiaries of the SuperNet. Using actor-network theory as a departure point, this analysis takes stock of the framing devices employed in the two sets of discourses and of the distinctive worldviews that generated them. It looks for the meeting points and the disjunctions between the grand visions and the grounded projections underlying the positions taken by the two respective categories of actors. Differences in the interpretation and appropriation of broadband among rural Albertans themselves are discerned and related to social factors characterizing different situations within rural areas. Rural broadband connectivity thus emerges not so much as a one-dimensional access equalizer for rural people, but as a complex mediator of opportunity, participation and identity.

  3. Trials and Triumph: Lesbian and Gay Young Adults Raised in a Rural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie L. Dahl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rural context at times is characterized by heteronormativity and conservatism. For individuals who identify as a sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and/or queer, the rural context may pose particular challenges to the development of a healthy, coherent sense of self. Seven young adults (18–24 who identified as gay or lesbian participated in in-depth interviews regarding their experiences coming out in a rural Appalachian context. Findings suggest sexual minority individuals experience both trials and triumphs coming out in the rural context. Two overarching themes and six subthemes are discussed with implications for supporting sexual minority youth in the rural context.

  4. Ranking and Clustering of the Economic Status of Rural Residents in 31 Provinces and Regions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to rank and cluster the economic status of rural residents in 31 provinces, cities and autonomous regions, the MATLAB software is used and the component analysis and the cluster analysis are conducted on the data reflecting the economic status of each area. The results show that the provinces or cities with high comprehensive , scores are Shanghai Municipality, Beijing Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Jiangsu Province, Tianjin Municipality, Guangdong Province, Fujian Province, Shandong Province and Liaoning Province according to priority; the provinces or autonomous regions with low comprehensive scores are Gansu Province, Guizhou Province , Tibet, Uygur autonomous region and Yunnan Province. The economic status of rural residents in the 31 provinces and autonomous regions are partly parallel with the comprehensive economic development. The improvement of the economic status of rural residents is helpful for the overall economic elevation. Therefore, the government should coordinate the economic development of urban and rural areas, industry and agricultural, developed region and undeveloped region, and coastal areas and central and western areas to maximize the social welfare of the whole nation.

  5. Validating a standardized laparoscopy curriculum for gynecology residents: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Eliane M; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Husslein, Heinrich; Shirreff, Lindsay; Dedy, Nicolas J; McDermott, Colleen D; Lefebvre, Guylaine G

    2016-08-01

    Residency programs struggle with integrating simulation training into curricula, despite evidence that simulation leads to improved operating room performance and patient outcomes. Currently, there is no standardized laparoscopic training program available for gynecology residents. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a comprehensive ex vivo training curriculum for gynecologic laparoscopy. In a prospective, single-blinded randomized controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I) postgraduate year 1 and 2 gynecology residents were allocated randomly to receive either conventional residency training or an evidence-based laparoscopy curriculum. The 7-week curriculum consisted of cognitive didactic and interactive sessions, low-fidelity box trainer and high-fidelity virtual reality simulator technical skills, and high-fidelity team simulation. The primary outcome measure was the technical procedure score at laparoscopic salpingectomy with the use of the objective structured assessment of laparoscopic salpingectomy tool. Secondary outcome measures related to performance in multiple-choice questions and technical performance at box trainer and virtual reality simulator tasks. A sample size of 10 residents per group was planned (n = 20). Results are reported as medians (interquartile ranges), and data were compared between groups with the Mann-Whitney U, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests (P ≤ .05). In July 2013, 27 residents were assigned randomly (14 curriculum, 13 conventional). Both groups were similar at baseline. Twenty-one residents (10 curriculum, 11 conventional) completed the surgical procedure-based assessment in the operating room (September to December 2013). Our primary outcome indicated that curriculum-trained residents displayed superior performance at laparoscopic salpingectomy (P = .043). Secondary outcomes demonstrated that curriculum-trained residents had higher performance scores on the cognitive multiple

  6. Use of Desirable Dietary Pattern (DDP) for Study of Dietary Pattern in Urban and Rural Residents of Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿楠; 刘沛; 韦平; 胥占中

    2001-01-01

    Objective To make retrospective assessment of the quality of diet in the urban and rural residents of Jiangsu province, China, during the 1990′s and a prospective study of the dietary pattern in the year of 2010 with desirable dietary pattern (DDP). Methods The calorie intake was calculated according to the method of balanced diet and the dietary pattern was assessed in terms of DDP score. Results Retrospective study revealed that the DDP score of cereals was decreased and that of animal foods increased remarkably in both the urban and rural residents during the decade. Prospective study showed that the readjustment of dietary structure for the urban residents should be focused on preventing the drop of cereal consumption and further lowering the intake of pork. Promotion of soybean and milk consumption to great extents will be needed to improve the quality of diet for both urban and rural residents of Jiangsu in the future. Conclusion It was illustrated that DDP is feasible for retrospective and prospective studies on dietary pattern as it is simple in calculation, its results are easy to understand and of practical significance to the masses and health workers.

  7. How Should Surgical Residents Be Educated About Patient Safety: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Luke R; Pham, Dean H; Ostovar-Kermani, Tiffany G; Alawadi, Zeinab M; Etchegaray, Jason M; Ottosen, Madelene J; Thomas, Eric J; Lesslie, Donald P; Kao, Lillian S; Lally, Kevin P; Tsao, KuoJen

    2016-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandates patient safety education without specific curricular guidelines. We hypothesized that a dedicated, adjunctive resident safety workshop (SW) led by surgical faculty compared with an online curriculum (OC) for hospital personnel alone would improve residents' patient safety perceptions and behaviors. A pilot randomized controlled trial was performed from 2014 to 2015 within a university-based general surgery residency. Control and intervention groups, stratified by postgraduate year, participated in a hospital-based OC; the intervention group participated in an additional SW. Primary outcomes were perceptions of safety culture, teamwork, and speaking up as per the validated safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) at 6 and 12 months postintervention. Secondary outcomes included behavioral scores from blinded surgical faculty using the Oxford NonTechnical Skills scale. A total of 51 residents were enrolled (control = 25, intervention = 26). SAQ response rates were 100%, 100%, and 76% at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively. SAQ scores were similar at baseline between groups and did not change significantly at 6 or 12 months, independent of postgraduate year (PGY) level. Overall NonTechnical Skills scores were similar between groups, but senior residents (≥PGY 4) in the OC + SW group scored significantly higher in teamwork, decision-making, and situation awareness (all p < 0.05). An adjunctive, dedicated resident SW compared with a hospital-based OC alone did not significantly improve overall perceptions of patient safety. However, senior residents participating in the SW demonstrated improved patient safety perceptions and had significantly better intraoperative safety behaviors than senior residents in the OC group. Future curricular enhancements should include PGY-level specific education, iterative reviews, and increased faculty involvement. A larger randomized trial may be warranted

  8. Does residing in urban or rural areas affect the incidence of polypharmacy among older adults in western China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Lu, Jing; Hao, Qiukui; Luo, Li; Dong, Birong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differences among older adults who are rural or urban residents with respects to their socioeconomic position, chronic health conditions and medication use. This cross-sectional study included 887 community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years) from western China. Trained interviewers collected data from all of the study subjects through face-to-face interviews. Polypharmacy was defined as the concomitant use of five or more medications. A total of 717 participants were included in the study analyses. Compared with their urban counterparts, the older adults in rural China were more likely to have more chronic health conditions, and a lower education level, annual income and insurance coverage rate. In addition, the rural inhabitants were less likely to use medications (58.7% vs. 75.7%, ppolypharmacy was significantly lower in rural residents than urban residents (11.5% vs. 17.5%, p=0.021). Urban residence (odds ratios (OR) 1.89, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03-3.48), number of chronic conditions (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.16-3.30), diabetes (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.33-7.37), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.25-3.51) were positively associated with polypharmacy, whereas good self-rated health (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.65) was negatively associated with polypharmacy. In conclusion, urban residence is independently associated with polypharmacy in Chinese elders regardless of chronic health conditions and socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh Ethnicities in Xinjiang Rural Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Gao, Qi; Cai, Xia; La, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of current infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities in Xinjiang rural residents. Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, and Han populations represent > 90% of the total population of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on infertility risk factors is rarely studied. A cross-sectional study of 5,086 married and common-law couples, with a female partner aged 18-49, living in Hami, Kuche, or Xinyuan counties in Xinjiang, China. General information for the study subjects, including demographic characteristics, life customs, sexual history, history of contraception use, and history of disease, was collected by questionnaire. General health, gynecologic examinations, and sociodemographic characteristics were also carried out. A total of 5,086 females from Xinjiang Province were surveyed, including 493 with infertility. The standardized prevalence rate of infertility was 9.7% (95% CI 8.9-10.5), and the prevalence of infertility in Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities was 6.8% (95% CI 5.7-7.9), 10.9% (95% CI 8.0-13.8), and 10.1% (95% CI 7.4-12.8), respectively. The present study suggests that the prevalence of infertility was lower in the Han as compared to the Kazakh and Uygur ethnicities.

  10. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test. The results showed low concern about disease, perception of invulnerability to HIV infection and not using condoms during sexual intercourse, and confidence in the major reason related partner. Also showed endure derogatory and stereotypical representations, revealing that still persist in rural areas, beliefs and representations concerning the beginning of the epidemic. From these findings, it is possible to point out deficiencies in the care provided by the health services in these localities, which may result in increased vulnerability of this population to diseases, so there is the need to intensify information campaigns and intervention. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality. Nos 30 anos da pandemia da Aids no Brasil, reconhece-se o fenômeno da interiorização do vírus HIV como um desafio ao cuidado e às politicas de saúde atuais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se conhecer práticas sexuais e as representações sociais que residentes de cidades rurais têm acerca da doença. Participaram 789 pessoas, homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 90 anos de idade, residentes em 41 cidades com menos de 11.000 habitantes

  11. Geographic Elevation and Cognitive Function among Elderly Residents in Rural Mountainous Areas: Shimane CoHRE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test whether there is an association between elevation and cognitive function among elderly residents in rural mountainous areas. Data were collected in 2012 from a cross-sectional study conducted in Ohnan Town, which is located in a rural mountainous area in the southern part of Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Cognitive function was evaluated using CADi (Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version and elevation was estimated by using Geographic Information Systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 866 participants were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher elevation was significantly associated with decreased cognitive function. This finding suggests that it is important to consider the physical environment, i.e., elevation, that would affect accessibility to health-promoting goods, services, and resources when seeking to maintain cognitive function in elderly people living in rural mountainous areas.

  12. Southern Nevada residents` views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1991-10-01

    two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans` views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada.

  13. Child Nutritional Status by Rural/Urban Residence: A Cross-National Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kiira; Heaton, Tim B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural children in developing countries have poor health outcomes in comparison with urban children. This paper considers 4 questions regarding the rural/urban difference, namely: (1) do individual-level characteristics account for rural/urban differences in child nutritional status; (2) do community-level characteristics account for…

  14. Desirability for a typhoid fever vaccine among rural residents, Pemba Island, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M; Pach, Alfred; Thriemer, Kamala; Ley, Benedikt; Jiddawi, Mohamed; Puri, Mahesh; Ochiai, Leon; Wierzba, Thomas; Clemens, John; Ali, Said M

    2013-06-24

    Surveillance data indicate that Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. With limited anticipated short-term improvements in sanitation and water infrastructure, targeted vaccination campaigns may be an important prevention tool for typhoid fever. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 435 randomly selected households in four rural villages on Pemba Island, Tanzania. A dichotomous 'readiness to pay' variable was created to assess vaccine desirability. Data analyses included univariate and bivariate descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. Bivariate outcomes (ANOVA, t-tests, and chi-square) and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals are reported. A total of 66% respondents stated that they would pay for a typhoid fever vaccine in the future. Readiness to pay was not significantly associated with household expenditures. Readiness to pay was associated with use of local Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs) compared to use of cottage or district hospitals (OR 1.8 [95% CI, 1.2-2.7]: p=.007) and with knowledge of someone being sick from typhoid fever (OR 2.2 [95% CI, 1.0-4.5]: p=.039). Respondents perceiving prevention measures as more effective (OR 1.0 [95% CI, 1.0-1.2]: p=.009) were also more likely ready to pay. Preferred methods of communication of information about a typhoid fever vaccine included broadcasting via microphone ('miking'), radio, and door-to-door visits. With rapid increase in numbers of licensed and promising vaccines, policy makers and health administrators are faced with decisions regarding allocation of scarce health resources for competing interventions. Community residents need to be informed about diseases which may not be readily recognized, diagnosed, and treated. Perceived vulnerability to the disease may increase likelihood of vaccine desirability. A better local understanding of typhoid fever is needed for general prevention measures, increasing treatment

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of RSS Reader Use and Resident Familiarity With Primary Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Brian P; Desai, Bimal R; Callahan, James M

    2014-06-01

    Awareness of the primary literature is important for clinicians. Lack of time, poor access to information, and lack of personal initiative may be barriers for some trainees. Really Simple Syndication (RSS) readers aggregate web content, such as journal abstracts, in a single location for easy viewing. We assessed whether use of an RSS reader would increase resident reading frequency, familiarity, and understanding of the primary literature. We conducted a single-center, prospective, randomized, nonblinded, controlled trial of the effect of RSS reader use on knowledge of recent literature among pediatrics residents. Residents were randomly assigned to the RSS group (education in RSS use and receipt of the Pediatrics RSS feed) or a control group that followed standard reading practices. Outcome measures were differences on baseline and monthly surveys of reading frequency, familiarity with recent publications, and knowledge of recent articles (familiarity validation). Of 144 eligible residents, 79 (55%) were enrolled in the survey, with 81% (64 of 79) of participants completing all surveys. The RSS reader use was correlated with greater familiarity with selected articles, but not with improved understanding (as measured by ability to answer multiple-choice questions about content). Participants reported satisfaction with the RSS reader based on its ease of use, accessibility, and as an aid in supplementing reading. The RSS reader use was accepted by residents and associated with increased familiarity with the primary literature but not with increased understanding.

  16. Rural-urban area of residence and trajectories of children׳s behavior in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-11-01

    Despite extensive studies of neighborhood effects on children׳s outcomes, there is little evidence on rural-urban impacts on child mental health. We modeled trajectories of emotional-behavioral problems of white majority children at ages 3, 5, and 7 in England in areas with varying levels of rural and urban settlement, using the Millennium Cohort Study. After adjusting for area selection, children in less sparse rural areas had fewer conduct and peer problems, and children in areas with a mix of rural and urban settlement had fewer emotional symptoms, explained by the quality of their schools. Area differences remained in emotional problems.

  17. Fiscal Expenditure and Income Gap between Urban and Rural Residents: An Empirical Study Based on Malmquist Index and Spatial Econometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui; LIU; Ming; ZHANG; Fangfang; ZHANG; Zhibo; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis methods of non-parametric Malmquist index and spatial econometrics as well as the provincial panel data in 2007-2010, this paper estimates the efficiency of fiscal expenditure from local governments in china in terms of reducing the income gap between urban and rural residents for the first time and evaluates the spatial correlation and heterogeneity of this efficiency. The results have shown that the fiscal expenditure of most provinces is of low efficiency in reducing the income gap between urban and rural residents, and the expenditure efficiency of local governments is not relevant to their levels of economic development. Besides, the efficiency on reducing the urban-rural income gap between different regions of China has a tendency of convergence. But this is mainly reflected inside the regional economic belt. There is significant difference between the efficiency of each economic belt. The central region has the highest efficiency in a rising trend, the western region has the lowest efficiency in a downward trend, while the eastern region is relatively stable.

  18. Remedial after-school support classes offered in rural Gambia (The SCORE trial): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Peter; Camara, Alpha; Eble, Alex; Elbourne, Diana; Fernandes, Samory; Frost, Chris; Jayanty, Chitra; Lenin, Maitri; Silva, Ana Filipa

    2015-12-16

    Low education levels are endemic in much of the developing world, particularly in rural areas where traditional government-provided public services often have difficulty reaching beneficiaries. Providing trained para-teachers to teach regular after-school remedial education classes has been shown to improve literacy and numeracy in children of primary school age residing in such areas in India. This trial investigates whether such an intervention can also be effective in a West African setting with similarly low learning levels and difficult geographic access. cluster-randomized controlled trial. Clusters: villages or groups of villages with 15-300 households and at least 15 eligible children in the Lower River and North Bank Regions of The Gambia. children born between 1 September 2007 and 31 August 2009 planning to enter the first grade, for the first time, in the 2015-2016 school year in eligible villages. We anticipate enrolling approximately 150 clusters of villages with approximately 6000 children as participants. a program providing remedial after-school lessons, focusing on literacy and numeracy, 5 to 6 days a week for 3 years to eligible children, based on the intervention evaluated in the Support To Rural India's Public Education System (STRIPES) trial (PLoS ONE 8(7):e65775). both the intervention and control groups will receive small bundles of useful materials during annual data collection as recompense for their time. If the education intervention is shown to be cost-effective at raising learning levels, it is expected that the control group villages will receive the intervention for several years after the trial results are available. the primary outcome of the trial is a composite mathematics and language test score. Secondary outcomes include school attendance, enrollment, performance on nationally administered exams, parents' spending on education, spillover learning to siblings and family members, and school-related time use of parents and

  19. Effect of electric toothbrush on residents' oral hygiene: a randomized clinical trial in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeld, Katrine G; Mowe, Morten; Eide, Hilde; Willumsen, Tiril

    2014-04-01

    A single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial was performed to investigate the effect of electric toothbrushes (ET) compared with manual toothbrushes (MT) on residents in nursing homes and to evaluate the caregiver's opinion on ET. A sample of 180 nursing-home residents were given either a new ET or a new MT. Oral examinations were performed to measure dental hygiene, using the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S). Both groups received the same instructions for use. After 2 months participants were re-examined. Questionnaires were then sent to their caregivers. Participants' mean age was 86.1 ± 7.7 yr, and the mean number of remaining teeth was 20 ± 5.6. No specific intervention effect was found for ET. Both groups showed identical improvements in the OHI-S, from 1.27 ± 0.63 at baseline (the mean value for all participants) to 1.01 ± 0.53 after 2 months. Of 152 caregivers who responded to the questionnaire, the majority evaluated ET to be beneficial and less time-consuming compared with MT, also for demented residents. In a frail population, no difference is found in the effect of ET compared with MT. However, the ET appears to be a useful aid for residents who receive assistance with dental hygiene.

  20. Intensive hog farming operations and self-reported health among nearby rural residents in Ottawa, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challacombe Laurel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, hog farming operations were introduced in the village of Sarsfield in the eastern part of Ottawa, Canada. This study evaluates the health-related quality of life (HRQOL, and the prevalence of respiratory conditions among adults and children who lived in proximity to this farm. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to a random sample of residents from seven rural communities in the eastern part of Ottawa, Canada. We analyzed self-reported questionnaire data obtained from 723 adults and 285 children/adolescents. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-36 survey instrument, while data were also collected for sociodemographic characteristics, the prevalence of selected health conditions, and lifestyle related behaviours (e.g., smoking of participants. Variations in self-reported health according to the residential distance to the hog farm were evaluated using logistic regression and analysis of variance methods. Results For the most part, the prevalence of selected health conditions among adults and children was not associated with how far they lived from the farm. No associations were observed with migraines, respiratory conditions (asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, and chronic bronchitis, and allergies. However, a higher prevalence of depression was noted among those who lived within 3 km of the farm relative to those who lived more than 9 km away (odds ratio = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.11, 3.65. Furthermore, individuals who lived closer to the IHF were more likely to worry about environmental issues such as water quality, outdoor and indoor smells, and air pollution. This level of worry also contributed to lower HRQOL scores for individuals who lived closer to the farm. It was also observed that the prevalence of depression was much higher among those who indicated a concern about environmental issues (18.2% when compared to those who did not (8.0%. Conclusion While our findings suggest that living in close proximity to an IHF

  1. Aging--Family Decision-Making for Nursing Home Residents with Dementia: Rural-Urban Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Charles E.; Elliott, Barbara A.; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Context: Research has demonstrated substantial differences between end-of-life care in rural and urban settings. As the end of life approaches, rural elders are less likely to be hospitalized, to be placed in an intensive care unit, or to have a feeding tube, compared to their urban counterparts. These differences cannot be fully explained by…

  2. Race, Rural Residence, and Wildland Visitation: Examining the Influence of Sociocultural Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; Patrick M. Horan; William Pepper

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that African Americans have less favorable impressions about wildlands and recreate on wildland areas less frequently than do whites. However, most of these investigations have been conducted on non-rural populations. Rural perceptions of wildlands and visitation to such areas have received relatively little attention. In this exploratory...

  3. Adapting web-based instruction to residents' knowledge improves learning efficiency: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Beckman, Thomas J; Thomas, Kris G; Thompson, Warren G

    2008-07-01

    Increased clinical demands and decreased available time accentuate the need for efficient learning in postgraduate medical training. Adapting Web-based learning (WBL) to learners' prior knowledge may improve efficiency. We hypothesized that time spent learning would be shorter and test scores not adversely affected for residents who used a WBL intervention that adapted to prior knowledge. Randomized, crossover trial. Academic internal medicine residency program continuity clinic. 122 internal medicine residents. Four WBL modules on ambulatory medicine were developed in standard and adaptive formats. The adaptive format allowed learners who correctly answered case-based questions to skip the corresponding content. The measurements were knowledge posttest, time spent on modules, and format preference. One hundred twenty-two residents completed at least 1 module, and 111 completed all 4. Knowledge scores were similar between the adaptive format (mean +/- standard error of the mean, 76.2 +/- 0.9) and standard (77.2 +/- 0.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference -3.0 to 1.0, P = .34). However, time spent was lower for the adaptive format (29.3 minutes [CI 26.0 to 33.0] per module) than for the standard (35.6 [31.6 to 40.3]), an 18% decrease in time (CI 9 to 26%, P = .0003). Seventy-two of 96 respondents (75%) preferred the adaptive format. Adapting WBL to learners' prior knowledge can reduce learning time without adversely affecting knowledge scores, suggesting greater learning efficiency. In an era where reduced duty hours and growing clinical demands on trainees and faculty limit the time available for learning, such efficiencies will be increasingly important. For clinical trial registration, see http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00466453 ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00466453?order=1 ).

  4. Diversity Research on Income Difference and Consumption Behavior of Rural Residents in China - Empirical Analysis Based on AIDS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinFan

    2004-01-01

    By building up an AIDS model of Chinese rural residents, classified into fivegroups by income, concluding six commodities (services), analyses the diversity of consumption behavior out of income difference. We draw the following conclusions: Firstly, there exists some difference between different income groups in commodities (services) consumption.Secondly, increase of farmers' income will be favorable to the enhancement of consumption level and upgrading of consumption structure. Thirdly, the medium income group, as one special mass, features a transitional main body of consumption structure. Finally, the policymakers should support the farmers with lower income in compulsory education, such as more and necessary transfer payments.

  5. Rural resident household food consumption patterns in the Ganzhou district of Zhangye city:an analysis based on ELES Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Demand for food plays an important role in the adjustment of prices for agricultural products and for adjusting agricultural structure.By using the extended linear expenditure system(ELES),we analyzed the food consumption structure of rural residents in the Ganzhou district of Zhangye city,and determined the basic food-consumption demand,the marginal propensity of consumption,the income elasticities of demand,and the own-price and cross-price elasticities of local rural residents,all of which illustrate the influencing factors on food consumption of rural residents and for forecasting the food-consumption structure.Those analyses show the following:the rural residents’ expenditure on household basic food consumption reaches about 7,050.35 Yuan;the marginal propensities of consumption of fruits and vegetables are relatively high(0.062 and 0.106,respectively),followed by meat(0.044);the demands for various foods are increasing as income increases,with the largest income elasticity of demand corresponding to fruits(1.354) and the lowest to cereal(0.310);fruits and vegetables have relatively high own-price elasticities(respectively-0.879 and-0.442),with the cereal having the lowest one(-0.184).An increase in cereal prices would greatly affect demand for other products;with the rising size of rural households,the consumption for meat is decreasing whereas it is increasing for cereal.The improvement of household education levels will lead to the increase of fruit consumption(E = 0.297),which indicates that people will pay more attention to diet and nutrition structure with the improvement of education.Further,although the amount of cereal expenditure is continually growing,the share will be declining with the increase of household income in 2006-2012.For all these reasons,therefore,the government should encourage the cultivation of economic crops and guide the development of stockbreeding to ensure the stability of cereal output.In order to attain the balance between

  6. Chinese Gini Coefficient from 2005 to 2012, Based on 20 Grouped Income Data Sets of Urban and Rural Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data insufficiency has become the primary factor affecting research on income disparity in China. To resolve this issue, this paper explores Chinese income distribution and income inequality using distribution functions. First, it examines 20 sets of grouped data on family income between 2005 and 2012 by the China Yearbook of Household Surveys, 2013, and compares the fitting effects of eight distribution functions. The results show that the generalized beta distribution of the second kind has a high fitting to the income distribution of urban and rural residents in China. Next, these results are used to calculate the Chinese Gini ratio, which is then compared with the findings of relevant studies. Finally, this paper discusses the influence of urbanization on income inequality in China and suggests that accelerating urbanization can play an important role in narrowing the income gap of Chinese residents.

  7. Prevention of unintentional weight loss in nursing home residents: a controlled trial of feeding assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Sandra F; Keeler, Emmett; Zhuo, Xiaohui; Hickey, Kelly A; Sato, Hui-Wen; Schnelle, John F

    2008-08-01

    To determine the effects of a feeding assistance intervention on food and fluid intake and body weight. Crossover controlled trial. Four skilled nursing homes (NHs). Seventy-six long-stay NH residents at risk for unintentional weight loss. Research staff provided feeding assistance twice per day during or between meals, 5 days per week for 24 weeks. Research staff independently weighed residents at baseline and monthly during a 24-week intervention and 24-week control period. Residents' food and fluid intake and the amount of staff time spent providing assistance to eat was assessed for 2 days at baseline and 3 and 6 months during each 24-week period. The intervention group showed a significant increase in estimated total daily caloric intake and maintained or gained weight, whereas the control group showed no change in estimated total daily caloric intake and lost weight over 24 weeks. The average amount of staff time required to provide the interventions was 42 minutes per person per meal and 13 minutes per person per between-meal snack, versus usual care, during which residents received, on average, 5 minutes of assistance per person per meal and less than 1 minute per person per snack. Two feeding assistance interventions are efficacious in promoting food and fluid intake and weight gain in residents at risk for weight loss. Both interventions require more staff time than usual NH care. The delivery of snacks between meals requires less time than mealtime assistance and thus may be more practical to implement in daily NH care practice.

  8. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

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    Bleich Stefan

    2011-02-01

    adolescents of German descent (23.6% vs. 57.4%. However, in those adolescents who consumed alcohol in the last 4 weeks, binge drinking is very prominent across the cultural backgrounds. Conclusions Binge drinking is a common problem behavior in German adolescents. Obviously adolescents with rural residence have fewer alternatives for engaging in interesting leisure activities than adolescents living in cities. This might be one reason for the more problematic consumption patterns there. Common expectations concerning drinking behavior of adolescents of certain cultural backgrounds ('migrants with Russian background drink more'/'migrants from Arabic respectively Oriental-Islamic countries drink less' are only partly affirmed. Possibly, the degree of acculturation to the permissive German alcohol culture plays a role here.

  9. Participation of second home owners and permanent residents in local decision making: the case of a rural village in Finland

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    Asta Kietäväinen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Finland, there are almost 500,000 second homes and in some areas the number of second home owners exceeds that of permanent residents. Currently, second home owners are also spending more time in their second homes. If second home owners are not permanent residents, administration may exclude them from local institutions, and treat second home owners as only partial members of the community. It has been stated that municipal decision making and the role of the municipality as an actor in the local community should be broadened in order to strengthen democracy and the participation of its residents as a core of municipal self-administration. Hence, participating in communal decision making is mainly possible only for permanent residents. The issue is whether it is possible to change this situation via the municipalities’ own reforms and state regulations. New municipal administration experiments have recently emerged in Finland. Here we study how the new local administrative model, the Communal District Committee, has affected local participation and local governance in a rural areas by exploring second home owners’ opportunities to participate in local decision making and development processes. The data consists of documents, focus group discussions and a questionnaire. We used qualitative and quantitative methods in the data analysis. We found, on one hand, that permanent residents of villages recognise second home owners’ hesitation to participate in local issues requiring planning and decision making. On the other hand, local-level communal decision making does not promote the participation of second home residents. On the basis of the findings of the study, we suggest that the municipal authorities should recognise the existence and importance of second home owners in the area, acknowledge them better in municipal plans and strategies, and offer them more resources and means to participate.

  10. Health Service Accessibility and Risk in Cervical Cancer Prevention: Comparing Rural Versus Nonrural Residence in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Yolanda J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Scarinci, Isabel C; Castle, Philip E; Cuzick, Jack; Robertson, Michael; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2016-08-24

    Multiple intrapersonal and structural barriers, including geography, may prevent women from engaging in cervical cancer preventive care such as screening, diagnostic colposcopy, and excisional precancer treatment procedures. Geographic accessibility, stratified by rural and nonrural areas, to necessary services across the cervical cancer continuum of preventive care is largely unknown. Health care facility data for New Mexico (2010-2012) was provided by the New Mexico Human Papillomavirus Pap Registry (NMHPVPR), the first population-based statewide cervical cancer screening registry in the United States. Travel distance and time between the population-weighted census tract centroid to the nearest facility providing screening, diagnostic, and excisional treatment services were examined using proximity analysis by rural and nonrural census tracts. Mann-Whitney test (P cervical cancer preventive health care services and years, women who resided in rural areas had a significantly greater geographic accessibility burden when compared to nonrural areas (4.4 km vs 2.5 km and 4.9 minutes vs 3.0 minutes for screening; 9.9 km vs 4.2 km and 10.4 minutes vs 4.9 minutes for colposcopy; and 14.8 km vs 6.6 km and 14.4 minutes vs 7.4 minutes for precancer treatment services, all P cervical cancer prevention should address the potential benefits of providing the full spectrum of screening, diagnostic and precancer treatment services within individual facilities. Accessibility, assessments distinguishing rural and nonrural areas are essential when monitoring and recommending changes to service infrastructures (eg, mobile versus brick and mortar). © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Community Residency Programme (CRP)--a tool for research and rural health training for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, H

    2002-12-01

    Rural health training is an important element in the training of medical students in the University of Malaya. There is a need for the undergraduates to be familiar with the rural health infrastructure and to understand the social and economic aspects of the rural poor. The objective of the training is to make the students understand the problems faced by the poor in the rural areas so that when they practice in rural health areas, after graduation, they will understand the problems of the rural poor. They will have the knowledge of the diseases in the rural areas and also understand the community and the environmental factors that contribute to the disease. The training lasts' for 4 weeks, one week for lectures on health survey, two weeks for the field trip and one week of data analysis and presentation of their findings to an expert panel. During the field trip the students are divided into groups and they go to different parts of the country. Each group will do a field survey to find out the socio-demography, environmental, economic, nutritional and health problems in the village. In addition to the survey they also do a research project on any topic. The students also do social work, visit places of public health interest like the water treatment plant, sewage disposal, factory visits and others. Apart from technical skills in statistics and epidemiology, various other managerial skills like leadership, teamwork, communications and public relations are also learnt during the training. In conclusion this rural health training is an important aspect of the medical students training as it imparts several skills to them that are needed as a doctor.

  12. Distinct risk profiles for human infections with the Influenza A(H7N9 virus among rural and urban residents: Zhejiang Province, China, 2013.

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    Fan He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors and source of infection leading to human infections with the Influenza A(H7N9 virus in urban and rural areas. METHODS: We conducted a case-control investigation to identify potential exposures and risk factors. Controls were randomly selected from the same community as the cases using random digit dialing. We used exact conditional logistic regression to evaluate the exposures and risk factors, stratified by urban and rural residence. RESULTS: Buying live or freshly slaughtered poultry from a market was significantly associated with illness onset among both urban [48% of 25 case-patients and 12% of 125 control-persons, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 19, 95% CI: 2.3-929] and rural (33% of 18 case-patients and 8.9% of 90 control-persons, AOR = 13, 95% CI:1.5-∞ residents. In rural area, tending to home-raised poultry (56% of 18 case-patients and 10% of 90 control-persons, AOR = 57, 95% CI: 7.5-∞ and existence of a poultry farm in the vicinity of the residence (28% of 18 case-patients and 5.6% of 90 control-persons, AOR = 37, 95% CI: 3.8-∞ were also significantly associated with disease onset. Presence of underlying medical conditions was a significant risk factor for urban residents (76% of 25 case-patients and 13% of 125 control-persons, AOR = 49, 95% CI: 7.1-2132. CONCLUSIONS: Buying live or freshly slaughtered poultry from a market is a risk factor for both urban and rural residents, tending to home-raised poultry and existence of a poultry farm in the vicinity of the residence are risk factors unique for rural residents. The virus might have been in stealth circulation in the poultry population before infecting humans. We recommend strict poultry market management and multisectoral collaboration to identify the extent of poultry infection in China.

  13. Exposure Risk of Rural Residents to Copper in the Le'an River Basin, Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanxin; Wang, Hui; Li, Qi; Wang, Bin; Yan, Zhenghong; Ding, Aizhong

    2016-04-01

    The Dexing copper (Cu) mining zone in Jiangxi Province produces China's highest annual copper output, and the mineral waste residue and wastewater associated with ore processing are responsible for the Cu contamination of agricultural soil and food produced in the Le'an River Basin. We studied the dietary Cu intake from various foods, and the induced non-carcinogenic risk in rural residents from Dexing, Poyang, and Leping Counties situated along the Le'an River. Different food types based on the local dietary habits and agricultural soils were collected, and their Cu contents were analyzed. The Monte Carlo model was used to simulate the dietary chronic daily intake of Cu (CDICu) and its non-carcinogenic risk in four subgroups (children, adolescents, adults, and seniors). A consistently decreasing trend in the Cu levels in agricultural soil and two local food types (vegetables and eggs) was found with increasing distance downstream from the mining zone from Dexing to Poyang, whereas this trend was not observed in other food types. The order of CDICu among the three counties was Dexing > Leping > Poyang, and the order among the four subgroups was children > adolescents > adults = seniors. The two major contributors to the total CDICu were vegetables and rice. Rural residents from Dexing County had the highest proportion of people with a hazard quotient (HQ) >1 (i.e., 79%), followed by Leping (60%) and Poyang (48%). For Dexing, ~98% of the children living in rural areas displayed HQ >1, compared with 97% in Leping and 85% in Poyang. Our results indicated the importance of the potential effects of Cu on the health of the local young population and the need to address such effects.

  14. Income Gap Between Urban and Rural Residents in Guangxi on the Impact of Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The gap between urban and rural incomes in Guangxi is increasing year by year in a rising tendency,which resulted in agricultural development impact cannot be ignored.Such impact on agricultural development was analyzed from three aspects:agricultural development fund,farmland and food problems and labor force flow.The following problems were found:capitals flew to non-agricultural industry,which resulted in deficiency of agricultural development fund;farmland reduced and the problem of food supply was highlighted;labor force in rural areas emigrated,the price of agricultural products rose up.Related policies were offered:to strengthen the financial support;to speed up utilization of abundant labor force;to motivate farmers’ enthusiasm in food production;to increase investment in farmers’ endowment insurance and retirement pension in rural areas.

  15. Utilisation of public eye care services by the rural community residents in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Mologadi D. Ntsoane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual impairment and blindness are major health problems worldwide, especially in the rural and remote areas of developing countries. Utilisation of eye care services is essential to reduce the burden of visual impairment and blindness, and it is therefore important that it is monitored.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the level of utilisation of public eye care services and factors that might have influenced their usage in rural communities, Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Method: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. Participants were residents in selected rural villages located within approximately 5 km of six Government hospitals. Following ethical approval and receipt of informed consent, a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions was used to collect information on the utilisation of eye care services and factors that might influence utilisation. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chisquare test were used to analyse and compare the data.Results: Many (62.7% of the respondents had used the government eye care services in the past. Over fifty-nine per cent (59.3% of them were satisfied with the services. Factors reported to influence utilisation (such as monthly income, knowledge of available services and the need for regular eye tests were positively associated with utilisation of eye care services in this study (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Utilisation of eye care services was relatively good, but varied significantly between sites. An awareness campaign by government and non-governmental organisations about eye care services may increase utilisation amongst rural communities.

  16. Utilisation of public eye care services by the rural community residents in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mologadi D. Ntsoane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual impairment and blindness are major health problems worldwide, especially in the rural and remote areas of developing countries. Utilisation of eye care services is essential to reduce the burden of visual impairment and blindness, and it is therefore important that it is monitored.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the level of utilisation of public eye care services and factors that might have influenced their usage in rural communities, Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Method: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. Participants were residents in selected rural villages located within approximately 5 km of six Government hospitals. Following ethical approval and receipt of informed consent, a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions was used to collect information on the utilisation of eye care services and factors that might influence utilisation. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chisquare test were used to analyse and compare the data.Results: Many (62.7% of the respondents had used the government eye care services in the past. Over fifty-nine per cent (59.3% of them were satisfied with the services. Factors reported to influence utilisation (such as monthly income, knowledge of available services and the need for regular eye tests were positively associated with utilisation of eye care services in this study (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Utilisation of eye care services was relatively good, but varied significantly between sites. An awareness campaign by government and non-governmental organisations about eye care services may increase utilisation amongst rural communities.

  17. The Association between Rural Residence and the Use, Type, and Quality of Depression Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, John C.; Harman, Jeffrey S.; Xu, Stanley; Dong, Fran

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association between rurality and depression care. Methods: Data were extracted for 10,319 individuals with self-reported depression in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Pharmacotherapy was defined as an antidepressant prescription fill, and minimally adequate pharmacotherapy was defined as receipt of at least 4…

  18. Diabetes Beliefs among Low-Income, White Residents of a Rural North Carolina Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Skelly, Anne H.; Gesler, Wilbert M.; Dougherty, Molly C.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Every social group shares beliefs about health and illness. Knowledge and understanding of these health beliefs are essential for education programs to address health promotion and illness prevention. Purpose: This analysis describes the diabetes Explanatory Models of Illness (EMs) of low-income, rural, white Southerners who have not been…

  19. Traditional Versus Simulation Resident Surgical Laparoscopic Salpingectomy Training: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nima R; Makai, Gretchen E; Sloan, Nancy L; Della Badia, Carl R

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the porcine training model for obstetrics-gynecology (OB/GYN) residents in laparoscopic salpingectomy. Randomized, controlled single-blinded trial. Canadian Task Force Classification I. A large community-based teaching hospital. All postgraduate year 1 through year 4 OB/GYN residents were enrolled (n = 22). All participants underwent a preintervention objective skills assessment test (OSAT), in which the participant performed live human laparoscopic salpingectomy. Residents were randomly assigned (using a computer-generated randomization table, in blocks of 2, stratified by ranked baseline OSAT scores) to the intervention or control group. The intervention group consisted of 1 educational session with presession assigned reading, a 40-min didactic lecture, viewing of a procedural video, and simulation and practice of laparoscopic salpingectomy on a porcine cadaver. The control group received traditional training per routine residency rotations. Laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed on live patients by study participants pre- and postintervention. These procedures were video recorded, and then scored by a single blinded evaluator of the OSATs. Nine pre- and postintervention OSAT indicators, reflecting provider knowledge and skill, were the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcomes were the changes in 10 subjective measures of comfort, assessed by a pre- and postintervention survey. The outcomes were assessed using 5-point Likert scales (for OSATs 1 = lowest score; for the subjective survey 1 = highest score). The control group OSAT scores did not change (pre: 26.6 ± 10.8, post: 26.2 ± 10.1; p = .65). There were significant improvements in 2-handed surgery (pre: 2.8 ± 1.6, post: 3.5 ± 1.3; p = .004) and use of energy (pre: 2.9 ± 1.3, post: 3.6 ± 1.0; p = .01) in the intervention group, contributing to an overall score change (pre: 26.7 ± 10.6, post: 29.9 ± 9.8; p ≤ .001). The control group had no change in comfort

  20. Linking health states to subjective well-being: an empirical study of 5854 rural residents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Jia, X; Zhu, M; Chen, J

    2015-06-01

    Despite a maturing literature on the association between subjective well-being (SWB) and health status of the general population in Western countries, little is known regarding the happiness-health relation in China, and rural populations in particular. This study was aimed to explore the correlation between SWB and health states of China's rural residents. Cross-sectional survey. Data derived from a household survey conducted in 2010 with 5854 rural residents included. The single-item self-reported happiness measure used in the World Values Survey was employed to measure SWB. EQ-5D dimensions and visual analogue scale (VAS) were applied to measure subjective health status. The number of chronic diseases was used as proxy of objective health status. OLS regressions were performed to estimate the variation in SWB by health status and β coefficients were employed as effect size measures. Among EQ-5D dimensions, anxiety/depression had the strongest negative effect on SWB. Having severe anxiety/depression problems could reduce SWB by 1.65 on a scale 1-4. Reporting severe problems in pain/discomfort could also reduce SWB by 0.41, while the impact of other dimensions was insignificant. The coefficient on VAS implied a difference in SWB of 1.60 between the worst health state and the best health state. And suffering from three chronic diseases could reduce SWB by 0.62, but the effect turned insignificant when all measures of subjective health status were entered in the regression. The results from this study verify the strongly negative effect of the mental health dimension on SWB in the context of rural China. And suffering from chronic diseases has substantial negative effect on SWB even after subjective health status is controlled for. But the impact of chronic diseases on SWB could be fully captured when all measures of subjective health status are taken into account. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost-consequence analysis of "washing without water" for nursing home residents: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonhoven, Lisette; van Gaal, Betsie G I; Teerenstra, Steven; Adang, Eddy; van der Vleuten, Carine; van Achterberg, Theo

    2015-01-01

    No-rinse disposable wash gloves are increasingly implemented in health care to replace traditional soap and water bed baths without proper evaluation of (cost) effectiveness. To compare bed baths for effects on skin integrity and resistance against bathing and costs. Cluster randomized trial. Fifty six nursing home wards in the Netherlands. Participants: Five hundred adult care-dependent residents and 275 nurses from nursing home wards. The experimental condition 'washing without water' consists of a bed bath with disposable wash gloves made of non-woven waffled fibers, saturated with a no-rinse, quickly vaporizing skin cleaning and caring lotion. The control condition is a traditional bed bath using soap, water, washcloths and towels. Both conditions were continued for 6 weeks. Outcome measures were prevalence of skin damage distinguished in two levels of severity: any skin abnormality/lesion and significant skin lesions. Additional outcomes: resistance during bed baths, costs. Any skin abnormalities/lesions over time decreased slightly in the experimental group, and increased slightly in the control group, resulting in 72.7% vs 77.6% of residents having any skin abnormalities/lesions after 6 weeks, respectively (p=0.04). There were no differences in significant skin lesions or resistance after 6 weeks. Mean costs for bed baths during 6 weeks per resident were estimated at €218.30 (95%CI 150.52-286.08) in the experimental group and €232.20 (95%CI: 203.80-260.60) in the control group (difference €13.90 (95%CI: -25.61-53.42). Washing without water mildly protects from skin abnormalities/lesions, costs for preparing and performing bed baths do not differ from costs for traditional bed bathing. Thus, washing without water can be considered the more efficient alternative. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A controlled trial of an intervention to increase resident choice in long-term care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnelle, John F.; Rahman, Annie; Durkin, Daniel W.; Beuscher, Linda; Choi, Leena; Simmons, Sandra F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate an intervention to improve staff offers of choice to nursing home (NH) residents during morning care. Design A controlled trial with a delayed intervention design. Setting Four community, for-profit nursing homes. Participants A total of 169 long-stay NH residents who required staff assistance with morning care and were able to express their care preferences. Intervention Research staff held weekly training sessions with nurse aides (NAs) for 12 consecutive weeks focused on how to offer choice during four targeted morning care areas: when to get out of bed, when to get dressed/what to wear, incontinence care (changing and/or toileting), and where to dine. Training sessions consisted of brief video vignettes illustrating staff-resident interactions followed by weekly feedback about how often choice was being provided based on standardized observations of care conducted weekly by research staff. Measurements Research staff conducted standardized observations during a minimum of 4 consecutive morning hours per participant per week for 12-weeks of baseline and 12-weeks of intervention. Results There was a significant increase in the frequency that choice was offered for three of the four targeted morning care areas from baseline to intervention: (1) out of bed, 21% to 33% (p< .001); dressing, 20% to 32% (p< .001); incontinence care, 18% to 23%, (p< .014). Dining location (8% to 13%) was not significant. There was also a significant increase in the amount of NA staff time to provide care from baseline to intervention (8.01 ± 9.0 to 9.68 ± 9.9 minutes per person, p< .001). Conclusion A staff training intervention improved the frequency with which NAs offered choice during morning care but also required more time. Despite significant improvements, choice was still offered one-third or less of the time during morning care. PMID:23294967

  3. Assessment of differences in psychosocial resources and state of health of rural and urban residents – based on studies carried out on students during examination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zarzycka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Civilization changes of the environment shaping the psychosocial resources from rural to urban influence human health. [b]aim.[/b] The study aimed to identify the differences due to the place of residence (rural, urban as far as health resources are concerned (social support, sense of coherence, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration in plasma and health in examination stress situations. The study also determined the concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (health resource and cortisol (stress indicator. [b]material and methods.[/b] The psychosocial variables were assessed using the scales: ISEL-48v. Coll., SOC-29, SF-36v.2™ o and analogue scale (perception of examination stress. The study included, based on a stratified sampling (year of study and purposive sampling (written examination, major, 731 students representing the six universities in Lublin, south-east Poland. Among the respondents, 130 students were rural residents. [b]results.[/b] Health resources of students living in rural and urban areas generally differ statistically significantly in social support and the subscales of availability of tangible support, availability of appreciative support, the availability of cognitive-evaluative support and a sense of resourcefulness. The study recorded a sstatistically significantly larger network of family ties among students living in rural areas. The demonstrated diversity of resources did not substantially affect the perceived health, with the exception of pain sensation. Examination stress assessed by subjective opinion of the respondents and plasma cortisol levels vary relative to the place of residence. Students residing in rural areas showed significantly lower cortisol levels values, but subjectively perceived the situation of examation as more stressful. [b]conclusions[/b]. Differences in health resources and their mechanism of impact on health, to a limited extent, were conditioned by the place

  4. Analysis of THE Income Gap among Rural Residents in Shaanxi Province%陕西省农村居民收入差距分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒿建华

    2011-01-01

    According to the analysis on the current status of the income gap among rural residents in Shaanxi Province, it is found out that the income of rural residents in Shaanxi Province of China is not only lower than the average income level of China, but also is far lower than the income level of urban residents and the income level of rural residents in developed areas. The low income is mainly caused by the increasing income gap among income groups and the income gap among rural residents in different areas. Based on this, causations for the income gap among rural residents are analyzed from three aspects of the cultural difference, the regional economic difference, and the industrial structure difference.Countermeasures for narrowing the income gap and increasing the farmers' income in Shaanxi Province are put forward.%通过对陕西省农村居民收入差距现状分析发现,陕西省农村居民收入不仅低于全国平均收入水平,更远远低于发达地区农村居民收入水平和城镇居民收入水平,在低收入的背后是各收入组、各地区间农村居民收入差距拉大的事实.在此基础上,从文化差异、地区经济差异和产业结构差异3个方面阐述了陕西省农村居明收入差距产生的原因,并提出了缩小收入差距,增加陕西农民收入的对策.

  5. [Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edilaine Oliveira; da Rocha, Emersom Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF) in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil). QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (>4 times in the week), not habitual (chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  6. Mycotoxin exposure in rural residents in northern Nigeria: a pilot study using multi-urinary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Warth, Benedikt; Ogara, Isaac M; Abia, Wilfred A; Ezekiel, Victoria C; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Sulyok, Michael; Turner, Paul C; Tayo, Grace O; Krska, Rudolf; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2014-05-01

    A pilot, cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted in eight rural communities in northern Nigeria to investigate mycotoxin exposures in 120 volunteers (19 children, 20 adolescents and 81 adults) using a modern LC-MS/MS based multi-biomarker approach. First morning urine samples were analyzed and urinary biomarker levels correlated with mycotoxin levels in foods consumed the day before urine collection. A total of eight analytes were detected in 61/120 (50.8%) of studied urine samples, with ochratoxin A, aflatoxin M1 and fumonisin B1 being the most frequently occurring biomarkers of exposure. These mycotoxin biomarkers were present in samples from all age categories, suggestive of chronic (lifetime) exposures. Rough estimates of mycotoxin intake suggested some exposures were higher than the tolerable daily intake. Overall, rural consumer populations from Nasarawa were more exposed to several mixtures of mycotoxins in their diets relative to those from Kaduna as shown by food and urine biomarker data. This study has shown that mycotoxin co-exposure may be a major public health challenge in rural Nigeria; this calls for urgent intervention.

  7. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

    2013-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented.

  8. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  9. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  10. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  11. Evaluation of a community-based randomized controlled prenatal care trial in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuochun; Viisainen, Kirsi; Wang, Ying; Hemminki, Elina

    2011-05-04

    A community-based randomized control prenatal care trial was performed in a rural county of China during 2000-2003. The purpose of this paper is to describe the trial implementation and the impact of the trial on the utilization of prenatal care and perinatal outcomes. In the study county, 10 townships (from a total of 55) were each paired with a control (20 study townships in total), with the criteria for pairing being the township's socioeconomic development, perinatal health, and maternal care utilization and provision. One of each township pair was randomly allocated to the intervention or control groups. The trial interventions were: 1) training township hospital midwives and instructing them in how to provide systematic maternal care, 2) informing women in the community of the importance of prenatal care, 3) if needed, providing basic medical instruments to the hospitals. A variety of data sources were used to describe the trial implementation (observations, group discussions, field notes, survey to women). The data on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes were from the original hand-written work-records in the village family planning centers of the study townships. Implementation of the intervention was deficient. The factors hindering the trial implementation included poor coordination between midwives and family planning officers, broader policy changes implemented by the provincial government during the trial, the decentralization of county governance, and the lack of government funding for maternal care. There was only little difference in the use of maternal care, in women's opinions related to maternal care or content of prenatal care, and no difference in the perinatal outcomes between the intervention and control townships. A community based randomized controlled trial could not be fully carried out in rural China as planned due to the changing political landscape, the complexity of the socio-economic situation and a lengthy planning stage. The study

  12. Flu: effect of vaccine in elderly care home residents: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughran, Fiona; Walwyn, Rebecca; Lambkin-Williams, Rob; Whelan, Paul; Chatterton, Katherine; Oxford, John; Macdonald, Alastair

    2007-12-01

    To determine whether assessing seroprotection after influenza vaccine and administering booster vaccination where not achieved reduces hospitalization and death. To estimate the overall seroprotection rate of influenza vaccine. A two-arm, partially blind, randomized, multicenter, parallel-group, controlled trial. Twenty-six care homes in three South London boroughs in fall 2004. Two hundred seventy-seven elderly permanent care home residents meeting eligibility criteria. Postvaccination blood samples were randomized to booster evaluation or no booster evaluation (control). If evaluation revealed inadequate seroprotection, a booster vaccine was administered. Primary outcome was hospitalization to end April 2005; secondary outcomes were death, antibiotic use, and seroprotection. Sixty percent of the controls and 41% of the booster evaluation group responded to routine vaccination. Booster vaccination where indicated increased seroprotection rates in the booster evaluation group to 66%. Treatment groups did not differ in any outcome measures in the intention-to-treat analysis (hospitalization odds ratio=1.02, 95% confidence interval=0.55-1.87). There was a tendency towards greater differences between groups in the per-protocol analysis than in the intention-to-treat analysis, particularly regarding seroprotection rates. The same effect was observed in the a priori exploratory analysis of residents not seroprotected after routine vaccination alone. In a year without circulating influenza, there is no clinical benefit of administering a booster vaccine if routine trivalent vaccination fails to result in seroprotection. Hemagglutination titers rose in two strains postbooster vaccination but fell against the novel strain, Wyoming. The benefit of such a booster strategy when influenza is prevalent thus remains uncertain.

  13. Quality of Life in Rural Communities: Residents Living Near to Tembeling, Pahang and Muar Rivers, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairuddin Idris

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to identify the quality of life (QoL among communities residing near the Tembeling, Pahang and Muar Rivers in Malaysia. This quantitative study used a constructed questionnaire as main tool to collect data on the QoL of river communities. A total of 240 villagers were selected as respondents. The results indicated that the dimensions of settlement, safety, involvement and social relationships, as well as education scored highest, while dimensions of physical environment, financial and job security yielded moderate scores. Dimensions of infrastructure facilities yielded a low mean score. Recommendations are provided, in the hope that our results may be useful for strategies that could enhance QoL of these river communities.

  14. Quality of Life in Rural Communities: Residents Living Near to Tembeling, Pahang and Muar Rivers, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Khairuddin; Mohamed Shaffril, Hayrol Azril; Md Yassin, Sulaiman; Abu Samah, Asnarulkhadi; Hamzah, Azimi; Abu Samah, Bahaman

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to identify the quality of life (QoL) among communities residing near the Tembeling, Pahang and Muar Rivers in Malaysia. This quantitative study used a constructed questionnaire as main tool to collect data on the QoL of river communities. A total of 240 villagers were selected as respondents. The results indicated that the dimensions of settlement, safety, involvement and social relationships, as well as education scored highest, while dimensions of physical environment, financial and job security yielded moderate scores. Dimensions of infrastructure facilities yielded a low mean score. Recommendations are provided, in the hope that our results may be useful for strategies that could enhance QoL of these river communities.

  15. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals among residents of a rural vegetarian/vegan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, Karen; Grinshpan, Laura; Novack, Lena; Göen, Thomas; Segev, Dar; Beacher, Lisa; Stern, Naftali; Berman, Tamar

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly thought to be involved in the rising prevalence of disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and some hormone-dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence have indicated that vegetarian and vegan diets may offer some protection from such diseases. We hypothesized that exposure to selected EDCs among residents of the unique vegetarian/vegan community of Amirim would be lower than what has recently been reported for the omnivorous population in the first Israel Biomonitoring Study (IBMS). We studied 42 Amirim residents (29 vegetarians/13 vegans; 24 women/18men, aged 50.7±13.7y). Subjects answered detailed lifestyle, and multipass, memory-based 24-hr dietary recall questionnaires. Concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), 11 phthalate metabolites, and the isoflavone phytoestrogens (genistein and daidzein) were determined by GC or LC tandem mass-spectrometry on a spot urine sample. The results were compared to those obtained following the same methodology in the Jewish subgroup of the IBMS (n=184). While a vegetarian/vegan nutritional pattern had no effect on exposure to BPA, it seemed to confer a modest protection (~21%) from exposure to high molecular weight phthalates. Furthermore, the summed metabolites of the high molecular weight phthalate DiNP were 36% lower in vegans compared to vegetarians (Pvegetarianism and preference for organic food has a modest, but possibly valuable, impact on exposure to phthalates, while it is associated with a very steep increase in the exposure to phytoestrogens. Major reduction in exposure to EDCs will require regulatory actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Awareness, knowledge, and misconceptions of Ebola virus disease among residents of a rural community in Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminu U Kaoje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the discovery of Ebola in 1967, many localized outbreaks have occurred but the recent cross-border epidemic was fueled by the high level of illiteracy and some bad cultural practices. Aim: To assess the awareness, knowledge, and misconceptions of Ebola among residents of a rural community in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. The study was conducted in a rural community and the participants were selected using the systematic sampling method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. Skewed quantitative variables were summarized using median and categorical variables using frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was performed to assess the relationship between outcome variables (knowledge of Ebola and respondents′ sociodemographic characteristics. Binary logistic regression analysis was also performed to identify the predictors of outcome variable. Results: Respondents′ median age was 30 years and nearly half of the respondents (49% had no formal education. A large proportion (88% of the respondents was aware of Ebola and radio was their major source of information. Residents′ knowledge of Ebola was low and only 13% had good knowledge. Eating bitter kola, bathing with salt water, and drinking salt water were mentioned as methods of preventing the spread of the disease. Of their socio-demographic characteristics, only the educational level attained did predict their knowledge of Ebola. Respondents without formal education [odds ratio (OR = 0.198, P < 0.02] and secondary education (OR = 0.292, P < 0.01 were more likely to have poor knowledge. Conclusion: Although the majority was aware of Ebola, their knowledge about it was very low and misconceptions and misinformation were still not uncommon. There is a need for continuous public education and enlightenment about Ebola.

  17. Prevalence of iodine deficiency among adult population residing in Rural Ballabgarh, district Faridabad, Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Lohiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-based surveys are essential to monitor iodine deficiency disorders (IDD program at both the state and national levels. There is paucity of information on population iodine nutrition status in Haryana state using standard methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in villages of Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project (CRHSP, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. A total of 465 randomly selected individuals were assessed for urinary iodine concentration (UIC by microplate method and household salt iodine content using iodometric titration. Of the interviewed households, 73% were using adequately iodized salt (≥15 ppm. Iodine nutrition was deficient in 17% respondents (UIC <100 μg/L; 20.2% among males and 13.9% among females. Iodine intake of the study population as measured by UIC was adequate but nearly one-fourth of households in the study population were consuming inadequately iodized salt. The availability and access to adequately iodized salt in the study population should be improved by strengthening regulatory monitoring.

  18. Body mass index and bromoxynil exposure in a sample of rural residents during spring herbicide application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchuk, Karen; McDuffie, Helen; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Cessna, Allan; Irvine, Donald

    2004-09-10

    Bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile), a phenolic herbicide, is widely used in production of cereals and other crops. Little is known, however, about bromoxynil exposure in humans. Results of previous research suggest a longer residence time in the body for bromoxynil compared to phenoxy herbicides [e.g., (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA)] and that bromoxynil would tend to partition into fatty tissue more so than 2,4-D. In previous research, body mass index (BMI) was found to be an independent predictor of plasma concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), the persistent lipophilic metabolite of the chlorinated pesticide bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT). As part of the Prairie Ecosystem Study, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis was used to measure concentrations of bromoxynil and seven other herbicides (2,4-D, dicamba, fenoxaprop, MCPA, ethalfluralin, triallate, and trifluralin) in plasma from residents (104 men, 88 women, 24 youths age 12-17 yr) of a cereal-producing region in Saskatchewan, Canada, during spring herbicide application, 1996. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether BMI predicted detection of bromoxynil in plasma from the adults. The prevalence of detection (detection limits: 2-50 microg/L) was markedly higher for bromoxynil (men, 44.2%; women, 14.8%; youths, 20.8%) compared to each of the other herbicides including 2,4-D (men, 16.5%; women, 3.4%; youths, 12.5%) and MCPA (men, 6.8%; women, 1.1%; youths, 4.2%), although bromoxynil is commonly formulated or tank mixed with these herbicides. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the variables BMI, exposure group [bromoxynil applicators, non-applicator family members of bromoxynil applicators, all others (reference group)], and days elapsed since the last use of bromoxynil were found to be independent predictors of detection of bromoxynil, while age, gender

  19. Telemedicine for anger management therapy in a rural population of combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized noninferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Leslie A; Greene, Carolyn J; Rosen, Craig S; Foy, David; Reilly, Patrick; Shore, Jay; He, Qimei; Frueh, B Christopher

    2010-07-01

    To demonstrate the noninferiority of a telemedicine modality, videoteleconferencing, compared to traditional in-person service delivery of a group psychotherapy intervention for rural combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A randomized controlled noninferiority trial of 125 male veterans with PTSD (according to DSM criteria on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) and anger difficulties was conducted at 3 Veterans Affairs outpatient clinics. Participants were randomly assigned to receive anger management therapy delivered in a group setting with the therapist either in-person (n = 64) or via videoteleconferencing (n = 61). Participants were assessed at baseline, midtreatment (3 weeks), posttreatment (6 weeks), and 3 and 6 months posttreatment. The primary clinical outcome was reduction of anger difficulties, as measured by the anger expression and trait anger subscales of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) and by the Novaco Anger Scale total score (NAS-T). Data were collected from August 2005 to October 2008. Participants in both groups showed significant and clinically meaningful reductions in anger symptoms, with posttreatment and 3 and 6 months posttreatment effect sizes ranging from .12 to .63. Using a noninferiority margin of 2 points for STAXI-2 subscales anger expression and trait anger and 4 points for NAS-T outcomes, participants in the videoteleconferencing condition demonstrated a reduction in anger symptoms similar ("non-inferior") to symptom reductions in the in-person groups. Additionally, no significant between-group differences were found on process variables, including attrition, adherence, satisfaction, and treatment expectancy. Participants in the in-person condition reported significantly higher group therapy alliance. Clinical and process outcomes indicate delivering cognitive-behavioral group treatment for PTSD-related anger problems via videoteleconferencing is an effective and feasible way to increase

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Therapeutic Intervention for Nursing Home Residents With Dementia and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Elaine M; Stevens, Alan B; LaRocca, Michael A; Scogin, Forrest

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial of a nursing home intervention to reduce depressive symptoms in residents with dementia. The multicomponent intervention included group activity sessions, which used question-asking-reading (QAR), reminiscence, and cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques, as well as environmental supports and individualized behavioral activity programs. Fifty-one residents from five nursing homes participated in the study. A significant difference in depressive symptoms was found, with residents in the QAR-Depression condition showing improvement compared with those in the treatment as usual condition. Residents in the treatment group also exhibited significantly higher levels of expressive verbalizations, engagement with materials, and laughter. Few differences in resident behavior occurring outside of the group activities were noted. Findings suggest that structured group activities can positively impact a resident's psychological well-being. In addition, the QAR structure may be suitable for older adults with cognitive impairment by distributing group tasks and providing external cognitive supports.

  1. 大众传媒对农村居民参与体育锻炼影响及存在问题研究%Effect of Mass Media on Rural Residents Participating in Physical Exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜健

    2012-01-01

    Through analyzing the effect of mass media on rural residents participating in sports exercise, this pa- per points out that mass media is the main way for rural residents obtaining sports information, it influences the awareness and concept of rural residents participating in sports exercise, sports knowledge and skill. At the same time that, the mass media to rural residents in the effect of physical exercise of urban and rural media not ba - lanced and rural residents of the content of the sports communication, lack of rural residents accept the limitations of the mass media.%通过大众传媒对农村居民参与体育锻炼影响的分析,认为大众传媒是农村居民获取体育信息的主要渠道、影响着农村居民参与体育锻炼的意识与观念、影响体育知识与技能的掌握。同时认为,大众传媒对农村居民体育锻炼的影响存在城市与农村媒介的不均衡性、对农村居民体育传播内容的缺失性、农村居民接受大众传媒的局限性等问题。

  2. A controlled community-based trial to promote smoke-free policy in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Adkins, Sarah; Begley, Kathy; York, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Rural, tobacco-growing areas are disproportionately affected by tobacco use, secondhand smoke, and weak tobacco control policies. The purpose was to test the effects of a stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention on readiness for smoke-free policy, and policy outcomes in rural underserved communities. A controlled community-based trial including 37 rural counties. Data were collected annually with community advocates (n = 330) and elected officials (n = 158) in 19 intervention counties and 18 comparison counties over 5 years (average response rate = 68%). Intervention communities received policy development strategies from community advisors tailored to their stage of readiness and designed to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science. Policy outcomes were tracked over 5 years. Communities receiving the stage-specific, tailored intervention had higher overall community readiness scores and better policy outcomes than the comparison counties, controlling for county-level smoking rate, population size, and education. Nearly one-third of the intervention counties adopted smoke-free laws covering restaurants, bars, and all workplaces compared to none of the comparison counties. The stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention acted as a value-added resource to local smoke-free campaigns by promoting readiness for policy, as well as actual policy change in rural communities. Although actual policy change and percent covered by the policies were modest, these areas need additional resources and efforts to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science in order to accelerate smoke-free policy change and reduce the enormous toll from tobacco in these high-risk communities. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  3. Association of perceived neighborhood characteristics, socioeconomic status and rural residency with health outcomes in Egyptian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: one center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Sattar, Amal B; Abou El Magd, Sahar

    2014-03-20

    To investigate the role of perceived neighborhood characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES) and rural residency in influencing the health status outcome of Egyptian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Eighty patients affected with SLE were consecutively included in this a single-center cross-sectional study from July, 2011 to July, 2013. Outcome measures included the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) score, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey physical functioning score and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D score of ≥ 19 points). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results from multivariate logistic regression analyses, a separate adjusted model of each perceived neighborhood characteristic, indicate associations of worse perceived social cohesion with higher SLAQ scores (P < 0.01) and associations of worse perceived neighborhood aesthetics and safety with lower SF-36 physical functioning scores after adjusting for covariates (P < 0.01). Regarding the association of socioeconomic status and rural residency with health status outcomes, the results found association of poor socioeconomic status with the three health status outcome measures and association between rural residency and depression symptoms. Individuals had increased odds of depressive symptoms if they perceived worse neighborhood social cohesion (odds ratio [OR]: 2.14; CI: 1.42-2.80), if they perceived worse neighborhood safety (OR: 1.64; CI: 1.02-2.40) and if they perceived worse neighborhood aesthetic characteristics (OR: 2.79; CI: 1.84-3.38). Study findings indicate that poor socioeconomic status, rural residency and perceived neighborhood characteristics are associated with depression; worse perceived neighborhood aesthetics and safety are associated with lower SF-36 physical functioning, and worse neighborhood social cohesion is associated with higher disease activity among patients with SLE. © 2014 Asia

  4. Improving hypertension management through pharmacist prescribing; the rural alberta clinical trial in optimizing hypertension (Rural RxACTION: trial design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Norman RC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with hypertension continue to have less than optimal blood pressure control, with nearly one in five Canadian adults having hypertension. Pharmacist prescribing is gaining favor as a potential clinically efficacious and cost-effective means to improve both access and quality of care. With Alberta being the first province in Canada to have independent prescribing by pharmacists, it offers a unique opportunity to evaluate outcomes in patients who are prescribed antihypertensive therapy by pharmacists. Methods The study is a randomized controlled trial of enhanced pharmacist care, with the unit of randomization being the patient. Participants will be randomized to enhanced pharmacist care (patient identification, assessment, education, close follow-up, and prescribing/titration of antihypertensive medications or usual care. Participants are patients in rural Alberta with undiagnosed/uncontrolled blood pressure, as defined by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program. The primary outcome is the change in systolic blood pressure between baseline and 24 weeks in the enhanced-care versus usual-care arms. There are also three substudies running in conjunction with the project examining different remuneration models, investigating patient knowledge, and assessing health-resource utilization amongst patients in each group. Discussion To date, one-third of the required sample size has been recruited. There are 15 communities and 17 pharmacists actively screening, recruiting, and following patients. This study will provide high-level evidence regarding pharmacist prescribing. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00878566.

  5. Training pediatric residents to provide parent education: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Erin; Kerns, Suzanne E U; McPhillips, Heather; Wright, Jeffrey; Christakis, Dimitri A; Rivara, Frederick P

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of Primary Care Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) training on pediatric residents and the families they serve to test 2 hypotheses: first, training would significantly improve resident skill in identifying and addressing discrete parenting and child behavior problems; and second, parents would report an improvement in their sense of self-efficacy, use of positive discipline strategies, and their child's behavior. Study participants included pediatric residents from 3 community clinics of a pediatric residency program, as well as English-speaking parents of children aged 18 months to 12 years without a diagnosed behavior disorder cared for by study residents. Residents were randomized to receive Primary Care Triple P training either at the beginning or end of the study period. The measured resident outcomes were self-assessed confidence and skills in giving parenting advice. The measured family outcomes were parent sense of self-efficacy, child externalizing behavior, and discipline strategies. Primary Care Triple P training had a positive, significant, and persistent impact on residents' parenting consultation skills (mean increase on Parent Consultation Skills Checklist 48.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 40.07, 57.36). Parents visiting intervention-trained residents demonstrated improved disciplinary practices compared to parents visiting control residents (mean change in Child Discipline Survey 0.322, 95% CI 0.02, 0.71), with stronger differential effects for parents with lower baseline skills (mean Child Discipline Survey change 0.822, 95% CI 0.48, 1.83). No differences were found for child behavior or parenting sense of confidence. Training residents in Primary Care Triple P can have a positive impact on consultation skills and parent disciplinary practices. This finding adds strength to the call for increased residency training in behavioral pediatrics. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  6. Complex association between rural/urban residence, household wealth and women's overweight: evidence from 30 cross-sectional national household surveys in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madise, Nyovani Janet; Letamo, Gobopamang

    2017-01-01

    We sought to demonstrate that the relationship between urban or rural residence and overweight status among women in Sub-Saharan Africa is complex and confounded by wealth status. We applied multilevel logistic regression to data from 30 sub-Saharan African countries which were collected between 2006 and 2012 to examine the association between women's overweight status (body mass index ≥ 25) and household wealth, rural or urban place of residence, and their interaction. Macro-level statistics from United Nations agencies were used as contextual variables to assess the link between progress in globalization and patterns of overweight. Household wealth was associated with increased odds of being overweight in nearly all of the countries. Urban/rural living and household wealth had a complex association with women's overweight status, shown by 3 patterns. In one group of countries, characterised by low national wealth (median per capita gross national income (GNI) = $660 in 2012) and lower overall prevalence of female overweight (median = 24 per cent in 2010), high household wealth and urban living had independent associations with increased risks of being overweight. In the second group of less poor countries (median per capita GNI = $870) and higher national levels of female overweight (median = 29), there was a cross-over association where rural women had lower risks of overweight than urban women at lower levels of household wealth, but in wealthier households, rural women had higher risks of overweight than urban women. In the final group of countries, household wealth was an important predictor of overweight status, but the association between urban or rural place of residence and overweight status was not statistically significant. The median per capita GNI for this third group was $800 and national prevalence of female overweight was high (median = 32% in 2010). As nations develop and household wealth increases, rural African women

  7. 我国城乡居民收入差距分析%Analysis of the income gap between urban and rural residents in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    根据近年我国城乡居民收入的数据,运用相关分析方法分析我国城乡居民收入差距的现状。得出城镇居民人均可支配收入与农村人均可支配收入具有正相关的线性相关关系,且都具有增长趋势,但二者之间差距随时间越来越大。%In this paper ,according to the income of urban and rural residents of our country ’ s date in recent years,we analyze the current situation of income gap between urban and rural residents in china .Urban resi-dents per capita disposable income and rural per capita disposable income has a positive linear relationship and it has a growing trend .But the gap between the two with the time is increasing .

  8. The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Richard A; Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument. We find that non-whites tend to exhibit higher obesity rates, greater access to fast-food establishments and higher consumption of fast-food meals compared to their white counterparts. In addition, we found that whites and non-whites respond differently to the availability of fast-food in rural environments. Greater availability is not associated with either greater consumption of fast-food meals or a higher obesity risk among the sample of whites. In contrast, greater availability of fast-food is positively associated with both the number of meals consumed for non-white rural residents and their obesity. While our results are robust to specification, the effect of availability on weight outcomes is notably weaker when indirectly calculated from the implied relationship between consumption and caloric intake. This highlights the importance of directly examining the proposed mechanism through which an environmental factor influences weight outcomes.

  9. Urban–Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U.; Ogah, Okechukwu S.; Ukegbu, Andrew U.; Chukwuonye, Innocent I.; Madukwe, Okechukwu O.; Moses, Akhimiem O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. METHODS This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization’s STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. RESULTS In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0%) were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system.

  10. Metabolic Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Correlated Glycemic Control/Complications: A Cross-Sectional Study between Rural and Urban Uygur Residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Du, Guo-Li; Su, Yin-Xia; Yao, Hua; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Qi; Tuerdi, Ablikm; He, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Shu-Xia; Su, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    .... To describe the differences of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes, as well as glycemic control and complicated diabetic complications between rural and urban Uygur residents in Xinjiang Uygur...

  11. An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms intervention in Wales, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Simon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption amongst university students has received increasing attention. A social norms approach to reducing drinking behaviours has met with some success in the USA. Such an approach is based on the assumption that student's perceptions of the norms of their peers are highly influential, but that these perceptions are often incorrect. Social norms interventions therefore aim to correct these inaccurate perceptions, and in turn, to change behaviours. However, UK studies are scarce and it is increasingly recognised that social norm interventions need to be supported by socio ecological approaches that address the wider determinants of behaviour. Objectives To describe the research design for an exploratory trial examining the acceptability, hypothesised process of change and implementation of a social norm marketing campaign designed to correct misperceptions of normative alcohol use and reduce levels of misuse, implemented alongside a university wide alcohol harm reduction toolkit. It also assesses the feasibility of a potential large scale effectiveness trial by providing key trial design parameters including randomisation, recruitment and retention, contamination, data collection methods, outcome measures and intracluster correlations. Methods/design The study adopts an exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial design with halls of residence as the unit of allocation, and a nested mixed methods process evaluation. Four Welsh (UK universities participated in the study, with residence hall managers consenting to implementation of the trial in 50 university owned campus based halls of residence. Consenting halls were randomised to either a phased multi channel social norm marketing campaign addressing normative discrepancies (n = 25 intervention or normal practice (n = 25 control. The primary outcome is alcohol consumption (units per week measured using the Daily Drinking Questionnaire. Secondary

  12. VITAMIN E AND RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AMONG ELDERLY NURSING HOME RESIDENTS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Leka, Lynette S.; Fine, Basil C.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Keusch, Gerald T.; Singh, Maria Fiatarone; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2008-01-01

    Context Respiratory infections are prevalent in the elderly, resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, and utilization of health care services. Vitamin E supplementation has been shown to improve immune response in the elderly. However, the clinical importance of these findings has not been determined. Objective To investigate the effect of 1-year vitamin E supplementation on respiratory infections in elderly nursing home residents Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from April 1998 to August 2001 Setting 33 long-term care facilities in the Boston, Massachusetts area Participants 617 subjects ≥65 years old, who met the study’s eligibility criteria were enrolled, 73% of whom completed the study. The follow-up time (mean ± SD) was 317±104 and 321±97 days, E and placebo respectively, for all subjects enrolled in the study. Intervention A daily vitamin E (200 IU) or placebo capsule; all subjects received a capsule containing 1/2 the Recommended Daily Allowance of essential vitamins and minerals. Main Outcome Measures Incidence, number of subjects and number of days with respiratory infections (upper and lower), and number of new antibiotic prescriptions. Results There was no statistically significant effect of vitamin E on incidence or number of days with infection for all, upper, or lower respiratory infections. However, fewer vitamin E-supplemented subjects acquired one or more respiratory infections (65% vs 74%, risk ratio=0.88, 95% CI=0.75–0.99, p=0.036 for completed subjects; 60% vs 68%, risk ratio=0.88, 95% CI=0.76–1.00, p=0.048 for all subjects), or upper respiratory infections (50% vs 62%, risk ratio = 0.81, 95% CI=0.66–0.96, p=0.013 for completed subjects; 44% vs 52%, risk ratio=0.84, 95% CI=0.69–1.00, p=0.051 for all subjects). Post hoc sub-group analysis on common colds indicated that the vitamin E group had a lower incidence of common cold (0.66 vs 0.83 per subject-year, rate ratio=0.80, 95% CI=0.64–0

  13. Effect of family style mealtimes on quality of life, physical performance, and body weight of nursing home residents: cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, K.A.N.D.; Graaf, de C.; Kok, F.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of family style mealtimes on quality of life, physical performance, and body weight of nursing home residents without dementia. Design Cluster randomised trial. Setting Five Dutch nursing homes. Participants 178 residents (mean age 77 years). Two wards in each home wer

  14. Effect of family style mealtimes on quality of life, physical performance, and body weight of nursing home residents: cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, K.A.N.D.; Graaf, de C.; Kok, F.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of family style mealtimes on quality of life, physical performance, and body weight of nursing home residents without dementia. Design Cluster randomised trial. Setting Five Dutch nursing homes. Participants 178 residents (mean age 77 years). Two wards in each home

  15. An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms intervention in Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Simon; Moore, Graham; Williams, Annie; Moore, Laurence

    2012-03-13

    Excessive alcohol consumption amongst university students has received increasing attention. A social norms approach to reducing drinking behaviours has met with some success in the USA. Such an approach is based on the assumption that student's perceptions of the norms of their peers are highly influential, but that these perceptions are often incorrect. Social norms interventions therefore aim to correct these inaccurate perceptions, and in turn, to change behaviours. However, UK studies are scarce and it is increasingly recognised that social norm interventions need to be supported by socio ecological approaches that address the wider determinants of behaviour. To describe the research design for an exploratory trial examining the acceptability, hypothesised process of change and implementation of a social norm marketing campaign designed to correct misperceptions of normative alcohol use and reduce levels of misuse, implemented alongside a university wide alcohol harm reduction toolkit. It also assesses the feasibility of a potential large scale effectiveness trial by providing key trial design parameters including randomisation, recruitment and retention, contamination, data collection methods, outcome measures and intracluster correlations. The study adopts an exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial design with halls of residence as the unit of allocation, and a nested mixed methods process evaluation. Four Welsh (UK) universities participated in the study, with residence hall managers consenting to implementation of the trial in 50 university owned campus based halls of residence. Consenting halls were randomised to either a phased multi channel social norm marketing campaign addressing normative discrepancies (n = 25 intervention) or normal practice (n = 25 control). The primary outcome is alcohol consumption (units per week) measured using the Daily Drinking Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes assess frequency of alcohol consumption, higher risk

  16. Analyzing the Influencing Factors of the Willingness of Rural Residents to Buy Commercial Pension Insurance%农村居民购买商业养老保险意愿的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其芳

    2016-01-01

    Through the survey of 1 12 rural residents in Hunan province,this paper analyzes the influencing factors of rural residents to buy commercial pension insurance empirically using the Probit model.The paper draws a conclusion that at present our country,more than half of the rural residents is not willing to buy commercial pension insurance,and commercial pension in-surance in rural areas have yet to give full play to their role.The age of rural residents,the level of education,the family income,the rural residents understanding degree of commercial pension insurance,the rural residents attitude to raise children to provide against old age,the influence degree of the government's publicity of commercial pension insurance on rural residents to buy commercial pension insurance will have a significant impact.%通过对湖南省112户农村居民的调查,运用 Probit 模型对农村居民购买商业养老保险意愿的影响因素进行实证分析,结果表明:目前我国有超半数以上的农村居民不愿意购买商业养老保险,商业养老保险在农村地区还未充分发挥其保障作用。农村居民年龄、受教育程度、家庭年纯收入、对商业养老保险的了解程度、对养儿防老的态度、政府宣传商业养老保险的影响程度等对农村居民购买商业养老保险的意愿有显著影响。

  17. Efficacy of highly bioavailable zinc from fortified water: a randomized controlled trial in rural Beninese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetti, Valeria; Kujinga, Prosper; Mitchikpè, Comlan Evariste S; Zeder, Christophe; Tay, Fabian; Tossou, Félicien; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Zinc deficiency and contaminated water are major contributors to diarrhea in developing countries. Food fortification with zinc has not shown clear benefits, possibly because of low zinc absorption from inhibitory food matrices. We used a novel point-of-use water ultrafiltration device configured with glass zinc plates to produce zinc-fortified, potable water. The objective was to determine zinc bioavailability from filtered water and the efficacy of zinc-fortified water in improving zinc status. In a crossover balanced study, we measured fractional zinc absorption (FAZ) from the zinc-fortified water in 18 healthy Swiss adults using zinc stable isotopes and compared it with zinc-fortified maize porridge. We conducted a 20-wk double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 277 Beninese school children from rural settings who were randomly assigned to receive a daily portion of zinc-fortified filtered water delivering 2.8 mg Zn (Zn+filter), nonfortified filtered water (Filter), or nonfortified nonfiltered water (Pump) from the local improved supply, acting as the control group. The main outcome was plasma zinc concentration (PZn), and the 3 groups were compared by using mixed-effects models. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of zinc deficiency, diarrhea prevalence, and growth. Geometric mean (-SD, +SD) FAZ was 7-fold higher from fortified water (65.9%; 42.2, 102.4) than from fortified maize (9.1%; 6.0, 13.7; P diarrhea or growth, but our study did not have the duration and power to detect such effects. Consumption of filtered water fortified with a low dose of highly bioavailable zinc is an effective intervention in children from rural African settings. Large community-based trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of zinc-fortified filtered water on diarrhea and growth. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01636583 and NCT01790321. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. 邯郸市城乡居民艾滋病认知与态度调查%Survey on cognition and attitude about AIDS among urban and rural residents in Handan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔巍; 张炎; 袁海燕; 董志勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解城乡居民对艾滋病的认知和态度情况,为有针对性地开展城乡居民艾滋病健康教育工作提供重要依据.方法 采用多阶段抽样方法,在邯郸市抽取城市居民和农村居民1 600人进行问卷调查.结果 共收回有效问卷1 559份,其中城市居民783份、农村居民776份.城市居民艾滋病知识知晓率为87.10%,农村居民为73.71%,农村居民知识知晓率显著低于城市居民(P <0.001);84.16%的城市居民和83.51%的农村居民通过电视获得艾滋病知识;41.38%的城市居民和45.10%的农村居民将减少或断绝与艾滋病感染者来往;26.18%的城市居民和29.64%的农村居民不允许感染者继续工作和学习,城乡居民对艾滋病感染者的态度构成差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 城乡居民对艾滋病知识有较高的知晓率,但对艾滋病感染者的歧视态度仍较为严重.%Objective To understand the situation of cognition and attitude about AIDS among residents in cities and rural areas, and provide basis for carrying out AIDS health education among urban and countryside residents. Method 1 600 residents in urban and rural were selected by multistage sampling method and carried out questionnaire. Results Total 1 559 valid questionnaires were collected, and 783 pieces were from urban residents and 776 were from rural residents. AIDS awareness rate was 87. 10% among urban residents, and 73. 71% among rural residents. The awareness rate of urban residents was significantly different with the rural residents (P < 0.001) . 84. 16% urban residents and 83.51% rural residents acquired the knowledge of AIDS from television, and 41. 38% urban residents and 45. 10 % rural residents expressed that they would reduce or cease contaction with HIV positive persons. 26. 18 % urban residents and 29. 64 % rural residents disallowed HIV positive persons to work or study with normal persons. The attitudes to HIV positive persons

  19. A trial of intermittent preventive treatment and home-based management of malaria in a rural area of The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webb Emily L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual malaria interventions provide only partial protection in most epidemiological situations. Thus, there is a need to investigate whether combining interventions provides added benefit in reducing mortality and morbidity from malaria. The potential benefits of combining IPT in children (IPTc with home management of malaria (HMM was investigated. Methods During the 2008 malaria transmission season, 1,277 children under five years of age resident in villages within the rural Farafenni demographic surveillance system (DSS in North Bank Region, The Gambia were randomized to receive monthly IPTc with a single dose of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP plus three doses of amodiaquine (AQ or SP and AQ placebos given by village health workers (VHWs on three occasions during the months of September, October and November, in a double-blind trial. Children in all study villages who developed an acute febrile illness suggestive of malaria were treated by VHWs who had been taught how to manage malaria with artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem™. The primary aims of the project were to determine whether IPTc added significant benefit to HMM and whether VHWs could effectively combine the delivery of both interventions. Results The incidence of clinical attacks of malaria was very low in both study groups. The incidence rate of malaria in children who received IPTc was 0.44 clinical attacks per 1,000 child months at risk while that for control children was 1.32 per 1,000 child months at risk, a protective efficacy of 66% (95% CI -23% to 96%; p = 0.35. The mean (standard deviation haemoglobin concentration at the end of the malaria transmission season was similar in the two treatment groups: 10.2 (1.6 g/dL in the IPTc group compared to 10.3 (1.5 g/dL in the placebo group. Coverage with IPTc was high, with 94% of children receiving all three treatments during the study period. Conclusion Due to the very low incidence of malaria, no firm

  20. Empirical Analysis about Food Consumption Behavior of the Rural Residents%苏北农村居民食品消费行为实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵运川

    2016-01-01

    了解和认清我国农村居民食品消费行为的现状,能够为农村地区食品供求政策的制定提供详实的依据。为了使苏北农村居民食品消费行为更加合理,对苏北农村居民进行实地调研,分析其食品消费行为的现状及特点,并给出了有针对性的建议。%Understanding the present situation of the rural residentsˊfood consumption behavior gives the basis of the policy making on food supply and demand in rural areas.In order to make food consumption behavior more reasonable,this article gives the interview survey on the rural residentsˊin northern Suzhou,analyzes the present situation and characteristics of their food consumption behavior.

  1. Exploring the Potential for Moral Hazard When Clinical Trial Research is Conducted in Rural Communities: Do Traditional Ethics Concepts Apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ann Freeman; Hoas, Helena

    2015-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, clinical research has migrated from academic medical centers to community-based settings, including rural settings. This evolving research environment may present some moral hazards or challenges that could undermine traditionally accepted standards for the protection of human subjects. The study described in this article was designed to explore the influence of motives driving the decisions to conduct clinical trial research in rural community settings. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with 80 participants who conducted clinical trials with rural subjects. The interviews provided a way to examine the influence of budgetary factors when deciding to conduct a clinical study, how information about the budget and the purpose of the study is conveyed to research participants, and the potential willingness of clinicians and coordinators to enroll in the kinds of studies they offer. The findings suggest that clinical trial research in rural communities may challenge clinicians' abilities to balance the needs of the patient with the needs of the research enterprise. Few respondents seemed to recognize the traditionally recognized hazards of a dual relationship, specifically the moral risks of trying to attend to the interests of both patient and industry. It seems important to re-examine how we protect human subjects and what such protection should look like as research becomes part of the way medical care is provided, even in very rural areas.

  2. The effects of second home tourism on improving life quality of rural residents (Case: Roudbar-e Qasran Districtـ Shemiranat County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Rezvani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-Introduction Quality of life as a multidimensional concept and important aspect of living in human communities has been penetrated in many scientific fields including tourism. The relationship between tourism and local communities’ quality of life is generally considered and the subject is classified in relation to economic, social - cultural and environmental aspects. areas is considered as one of the patterns of tourism whose growth and development could have profound changes in many objective Tourism as a major area of activity can improve quality of life for local residents. The pattern of second home tourism in rural and subjective parameters and characteristics of macro-economic, social, cultural and environmental aspects of destination communities. Quality of life in rural areas not only is affected by the factors, activities and events that exist in rural areas but also by external factors that affect the village and its inhabitants. The analysis of this type of tourism was necessary and important in the process of planning of rural development and rural tourism development. Thus, the main goal of the study is to investigate second home tourism’s effects on improving life quality of local residents in rural areas of Rudbar Qasran (Shemiranat County of Tehran province. Second home tourism has historically been promoted in the area since 1981, is suffused with life and consequently has had a profound impact on the lives of local residents. Therefore, recognizing the effects of this model of tourism on the rural residents’ quality of life can provide the appropriate tourism development and promotion of quality of life for residents of the area.2- Theoretical basesThe formation and development of second homes caused from the development of tourism, is one of the important phenomena of the twentieth century and current century. A large part of second homes are built in rural areas. Second home tourism is emerged as an

  3. 吉林省农村居民消费升级对策研究%Strategies in Responding to Consumption Upgrade of Rural Residents in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子玉; 肖静

    2014-01-01

    现阶段,吉林省的农村居民消费升级比较缓慢,主要表现在包括农村居民的消费水平、消费结构、消费环境优化和消费主体智能化等四个方面,造成这种结果的原因是基于消费力、分配、供给等因素造成的。吉林省应大力拓展吉林省农民增收的渠道,提高农村居民的素质;统筹城乡发展,合理调节分配关系;改善吉林省农村居民的消费环境,优化农村消费供给条件;改变过去落后的消费理念,树立科学消费观,合理引导吉林农民的消费升级。%At current stage, consumption upgrade of rural residents in Jilin province is relatively slow, being reflected in four aspects:con-sumption level, consumption structure, consumption environment optimization, and consumer digitalization degree. The slow upgrade is caused by spending power, distribution, and supply among other factors. Jilin government should help broaden channels for increasing farmer's income and invest more in training and education of farmers. The urban and rural development should be balanced with reason-able distribution. The government should improve the rural consumption environment in Jilin province and optimize the supply condition. Rural residents should discard the outdated consumption concept and accept the scientific consumption view.

  4. 缩小陕西城乡居民收入差距过大的有效途径研究%Research on the Effective Way of Narrowing the Income Gap between Urban and Rural Residents in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田娜

    2012-01-01

    城乡收入比是衡量城乡收入差距的一个重要指标,陕西城乡居民收入比2002年-2010年一直远高于全国水平,城乡居民收入差距过大.农村人口占陕西人口总数的多数,与城镇居民主要依靠政策性收入来源的相对固定性和单一性相比,农村居民收入来源更灵活多样,增收潜力可挖.农民人均纯收入增长速度近来超过城镇的事实,更进一步证实了农民增收在有效缩小城乡居民收入差距中的作用.必须通过发展特色农业,加快农业产业化,实现农村工业化;提高工业反哺农业的能力;实现农村劳动力有效转移等途径增加农民收入以缩小陕西城乡居民收入差距.%Urban-rural income ratio is an important indicator that measure urban-rural income gap, urban-rural income ratio in Shaanxi has been much higher than the national average from 2002 to 2010. Urban-rural income gap is too large. The rural population in Shaanxi is accounted for the majority, compared to the relative fixity and unity of urban residents rely mainly on policy income sources, the income source of rural residents is more flexible, has potential to increase income. The fact that growth rate of rural households per capita net income over the town in recent further confirmed the role of increasing rural residents income in effectively narrowing the income gap between urban and rural residents, develop characteristic agriculture, speed up the industrialization of agriculture, come true the rural industrialization, improve the ability of industry nurturing agriculture, achieve the effective transfer of the rural labor force to increase rural residents income and reduce the income gap between urban and rural residents in Shaanxi.

  5. Assessing the interest to participate in a dengue vaccine efficacy trial among residents of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guerra, Carmen L; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L; Soto-Gómez, Eunice; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Peña-Orellana, Marisol; Santiago, Luis M; Rivera, Reinaldo; Cruz, R Rhode; Ramírez, Viani; Tomashek, Kay M; Dayan, Gustavo

    2012-07-01

    Dengue, endemic in Puerto Rico, is a major public health problem. Vaccines are thought the best means to prevent dengue because vector control alone has been largely ineffective. We implemented qualitative studies in 2006 and 2010 to determine the acceptability of conducting placebo-controlled dengue vaccine efficacy trials in Puerto Rican children. Key informant interviews and focus groups with parents and children were conducted in municipalities with high dengue incidence. We used structured open-ended questions to determine motivators and attitudes regarding vaccine trial participation. Knowledge about dengue risk and prevention, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding vaccines and vaccine trials were assessed. Using grounded theory, we conducted content analysis and established categories and sub-categories of participant responses. All participants were knowledgeable about dengue prevention and perceived children as most affected age groups. Participants were aware of vaccines benefits and they thought a vaccine could prevent dengue. However, most would not allow their children to participate in a placebo-controlled vaccine trial. Barriers included lack of trust in new vaccines and vaccine trial procedures; fear of developing dengue or side effects from the vaccine and lack of information about candidate dengue vaccines. Participants thought information, including results of previous trials might overcome barriers to participation. Motivators for participation were altruism, protection from dengue, free medical attention, and compensation for transportation and participation. Parents would consider children participation if accurate vaccine trial information is provided.

  6. Process and effects of a community intervention on malaria in rural Burkina Faso: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Lars

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of young children affected by malaria have no access to formal health services. Home treatment through mothers of febrile children supported by mother groups and local health workers has the potential to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial was implemented from 2002–2004 in a malaria endemic area of rural Burkina Faso. Six and seven villages were randomly assigned to the intervention and control arms respectively. Febrile children from intervention villages were treated with chloroquine (CQ by their mothers, supported by local women group leaders. CQ was regularly supplied through a revolving fund from local health centres. The trial was evaluated through two cross-sectional surveys at baseline and after two years of intervention. The primary endpoint of the study was the proportion of moderate to severe anaemia in children aged 6–59 months. For assessment of the development of drug efficacy over time, an in vivo CQ efficacy study was nested into the trial. The study is registered under http://www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN 34104704. Results The intervention was shown to be feasible under program conditions and a total of 1.076 children and 999 children were evaluated at baseline and follow-up time points respectively. Self-reported CQ treatment of fever episodes at home as well as referrals to health centres increased over the study period. At follow-up, CQ was detected in the blood of high proportions of intervention and control children. Compared to baseline findings, the prevalence of anaemia (29% vs 16%, p P. falciparum parasitaemia, fever and palpable spleens was lower at follow-up but there were no differences between the intervention and control group. CQ efficacy decreased over the study period but this was not associated with the intervention. Discussion The decreasing prevalence of malaria

  7. Value orientations of the population of the Republic of Tuva (a study of an opinion poll of urban and rural residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana P. Tatarova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the system of value orientations and cultural preferences in post-Soviet Russia are of highest importance for contemporary researchers. This article examines the value orientations of the residents of the Republic of Tuva (a constituent subject of Russian Federation both in toto and by generation and along the urban/rural divide. Our analysis utilized the outcomes of our empirical studies titled “The current state of sociocultural institutions in the Republic of Tuva and their role in preventing social problems” (2011 and “The rural culture of the Republic of Tuva” (2011-2012. I am grateful to students of the Tuva Branch of East Siberian State Academy of Culture and Fine Arts for their aid in conducting the study. The study showed that the system of value orientations in Tuva features certain distinctions between those of urban and rural residents, and along the generational divide. The urban population’s vital values are health, personal security and success (for the elder generation and health, money and personal success (for the younger generation. Among the social values the elder generations most frequently name respect from others, integrity, good family relations, while the younger generation focuses on respect from others, good friendship and integrity. Rural population places family and health above everything else. Studying leisure time of the urban population in Tuva showed that the list of top activities includes spending time with friends and/or family, watching TV and a day outdoors. The outcomes of our study do not completely match the hierarchy of leisure time activities in other regions of Russia and the national average. There is a certain danger in contemporary urban environment’s trend towards leaning down the variety of leisure activities. Our study showed that the urban and rural populations have almost identical TV watching habits, with the majority preferring newscasts, music shows and crime reports

  8. Effectiveness of brief suicide management training programme for medical residents in Japan: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Kato, T A; Sato, R; Fujisawa, D; Aoyama-Uehara, K; Hashimoto, N; Yonemoto, N; Fukasawa, M; Otsuka, K

    2014-06-01

    Aims. To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief suicide management training programme for Japanese medical residents compared with the usual lecture on suicidality. Methods. In this multi-center, clustered randomized controlled trial, the intervention group attended a structured suicide management programme and the control group, the usual lecture on depression and suicidality. The primary outcome was the difference in residents' cumulative competency score to manage suicidal persons from baseline (T0) to 1 month after the intervention (T2), determined using the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-1) score, at individual level. Results. Analysis of 114 residents (intervention group n = 65, control group n = 49) assigned to two clusters in each group revealed no change in SIRI-1 score from T0 to T2 or immediately after the intervention (T1) between the two groups. As a secondary analysis, discrepancy in judgement between the participants and Japanese suicidologists was examined immediately after the intervention in the adjusted model, with a mean difference in score of 9.98 (95% confidence interval: 4.39-15.56; p = 0.001). Conclusions. The structured programme was not proven to improve competency in suicide management when measured by the SIRI-1 score. Further elaboration of the programme and valid measurement of its outcome would be needed to show the program's effectiveness.

  9. Effect of specialized bathing systems on resident cleanliness and water quality in nursing homes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Cohen, Lauren W; Williams, Christianna S; Munn, Jean; Preisser, John S; Sobsey, Mark D; Wait, Douglas A; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2007-06-01

    A randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of different methods of water agitation on clinical and microbiological outcomes in 31 nursing home residents. Four conditions were tested: a) whirlpool tub, jets on, using standard soap products; b) ultrasound tub, ultrasound on, using the standard soap products; c) ultrasound tub, ultrasound on, using specialized soap and skin conditioner; and d) either tub (randomized), water circulation off, using standard soap products (the control condition). Outcomes of interest included skin microbial flora, water microbial flora, skin condition, time spent bathing, and staff satisfaction. Resident skin condition and skin microbial flora did not differ between the four treatments. The tubs also did not differ in terms of bacterial colonization; however, there was a non-statistically significant trend for the highest counts to occur in whirlpool tubs after being idle overnight. The ultrasound and whirlpool tubs were preferred by staff over the control treatment (still water) in terms of sound and overall suitability. In addition, staff reported that the ultrasound tub using enhanced skin cleansers made bathing residents easier and faster than the same tub using standard cleansers.

  10. An occupational therapy intervention for residents with stroke related disabilities in UK care homes (OTCH): cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackley, Catherine M; Walker, Marion F; Burton, Christopher R; Watkins, Caroline L; Mant, Jonathan; Roalfe, Andrea K; Wheatley, Keith; Sheehan, Bart; Sharp, Leslie; Stant, Katie E; Fletcher-Smith, Joanna; Steel, Kerry; Wilde, Kate; Irvine, Lisa; Peryer, Guy

    2015-02-05

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of an established programme of occupational therapy in maintaining functional activity and reducing further health risks from inactivity in care home residents living with stroke sequelae. Pragmatic, parallel group, cluster randomised controlled trial. 228 care homes (>10 beds each), both with and without the provision of nursing care, local to 11 trial administrative centres across the United Kingdom. 1042 care home residents with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack, including those with language and cognitive impairments, not receiving end of life care. 114 homes (n=568 residents, 64% from homes providing nursing care) were allocated to the intervention arm and 114 homes (n=474 residents, 65% from homes providing nursing care) to standard care (control arm). Participating care homes were randomised between May 2010 and March 2012. Targeted three month programme of occupational therapy, delivered by qualified occupational therapists and assistants, involving patient centred goal setting, education of care home staff, and adaptations to the environment. Primary outcome at the participant level: scores on the Barthel index of activities of daily living at three months post-randomisation. Secondary outcome measures at the participant level: Barthel index scores at six and 12 months post-randomisation, and scores on the Rivermead mobility index, geriatric depression scale-15, and EuroQol EQ-5D-3L questionnaire, at all time points. 64% of the participants were women and 93% were white, with a mean age of 82.9 years. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups for all measures, personal characteristics, and diagnostic tests. Overall, 2538 occupational therapy visits were made to 498 participants in the intervention arm (mean 5.1 visits per participant). No adverse events attributable to the intervention were recorded. 162 (11%) died before the primary outcome time point, and 313 (30%) died over the 12 months of

  11. An Empirical Study of the Influence of Migrant Workers’ Individual Decisions concerning "Change from Rural Residents to Urban Residents" in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyang; LI; Yunlei; PENG; Junbo; LIU

    2014-01-01

    This paper,from the city integration perspective,analyzes the main beneficiaries who benefit from the household registration system reform,and studies the influence of individual decisions about the transfer from agriculture to non-agriculture. Based on it,this paper makes an empirical research by using the survey data about migrant workers in Chongqing. The research findings are as follows:( i) The urban employment,the living condition and the rural connection have a significant impact on migrant workers’ transfer decision;( ii) If the value of those factors( such as the working stability,the family income,the urban house condition and the urban social security) is higher,then the migrant workers who have no economic interest in rural areas are better able to integrate into the urban areas,therefore the inclination to transfer the household registration from agriculture to non-agriculture will be much stronger. It is proposed that we should do some significant things,such as enhancing the investment of security housing,bringing the migrant workers into the city housing accumulation fund system and giving them prior allocation right,perfecting land elastic exit mechanism,creating a harmonious employment environment,which are important strategies promoting migrant workers to integrate into the urban areas and affecting their individual decision about transferring from agriculture to nonagriculture.

  12. On the Design of New Rural Residence%浅谈新农村住宅设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武雪丽

    2011-01-01

    Based on the new rural residential characteristics,this paper discusses the new rural residential design and development direction from the aspects of overall planning,residential function,ecological energy-saving etc.%结合农村住宅特点,从规划设计、住宅功能设计、生态节能等方面探讨新农村住宅的设计及发展方向。

  13. Effects of dementia-care mapping on residents and staff of care homes: a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertje van de Ven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of dementia-care mapping (DCM for institutionalised people with dementia has been demonstrated in an explanatory cluster-randomised controlled trial (cRCT with two DCM researchers carrying out the DCM intervention. In order to be able to inform daily practice, we studied DCM effectiveness in a pragmatic cRCT involving a wide range of care homes with trained nursing staff carrying out the intervention. METHODS: Dementia special care units were randomly assigned to DCM or usual care. Nurses from the intervention care homes received DCM training and conducted the 4-months DCM-intervention twice during the study. The primary outcome was agitation, measured with the Cohen-Mansfield agitation inventory (CMAI. The secondary outcomes included residents' neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs and quality of life, and staff stress and job satisfaction. The nursing staff made all measurements at baseline and two follow-ups at 4-month intervals. We used linear mixed-effect models to test treatment and time effects. RESULTS: 34 units from 11 care homes, including 434 residents and 382 nursing staff members, were randomly assigned. Ten nurses from the intervention units completed the basic and advanced DCM training. Intention-to-treat analysis showed no statistically significant effect on the CMAI (mean difference between groups 2·4, 95% CI -2·7 to 7·6; p = 0·34. More NPSs were reported in the intervention group than in usual care (p = 0·02. Intervention staff reported fewer negative and more positive emotional reactions during work (p = 0·02. There were no other significant effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our pragmatic findings did not confirm the effect on the primary outcome of agitation in the explanatory study. Perhaps the variability of the extent of implementation of DCM may explain the lack of effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trials Registry NTR2314.

  14. Multivitamin and Iron Supplementation to Prevent Periconceptional Anemia in Rural Tanzanian Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratna, Nilupa S.; Masanja, Honorati; Mrema, Sigilbert; Levira, Francis; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Saronga, Naomi; Irema, Kahema; Shuma, Mary; Elisaria, Ester; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Women’s nutritional status during conception and early pregnancy can influence maternal and infant outcomes. This study examined the efficacy of pre-pregnancy supplementation with iron and multivitamins to reduce the prevalence of anemia during the periconceptional period among rural Tanzanian women and adolescent girls. Design A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in which participants were individually randomized to receive daily oral supplements of folic acid alone, folic acid and iron, or folic acid, iron, and vitamins A, B-complex, C, and E at approximately single recommended dietary allowance (RDA) doses for six months. Setting Rural Rufiji District, Tanzania. Subjects Non-pregnant women and adolescent girls aged 15–29 years (n = 802). Results The study arms were comparable in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, food security, nutritional status, pregnancy history, and compliance with the regimen (p>0.05). In total, 561 participants (70%) completed the study and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels were not different across treatments (median: 11.1 g/dL, Q1-Q3: 10.0–12.4 g/dL, p = 0.65). However, compared with the folic acid arm (28%), there was a significant reduction in the risk of hypochromic microcytic anemia in the folic acid and iron arm (17%, RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42–0.90, p = 0.01) and the folic acid, iron, and multivitamin arm (19%, RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45–0.96, p = 0.03). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to adjust for potential selection bias due to loss to follow-up did not materially change these results. The effect of the regimens was not modified by frequency of household meat consumption, baseline underweight status, parity, breastfeeding status, or level of compliance (in all cases, p for interaction>0.2). Conclusions Daily oral supplementation with iron and folic acid among women and adolescents prior to pregnancy reduces risk of anemia. The

  15. Factors impacting the use of antenatal care and hospital child delivery services: a case study of rural residents in the Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Minxing; Lu, Jun; Hao, Mo; Zhang, Changli; Sun, Mei; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to understand the factors that impact whether rural women obtain antenatal care (ANC) and choose to use hospital delivery services in central and western China. We chose to conduct field research with the rural residents in Hubei Province through a combination of random sampling and purposive sampling methods. A mixed method approach was taken to analyze the factors impacting the use of ANC and hospital delivery services from the perspective of the villagers. Our results indicate that the quality of the available ANC services is poor. In particular, women who have special circumstances and unplanned pregnancies or who become pregnant prior to marriage are confronted with inadequate ANC and hospital child delivery services. The factors that impact whether women use or not use ANC and hospital delivery services and that cause women to choose hospital or home delivery can be understood at three levels: macro, middle, and micro. We strongly suggest that the policies and projects that promote maternal healthcare in rural areas be sustained with an added focus on including women with special circumstances. Village doctors can be enlisted to regularly visit pregnant women at home and to provide extra explanation about the ANC services available and the purpose of maternal healthcare. These findings and suggestions can be used by local health providers and decision-makers to improve the quality of ANC and hospital delivery services.

  16. Effect of family style mealtimes on quality of life, physical performance, and body weight of nursing home residents: cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of family style mealtimes on quality of life, physical performance, and body weight of nursing home residents without dementia. Design Cluster randomised trial. Setting Five Dutch nursing homes. Participants 178 residents (mean age 77 years). Two wards in each home were randomised to intervention (95 participants) or control groups (83). Intervention During six months the intervention group took their meals family style and the control group received the usual i...

  17. Does where you live matter to your health? Investigating factors that influence the self-rated health of urban and rural Chinese residents: evidence drawn from Chinese General Social Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Zhu, Zhenjun; Li, Zhigang

    2017-04-21

    China's rapid urbanization over the past decades has exacerbated the problems of environmental degradation and health disparities. However, few studies have analysed the differences between urban and rural residents in relation to how environmental quality impacts health outcomes. This study examines the associations between Chinese people's perceptions of environmental quality and their self-rated health, particularly focusing on differences between rural and urban residents in environment-health relationships. Using a logistic regression model and data from the 2013 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), a representative sample of data for 3,402 urban residents (46 ± 16 years) and 2,439 rural residents (48 ± 15 years) was analysed. The dependent variable used for the logistic regressions was whether or not respondents reported being healthy. Independent variables included respondents' evaluations of the living environment, and how frequently they participated in physical activities. Interaction terms were employed to measure the moderating effects of physical exercise on the relationship between perceived environmental quality and health. The percentage of healthy urban residents was significantly larger than that of healthy rural respondents (70.87% versus 62.87%). Urban respondents living in areas with sufficient green space were more likely to report good health (OR = 0.749, CI = [0.628, 0.895]), while rural respondents without reliable access to fresh water were more likely to report poor health (OR = 0.762, CI = [0.612, 0.949]). Urban respondents who were exposed to green spaces and exercised frequently were 21.6 per cent more likely to report good health than those who exercised infrequently (OR = 1.216, CI = [1.047, 1.413]). Those who lived in areas with insufficient green space and exercised frequently were 19.1 per cent less likely to report good health than those who exercised infrequently (OR = 0.805, CI = [0

  18. Use of a registry-generated audit, feedback, and patient reminder intervention in an internal medicine resident clinic--a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kris G; Thomas, Matthew R; Stroebel, Robert J; McDonald, Furman S; Hanson, Gregory J; Naessens, James M; Huschka, Todd R; Kolars, Joseph C

    2007-12-01

    Disease registries, audit and feedback, and clinical reminders have been reported to improve care processes. To assess the effects of a registry-generated audit, feedback, and patient reminder intervention on diabetes care. Randomized controlled trial conducted in a resident continuity clinic during the 2003-2004 academic year. Seventy-eight categorical Internal Medicine residents caring for 483 diabetic patients participated. Residents randomized to the intervention (n = 39) received instruction on diabetes registry use; quarterly performance audit, feedback, and written reports identifying patients needing care; and had letters sent quarterly to patients needing hemoglobin A1c or cholesterol testing. Residents randomized to the control group (n = 39) received usual clinic education. Hemoglobin A1c and lipid monitoring, and the achievement of intermediate clinical outcomes (hemoglobin A1c audit, feedback, and patient reminder intervention in a resident continuity clinic modestly improved diabetes care processes, but did not influence intermediate clinical outcomes.

  19. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hormann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  20. The impact of home, work, and church environments on fat intake over time among rural residents: a longitudinal observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Haardörfer, Regine; Alcantara, Iris; Addison, Ann; Glanz, Karen; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviors are influenced by many individual and environmental factors. This study explores how dietary fat intake in high-risk midlife adults living in the rural south is influenced by three behavior settings, i.e. in the home, at work, and at church. Methods Self-report data were collected from rural African American or Caucasian adults age 40–70 at three time points at baseline, 6, and 12 months post baseline. Multilevel analyses investigated the impact of determinants of...

  1. 新型农村合作医疗对农民健康自评的影响%Effects of new rural cooperative medical health policy on self-perceived health of rural residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范涛; 曹乾; 蒋露露; 许珍子

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effects of new rural cooperative medical policy on the health of rural residents, and quantitatively evaluate the implementation of the policy. Methods Data on rural residents participating in new rural cooperative medical policy in 2000 and 2006 were evaluated with 2×2 square analysis and Probit model based on difference in differences method, and the implementation of policy was analysed. Results The number of females participating in new rural cooperative medical policy was larger than that of males, and the mean age of residents participating in the policy (45. 79 years old) was lower than that of residents without participation (46. 84 years old). The overall self-perceived health value in 2006 was lower than that in 2000. The policy had positive effect on self-perceived health value, with difference in differences of 0.040 3. Gender, age, drinking and medical insurance participation had influence on self-perceived health value (P<0.05). Conclusion The new rural cooperative medical policy has a positive effect on self-perceived health, but the effect may be hindered by potential moral risk and self-ignorance. Health education should be enhanced during the implementation of the policy.%目的 分析新型农村合作医疗(新农合)政策对农民健康的影响,定量评估新农合政策实施效果.方法 基于倍差法运用2×2方格分析法和Probit模型对中国新农合2000年和2006年参合数据进行评估,分析政策实施的效果.结果 新农合参合组女性比例高于男性,参合组平均年龄(45.79岁)低于未参合组(46.84岁).2006年健康自评状况总体低于2000年;新农合参合对健康自评有积极影响,净影响为0.040 3;性别、年龄、是否饮酒和是否拥有医疗保险对健康自评有影响(P<0.05).结论 新农合对农民健康自评有积极影响,但可能存在的道德风险、自我忽视等因素影响健康自评值的提高幅度,新农合实施还应加强健康教育的宣传.

  2. Changes in Dietary Patterns and Certain Nutrition-related Diseases in Urban and Rural Residents of Jiangsu Province, China, During the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate into the changes of dietary patterns and their impacts on health of urban and rural residents in Jiangsu Province, China during the 1990s. Methods On the basis of the results of food consumption survey, the calorie intake was calculated according to the balanced diet method and the quality of diet was assessed by scores of desirable dietary pattern (DDP).Results It was found that food consumption and dietary patterns changed remarkably during the 1990s. Grain consumption was decreasing year by year, but the consumption of animal food was markedly increasing. Although the score of desirable dietary pattern (DDP) in urban residents was more than 90, the deducted score due to over-consumption of animal food increased. The mortality from infectious diseases evidently decreased in the whole province, while the death rates of some chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, colorectal cancer and breast cancer, were increasing rapidly in urban areas. Conclusions Sufficient attention should be paid to the negative effects of change in dietary patterns on people's health, especially in the urban residents.

  3. Multivitamin and iron supplementation to prevent periconceptional anemia in rural tanzanian women: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilupa S Gunaratna

    Full Text Available Women's nutritional status during conception and early pregnancy can influence maternal and infant outcomes. This study examined the efficacy of pre-pregnancy supplementation with iron and multivitamins to reduce the prevalence of anemia during the periconceptional period among rural Tanzanian women and adolescent girls.A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in which participants were individually randomized to receive daily oral supplements of folic acid alone, folic acid and iron, or folic acid, iron, and vitamins A, B-complex, C, and E at approximately single recommended dietary allowance (RDA doses for six months.Rural Rufiji District, Tanzania.Non-pregnant women and adolescent girls aged 15-29 years (n = 802.The study arms were comparable in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, food security, nutritional status, pregnancy history, and compliance with the regimen (p>0.05. In total, 561 participants (70% completed the study and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels were not different across treatments (median: 11.1 g/dL, Q1-Q3: 10.0-12.4 g/dL, p = 0.65. However, compared with the folic acid arm (28%, there was a significant reduction in the risk of hypochromic microcytic anemia in the folic acid and iron arm (17%, RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.90, p = 0.01 and the folic acid, iron, and multivitamin arm (19%, RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45-0.96, p = 0.03. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW to adjust for potential selection bias due to loss to follow-up did not materially change these results. The effect of the regimens was not modified by frequency of household meat consumption, baseline underweight status, parity, breastfeeding status, or level of compliance (in all cases, p for interaction>0.2.Daily oral supplementation with iron and folic acid among women and adolescents prior to pregnancy reduces risk of anemia. The potential benefits of supplementation on the risk of

  4. A comparison of King Vision video laryngoscopy and direct laryngoscopy as performed by residents: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Jose A; Pimienta, Katherine; Cohen, Darwin; Benitez, Daniel; Romero, David; Amaya, Oswaldo; Arango, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    For more than 40 years, direct laryngoscopy (DL) has been used to assure the airway during endotracheal intubation. The King Vision video laryngoscope is one of the latest devices introduced for endotracheal intubation. We hypothesize that, relative to direct laryngoscopy, it improves the intubation success rate with fewer intubation attempts and no difference in intubation time or complications. This randomized controlled clinical trial included. The operating room and postanesthesia care unit of an academic hospital. Eighty-eight patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists status I to II and aged ≥18 years who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia and had no predictors of difficult airway. Patients were randomized (44 per group) to undergo intubation using either DL or King Vision video laryngoscopy (KVVL) performed by first year residents in anesthesia and intensive care. During endotracheal intubation by residents, measurements were success rate, number of attempts, time to intubation, visualization of the glottis, and presence of complications. Both groups had a 100% success rate. A greater frequency of grade 1 laryngoscopy was reported with KVVL (86.4%) relative to DL (59.1%) (P intubation or the number of attempts between the groups (P = .75 and P = .91, respectively). Complications after intubation were low and included oral trauma, esophageal intubation, and sore throat. The use of KVVL by residents with less than 1 year of training (considered nonexperts) significantly improves visualization of the glottis in patients without predictors of difficult airway. The incidence of complications was too low to draw conclusions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Geographic Elevation, Car Driving, and Depression among Elderly Residents in Rural Areas: The Shimane CoHRE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, it is difficult for elderly non-drivers to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to mental health. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association in a rural area. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between car driving (being a driver or not and depression, as measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in the town of Ohnan located in a rural area of Japan. After excluding participants with missing data (n = 26, 876 participants were analysed in this study. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a non-driver had a significantly higher odds ratio of SDS (40+ among elderly people living at a low elevation (odds ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.28–3.71. However, similar findings were not observed among elderly people living at a high elevation. These results suggest that car driving importantly predicts depression in elderly people living at relatively low elevations in rural areas.

  6. Optimization design of rural residence in southern region of Liaoning province%辽南地区农村住宅优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵妮娜; 张吉礼; 马良栋

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at rural residence in southern region of Liaoning province,a site survey is carried out on thermal performance of building envelops and indoor thermal environment in winter.And rural residential optimization design method based on natural indoor temperature is given.The influence of parameters of building envelope,plane layout and building shape on indoor temperature is studied through numerical simulation by using orthogonal experimental design. The simulation results indicate that south window to wall ratio is the main factor that influences indoor temperature and the size of south window is the key point for rural residential optimization design.According to the obtained optimal combination of parameters,an optimized residence is proposed,which can be applied to southern region of Liaoning province.It will provide theoretical guidance to new rural construction in this region.%面向辽宁南部地区农村住宅,对住宅围护结构热工性能、冬季室内热环境等方面展开实地调研,提出基于自然室温的农村住宅优化设计方法,并基于正交试验设计通过数值模拟分析研究围护结构各参数、平面布局、住宅体型对室内温度的影响。结果表明:南向窗墙比是影响室内温度的主要因素,南向窗户尺寸是农村住宅优化设计的重点。依据获得的各参数最佳组合,提出一套适用于辽宁南部地区的优化住宅,为该地区新农村建设提供理论指导。

  7. Life style and health-related behaviors among rural residents%农村居民生活方式及健康行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月; 陈福宽; 龚磊; 孙大勤; 董昀球; 王萱萱; 康琦; 陈家应

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate diet behavior and physical exercise for the promotion of healthy life style among rural residents.Methods Multistage stratified random sampling method was used to select 900 families in Gaoyou city of Jiangsu province.The family members over t5 years old were inquired with a self-made questionnaire about life style and diet behavior.Results The smoking rates in the males and females were 54.6% and 2.1% and the alcohol drinking rates in the males and females were 44.6% and 1.2%,respectively.The smoking rate and drinking rate in the males were significantly higher than those in the females(x2 =983.389,x2 =717.835,P <0.001 for all).The percentage of people having heavy salt diet frequently or sometimes was 62.4% ;the percentage of people eating fried,baked and pickled food frequently or sometimes was 50.6% and 32.5% of the residents had no physical exercise.There were significant differences in the prevalence of chronic illness and self-rated health among the residents with different level of physical exercise (x2 = 34.768,x2 = 114.091,P < 0.001).Conclusion Male residents in rural areas of Gaoyou city of Jiangsu province have a higher smoking rate and smoking more frequently than female residents.Rural residents should change their eating habits,enhance their awareness of physical exercise,and promote healthy lifestyle.%目的 了解农村居民饮食、锻炼等生活习惯,引导居民健康正确的生活行为方式.方法 采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法,通过自行设计的生活方式及行为调查表对江苏省高邮市抽取的900个样本户中>15岁的2 456名农村居民进行问卷调查.结果 男性吸烟率为54.6%,女性吸烟率为2.1%,男性饮酒率为44.6%,女性饮酒率为1.2%,男性吸烟率、饮酒率均高于女性(x2= 983.389、717.835,P<0.001);经常和有时吃过咸食物的居民分别占13.8%和48.6%,经常和有时吃油炸、熏烤、

  8. Comprehension of Randomization and Uncertainty in Cancer Clinical Trials Decision Making Among Rural, Appalachian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L; Palmer-Wackerly, Angela; Dailey, Phokeng M; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Paskett, Electra D

    2015-12-01

    Comprehension of randomization is a vital, but understudied, component of informed consent to participate in cancer randomized clinical trials (RCTs). This study examines patient comprehension of the randomization process as well as sources of ongoing uncertainty that may inhibit a patient's ability to provide informed consent to participate in RCTs. Cancer patients living in rural Appalachia who were offered an opportunity to participate in a cancer treatment RCT completed in-depth interviews and a brief survey. No systematic differences in randomization comprehension between patients who consented and those who declined participation in a cancer RCT were detected. Comprehension is conceptually distinct from uncertainty, with patients who had both high and low comprehension experiencing randomization-related uncertainty. Uncertainty about randomization was found to have cognitive and affective dimensions. Not all patients enrolling in RCTs have a sufficient understanding of the randomization process to provide informed consent. Healthcare providers need to be aware of the different types of randomization-related uncertainty. Efforts to improve informed consent to participate in RCTs should focus on having patients teach back their understanding of randomization. This practice could yield valuable information about the patient's cognitive and affective understanding of randomization as well as opportunities to correct misperceptions. Education about RCTs should reflect patient expectations of individualized care by explaining how all treatments being compared are appropriate to the specifics of a patient's disease.

  9. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed.

  10. Education to reduce potentially harmful medication use among residents of assisted living facilities: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Juola, Anna-Liisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Soini, Helena; Finne-Soveri, U Harriet; Bell, J Simon; Björkman, Mikko

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effect of nurse training on the use of potentially harmful medications; and (2) to explore the effect of nurse training on residents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL), health service utilization, and mortality. A randomized controlled trial. In total, 227 residents in 20 wards of assisted living facilities in Helsinki were recruited. The 20 wards were randomized into those in which (1) staff received two 4-hour training sessions on appropriate medication treatment (intervention group), and (2) staff received no additional training and continued to provide routine care (control group). Two 4-hour interactive training sessions for nursing staff based on constructive learning theory to recognize potentially harmful medications and corresponding adverse drug events. Use of potentially harmful medications, HRQoL assessed using the 15 dimensional instrument of health-related quality of life, health service utilization, and mortality assessed at baseline, and 6 and 12 months. During the 12-month follow-up, the mean number of potentially harmful medications decreased in the intervention wards [-0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.71 to -0.15] but remained constant in the control wards (+0.11, 95% CI -0.09 to +0.31) (P = .004, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities). HRQoL declined more slowly in the intervention wards (-0.038 (95% CI -0.054 to -0.022) than in the control wards (-0.072 (95% CI -0.089 to -0.055) (P = .005, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities). Residents of the intervention wards had significantly less hospital days (1.4 days/person/year, 95% CI 1.2-1.6) than in the control wards (2.3 days/person/year; 95% CI 2.1-2.7) (relative risk 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.75, P < .001, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities). Activating learning methods directed at nurses in charge of comprehensive care can reduce the use of harmful medications, maintain HRQoL, and reduce hospitalization in residents of

  11. Long-term efficacy of a rural community-based integrated intervention for prevention and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cluster randomized controlled trial in China's rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a rural community-based integrated intervention for early prevention and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in China. This 18-year cluster-randomized controlled trial encompassing 15 villages included 1008 patients (454 men and 40 women in the intervention group [mean age, 54 ± 10 years]; 482 men and 32 women in the control group [mean age, 53 ± 10 years] with confirmed COPD or at risk for COPD. Villages were randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group, and study participants residing within the villages received treatment accordingly. Intervention group patients took part in a program that included systematic health education, smoking cessation counseling, and education on management of COPD. Control group patients received usual care. The groups were compared after 18 years regarding the incidence of COPD, decline in lung function, and mortality of COPD. COPD incidence was lower in the intervention group than in the control group (10% vs 16%, <0.05. A decline in lung function was also significantly delayed in the intervention group compared to the control group of COPD and high-risk patients. The intervention group showed significant improvement in smoking cessation compared with the control group, and smokers in the intervention group had lower smoking indices than in the control group (350 vs 450, <0.05. The intervention group also had a significantly lower cumulative COPD-related death rate than the control group (37% vs 47%, <0.05. A rural community-based integrated intervention is effective in reducing the incidence of COPD among those at risk, delaying a decline in lung function in COPD patients and those at risk, and reducing mortality of COPD.

  12. A cluster randomised trial to assess the impact of clinical pathways on AMI management in rural Australian emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Pamela C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in rural Australia are more likely to die in hospital following an acute myocardial infarction than those living in major cities. While several factors, including time taken to access hospital care, contribute to this risk, it is also partially attributable to the lower uptake of evidence-based guidelines for the administration of thrombolytic drugs in rural emergency departments where up to one-third of eligible patients do not receive this life-saving intervention. Clinical pathways have the potential to link evidence to practice by integrating guidelines into local systems, but their impact has been hampered by variable implementation strategies and sub-optimal research designs. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a five-step clinical pathways implementation process on the timely and efficient administration of thrombolytic drugs for acute myocardial infarctions managed in rural Australian emergency departments. Methods/Design The design is a two-arm, cluster-randomised trial with rural hospital emergency departments that treat and do not routinely transfer acute myocardial infarction patients. Six rural hospitals in the state of Victoria will participate, with three in the intervention group and three in the control group. Intervention hospitals will participate in a five-step clinical pathway implementation process: engagement of clinicians, pathway development according to local resources and systems, reminders, education, and audit and feedback. Hospitals in the control group will each receive a hard copy of Australian national guidelines for chest pain and acute myocardial infarction management. Each group will include 90 cases to give a power of 80% at 5% significance level for the two primary outcome measures: proportion of those eligible for thrombolysis receiving the drug and time to delivery of thrombolytic drug. Discussion Improved compliance with thrombolytic guidelines via

  13. [Results of a physical therapy program in nursing home residents: A randomized clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casilda-López, Jesús; Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Garzón-Moreno, Victor Manuel; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of the physical functionality is a key factor in the care of the elderly. Inactive people have a higher risk of death due to diseases associated with inactivity. In addition, the maintenance of optimal levels of physical and mental activity has been suggested as a protective factor against the development and progression of chronic illnesses and disability. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of an 8-week exercise program with elastic bands, on exercise capacity, walking and balance in nursing home residents. A nursing home sample was divided into two groups, intervention group (n=26) and control group (n=25). The intervention group was included in an 8-week physical activity program using elastic bands, twice a week, while the control group was took part in a walking programme. Outcome measurements were descriptive variables (anthropometric characteristics, quality of life, fatigue, fear of movement) and fundamental variables (exercise capacity, walking and balance). A significant improvement in balance and walking speed was observed after the programme. Additionally, exercise capacity improved significantly (P≤.001), and the patients showed an improvement in perceived dyspnea after the physical activity programme in the intervention group. The exercise program was safe and effective in improving dyspnea, exercise capacity, walking, and balance in elderly. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. A MULTICENTER, LONGITUDINAL, INTERVENTIONAL, DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL IN HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS RESIDING IN REMOTE AREAS: LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE LATE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS PREVENTION TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Louise E; Stevens-Ayers, Terry; Green, Margaret L; Xie, Hu; Flowers, Mary E D; Jerome, Keith R; LeBlanc, Renee; Dahlgren, Christi; Nichols, W Garrett; Chemaly, Roy F; Papanicolaou, G; Boeckh, Michael

    2016-12-15

    The logistics of conducting double-blinded phase III clinical trials with participants residing in remote locations are complex. Here we describe the implementation of an interventional trial for the prevention of late cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) subjects in a long-term follow-up environment. A total of 184 subjects at risk for late CMV disease surviving 80 days following allogeneic HCT were randomized to receive six months of valganciclovir or placebo. Subjects were followed through day 270 post-transplant at their local physician's office within the United States. Anti-viral treatment interventions were based on CMV DNAemia as measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (>1000 copies/mL) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was prescribed for neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count (ANC <1.0 × 10(9) cells/L). Blood samples for viral testing and safety monitoring were shipped to a central laboratory by overnight carrier. Real-time communication was established between the coordinating center and study sites, primary care physicians, and study participants to facilitate starting, stopping and dose adjustments of antiviral drugs and G-CSF. The time required to make these interventions was analyzed. Of the 4169 scheduled blood specimens, 3832 (92%) were received and analyzed; the majority (97%) arriving at the central site within 2 days. Among subjects with positive CMV DNAemia (N=46), over 50% received open label antiviral medication within one day. The median time to start G-CSF for neutropenia was <1 day after posting of laboratory results (range 0-6; N=38). Study drug dose adjustments for abnormal renal function were implemented 203 times; within one day for 48% of cases and within 2 days for 80% of cases. Complex randomized, double-blind, multicenter interventional trials with treatment decisions made at a central coordinating site can be conducted safely and effectively according to Good Clinical

  15. Knowledge of nutritional and health needs of children among rural residents of Enugu north senatorial zone in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Uzoma O; Ngwu, Christopher N; Tanyi, Perpetua L

    2015-01-01

    The article assessed knowledge of the nutritional and health needs of children among rural dwellers in Nigeria. Focus group discussions were conducted with all male and female groups in four purposively chosen rural communities in Nsukka Senatorial zone of Enugu State. These generated data on participants' knowledge on the nutritional and health needs of the children as well as their socio-demographic characteristics. All the participants were married with mean age of 41 and 36 years for males and females, respectively. The participants had six and four children on the average for male and female participants, respectively. Findings show that participants demonstrate knowledge of basic dietary needs of children; however, actual practice is lacking. Men believe women have the sole responsibility for children's nutrition. Exclusive breastfeeding is not adhered to by participants. Some reservation still exists about immunization. Sustained health education on exclusive breastfeeding and child immunization targeting both sexes is still needed.

  16. Scope and importance of non-governmental organisations activities’ and their evaluation by rural residents of the podkarpackie province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grzybek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the type of operating 210 non-governmental organizations and the scope of their activities in rural areas the Podkarpackie province. The research results show that most active units are, commonly known by inhabitants, voluntary fire brigades, sports clubs, farmer housewives’ associations and folkloristic associations. The activity of these organisations was related to learning, culture, education, upbringing, as well as public safety and environment protection. The opinions of 595 people from the surveyed municipalities were taken into account, in terms of quality of their activities in the local community. The results confirmed full acceptance of nonprofit organizations’ activity, and dominance of good and very good ratings was a recognition of high quality of their services and important role they play in rural areas of the Podkarpackie province.

  17. A structural multidisciplinary approach to depression management in nursing-home residents: a multicentre, stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Smalbrugge, M.; Teerenstra, S.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression in nursing-home residents is often under-recognised. We aimed to establish the effectiveness of a structural approach to its management. METHODS: Between May 15, 2009, and April 30, 2011, we undertook a multicentre, stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial in four provinces of t

  18. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine McKibbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p=0.024 and mental health status (p<0.001 significantly predicted resilience. Mental health status moderated the relationship of family (p=0.004 and friend (p=0.021 networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks.

  19. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Christine; Lee, Aaron; Steinman, Bernard A; Carrico, Catherine; Bourassa, Katelynn; Slosser, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p = 0.024) and mental health status (p status moderated the relationship of family (p = 0.004) and friend (p = 0.021) networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks.

  20. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors in a rural district of Beijing, China: a population-based survey of 58,308 residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of global disease burden. Although stroke was thought to be more prevalent than coronary heart disease (CHD in Chinese, the epidemic pattern might have been changed in some rural areas nowadays. This study was to estimate up-to-date prevalence of CVD and its risk factors in rural communities of Fangshan District, Beijing, China. Methods A cross-sectional population survey was carried out by stratified cluster sampling. A total of 58,308 rural residents aged over 40 years were surveyed by face-to-face interview and physical examination during 2008 and 2010. The standardized prevalence was calculated according to adult sample data of China's 5th Population Census in 2000, and the adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR was calculated for the association of CHD/stroke with its cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate logistic regression models. Results Age- and sex-standardized prevalence was 5.6% for CHD (5.2% in males and 5.9% in females, higher than the counterpart of 3.7% (4.7% in males and 2.6% in females for stroke. Compared with previous studies, higher prevalence of 7.7%, 47.2%, 53.3% in males and 8.2%, 44.8%, 60.7% in females for diabetes, hypertension and overweight/obesity were presented accordingly. Moreover, adjusted POR (95% confidence interval of diabetes, obesity, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension for CHD as 2.51 (2.29 to 2.75, 1.53 (1.38 to 1.70, 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26 and 1.35 (1.20 to 1.52, and for stroke as 2.24 (1.98 to 2.52, 1.25 (1.09 to 1.44, 1.44 (1.25 to 1.66 and 1.70 (1.46 to 1.98 were shown respectively in the multivariate logistic regression models. Conclusions High prevalence of CVD and probably changed epidemic pattern in rural communities of Beijing, together with the prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and population aging, might cause public health challenges in rural Chinese population.

  1. Association Between Flexible Duty Hour Policies and General Surgery Resident Examination Performance: A Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Eddie; Hewitt, D Brock; Chung, Jeanette W; Biester, Thomas; Fiore, James F; Dahlke, Allison R; Quinn, Christopher M; Lewis, Frank R; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2017-02-01

    Concerns persist about the effect of current duty hour reforms on resident educational outcomes. We investigated whether a flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policy (Flexible Policy) was associated with differential general surgery examination performance compared with current ACGME duty hour policy (Standard Policy). We obtained examination scores on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination, Qualifying Examination (written boards), and Certifying Examination (oral boards) for residents in 117 general surgery residency programs that participated in the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial. Using bivariate analyses and regression models, we compared resident examination performance across study arms (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) for 2015 and 2016, and 1 year of the Qualifying Examination and Certifying Examination. Adjusted analyses accounted for program-level factors, including the stratification variable for randomization. In 2016, FIRST trial participants were 4,363 general surgery residents. Mean American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination scores for residents were not significantly different between study groups (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) overall (Flexible Policy: mean [SD] 502.6 [100.9] vs Standard Policy: 502.7 [98.6]; p = 0.98) or for any individual postgraduate year level. There was no difference in pass rates between study arms for either the Qualifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 90.4% vs Standard Policy: 90.5%; p = 0.99) or Certifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 86.3% vs Standard Policy: 88.6%; p = 0.24). Results from adjusted analyses were consistent with these findings. Flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policies were not associated with differences in general surgery resident performance on examinations during the FIRST Trial. However, more years under flexible duty hour policies might be needed to observe an effect. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons

  2. Análise de um sistema de aquecimento de água para residências rurais, utilizando energia solar A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz H. Basso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A conscientização da importância do meio ambiente tem incentivado o estudo de novas fontes energéticas renováveis e menos poluentes. Dentre essas fontes, a energia solar destaca-se por ser perene e limpa. A utilização da energia solar em sistemas de aquecimento de água residencial rural pode colaborar com a economia de energia elétrica, base da matriz energética brasileira. Conhecer os fatores que influenciam na operação de um sistema de aquecimento de água por energia solar é importante na determinação de sua viabilidade técnica, visando a sua difusão em residências rurais. Para tanto, construiu-se um protótipo, no câmpus da Faculdade Assis Gurgacz, em Cascavel - PR, com características similares a um equipamento utilizado em residências para dois habitantes, para funcionar com circulação natural ou termossifão e sem auxílio de sistema de aquecimento complementar. O equipamento mostrou-se viável tecnicamente, alcançando a temperatura mínima para banho de 35 °C, sempre que a radiação solar foi superior a 3.500 Wh m-2, o que aconteceu para a maioria dos dias estudados.The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Paraná, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or

  3. CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE LONG-TERM MAINTENANCE THERAPY BY COMBINED DRUGS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN SCHOOL CHILDREN, RESIDENTS OF THE RURAL REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Ermakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: selection of the supporting anti-asthma therapy (SAAT of the moderate asthma in school children, residents of the village with the lowest ratio of price and efficiency. The maximum frequency of achieving control of asthma was 64%. The spectrum of asthma medicines (drugs used in outpatient phase is represented. For 7 years, the proportion of the inhaled corticosteroid (ICS therapy in children with asthma has increased moderately by 5.5 times and was 66%, of which 2/3 was the combination of inhaled glucocorticosteroids. When using the combined drug salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (50/100 mkg during 3 months, after that fluticasone proionat during next 3 months as a level-controlled asthma the SAAT controlling BA increased 2 times. The cost of drugs accounted for 86% of direct medical costs (DMC, the cost of hospitalization decreased from 80 to 56% (DMC savings — 24%. The results of the analysis of «cost–effectiveness» SAAT allow to review the financial resources for health in favor of providing children with mild asthma inhaled high-performance combination that will improve the quality of medical care for children, residents of the rural regions.Key words: asthma, children, inhaled glucocorticosteriods, combined therapies, pharmacoeconomic analysis.

  4. A randomized trial comparing didactics, demonstration, and simulation for teaching teamwork to medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semler, Matthew W; Keriwala, Raj D; Clune, Jennifer K; Rice, Todd W; Pugh, Meredith E; Wheeler, Arthur P; Miller, Alison N; Banerjee, Arna; Terhune, Kyla; Bastarache, Julie A

    2015-04-01

    Effective teamwork is fundamental to the management of medical emergencies, and yet the best method to teach teamwork skills to trainees remains unknown. In a cohort of incoming internal medicine interns, we tested the hypothesis that expert demonstration of teamwork principles and participation in high-fidelity simulation would each result in objectively assessed teamwork behavior superior to traditional didactics. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial comparing three teamwork teaching modalities for incoming internal medicine interns. Participants in a single-day orientation at the Vanderbilt University Center for Experiential Learning and Assessment were randomized 1:1:1 to didactic, demonstration-based, or simulation-based instruction and then evaluated in their management of a simulated crisis by five independent, blinded observers using the Teamwork Behavioral Rater score. Clinical performance was assessed using the American Heart Association Advanced Cardiac Life Support algorithm and a novel "Recognize, Respond, Reassess" score. Participants randomized to didactics (n = 18), demonstration (n = 17), and simulation (n = 17) were similar at baseline. The primary outcome of average overall Teamwork Behavioral Rater score for those who received demonstration-based training was similar to simulation participation (4.40 ± 1.15 vs. 4.10 ± 0.95, P = 0.917) and significantly higher than didactic instruction (4.40 ± 1.15 vs. 3.10 ± 0.51, P = 0.045). Clinical performance scores were similar between the three groups and correlated only weakly with teamwork behavior (coefficient of determination [Rs(2)] = 0.267, P teamwork training by expert demonstration resulted in similar teamwork behavior to participation in high-fidelity simulation and was more effective than traditional didactics. Clinical performance was largely independent of teamwork behavior and did not differ between training modalities.

  5. Exercise for depression in care home residents: a randomised controlled trial with cost-effectiveness analysis (OPERA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, M; Lamb, S E; Eldridge, S; Sheehan, B; Slowther, A; Spencer, A; Thorogood, M; Atherton, N; Bremner, S A; Devine, A; Diaz-Ordaz, K; Ellard, D R; Potter, R; Spanjers, K; Taylor, S J C

    2013-05-01

    Many older people living in care homes (long term residential care or nursing homes) are depressed. Exercise is a promising non-drug intervention for preventing and treating depression in this population. To evaluate the impact of a 'whole-home' intervention, consisting of training for residential and nursing home staff backed up with a twice-weekly, physiotherapist-led exercise class on depressive symptoms in care home residents. A cluster randomised controlled trial with a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare (1) the prevalence of depression in intervention homes with that in control homes in all residents contributing data 12 months after homes were randomised (cross-sectional analysis); (2) the number of depressive symptoms at 6 months between intervention and control homes in residents who were depressed at pre-randomisation baseline assessment (depressed cohort comparison); and (3) the number of depressive symptoms at 12 months between intervention and control homes in all residents who were present at pre-randomisation baseline assessment (cohort comparison). Seventy-eight care homes in Coventry and Warwickshire and north-east London. Care home residents aged ≥ 65 years. Control intervention: Depression awareness training programme for care home staff. Active intervention: A 'whole-home' exercise intervention, consisting of training for care home staff backed up with a twice-weekly, physiotherapist-led exercise group. Geriatric Depression Scale-15, proxy European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), cost-effectiveness from an National Health Service perspective, peripheral fractures and death. We recruited a total of 1054 participants. Cross-sectional analysis: We obtained 595 Geriatric Depression Scale-15 scores and 724 proxy EQ-5D scores. For the cohort analyses we obtained 765 baseline Geriatric Depression Scale-15 scores and 776 proxy EQ-5D scores. Of the 781 who we assessed prior to randomisation, 765 provided a Geriatric Depression Scale-15 score

  6. The concentrations and exposure doses of radon and thoron in residences of the rural areas of Kosovo and Metohija

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milic, Gordana; Jakupi, Bajram [Faculty of Natural Sciences Kosovska Mitrovica, University of Pristina, Lole Ribara 29, 28000 Kosovska Mitrovica (Serbia); Tokonami, Shinji [National Institute for Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Trajkovic, Radmila [Faculty of Natural Sciences Kosovska Mitrovica, University of Pristina, Lole Ribara 29, 28000 Kosovska Mitrovica (Serbia); Ishikawa, Tetsuo [National Institute for Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Celikovic, Igor, E-mail: icelikovic@vinca.r [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , ECELab, P.O. Box 522, 1001 Belgrade (Serbia); Ujic, Predrag; Cuknic, Olivera [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , ECELab, P.O. Box 522, 1001 Belgrade (Serbia); Yarmoshenko, Ilia [Institute of Industrial Ecology of Ural Branch of Academy of Sciences of Russia, S. Kovalevskoy Str., 20A, 620219 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kosanovic, Katica; Adrovic, Feriz [Faculty of Natural Sciences Kosovska Mitrovica, University of Pristina, Lole Ribara 29, 28000 Kosovska Mitrovica (Serbia); Sahoo, Sarat K. [National Institute for Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Veselinovic, Nenad; Zunic, Zora S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , ECELab, P.O. Box 522, 1001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-01-15

    This paper deals with the results of indoor radon and thoron concentrations and exposure doses obtained for 63 dwellings out of the 14 rural communities of Central Kosovo, North Kosovo and Prizren region. These research activities are part of overall radiological research that has systematically been carried out since 1986, particularly in Kosovo and Metohija regions. Passive radon/thoron discriminative detectors, exposed for three months, were used. The arithmetic mean concentrations of indoor radon and thoron are C{sub Rn} = 429 Bq m{sup -3}C{sub Tn} = 85 Bq m{sup -3}.

  7. A feasibility study on wheat flour fortified with ferrous sulfate to improve IDA status of rural residents in Shen County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Yu-ju; Wang Gui-chun; Zhang Jun-li; Liu Jing

    2004-01-01

    In this article,through a large-scale random population experiment,the methods of iron enhancement, nutrition education and blank control were used to discuss iron-added flour as countermeasures for prevention and treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)among the population in the rural communities and its feasibility.The results showed that intake of iron-added flour had obvious effect on improvement of the prevalence of anemia among the population.The method was easy to choose carriers ,to be complied with and implemented.

  8. Diarrhea and dengue control in rural primary schools in Colombia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overgaard Hans J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrheal diseases and dengue fever are major global health problems. Where provision of clean water is inadequate, water storage is crucial. Fecal contamination of stored water is a common source of diarrheal illness, but stored water also provides breeding sites for dengue vector mosquitoes. Poor household water management and sanitation are therefore potential determinants of both diseases. Little is known of the role of stored water for the combined risk of diarrhea and dengue, yet a joint role would be important for developing integrated control and management efforts. Even less is known of the effect of integrating control of these diseases in school settings. The objective of this trial was to investigate whether interventions against diarrhea and dengue will significantly reduce diarrheal disease and dengue entomological risk factors in rural primary schools. Methods/design This is a 2×2 factorial cluster randomized controlled trial. Eligible schools were rural primary schools in La Mesa and Anapoima municipalities, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Eligible pupils were school children in grades 0 to 5. Schools were randomized to one of four study arms: diarrhea interventions (DIA; dengue interventions (DEN; combined diarrhea and dengue interventions (DIADEN; and control (C. Schools were allocated publicly in each municipality (strata at the start of the trial, obviating the need for allocation concealment. The primary outcome for diarrhea is incidence rate of diarrhea in school children and for dengue it is density of adult female Aedes aegypti per school. Approximately 800 pupils from 34 schools were enrolled in the trial with eight schools in the DIA arm, nine in the DEN, eight in the DIADEN, and nine in the control arms. The trial status as of June 2012 was: completed baseline data collections; enrollment, randomization, and allocation of schools. The trial was funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Lazos de

  9. Diarrhea and dengue control in rural primary schools in Colombia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Diarrheal diseases and dengue fever are major global health problems. Where provision of clean water is inadequate, water storage is crucial. Fecal contamination of stored water is a common source of diarrheal illness, but stored water also provides breeding sites for dengue vector mosquitoes. Poor household water management and sanitation are therefore potential determinants of both diseases. Little is known of the role of stored water for the combined risk of diarrhea and dengue, yet a joint role would be important for developing integrated control and management efforts. Even less is known of the effect of integrating control of these diseases in school settings. The objective of this trial was to investigate whether interventions against diarrhea and dengue will significantly reduce diarrheal disease and dengue entomological risk factors in rural primary schools. Methods/design This is a 2×2 factorial cluster randomized controlled trial. Eligible schools were rural primary schools in La Mesa and Anapoima municipalities, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Eligible pupils were school children in grades 0 to 5. Schools were randomized to one of four study arms: diarrhea interventions (DIA); dengue interventions (DEN); combined diarrhea and dengue interventions (DIADEN); and control (C). Schools were allocated publicly in each municipality (strata) at the start of the trial, obviating the need for allocation concealment. The primary outcome for diarrhea is incidence rate of diarrhea in school children and for dengue it is density of adult female Aedes aegypti per school. Approximately 800 pupils from 34 schools were enrolled in the trial with eight schools in the DIA arm, nine in the DEN, eight in the DIADEN, and nine in the control arms. The trial status as of June 2012 was: completed baseline data collections; enrollment, randomization, and allocation of schools. The trial was funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Lazos de Calandaima Foundation

  10. Consumo alimentar de população adulta residente em área rural da cidade de Ibatiba (ES, Brasil Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Oliveira Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo transversal no qual foi aplicado um questionário de frequência alimentar (QFCA em 150 adultos residentes em área rural da cidade de Ibatiba (ES. O QFCA classificou o consumo alimentar como: habitual (> 4 vezes na semana, não habitual (It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil. QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (> 4 times in the week, not habitual (<4 times in the week and rarely (1 time a month, with objective of correlating the alimentary consumption with the chronic-degenerative diseases. The results evidenced a habitual consumption of rice, breads, stalk, bean, cow milk, animal fat, margarine, sugar and coffee, and a non habitual consumption of cake, potato, cookies, manioc, sweet potato, chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  11. 基于平行数据的城乡居民消费结构数学模型及分析%The Comparative Study on the Consumption Structure of Chinese Urban and Rural Residents on Panel Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小菁

    2015-01-01

    This paper conducts an empirical analysis of the consumption structure of urban and rural residentsby using panel data model. The study shows that income isthe most important factor to influence the consumption structure of the residents , anddifferent income groups exist significant differences in consumption structure, andthat income has more influence on consumption structure of rural residents than that of urban residents. Residents' consumption habits, the life and the work environment and consumption concept can also affect their consumption structure. Rural residents' consumption is basically living -type consumption, and the enjoyment -type and development - type consumption of urban residents is still in the lower level. The consumption of urban and rural residents in transportation and communicationhas gets a rapid growth, and has become a new consumption hotspot. Thelevel of consumption of rural residents in culture,education,medical treatment and health care are far lower than that of urban residents, but it is already growing channel.%运用平行数据模型对我国城乡居民的消费结构进行了实证分析。研究表明,收入是影响居民消费结构的最主要因素,不同收入群体的消费结构存在着显著差异。收入对农村居民消费结构的影响要大于城镇居民,居民的消费习惯、生活和工作环境以及消费理念也会影响他们的消费结构。我国农村居民的消费基本上属于生存型消费,城镇居民的享受型和发展型消费尚处于较低的水平。城乡居民在交通通讯方面的消费增长迅速,已成为新的消费热点。农村居民在文教娱乐和医疗保健等方面的消费水平要远低于城镇居民,但已处于上升通道。

  12. Analysis of the Rural Residents' Health Risk: Based on Fault Tree Analysis%我国农村居民健康风险分析:基于故障树分析法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳洁; 张吉龙

    2011-01-01

    The level of rural health services and health status of rural residents are the very important indicator of rural development. Health risks, in rural households, especially in disadvantaged families are one of the important economic risks, and are the important factors impacting on the living standards of rural residents and rural social stability. Fault tree analysis as a common risk analysis method, by which logical relationship with chart analysis by the main risk to the accident and a combination of individual events will be formed. This thesis, based on the construction of the tree of health risks, analyzes the health risks the rural residents facing, and gives the appropriate methods of risks assessment and risk management strategies.%农村医疗卫生服务水平和农村居民健康状况是衡量农村社会发展水平的重要指标.健康风险是农村居民家庭尤其是贫困家庭面临的重要经济风险之一,是影响农村居民生活水平和农村社会稳定的重要因素.故障树法作为一种常用的风险分析方法,能够通过树形的逻辑关系图表分析引起主要风险事故发生的原因,揭示个别事件组合可能会形成的风险状况.文章通过对农村居民健康风险故障树的构建,分析农村居民面临的健康风险,并简要介绍相应的风险评价方法和风险管理策略.

  13. 城乡居民教育支出的影响因素及其模式研究%Study on Factors and Modes Influencing Education Expenditures of Urban and Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃利春; 沈百福

    2015-01-01

    在教育经费与国民经济的关系框架下,居民教育支出的影响因素众多且影响模式多样。1992年至2010年,随着居民收入与支出的增加,农村居民教育支出倾向普遍低于城镇居民;城乡居民教育支出对人均GDP的变动反应比较敏感;随着家庭设备及服务比例的提高,城镇居民边际教育支出持续下降,而农村居民边际教育支出则先下降后上升;城乡居民边际教育支出则随着人均财政支出和人均财政预算教育经费的增加先递减后递增。%Within the framework of relationship between education expenditure and national economy, there are various factors and modes that affect education expenditure of residents. Between 1992 and 2010, the educational expenditure propensity of rural residents was generally lower than that of urban residents with the augmentation of income and expenditure. Residential educational expenditures in urban and rural areas were sensitive to per capita GDP. With the increase in ratio of equipment and services, the marginal educational expenditure declined continuously for urban residents, while it declined first and then rose for rural residents. The marginal educational expenditure for urban and rural residents decreased first and then rose along with the augmentation of per capita educational expenditure budget and per capita fiscal expenditure.

  14. Rural Residents in China Are at Increased Risk of Exposure to Tick-Borne Pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As emerging tick born rickettsial diseases caused by A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis have become a serious threat to human and animal health throughout the world. In particular, in China, an unusual transmission of nosocomial cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis occurred in Anhui Province in 2006 and more recent coinfection case of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis was documented in Shandong Province. Although the seroprevalence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (former human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, HGE has been documented in several studies, these data existed on local investigations, and also little data was reported on the seroprevalence of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME in China. In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA proposed by WHO was used to detect A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis IgG antibodies for 7,322 serum samples from agrarian residents from 9 provinces/cities and 819 urban residents from 2 provinces. Our data showed that farmers were at substantially increased risk of exposure. However, even among urban residents, risk was considerable. Seroprevalence of HGA and HME occurred in diverse regions of the country and tended to be the highest in young adults. Many species of ticks were confirmed carrying A. phagocytophilum organisms in China while several kinds of domestic animals including dog, goats, sheep, cattle, horse, wild rabbit, and some small wild rodents were proposed to be the reservoir hosts of A. phagocytophilum. The broad distribution of vector and hosts of the A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, especially the relationship between the generalized susceptibility of vectors and reservoirs and the severity of the disease’s clinical manifestations and the genetic variation of Chinese HGA isolates in China, is urgently needed to be further investigated.

  15. Measuring the impact of non-monetary incentives on facility delivery in rural Zambia: a clustered randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Connor, A L; Guo, E; Nambao, M; Chanda-Kapata, P; Lambo, N; Phiri, C

    2016-04-01

    In Zambia, only 56% of rural women deliver in a health facility, and improving facility delivery rates is a priority of the Zambian government. 'Mama kit' incentives - small packages of childcare items provided to mothers conditional on delivering their baby in a facility - may encourage facility delivery. This study measured the impact and cost-effectiveness of a US$4 mama kit on rural facility delivery rates in Zambia. A clustered randomised controlled trial was used to measure the impact of mama kits on facility delivery rates in thirty rural health facilities in Serenje and Chadiza districts. Facility-level antenatal care and delivery registers were used to measure the percentage of women attending antenatal care who delivered at a study facility during the intervention period. Results from the trial were then used to model the cost-effectiveness of mama kits at-scale in terms of cost per death averted. The mama kits intervention resulted in a statistically significant increase in facility delivery rates. The multivariate logistic regression found that the mama kits intervention increased the odds of delivering at a facility by 63% (P-value < 0.01, 95% CI: 29%, 106%), or an increase of 9.9 percentage points, yielding a cost-effectiveness of US$5183 per death averted. This evaluation confirms that low-cost mama kits can be a cost-effective intervention to increase facility delivery rates in rural Zambia. Mama kits alone are unlikely to completely solve safe delivery challenges but should be embedded in larger maternal and child health programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Adult and adolescent livestock productive asset transfer programmes to improve mental health, economic stability and family and community relationships in rural South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Remy, Mitima Mpanano; Alfred, Mirindi Bacikenge; Arsene, Kajabika Binkurhorhwa; Nadine, Mwinja Bufole; Heri, Banyewesize Jean; Clovis, Mitima Murhula; Glass, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction People living in poverty have limited access to traditional financial institutions. Microfinance programmes are designed to meet this gap and show promise in improving income, economic productivity and health. Our Congolese–US community academic research partnership developed two livestock productive asset transfer programmes, Pigs for Peace (PFP) and Rabbits for Resilience (RFR), to address the interlinked health, social and economic well-being of individuals, their families and communities. The community-based randomised controlled trials examine the effectiveness of PFP and RFR to improve health, economic stability, and family and community relationships among male and female adults and adolescents living in 10 rural, postconflict villages of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods and analysis PFP participants include adult permanent residents of rural villages; adolescent participants in RFR include male and female adolescents 10–15 years old living in the selected rural villages. Participants were randomised to intervention or delayed control group. Participants in PFP completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postintervention. In RFR, participants completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postbaseline. The primary outcome of both trials, the change in baseline mental health distress at 18 months in the intervention group (adults, adolescents) compared to control group, is used to calculate sample size. Ethics and dissemination The Johns Hopkins Medical Institute Internal Review Board approved this protocol. A committee of respected Congolese educators and community members (due to lack of local ethics review board) approved the study. The findings will provide important information on the potential for community-led sustainable development initiatives to build on traditional livelihood (livestock raising, agriculture

  17. The Support to Rural India's Public Education System (STRIPES) trial: a cluster randomised controlled trial of supplementary teaching, learning material and material support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, Rashmi; Eble, Alex; Bhakta, Preetha; Frost, Chris; Boone, Peter; Elbourne, Diana; Mann, Vera

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the STRIPES trial was to assess the effectiveness of providing supplementary, remedial teaching and learning materials (and an additional 'kit' of materials for girls) on a composite of language and mathematics test scores for children in classes two, three and four in public primary schools in villages in the Nagarkurnool division of Andhra Pradesh, India. STRIPES was a cluster randomised trial in which 214 villages were allocated either to the supplementary teaching intervention (n = 107) or to serve as controls (n = 107). 54 of the intervention villages were further randomly allocated to receive additional kit for girls. The study was not blinded. Analysis was conducted on the intention to treat principle, allowing for clustering. Composite test scores were significantly higher in the intervention group (107 villages; 2364 children) than in the control group (106 villages; 2014 children) at the end of the trial (mean difference on a percentage scale 15.8; 95% CI 13.1 to 18.6; pteaching and learning materials had a substantial impact on language and mathematics scores of primary school students in rural Andhra Pradesh, yet providing a 'kit' of materials to girls in these villages did not lead to any measured additional benefit. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN69951502.

  18. Overview of Research on Relationship between Income Level and Happiness of Chinese Rural Residents%我国农村居民收入水平与幸福感关系研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹红兵

    2011-01-01

    By conducting meta-analysis on the researches of relationship between income level and happiness at home and abroad,this paper researches the relationship between income level and happiness. The results show that the relationship between income level and happiness takes on U-shape curve,and it can be explained from accustoming,social comparison and mental expectancy. Finally,in order to promote rural residents' income level and strengthen rural residents' happiness in China,corresponding policy suggestions are put forward as follows:bridge gap of urban-rural residents' income distribution; dilute the competitions for money and status among people; perfect rural social security system; endeavor to create a situation in which all rural residents do their best.%通过对国内外涉及收入水平与幸福感关系的研究进行元分析,研究了收入水平与幸福感间的关系.结果表明,收入水平和幸福感之间的关系呈类似于倒“U”型曲线,且可以从适应、社会比较和心理预期3方面进行解释.最后,就如何在提高农村居民收入水平的的同时能提高我国农村居民的幸福感提出相应的政策性建议:缩小城乡居民收入分配差距;淡化人们对金钱和物质地位的竞争;完善农村社会保障体系;努力创造农村居民各尽其能的条件.

  19. 基于ELES模型的中国城乡居民粮食消费实证研究%An Empirical Study of China's Grain Consumption of Urban and Rural Residents Based on ELES Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷丝雨; 刘瑞涵; 赵建梅

    2015-01-01

    Grain for food is one of the main consumption ways. Based on China's per capita income of urban and rural households, food consumption expenditure and other related data, applying the extended linear expenditure system (ELES) model, the authors made a quantitative analysis on China's urban and rural residents' food consumption expenditure structure in 1995-2012, analyzed the changing trends and characteristics of China's urban and rural residents' grain consumption in the framework of ELES model, dissected the causes of grain consumption of China's urban and rural residents, finally put forward the future trends of urban and rural residents grain consumption in China.%︰作为食品,粮食是主要的消费途径之一。利用中国城乡居民家庭人均收入和食品消费支出等相关数据,运用扩展线性支出系统(ELES)模型,对1995 ̄2012年中国城乡居民食品消费支出结构进行定量分析,并在ELES模型框架下分析中国城乡居民粮食消费的变化趋势及特征,进而剖析中国城乡居民粮食消费特点并探究成因,最终提出未来中国城乡居民的粮食消费趋势。

  20. 吉林市城乡居民膳食消费的水足迹研究%Water footprints of dietary consumption of urban and rural residents in Jilin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅婷; 秦丽杰

    2013-01-01

    根据吉林市1998-2009年城乡居民膳食消费量,分析城乡居民膳食消费的水足迹及其特征.通过设计不同情境的居民膳食调整方案,比较其节水效果,提出减少肉类食品消费量、增加蔬菜类消费量、少消费水资源密集型产品、缓解膳食消费对水资源的压力等建议.%According to the dietary consumption of urban and rural residents in Jilin City from 1998 to 2009, the water footprints of the dietary consumption of urban and rural residents as well as their characteristics are analyzed. The urban and rural residents' dietary patterns are adjusted by designing different situations, and their water saving efficiency is compared. Some suggestions are put forward to relieve water pressure by advocating residents to reduce meat consumption, to increase vegetable consumption and to consume less water-intensive products.

  1. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand

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    Lorga T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga,1 Kannapatch Srithong,1 Pratumpan Manokulanan,1 Thin Nyein Nyein Aung,2 Myo Nyein Aung1,31Boromrajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 3Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine Juntendo University, Tokyo, JapanBackground and purpose: The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community.Methods: Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand.Results: A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. Whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were “not sure”. Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males.Conclusion: The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.Keywords: health education, gender differences, ethnic minority, diabetes, Karen

  2. Survey on the Current Status of Health Literacy of Urban and Rural Residents in Shandong Province%山东省城乡居民健康素养现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷艳; 刘忠华; 孙桐; 侯家祥; 张少华; 周培静

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解山东省城乡居民的健康素养现状,为有针对性地开展健康素养干预提供理论依据.方法 2008年,采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法抽取山东省城乡居民8546人进行问卷调查.问卷采用卫生部设计的"2008年中国公民健康素养调查问卷",由经过培训的调查员采用面对面询问方式进行调查.结果 山东省城市居民具备健康素养的比例是14.93%,农村居民具备健康素养的比例是2.18%.其中,基本知识和理念素养、健康生活方式与行为素养、基本技能素养,城市居民具备的比例分别为26.91%,14.89%,35.52%,农村居民具备的比例分别为8.34%,2.09%,14.65%.城市居民具备科学健康观、安全与急救素养、传染病预防素养、基本医疗素养、慢性病预防素养的比例分别为40.11%,27.49%,8.24%,33.09%,16.27%;农村居民具备这5类健康素养的比例分别为22.65%,8.97%,1.07%,10.10%,4.03%.结论 山东省城乡居民健康素养水平有很大差别,城市高于农村,应根据城乡居民的不同特点,采取针对性的干预措施,提高城乡居民的健康素养水平.%Objective To learn the status of health literacy of urban and rural residents in Shandong Province. Methods Using multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling, 8 546 urban and rural residents were selected to complete the face-to-face survey in 2008. Health literacy questionnaire for Chinese citizen in 2008 was designed by Ministry of Health. Results The proportion of urban and rural residents with health literacy was 14.93% and 2.18% respectively. The proportion of urban residents with basic health concept & knowledge, healthy lifestyle & behaviors, and health related skills was 26.91%, 14.89% and 35.52% respectively, and that of rural residents was 8.34%, 2.09% and 14.65% respectively. The proportion of urban residents with scientific attitude towards health, literacy of safety and first aid, infectious diseases prevention

  3. Snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy and 10-minutes activation in long term care residents with dementia (WISDE: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with dementia are often inapproachable due to symptoms of their illness. Therefore nurses should establish relationships with dementia patients via their remaining resources and facilitate communication. In order to achieve this, different targeted non-pharmacological interventions are recommended and practiced. However there is no sufficient evidence about the efficacy of most of these interventions. A number of publications highlight the urgent need for methodological sound studies so that more robust conclusions may be drawn. Methods/Design The trial is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial with 20 nursing homes in Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt (Germany as the units of randomization. Nursing homes will be randomly allocated into 4 study groups consisting of 5 clusters and 90 residents: snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy, 10-minutes activation or unstructured verbal communication (control group. The purpose is to determine whether the interventions are effective to reduce apathy in long-term care residents with dementia (N = 360 as the main outcome measure. Assessments will be done at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after beginning of the interventions. Discussion This trial will particularly contribute to the evidence on efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions in dementia care. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00653731

  4. 城乡居民高血压现状调查研究%The analysis of hypertension among rural-urban residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤思淼; 迟戈夫; 贾勇

    2017-01-01

    目的:了解丹东市城乡居民高血压现状,明确高血压的主要影响因素,为我国对高血压进行全面健康管理提供依据。方法采用分层整群抽样方法对丹东市所辖6个市、县、区的15岁及以上居民进行横断面调查,探讨居民高血压患病情况。结果本次调查丹东市居民高血压患病2788人,患病率为23.5%。其中,农村患病率为25.1%,城市患病率为21.8%。多因素Logistic回归结果显示,性别、年龄、体质指数、家庭人均收入、文化程度、吸烟情况是本次调查研究中高血压的主要因素。结论高血压的预防工作要结合当地的人口学和社会经济学特征,有针对性地开展高血压健康教育工作,应重点加强对可控因素的预防和干预,从而提高居民健康水平。%Objective To understand the status of hypertension urban and rural residents in Dandong city and to de -fine the main influencing factors of hypertension .Methods Stratified random cluster sampling was used to investi-gate the selected participants .A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 15 aged residents in Dandong city ,county and district ,including single factor and Logistic regression .Results The total prevalence rate was 23 .5%,the prev-alence of urban and rural were 21.8%and 25.1%.Logistic regression analysis revealed the related factors were sex , age,BMI,average income,education level and smoking .Conclusion The prevention of hypertension should be com-bined with the local demographic and social economic characteristics ,and develop targeted the prevention and control measures for hypertension .It should focus on strengthening the intervention of the controllable factors ,so as to improve the health level .

  5. 西安市城乡居民消费结构差异的分析%Analysis of Difference in Consumption Structure between Urban and Rural Residents in Xi'an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇丽莉

    2011-01-01

    通过对二元消费结构的界定,研究了西安市城乡居民人均消费、人均消费比重、人均收入对西安市城乡居民消费结构的影响,得出西安市农村居民恩格尔系数与恩格尔定律不相符;通过对以消费目的划分的3大类消费类型的进一步分析得出:西安市城乡居民的消费差异,生存资料的贡献率小于发展资料的贡献率和享受资料的贡献率,城镇居民消费对居民收入的敏感度大于农村居民消费对居民收入的敏感度.%This paper defined the duality consumption structure, and studied the effects of per capita .consumption, proportion of per capita consumption, and per capita income on the consumption structure of urban and rural residents in Xi' an city. The results showed that the Engel coefficient of rural residents didn't comply with Engel' s law. Through the further study of 3 kinds of consumptions, it was obtained that: for the contributive rate to the consumption difference between urban and rural residents in XT'an, that of the subsistence means was the least, that of the development means was moderate, and that of the enjoyment means was the highest. The sensitivity of the consumption to the income of the urban residents was greater than that of rural residents.

  6. Reduction in cardiovascular risk using a proactive multifactorial intervention is consistent among patients residing in Pacific Asian and non-Pacific Asian regions: a CRUCIAL trial subanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho EJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eun Joo Cho,1 Jae Hyung Kim,1 Santosh Sutradhar,2 Carla Yunis,2 Mogens Westergaard2On behalf of the CRUCIAL trial investigators1Department of Cardiology, St Paul's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 2Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USABackground: Few trials have compared different approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention among Pacific Asian (PA populations. The Cluster Randomized Usual Care versus Caduet Investigation Assessing Long-term-risk (CRUCIAL trial demonstrated that a proactive multifactorial intervention (PMI approach (based on single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin resulted in a greater reduction in calculated Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD risk compared with usual care (UC among hypertensive patients with additional risk factors. One-third of CRUCIAL patients resided in the PA region. The aim of this subanalysis was to compare two approaches to cardiovascular risk factor management (PMI versus UC among patients residing in PA and non-PA regions.Methods: This subanalysis of the CRUCIAL trial compared treatment-related changes in calculated CHD risk among patients residing in PA and non-PA regions. Sensitivity analyses were conducted among men and women and those with and without diabetes.Results: Overall, 448 patients (31.6% resided in the PA region and 969 patients (68.4% resided in non-PA regions. The PMI approach was more effective in reducing calculated CHD risk versus UC in both PA (−37.1% versus −3.5%; P<0.001 and non-PA regions (−31.1% versus −4.2%; P<0.001; region interaction P=0.131. PA patients had slightly greater reductions in total cholesterol compared with non-PA patients. PA patients without diabetes had slightly greater reductions in CHD risk compared with non-PA patients. Treatment effects were similar in men and women and those with diabetes.Conclusion: The PMI approach was more effective in reducing calculated Framingham 10-year CHD risk compared with UC among men and

  7. The Devon Active Villages Evaluation (DAVE trial: Study protocol of a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a community-level physical activity intervention in rural southwest England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Emma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical inactivity has been linked with numerous chronic health conditions and overall mortality, the majority of English adults report doing insufficient physical activity. To increase population physical activity levels, researchers have called for more community-level interventions. To evaluate these complex public health interventions, innovative study designs are required. This study protocol describes Devon Active Villages, a community-level intervention providing physical activity opportunities to 128 rural villages in southwest England, and the methods used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing physical activity levels. Methods/Design A stepped wedge cluster randomised trial will be used to evaluate whether Devon Active Villages leads to increased physical activity levels in rural communities. Community engagement will help tailor activity programmes for each village; communities will then be supported for a further twelve months. The intervention will be delivered over four periods, each lasting twelve weeks. Data collection consists of a postal survey of a random sample of adults aged 18 years and over, at baseline and after each of the four intervention periods. The questionnaire includes questions on participant demographics, physical activity behaviour, local environment characteristics, awareness of local activity programmes, and psychosocial factors. Based on detecting an increase in the proportion of people who meet physical activity guidelines (from 25% to 30%, at least ten respondents are needed from each of the 128 villages at each stage (80% power at the 5% level of significance. Anticipating a 20% response rate, 6,400 questionnaires will be sent out at each stage (i.e., 50 surveys to each village. Using data from all five periods, a comparison of study outcomes between intervention and control arms will be performed, allowing for time period (as a fixed effect and the random effect

  8. Rural Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the Chinese economy soars ahead in the wake of the international financial crisis, more attention is being given to the country’s indus-trial, financial, investment and trade figures. But the Central Rural Work

  9. 中国农村居民可再生能源生活消费的碳排放评估%Evaluation of Carbon Emissions From Renewable Energy Consumption by Rural Residents in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 朱雅丽

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption of rural residents involves many aspects such as energy security, environmental effect, new rural construction and so on. In view of the development trend, for quite a long time in the future, traditional biomass energy like straw stalks and firewood will still be the main life energy for the residents in rural China. Based on the analysis of the present situation of renewable energy consumption by rural residents, this paper estimates the carbon emissions of renewable energy consumption by rural residents from 1998 - 2007, and evaluates the environmental effect of the renewable energy consumption by rural residents. The conclusion is that in the process of energy consumption by rural residents, carbon emission is mainly from traditional ustilization of biomass energy such as straw stalks and firewood, and then from the commercial energy consumption. And the suggestion is that in order to achieve the development goal to improve the rural enviroment and adapt to the climat change, energy consumption of rural residents in the future must depend on the abundant renewable resources in the rural areas,optimize the process of material recycling, change the traditional use for the clean use of biomass, and reduce greenhouse gas emission.%农村居民能源消费涉及能源安全、环境效应、新农村建设等多个方面,从发展趋势来看,在未来相当长的时期内,秸秆、薪柴等传统生物质能仍是我国农村居民的主要生活能源.本文在分析了我国农村居民可再生能源生活消费现状的基础上,测算了1998 -2007年农村居民可再生能源生活消费的碳排放,评估了农村居民可再生能源生活消费的环境效应.得出结论:在我国农村居民能源生活消费的过程中,碳排放的主体是秸秆和薪柴等生物质能的传统利用,其次是商品性能源的使用.在未来的发展过程中,农村居民能源消费必须依靠农村丰富的可再生资源,优化物质循环过

  10. Tele-Interpersonal Psychotherapy Acutely Reduces Depressive Symptoms in Depressed HIV-Infected Rural Persons: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy G; Heckman, Bernadette D; Anderson, Timothy; Lovejoy, Travis I; Markowitz, John C; Shen, Ye; Sutton, Mark

    2016-04-26

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive rural individuals carry a 1.3-times greater risk of a depressive diagnosis than their urban counterparts. This randomized clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered interpersonal psychotherapy (tele-IPT) acutely relieved depressive symptoms in 132 HIV-infected rural persons from 28 states diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), partially remitted MDD, or dysthymic disorder. Patients were randomized to either 9 sessions of one-on-one tele-IPT (n = 70) or standard care (SC; n = 62). A series of intent-to-treat (ITT), therapy completer, and sensitivity analyses assessed changes in depressive symptoms, interpersonal problems, and social support from pre- to postintervention. Across all analyses, tele-IPT patients reported significantly lower depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems than SC controls; 22% of tele-IPT patients were categorized as a priori "responders" who reported 50% or higher reductions in depressive symptoms compared to only 4% of SC controls in ITT analyses. Brief tele-IPT acutely decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in depressed rural people living with HIV.

  11. On the Rural Residents Civil Rights in China: —— A Case Study of New Rural Construction in Ganzhou%论农民的公民权问题——以赣州市新农村建设为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岚

    2012-01-01

    农村居民与城市居民都是宪法基本主体,理所当然地享有我国宪法赋予的公民权,并不存在一个不同的农民的公民权,问题是如何落实农民的公民权。新农村建设的实质,就是从实践层面不断落实宪法赋予农民的公民权,使农村居民变成享有"国民待遇"的公民。赣州市的新农村建设为农民公民权的实现和落实进行了有价值的实践与探索。%From the perspective of the constitution, the rural residents are part of our citizens. The rural residents and urban resi- dents are supposed to be equal citizens, and they are the basic subjects of our constitution. Of course, the rural residents enjoy civil rights entitled by our constitution. So, there is not a different rural residents" citizenship, but how to implement their civil rights. Therefore, the essence of the new rural construction is to implement rural residents'civil rights entitled by constitution from a practical level, making them become citizens enjoying national treatment. Taking new rural construction in Ganzhou for example, the paper is to offer a new path to overcome the difficulties from the perspective of implementing rural residents'citizenship.

  12. Household air pollution and personal exposure risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among rural residents in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Shen, G; Huang, Y; Zhang, Y; Han, Y; Wang, R; Shen, H; Su, S; Lin, N; Zhu, D; Pei, L; Zheng, X; Wu, J; Wang, X; Liu, W; Wong, M; Tao, S

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of pollutants of widespread concerns. Gaseous and size-segregated particulate-phase PAHs were collected in indoor and outdoor air in rural households. Personal exposure was measured and compared to the ingestion exposure. The average concentrations of 28 parent PAHs and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were 9000 ± 8390 and 131 ± 236 ng/m(3) for kitchen, 2590 ± 2270 and 43 ± 95 ng/m(3) for living room, and 2800 ± 3890 and 1.6 ± 0.7 ng/m(3) for outdoor air, respectively. The mass percent of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds with 5-6 rings contributed 1.3% to total 28 parent PAHs. Relatively higher fractions of HMW PAHs were found in indoor air compared to outdoor air. Majorities of particle-bound PAHs were found in the finest PM0.25 , and the highest levels of fine PM0.25 -bound PAHs were in the kitchen using peat and wood as energy sources. The 24-h personal PAH exposure concentration was 2100 ± 1300 ng/m(3) . Considering energies, exposures to those using wood were the highest. The PAH inhalation exposure comprised up to about 30% in total PAH exposure through food ingestion and inhalation, and the population attributable fraction (PAF) for lung cancer in the region was 0.85%. The risks for inhaled and ingested intakes of PAHs were 1.0 × 10(-5) and 1.1 × 10(-5) , respectively.

  13. Effects of source- versus household contamination of tubewell water on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ercumen

    Full Text Available Shallow tubewells are the primary drinking water source for most rural Bangladeshis. Fecal contamination has been detected in tubewells, at low concentrations at the source and at higher levels at the point of use. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess whether improving the microbiological quality of tubewell drinking water by household water treatment and safe storage would reduce diarrhea in children <2 years in rural Bangladesh.We randomly assigned 1800 households with a child aged 6-18 months (index child into one of three arms: chlorine plus safe storage, safe storage and control. We followed households with monthly visits for one year to promote the interventions, track their uptake, test participants' source and stored water for fecal contamination, and record caregiver-reported child diarrhea prevalence (primary outcome. To assess reporting bias, we also collected data on health outcomes that are not expected to be impacted by our interventions.Both interventions had high uptake. Safe storage, alone or combined with chlorination, reduced heavy contamination of stored water. Compared to controls, diarrhea in index children was reduced by 36% in the chlorine plus safe storage arm (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.64, 0.55-0.73 and 31% in the safe storage arm (PR = 0.69, 0.60-0.80, with no difference between the two intervention arms. One limitation of the study was the non-blinded design with self-reported outcomes. However, the prevalence of health outcomes not expected to be impacted by water interventions did not differ between study arms, suggesting minimal reporting bias.Safe storage significantly improved drinking water quality at the point of use and reduced child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. There was no added benefit from combining safe storage with chlorination. Efforts should be undertaken to implement and evaluate long-term efforts for safe water storage in Bangladesh.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350063.

  14. A pilot trial of acceptance and commitment therapy for symptoms of depression and anxiety in older adults residing in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Tanya E; Eppingstall, Barbara; Runci, Susannah; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of a psychological intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to improve symptoms of depression and anxiety among older adults living in long-term care. Forty one residents aged between 63 and 97 years (M = 85.3 years) participated in this study. Residents were allocated to receive either a 12 session ACT intervention implemented by trainee psychology therapists or a wait-list control group. Measures of depression and anxiety were collected at baseline and 8 week post-intervention, and residents who received the intervention were tracked for three months. A treatment satisfaction questionnaire was administered to residents who received the intervention and a sample of 10 facility staff members. Using an intention to treat approach and controlling for baseline scores, scores on depression measures were significantly lower after the ACT intervention than after the wait-list control. These outcomes were maintained at three-month follow-up. Treatment satisfaction was rated highly by both residents and their care staff. This preliminary trial suggests that ACT shows promise as a therapeutic approach to address symptoms of depression in long-term care.

  15. 我国城乡居民消费结构比较分析%Comparative Analysis on Consumption Structure of Urban and Rural Residents in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林长弘

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental connotation of consumption structures is defined in this paper. According to the China Statistical Year-book, the consumption structures of household consumption of urban and rural residents in China mainly include eight sections, which are food consumption, clothing consumption, housing consumption, household equipment, supply consumption, transportation communication consumption, entertainment & education consumption and medical care consumption, and then the comparative analysis is employed. The factors of affecting the consumption structures are analyzed, in order to raise reasonable countermeasures and suggestions for the more sound and well-organized development of consumption activities.%首先定义了消费结构的基本内涵,并根据《中国统计年鉴》对我国城乡居民家庭消费支出结构,包括食品消费、衣着消费、居住消费、家庭设备及用品消费、交通通信消费、文教娱乐消费、医疗保健消费等部分的占比,进行比较分析。进而对影响城乡居民消费结构的主要因素进行分析,力求对消费活动更加健康有序开展提出合理的对策建议。

  16. An ecological study of cancer mortality rates in the United States with respect to solar ultraviolet-B doses, smoking, alcohol consumption and urban/rural residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B

    2010-04-01

    The Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Polling Project of Rarer Cancers (VDPP ) study failed to find a beneficial role of prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels on risk of seven types of rarer cancer: endometrial, esophageal, gastric, kidney, ovarian and pancreatic cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, ecological studies and studies of oral vitamin D intake have generally found solar ultraviolet B (UVB) and oral vitamin D inversely correlated with incidence and/or mortality rates of these cancers. To explore the discrepancy, I conducted an ecological study of cancer mortality rates for white Americans in the United States for 1950-1994 with data for 503 state economic areas in multiple linear regression analyses with respect to UVB for July, lung cancer, alcohol consumption and urban/rural residence. UVB was significantly inversely correlated with six types of cancer (not pancreatic cancer) in both periods. However, the adjusted R(2) values were much lower for cancers with lower mortality rates than those in an earlier ecological study that used state-averaged data. This finding suggests that the VDPP study may have had too few cases. Thus, the VDPP study should not be considered as providing strong evidence against the solar UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis.

  17. An Occupational Therapy intervention for residents with stroke-related disabilities in UK Care Homes (OTCH): cluster randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackley, Catherine M; Walker, Marion F; Burton, Christopher R; Watkins, Caroline L; Mant, Jonathan; Roalfe, Andrea K; Wheatley, Keith; Sheehan, Bart; Sharp, Leslie; Stant, Katie E; Fletcher-Smith, Joanna; Steel, Kerry; Barton, Garry R; Irvine, Lisa; Peryer, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Care home residents with stroke-related disabilities have significant activity limitations. Phase II trial results suggested a potential benefit of occupational therapy (OT) in maintaining residents' capacity to engage in functional activity. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a targeted course of OT in maintaining functional activity and reducing further health risks from inactivity for UK care home residents living with stroke-related disabilities. Pragmatic, parallel-group, cluster randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation. Cluster randomisation occurred at the care-home level. Homes were stratified according to trial administrative centre and type of care provided (nursing or residential), and they were randomised 1 : 1 to either the intervention or the control arm. The setting was 228 care homes which were local to 11 trial administrative centres across England and Wales. Care home residents with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack, including residents with communication and cognitive impairments, not receiving end-of-life care. Personalised 3-month course of OT delivered by qualified therapists. Care workers participated in training workshops to support personal activities of daily living. The control condition consisted of usual care for residents. Outcome data were collected by a blinded assessor. The primary outcome at the participant level was the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living (BI) score at 3 months. The secondary outcomes included BI scores at 6 and 12 months post randomisation, and the Rivermead Mobility Index, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, three levels, questionnaire scores at all time points. Economic evaluation examined the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gain. Costs were estimated from the perspective of the NHS and Personal Social Services. Overall, 568 residents from 114 care homes were allocated to the

  18. Effect evaluation on the health education of healthy lifestyle among urban and rural residents in China%我国城乡居民健康生活方式现状调查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张刚; 李英华; 聂雪琼; 卢永; 黎慕; 程玉兰; 马昱

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of healthy lifestyle of China' s urban and rural residents in smoking,drinking,exercise,sleep,provide a scientific basis for the formulation of relevant policies and measures.Methods Multistage sampling was used in this study.A total of resident from five provinces was carried on investigation.Results A total of 6159 survey of urban and rural residents,the urban of 4087 people,accounting for 66.4%,2072 rural people,accounting for 33.6% ; 3059 male,accounting for 49.7%,3100 female people,accounted for 50.3%.Smoking among urban and rural residents was 27.3%,urban 25.1%,31.5% rural,rural area was higher than that in urban (P <0.05) ; urban and rural residents drinking rate was 30.4%,the urban was 31.6%,28% in rural areas,the urban was higher than that in rural areas (P < O.05) ; regular exercise of urban and rural residents was 24.7 %,the urban was 30.1%,15.3 % in rural areas,the urban was higher than that in rural areas (P < 0.05) ; self-evaluated sleep quality is good of urban and rural residents was 55.8%,the urban was 54.1%,59.1% in rural areas,rural area was higher than that in urban (P <0.05).Gender,age,culture degree,urban and rural,occupation is an important factor to affect the healthy lifestyle.Conclusion Smoking,excessive drinking,lack of exercise,and sleep are widespread problems among Urban and rural residents,and the effects of lifestyle factors is different,need to carry out targeted health promotion activities,reduce the occurrence of unhealthy lifestyle.%目的 了解我国城乡居民在吸烟、饮酒、运动、睡眠方面的健康生活方式的现状,为制定相关干预措施提供依据.方法 采取多阶段整群抽样,对我国东、西、南、北、中5个省市城乡居民进行健康生活方式调查.结果 共调查城乡居民6159名,城市4087人,占66.4%,农村2072人,占33.6%;男3059人,占49.7%,女3100人,占50.3%.城乡居民吸烟率为27.3

  19. The Study on Rural Residents' Purchase Decision-making Style of Household Goods in Fujian Province%福建省农村居民家电商品购买决策风格研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清水

    2012-01-01

    With the development of the rural residents' consumption ability, household goods have gradually become an important part of the consumer goods. Rural residents' purchase decision-making styles of home appliance commodity are affected by price, quality, brand, function and other factors. Through the principal component analysis of the SCI scale) it is found that there are eight kinds of household appliances shopping decision-making style among rural residents in Fujian province, such as the price cognition, quality orientation, etc. Based on cluster analysis, it is also revealed that there are four kinds of different consumer groups among rural residents, such as price perception, function type, advocate brand and not heavy brand type, which they are all significantly related to all groups' demographic characteristics.%随着农村居民消费能力的提升。家电商品逐渐成为家庭消费品的重要组成部分。农村居民家电商品购买决策风格受到价格、质量、品牌、功能等诸多因素影响,通过SCI量表开展主成分分析发现,福建省农村居民具有价格认知型、质量导向型等八种家电购物决策风格。通过聚类分析揭示,农村居民存在着价格认知型、功能适用型、崇尚品牌型和不重品牌型四种不同的消费群体。并与各群体的人口统计特征有着显著的相关性。

  20. Effects of Source- versus Household Contamination of Tubewell Water on Child Diarrhea in Rural Bangladesh: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unicomb, Leanne; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Colford Jr., John M.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Shallow tubewells are the primary drinking water source for most rural Bangladeshis. Fecal contamination has been detected in tubewells, at low concentrations at the source and at higher levels at the point of use. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess whether improving the microbiological quality of tubewell drinking water by household water treatment and safe storage would reduce diarrhea in children water for fecal contamination, and record caregiver-reported child diarrhea prevalence (primary outcome). To assess reporting bias, we also collected data on health outcomes that are not expected to be impacted by our interventions. Findings Both interventions had high uptake. Safe storage, alone or combined with chlorination, reduced heavy contamination of stored water. Compared to controls, diarrhea in index children was reduced by 36% in the chlorine plus safe storage arm (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.64, 0.55-0.73) and 31% in the safe storage arm (PR = 0.69, 0.60-0.80), with no difference between the two intervention arms. One limitation of the study was the non-blinded design with self-reported outcomes. However, the prevalence of health outcomes not expected to be impacted by water interventions did not differ between study arms, suggesting minimal reporting bias. Conclusions Safe storage significantly improved drinking water quality at the point of use and reduced child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. There was no added benefit from combining safe storage with chlorination. Efforts should be undertaken to implement and evaluate long-term efforts for safe water storage in Bangladesh. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350063 PMID:25816342

  1. Problems and Recommendations of Rural Residents Purchasing Government Bonds%农村居民购买国债存在的问题及建议——以吉林省通化市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑霞; 单炳杰; 张文革

    2012-01-01

    In rural areas due to imperfect bond sale system and also restricted by the lack of sale outlets,issue information,bond knowledge and purchase scale restrictions,rural residents have diffi culties to buy government bonds,and it becomes increasingly prominent.Taking Tonghua City of Jilin Province as example,through indepth survey of the situation of rural residents to purchase bonds,the article further analyzes the problems of the issuance of treasury bonds system in rural areas and make relevant policy recommendations.%目前由于农村地区国债发售体系不健全,农村居民购买国债受到发售网点不足、发行信息缺失、发行额度限制及国债知识缺乏等因素影响,农村居民购买国债难的问题日渐突出。本文以吉林省通化市为例,通过对农村居民购买国债情况的深入调查,进一步分析农村国债发行体系存在的问题,并提出相关政策建议。

  2. Metabolic Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Correlated Glycemic Control/Complications: A Cross-Sectional Study between Rural and Urban Uygur Residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hua; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Qi; Tuerdi, Ablikm; He, Xiao-dong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Shu-xia; Su, Li-ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a major global public health problem driven by a high prevalence of metabolic risk factors. Objective To describe the differences of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes, as well as glycemic control and complicated diabetic complications between rural and urban Uygur residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Methods This comparative cross-sectional study, conducted among 2879 urban and 918 rural participants in Xinjiang, China, assessed the metabolic risk factors of diabetes and related complications differences between urban and rural settlements. Results Compared to rural areas, urban participants had higher education level and more average income, little physical activity, less triglycerides and higher HDL-c (p 8% (48.1% versus 54.5%, p = 0.019) between rural and urban diabetic participants. No significant difference in the prevalence of type 2 diabetic complications between urban and rural participants (74.9% versus 72.2%; p = 0.263) was detected. Compared to rural participants, the most prevalent modifiable risk factors associated with diabetic complications in urban participants were obesity (BMI ≥ 28 Kg/m2), HDL-c (< 1.04 mmol/l), physical inactivity and irregular eating habits (p = 0.035, p = 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.013, respectively). Conclusions Urban settlers were significantly more likely to have metabolic risk factors highlighting the need for public health efforts to improve health outcomes for these vulnerable populations. Diabetes related complications risk factors were prevalent amongst rural and urban diabetes settlers. PMID:27622506

  3. Difficulties and Practical Way of Doubling per Capita Income for Urban and Rural Residents%居民收入倍增的难点与现实路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祖辉

    2012-01-01

    To double per capita income for urban and rural residents is the real double income increase based on the initial distribution and redistribution, is the sense of equity double on the basis of reduce urbaing and rural gap, and is the double of happiness sense on the basis of coordinating development. There are still many difficulties of doubling per capita income for urban and rural residents. To realize it, we should ensure the income of labors increasing with the productivity of labor at the same times; ensure the increasing rate of residents' income in accordance with economic growth rate; adjust income distribution structure, enhance the proportion of residents income in the initial distribution and redistribution; adjust tax policies of enterprises and residents.%居民收入倍增是指实际收入倍增是初次分配与再分配基础上的“双倍增”,是缩小城乡差距基础上的“公平感倍增”,是协同发展基础上的“幸福感倍增”。城乡居民收入倍增还有诸多难点。实现城乡居民收入倍增,要确保劳动者收入增长与劳动生产率提高同步;确保居民收入增长率与经济总量增长率同步;调整收入分配结构,提高居民在国民收入初次分配与再分配中的比重;调整企业与居民的税收政策。

  4. On the Heterogeneous Effects of Guangxi Welfare Expenditure on Urban and Rural Resident Consumption%广西民生性支出对城乡居民消费的异质效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文婷婷

    2016-01-01

    文章利用广西1981—2013年的时间序列数据对民生性支出及结构对城乡居民消费的异质效应进行实证研究,结果表明:民生性支出对农村居民消费的挤入效应大于对城镇居民消费的挤出效应;教育、科技、医疗卫生和社会保障支出挤入城镇居民消费,文化支出挤占城镇居民消费;科技、医疗卫生和社会保障支出挤入农村居民消费,而教育和文化支出挤占农村居民消费;教育和医疗支出对农村居民消费的替代效应不及对城镇居民消费的互补效应,科技和社会保障支出对农村居民消费的引致作用均大于城镇居民,文化支出对城镇居民和农村居民消费的替代效应相差不大;收入能有效地拉动内需。基于此,广西民生性支出应向农村倾斜,加大对农村的财政投资力度,以改善消费环境,促进农村居民消费的增长。除此之外,还应提升农村居民的收入水平,以缩小城乡居民消费的差距。%Based on the 1981-2013 time series data of Guangxi,this paper studies the heterogeneous effects of welfare expenditure scale and structure on urban and rural resident consumption. The result shows that: the crowding in effect of welfare spending on the rural resident consumption is more significant than the crowding out effect on the urban residents. While the expenditure on education,science,health care and social security crowd in the urban consumption,the culture expenditure crowds the urban consumption out. The expenditure for science,health care and social security packs the rural consumption,but the education and culture expenditure crowds the rural consumption out. The substituent effects of education spending on the rural consumption are weaker than the complementary effects on the urban consumption. The positive effects of science and social security spending on the rural consumption are greater than those in urban areas. The substituent

  5. What sort of medical care is ideal? Differences in thoughts on medical care among residents of urban and rural/remote Japanese communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikai, Tomoki; Suzuki, Tomio; Oshima, Tamiki; Kanayama, Hitomi; Kusaka, Yukinori; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Terasawa, Hidekazu

    2017-09-01

    Studies of aspirational ideals of medical care generally focus on patients rather than on ordinary people receiving or not receiving medications at the time of interview. The literature has not accurately conveyed the distinct ideals in individual communities or undertaken inter-regional comparisons. This current qualitative study focused on ideal medical care as perceived by residents of distinct Japanese communities in their everyday lives. Between December 2011 and November 2012, one-on-one and group-based semi-structured interviews were conducted with 105 individuals, each of whom had continuously lived for 20 years or more in one of the four types of communities classified as either 'metropolitan area', 'provincial city', 'mountain/fishing village' or 'remote island' in Japan. Interviews were transcribed from digital audio recordings and then analysed (in tandem with non-verbal data including participants' appearances, attitudes and interview atmospheres) using constructivist grounded theory, in which we could get the voice and mind of the participant concerning ideal medical care. The common themes observed among the four community types included 'peace of mind because of the availability of medical care' and 'trust in medical professionals'. Themes that were characteristic of urban communities were the tendency to focus on the content of medical care, including 'high-level medical care', 'elimination of unnecessary medical care' and 'faster, cheaper medical care', whereas those that were characteristic of rural communities were the tendency to focus on lifestyle-oriented medical care such as 'support for local lifestyles', 'locally appropriate standards of medical care' and 'being free from dependence on medical care'. The sense of ideal medical care in urban communities tended to centre around the satisfaction with the content of medical care, whereas that in rural communities tended to centre around the ability to lead a secure life. By considering

  6. Village-randomized clinical trial of home distribution of zinc for treatment of childhood diarrhea in rural Western kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc treatment shortens diarrhea episodes and can prevent future episodes. In rural Africa, most children with diarrhea are not brought to health facilities. In a village-randomized trial in rural Kenya, we assessed if zinc treatment might have a community-level preventive effect on diarrhea incidence if available at home versus only at health facilities. METHODS: We randomized 16 Kenyan villages (1,903 eligible children to receive a 10-day course of zinc and two oral rehydration solution (ORS sachets every two months at home and 17 villages (2,241 eligible children to receive ORS at home, but zinc at the health-facility only. Children's caretakers were educated in zinc/ORS use by village workers, both unblinded to intervention arm. We evaluated whether incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI reported at biweekly home visits and presenting to clinic were lower in zinc villages, using poisson regression adjusting for baseline disease rates, distance to clinic, and children's age. RESULTS: There were no differences between village groups in diarrhea incidence either reported at the home or presenting to clinic. In zinc villages (1,440 children analyzed, 61.2% of diarrheal episodes were treated with zinc, compared to 5.4% in comparison villages (1,584 children analyzed, p<0.0001. There were no differences in ORS use between zinc (59.6% and comparison villages (58.8%. Among children with fever or cough without diarrhea, zinc use was low (<0.5%. There was a lower incidence of reported ALRI in zinc villages (adjusted RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99, but not presenting at clinic. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, home zinc use to treat diarrhea did not decrease disease rates in the community. However, with proper training, availability of zinc at home could lead to more episodes of pediatric diarrhea being treated with zinc in parts of rural Africa where healthcare utilization is low. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  7. Effects of Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation on Fetal Growth Factors: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Nanayakkara-Bind, Ashika; Arguello, Margia; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Wu, Lee; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation improves birth weight through increased fetal growth and gestational age, but whether maternal or fetal growth factors are involved is unclear. Our objective was to examine the effect of prenatal MM supplementation on intrauterine growth factors and the associations between growth factors and birth outcomes in a rural setting in Bangladesh. In a double-blind, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of MM vs. iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation, we measured placental growth hormone (PGH) at 10 weeks and PGH and human placental lactogen (hPL) at 32 weeks gestation in maternal plasma (n = 396) and insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in cord plasma (n = 325). Birth size and gestational age were also assessed. Early pregnancy mean (SD) BMI was 19.5 (2.4) kg/m2 and birth weight was 2.68 (0.41) kg. There was no effect of MM on concentrations of maternal hPL or PGH, or cord insulin, IGF-1, or IGFBP-1. However, among pregnancies of female offspring, hPL concentration was higher by 1.1 mg/L in the third trimester (95% CI: 0.2, 2.0 mg/L; p = 0.09 for interaction); and among women with height pregnancy nutritional status and sex of the offspring, but this should be examined in other studies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00860470 PMID:26431336

  8. Kansas Primary Care Weighs In: A Pilot Randomized Trial of a Chronic Care Model Program for Obesity in 3 Rural Kansas Primary Care Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Andrea C.; Banitt, Angela; Befort, Christie; Hou, Qing; Rhode, Paula C.; Grund, Chrysanne; Greiner, Allen; Jeffries, Shawn; Ellerbeck, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Context: Obesity is a chronic disease of epidemic proportions in the United States. Primary care providers are critical to timely diagnosis and treatment of obesity, and need better tools to deliver effective obesity care. Purpose: To conduct a pilot randomized trial of a chronic care model (CCM) program for obesity care in rural Kansas primary…

  9. A Study of Heterogeneity of Urban and Rural Residents'Consumption Behaviors%基于季度数据的城乡居民消费行为异质性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧艺; 范剑飞; 郝云宏

    2014-01-01

    本文基于中国二元结构下城乡居民消费存在差异的现实,对Lettau和Lud-vigson(2001)提出的模型进行改进,加入信用卡数量作为自变量,实证检验人均居民收入、股票流通市值、房价指数和信用卡数量对城镇和农村居民消费的影响弹性。结果表明农村居民消费函数的各项弹性均大于城镇居民;信用卡数量影响消费的弹性仅次于收入水平。因此,相关部门应充分认识城镇和农村居民消费行为的差异,重视对农村消费市场的挖掘以刺激消费增长。%Based on the difference between urban and rural residents'consumption under China's urban-rural dual struc-ture, we improved the model of Lettau-Ludvigson (2001) by adding credit card number as a new independent variable , and tested the respective elasticity of influence on urban and rural residents'consumption practice exerted by per capita income , stock market capitalization , house price index and credit card number .We found there is obviously higher elasticity for rural residents than for urban ones , and credit card number affects consumption second only to income .So we recommend that the difference between urban and rural residents'consumption behaviors should be fully recognized , the importance of developing rural consumer market should be emphasized , and adequate attention should be paid to changing China's consumption ideas and spending habits and promoting the healthy development of the credit card industry in order to stimulate consumption growth.

  10. 常州地区城乡居民幸福指数现状的调查研究%A Survey on the Current Well-being Index of Both Urban and Rural Residents in Changzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡维芳; 冯正伟; 顾卫东

    2013-01-01

    Using the Urban Well-being Index Questionnaire that compiled by professor Huang Xiting et al, the difference and current situation of well-being index of 319 urban and rural residents in Changzhou are investigated. The results show as follows: (1) The general happiness of urban and rural residents in Changzhou is quite high. (2) In terms of area well-being index of Changzhou urban and rural residents, economic life satisfaction, cultural life satisfaction, environment life satisfaction and interpersonal satisfaction are all above average and the interpersonal satisfaction is the highest. (3) Among urban and rural residents, there are significant differences in general happiness and three area well-being index, i.e. political life satisfaction, economic life satisfaction and cultural life satisfaction. However, in relationship satisfaction, health satisfaction and environment satisfaction, there is no significant difference among urban and rural residents.%采用黄希庭教授等人编制的《城市幸福指数问卷》量表,对319名常州城乡居民的幸福指数现状以及城乡居民的幸福指数的差异进行了调查研究。结果显示:(1)常州地区城乡居民总体幸福指数较高;(2)常州地区城乡居民在领域幸福指数上经济生活满意度、文化生活满意度、环境生活满意度以及人际关系满意度在均值以上,并且人际关系满意度最高;(3)常州地区城乡居民在总体幸福指数及在生活满意度、经济生活满意度、文化生活满意这三个领域幸福指数上存在显著性差异。在人际关系满意度、健康状态满意度以及环境生活满意度上,城乡居民之间不存在显著性差异。

  11. Effectiveness of advertising availability of prenatal ultrasound on uptake of antenatal care in rural Uganda: A cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, William; Anguyo, Geoffrey; Meaney, Christopher; Yuan Kong, Ling; Malhame, Isabelle; Pace, Romina; Sodhi, Sumeet; Silverman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In rural Uganda pregnant women often lack access to health services, do not attend antenatal care, and tend to utilize traditional healers/birth attendants. We hypothesized that receiving a message advertising that "you will be able to see your baby by ultrasound" would motivate rural Ugandan women who otherwise might use a traditional birth attendant to attend antenatal care, and that those women would subsequently be more satisfied with care. A cluster randomized trial was conducted across eight rural sub-counties in southwestern Uganda. Sub-counties were randomized to a control arm, with advertisement of antenatal care with no mention of portable obstetric ultrasound (four communities, n = 59), or an intervention arm, with advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound. Advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound was further divided into intervention A) word of mouth advertisement of portable obstetric ultrasound and antenatal care (one communitity, n = 16), B) radio advertisement of only antenatal care and word of mouth advertisement of antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound (one community, n = 7), or C) word of mouth + radio advertisement of both antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound (two communities, n = 75). The primary outcome was attendance to antenatal care. 159 women presented to antenatal care across eight sub-counties. The rate of attendance was 65.1 (per 1000 pregnant women, 95% CI 38.3-110.4) where portable obstetric ultrasound was advertised by radio and word of mouth, as compared to a rate of 11.1 (95% CI 6.1-20.1) in control communities (rate ratio 5.9, 95% CI 2.6-13.0, padvertising antenatal care and portable obstetric ultrasound by radio attendance was significantly improved. This study suggests that women can be motivated to attend antenatal care when offered the concrete incentive of seeing their baby.

  12. Reducing diarrhea through the use of household-based ceramic water filters: a randomized, controlled trial in rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Brown, Joseph; Collin, Simon; Suntura, Oscar; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-06-01

    Ceramic water filters have been identified as one of the most promising and accessible technologies for treating water at the household level. In a six-month trial, water filters were distributed randomly to half of the 50 participating households in a rural community in Bolivia; the remaining households continued to use customary water handling practices and served as controls. In four rounds of sampling following distribution of the filters, 100% of the 96 water samples from the filter households were free of thermotolerant coliforms compared with 15.5% of the control household samples. Diarrheal disease risk for individuals in intervention households was 70% lower than for controls (95% confidence interval [CI] = 53-80%; P ceramic water filters enable low-income households to treat and maintain the microbiologic quality of their drinking water.

  13. Study on Problems Related to Payment Standard of Subsistence Allowances of Rural Residents in Jiangsu Province%江苏省农村居民最低生活保障标准相关问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳

    2015-01-01

    Since the establishment of rural residents’ subsistence allowances system in Jiangsu province, its payment standard increased gradually, and this system effectively alleviated the rural poverty issue.But the development of this system was not perfect, there were many problems in the setting, implementation, dynamic adjustment and other aspects of the security standard.This paper analyzed these problems in the baseline setting, urban-rural difference, and annual increment difference of the payment standard of rural residents’ subsistence allowances in Jiangsu province, and proposed some countermeasures for reasonably adjusting the pay-ment standard of subsistence allowances of rural residents in Jiangsu province.%江苏省农村居民最低生活保障制度自建立时起,保障标准不断提高,有效缓解了农村贫困问题。但制度发展并非尽善尽美,保障标准的设定、实行与动态调整等环节依然存在多方面的问题。本文就江苏省农村低保标准的底线设定、城乡与地区差异、年度涨幅差异等方面的问题展开分析,并提出了合理调整农村低保标准的对策。

  14. Building a Community-Academic Partnership: Implementing a Community-Based Trial of Telephone Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Rural Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Aisenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the appropriate use of EBP with ethnic minority clients and the ability of community agencies to implement and sustain EBP persist and emphasize the need for community-academic research partnerships that can be used to develop, adapt, and test culturally responsive EBP in community settings. In this paper, we describe the processes of developing a community-academic partnership that implemented and pilot tested an evidence-based telephone cognitive behavioral therapy program. Originally demonstrated to be effective for urban, middle-income, English-speaking primary care patients with major depression, the program was adapted and pilot tested for use with rural, uninsured, low-income, Latino (primarily Spanish-speaking primary care patients with major depressive disorder in a primary care site in a community health center in rural Eastern Washington. The values of community-based participatory research and community-partnered participatory research informed each phase of this randomized clinical trial and the development of a community-academic partnership. Information regarding this partnership may guide future community practice, research, implementation, and workforce development efforts to address mental health disparities by implementing culturally tailored EBP in underserved communities.

  15. 中国农村居民旅游消费特征与影响因素分析%Tourism consumption of Chinese rural residents : Characteristics and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余凤龙; 黄震方; 方叶林

    2013-01-01

    Tourism consumption of Chinese rural residents is an important way of expanding domestic demand and balancing urban and rural development,and also contributes to promote the sustainable tourism development in China.Using the national statistical data collected from 1994 to 2010,the paper analyses development stage,characteristics and its changing trend,and influencing factors of tourism consumption of rural residents.The results are shown as follows:(1) Tourism consumption of rural residents can be divided into three stages.Before 1999,tourism consumption had been greatly improved,but the level of per capita tourism consumption was low.Tourism consumption showed a significant downward trend from 1999 to 2003.After that,tourism total consumption prohibited a continuous increasing tendency,but the growth of per capita tourism consumption was retarded,tourism consumption presented scale expansion,which was mainly due to the growth of tourism consumption person times.(2) Based on the comparison between urban and rural residents' tourism consumption,average tourism propensity to consumption of rural residents presents a downward trend in general,Q values which evaluate the level of tourism consumption show that the tourism consumption of rural residents lags behind income in most years.Transportation,accommodation,dining and sightseeing consumption have been steadily declining,the changing degree of tourism consumption structure is relatively strong,consumption level is relatively low and consumption structure is irrational.(3) The paper constructs an influential mechanism model of tourism consumption of rural residents.The conclusion shows that rural residents' income,traditional consumption habit,and consumption uncertainty are the three important influencing factors.Firstly,the model shows a significant positive correlation between tourism consumption and residents' income,and tourism consumption is sensitive to residents' income.Secondly,traditional consumption

  16. Effects of source- versus household contamination of tubewell water on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercumen, Ayse; Naser, Abu Mohd; Unicomb, Leanne; Arnold, Benjamin F; Colford, John M; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Shallow tubewells are the primary drinking water source for most rural Bangladeshis. Fecal contamination has been detected in tubewells, at low concentrations at the source and at higher levels at the point of use. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess whether improving the microbiological quality of tubewell drinking water by household water treatment and safe storage would reduce diarrhea in children water for fecal contamination, and record caregiver-reported child diarrhea prevalence (primary outcome). To assess reporting bias, we also collected data on health outcomes that are not expected to be impacted by our interventions. Both interventions had high uptake. Safe storage, alone or combined with chlorination, reduced heavy contamination of stored water. Compared to controls, diarrhea in index children was reduced by 36% in the chlorine plus safe storage arm (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.64, 0.55-0.73) and 31% in the safe storage arm (PR = 0.69, 0.60-0.80), with no difference between the two intervention arms. One limitation of the study was the non-blinded design with self-reported outcomes. However, the prevalence of health outcomes not expected to be impacted by water interventions did not differ between study arms, suggesting minimal reporting bias. Safe storage significantly improved drinking water quality at the point of use and reduced child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. There was no added benefit from combining safe storage with chlorination. Efforts should be undertaken to implement and evaluate long-term efforts for safe water storage in Bangladesh. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350063.

  17. A cluster randomised controlled trial of an occupational therapy intervention for residents with stroke living in UK care homes (OTCH: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sackley Cath M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occupational therapy (OT in care homes study (OTCH aims to investigate the effect of a targeted course of individual OT (with task training, provision of adaptive equipment, minor environmental adaptations and staff education for stroke survivors living in care homes, compared to usual care. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial of United Kingdom (UK care homes (n = 90 with residents (n = 900 who have suffered a stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA, and who are not receiving end-of-life care. Homes will be stratified by centre and by type of care provided and randomised (50:50 using computer generated blocked randomisation within strata to receive either the OT intervention (3 months intervention from an occupational therapist or control (usual care. Staff training on facilitating independence and mobility and the use of adaptive equipment, will be delivered to every home, with control homes receiving this after the 12 month follow-up. Allocation will be concealed from the independent assessors, but the treating therapists, and residents will not be masked to the intervention. Measurements are taken at baseline prior to randomisation and at 3, 6 and 12 months post randomisation. The primary outcome measure is independence in self-care activities of daily living (Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index. Secondary outcome measures are mobility (Rivermead Mobility Index, mood (Geriatric Depression Scale, preference based quality of life measured from EQ-5D and costs associated with each intervention group. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs will be derived based on the EQ-5D scores. Cost effectiveness analysis will be estimated and measured by incremental cost effectiveness ratio. Adverse events will be recorded. Discussion This study will be the largest cluster randomised controlled trial of OT in care homes to date and will clarify the currently inconclusive literature on the efficacy of OT for

  18. 中国城乡居民食品消费变化趋势分析%ANALYSIS ON FOOD CONSUMPTION CHANGE TENDENCY OF CHINESE URBAN AND RURAL RESIDENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志宏; 陈志超; 郝晋珉

    2012-01-01

    Food is an important part of resident consumption and its changes in quantity and structural can directly reflect the resident living level.Since the 90s of the 20 th century,with the continuous and rapid development of the economy in China,residents are much richer than before,and the urban and rural resident food consumption structure is undergoing a tremendous change,which would have an important impact on agricultural production and food security of our country to some extent.Therefore,the research on resident food consumption change attracts more and more scholars′ academic concerns.Our Chinese scholars mainly research on the changes of resident food consumption from economic value and weight aspects at present.As the volatility of market value and diversity of food consumption pattern,the above research methods can't objectively measure the resident food consumption structure changes.Therefore,to avoid the above shortcomings,this paper contrasts the quantitative relationship of animal food and vegetarian food separately in weight,energy and emergy forms and quantitatively analyzes the change tendency of Chinese urban and rural resident food consumption based on emergy analysis theory.The research results show that Chinese resident animal food consumption in weight and energy forms were 11.90% and 9.11% of vegetarian diet,while that in emergy form was 70.29%.As the values of Chinese resident animal food consumption in weight and energy forms was far below its vegetarian consumption,Chinese urban and rural resident food consumption was still vegetarian diet.But the value of its resident animal food consumption in emergy form was far more than its vegetable consumption,which means that the healthy development of animal husbandry is an important part of guaranteeing resident food consumption and national food security and it would conduce to the succession of diversity and balanced nutrition.At the same time,Chinese urban and rural resident food consumption

  19. 黄淮海平原县域农村居民点布局优化及其整治策略%Layout optimization for county rural residents in Huang-Huai-Hai plain area and its remediation strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宁; 郝晋珉; 孟鹏; 陈丽; 洪舒蔓; 穆哈拜提·帕热提

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide the guidance for migration and combination in land consolidation and new rural construction, this paper analyzed layout optimization scheme of rural residential patches in Quzhou county, both in terms of rural residential patches’ development conditions and of spatial interaction between adjacent patches. Centrality index from Christaller’s Central Place Theory was employed to quantitatively calculate development conditions of rural residential patches. To achieve this, an evaluation index system which fitted the characteristics of Huang-Huai-Hai plain was built. The paper obtained the centrality indices of 247 main residential patches in Quzhou county using comprehensive judgment method of various factors, which derived from 342 administrative villages and consisted of 242 rural residential patches and 5 urban residential patches. The paper regarded the rural residential patches as the study units and merged the adjacent rural residents belonging to different administrative villages.. Then, field-strength was used to recognize the rural residential patches greatly influenced by cities and towns, and the improved gravity model was employed to find out the spatial interaction between rural residential patches. The 242 main rural residential patches were divided into 4 levels according to the values of centrality index, and most of high-level patches were located along arterial traffic and towns. Based on the higher value of field strength given by 5 urban residential patches, 21 rural residential patches were defined as urbanization-oriented type. In these rural residential patches, the second and third industry developed rapidly and employment structure changed gradually. The paper drew the largest gravity connection line between the patches, based on which the 59 consolidation units were confirmed and spatial interaction relationship was known. According to the characteristics of spatial organization between the patches in one unit, the

  20. Evaluation of a pilot healthy eating intervention in restaurants and food stores of a rural community: a randomized community trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Riggall, Ann Josie; Meinen, Amy M; Malecki, Kristen; Escaron, Anne L; Hall, Bev; Menzies, Anne; Garske, Gary; Nieto, F Javier; Nitzke, Susan

    2015-02-12

    Research suggests that the food environment influences individual eating practices. To date, little is known about effective interventions to improve the food environment of restaurants and food stores and promote healthy eating in rural communities. We tested "Waupaca Eating Smart " (WES), a pilot intervention to improve the food environment and promote healthy eating in restaurants and supermarkets of a rural community. WES focused on labeling, promoting, and increasing the availability of healthy foods. We conducted a randomized community trial, with two Midwestern U.S. communities randomly assigned to serve as intervention or control site. We collected process and outcome data using baseline and posttest owner and customer surveys and direct observation methods. The RE-AIM framework was used to guide the evaluation and organize the results. Seven of nine restaurants and two of three food stores invited to participate in WES adopted the intervention. On a 0-4 scale, the average level of satisfaction with WES was 3.14 (SD=0.69) for restaurant managers and 3 (SD=0.0) for store managers. On average, 6.3 (SD=1.1) out of 10 possible intervention activities were implemented in restaurants and 9.0 (SD=0.0) out of 12 possible activities were implemented in food stores. One month after the end of the pilot implementation period, 5.4 (SD=1.6) and 7.5 (SD=0.7) activities were still in place at restaurants and food stores, respectively. The intervention reached 60% of customers in participating food outlets. Restaurant food environment scores improved from 13.4 to 24.1 (p customer behaviors were observed after a 10-month implementation period. The intervention achieved high levels of reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance, suggesting the feasibility and acceptability of restaurant-and food store-based interventions in rural communities. Pilot outcome data indicated very modest levels of effectiveness, but additional research adequately powered to test the impact

  1. Associations between the perceived environment and physical activity among adults aged 55-65 years: does urban-rural area of residence matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; Sodergren, Marita; Otahal, Petr; Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether associations between the perceived environment and physical activity are moderated by urban-rural status among midolder aged adults. Environmental (safety, aesthetics, physical activity environment) and physical activity (total, leisure, transport) data from 3,888 adults (55 to 65 years) from urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia, were analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression examined interactions between urban-rural status and environments in associations with physical activity. Significant (P physical activity (e.g., rural adults reporting higher safety were 91% to 118% more likely to have higher activity than rural adults reporting low safety). In contrast, the physical activity environment was positively associated with leisure activity among only urban adults. Findings suggest that some tailoring of physical activity promotion strategies targeting the environment may be required for urban and rural midolder aged adults.

  2. 基于岭回归的我国农村居民消费实证研究%An Empirical Study of the Rural Residents ’Consumption of China Based on the Ridge Regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱述知

    2014-01-01

    近年来,我国农村消费需求成为一个研究的热点问题。文章为了消除解释变量之间的多重共线性的影响,对农村居民人均消费支出与农村居民人均纯收入、人均储蓄存款、人均GDP和消费价格指数这四个影响因素进行岭回归分析。实证分析结果表明,四个影响因素均对农村居民消费需求有显著影响,对模型进一步分析得出,我国近年来消费快速上升背后最大推动力竟然是物价的持续上涨,而不是居民消费动力有很大提高,最后对实证结果给予合理的经济解释。%In recent years,the consumer demand in rural China has become a hot issue. In this paper, in order to eliminate the influence of the multicollinearity between the explanatory variables,a model of per capita consumption of rural residents on four influential factors -per capita net income of rural residents, rural residents per capita saving deposits,per capita GDP and consumption index are built by the ridge re-gression analysis. The empirical results show that four factors have a significant impact on the consumption needs of rural residents. And the further analysis shows that the continuing rise of the price in recent years, unexpectedly becomes the biggest driving force behind the rapid increase in consumption,rather than the improvement of the consumer power. Finally,the empirical results are given reasonable explanations.

  3. Web-based interventions for weight loss and weight maintenance among rural midlife and older women: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeckner Linda S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss is challenging and maintenance of weight loss is problematic among midlife and older rural women. Finding effective interventions using innovative delivery methods that can reach underserved and vulnerable populations of overweight and obese rural women is a public health challenge. Methods/Design This Women Weigh-In for Wellness (The WWW study randomized-controlled trial is designed to compare the effectiveness of theory-based behavior-change interventions using (1 website only, (2 website with peer-led support, or (3 website with professional email-counseling to facilitate initial weight loss (baseline to 6 months, guided continuing weight loss and maintenance (7-18 months and self-directed weight maintenance (19-30 months among rural women ages 45-69 with a BMI of 28-45. Recruitment efforts using local media will target 306 rural women who live within driving distance of a community college site where assessments will be conducted at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months by research nurses blinded to group assignments. Primary outcomes include changes in body weight, % weight loss, and eating and activity behavioral and biomarkers from baseline to each subsequent assessment. Secondary outcomes will be percentage of women achieving at least 5% and 10% weight loss without regain from baseline to 6, 18, and 30 months and achieving healthy eating and activity targets. Data analysis will use generalized estimating equations to analyze average change across groups and group differences in proportion of participants achieving target weight loss levels. Discussion The Women Weigh-In for Wellness study compares innovative web-based alternatives for providing lifestyle behavior-change interventions for promoting weight loss and weight maintenance among rural women. If effective, such interventions would offer potential for reducing overweight and obesity among a vulnerable, hard-to-reach, population of rural women

  4. The Effects of a Community-Based Sodium Reduction Program in Rural China – A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lijing L.; Niu, Wenyi; Yao, Chen; Feng, Xiangxian; Zhang, Jianxin; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Ruijuan; Hao, Zhixin; Chu, Hongling; Zhang, Jing; Li, Xian; Pan, Jianhong; Li, Zhifang; Sun, Jixin; Zhou, Bo; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Yan; Engelgau, Michael; Labarthe, Darwin; Ma, Jixiang; MacMahon, Stephen; Elliott, Paul; Wu, Yangfeng; Neal, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Background Average sodium intake and stroke mortality in northern China are both among the highest in the world. An effective, low-cost strategy to reduce sodium intake in this population is urgently needed. Objective We sought to determine the effects of a community-based sodium reduction program on salt consumption in rural northern China. Design This study was a cluster-randomized trial done over 18 months in 120 townships (one village from each township) from five provinces. Sixty control villages were compared to 60 intervention villages that were given access to a reduced-sodium, added-potassium salt substitute in conjunction with a community-based health education program focusing on sodium reduction. The primary outcome was the difference in 24-hour urinary sodium excretion between randomized groups. Results Among 1,903 people with valid 24-hour urine collections, mean urinary sodium excretion in intervention compared with control villages was reduced by 5.5% (-14mmol/day, 95% confidence interval -26 to -1; p = 0.03), potassium excretion was increased by 16% (+7mmol/day, +4 to +10; psalt substitute. The absence of effects on blood pressure reflects the moderate changes in sodium and potassium intake achieved. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01259700. PMID:27935977

  5. Total Diet Study in Urban and Rural Residents in Some Areas of Hebei Province in 2007%2007年河北省部分地区城乡居民总膳食研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 解益民; 李珊; 李素琴; 朱文发

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To learn the dietary quality and nutritional status of residents in Tangshan city, Wenan county of Langfang city, Shuangta district of Chengde city in Hebei province, provide the scientific basis for government's policy making.[Methods]U-sing method of total diet study, the dietary composition and levels of carbohydrate, protein, fat, dietary fiber, dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin Bl, vitamin B2, nicotinic acid, vitamin C, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium and sodium in urban and rural residents in some areas of Hebei province were evaluated and analyzed retrospectively.[Results]Total food consumption and the consumption of vegetables, beans in urban and rural areas were almost equal, the consumptions of cereals, water and condiments in rural areas were higher than those in urban areas, and consumptions of other foods in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. The representative dietary composition of urban and rural areas was dominated by plant foods which included cereals and vegetables. The animal foods were single, the consumption of pork accounted for 47.1% and 82.5% of total consumption of animal foods in urban and rural areas respectively. The average intakes of beans, milk and water were significantly lower than recommended nutrient intake ( RNI) of Dietary guidelines for Chinese residents. The intakes of wine, fat and salt were significantly higher than RNI. There was a serious shortage of intakes of beans, meat and aquatic food among rural residents. The average energy intake of urban and rural residents reached 94.8% , 88.7% and 90.7% of RNI respectively. The protein intake reached 109.3% , 72% and 84.5% of RNI respectively. The intakes of vitamin C, iron and sodium were adequate. The intakes of vitamin A, vitamin Bl, vitamin B2, calcium, zinc and selenium among urban and rural residents were insufficient. The fat intake of urban residents was excessive. The intake and quality of protein among rural residents was unsatisfactory

  6. 河南省农村居民相对贫困动态演化的实证研究%Empirical Research on the Dynamic Development of the Relative Poverty of Rural Residents in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席雪红

    2012-01-01

    According to the net income data of rural residents and the relative poverty line in Henan Statistical Yearbook from 2002 - 2011, the common poverty index system and the World Bank POVCAL software were used to empirically analyze the dynamic development of the relative poverty of rural residents in Henan Province from 2001 to 2010. The results showed that the rural relative poverty rate in Henan Province was decreasing, but the poverty degree was improving and the income gap became larger, and the gross evaluation of relative poverty ascended slowly.%基于《河南统计年鉴》中2002~2011年的农村居民纯收入分组数据和相对贫困线,应用常见的贫困指标体系,运用世界银行的POVCAL软件,实证分析了2001~2010年河南省农村居民相对贫困的动态演化过程.结果表明:河南省农村居民的相对贫困规模在持续下降;贫困的深度在不断加深;收入的差距显著扩大;相对贫困的综合程度在逐步加大.

  7. An Analysis of the Dynamic Mechanism of Resident Community Participation in Construction of New Rural Community%新型农村社区建设中居民社区参与的动力机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于波

    2013-01-01

    新型农村社区居民在社区参与上主要存在参与内容具有明显选择偏好、参与行为具有区隔性以及参与意愿与实际参与行为不符等问题。通过建构利益驱动机制、认同驱动机制和制度驱动机制,帮助居民拓宽获取社会资本的渠道,增强居民社区认同感,搭建社区参与的制度平台,有助于增强社区居民的参与意识,改善社区居民参与状况。%Involvement in the community on the new rural community residents have the following three characteristics .First, commu-nity involvement content is obvious preference .Second, participation behavior is so compartmentalized .Third, willingness to partici-pate does not match with the actual participation behavior .To solve these problems , this paper focuses on the affect of interest-driven mechanism , identity driven mechanism and system driven mechanism for new rural community residents to participate in community af -fairs.Relevance of community affairs , the method of participation in community affairs and participation efficacy affected the behavior of residents to participate .There are three methods for promotion of community participation .The first is broaden the channels for the residents access to social capital .The second is enhanced residents of the community identity .The third is institutional platform to build community involvement .

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENCES IN DIETARY STRUCTURE BASED ON HUMAN TROPHIC LEVELS BETWEEN CHINESE URBAN AND RURAL RESIDENTS%中国城乡居民饮食结构差异分析-基于营养级视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓磊; 田青; 阎东东; 崔雪锋

    2016-01-01

    目的:饮食结构指消费者所消费的食物种类和数量,而人类营养级(human trophic level,HTL)是反映复杂饮食结构的量化指标,本文利用HTL的概念揭示不同群体食品摄入变化的规律。方法本研究利用统计数据分别计算城乡居民的HTL,进而通过HTL的变化来研究城乡居民食品消费上的差异。结果我国城镇居民和农村居民的营养级从1995到2012年均呈现增长的态势,但是城乡差异仍然很大。农村居民的营养级从1995年的2.06增长到2012年的2.13,但是仍低于城镇居民1995年的2.18。进一步比较城乡居民5类食品的营养级贡献率,肉蛋奶贡献率的上升是导致二者营养级上升的主要原因,但是城镇居民肉蛋奶的贡献率上升比农村居民更为明显。居民收入和食品类支出同营养级的增长密切相关,当营养级达到2.25时,营养级逐步保持稳定,饮食结构呈现一种稳定的状态。同时,营养级的时间变化能够体现禽流感等食品安全问题对饮食结构的影响。结论人类营养级计算方便、易于理解,可以较为全面地反应居民饮食结构。%ObjectiveDiet structure has been used to describe the type and quantity of food consumption by an individual or population. Human trophic level (HTL) can reflex complex dietary structure, and reveal the rule of food intake by different groups of people.Methods Using social statistical data, we calculated the HTL of urban residents and rural residents from 1995 to 2012, then analyzed the differences in food consumption between urban and rural residents.Results The HTL of both groups was increased between 1995 and 2012, but the gap was still large. The HTL of rural residents increased from 2.06 in 1995 to 2.13 in 2012, but it was still lower than urban residents (2.18) in 1995. Among the five compared foods we found that contribution rates of meat, eggs and milk were increased in both urban and rural

  9. Treatment of head lice with dimeticone 4% lotion: comparison of two formulations in a randomised controlled trial in rural Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin M Turhan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dimeticone 4% lotion was shown to be an effective treatment for head louse infestation in two randomised controlled trials in England. It is not affected by insecticide resistance but efficacy obtained (70-75% was lower than expected. This study was designed to evaluate efficacy of dimeticone 4% lotion in a geographically, socially, and culturally different setting, in rural Turkey and, in order to achieve blinding, it was compared with a potential alternative formulation. Methods Children from two village schools were screened for head lice by detection combing. All infested students and family members could participate, giving access to treatment for the whole community. Two investigator applied treatments were given 7 days apart. Outcome was assessed by detection combing three times between treatments and twice the week following second treatment. Results In the intention to treat group 35/36 treated using dimeticone 4% had no lice after the second treatment but there were two protocol violators giving 91.7% treatment success. The alternative product gave 30/36 (83.3% treatment success, a difference of 8.4% (95% CI -9.8% to 26.2%. The cure rates per-protocol were 33/34 (97.1% and 30/35 (85.7% respectively. We were unable to find any newly emerged louse nymphs on 77.8% of dimeticone 4% treated participants or on 66.7% of those treated with the alternative formulation. No adverse events were identified. Conclusion Our results confirm the efficacy of dimeticone 4% lotion against lice and eggs and we found no detectable difference between this product and dimeticone 4% lotion with nerolidol 2% added. We believe that the high cure rate was related to the lower intensity of infestation in Turkey, together with the level of community engagement, compared with previous studies in the UK. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10431107

  10. 要素市场配置与我国城乡居民收入差距研究%A Research of Factor Market Allocation and China's Income Gap between Urban and Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖文燕

    2012-01-01

    在我国城乡要素市场人为分割情况下,劳动力、土地、资本等要素在城乡间的流动受到限制,要素的这种错误配置导致了较低的配置效率,从而使得城乡间经济收敛的内在机制无法发挥作用。通过选取一定的统计指标,对1990-2011年我国城乡要素收入进行分解,用定性与定量相结合的方法分析要素市场配置对城乡居民收入差距的影响。研究表明,土地要素和劳动力要素对城乡居民收入差距影响最大。应采取完善要素市场配置体制,促进劳动力、土地、资本等要素合理配置,完善政府宏观调控职能等政策缩小城乡居民收入差距。%In the situation of China's Urban and rural factor market being artificially divided, the movements of labor, land, capital and other factors between urban and rural areas are restricted. Such incorrect allocation of factors leads to lower allocation efficiency, which makes the internal mechanism of economic convergence between urban and rural areas unable to play a role. By selecting certain statistical indicators to decompose China's urban-rural income factors from 1990 to 2011, this paper uses the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze the impact of factor market allocation on the income gap between urban and rural residents. According to the research, the factors of land and labor have the greatest impact on urban-rural income gap. Therefore, some countermeasures should be taken to narrow the income gap between urban and rural residents, such as improving factor market allocation system, promoting the rational allocation of labor, land, capital and other factors, improving the government's macro-control functions, etc.

  11. 农村居民健康影响因素研究%Study on influencing factors of rural residents health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜维婧; 陶茂萱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the farmers health and health resources utilization and to provide basic data for social determinants of farmer health. Methods A typical questionnaire survey was conducted on farmers those over 18 in two economic medium level villages in Shanxi and Qinghai. Results 1409 subjects participated in this survey. The two week prevalence was 19. 8% , and 60. 1% of subjects thought they had good health status. 16.6% of subjects correctly answer whether the hypertension, diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, dysentery, influenza can be transmitted or not, only 21.9% of subjects thought dysentery can be transmitted; 95. 5% of subjects knew and 96. 6% of subjects took part in the new rural cooperative medical care (NRCMC) , but only 27.6% new the NRCMC reimbursement; 95.2% of subjects didn' t know the equalization of public health services. Logistic multifactor analysis shows that the influencing factors of on male and female are different The awareness of health knowledge is the protective factor and alcohol consumption is the risk factor for male's health. For female, to stay at home for housework is the protective factor. Conclusion Rural residents self-rated health in good condition. The main factors affecting fanners health are age, education, occupation, health related behaviours and use of health services.%目的 了解调查地区农民健康及卫生资源的利用状况,为农民健康的社会决定因素研究提供基础数据.方法 采用典型调查整群抽样的方法,在山西、青海分别选取经济中等的2个村庄,对18岁以上居民进行问卷调查.结果 共调查1409人,被调查人群两周患病率为19.8%,认为自己健康状况好及以上的为60.1%.16.6%的调查对象能够全部正确回答关于高血压、糖尿病、肺结核、心脏病、痢疾、流感6种疾病是否能够传染的问题,只有21.9%的调查对象认为痢疾能够传染.95.5%的调查对象知道新

  12. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-06-21

    In this study, we performed a market trial of off-grid LED lighting products in Maai Mahiu, arural Kenyan town. Our goals were to assess consumer demand and consumer preferences with respect to off-grid lighting systems and to gain feedback from off-grid lighting users at the point of purchase and after they have used to products for some time.

  13. A multicenter, longitudinal, interventional, double blind randomized clinical trial in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients residing in remote areas: Lessons learned from the late cytomegalovirus prevention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise E. Kimball

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Complex randomized, double-blind, multicenter interventional trials with treatment decisions made at a central coordinating site can be conducted safely and effectively according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP guidelines over a large geographic area.

  14. Overweight and obesity among Ghanaian residents in The Netherlands: how do they weigh against their urban and rural counterparts in Ghana?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Agyemang; E. Owusu-Dabo; A. de Jonge; D. Martins; G. Ogedegbe; K. Stronks

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in overweight and obesity between first-generation Dutch-Ghanaian migrants in The Netherlands and their rural and urban counterparts in Ghana. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: A total of 1471 Ghanaians (rural Ghanaians, n 532; urban Ghanaians, n 787; Dut

  15. Overweight and obesity among Ghanaian residents in the Netherlands: How do they weigh against their urban and rural counterparts in Ghana?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, C.; Owusu-Dabo, E.; Jonge, A.de; Martins, D.; Ogedegbe, G.; Stronks, K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in overweight and obesity between first-generation Dutch-Ghanaian migrants in The Netherlands and their rural and urban counterparts in Ghana. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 1471 Ghanaians (rural Ghanaians, n 532; urban Ghanaians, n 787; Dut

  16. Dentine dypersensitivity's disease status and risk factors of rural residents in Qiannan region%黔南地区农村居民牙本质过敏症患病现状及其危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢雄伟; 潘兴富; 丁舒; 郭秋蝉

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解农村居民牙本质过敏症患病现状及其危险因素,为采取相应的干预措施提供参考依据。方法采用整群随机抽样方法对黔南地区39328名≥20岁农村常住居民进行问卷调查和口腔检查,对调查结果进行统计分析。结果检出牙本质过敏症患者16391例,患病率为41.68%。16391例牙本质过敏症患者因酸刺激敏感诱发9986例占60.92%、冷刺激2985例占18.21%、热刺激1398例占8.53%、甜刺激1246例占7.60%、刷牙刺激776例占4.73%。多因素非条件logistic回归分析结果显示,女性、年龄30岁~39岁、水族、喜欢酸性食物、胃肠道反酸(长期食新鲜水果、使用牙刷较硬、刷牙力量重)和6个月换1次牙刷是黔南地区农村居民牙本质过敏症患病的危险因素。结论黔南地区农村居民牙本质过敏症患病率高于国内其他地区,应引起重视。%ObjectiveUnderstand dentine hypersensitivity's disease status and risk factors of rural residents in Qiannan Region,Guizhou Province,to provide reference basis for taking corresponding interventions.MethodsBy cluster random sampling method to carry out questionnaires and oral cavity examination to 39328 rural residents of≥20 years old,who are extracted from Qiannan region.Results16391 rural residents in Qiannan Region,Guizhou Province have dentine hypersensitivity(DH),with prevalence rate of 41.68%. In 16391 patients with DH,9986 patients are induced by acid stimulation sensitivity(60.92%),2985 patients are cold stimulation(18.21%),1398 patients are hot stimulation(8.53%),1246 patients are sweet stimulation(7.60%)and 776 patients are stimulated by brushing teeth(4.73%). Multi-factor unconditioned logistic regression analysis results show that,the risk factors of DH disease of rural residents in Qiannan Region,Guizhou Province are:female,aged 30-39 years old,Shui nationality, like acidic food,gastrointestinal reflux,long-term eating fresh fruit

  17. 山东省农村居民消费需求影响因素实证研究%Empirical Research on Influencing Factors of Consuming Demand of Rural Residents in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡保玲; 孙立娜

    2012-01-01

    扩大农村居民消费对提升山东省经济发展至关重要。文章建立农村居民消费需求固定效应变截距模型,运用1998—2010年的面板数据实证研究了经济、社会与心理诸因素与农村居民消费之间的关系。结果发现,工资性收入、财产性收入、人均储蓄余额、社会保障支出和消费习惯对农村居民消费呈现正的影响效应。%It is of great importance to enlarge the consumption of rural residents for the economic develop- ment of Shandong Province. By constructing rural consuming fixed effects variable intercept model, this thesis re- searches the relationship between economic, social, and psychological factors and rural consumption with the help of panel data from 1998 to 2010. The result shows that there is a positive influence between wage incomes, property incomes, per capita savings balance, social security spending and consuming habits and rural consumption.

  18. Study on Awareness of Chronic Non Communicable Diseases Among Rural Residents%农村居民慢性非传染性疾病的相关知晓情况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑芳

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解农村居民对慢性非传染性疾病的相关知识的知晓情况,为制定农村地区慢性非传染性疾病的防治措施提供可供参考的指导意见。方法于2015年10月-12月,在黑龙江省黑河市逊克县随机抽取20个自然村共1200名成年居民作为调查对象,采用自制的调查问卷对这1200名农村居民的慢性非传染性疾病相关知识知晓情况进行调查。结果1200份调查问卷共有效回收1150份,有效回收率为95.83%。41~70岁居民对慢性非传染性疾病相关知识的知晓率较高,70岁以上居民的知晓率较低;文盲及小学水平的居民对慢性非传染性疾病相关知识的知晓率较低,知晓率与学历密切相关,且呈正相关;慢性非传染性疾病的预防知识知晓率较低,膳食营养知识的知晓率较高。结论农村居民对慢性非传染性疾病相关知识的知晓率普遍较低,应针对农村居民的特点积极开展健康知识宣传和教育。%Objective To understand the awareness of the knowledge about chronic non communicable diseases among rural residents, and to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of chronic non communicable diseases in rural areas. Methods In October~ December2015, in Heilongjiang Province Heihe Xunke county, a total of 1200 adult residents in 20 natural villages were randomly selected as the research object.A self-made questionnaire was used to investigate the aware-ness of the knowledge about chronic non communicable diseases among the 1200 rural residents. Results A total of 1150questionnaires were recovered in1200 questionnaires, the effective recovery rate was 95.83%.The knowledge awareness rate about chronic non infectious disease of 41~70 year old residents was higher, the awareness rate of residents who over 70 years of age was low;The knowledge awareness rate about chronic non communicable diseases of illiteracy and primary level residentswas low, and the awareness rate was

  19. Improving quality of life in diverse rural older adults: a randomized trial of a psychological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Forrest; Morthland, Martin; Kaufman, Allan; Burgio, Louis; Chaplin, William; Kong, Grace

    2007-12-01

    The efficacy of home-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving quality of life and reducing psychological symptoms in older adults was examined in this study. One hundred thirty-four participants, predominately African American and characterized as primarily rural, low resource, and physically frail, were randomly assigned to either CBT or a minimal support control condition. Results indicate that CBT participants evidenced significantly greater improvements in quality of life and reductions in psychological symptoms. Mediation of treatment through cognitive and behavioral variables was not found despite the acceptable delivery of CBT by research therapists. These data suggest that treatment can be effective with a disadvantaged sample of older adults and extend efficacy findings to quality of life domains. Creating access to evidence-based treatments through nontraditional delivery is an important continuing goal for geriatric health care. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. 农村居民家庭经营纯收入现状及影响因素分析%Analysis of Present Situation and Influencing Factors of Rural Residents'Net Income in Family Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季鹏

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes the rural residents'net income in family management from 1985 to 2012 as explanatory variables and selects 5 relevant explanatory variables to establish time series model using stepwise regression and multiple linear regression .The analysis shows that rural residents 'private investment in fixed assets , family management costs and total power of farm machinery have a significant influence on their net income .And rural residents'private investment in fixed assets and family management costs have positive influence ,while total power of farm machinery has a negative influence on their net income due to its return delay .Accordingly ,the problems of increasing farmers'income are summarized and relevant suggestions are put forward .%以1985-2012年农村居民家庭经营纯收入为被解释变量,选取5个相关解释变量建立时间序列模型,采用逐步回归和多元线性回归方法进行分析。结果显示,农村家庭个人固定资产投资、家庭经营费用和农用机械总动力对其有显著影响,其中农村家庭个人固定资产投资和家庭经营费用呈正向影响,农用机械总动力由于投入后回报时滞呈负向影响。针对这一结果,总结了农民增收存在的问题并提出相关建议。

  1. Path Lock-in and Breakthrough for Rural Migrant Workers into Urban Residents%农民工转化为城市居民的路径锁定与突破

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立胜

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization is accompanied with population transfer from villages to towns and cities.The transfer of surplus labor force from villages to sectors with a positive marginal return in cities is the basic driving force to promote urbanization and economic growth.However,there exist institutional barriers in areas such as residence,social security,and education for the transform of rural migrant workers into urban residents.To assist peasants to share the benefits from urbanization and economic growth,path lock-in that prevents the transform of rural migrant workers into urban residents need to be broken.To implement institutional innovation,the contradiction between urbanization and the lack of peasants' rights and interests must be resolved to enable rural migrant workers enjoy equal rights and interests or equal treatment.%城市化伴随着农村人口向城镇的转移,农村剩余劳动力转移到城市中边际报酬为正的产业部门,是推动城市化与经济增长的基本动力。而我国农民工转化为城市居民存在户籍、社会保障、教育等制度障碍。为促进农民分享城市化与经济增长的收益,需要打破农民工转化为市民的路径锁定,实施制度创新,需要解决因城市化发展与农民权益缺失的矛盾,让农民工享受与城市居民相等的权益或待遇。

  2. Randomized clinical trial of yoga-based intervention in residents from elderly homes: Effects on cognitive function

    OpenAIRE

    Hariprasad, V. R.; Koparde, V.; Sivakumar, P. T.; Varambally, S.; Thirthalli, J.; Varghese, M; Basavaraddi, I. V.; B N Gangadhar

    2013-01-01

    Context: Elderly have increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia. Yoga therapy may be helpful in elderly to improve cognitive function. Aims: We examined the benefits of yoga-based intervention compared with waitlist control group on cognitive function in the residents of elderly homes. Settings and Design: Single blind controlled study with block randomization of elderly homes. Materials and Methods: Study sample included yoga group (n=62) and waitlist group (n=58). A total of 87 s...

  3. Using acupressure and Montessori-based activities to decrease agitation for residents with dementia: a cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chan; Yang, Man-Hua; Kao, Chieh-Chun; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Tang, Sai-Hung; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2009-06-01

    To explore the effectiveness of acupressure and Montessori-based activities in decreasing the agitated behaviors of residents with dementia. A double-blinded, randomized (two treatments and one control; three time periods) cross-over design was used. Six special care units for residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan were the sites for the study. One hundred thirty-three institutionalized residents with dementia. Subjects were randomized into three treatment sequences: acupressure-presence-Montessori methods, Montessori methods-acupressure-presence and presence-Montessori methods-acupressure. All treatments were done once a day, 6 days per week, for a 4-week period. The Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, Ease-of-Care, and the Apparent Affect Rating Scale. After receiving the intervention, the acupressure and Montessori-based-activities groups saw a significant decrease in agitated behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and physically nonaggressive behaviors than the presence group. Additionally, the ease-of-care ratings for the acupressure and Montessori-based-activities groups were significantly better than for the presence group. In terms of apparent affect, positive affect in the Montessori-based-activities group was significantly better than in the presence group. This study confirms that a blending of traditional Chinese medicine and a Western activities program would be useful in elderly care and that in-service training for formal caregivers in the use of these interventions would be beneficial for patients

  4. Solar Drinking Water Disinfection (SODIS) to Reduce Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Bolivia: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäusezahl, Daniel; Christen, Andri; Pacheco, Gonzalo Duran; Tellez, Fidel Alvarez; Iriarte, Mercedes; Zapata, Maria E.; Cevallos, Myriam; Hattendorf, Jan; Cattaneo, Monica Daigl; Arnold, Benjamin; Smith, Thomas A.; Colford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost, point-of-use water purification method that has been disseminated globally. Laboratory studies suggest that SODIS is highly efficacious in inactivating waterborne pathogens. Previous field studies provided limited evidence for its effectiveness in reducing diarrhoea. Methods and Findings We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 rural communities in Bolivia to evaluate the effect of SODIS in reducing diarrhoea among children under the age of 5 y. A local nongovernmental organisation conducted a standardised interactive SODIS-promotion campaign in 11 communities targeting households, communities, and primary schools. Mothers completed a daily child health diary for 1 y. Within the intervention arm 225 households (376 children) were trained to expose water-filled polyethyleneteraphtalate bottles to sunlight. Eleven communities (200 households, 349 children) served as a control. We recorded 166,971 person-days of observation during the trial representing 79.9% and 78.9% of the total possible person-days of child observation in intervention and control arms, respectively. Mean compliance with SODIS was 32.1%. The reported incidence rate of gastrointestinal illness in children in the intervention arm was 3.6 compared to 4.3 episodes/year at risk in the control arm. The relative rate of diarrhoea adjusted for intracluster correlation was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.59–1.12). The median length of diarrhoea was 3 d in both groups. Conclusions Despite an extensive SODIS promotion campaign we found only moderate compliance with the intervention and no strong evidence for a substantive reduction in diarrhoea among children. These results suggest that there is a need for better evidence of how the well-established laboratory efficacy of this home-based water treatment method translates into field effectiveness under various cultural settings and intervention intensities. Further global

  5. 农村居民收入差距适度性问卷调查%The Questionnaire Survey Research on the Moderation of Rural Residents'Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敬水; 于思源

    2014-01-01

    Based on the 2852 rural residents questionnaires from 31 provinces across China ,this paper measured the present situation of the rural income gap by Gini coefficient and other indicators ;analyzed the statistical estimates of rural income gap and its main influencing factors in terms of basic characteristics of peasant household ,physical capital ,human capital ,political capital ,the geographical environment and regional differences , and rural household incomes per capita ;conducted a questionnaire survey on the moderation of rural income gap related issues at the present stage of China .T he results indicated that rural income gap in China was wide .Different basic characteristics of peasant household ,physical capital , human capital ,political capital ,the geographical environment and regional differences led to different rural income and rural income gap .T he rural residents'income gap at the present stage in China has gone beyond reasonable limits .‘Rural labor lack of employment skills’ and ‘the lack of agricultural technology and capital’ were the main reasons of the difficulties in increasing the income of farmers .Rural residents’ affordability of the widening income gap was weak ,they were not content with the current situation of income distribution ,but satisfied with the policies of agriculture farmer and village .‘Social security’ ,‘education’ and‘public infrastructure’ were the main performance of the unfair to rural residents .‘The gap between rich and poor is too big’ was the main risk hindered economic efficiency .‘To improve the urban‐rural dual structure’ ,‘to improve the whole quality of rural labor force’ and ‘to build a balanced urban‐rural social security system’ were the main ways to narrow the income gap between urban and rural areas .%基于中国31个省份2852份农村居民家庭问卷调查数据,运用Gini系数等指标,对中国农村居民收入差距现状进行统计测算;从

  6. 成都市农村新型社区卫生状况及居民健康相关行为调查%Survey on Sanitation of New Type Rural Community and Health Behavior of Residents in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾伟; 叶庆临; 杜慧兰; 马林; 熊建华; 廖骏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the drinking water quality, environmental health, health service and the change of residents ' life behavior in new type rural communities in Chengdu. Methods From 2007 to 2009 , 20 new type rural communities and 12 common rural communities were selected by cluster sampling, 548 residents received questionnaire survey and 12 residents were interviewed to collect the information about environmental health, accessibility of health service and health behavior. Results In new type rural communities surveyed,90% of the communities had set up the centralized water supply system, 93. 10% of drinking water samples had reached the standard, 95% of the communities had set up septic - tank and domestic sewage disposal pipes,10O% of the communities had established the waste collection and transport system, the walking time to the nearest medical institutions had decreased from 22 to 8 minutes compared with that before the building of the community. Five indicators about the residents ' health behavior in new type rural communities were higher than those in common rural communities( P < 0. 05) . Conclusion The environmental health statues, drinking water quality, accessibility of health service and health behavior had been improved since the construction of new type rural community, but problems stiU existed , such as non 100% centralized water supply, health and safety risks and low level of public health awareness.%目的 评估成都市农村新型社区饮用水、环境卫生、卫生服务现况及居民入住前后生活方式的变化等.方法 2007-2009年,整群抽样选取20个农村新型社区和12个普通农村社区,对548位居民进行问卷调查,对20位居民进行深入访谈.调查内容包括环境卫生现况、饮用水检测、卫生服务可及性和健康相关行为等.结果 调查的农村新型社区中90%的社区采用集中式供水,93.10%的水样达标,95%的社区修建化粪池和排污管网,均建立生

  7. A Stepped Wedge, Cluster-Randomized Trial of a Household UV-Disinfection and Safe Storage Drinking Water Intervention in Rural Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, J. S; Reygadas, F; Arnold, B. F; Ray, I.; Nelson, K; Colford, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The in...

  8. A Stepped Wedge, Cluster-Randomized Trial of a Household UV-Disinfection and Safe Storage Drinking Water Intervention in Rural Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, J. S; Reygadas, F.; Arnold, B. F; Ray, I.; Nelson, K; Colford, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The in...

  9. Effects of Dementia-Care Mapping on Residents and Staff of Care Homes : A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, Geertje; Draskovic, Irena; Adang, Eddy M. M.; Donders, Rogier; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of dementia-care mapping (DCM) for institutionalised people with dementia has been demonstrated in an explanatory cluster-randomised controlled trial (cRCT) with two DCM researchers carrying out the DCM intervention. In order to be able to inform daily practice, we

  10. Effects of Dementia-Care Mapping on Residents and Staff of Care Homes : A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, Geertje; Draskovic, Irena; Adang, Eddy M. M.; Donders, Rogier; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of dementia-care mapping (DCM) for institutionalised people with dementia has been demonstrated in an explanatory cluster-randomised controlled trial (cRCT) with two DCM researchers carrying out the DCM intervention. In order to be able to inform daily practice, we stud

  11. 吉林省农村居民食物消费影响因素实证分析%THE EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCING FACTORS OF JIlIN PROVINCE RURAL RESIDENTS' FOOD CONSUMPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓茹; 姜会明

    2016-01-01

    食物是人类生存与获取营养的来源之一,国家居民食物消费水平与结构不仅同整个国家的经济发展水平有着密切联系,而且还是衡量国家或地区人民生活质量的重要标准.吉林省作为我国农业大省,自改革开放30多年以来,农村居民生活水平得到了很大的提高,食物消费水平与结构也得到相应改善.但与城镇居民、 与其他发达省份农村居民相比,食物消费的水平与结构仍存在很大差距,与国家阶段性目标相比,差距更大.而与城镇居民相比,农村居民在食物消费方面有着自身的特殊性,农村居民在食物供应链中既是食物的供应者又是食物的消费者,在农村居民的食物消费中既包括了自给自足的部分,又包括市场上购买的一部分.作为农业大省的吉林,农村居民食物消费有其独有的特点,因此影响农村居民食物消费的因素也有其特殊性.文章从经济、 政策、 社会、 生产因素等视角对吉林省农村居民食物消费的影响因素进行了分析.并利用回归模型对吉林省农村居民食物消费的影响因素进行实证检验,结果表明:农村居民家庭经营收入、 工资性收入、 购买食物占食物消费比重对农村居民食物消费有显著的影响,该文据此提出拓展从事农业生产收入的增长空间、 提高农村居民工资性收入及加强吉林省农村市场建设的建议.%Food is one of the sources for human survival and nutrition. The food consumption level and structure not only has close relationship with the whole country's economic development level, but also plays an important role in measuring people's life quality. As one of the largest agricultural provinces, Jilin province has made great im-provement in rural residents' living level and food consumption level and structure since the reform and opening up policy. However, the food consumption level and structure of rural areas is far behind that

  12. Effectiveness of a community-based nutrition programme to improve child growth in rural Ethiopia: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunhee; Kim, Sungtae; Sinamo, Sisay; Christian, Parul

    2017-01-01

    Few trials have shown that promoting complementary feeding among young children is effective in improving child linear growth in resource-challenged settings. We designed a community-based participatory nutrition promotion (CPNP) programme adapting a Positive Deviance/Hearth approach that engaged mothers in 2-week nutrition sessions using the principles of 'learning by doing' around child feeding. We aimed to test the effectiveness of the CPNP for improving child growth in rural Ethiopia. A cluster randomized trial was implemented by adding the CPNP to the existing government nutrition programmes (six clusters) vs. government programmes only (six clusters). A total of 1790 children aged 6 to 12 months (876 in the intervention and 914 in the control areas) were enrolled and assessed on anthropometry every 3 months for a year. Multi-level mixed-effect regression analysis of longitudinal outcome data (n = 1475) examined the programme impact on growth, adjusting for clustering and enrollment characteristics. Compared with children 6 to 24 months of age in the control area, those in the intervention area had a greater increase in z scores for length-for-age [difference (diff): 0.021 z score/month, 95% CI: 0.008, 0.034] and weight-for-length (diff: 0.042 z score/month, 95% CI: 0.024, 0.059). At the end of the 12-month follow-up, children in the intervention area showed an 8.1% (P = 0.02) and 6.3% (P = 0.046) lower prevalence of stunting and underweight, respectively, after controlling for differences in the prevalence at enrollment, compared with the control group. A novel CPNP programme was effective in improving child growth and reducing undernutrition in this setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Issues in the design of a randomized noninferiority clinical trial of telemental health psychotherapy for rural combat veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Leslie A; Greene, Carolyn J; Rosen, Craig; Mauldin, Patrick D; Frueh, B Christopher

    2009-11-01

    This methodological article provides a description of the design, methods, and rationale of the first prospective, noninferiority designed randomized clinical trial evaluating the clinical and cost implications of delivering an evidence-based cognitive-behavioral group intervention specifically treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a trauma-focused intervention via video teleconferencing (VTC). PTSD is a prevalent mental health problem found among returning Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) military populations. These returning military personnel often live in rural areas and therefore have limited access to care and specialized psychological treatments. In the field of mental health, telemental health (TMH) technology has introduced a potential solution to the persistent problem of access to care in remote areas. This study is enrolling approximately 126 returning veterans with current combat-related PTSD who are receiving services through the Veteran Administration (VA) mental health care clinics on 4 Hawaiian Islands. Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), an empirically supported manualized treatment for PTSD, is being delivered across 9 cohorts. Participants are assigned to either the experimental VTC condition or the in-person control condition. Assessments measuring clinical, process, and cost outcomes are being conducted at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and 3 and 6 months post-treatment. The study employs a noninferiority design to determine if the group treatment delivered via VTC is as good as the traditional in-person modality. In addition, a cost analysis will be performed in order to compare the cost of the 2 modalities. Novel aspects of this trial and specific challenges are discussed.

  14. Resident-to-resident violence triggers in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellgrove, Susan; Beck, Cornelia; Green, Angela; McSweeney, Jean C

    2013-11-01

    Certified nurses' assistants (CNAs) employed by a rural nursing home in Northeast Arkansas described their perceptions of resident-to-resident violence in order to provide insight on factors, including unmet needs, that may trigger the phenomenon. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 CNAs. Data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison. Two categories of triggers emerged from the data-active and passive. Active triggers involved the actions of other residents that were intrusive in nature, such as wandering into a residents' personal space, taking a resident's belongings, and so forth. Passive triggers did not involve the actions of residents but related to the internal and external environment of the residents. Examples were factors such as boredom, competition for attention and communication difficulties. Results indicate that there are factors, including unmet needs within the nursing home environment that may be identified and altered to prevent violence between residents.

  15. 非农就业、城镇化与城乡居民收入不均等%Non-farm payrolls,Urbanization and Urban-rural Residents Income Disparity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡武

    2012-01-01

    The paper constructs the simple dual economic model under the urban-rural system to analyze the relationship between non-farm payrolls,urbanization and the income disparity of urban-rural residents theoretically and conducts the empirical study using the static and SVAR dynamic methods.We find that: non-farm payrolls has an negative relationship with urban-rural income disparity,and it will reduce urban-rural income disparity in long term;The urbanization and its lag behind non-farm payrolls have an positive relationship with urban-rural income disparity,and they will heighten income disparity in long term,with their effect gradually diminishing.Finally,the empirical results are still explained based on industrial gradient theory,and we provide the relevant policy Suggestions.%文章构建了城乡分割体制下的简单二元经济模型,从理论上分析非农就业、城镇化与城乡居民收入不均等的关系,并采用静态和SVAR动态方法进行实证研究。研究发现:总体上,非农就业与城乡居民收入不均等负相关,且长期内将持续缩小城乡收入不均等;城镇化以及城镇化滞后于非农就业的程度与城乡收入不均等正相关,且长期内均将扩大城乡收入不均等,但影响逐步衰减。最后基于产业梯度推移理论对实证结果进行了解释,并提供相关政策建议。

  16. Nonrandomized Trial of Feasibility and Acceptability of Strategies for Promotion of Soapy Water as a Handwashing Agent in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Sania; Nizame, Fosiul A; Islam, Mahfuza; Dutta, Notan C; Yeasmin, Dalia; Akhter, Sadika; Abedin, Jaynal; Winch, Peter J; Ram, Pavani K; Unicomb, Leanne; Leontsini, Elli; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-02-08

    We conducted a nonrandomized trial of strategies to promote soapy water for handwashing in rural Bangladesh and measured uptake. We enrolled households with children promotion of soapy water (N = 120), soapy water promotion plus handwashing stations (N = 103), and soapy water promotion, stations plus detergent refills (N = 90); we also enrolled control households (N = 72). Our handwashing stations included tap-fitted buckets and soapy water bottles. Community promoters visited households and held community meetings to demonstrate soapy water preparation and promote handwashing at key times. Field workers measured uptake 4 months later. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions assessed factors associated with uptake. More households had soapy water at the handwashing place in progressively intensive arms: 18% (promotion), 60% (promotion plus station), and 71% (promotion, station with refills). Compared with the promotion-only arm, more households that received stations had soapy water at the primary handwashing station (44%, P ≤ 0.001; 71%, P < 0.001 with station plus detergent refill). Qualitative findings highlighted several dimensions that affected use: contextual (shared courtyard), psychosocial (perceived value), and technology dimensions (ease of use, convenience). Soapy water may increase habitual handwashing by addressing barriers of cost and availability of handwashing agents near water sources. Further research should inform optimal strategies to scale-up soapy water as a handwashing agent to study health impact.

  17. Nonrandomized Trial of Feasibility and Acceptability of Strategies for Promotion of Soapy Water as a Handwashing Agent in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Sania; Nizame, Fosiul A.; Islam, Mahfuza; Dutta, Notan C.; Yeasmin, Dalia; Akhter, Sadika; Abedin, Jaynal; Winch, Peter J.; Ram, Pavani K.; Unicomb, Leanne; Leontsini, Elli; Luby, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a nonrandomized trial of strategies to promote soapy water for handwashing in rural Bangladesh and measured uptake. We enrolled households with children promotion of soapy water (N = 120), soapy water promotion plus handwashing stations (N = 103), and soapy water promotion, stations plus detergent refills (N = 90); we also enrolled control households (N = 72). Our handwashing stations included tap-fitted buckets and soapy water bottles. Community promoters visited households and held community meetings to demonstrate soapy water preparation and promote handwashing at key times. Field workers measured uptake 4 months later. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions assessed factors associated with uptake. More households had soapy water at the handwashing place in progressively intensive arms: 18% (promotion), 60% (promotion plus station), and 71% (promotion, station with refills). Compared with the promotion-only arm, more households that received stations had soapy water at the primary handwashing station (44%, P ≤ 0.001; 71%, P strategies to scale-up soapy water as a handwashing agent to study health impact. PMID:28025233

  18. Efficacy of theory-based HIV behavioral prevention among rural-to-urban migrants in China: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Wang, Bo; Du, Hongfei; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a cultural adaptation of a social cognitive theory-based HIV behavioral prevention program among young rural-to-urban migrants in China. The intervention design and assessment were guided by the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The intervention was evaluated through a randomized controlled trial with 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The primary behavioral outcome was the use of condoms. Other outcome measures include HIV knowledge, condom use knowledge, HIV-related perceptions (PMT constructs), and intention to use condom. The mixed-effects regression models for condom use with regular partners indicated that overall frequency of condom use, condom use in last three sexual acts and proper condom use increased over time for the participants but the increases were significantly greater among the intervention group than the control group at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The mixed-effects models for HIV-related perceptions indicated that extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards, and response costs decreased while vulnerability, severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy increased over time for the intervention group. The increases in HIV knowledge, condom use knowledge, and intention to use condom were also significantly greater among the intervention group than the control group. The data in the current study suggested efficacy of a social cognitive theory-based behavioral intervention in increasing condom use among young migrants in China. The intervention also increased protective perceptions and decreased risk perception posited by the theory (i.e., PMT).

  19. [Influence of self efficacy, social support and sense of community on health-related quality of life for middle-aged and elderly residents living in a rural community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Cho, Sung Hye; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Yune Kyong; Choo, Hyang Im

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-efficacy, social support, sense of community and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including the direct and indirect effects of the variables on HRQoL. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 249 middle-aged and elderly residents living in a rural community in A-County, K Province. The structured questionnaire included 4 scales from the Euro Quality of life-5 Dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression), and measures of General Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Sense of Community. Data were analyzed using SPSS WIN 20.0 and AMOS 21.0 program. The mean HRQoL score for the participants was 0.87±0.13. Self-efficacy (β=.13, p=.039) and age (β= -.38, psense of community (β=.02, p=.025) and HRQoL. Although self-efficacy was found to be the main predictor for HRQoL, the findings imply that social environmental factors such as social support and sense of community need to be considered when developing interventions to increase HRQoL in middle-aged and elderly residents in rural communities.

  20. Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS to reduce childhood diarrhoea in rural Bolivia: a cluster-randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mäusezahl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS is a low-cost, point-of-use water purification method that has been disseminated globally. Laboratory studies suggest that SODIS is highly efficacious in inactivating waterborne pathogens. Previous field studies provided limited evidence for its effectiveness in reducing diarrhoea.We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 rural communities in Bolivia to evaluate the effect of SODIS in reducing diarrhoea among children under the age of 5 y. A local nongovernmental organisation conducted a standardised interactive SODIS-promotion campaign in 11 communities targeting households, communities, and primary schools. Mothers completed a daily child health diary for 1 y. Within the intervention arm 225 households (376 children were trained to expose water-filled polyethyleneteraphtalate bottles to sunlight. Eleven communities (200 households, 349 children served as a control. We recorded 166,971 person-days of observation during the trial representing 79.9% and 78.9% of the total possible person-days of child observation in intervention and control arms, respectively. Mean compliance with SODIS was 32.1%. The reported incidence rate of gastrointestinal illness in children in the intervention arm was 3.6 compared to 4.3 episodes/year at risk in the control arm. The relative rate of diarrhoea adjusted for intracluster correlation was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.59-1.12. The median length of diarrhoea was 3 d in both groups.Despite an extensive SODIS promotion campaign we found only moderate compliance with the intervention and no strong evidence for a substantive reduction in diarrhoea among children. These results suggest that there is a need for better evidence of how the well-established laboratory efficacy of this home-based water treatment method translates into field effectiveness under various cultural settings and intervention intensities. Further global promotion of SODIS for general use

  1. Pain Treatments for Nursing Home Residents with Advanced Dementia and Substantial Impaired Communication: A Cross-Sectional Analysis at Baseline of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Yat Wa; Leung, Doris Y P

    2016-09-28

    OBJECTIVES : This is a cross-sectional analysis at baseline of a cluster randomized controlled trial to identify factors associated with the use of pharmacological and nonpharmacological pain treatments by nursing home residents with dementia and impaired communication. METHODS : One hundred thirty-four residents with dementia and impaired communication were recruited. Nine of them were excluded because data on their pain treatments were missing, resulting in 125 for analysis. Hierarchical generalized estimating equations analyses controlling for the clustering effect of nursing homes were used to identify factors associated with the use of pharmacological and nonpharmacological pain treatments. RESULTS : Although all participants had a confirmed pain condition, only 23 (18.4%) and 45 (36%) had received pharmacological or nonpharmacological pain treatments, respectively. Participants with a higher ability to communicate (P = 0.031) and fewer pain locations were found to be more likely to receive pain medications, with the impact of communication ability being greater among participants with better cognitive status than among those with poor cognitive status. Participants who had been living in the home longer and who were more dependent were less likely to receive nonpharmacological treatments. CONCLUSION : Suboptimal pain management was common among this population. Severe impairment in the ability to communicate is a major reason for the underuse of pain medications. Staff may become desensitized and fail to perceive subtle changes in the residents' behavior as indicative of pain, leading to the underadministering of nonpharmacological treatments. To improve this situation, it is suggested that observational pain assessments be systematically carried out in nursing homes.

  2. Superior subconjunctival anesthesia versus retrobulbar anesthesia for manual small-incision cataract surgery in a residency training program: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongsap P

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pipat KongsapDepartment of Ophthalmology, Prapokklao Hospital, Chanthaburi, Thailand; Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of subconjunctival anesthesia as compared to retrobulbar anesthesia for pain control during manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS performed by third-year residents.Design: A randomized, controlled trial.Patients and methods: A total of 150 patients undergoing routine cataract surgery were randomly assigned to receive either subconjunctival anesthesia (group 1, n = 75 or retrobulbar anesthesia (group 2, n = 75. Third-year residents performed MSICS using the modified Blumenthal technique. Subconjunctival anesthesia was administered by injecting 2% xylocaine with adrenalin into the superior conjunctiva, and retrobulbar anesthesia by injecting 2 mL of 2% xylocaine with adrenalin into the retrobulbar space. We studied the following variables: intraoperative pain score rated on a 100-point visual analog scale (VAS, operative time, and injection and operative complications.Results: A mean age of 69 vs 70 years, an operative time of 47.1 (SD, 9.9 min vs 47.7 (10.9 min, and a median (interquartile range pain score of 40 (range, 20–70 vs 40 (range, 20–50 were observed in the subconjunctival and the retrobulbar groups, respectively. The injection complication of subconjunctival hemorrhage was significantly higher in the subconjunctival group (25.3% compared to the retrobulbar group (1.3%. The operative complication rate between groups was not different (P > 0.05.Conclusion: Both, superior subconjunctival anesthesia and retrobulbar anesthesia were effective during MSICS when used in a residency training program.Keywords: subconjunctival anesthesia, retrobulbar anesthesia, cataract surgery, small-incision cataract surgery, visual analog scale, pain score

  3. Reflexology versus Swedish Massage to Reduce Physiologic Stress and Pain and Improve Mood in Nursing Home Residents with Cancer: A Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Nancy A; Lafferty, Doreen

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate and compare the effects of reflexology and Swedish massage therapy on physiologic stress, pain, and mood in older cancer survivors residing in nursing homes. Methods. An experimental, repeated-measures, crossover design study of 18 nursing home residents aged 75 or over and diagnosed with solid tumor in the past 5 years and following completion of cancer treatments. The intervention tested was 20 minutes of Swedish Massage Therapy to the lower extremities, versus 20 minute Reflexology, using highly specified protocols. Pre- and post-intervention levels of salivary cortisol, observed affect, and pain were compared in the Swedish Massage Therapy and Reflexology conditions. Results. Both Reflexology and Swedish Massage resulted in significant declines in salivary cortisol and pain and improvements in mood. Conclusions. Preliminary data suggest that studies of Swedish Massage Therapy and Reflexology are feasible in this population of cancer survivors typically excluded from trials. Both interventions were well tolerated and produced measurable improvements in outcomes. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms underlying the potential benefits of these CAM modalities in this patient population.

  4. Reflexology versus Swedish Massage to Reduce Physiologic Stress and Pain and Improve Mood in Nursing Home Residents with Cancer: A Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Hodgson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate and compare the effects of reflexology and Swedish massage therapy on physiologic stress, pain, and mood in older cancer survivors residing in nursing homes. Methods. An experimental, repeated-measures, crossover design study of 18 nursing home residents aged 75 or over and diagnosed with solid tumor in the past 5 years and following completion of cancer treatments. The intervention tested was 20 minutes of Swedish Massage Therapy to the lower extremities, versus 20 minute Reflexology, using highly specified protocols. Pre- and post-intervention levels of salivary cortisol, observed affect, and pain were compared in the Swedish Massage Therapy and Reflexology conditions. Results. Both Reflexology and Swedish Massage resulted in significant declines in salivary cortisol and pain and improvements in mood. Conclusions. Preliminary data suggest that studies of Swedish Massage Therapy and Reflexology are feasible in this population of cancer survivors typically excluded from trials. Both interventions were well tolerated and produced measurable improvements in outcomes. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms underlying the potential benefits of these CAM modalities in this patient population.

  5. Adult and adolescent livestock productive asset transfer programmes to improve mental health, economic stability and family and community relationships in rural South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Remy, Mitima Mpanano; Alfred, Mirindi Bacikenge; Arsene, Kajabika Binkurhorhwa; Nadine, Mwinja Bufole; Heri, Banyewesize Jean; Clovis, Mitima Murhula; Glass, Nancy

    2017-03-14

    People living in poverty have limited access to traditional financial institutions. Microfinance programmes are designed to meet this gap and show promise in improving income, economic productivity and health. Our Congolese-US community academic research partnership developed two livestock productive asset transfer programmes, Pigs for Peace (PFP) and Rabbits for Resilience (RFR), to address the interlinked health, social and economic well-being of individuals, their families and communities. The community-based randomised controlled trials examine the effectiveness of PFP and RFR to improve health, economic stability, and family and community relationships among male and female adults and adolescents living in 10 rural, postconflict villages of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. PFP participants include adult permanent residents of rural villages; adolescent participants in RFR include male and female adolescents 10-15 years old living in the selected rural villages. Participants were randomised to intervention or delayed control group. Participants in PFP completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postintervention. In RFR, participants completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postbaseline. The primary outcome of both trials, the change in baseline mental health distress at 18 months in the intervention group (adults, adolescents) compared to control group, is used to calculate sample size. The Johns Hopkins Medical Institute Internal Review Board approved this protocol. A committee of respected Congolese educators and community members (due to lack of local ethics review board) approved the study. The findings will provide important information on the potential for community-led sustainable development initiatives to build on traditional livelihood (livestock raising, agriculture) to have a sustained health, economic and social impact on the

  6. Literature Study of Self-medication Behaviors and Influential Factors among Urban and Rural Residents in China%我国城乡居民自我药疗行为及影响因素的文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛淑乔; 俞海亮; 米光明

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide the basis for the formulation of self-medication behavior intervention strategies for urban and rural residents in China. METHODS: By using literature review, about 60 related literatures from CNKI during 2000 ?2010 were reviewed using "self-medication behaviors" as key word to analyze status quo of self-medication behaviors among urban and rural residents and its relationship with predisposing factors, shaping factors and reinforcing factors. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of self-medication behaviors increase in general, drug selection pattern has been influenced by physicians and media, etc. Antipyretic/analgesic drugs and antibiotics are commonly used. Urban and rural residents have many unhealthy self-medication behaviors, such as blind drug use, drug use out of package inserts and wrong methods of taking medicine. Predisposing factors are antecedent reasons and motive to behavior changes, which are internal cause of self-medication behaviors. Shaping factors are necessary to the achievement of motive and wishes; reinforcing factors urge or weaken self-medication behaviors; they are external causes. The three factors interact with one another and influence self-medication behaviors among urban and rural residents. Self-medication behaviors among urban and rural residents can be standardized by improving inhabitants' consciousness by health education and pharmaceutical care of pharmacists and shop assistants, reinforcing supervision of drug advertising in mass media.%目的:为我国城乡居民自我药疗行为干预策略的制定提供参考.方法:采用文献回顾的方法,以“自我药疗”为关键词,对2000-2010年中国学术期刊网全文数据库等收录的60余篇相关文献进行综述,分析我国城乡居民自我药疗行为的现状及其影响因素(倾向因素、促成因素、强化因素).结果与结论:自我药疗的比例呈总体上升趋势,药物的选择方式多受医师、媒体等因素影

  7. 农村居民低碳消费行为影响因素的实证研究%Empirical study of factors influencing the lowcarbon consumption behavior of rural residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺爱忠; 盖延涛; 李韬武

    2011-01-01

    通过问卷调查,运用描述性统计、结构方程模型、多群组分析方法,建立了农村居民低碳消费行为的影响因素模型.结果表明:低碳认知、消费信贷、政策效果感知显著正向影响农村居民低碳消费意向,但不直接影响低碳消费行为;个人消费观念、低碳产品购买便利性对农村居民低碳消费意向和低碳消费行为都没有显著正向影响;环境关注对农村居民低碳消费意向和低碳消费行为都有显著正向影响,并且环境关注是影响低碳消费行为的关键变量;低碳消费意向显著正向影响低碳消费行为.多群组分析的结果表明,性别、家庭规模、年龄、收入等调节变量在不同假设路径中的影响存在差异.%This article aims to explore the (actors influencing the low-carbon consumption behavior of rural residents, or the people in the countryside, and in turn to put some new ideas of its author in hoping for the government to better guide such behaviors in the context of low-carbon economy. For this purpose, we have developed the sphere or scale of such low-carbon consumption behaviors of the rural people and corresponding questionnaires for them to fill in. Along with it, we have prepared some data analysis methods, such as the descriptive statistics together with the sample data to be used, the structural e-quation modeling to be used for the first-order confirmatory (actor analysis and the model checking and correction, a multi-group analysis to check the regulation effect of the demographic features and regions in the path of different assumptions, and so on. The results of our investigation shows that low carbon awareness, consumers' credit and perceived effect of the policy significantly and positively affect the low-carbon consumption intention of the rural residents, though not directly affect their consumption behavior. Hie influence of the idea of the residents' personal consumption and purchase

  8. The Comparative Effects of Initial Distribution and Transfer Income on Urban and Rural Residents in Jiangxi Province%江西省城乡居民初次分配及转移性收入效应比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海艳

    2014-01-01

    文章运用基尼系数及其分解法,实证分析了2000-2012年间,江西省城乡居民初次分配及转移性收入效应的差异。结果表明:城镇居民初次收入分配差距呈上升趋势,工资性收入是主要贡献来源,但主体地位呈下降趋势;农村居民初次收入分配差距也呈上升趋势,工资性收入和经营性收入是两大收入来源,但各收入来源贡献率变化不明显;转移性收入对城乡居民都产生了由扩大转变为缩小收入分配差距的作用,不过农村居民转移性收入比重明显偏低,因而作用非常有限。文章深入分析了其产生的原因,并提出相关政策建议。%The paper,by applying the Gini Coefficient and its decomposition method,empirically analyzes the discrepancies of initial distribution and transfer income on urban and rural residents in Jiangxi Province with the data from the year of 2000 to 2012. The following conclusions are drawn:the gap of initial income distribution on urban residents has an increasing tenden-cy,and income of wages and salaries is the main contributor,while the contributor has a decreasing tendency;The gap of ini-tial income distribution on rural residents has an increasing tendency too,income of wages and salaries,and net business in-come are the main two contributors, but the contribution of each source does not change significantly;Transfer income of ur-ban and rural residents plays a role from expanding to narrowing the income gap, but the latter’s redistribution effect is very limited due to the low proportion of transfer income. Furthermore, the paper makes an analysis on the reasons of the conclu-sions,and proposes relevant policy recommendations.

  9. Factors Influencing of Urban and Rural Residents' Willingness to Pay for Non-market Value of Arable Land%城乡居民对耕地非市场价值支付意愿的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢昕昕; 赵凯; 徐艳

    2013-01-01

    155 effective data from Huludao City, Liaoning were analyzed by Pearson related coefficient and multiple regression model based on CVM theory to study the factors influencing willingness to pay of urban and rural residents for non-market value of arable land for perfecting the protection policy of arable land and maintain microcosmic body interest of arable land protection. The results showed that the factors influencing willingness to pay of urban residents were age, annual family income, education status, acceptant level to externality of arable land utilization and the factors influencing willingness to pay of rural residents were family income level, family population number, education status, whether or not village cadre and annual family agricultural income. The common factors influencing willingness to pay of urban and rural residents were age, annual family income, family population number and education level.%研究影响城乡居民对耕地资源非市场价值支付意愿的因素对于完善耕地保护政策,切实维护耕地保护微观主体利益具有重要的理论和实践价值.根据在辽宁葫芦岛市调研的155个有效样本数据,结合CVM理论,运用Pearson相关系数和多元回归模型从城乡居民支付意愿视角对影响耕地资源非市场价值的因素进行了研究.结果表明,影响城镇居民支付意愿的因素主要有年龄、家庭年收入、文化程度和对耕地利用外部性的认可程度;影响农村居民的支付意愿的因素主要有家庭收入水平、家庭人口数、文化程度、是否为村干部和家庭年农业收入;城乡居民的共同影响因素主要有年龄、家庭年收入、家庭人口数和文化程度.

  10. 湖北省夷陵区农村人口糖尿病及糖调节受损的调查研究%A survey of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in rural residents of Yiling of Hubei province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学文; 高学农; 张军; 罗长梅; 吴艳艳; 丁兆梅; 杨金玲; 望燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective Objective To investigate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in the rural residents of Yiling of Hubei province. Methods A random cluster sampling method was adopted. In total 9871 residents over the age of 35 from six communities of Yiling were taken as the subjects for investigation. Results Of the 9871 rural residents over the age of 35, 441 were found with diabetes, the prevalence was 4. 47%, and 608 were found with IGR, the prevalence was 6.16%. There were 256 newly identified diabetes patients, accounted for 58. 05% of the total diabetes patients. The incidence of diabetes increased along with age growing and BMI increase. The increase in systolic blood pressure, TG, and LDL-C made the risk increased. While the increased HDL-C and the enhanced physical exercises exert a protective effect on diabetes patients. Conclusion Diabetes is a common chronic disease of rural residents in Yiling. The incidence is increasing along with the increased values of blood pressure, BMI, lipid metabolism disorders and personal income. Therefore, the control of body weight, blood pressure and lipid levels is of great significance in preventing diabetes.%目的 调查湖北省夷陵区农村人口的糖尿病患病率及IGR的发病现状. 方法 采用随机整群抽样的方法,抽取夷陵区6个社区中35岁以上居民9871例进行调查. 结果 本次调查发现糖尿病患者441例(4.47%);IGR者608例(6.16%).新诊断糖尿病患者256例,占糖尿病患者总数的58.05%.糖尿病发病率随年龄的增长、BMI增加而升高.随SBP的增长,TG和LDL-C增高,其危险性亦升高.而HDL-C增高或者加强体育锻炼对糖尿病患者具有保护作用. 结论 糖尿病是夷陵区农村人口常见的慢性病,其患病率随血压升高、BMI增加、脂代谢紊乱、个人收入增长而升高.

  11. 河北农村居民服装消费方式变化及影响因素分析%Changes of Clothing Consumption Patterns and Influencing Factors of Rural Residents in Hebei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琨

    2016-01-01

    通过调查分析,当前河北农村居民服装消费方式呈现出消费支出增长较快、消费选择多元化、时尚化、城市化明显的趋势,但是又在很大程度上受到农村居民的年龄结构、社会观念、经济水平和文化层次的影响。因此,服装企业和服装从业者要有针对性的进行市场细分,设计开发符合农村居民服装消费的各个层次的服装产品,培育农村市场的服装消费质量品牌意识,形成统一的更加庞大的服装消费市场。%Through the investigation and analysis of the current consumption of rural residents in Hebei clothing, the results show that the consumer spending rose faster, consumer choice is diversified, fashionable, city trend is obvious, but it is also influenced by the age structure, social values, economic level and cultural level to a great extent. Therefore, clothing enterprises and clothing practitioners should be targeted for market segmentation, design with various levels of rural residents' consumption of clothing apparel products, and cultivate the rural market consumption quality clothing brand awareness, forming a unified large apparel consumer market.

  12. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lombard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information.We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21 or control (n = 20. Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women's health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/- SD 6.7 and BMI of 28.8 kg/m(2 (+/- SD 6.9 with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI -0.09 to 0.97 and in the intervention group -0.48 kg (95% CI -0.99 to 0.03 with an unadjusted between group difference of -0.92 kg (95% CI -1.67 to -0.16 or -0.87 kg (95% CI -1.62 to -0.13 adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures.A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the persistent weight gain observed in women. Key features included

  13. Prevalence and co-infection of intestinal parasites among thai rural residents at high-risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma: a cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still important to the health of Thai rural residents. IPIs are the cause of many chronic diseases with, for example, opisthorchiasis resulting in progression to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study aimed to examine the prevalence and co- infection of intestinal parasites among Northeastern Thai rural residents, recruited into the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (KKCS), and who were residing in areas of high-risk for developing CCA. On recruitment, subjects had completed questionnaires and provided fecal samples for IPI testing using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Data on selected general characteristics and the results of the fecal tests were analysed. IPI test results were available for 18,900 of cohort subjects, and 38.50% were found to be positive for one or more types of intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) infection was the highest (45.7%), followed by intestinal flukes (31.9%), intestinal nematodes (17.7%), intestinal protozoa (3.02%), and intestinal cestodes (1.69%). The pattern of different infections was similar in all age groups. According to a mapping analysis, a higher CCA burden was correlated with a higher prevalence of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes and a greater intensity of O. viverrini. Both prevention and control programs against liver fluke and other intestinal parasites are needed and should be delivered simultaneously. We can anticipate that the design of future control and prevention programmes will accommodate a more community-orientated and participatory approach.

  14. Investigation on knowledge about AIDS prevention among rural residents in Suizhou City from 2007-2010%2007-2010年随州市农民艾滋病防治知识调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘冬梅; 姚秋菊

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解2007-2010年随州市农村居民艾滋病防治知识的认知水平、行为、相关态度和需求,以及在4年里发生的变化,为防治艾滋病的干预措施和干预效果评价提供相关信息和依据.方法 对随州市农村居民进行自填表式问卷调查,所有资料均经EpiData 3.02进行录入后用SPSS 16.0进行统计分析.结果 随州市农村居民对艾滋病的3个传播途径和经蚊虫叮咬等非传播途径的知晓率到2010年基本上均提高到90%左右;对艾滋病预防知识的知晓率亦有所提高,其中对使用安全套是否有保护作用的知晓率从52.23%提高到92.64%,对忠于性伴侣可以降低艾滋病传播风险的知晓率从76.89%提高到91.47%;对艾滋病病毒感染者在外表上与正常人群无区别的知晓率从45.24%提高到80.62%;2010年有78.10%的居民愿意与感染了HIV的熟人继续交往;农村居民获取艾滋病防治知识的主要途径是宣传资料、电视和报刊书籍.结论 随州市农村居民艾滋病防治知识的宣传教育工作有一定的成效,提高农村居民的防治知识和保护意识,对农村居民的艾滋病防治有重要意义.%[ Objective ] To understand the cognitive level, behaviors, attitude and demand of knowledge about AIDS prevention a-mong rural residents in Suizhou City from 2007-2010, as well as the changes in four years, to provide the information and basis for intervention measures and intervention effect evaluation of AIDS prevention. [ Methods ] A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among rural residents in Suizhou City, and the data were input by EpiData 3. 02 and statistically analyzed by SPSS 16.0. [Results] The awareness rates of three transmission routes and non-transmission routes (such as mosquito bites) of AIDS/HIV among rural residents in Suizhou City have basically increased to 90% until 2010. The awareness rate of knowledge a-bout AIDS prevention has

  15. Uptake of Home-Based HIV Testing, Linkage to Care, and Community Attitudes about ART in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Descriptive Results from the First Phase of the ANRS 12249 TasP Cluster-Randomised Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okesola, Nonhlanhla; Tanser, Frank; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Rekacewicz, Claire; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all immediately following HIV diagnosis is partially based on the anticipated impact on HIV incidence in the surrounding population. We investigated this approach in a cluster-randomised trial in a high HIV prevalence setting in rural KwaZulu-Natal. We present findings from the first phase of the trial and report on uptake of home-based HIV testing, linkage to care, uptake of ART, and community attitudes about ART. Methods and Findings Between 9 March 2012 and 22 May 2014, five clusters in the intervention arm (immediate ART offered to all HIV-positive adults) and five clusters in the control arm (ART offered according to national guidelines, i.e., CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/μl) contributed to the first phase of the trial. Households were visited every 6 mo. Following informed consent and administration of a study questionnaire, each resident adult (≥16 y) was asked for a finger-prick blood sample, which was used to estimate HIV prevalence, and offered a rapid HIV test using a serial HIV testing algorithm. All HIV-positive adults were referred to the trial clinic in their cluster. Those not linked to care 3 mo after identification were contacted by a linkage-to-care team. Study procedures were not blinded. In all, 12,894 adults were registered as eligible for participation (5,790 in intervention arm; 7,104 in control arm), of whom 9,927 (77.0%) were contacted at least once during household visits. HIV status was ever ascertained for a total of 8,233/9,927 (82.9%), including 2,569 ascertained as HIV-positive (942 tested HIV-positive and 1,627 reported a known HIV-positive status). Of the 1,177 HIV-positive individuals not previously in care and followed for at least 6 mo in the trial, 559 (47.5%) visited their cluster trial clinic within 6 mo. In the intervention arm, 89% (194/218) initiated ART within 3 mo of their first clinic visit. In the control arm, 42.3% (83/196) had a CD4 count

  16. An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms marketing campaign to reduce alcohol consumption among 1st year students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Graham F; Williams, Annie; Moore, Laurence; Murphy, Simon

    2013-04-18

    This exploratory trial examines the feasibility of implementing a social norms marketing campaign to reduce student drinking in universities in Wales, and evaluating it using cluster randomised trial methodology. Fifty residence halls in 4 universities in Wales were randomly assigned to intervention or control arms. Web and paper surveys were distributed to students within these halls (n = 3800), assessing exposure/contamination, recall of and evaluative responses to intervention messages, perceived drinking norms and personal drinking behaviour. Measures included the Drinking Norms Rating Form, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire and AUDIT-C. A response rate of 15% (n = 554) was achieved, varying substantially between sites. Intervention posters were seen by 80% and 43% of students in intervention and control halls respectively, with most remaining materials seen by a minority in both groups. Intervention messages were rated as credible and relevant by little more than half of students, though fewer felt they would influence their behaviour, with lighter drinkers more likely to perceive messages as credible. No differences in perceived norms were observed between intervention and control groups. Students reporting having seen intervention materials reported lower descriptive and injunctive norms than those who did not. Attention is needed to enhancing exposure, credibility and perceived relevance of intervention messages, particularly among heavier drinkers, before definitive evaluation can be recommended. A definitive evaluation would need to consider how it would achieve sufficient response rates, whilst hall-level cluster randomisation appears subject to a significant degree of contamination. ISRCTN: ISRCTN48556384.

  17. A community-based education trial to improve backyard poultry biosecurity in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Anne; Ponsich, Aurélia; Luce Goutard, Flavie; Khiev, Ratana; Tarantola, Arnaud; Sorn, San; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-03-01

    The emergence and spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 has caused substantial poultry-related economic losses and public health concerns in relation to a potential pandemic. While biosecurity measures for commercial poultry industry are of the highest standards, these measures are difficult to implement and often unaffordable for backyard poultry farming, particularly in tropical and low-income settings. We designed a feasible biosecurity intervention to improve flock hygiene in Cambodia, - based on community hygiene, cleaning of poultry flock areas and human and poultry movement control. We conducted a cluster randomized and controlled intervention trial in 18 villages in Takeo province to evaluate improvements in biosecurity-related knowledge and practices. The intervention relied on community involvement and community education using special information dissemination tools. We trained village teams (VT) to assist villagers in implementing the intervention using a cascade training approach, in which a few individuals were trained, who in turn trained a larger group of people. During the 14 month follow up, we conducted observational and interview-based surveys (baseline vs. final surveys, VT supervision visits, monitoring surveys) to assess VTs' motivation, intervention messages dissemination and the implementation of recommended measures. Most of villagers (95%, confidence interval: 87.8-100.0%) in intervention villages received general information about how to raise poultry. Farmers in intervention villages reported to have made more changes (≥1 biosecurity related practice during the study period) compared with that of control villages (70.0% (260/372) vs. 22.6% (85/377), p valuebiosecurity-related practices in intervention villages, overall scores increased significantly (pbiosecurity practices in the community. However, further follow-ups are needed to assess whether practices-related changes persist over a longer period of time.

  18. 农村居民幸福指数研究及路径选择--以山东省为例%Rural Residents' Happiness Index Research and Path Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓林; 靳共元; 赵静

    2015-01-01

    Based on the "China dream", according to the socialism new rural construction and the central connotation and requirements of the no. 1 in 2013, grasp the principle, the goal of the new rural construction in our country and the key content, in Jinan and Qingdao in east China's Shandong province and Heze three rural areas as the center, in the study of principal component analysis (PCA) three areas of the happiness index, finally the paths to improve the rural residents' well-being include increasing peasants' income, fasten the rational adjustment of economy, put attention to the humanity environment and natural environment construction and enhance government's credit level.%立足“中国梦”,按照社会主义新农村建设和2013年中央一号文件的内涵与要求,把握我国新农村建设的原则、目标和重点内容,以山东省的济南、青岛和菏泽三个农村地区为中心进行考察,基于主成分分析法研究三个地区的幸福指数,研究发现:提高农村居民幸福感的四条路径为增加农民收入、加快经济合理调整、注重人文环境、自然环境建设和提高政府信用水平。

  19. 基于凯恩斯消费函数的成都市城乡居民消费差异研究%The Research on Differences of Chengdu Consumption between Urban and Rural Residents Based on Function of Keynes Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婷; 李余生; 陈园

    2012-01-01

    本文基于凯恩斯消费理论,通过成都市1995-2009年城乡居民可支配收入和生活消费数据,建立了成都市城乡居民消费函数,并结合城乡居民1995年-2009年间恩格尔系数的变化趋势和2009年成都市城乡居民消费结构,对成都市城乡居民消费差异进行了实证分析,找出了城乡居民消费差异的主要原因.最后,提出了消减成都市城乡居民消费差异的建议.%Based on the Keynes theory of consumption,through Chengdu disposable income of urban and rural residents and living and consumption data from 1995 to 2009, we establish consumption function of Chengdu urban and rural residents. Combined the engel coefficient of esidents in both rural and urban areas between 1995 and 2009 with consumption structure in 2009, we analyze the differences of consumption between urban and rural residents, find out the main reasons. Finally, the paper puts forward advice to reduce consumption of urban and rural residents in Chengdu.

  20. Diabetes Health, Residence & Metabolism in Asians: the DHRMA study, research into foods from the Indian subcontinent - a blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Jeetesh V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is highly prevalent amongst the South Asian communities in Britain. The reasons for this excess CHD risk are multifactorial, but in part relate to a susceptibility to diabetes mellitus - where the aberrant metabolism of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and glucose are likely to underpin vascular disease in this population. Dietary intervention is an important and first line approach to manage increased CHD risk. However, there is limited information on the impact of the South Asian diet on CHD risk. Methods/Design The Diabetes Health, Residence & Metabolism in Asians (DHRMA study is a blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trial that analyses the efficacy of reduced glycaemic index (GI staples of the South Asian diet, in relation to cardio-metabolic risk factors that are commonly perturbed amongst South Asian populations - primarily glucose, fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism and central adiposity. Using a 10-week dietary intervention study, 50 healthy South Asians will be randomised to receive either a DHRMA (reduced GI supply of chapatti (bread, stone ground, high protein wheat flour and white basmati rice (high bran, unpolished or commercially available (leading brand versions chapatti wheat flour and basmati rice. Volunteers will be asked to complete a 75g oral glucose tolerance test at baseline and at 10-weeks follow-up, where blood metabolites and hormones, blood pressure and anthropometry will also be assessed in a standardised manner. Discussion It is anticipated that the information collected from this study help develop healthy diet options specific (but not exclusive for South Asian ethnic communities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02839188

  1. An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms marketing campaign to reduce alcohol consumption among 1st year students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Aims This exploratory trial examines the feasibility of implementing a social norms marketing campaign to reduce student drinking in universities in Wales, and evaluating it using cluster randomised trial methodology. Methods Fifty residence halls in 4 universities in Wales were randomly assigned to intervention or control arms. Web and paper surveys were distributed to students within these halls (n = 3800), assessing exposure/contamination, recall of and evaluative responses to intervention messages, perceived drinking norms and personal drinking behaviour. Measures included the Drinking Norms Rating Form, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire and AUDIT-C. Results A response rate of 15% (n = 554) was achieved, varying substantially between sites. Intervention posters were seen by 80% and 43% of students in intervention and control halls respectively, with most remaining materials seen by a minority in both groups. Intervention messages were rated as credible and relevant by little more than half of students, though fewer felt they would influence their behaviour, with lighter drinkers more likely to perceive messages as credible. No differences in perceived norms were observed between intervention and control groups. Students reporting having seen intervention materials reported lower descriptive and injunctive norms than those who did not. Conclusions Attention is needed to enhancing exposure, credibility and perceived relevance of intervention messages, particularly among heavier drinkers, before definitive evaluation can be recommended. A definitive evaluation would need to consider how it would achieve sufficient response rates, whilst hall-level cluster randomisation appears subject to a significant degree of contamination. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN48556384 PMID:23594918

  2. A randomized trial examining the effects of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation in rural schools: Student outcomes and the mediating role of the teacher-parent relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Susan M; Witte, Amanda L; Holmes, Shannon R; Coutts, Michael J; Dent, Amy L; Kunz, Gina M; Wu, ChaoRong

    2017-04-01

    The results of a large-scale randomized controlled trial of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC) on student outcomes and teacher-parent relationships in rural schools are presented. CBC is an indirect service delivery model that addresses concerns shared by teachers and parents about students. In the present study, the intervention was aimed at promoting positive school-related social-behavioral skills and strengthening teacher-parent relationships in rural schools. Participants were 267 students in grades K-3, their parents, and 152 teachers in 45 Midwest rural schools. Results revealed that, on average, improvement among students whose parents and teachers experienced CBC significantly outpaced that of control students in their teacher-reported school problems and observational measures of their inappropriate (off-task and motor activity) and appropriate (on-task and social interactions) classroom behavior. In addition, teacher responses indicated significantly different rates of improvement in their relationship with parents in favor of the CBC group. Finally, the teacher-parent relationship was found to partially mediate effects of CBC on several student outcomes. Unique contributions of this study, implications of findings for rural students, study limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. Assessing fidelity of cognitive behavioral therapy in rural VA clinics: design of a randomized implementation effectiveness (hybrid type III) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciare, Michael A; Curran, Geoffrey M; Craske, Michelle G; Abraham, Traci; McCarthur, Michael B; Marchant-Miros, Kathy; Lindsay, Jan A; Kauth, Michael R; Landes, Sara J; Sullivan, Greer

    2016-05-10

    Broadly disseminating and implementing evidence-based psychotherapies with high fidelity, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), has proved challenging for many health-care systems, including the Department of Veterans Affairs, especially in primary care settings such as small or remote clinics. A computer-based tool (based on the coordinated anxiety learning and management (CALM) program) was designed to support primary care-based mental health providers in delivering CBT. The objectives of this study are to modify the CALM tool to meet the needs of mental health clinicians in veterans affairs (VA) community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) and rural "veterans", use external facilitation to implement CBT and determine the effect of the CALM tool versus a manualized version of CALM to improve fidelity to the CBT treatment model, and conduct a needs assessment to understand how best to support future implementation of the CALM tool in routine care. Focus groups will inform the redesign of the CALM tool. Mental health providers at regional VA CBOCs; CBT experts; VA experts in implementation of evidence-based mental health practices; and veterans with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, "with or without" depression will be recruited. A hybrid type III design will be used to examine the effect of receiving CBT training plus either the CALM tool or a manual version of CALM on treatment fidelity. External facilitation will be used as the overarching strategy to implement both CBT delivery methods. Data will also be collected on symptoms of the targeted disorders. To help prepare for the future implementation of the CALM tool in VA CBOCs, we will perform an implementation need assessment with mental health providers participating in the clinical trial and their CBOC directors. This project will help inform strategies for delivering CBT with high fidelity in VA CBOCs to veterans with anxiety

  4. Experiencing Lifetime Domestic Violence: Associations with Mental Health and Stress among Pregnant Women in Rural Bangladesh: The MINIMat Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Amy Lynn; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Background Experience of domestic violence has negative mental health consequences for women. The association of cumulative and specific forms of domestic violence, particularly emotional violence and controlling behavior, with common mental disorders and stress has rarely been studied in pregnant women. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations of specific and multiple forms of lifetime domestic violence and controlling behavior with distress and cortisol level during pregnancy in rural Bangladeshi women. Methods and findings In this observational sub-study of larger MINIMat trial, 3504 pregnant women were interviewed using a shortened Conflict Tactic Scale about their lifetime experience of domestic violence including physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior. Women’s levels of emotional distress were assessed using the self-reported questionnaire (SRQ-20) developed by WHO, and levels of morning salivary cortisol were measured in a subsample (n = 1300) of women during week 28–32 of pregnancy. Regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of lifetime physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior with levels of distress and cortisol during pregnancy. The prevalence of lifetime domestic violence was 57% and emotional distress was 35% in these pregnant women. All forms of domestic violence were associated with higher levels of emotional distress. Women who experienced either emotional violence or controlling behavior had the highest levels of emotional distress. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative number of the different forms of domestic violence and women’s levels of emotional distress. There was no association between women’s experience of domestic violence and level of morning salivary cortisol. Conclusion Including emotional violence and controlling behavior as major types of violence in future research and health interventions is warranted. Furthermore, the

  5. The effect of a soap promotion and hygiene education campaign on handwashing behaviour in rural India: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Adam; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Wright, Richard; Jones, Therese; Seshadri, M; Isaac, Pradeep; Nathan, N A; Hall, Peter; McKenna, Joeleen; Granger, Stewart; Bidinger, Pat; Curtis, Val

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a hygiene promotion intervention based on germ awareness in increasing handwashing with soap on key occasions (after faecal contact and before eating) in rural Indian households. Cluster randomised trial of a hygiene promotion intervention in five intervention and five control villages. Handwashing was assessed through structured observation in a random sample of 30 households per village. Additionally, soap use was monitored in a sub-sample of 10 households per village using electronic motion detectors embedded in soap bars. The intervention reached 40% of the target population. Germ awareness increased as well as reported handwashing (a possible indicator of perceived social norms). Observed handwashing with soap on key occasions was rare (6%), especially after faecal contact (2%). Observed handwashing with soap on key occasions did not change 4 weeks after the intervention in either the intervention arm (-1%, 95% CI -2%/+0.3%), or the control arm (+0.4%, 95% CI -1%/+2%). Data from motion detectors indicated a significant but small increase in overall soap use in the intervention arm. We cannot confidently identify the nature of this increase except to say that there was no change in a key measure of handwashing after defecation. The intervention proved scalable and effective in raising hygiene awareness. There was some evidence of an impact on soap use but not on the primary outcome of handwashing at key times. However, the results do not exclude that changes in knowledge and social norms may lay the foundations for behaviour change in the longer term.

  6. In a rural area of Bangladesh, traditional birth attendant training improved early infant feeding practices: a pragmatic cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Shamim; Farhana, Dina; Vitta, Bineti; Greiner, Ted

    2017-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, most births take place at home. There is little evidence regarding the influence of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or community volunteers (CVs) on early infant feeding practices. We conducted a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in Panchagarh District to examine the effects of training and post-training supervision of TBAs/CVs on early breastfeeding practices. Nine unions were randomized into three groups of three unions. We compared outcomes between mothers in a control group (CG), those living in unions where TBAs/CVs had received a 5-day training in early feeding practices (TG) and those living in unions where TBAs/CVs were both trained and supervised (SG). A total of 1182 mothers of infants aged 0-6 months were interviewed at baseline. After 6 months of intervention, an endline survey was conducted on a different sample of 1148 mothers of infants aged 0-6 months in the same areas. In both intervention areas, TBAs/CVs made regular home visits and attended births whenever possible. Rates of early initiation of breastfeeding, avoidance of prelacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding were compared between groups using cluster-controlled mixed model logistic regression. At endline, both intervention groups had significantly higher proportions of mothers who reported early initiation of breastfeeding (CG: 88%, TG: 96%, SG: 96%) and avoidance of prelacteal feeds (CG: 48%, TG: 80%, SG: 88%) compared with the control group; there were no significant differences between the two intervention groups. The endline rates of reported exclusive breastfeeding were not significantly different among groups (CG: 67%, TG: 76%, SG: 83%). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of 5% fluoride varnish application on caries among school children in rural Brazil: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Airton O; Senthamarai Kannan, Raghavendra; Inglehart, Marita R; Rezende, Cristiane T; Sohn, Woosung

    2012-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish application in reducing caries increments in the permanent dentition of rural Brazilian school children over the course of 12 months. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 379 children aged 7-14 years who attended three schools in Brazil between January 2006 and December 2007. During this period, each school was visited four times at 6-month interval for recruitment, dental examinations, and fluoride varnish applications. Recruited children were randomly assigned to either a treatment (5% NaF varnish, n = 198) or a control group (placebo, n = 181). Trained interviewers collected data on oral health habits and sociodemographic characteristics from the children. Information on the child's diet was collected through a 7-day food frequency diary. Caries examinations were conducted using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The efficacy of fluoride varnish application on caries prevention was reported as a preventive fraction (PF). Crude caries increments of decayed and filled surfaces (DFS) were compared between fluoride varnish and placebo groups. A generalized linear model (GLM) was constructed to test the differences in DFS increments between the groups after accounting for confounding factors. Of the total sample (N = 379), 210 (55.4%) children had completed 12 months of follow-up including one or two applications of fluoride varnish or placebo. At the baseline examination, the children in the treatment and control groups presented on average 6.2 and 5.6 DFS, respectively (P varnish group showed significantly lower DFS increments than did children in the control group (10.8 versus 13.3; P varnish can be recommended as a public health measure for reducing caries incidence in this high-caries-risk population. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. 广州市农村居民健康素养现状及影响因素分析%Status and influenling factors of health literacy among rural residents in Guangzhou municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许信红; 梁晓珊; 陈建伟; 刘洋; 廖枝成; 陈晓芳; 李丽嫦; 刘顺玉; 李茳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status and influencing factors of health literacy among rural residents in Guangzhou municipality and to provide evidence for developing appropriate intervention measures and strategies of health literacy. Methods Using multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling,630 permanent rural residents aged 18-69 years were investigated with a questionnaire of health literacy. Results The health literacy rate was 18.22%. The health literacy rates for basic health concept and knowledge, healthy lifestyle and behaviors, and health related skills were 33. 17% ,7. 64% ,and 45. 53% ,respectively. The health literacy rates for attitude towards health,infectious diseases prevention, chronic non-communicable disease prevention, safety and first aid, and basic medical care were 63.09%, 31.06% ,26. 83% , 40. 65% , and 13. 98% , respectively. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that major influencing factors of health literacy among the residents were education ,a.ge,and years of living in a specific area. Conclusion The health literacy rates are different among the rural residents of different ages and educational level. Comprehensive health education should be carried out among rural residents according to their characteristics.%目的 了解广东省广州市农村居民健康素养现状及其影响因素,为制定有针对性的干预措施和政策提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法,在广州市农村地区抽取630名18 ~69岁常往居民进行健康素养调查.结果 广州市农村居民具备健康素养的比例为18.22%,具备基本知识和理念、健康生活方式与行为、基本技能的比例分别为33.17%、7.64%和45.53%,具备科学健康观、传染病预防素养、慢性病预防素养、安全与急救素养和基本医疗素养的比例分别为63.09%、31.06%、26.83%、40.65%和13.98%;多因素logistic回归分析结果显示,农村居民健康素养

  9. Randomized clinical trial of yoga-based intervention in residents from elderly homes: Effects on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariprasad, V R; Koparde, V; Sivakumar, P T; Varambally, S; Thirthalli, J; Varghese, M; Basavaraddi, I V; Gangadhar, B N

    2013-07-01

    Elderly have increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia. Yoga therapy may be helpful in elderly to improve cognitive function. We examined the benefits of yoga-based intervention compared with waitlist control group on cognitive function in the residents of elderly homes. Single blind controlled study with block randomization of elderly homes. Study sample included yoga group (n=62) and waitlist group (n=58). A total of 87 subjects (yoga=44, waitlist=43) completed the study period of 6 months. Yoga group received daily yoga sessions for 1 month, weekly until 3(rd) month and encouraged to continue unsupervised until 6 months. They were assessed on Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Rey's complex figure test (CFT), Wechsler's Memory Scale (WMS)-digit and spatial span, Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) test, Stroop Color Word Interference Test and Trail Making Test A and B at baseline and at the end of 6(th) month. Paired t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare the difference in neuropsychological test scores. Yoga group showed significant improvement in immediate and delayed recall of verbal (RAVLT) and visual memory (CFT), attention and working memory (WMS-spatial span), verbal fluency (COWA), executive function (Stroop interference) and processing speed (Trail Making Test-A) than waitlist group at the end of 6 months after correcting for corresponding baseline score and education. Yoga based-intervention appears beneficial to improve several domains of cognitive function in elderly living in residential care homes. Study findings need to be interpreted after considering methodological limitations like lack of active comparison group.

  10. Randomized clinical trial of yoga-based intervention in residents from elderly homes: Effects on cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariprasad, V. R.; Koparde, V.; Sivakumar, P. T.; Varambally, S.; Thirthalli, J.; Varghese, M.; Basavaraddi, I. V.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Elderly have increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia. Yoga therapy may be helpful in elderly to improve cognitive function. Aims: We examined the benefits of yoga-based intervention compared with waitlist control group on cognitive function in the residents of elderly homes. Settings and Design: Single blind controlled study with block randomization of elderly homes. Materials and Methods: Study sample included yoga group (n=62) and waitlist group (n=58). A total of 87 subjects (yoga=44, waitlist=43) completed the study period of 6 months. Yoga group received daily yoga sessions for 1 month, weekly until 3rd month and encouraged to continue unsupervised until 6 months. They were assessed on Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Rey's complex figure test (CFT), Wechsler's Memory Scale (WMS)-digit and spatial span, Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) test, Stroop Color Word Interference Test and Trail Making Test A and B at baseline and at the end of 6th month. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare the difference in neuropsychological test scores. Results: Yoga group showed significant improvement in immediate and delayed recall of verbal (RAVLT) and visual memory (CFT), attention and working memory (WMS-spatial span), verbal fluency (COWA), executive function (Stroop interference) and processing speed (Trail Making Test-A) than waitlist group at the end of 6 months after correcting for corresponding baseline score and education. Conclusion: Yoga based-intervention appears beneficial to improve several domains of cognitive function in elderly living in residential care homes. Study findings need to be interpreted after considering methodological limitations like lack of active comparison group. PMID:24049199

  11. Perinatal Consumption of Thiamine-Fortified Fish Sauce in Rural Cambodia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Hampel, Daniela; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Allen, Lindsay H; Green, Timothy J

    2016-10-03

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine concentrations, placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. To determine if consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce yields higher erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among lactating women and newborn infants and higher breast milk thiamine concentrations compared with a control sauce. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were recruited in the Prey Veng province, Cambodia. The study took place between October 2014 and April 2015. Women were randomized to 1 of 3 groups (n = 30) for ad libitum fish sauce consumption for 6 months: control (no thiamine), low-concentration (2 g/L), or high-concentration (8 g/L) fish sauce. Maternal eTDP was assessed at baseline (October 2014) and endline (April 2015). Secondary outcomes, breast milk thiamine concentration and infant eTDP, were measured at endline. Women's mean (SD) age and gestational stage were 26 (5) years and 23 (7) weeks, respectively. April 2015 eTDP was measured among 28 women (93%), 29 women (97%), and 23 women (77%) in the control, low-concentration, and high-concentration groups, respectively. In modified intent-to-treat analysis, mean baseline-adjusted endline eTDP was higher among women in the low-concentration (282nM; 95% CI, 235nM to 310nM) and high-concentration (254nM; 95% CI, 225nM to 284nM) groups compared with the control group (193nM; 95% CI, 164nM to 222M; P < .05); low-concentration and high-concentration groups did not differ (P = .19). Breast milk total thiamine concentrations were 14.4 μg/dL for the control group (95% CI, 12.3 μg/dL to 16.5 μg/dL) (to convert to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 29.6); 20.7 μg/dL for the low-concentration group (95% CI, 18.6 μg/dL to 22.7 μg/dL ); and 17

  12. Calculation and evaluation of water footprint about dietary consumption of urban and rural residents in Yunnan Province%云南省城乡居民膳食消费的水足迹计算及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何开为; 张代青; 侯瑨; 李志勇

    2015-01-01

    基于水足迹理论方法,计算分析云南省2005—2010年城乡居民膳食消费水足迹。利用Shannon-Wiener指数评价此6年间城乡居民膳食结构水足迹的多样性特征,运用灰色关联法对各类膳食食品消耗与膳食水足迹消耗总量进行关联度分析。结果表明:每年城镇居民膳食消费水足迹均高于农村居民;各类食物水足迹所占比例中,粮食和猪肉所占比例较大;城镇居民膳食结构水足迹多样性明显高于农村居民,但农村居民膳食结构水足迹多样性总体呈上升趋势;粮食、猪肉、水果的消费与水足迹消耗总量关联程度较高。%Based on the theories and methods of water footprint, water footprint of dietary consumption of urban and rural residents from 2005 to 2010 in Yunnan Province was calculated and analyzed.The diversity feature of dietary consumption in the six years is evaluated with Shannon-Wiener index.The correlation between total amounts of the consumption of all kinds of diet food and the consumption of water footprint is analyzed, using grey correlation method.The results show that urban residents ’ water footprint of dietary consumption was higher than rural residents’;Grain and pork account for a larger proportion than other food water footprint; Urban residents’ water footprint of dietary structure was more diverse than rural residents’ , while there has been a general uptrend in the diversity of rural residents’ water footprint of dietary structure; Grain, pork and fruit consumption has strong correlation with water footprint consumption, can reflect the variation tendency of the total water footprint consumption.

  13. Rural Ageing in the United States: Trends and Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nina; Brown, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines rural population ageing in the United States with a particular focus on the contrasting contexts in which older rural residents live. We compare the characteristics of the older population by rural versus urban residence, and explore challenges and opportunities associated with the ageing of rural baby boomers. The United…

  14. A Study on the Restrictions of Rural Residents' Tourism in the New Period ——A Case Study of Henan Province%新时期农村居民出游限制因素研究——以河南省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高军; 李君轶; 李英俊; 毕丽芳

    2012-01-01

    以农村居民出游限制因素研究为基点,采用社会心理学的面对面访谈调查法,选取河南省7个行政村,18个自然村78户农村居民作为访谈对象,以农村居民出游限制因素为访谈核心内容,结合历年中国旅游统计年鉴及相关统计信息,系统分析了农村居民出游限制因素.结果显示,现阶段我国农村居民出游主要受以下几种因素限制:农村居民的收入水平仍相对较低;受传统思想影响较深;出游意识较差;旅游营销活动接触较少.最后提出了3点建议,即培养农村居民出游意识,争取国家与企业的扶持以及学界予以重视.%Based on the travel restrictions of rural residents, the method of face to face interviews was used in the paper. And 7 administrative villages, 18 natural villages and 78 rural residents in Henan Province were selected as the interviewees, taking tourism restrictions of rural residents as the core content- of the interviews at the same time. China Tourism Statistical Yearbook over the years and related statistics were used in this paper. Then the travel limitations of rural residents were analyzed systematically. The results show that the travel restrictions of rural residents are mainly limited by the following constraints. First, the' income level of rural residents is still lower than urban citizens. Second, they are still influenced by traditional ideology deeply. Third, the desire of tourism is weak. Fourth, the chance they contact tourism marketing activities is still difficult. With the conclusions from the interview, this paper shows four proposals so as to expand the travel market of rural residents as soon as possible, at the same time, we hope tourism industry could contribute itself in building a harmonious society and harmonious urban and rural areas.

  15. Consumo alimentar de população adulta residente em área rural da cidade de Ibatiba (ES, Brasil) Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Trata-se de um estudo transversal no qual foi aplicado um questionário de frequência alimentar (QFCA) em 150 adultos residentes em área rural da cidade de Ibatiba (ES). O QFCA classificou o consumo alimentar como: habitual (> 4 vezes na semana), não habitual ( 4 times in the week), not habitual (

  16. A Randomized Cross-over Air Filtration Intervention Trial for Reducing Cardiovascular Health Risks in Residents of Public Housing near a Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz T. Padró-Martínez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to traffic-generated ultrafine particles (UFP; particles <100 nm is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We conducted a trial of high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA filtration in public housing near a highway. Twenty residents in 19 apartments living <200 m from the highway participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover trial. A HEPA filter unit and a particle counter (measuring particle number concentration (PNC, a proxy for UFP were installed in living rooms. Participants were exposed to filtered air for 21 days and unfiltered air for 21 days. Blood samples were collected and blood pressure measured at days 0, 21 and 42 after a 12-hour fasting period. Plasma was analyzed for high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha-receptor II (TNF-RII and fibrinogen. PNC reductions ranging from 21% to 68% were recorded in 15 of the apartments. We observed no significant differences in blood pressure or three of the four biomarkers (hsCRP, fibrinogen, and TNF-RII measured in participants after 21-day exposure to HEPA-filtered air compared to measurements after 21-day exposure to sham-filtered air. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher following HEPA filtration (0.668 pg/mL; CI = 0.465–0.959 compared to sham filtration. Likewise, PNC adjusted for time activity were associated with increasing IL-6 in 14- and 21-day moving averages, and PNC was associated with decreasing blood pressure in Lags 0, 1 and 2, and in a 3-day moving average. These negative associations were unexpected and could be due to a combination of factors including exposure misclassification, unsuccessful randomization (i.e., IL-6 and use of anti-inflammatory medicines, or uncontrolled confounding. Studies with greater reduction in UFP levels and larger sample sizes are needed. There also needs to be more complete assessment of resident time activity and of outdoor vs. indoor source

  17. 农村居民食源性疾病的影响分析及风险干预策略%Analysis on the Influencing Factors of Food Born Disease of Rural Residents and the Risk Intervention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓纯; 张慧媛; 张星联

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of food safety cognition of rural residents, this paper studied the effects of the health risks about food born disease including food poisoning and advanced risk intervention measures. By the interview of rural residents from 8 provinces 602 households, the rural residents had basic cognition about food safety law, new measures of governmental regulation and food label identification. Recent three years, the consumption on restaurant increased and more than 90%respondents got vegetables and meat from market. Further, based on the metric results, there were five variables had distinct influence. They were sex ratio, age structure, the importance of packing material and business standing, the method of dealing with unsafe food. The importance of business standing had negative effect and others had positive effect. Based on the analysis, the paper advanced following intervention measures. Firstly, strengthen the supervision of food circulating market. Secondly, enhance the education of self-preservation to children and women Thirdly, improve the medical service level and make rural residents get medical resources more easily.%从农村居民食品安全认知和消费行为变化的视角,研究农民产生食源性疾病(包括食物中毒)的健康风险影响因素,并提出风险干预策略。文章通过对8省市602户农村居民的问卷调查表明,农村居民对于食品安全法、政府监管的新举措和食品标签标识有基本认知,近3年餐饮消费有明显增加趋势,肉禽类食品和蔬菜需要依靠市场供给的农户超过9成。进一步对影响农村居民健康的因素进行计量结果表明,有显著影响的5个变量分别是:女性比例、年龄结构、包装材料安全性、企业的信誉、不安全食品处理方式,其中企业的信誉呈负相关关系,其余为正相关。为此提出三点风险干预策略:第一加强农村食品流通市场的监管;第二加强

  18. A survey and analysis on influencing factors of the health status of rural residents in Bazhong, Sichuan%四川巴中农村居民健康状况调查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小杉; 蒋建中; 王琪; 何关琪; 孙华闽; 李小燕; 游文鋆; 庄勋

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解贫困农村居民的健康状况,为有关部门制定卫生决策提供依据.方法 从巴中市8个村共抽取3 600名18岁以上居民,以入户访谈的形式调查研究对象的两周患病率、慢性病患病率、近1年受伤率及近1年住院率.结果 巴中市农村居民两周患病率、慢性病患病率、近1年受伤率及近1年住院率分别为38.7%、24.1%、12.7%和11.0%,均高于西部农村居民和全国农村居民相应水平(均有P<0.001).高龄、农民、非在婚及经常饮酒的居民健康状况更差.结论 巴中市农村居民健康状况不容乐观,应合理配置农村卫生资源,满足卫生服务需求.积极开展健康教育,普及卫生保健知识、提高意识,改变不健康的生活行为.%Objective To investigate the health status of residents in the poor rural area,and to provide scientific basis for local authority to make healthy policies.Methods A total of 3 600 rural residents aged over 18 were selected randomly from eight villages under the jurisdiction of Bazhong.Two-week prevalence,Chronic disease prevalence,one-year injury rate and one-year hospitalization rate were recorded anonymously.Results The participants' two-week prevalence,chronic disease prevalence,one-year injury rate,and one-year hospitalization rate were 38.7%,24.1%,12.7%,and 11.0%,respectively,which were higher than those of the west and the national rural residents in china (P < 0.001).The health status was even worse among aged people,farmers,unmarried ones,as well as the ones with constant tobacco and alcohol consumption.Conclusions This survey showed that the health status of rural residents in Bazhong was alarming.The health resources should be allocated logically to meet the health service demand.Popularizing the health education,spreading knowledge of medical and health care,and enhancing self care consciousness should be addressed to reduce the risk behaviors such as smoking and drinking.

  19. Spatial Pattern and Classified Types of Travel Markets of Rural Residents in China%中国农村居民出游市场空间格局及类型划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞虎; 陈田; 陆林; 王开泳

    2013-01-01

    The paper takes 343 cities as spatial units, selects 16 statistical indicators, and adopts factor analysis in SPSS software and spatial clustering function in ArcGIS to analyze the impact factors, spatial pattern and types of travel potential of rural residents in China. The results show that: (1) social openness and consumption environment, travel economy ability, travel consciousness and traffic conditions are the three main factors in affecting rural residents' travel potential capacity; (2) spatial pattern of travel potential of rural residents 1 could be divided into "five grades, five poles and eight higher flow area"; (3) Rural resident travel market can be divided into three types in China: leisure type, livelihood type and comprehensive type. Leisure tourism is the main travel purpose in China's eastern coastal developed areas. The main purpose in the mid-west regions is to pay a visit to relatives and friends, which given priority to long span province tourism. The main travel purposes and destinations of other parts are diversified and decentralized.%以中国343个行政区为空间单元,选取15个统计指标,运用因子分析和空间聚类,对中国农村居民潜在出游力的影响因子进行主成分和聚类分析,探讨其空间格局和类型.结果表明:①社会开放性与消费环境、出游经济能力、出游意识与交通条件依次是影响农村居民出游潜力的3个主要因子;②中国农村居民潜在出游力空间格局分为“5个极点、5个等级和8个客流集中区”;③出游市场可划分为3个类型:休闲型、生计型和综合型.休闲旅游是中国东部沿海发达地区农村居民的主要出游目的,目的地集中在周边旅游业发展较好的城市;中西部地区农村居民主要出有目的是探亲访友,以长途跨省市旅游为主;其他地区的主要出游目的和目的地呈多样化、分散化特征.

  20. The Spatial-Temporal Evolution of Spatial Pattern of Rural Residents' Net Income at County Level in Jiangsu%基于县域单元的江苏省农民收入区域格局时空演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟德友; 陆玉麒

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, spatial disparity, polarization and autocorrelation trend of rural residents' per capita net-income at county level from 1995 to 2010 in Jiangsu were estimated based on mathematical statistics analysis and spatial statistical analysis methods. And then, spatial pattern of rural residents' per capita net-income and rural residents' income growth rate were discussed by Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis method (ESDA), the evolution trend of rural residents' income and rural residents' income growth rate hotspots were also discussed. Results show that: (1) The regional absolute discrepancy of rural residents' net-income was widening fluctuately, while regional relative discrepancy displayed a fluctuant reduced trend; (2) Rural residents' net-income spatial pattern in Jiangsu showed a strong trend of spatial natural correlation, the similar units clustered in space; (3)Although the spatial pattern of rural residents' net-income growth rate also showed a strong trend of spatial natural correlation, the development of the rural residents' net-income growth framework is likely to be unstable in the aspect of spatial distribution, hotspots areas switching quickly between south Jiangsu and north Jiangsu, the spatial gather trend of every growth type regions decreased while the random distribution situation enhanced. And at last, the driving factors of the evolvement of rural economic development framework were identified from the following aspects: the economic geographical location, industrial and urban-rural structure, regional economic policy and openness economy level and so on, and at last the suggestions were proposed to drive rural economy in Jiangsu comprehensively and harmoniously develop.%采用数理统计和地统计方法对江苏1995--2010年问县域农民人均收入区域差异和极化程度进行测度,并对农民收入和增长速度的总体格局及热点区演变态势进行探讨。江苏县域农民收入绝对差异波动拉大,

  1. 城乡居民生育意愿差异及其影响因素%The Difference of Desired Childbearing Gender Preference for Urban and Rural Residents and Its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨风

    2012-01-01

    Though the desired birth gender preference is a kind of subjective fertility desires, it will produce certain effects to fertility behavior. When the number of child-birth is unrestricted, people will meet their gender preference through more birth. When the number of births is constrained by the family planning policy, people often meet their gender preference through various technical means. This paper analyzed causes of the difference of desired childbearing gender preference for urban and policy field, and put forward rural residents from productive forces, cultural, social, economic, which can weaken the difference of desired childbearing gender preference for urban and rural residents from cultural, economic, social, policy.%意愿生育性别偏好虽然只是人们的一种主观生育意愿,但会对生育行为产生一定的影响。当生育数量不受限制时,人们通过多育来满足性别偏好。当生育数量受到生育政策的约束和限制时,人们往往通过各种技术手段来满足性别偏好。生产力、文化、社会、经济、政策领域等方面因素是城乡居民意愿生育性别偏好差异的形成原因.应从文化、经济、社会、政策层面削弱城乡性别偏好差异。

  2. Effect of a high-intensity exercise program on physical function and mental health in nursing home residents with dementia: an assessor blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wiken Telenius

    Full Text Available Dementia is among the leading causes of functional loss and disability in older adults. Research has demonstrated that nursing home patients without dementia can improve their function in activities of daily living, strength, balance and mental well being by physical exercise. The evidence on effect of physical exercise among nursing home patients with dementia is scarce and ambiguous. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a high intensity functional exercise program on the performance of balance in nursing home residents with dementia. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of this exercise on muscle strength, mobility, activities of daily living, quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms.This single blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted among 170 persons with dementia living in nursing homes. Mean age was 86.7 years (SD = 7.4 and 74% were women. The participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 87 or a control group (n = 83. The intervention consisted of intensive strengthening and balance exercises in small groups twice a week for 12 weeks. The control condition was leisure activities.The intervention group improved the score on Bergs Balance Scale by 2.9 points, which was significantly more than the control group who improved by 1.2 points (p = 0.02. Having exercised 12 times or more was significantly associated with improved strength after intervention (p<0.05. The level of apathy was lower in the exercise group after the intervention, compared to the control group (p = 0.048.The results from our study indicate that a high intensity functional exercise program improved balance and muscle strength as well as reduced apathy in nursing home patients with dementia.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02262104.

  3. Investigation on the Influence of Environmental Awareness of Rural Residents on the Health of the Body--Take Hunan Province Hengyang City Songjiang Town as an example%农村居民环境意识对身体健康状况的影响调查--以湖南省衡阳市松江镇为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宇宁

    2016-01-01

    In the vast rural areas, there are many problems, such as waste of resources, ecological destruction and environmental pollution. The rural grass-roots government is the key to protect the rural environment, which plays an irreplaceable role in the process of environmental remediation. This article through the questionnaire survey and the interview found:first, the rural resid-ents' environmental awareness is relatively weak, in the rural environmental protection facilities do not understand, the environ-mental protection is not enough attention, the deterioration of the environment affects its health. Second, the low cultural quality of the rural residents is a major cause of environmental awareness of the difficulties caused by environmental awareness. Third, the rural environment has been damaged, it is necessary to carry out remediation. According to the survey results:to solve the problem of environmental pollution in rural areas, we must first improve the rural infrastructure, to solve the basic needs of rural residents of water, traffic and so on, can we truly achieve the effective rural environmental governance.%在广大农村地区存在着资源浪费、生态破坏、环境污染等众多问题,而农村基层政府是保护农村环境的关键,在环境整治过程中起着不可替代的作用。本文通过问卷调查和访谈发现:第一,农村居民环境意识较为薄弱,在对农村环保设施不了解,对环境保护不够重视,环境的恶化影响了其身体健康。第二,农村居民文化素质较低是造成环保意识宣传困难的重大原因。第三,农村环境已经受到了破坏,有必要进行整治。根据调查结果得出:要解决农村环境污染问题,首先就要完善农村基础设施,解决农村居民用水、交通等基本需求,才能真正实现农村环境治理有所成效。

  4. 农村地区开展健康指导员干预对居民健康行为的影响%Influencing on healthy behavior among rural residents intervened by health educators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁贤彬; 张春华; 沈卓之; 焦艳

    2015-01-01

    推广的干预措施。%Objective To evaluate the influencing on healthy behavior of rural residents intervened by health edu-cators,and to provide the evidence for promoting the intervention mode of health educator.Methods Health educators were recruited and trained.Health educators conducted health education,delivered health materials and instructed residents to re-duce salt and oil intake.Questionnaire survey was conducted before and after the intervention to evaluate the effect.All data were entered and analyzed by SPSS 19.0.The changes of seeking medical service,smoking,alcohol use,physical activity, diet among rural residents before and after the intervention were compared by Chi-square test.Results A total of 900 resi-dents received the intervention and were interviewed with the questionnaire before and after the intervention.The average age of residents were (59.03 ±14.08)and (58.85 ±14.12)years old before and after the intervention.The proportions of res-idents who got one of four NCDs (hypertension,diabetes,coronary heart disease,chronic bronchitis)before the interven-tion (49.44%)were lower than that (54.89%)after the intervention (χ2 =5.35,P 0.05).The pro-portion of residents with one of NCDs who intake salt per day per person above 6 g decreased from 56.18% to 44.33% sig-nificantly (χ2 =13.15,P <0.05).Conclusion Health conscious of rural residents was improved by health educators in-tervention,but the changes of health behavior among rural residents was limited.The model of health educators was effective and promoted.

  5. 我国农村居民的生育意愿及性别偏好探讨%To investigate the fertility desire and gender preference of rural residents in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴琼瑶

    2014-01-01

    Through the study of relevant census data, found that along with the progress of society and culture,"men are superior to women","multi children and Fu"the idea in people's mind is slowly fade. However, due to the cultural level is not high there are still a part of rural women of childbearing age thought to gender bias. Based on the current status of China's rural residents will fertility and gender preference, and put forward some ideas, for eugenics.%通过对相关人口调查数据的研究,发现随着社会的进步以及文化的传播,“重男轻女”、“多子多福”这些思想在人们的脑海中正在慢慢淡化。但是,由于文化程度不高仍然有一部分农村育龄妇女思想上对生育性别存在偏差。针对当前我国农村居民生育意愿及性别偏好的现状,提出一些意见,实现优生优育。

  6. 基于因子分析法的我国农村居民主观幸福感研究%Study on the Subjective Sense of Happiness of China Rural Residents Based on Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉彬

    2012-01-01

    According to the investigation data of 300 rural inhabitants in Yuxi of Yunnan Province, the factors affecting the subjective sense of happiness of rural residents were studied. 20 indices were selected to establish an index system, and a comprehensive evaluation model was constructed through factor analysis to analyze and evaluate each factor. The influence factors were found out, including macro environmental factors, personal characteristics factors, the objective conditions of personal life factors, the subjective feelings of personal life factors, the income factors, health factors and children's education factor.%以云南省玉溪市300户农村居民的调查数据为资料,研究了农村居民幸福感的影响因素.选取了20个指标构建农村居民主观幸福感的指标体系,用因子分析法建立了综合评价模型,对各因子进行了分析和评价,找出了影响农村居民主观幸福感的主要因子,分别为宏观环境因子、个人特征因子、个人生活的客观条件因子、个人生活的主观感受因子、收入因子、健康状况因子和子女教育因子.

  7. Strategies of Narrowing the Income Gaps between Urban and Rural Residents%关于缩小我国城乡居民收入差距的对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冀莎

    2012-01-01

    In the past ten years, the gini coefficient ofChina was rising continuously, which mainly manifested in the growing income gap between urban and rural residents. And the growing income gap will intensify the social conflicts and hinder social development. The reasons resulting in income gap are both historical causes and distribu- tion mechanism. Related policies, starting from system renovation and enhancing the quality of urban and rural re- sidents, should be issued. Efforts in this perspective will play a significant role in harmonizing socialist society, carrying out scientific development concept as well as building a new socialist rural area.%近十年间我国的基尼系数不断攀升,突出表现为城乡居民收入差距的进一步拉大,而城乡居民收入差距过大,会进一步导致社会矛盾的激化,严重影响到社会生活各个方面的发展。造成收入差距的原因是多方面的,既有历史原因又有分配机制上的原因。及时出台相关对策,并从多方面考虑解决措施,既从制度改革上入手,又兼顾城乡居民自身素质的提高,这对于构建社会主义和谐社会、贯彻科学发展观、和建设社会主义新农村都具有重大意义。

  8. Effectiveness of a smartphone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Lin; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Wu, Qiong; Yang, Ruikan; Cao, Ying; Wang, Wei; Xie, Lihui; Rao, Xiuqin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Koepsell, Jeanne Catherine

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an EPI smartphone application (EPI app) on improving vaccination coverage in rural Sichuan Province, China. This matched-pair cluster randomized controlled study included 32 village doctors, matched in 16 pairs, and took place from 2013 to 2015. Village doctors in the intervention group used the EPI app and reminder text messages while village doctors in the control group used their usual procedures and text messages. The primary outcome was full vaccination coverage with all five vaccines (1 dose of BCG, 3 doses of hepatitis B, 3 doses of OPV, 3 doses of DPT and 1 dose of measles vaccine), and the secondary outcome was coverage with each dose of the five individual vaccines. We also conducted qualitative interviews with village doctors to understand perceptions on using the EPI app and how this changed their vaccination work. The full vaccination coverage increased statistically significant from baseline to end-line in both the intervention (67 % [95 % CI:58-75 %] to 84 % [95 % CI:76-90 %], P = 0.028) and control group (71 % [95 % CI:62-79 %] to 82 % [95 % CI:74-88 %], P = 0.014). The intervention group had higher increase in full vaccination coverage from baseline to end-line compared to the control group (17 % vs 10 %), but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.164). Village doctors found it more convenient to use the EPI app to manage child vaccination and also reported saving time by looking up information of caregivers and contacting caregivers for overdue vaccinations quicker. However, village doctors found it hard to manage children who migrated out of the counties. This study showed that an app and text messages can be used by village doctors to improve full vaccination coverage, though no significant increase in vaccination coverage was found when assessing the effect of the app on its own. Village doctors using EPI app reported having improved their working

  9. Resident resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cleary, B

    1999-01-01

    Clearly, faculty must work hard with residents to explore the nature of their resistance to a program's learning and growth opportunities. Initial steps to a deeper, more effective, and longer-lasting change process must be pursued. If resident resistance is mishandled or misunderstood, then learning and professional growth may be sidetracked and the purposes of residency training defeated. Listening to the whole person of the resident and avoiding the trap of getting caught up in merely responding to select resident behaviors that irritate us is critical. Every faculty member in the family practice residency program must recognize resistance as a form of defense that cannot immediately be torn down or taken away. Resident defenses have important purposes to play in stress reduction even if they are not always healthy. Residents, especially interns, use resistance to avoid a deeper and more truthful look at themselves as physicians. A family practice residency program that sees whole persons in their residents and that respects resident defenses will effectively manage the stress and disharmony inherent to the resistant resident.

  10. Urban-Rural Differences in the Effect of a Medicare Health Promotion and Disease Self-Management Program on Physical Function and Health Care Expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hongdao; Wamsley, Brenda; Liebel, Diane; Dixon, Denise; Eggert, Gerald; Van Nostrand, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a multicomponent health promotion and disease self-management intervention on physical function and health care expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries. To determine if these outcomes vary by urban or rural residence. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from a 22-month randomized controlled trial of a health…

  11. Urban-Rural Differences in the Effect of a Medicare Health Promotion and Disease Self-Management Program on Physical Function and Health Care Expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hongdao; Wamsley, Brenda; Liebel, Diane; Dixon, Denise; Eggert, Gerald; Van Nostrand, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a multicomponent health promotion and disease self-management intervention on physical function and health care expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries. To determine if these outcomes vary by urban or rural residence. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from a 22-month randomized controlled trial of a health…

  12. The study protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial of family-mediated personalised activities for nursing home residents with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Ploeg Eva S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following admission to a nursing home, the feelings of depression and burden that family carers may experience do not necessarily diminish. Additionally, they may experience feelings of guilt and grief for the loss of a previously close relationship. At the same time, individuals with dementia may develop symptoms of depression and agitation (BPSD that may be related to changes in family relationships, social interaction and stimulation. Until now, interventions to alleviate carer stress and BPSD have treated carers and relatives separately rather than focusing on maintaining or enhancing their relationships. One-to-one structured activities have been shown to reduce BPSD and also improve the caring experience, but barriers such as a lack of resources impede the implementation of activities in aged care facilities. The current study will investigate the effect of individualised activities based on the Montessori methodology administered by family carers in residential care. Methods/Design We will conduct a cluster-randomised trial to train family carers in conducting personalised one-to-one activities based on the Montessori methodology with their relatives. Montessori activities derive from the principles espoused by Maria Montessori and subsequent educational theorists to promote engagement in learning, namely task breakdown, guided repetition, progression in difficulty from simple to complex, and the careful matching of demands to levels of competence. Persons with dementia living in aged care facilities and frequently visiting family carers will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be randomly assigned by facility to a treatment condition using the Montessori approach or a control waiting list condition. We hypothesise that family carers conducting Montessori-based activities will experience improvements in quality of visits and overall relationship with the resident as well as higher self

  13. Leveraging time and learning style, iPod vs. realtime attendance at a series of medicine residents conferences: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tempelhof

    2009-06-01

    Conclusions Residency training programmes can optimise time management strategies with the integration of innovative learning resources into educational curricula. This study suggests that iPod capture of conferences is a reasonable resource to help meet the educational goals of residents and residency programs.

  14. 海安县农村居民疟疾防治健康教育需求%Health education needs for malaria control in rural residents in Hai'an Coun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓斌; 王小健; 顾光明; 李林; 曹勇; 陈惠霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) and health education needs for malaria prevention and treatment of rural residents in Hai'an County. Methods Hai'an County was divided into three regions of east, south and north, and the primary and secondary students and residents were selected with the multi-stage sampling method and investigated with questionnaire for the status of KAP and the health education needs of malaria control. The results were analyzed statistically. Results The awareness rates of malaria transmission, symptoms, prevention knowledge in the residents were significantly higher than those in the students (P < 0.05). The awareness rates of malaria prevention knowledge in the residents had significant differences among the residents with different education levels (P < 0.05), and the education levels were positively correlated with the awareness rates of malaria prevention knowledge. The main ways of rural residents to get their knowledge of malaria control were radio, newspapers, the village doctors, public health bulletin, posters, students, and television caption in order; the main ways of students to get their knowledge of malaria control were television, newspapers, public health bulletin, teachers, radio, and flyers in order. Conclusions We should pay full attention to the advantages of mass media to carry out the extensive health education on malaria prevention and control, and should also take into account the different characteristics of the audience.%目的 了解海安县农村居民疟疾防治知识、态度、行为及健康教育需求.方法 将海安县分为东、南、北3片,采用多阶段抽样方法,对中小学生、居民疟疾防治知识知晓率与健康教育需求进行问卷调查和统计学分析.结果 居民对疟疾传播途径、症状、预防等知识的知晓率明显高于学生(P均<0.05);居民疟疾知识知晓率在文化程度上差异有统计学意义(P均<0

  15. 四川省城乡居民SF-36评价参考值%The Norms of SF-36 Scale Scores in Urban and Rural Residents of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁秀; 刘朝杰; 李俊; 任晓晖

    2001-01-01

    Objective To develop the norms of SF-36 in Sichu an, China.Methods A total of 1603 rural residents and 646 urba n residents were surveyed. Both th e US scaling criteria and China scaling criteria were used to score the 8 domain s of the SF-36 and compared with the norms of Hong Kong and US populations. Results The scores of the 8 domains of the SF-36 using China scal ing criteria were highly correlated with those using the US scaling criteria, with correlation co efficients greater than 0.98, however, the mean scores using the two scaling cri teria were different significantly. The norms of the Sichuan population were mor e similar to the Hong Kong norms than the US norms. The scores of the SF-36 wer e different between different age and sex groups and between urban and rural popu lations. Conclusion We Have developed the norms of SF-36 by ag e/sex groups in urban and rural population of Sichuan, China.%目的 制定36条目简明量表(SF-36)参考值用于国内生命质量评价。方法 采用美国的评分标准及中国评分标准分别对四川省1603名农村居民和646名城市居民的生命质量进行评价,并与香港及美国常模比较。结果 中国评分标准与美国评分标准所得结果高度相关,8个领域的相关系数均在0.98以上,但两种评分标准所得结果的差异有显著性;四川省城乡居民SF-36评价结果与香港及美国常模比较,更接近香港评价值;不同年龄、性别及城乡人群之间的评分结果有显著性差异。结论 制定了四川省城乡不同性别及年龄居民的SF-36评价参考值,为在国内使用SF-36作为生命质量评价工具奠定了基础。

  16. 影响城乡居民主观幸福感的路径分析——对农村人口流动的文化解释%An Analysis of the Factors That Influence the Subjective Concept of Happiness by Urban and Rural Residents. A Cultural- based Interpretation of the Rural Population Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖晓飞

    2012-01-01

    农村人口向城市流动的原因与动力:学术界引用最多的是“推一拉”理论,但这一理论仅仅解释了农村人口向城市流动的经济动力。利用路径分析方法比较影响城乡居民主观幸福感的因素,发现生活质量是主观幸福感最重要与直接的预测变量。除掉教育、职业、收入等直接经济因素,城乡居民在休闲娱乐文化方面的差异通过生活质量直接与间接的影响着城乡居民的主观幸福感,在此基础上,从文化的视角来解释“推一拉”因素,推的力量来自于农村匮乏的文化娱乐生活对农村居民生活质量的影响,拉的力量来自于城市更为丰富的文化娱乐生活以及由此带来的较高的生活质量。%The reason and power of the rural population flow into the city is chiefly interpreted based on the " push - pull" theory in the academic field, but this theory only focuses on an explanation of the economic rea- son for the rural population flow into the city. With a comparative study of the influential factors for the concept of happiness by urban and rural residents, it is found that the quality of life is the most important and direct pre- dicting variable of this concept. Besides certain direct economic factors such as education, occupation and in- come, the differences between urban and rural residents in the entertainment culture will directly and indirectly, through the quality of life, impact their subjective concept of happiness. Based on this, the paper interprets the "push - pull" relationship in the perspective of culture. The power of push comes from the shortage of cultural entertainment in life in the rural areas, while the power of pull comes from the rich cultural entertainment in life in the urban areas, with which there is higher quality of life in city.

  17. Evaluation of the effectiveness of rural latrine improvement on intestinal parasitic infection in residents of Kaiyang County%农村改厕对居民肠道寄生虫感染的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全芳; 刘明强; 张春芳; 易永强; 刘俊伦; 陈晓琴; 蒋国书; 卢嵘

    2011-01-01

    Villages in Kaiyang County with different rates of coverage by hygienic latrines were studied. The rates of intestinal verminosis and parasite infection in a villages with improved latrines and villages with unimproved latrines were investigated and analyzed using a questionnaire, fecal examination, and testing for ova of soil-transmitted parasites. The rate of coverage by hygienic latrines was 80. 75% in villages with improved latrines and 29. 76% in villages with unimproved latrines. Residents in villages with improved latrines had a rate of intestinal parasitic infection of 6.62% compared to 12.84% for residents in villages with unimproved latrines; the difference between the two was significant(x2= 11.61,P<0. 01). Ova of soil-transmitted parasites were detected at a rate of 4.00% in residents of villages with improved latrines and 40.00% in residents of villages with unimproved latrines; the difference between the two rates was significant (x2 =93.00,P<0.01). Hygienic latrines have reduced the rate of intestinal verminosis and environmental pollution and play an important role in the control of parasite infections in rural residents.%选择开阳县无害化厕所改造村和未改造村为调查点,采用问卷调查、检测粪便和土壤寄生虫卵,对两村的肠道寄生虫病、寄生虫感染率进行调查.改厕村和未改厕的卫生厕所覆盖率分别80.75%和29.76%,其居民肠道寄生虫感染率分别为6.62%和12.84%,差异有统计学意义(x2=11.61,P<0.01),土壤蠕虫虫卵检出率分别为4.00%和40.00%,差异有统计学意义(x2=93.00,P<0.01).卫生厕所可降低人群肠道寄生虫病的感染率,同时也降低对周围环境污染,对农村防治人群感染寄生虫病有积极作用.

  18. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David

    2011-01-01

    partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered...

  19. 潮汕农村住宅现状及其热工性能研究(一)——典型户型、材料构造及能耗%Research on Current Situation and Thermal Performance of Rural Residences in Chaoshan Area (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玲; 刘妍华; 贾佳一; 东阳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the field study and site test, the development and evolution of rural residence in Chaoshan Area have been illustrated. Two types of residences, that is, tradition-inheriting type and city-imitating type, have been classified. Furthermore, residences of tradition-inheriting type have been divided into four types. Then, the construction materials, structure and energy-saving facilities of rural residences in Chaoshan have been analyzed, aiming to provide a foundation for thermal performance and energy saving design of rural residences in Chaoshan Area.%在大量走访调研和现场测试的基础上,梳理了潮汕地区农村住宅继承传统住宅和发展演变的脉络,总结出传统继承型和模仿城市型两类现代农宅类型,并进一步细化传统继承型住宅,将其划分为4种典型类型.同时对朝汕地区农宅的建筑材料、构造及房屋节能设施加以分析.以期为潮汕地区农村住宅的热工与节能设计提供基础.

  20. Operation of Urban-Rural Residents Cooperative Medical Scheme in a District in West China%西部某县城乡居民合作医疗运行情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培艺; 顾雪非; 毛正中; 张振忠

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过分析西部某县城乡居民合作医疗运行情况,发现运行过程中出现的问题,提出解决问题的建议.方法:对2008年和2009年该县城乡居民合作医疗运行数据做对比分析.结果:该县在城乡居民合作医疗运行过程中出现了住院人次、住院率和住院费用增长过快,参舍居民受益水平增长不明显,城镇居民占用农村居民卫生服务资源的问题.结论:建议该县实施支付方式改革,适当调整补偿方案,完成合管办从卫生部门到人力资源与社会保障部门的平稳过渡.%Objective: To find out problems and propose countermeasures by analyzing the state of Cooperative Medical Scheme (CMS) in a west county in China.Methods: Comparing the data of CMS in 2008 and 2009.Result: The hospitalization, hospitalization rate, and hospital cost increase too fast during the running of the CMS in this county; the growth of benefit level of the participating residents is not obvious; and urban residents impropriate the health service resources of rural residents.Conclusion: The county should do some payment reform and adjust the compensation programs to make a smooth transition of CMS Management Office from the health department to human resources and social security departments.

  1. Surveys of cognitive status to mental health problems in rural residents%农村居民对精神卫生问题认知状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫颖; 陶红梅; 张一; 何艳平; 贺荣杰; 李玉凤; 张金胜

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解农村居民对精神卫生问题的认知状况。方法对680名农村居民采用自制精神卫生问题认识及态度调查问卷进行测评分析。结果80.9%的居民通过周围的真实病例了解精神卫生知识,94.2%的居民知晓精神疾病临床症状为幻觉、冲动伤人,仅18.8%的居民认为冷淡孤僻、注意障碍也是精神病的症状。认为精神疾病不具传染性、可以治愈、不会遗传的比例分别为97.0%、85.5%、66.1%。>80.6%的居民对与少年儿童有关的精神卫生知识了解较好,67.1%的居民认为精神病人受到歧视。文化程度越高的居民对精神卫生问题的认知越高。结论农村居民对精神卫生问题有不同程度的认知,文化程度越高,对精神卫生问题的认知水平越高。%Objective To investigate cognitive status to mental health problems in rural residents .Methods Assessments were conducted with Self‐made Questionnaire for Cognition and Attitude to Mental Health Knowledge in 680 rural residents .Results Of the residents 80 .9% comprehended mental health knowl‐edge via ambient real cases ,94 .2% knew that hallucinations and aggressive acts were clinical symptoms of mental disorders ,only 18 .8% did that indifference/unsociability and disturbance of attention were also clinical symptoms of mental disorders .The proportion of believing that mental illness was non‐contagious , curable and non‐genetic w as 97 .0% ,85 .5% and 66 .1% respectively .Over 80 .6% comprehended children‐related better .67 .1 percent thought that psychotics were discriminated .The higher educational the inhab‐itants had ,the higher cognition to mental health problems they did .Conclusion Rural residents have dif‐ferent cognitions to mental health problems ,the higher educational the inhabitants had ,the higher cogni‐tion to mental health problems they did .

  2. The EPICS Trial: Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival through the introduction of community-based health interventions in rural Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frost Chris

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guinea-Bissau is a small country in West Africa with a population of 1.7 million. The WHO and UNICEF reported an under-five child mortality of 203 per 1000, the 10th highest amongst 192 countries. The aim of the trial is to assess whether an intervention package that includes community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for children's diseases within the community, and improved outreach services can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality in rural regions of Guinea-Bissau. Effective Intervention plans to expand the project to a much larger region if there is good evidence after two and a half years that the project is generating a cost-effective, sustainable reduction in child mortality. Methods/design This trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 146 clusters. The trial will run for 2.5 years. The interventions will be introduced in two stages: seventy-three clusters will receive the interventions at the start of the project, and seventy-three control clusters will receive the interventions 2.5 years after the first clusters have received all interventions if the research shows that the interventions are effective. The impact of the interventions and cost-effectiveness will be measured during the first stage. The package of interventions includes a community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, and intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for common children's diseases within the community. It also includes improved outreach services to encourage provision of antenatal and post natal care and provide ongoing monitoring for village health workers. The primary outcome of the trial will be the proportion of children that die under 5 years of age during the trial

  3. A comparison of cardiometabolic risk factors in households in rural Uganda with and without a resident with type 2 diabetes, 2012-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Gregg, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    “nondiabetic household”). We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hypertension, anthropometry, aerobic capacity, physical activity, nutrition, smoking, and diabetes-related knowledge of people without diagnosed T2D living in diabetic and nondiabetic households. Results People...... living in diabetic households had a significantly higher level of diabetes-related knowledge, lower levels of FPG (5.6 mmol/L vs 6.0 mmol/L), and fewer smoked (1.3% vs 12.9%) than residents of nondiabetic households. HbA1c was significantly lower in people aged 30 years or younger (5.2% vs 5...

  4. A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy; Analise de um sistema de aquecimento de agua para residencias rurais, utilizando energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Luiz H.; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Siqueira, Jair A.C.; Nogueira, Carlos E.C.; Santos, Reginaldo F. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], emails: melegsouza@yahoo.com, ssouza@unioeste.br, jairsiqueira@unioeste.br, cecn1@yahoo.com.br, rfsantos@unioeste.br

    2010-01-15

    The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Parana, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or thermo siphon and without help of a complementary heating system. The equipment revealed technical viability, reaching the minimum temperature for shower, of 35 deg C, whenever the solar radiation was above the 3,500 Wh m{sup -2}, for the majority of the studied days. (author)

  5. The study protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial of family-mediated personalised activities for nursing home residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Eva S; Camp, Cameron J; Eppingstall, Barbara; Runci, Susannah J; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2012-01-12

    Following admission to a nursing home, the feelings of depression and burden that family carers may experience do not necessarily diminish. Additionally, they may experience feelings of guilt and grief for the loss of a previously close relationship. At the same time, individuals with dementia may develop symptoms of depression and agitation (BPSD) that may be related to changes in family relationships, social interaction and stimulation. Until now, interventions to alleviate carer stress and BPSD have treated carers and relatives separately rather than focusing on maintaining or enhancing their relationships. One-to-one structured activities have been shown to reduce BPSD and also improve the caring experience, but barriers such as a lack of resources impede the implementation of activities in aged care facilities. The current study will investigate the effect of individualised activities based on the Montessori methodology administered by family carers in residential care. We will conduct a cluster-randomised trial to train family carers in conducting personalised one-to-one activities based on the Montessori methodology with their relatives. Montessori activities derive from the principles espoused by Maria Montessori and subsequent educational theorists to promote engagement in learning, namely task breakdown, guided repetition, progression in difficulty from simple to complex, and the careful matching of demands to levels of competence. Persons with dementia living in aged care facilities and frequently visiting family carers will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be randomly assigned by facility to a treatment condition using the Montessori approach or a control waiting list condition. We hypothesise that family carers conducting Montessori-based activities will experience improvements in quality of visits and overall relationship with the resident as well as higher self-rated mastery, fewer depressive symptoms, and a better

  6. Effect of a brief outreach educational intervention on the translation of acute poisoning treatment guidelines to practice in rural Sri Lankan hospitals: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalith Senarathna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In developing countries, including Sri Lanka, a high proportion of acute poisoning and other medical emergencies are initially treated in rural peripheral hospitals. Patients are then usually transferred to referral hospitals for further treatment. Guidelines are often used to promote better patient care in these emergencies. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN73983810 which aimed to assess the effect of a brief educational outreach ('academic detailing' intervention to promote the utilization of treatment guidelines for acute poisoning. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This cluster RCT was conducted in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. All peripheral hospitals in the province were randomized to either intervention or control. All hospitals received a copy of the guidelines. The intervention hospitals received a brief out-reach academic detailing workshop which explained poisoning treatment guidelines and guideline promotional items designed to be used in daily care. Data were collected on all patients admitted due to poisoning for 12 months post-intervention in all study hospitals. Information collected included type of poison exposure, initial investigations, treatments and hospital outcome. Patients transferred from peripheral hospitals to referral hospitals had their clinical outcomes recorded. There were 23 intervention and 23 control hospitals. There were no significant differences in the patient characteristics, such as age, gender and the poisons ingested. The intervention hospitals showed a significant improvement in administration of activated charcoal [OR 2.95 (95% CI 1.28-6.80]. There was no difference between hospitals in use of other decontamination methods. CONCLUSION: This study shows that an educational intervention consisting of brief out-reach academic detailing was effective in changing treatment behavior in rural Sri Lankan hospitals. The intervention was only effective for treatments with

  7. To compare PubMed Clinical Queries and UpToDate in teaching information mastery to clinical residents: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Sayyah Ensan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare PubMed Clinical Queries and UpToDate regarding the amount and speed of information retrieval and users' satisfaction. METHOD: A cross-over randomized trial was conducted in February 2009 in Tehran University of Medical Sciences that included 44 year-one or two residents who participated in an information mastery workshop. A one-hour lecture on the principles of information mastery was organized followed by self learning slide shows before using each database. Subsequently, participants were randomly assigned to answer 2 clinical scenarios using either UpToDate or PubMed Clinical Queries then crossed to use the other database to answer 2 different clinical scenarios. The proportion of relevantly answered clinical scenarios, time to answer retrieval, and users' satisfaction were measured in each database. RESULTS: Based on intention-to-treat analysis, participants retrieved the answer of 67 (76% questions using UpToDate and 38 (43% questions using PubMed Clinical Queries (P<0.001. The median time to answer retrieval was 17 min (95% CI: 16 to 18 using UpToDate compared to 29 min (95% CI: 26 to 32 using PubMed Clinical Queries (P<0.001. The satisfaction with the accuracy of retrieved answers, interaction with UpToDate and also overall satisfaction were higher among UpToDate users compared to PubMed Clinical Queries users (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: For first time users, using UpToDate compared to Pubmed Clinical Queries can lead to not only a higher proportion of relevant answer retrieval within a shorter time, but also a higher users' satisfaction. So, addition of tutoring pre-appraised sources such as UpToDate to the information mastery curricula seems to be highly efficient.

  8. To compare PubMed Clinical Queries and UpToDate in teaching information mastery to clinical residents: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyah Ensan, Ladan; Faghankhani, Masoomeh; Javanbakht, Anna; Ahmadi, Seyed-Foad; Baradaran, Hamid Reza

    2011-01-01

    To compare PubMed Clinical Queries and UpToDate regarding the amount and speed of information retrieval and users' satisfaction. A cross-over randomized trial was conducted in February 2009 in Tehran University of Medical Sciences that included 44 year-one or two residents who participated in an information mastery workshop. A one-hour lecture on the principles of information mastery was organized followed by self learning slide shows before using each database. Subsequently, participants were randomly assigned to answer 2 clinical scenarios using either UpToDate or PubMed Clinical Queries then crossed to use the other database to answer 2 different clinical scenarios. The proportion of relevantly answered clinical scenarios, time to answer retrieval, and users' satisfaction were measured in each database. Based on intention-to-treat analysis, participants retrieved the answer of 67 (76%) questions using UpToDate and 38 (43%) questions using PubMed Clinical Queries (PUpToDate compared to 29 min (95% CI: 26 to 32) using PubMed Clinical Queries (PUpToDate and also overall satisfaction were higher among UpToDate users compared to PubMed Clinical Queries users (PUpToDate compared to Pubmed Clinical Queries can lead to not only a higher proportion of relevant answer retrieval within a shorter time, but also a higher users' satisfaction. So, addition of tutoring pre-appraised sources such as UpToDate to the information mastery curricula seems to be highly efficient.

  9. Research on Rural Resident Asset-income Difference and Its Influential Factors-Comparison of Empirical Data among Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing%农村居民财产性收入差异及其影响因素研究--基于重庆市的经验数据及其与京、津、沪的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清华; 唐丽桂

    2014-01-01

    根据1997-2012年的统计数据,重庆市农村居民人均纯收入呈现稳步增长态势,其中,财产性收入基数小且增幅波动大,占人均纯收入比重低但稳中有升;农村居民不同收入群体的财产性收入绝对差距不断拉大,但是并未表现出财富集中的趋势;农村居民的人均财产性收入始终低于城镇居民,两者差距的相对量呈现先升后降趋势,但是绝对差距仍在扩大;重庆市农村居民人均财产性收入低于全国平均水平,但增速总体上高于全国平均水平;重庆市农村居民人均财产性收入及其占比低于京、津、沪,且差距不断扩大。农村居民财产性收入及其差异性取决于其初始资源禀赋状况和体制与制度因素,应改革和完善农村土地管理制度,充分挖掘农村居民的土地财富效益,并不断提升农村居民获取财产性收入的机会和能力。%According to the statistical data during 1997-2012, the per capita pure income of Chongqing rural residents shows stably increasing trend, among which their asset-income basis is small, but has big amplification volatility, has low ratio of the per capita pure income but demonstrates the rising tendency in stable condition. The absolute gap of the asset-income of different income groups in the rural residents is continuously increasing but does not show the tendency of wealth centralization. The asset-income of the rural residents is always lower than the per capita asset-income of urban residents, the relative value of the gap between the two shows the rise at first and then the decline, but the absolute gap is continuously enlarging. The asset-income of Chongqing rural residents is lower than that of average national level of China but its increasing speed is generally higher than the average national level of China. The per capita asset-income of Chongqing rural residents and its proportion are lower than that of Beijing, Tianjin

  10. Investigation and Statistical Analysis on the Well-being of Rural Residents and Its Determinants in Hebei Province%河北省农村居民幸福感影响因素的调查与统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于飞; 王会强

    2014-01-01

    幸福感是反映社会发展水平的重要指标,也是衡量社会运行机制和人民生活满意程度的指标。从农村政策、家庭生活、基础设施、农业生产四个维度对河北省农村居民进行调查。调查结果显示,河北省农村居民对生活感到幸福;农村居民幸福感不同因素之间的满意度评价存在差异;居民的性别、年龄、学历和家庭所在地等因素对于幸福感有着不同程度的影响。%Well-being is an important index to reflect the social development level and a measure of social operation mechanism and people's life satisfaction index. Rural residents in Hebei province were investigated from four dimensions of rural policy, family life, infrastructure, and agricultural production. We are learned through the investigation that rural residents in Hebei province live happy life. Rural residents happiness satisfaction evaluation between different factors are different, their gender, age, education and family location for the factors affecting the well-being have different degrees of influence.

  11. 河南省农村居民健康知识知晓情况的现况调查%Status survey on health knowledge awareness among rural residents of Henan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丛丛; 张玉林; 周刚; 安伟峰

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To understand the current situation of health knowledge among rural residents of Henan province and consequently to provide evidences for health education strategies .Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 8 978 rural residents who were selected by a multi -phase sampling method from 159 counties of the whole province.Both EpiData and SAS were employed for data management and analysis .Results: The rate of awareness of health knowledge a -mong rural residents was 64.98% , among which, the knowledge about health lifestyles was the highest with 75.30% ,and chronic diseases was the lowest with 59.59%.The rate of male's awareness of health knowledge was higher than female 's (χ2= 204.014,P 进行问卷调查.结果:河南省农村居民健康知识知晓率为64.98%,其中健康生活方式相关知识知晓率(75.30%)最高,慢性病相关知识知晓率(59.59%)最低.男性健康知识知晓率高于女性(χ2=204.014,P<0.001);~34岁年龄组居民健康知识知晓率最高,其他年龄组居民随着年龄的增长,知晓率逐渐降低(χ2=4 813.601,P<0.001);随着文化程度的增高,健康知识知晓率逐渐增高(χ2=4 758.084,P<0.001);丧偶和离异者健康知识知晓率低于其他婚姻状况者(χ2=903.912,P<0.001);学生健康知识知晓率高于非学生(χ2=105.835,P<0.001);医务人员健康知识知晓率高于非医务人员(χ2=838.639,P<0.001).结论:河南省农村居民健康知识知晓率较低;应该强化营养、肝炎、结核病、碘缺乏病、糖尿病、安全用药等知识教育;女性、高年龄组、低文化程度、丧偶者、非学生和非医务人员为主要弱势群体.

  12. The survey of blood pressure level of Uygur rural residents in Aksu city%阿克苏市维吾尔族农村居民血压水平调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣民; 廖井波; 马静; 李应琴

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand blood pressure level and prevalence of hypertension of Uygur rural residents in Aksu city to develop control measures and provide the basis for health administrative depart-ments.Methods 1 087 people of Aksu city were conducted questionnaire and blood pressure measurements with cluster random sampling method.The obtained data were statistically analyzed using SPSS.Results The average systolic and diastolic blood pressure of Uygur rural residents in Aksu city re-spectively (121.8±19.52)mmHg and (78.1 ±28.11)mmHg,the number of prehypertension people ac-counted for 34.4% among the survey.The prevalence of hypertension was 35.2%,in which the BP differ-ence among different ages was statistics significance (χ2 =144.0,P <0.001).Conclusion The prevalence of Uygur rural residents with hypertension in Aksu city was high,increasing in age-dependence,and the number of prehypertension people was more,so mid-aged and prehypertension people should be focused to prevent.%目的:了解阿克苏市维吾尔族农村居民血压水平和高血压患病率,为卫生行政部门制定高血压的防治措施提供依据。方法采用整群随机抽样方法对阿克苏市维吾尔族农村居民1087人进行问卷调查和血压测量。所获数据采用 SPSS 进行统计分析。结果阿克苏市维吾尔族农村居民收缩压和舒张压平均值分别是(121.8±19.52)mmHg 和(78.1±28.11)mmHg,正常高值血压人群占被调查人数的34.4%,高血压患病率为35.2%,不同年龄段差别具有统计学意义(χ2=144.0,P <0.001)。结论阿克苏市维吾尔族农村居民高血压患病率高,随着年龄增长逐渐增高,正常高值血压人群数量基数大,中老年和正常高值血压人群应成为防治重点。

  13. Disease burden of alcohol dependence disorder in urban and rural residents of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西城乡≥15岁居民酒精依赖疾病负担分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦波; 冯启明; 霍海英; 苏莉; 陈娜萦; 陈强; 潘润德

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the disease burden of alcohol dependence disorder and its distribution among people aged more than 15 years in the urban and rural of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Methods The method of the Global Burden of Disease(GBD) study was used to calculate the disability-adjusted life years(DALYs) of alcohol dependence disorder based on the epidemiological survey data of mental disorders in the urban and rural of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 2007 and the retrospective sample survey data on death in 2006. Results The DALYs of alcohol dependence disorder in the residents were 1.45 per 1 000 people in 2007 ,with the lost due to years of life lost(YLL) of 0. 05 per 1000 people and lost to disability(YLD) of 1.40 per 1000 people. The DALYs of alcohol dependence disorder were signficantly bigher in the males(2. 83 per 1000 people) than in the females(0. 14 per 1000 people) and higher in the rural area (1.95 per 1000 people) than in the urban area(0. 65 per 1000 people). The DALYs of alcohol dependence disorder was higher in the people aged 30-69 years and the highest in the people aged 60-69 years. Conclusion Rural residents,male,the middle aged and the elderly people are the key groups for prevention and rehabilitation of alcohol dependence disorder in Guangxi and measures should be taken to prevent the disability caused by alcohol dependence disorder.%目的 研究广西城乡居民酒精依赖的疾病负担水平及其分布特征.方法 根据2007年广西城乡≥15岁居民精神疾病的流行病学调查资料和2006年广西死因回顾抽样调查资料,采用全球疾病负担研究(GBD)方法,计算广西城乡居民酒精依赖的伤残调整生命年(DALY).结果 2007年广西≥15岁城乡居民因酒精依赖DALY损失为1.45 DALY/千人,其中因死亡造成的损失(YLL)为0.05 DALY/千人;因残疾造成的损失(YLD)为1.40 DALY/千人;农村居民损失1.95 DALY/千人,高于城市的0.65 DALY/千人;男性DALY损失为2

  14. Increasing Male Involvement in Family Planning Decision Making: Trial of a Social-Cognitive Intervention in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Owen, Neville

    2005-01-01

    We tested a social-cognitive intervention to influence contraceptive practices among men living in rural communes in Vietnam. It was predicted that participants who received a stage-targeted program based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) would report positive movement in their stage of motivational readiness for their wife to use an…

  15. Requirement for Family Portable Medical Kit in Rural Residents in Economically Underdeveloped Areas%经济欠发达地区农村居民对家庭便携式药包的需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬晴; 周小军; 易敬林; 刘立民; 叶仰真; 黄河浪; 韩金祥; 李幼平; 李胜; 沈建通

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the requirement of rural residents in economically underdeveloped areas for family portable medical kit,and to provide the basis for scientific design of family portable medical kit suitable for use with rural residents. Methods A total of 139 rural household residents in service areas of 3 basic township health centers in economically underdeveloped areas (Luxi township health hospital of Yongxin county of Jiangxi province, Xibaipo township health hospital of Pingshan county of Hebei province and Xintian township center health hospital of Lintao county of Gansu province) were selected by simple random and cluster sampling,and the requirement for family portable medical kit was surveyed by questionnaire. Results Among the 139 rural household residents,117 (84. 2%) expected to have family portable medical kit. Compared with Xintian township, the demand rates for family portable medical kit significantly increased in Luxi township and Xibaipo township (89. 6% and 93. 2% vs 70. 2% respectively;P< 0. 05). The demanders expected cold medicine (84. 6%), wound paste (63. 2%) , essential balm (51. 3%) , cooling oil (47. 0%) , antihypertensive (32. 5%), iodine tincture (31. 6%), diabetes drugs (5. 1%) and other drugs (25. 6%) to be placed into the family portable medical kit. The size of the family portable medical kit was expected to be (25. 84±7. 51)cm length, (18. 25± 7. 18)cm width and (16. 38±7. 26)cm height. The main functions of the family portable medical kit were expected to be lightweight (52. L%),safe (50. 4%), applicable (46. 2 %), waterproof (45. 3%), economic (39. 3%) , simple (36. 8%) , sunscreen (28. 2%), anticorrosive (22.2%) and pressureproof (22.2%). The price of the family portable medical kit was expected to be ^10 to <15 yuan (29. 9%). A total of 86. 3% of the demanders tended to select hard materials,including aluminum alloy (35. 0%) and plastics (34. 2%). Only 13. 7% of the demanders chose soft materials in which canvas

  16. How to build and evaluate an integrated health care system for chronic patients: study design of a clustered randomised controlled trial in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxi Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While integrated health care system has been proved an effective way to help improving patient health and system efficiency, the exact behaviour model and motivation approach are not so clear in poor rural areas where health human resources and continuous service provision are urgently needed. To gather solid evidence, we initiated a comprehensive intervention project in Qianjiang District, southwest part of rural China in 2012. And after one-year's pilot, we developed an intervention package of team service, comprehensive pathway and prospective- and performance-based payment system.Methods: To testify the potential influence of payment interventions, we use clustered randomised controlled trial, 60 clusters are grouped into two treatment groups and one control group to compare the time and group differences. Difference-in-differences model and structural equation modelling will be used to analyse the intervention effects and pathway. The outcomes are: quality of care, disease burden, supplier cooperative behaviour and patient utilisation behaviour and system efficiency. Repeated multivariate variance analysis will be used to statistically examine the outcome differences.Discussion: This is the first trial of its kind to prove the effects and efficiency of integrated care. Though we adopted randomised controlled trial to gather the highest rank of evidence, still the fully randomisation was hard to realise in health policy reform experiment. To compensate, the designer should take efforts on control for the potential confounders as much as possible. With this trial, we assume the effects will come from: (1 improvement on the quality of life through risk factors control and lifestyles change on patient's behaviours; (2 improvement on quality of care through continuous care and coordinated supplier behaviours; (3 improvement on the system efficiency through active interaction between suppliers and patients

  17. How to build and evaluate an integrated health care system for chronic patients: study design of a clustered randomised controlled trial in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxi Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While integrated health care system has been proved an effective way to help improving patient health and system efficiency, the exact behaviour model and motivation approach are not so clear in poor rural areas where health human resources and continuous service provision are urgently needed. To gather solid evidence, we initiated a comprehensive intervention project in Qianjiang District, southwest part of rural China in 2012. And after one-year's pilot, we developed an intervention package of team service, comprehensive pathway and prospective- and performance-based payment system. Methods: To testify the potential influence of payment interventions, we use clustered randomised controlled trial, 60 clusters are grouped into two treatment groups and one control group to compare the time and group differences. Difference-in-differences model and structural equation modelling will be used to analyse the intervention effects and pathway. The outcomes are: quality of care, disease burden, supplier cooperative behaviour and patient utilisation behaviour and system efficiency. Repeated multivariate variance analysis will be used to statistically examine the outcome differences. Discussion: This is the first trial of its kind to prove the effects and efficiency of integrated care. Though we adopted randomised controlled trial to gather the highest rank of evidence, still the fully randomisation was hard to realise in health policy reform experiment. To compensate, the designer should take efforts on control for the potential confounders as much as possible. With this trial, we assume the effects will come from: (1 improvement on the quality of life through risk factors control and lifestyles change on patient's behaviours; (2 improvement on quality of care through continuous care and coordinated supplier behaviours; (3 improvement on the system efficiency through active interaction between suppliers and patients. Conclusion

  18. Survey of knowledge related to cancer prevention and needs of health education in rural residents%农村居民癌症预防知识与健康教育需求现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何民富; 王宁; 李欣欣; 孙新; 王宝华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the current level of knowledge about cancer prevention, the rutine of getting health information, as well as health education needs in rural residents, and the development of health education in rural areas. Methods A certain number of towns/sub-districts were randomly selected from 13 counties/districts in Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu and Shandong provinces. In each town/sub-district, residents from 21 to 70 years old were stratified into 5 age groups. Twenty subjects consisting of equal number of male and female were randomly selected from each group, totaling up to 100 subjects in each town/sub-district, and 23 000 in the study. A questionnaire survey on cancer risk factors, early symptoms, subjective needs, as well as the way of getting health information was conducted. Results The proportions of subjects who answered correctly the relationship between cancer and tobacco, alcohol, environment pollution, diet, occupational factors, infection, obesity as well as reproductive factors were respectively 87.4%, 73.0%,62. 0%, 45. 4%, 38. 3%, 36. 5%, 22. 2% and 13.5%. The proportions who correctly associated gradually enlarging mass or nodule, dysphagia, bleeding of undetermined origin, unexplained weight loss, long-term indigestion and hoarseness with cancer were respectively 72. 5%, 62. 0%, 60. 3%, 56. 7%, 45. 6% and 38. 8%. The old people and female had comparatively poor knowledge. The proportion of subjects who desired to get information about prevention, early symptom, diagnose, treatment and local prevalence were respectively 78. 2%, 63. 2%, 52. 5%, 37. 7% and 34. 1%. The three most popular sources of getting health information were television, broadcast and rural doctors, 81.0%, 57. 8% and 47.8% respectively. The old people preferred rural doctor and family/relative/friend to obtain health information, while young people preferred to television, intemet, hook/magazine/newspaper, as well as brochure

  19. Moving beyond sex: Assessing the impact of gender identity on human papillomavirus vaccine recommendations and uptake among a national sample of rural-residing LGBT young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A; Whitehead, Jennifer L; Stephenson, Rob

    2017-06-01

    While national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination estimates exist by sex, little is known about HPV vaccination rates by gender identity. We conducted a self-administered, anonymous online cross-sectional survey, with recruitment through Facebook ads, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in rural areas of the US. We compared HPV vaccine recommendation and uptake by self-reported sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. Six hundred sixty respondents were age eligible for HPV vaccination: 84% reported gender identity aligned with their sex assigned at birth, while 10% reported gender identity the differed from their sex assigned at birth; an additional 6% reported non-binary gender identity. Only 14% of male sex assigned at birth and 44% of female sex assigned at birth received HPV vaccine, similar to estimates by current gender identity. Transgender respondents' HPV vaccination experience mirrored that of cisgender respondents with regard to sex assigned at birth. Providers may base HPV vaccine recommendations on individuals' sex assigned at birth, which may impact transgender individuals' vaccine coverage. Future HPV vaccine uptake studies should account for gender identity. With sex-specific catch-up HPV vaccination recommendations, the role of gender identity on provider recommendation and reimbursement needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 集居养老:乡村社会解构下留守老人的社会重构模式--基于山东Z村集居案例%Centralized Residence:The Reconstruction Mode of Empty Nesters Community Under the Background of Rural Social Disintegration---Based on the centralized residence case of Village Z, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    怀洋洋

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rural social forms currently are undergoing a deep change. The significant characteristics are the speeding trends of population loss, aging, and empty nest. With the population aging and loss trend’s acceleration, the rural faces the problems of social acquaintances gradual collapsing, left-behind elderly population expanding, and rural culture recession etc. leading to the gradual disintegration of the rural society. How to guarantee the life of the left-behind elderly people under the rural social deconstruction background is a question of reality in the future. Based on the situation, to explore new ways to achieve reconstruction of the rural society is of practical significance and urgency. This paper puts forward the centralized residence mode can be a path for alleviating the predicament of the rural left-behind elderly care. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis methods, the paper caries out the analysis of the elderly kibbutz willingness and its factors in village Z. The significant factor is found and analyzed, and is provided as the basis for the elderly kibbutz policy. Based on the sample survey of village Z, Shandong Province and statistical analysis using Logistic, it is found: 1) local empty nesters who are willing to live together account for 64.3%, and those who are unwilling account for 35.6%, which means the former group is the majority; 2) housing location, public services, loneliness, children's living standards, aging-related diseases can significantly affect the willingness of the empty nesters. Housing location and public services are negatively correlated with the willingness of centralized residence and loneliness, children's living standards, and aging-related diseases are positively correlated with the willingness of centralized residence.%我国农村社会形态目前正发生深度变革,显著化特征表现在人口流失、高龄化、空巢化趋势加速。随着人口流失和老龄化趋势加速,乡

  1. 东营市农村居民吸烟现状及社会经济状况对其影响研究%SURVEY OF SMOKING BEHAVIOR AND ITS INFLUENCE BY SOCIAL ECONOMICAL STATUS AMONG RURAL RESIDENTS IN DONGYING CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖唐洪; 徐凌忠; 杨平; 李青莉; 隋艾汝; 王兴洲

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To know the smoking behavior and its influence by social economical status among rural residents in Dongying city. [Methods] The sample was randomly chosen by using cluster-based sampling method and was interviewed by using self- made questionnaire. SPSS 15.0 software was used to analyze the data. [ Results] 2 599 rural residents were interviewed. The overall smoking rate was 29.5% and the current smoking rate was 23.2%. The daily mean of consuming cigarettes was (21.36±0.51). The risk factors of smoking behavior of the rural residents were sex, age group, education and occupation. [Conclusion] A relatively high proportion of smoking people is found among rural residents in Dongying city, and the residents have large amount of smoking. The smoking rate among female residents has an increasing trend. Rural residents who are male, more than 65 years old, illiteracy or managers/skilled workers are people who are at high risk of smoking.%[目的]探讨东营市农村居民吸烟现状及社会经济状况对吸烟的影响.[方法]采用分层整群随机抽样方法,利用自例问卷进行入户询问调查.使用SPSS15.0软件进行统计分析.[结果]共调查2 599名农村居民,总吸烟率为29.5%.现吸烟率为23.2%,平均每人每天抽烟(21.36±0.51)支.性别、年龄、文化程度、职业是吸烟的影响因素.[结论]东营市农村居民吸烟比例和吸烟量仍较高,女性居民吸烟比例有上升趋势,男性、65~年龄组、文化程度为文盲、职业为管理性、技术性工作人员的农村居民是吸烟的高危人群.

  2. Design of an autonomous photovoltaic system for the supply of electric power from a rural residence in Bahia, Brazil; Projeto de um sistema fotovoltaico autonomo para o abastecimento da energia eletrica de uma residencia rural na Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Isaque da Silva; Cardoso, Gracieli Sartorio; Santoro, Renata Branco [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a project to establish one electrical system, isolated by photovoltaic energy, in a residence located approximately 7 km from the town of Barra da Estiva, BA, which do not receive electricity through the transmission system, necessitating generation of electricity on the spot to ensure that this family has some benefits offered by electricity. The scaling was done to two situations: one that serves only the lights and another that allows for a more complete electrification to the region. Meanwhile, the deployment of new technologies in remote places such stocks requires new attitudes and forms of organisations for the adoption, management and maintenance of the system chosen, therefore, social aspects of acceptance of this technology are also discussed. (author)

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in pregnant Australian Indigenous women residing in rural and remote New South Wales: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Beth; Weatherall, Loretta; Burrows, Julie; Blackwell, Caroline C; Gwynn, Josephine; Wadhwa, Pathik; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Smith, Roger; Rae, Kym M

    2017-04-07

    Pregnancy can be a stressful time for many women. There is ample evidence of numerous physical and mental health inequities for Indigenous Australians. For those Indigenous women who are pregnant, it is established that there is a higher incidence of poor physical perinatal outcomes when compared with non-Indigenous Australians. However, little evidence exists that examines stressful events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women who are members of this community. To quantify the rates of stressful events and PTSD symptoms in pregnant Indigenous women. One hundred and fifty rural and remote Indigenous women were invited to complete a survey during each trimester of their pregnancy. The survey measures were the stressful life events and the Impact of Events Scale. Extremely high rates of PTSD symptoms were reported by participants. Approximately 40% of this group exhibited PTSD symptoms during their pregnancy with mean score 33.38 (SD = 14.37) significantly higher than a study of European victims of crisis, including terrorism attacks (20.6, SD = 18.5). The extreme levels of PTSD symptoms found in the women participating in this study are likely to result in negative implications for both mother and infant. An urgent response must be mounted at government, health, community development and research levels to address these findings. Immediate attention needs to focus on the development of interventions to address the high levels of PTSD symptoms that pregnant Australian Indigenous women experience. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Effects of a three-month therapeutic lifestyle modification program to improve bone health in postmenopausal Korean women in a rural community: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eui Geum; Yoo, Jae Yong; Lee, Jung Eun; Hyun, Sa Saeng; Ko, Il Sun; Chu, Sang Hui

    2014-08-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, we examined the effects of a 3-month therapeutic lifestyle modification (TLM) intervention on knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors related to bone health in postmenopausal women in rural Korea. Forty-one women ages 45 or older were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 21) or control (n = 20) group. The intervention group completed a 12-week, 24-session TLM program of individualized health monitoring, group health education, exercise, and calcium-vitamin D supplementation. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant increases in knowledge and self-efficacy and improvement in diet and exercise after 12 weeks, providing evidence that a comprehensive TLM program can be effective in improving health behaviors to maintain bone health in women at high risk of osteoporosis.

  5. Impact of a mHealth intervention for peer health workers on AIDS care in rural Uganda: a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Larry W; Kagaayi, Joseph; Arem, Hannah; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Ssempijja, Victor; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C; Gray, Ronald H; Bollinger, Robert C; Reynolds, Steven J

    2011-11-01

    Mobile phone access in low and middle-income countries is rapidly expanding and offers an opportunity to leverage limited human resources for health. We conducted a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial exploratory substudy on the impact of a mHealth (mobile phone) support intervention used by community-based peer health workers (PHW) on AIDS care in rural Uganda. 29 PHWs at 10 clinics were randomized by clinic to receive the intervention or not. PHWs used phones to call and text higher level providers with patient-specific clinical information. 970 patients cared for by the PHWs were followed over a 26 month period. No significant differences were found in patients' risk of virologic failure. Qualitative analyses found improvements in patient care and logistics and broad support for the mHealth intervention among patients, clinic staff, and PHWs. Key challenges identified included variable patient phone access, privacy concerns, and phone maintenance.

  6. Effectiveness of a school based intervention for prevention of non-communicable diseases in middle school children of rural North India: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Deepika Singh; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Nongkinrih, Baridalyne; Kapoor, Suresh Kumar; Pradhan, Shishir Kumar; Krishnan, Anand

    2015-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school based intervention in improving knowledge and behavioral practices regarding diet, physical activity and tobacco use in middle schoolchildren of rural-Ballabgarh, North-India. A total of 40 middle schools were grouped into two, based on geographic proximity and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group in a cluster randomized controlled trial. The target population consisted of 2,348 children studying in 6th and 7th grades in these schools. The intervention consisted of a school component (policies), a classroom component (activities) and a family component [Information Education & Communication (IEC) material]. The main outcome measures were knowledge and behavioral changes in physical activity, diet and tobacco which were self- reported. Post-intervention, a significant number of intervention schools adopted the tobacco policy (16/19), physical activity policy (6/19) and healthy food policy (14/19) as compared to the control schools (n = 21). Knowledge about physical activity, diet and tobacco improved significantly in the intervention group as compared to the control group. Proportion of students attending Physical Training (PT) classes for five or more days in a week in the intervention group compared to the control group increased significantly (17.8%; p communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors in adolescents in rural India.

  7. Telephone-delivered psychotherapy for rural-dwelling older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Gretchen A; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Lyles, Mary F; Miller, Michael E

    2014-02-08

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), characterized by excessive and uncontrollable worry, has a negative impact on the health, well-being, and functioning of older adults. Cognitive behavioral therapy has demonstrated efficacy in reducing anxiety and worry in older adults, but the generalizability of these findings to community-dwelling older adults is unknown. The aim of the current study is to examine the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered by telephone in reducing anxiety and worry in rural community-dwelling older adults with GAD. We propose a randomized controlled trial comparing telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-T) with nondirective supportive therapy (NST-T). One hundred seventy six adults 60 years and older diagnosed with GAD will be randomized to one of the two treatment conditions. The primary outcomes are self-report worry and clinician-rated anxiety. Secondary outcomes include depressive symptoms, sleep, quality of life, and functional status. It is hypothesized that CBT-T will be superior to NST-T in reducing anxiety and worry among older adults with GAD. Further, CBT-T is hypothesized to be superior to NST-T in reducing problems with depressive symptoms, sleep, functional status and quality of life. If this program is successful, it could be implemented as a low-cost program to treat late-life anxiety, especially in rural areas or in circumstances where older adults may not have access to qualified mental health providers. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01259596.

  8. High compliance randomized controlled field trial of solar disinfection of drinking water and its impact on childhood diarrhea in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Kevin G; Samaiyar, Priyajit; du Preez, Martella; Conroy, Ronán M

    2011-09-15

    Recent solar disinfection (SODIS) studies in Bolivia and South Africa have reported compliance rates below 35% resulting in no overall statistically significant benefit associated with disease rates. In this study, we report the results of a 1 year randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of SODIS of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in rural communities in Cambodia. We compared 426 children in 375 households using SODIS with 502 children in 407 households with no intervention. Study compliance was greater than 90% with only 5% of children having less than 10 months of follow-up and 2.3% having less than 6 months. Adjusted for water source type, children in the SODIS group had a reduced incidence of dysentery, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.50 (95% CI 0.27-0.93, p = 0.029). SODIS also had a protective effect against nondysentery diarrhea, with an IRR of 0.37 (95% CI 0.29-0.48, p SODIS is an effective and culturally acceptable point-of-use water treatment method in the culture of rural Cambodia and may be of benefit among similar communities in neighboring South East Asian countries.

  9. Cluster-randomized trial on complementary and responsive feeding education to caregivers found improved dietary intake, growth and development among rural Indian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazir, Shahnaz; Engle, Patrice; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Griffiths, Paula L; Johnson, Susan L; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Shroff, Monal R; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate feeding and care may contribute to high rates of stunting and underweight among children in rural families in India. This cluster-randomized trial tested the hypothesis that teaching caregivers appropriate complementary feeding and strategies for how to feed and play responsively through home-visits would increase children's dietary intake, growth and development compared with home-visit-complementary feeding education alone or routine care. Sixty villages in Andhra Pradesh were randomized into three groups of 20 villages with 200 mother-infant dyads in each group. The control group (CG) received routine Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); the complementary feeding group (CFG) received the ICDS plus the World Health Organization recommendations on breastfeeding and complementary foods; and the responsive complementary feeding and play group (RCF&PG) received the same intervention as the CFG plus skills for responsive feeding and psychosocial stimulation. Both intervention groups received bi-weekly visits by trained village women. The groups did not differ at 3 months on socioeconomic status, maternal and child nutritional indices, and maternal depression. After controlling for potential confounding factors using the mixed models approach, the 12-month intervention to the CFG and RCF&PG significantly (P Development scores (mean = 3.1, CI: 0.8-5.3) in the RCF&PG (but not CFG) compared with CG. Community-based educational interventions can improve dietary intake, length (CFG) and mental development (RCF&PG) for children under 2 years in food-secure rural Indian families.

  10. The Effect of India's Total Sanitation Campaign on Defecation Behaviors and Child Health in Rural Madhya Pradesh: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sumeet R.; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Salvatore, Alicia L.; Briceno, Bertha; Ganguly, Sandipan; Colford, John M.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor sanitation is thought to be a major cause of enteric infections among young children. However, there are no previously published randomized trials to measure the health impacts of large-scale sanitation programs. India's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) is one such program that seeks to end the practice of open defecation by changing social norms and behaviors, and providing technical support and financial subsidies. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the TSC implemented with capacity building support from the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program in Madhya Pradesh on availability of individual household latrines (IHLs), defecation behaviors, and child health (diarrhea, highly credible gastrointestinal illness [HCGI], parasitic infections, anemia, growth). Methods and Findings We conducted a cluster-randomized, controlled trial in 80 rural villages. Field staff collected baseline measures of sanitation conditions, behaviors, and child health (May–July 2009), and revisited households 21 months later (February–April 2011) after the program was delivered. The study enrolled a random sample of 5,209 children sanitation facilities as defined by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme by an average of 19% (95% CI for difference: 12%–26%; group means: 22% control versus 41% intervention), decreased open defecation among adults by an average of 10% (95% CI for difference: 4%–15%; group means: 73% intervention versus 84% control). However, the intervention did not improve child health measured in terms of multiple health outcomes (diarrhea, HCGI, helminth infections, anemia, growth). Limitations of the study included a relatively short follow-up period following implementation, evidence for contamination in ten of the 40 control villages, and bias possible in self-reported outcomes for diarrhea, HCGI, and open defecation behaviors. Conclusions The intervention led to modest increases in availability of IHLs and even more

  11. Urban-rural migration and cultural transformation of rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    loss but also due to in-migration. This paper addresses how rural communities change due to urban-rural migration by investigating reasons and motivations that influence migration decisions, studying relations between newcomers and local residents and exploring social relations and sense of belonging...

  12. 广州城乡居民收入差距现状分析%Status analysis of the income gap between urban and rural residents in Guangzhou area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利平

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies the historical change in income gap between urban and rural residents in Guangzhou and compares income gap of Guangzhou with other cities.It also analyzes the recourses and structures of residents' income.Based on the above analysis and the field research it discovers the reasons of its changes which include low residents' income proportion in income distribution,large differences in wage income and transfer income,unbalanced development of regional economy.At the end of the paper,the author proposes some measures to narrow income gap.%在对广州城乡居民收入进行纵向和横向对比,以及剖析广州城乡居民收入来源和结构后,结合课题组的调研结果得出了影响广州城乡居民收入变化的主要因素:居民收入所占比重偏低、工资性收入差距较大、转移性收入差距较大和区域经济发展不平衡.有针对性地提出了缩小广州城乡居民收入差距的对策.

  13. The Analysis of Effects of Shaanxi Rural Residents ’ Income Changes on the Consumption Structure%农村居民收入增长变化对消费结构的影响--以陕西省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁想; 刘珺

    2014-01-01

    文章运用EL ES模型对陕西农村居民收入与消费结构的关系进行实证分析,表明消费支出随收入增长而增加。但是,基本需求消费依旧在居民人均纯收入中占主要部分。通过消费结构熵数指标对消费结构的合理化测度发现,农村居民的基本需求消费比例逐渐让位于非基本需求消费,消费结构质量状况得到改善。%T his paper mainly analyses the income changes of the rural residents in Shaanxi Province on the consumption structure ,the results of that attempt to explore the relationship about them by the model of ELES .A new entry point on the basis of consumption structure of previous studies in the literature is se-lected in this paper .We choose the statistical data from 2000 to 2011 of Shaanxi Province .The findings is the basic consumption of demand makes up the most .On the other hand ,according to measure the degree of consumption structure ,the trend is the basic consumption is turn to nonbasic consumption and the qual-ity of consumption structure is improved meanw hile .

  14. 上海市城乡居民体育消费现状比较研究%Comparative Study on Sports Consumption of Urban and Rural Residents in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王舜霞

    2012-01-01

    体育消费不仅是社会生活的一部分,也是体育产业再生产运行中的一个核心环节。本文从经济学和社会学的角度出发,对上海城乡居民体育消费的调查比较分析、上海城乡居民体育需求面临的问题及其影响因素进行了分析,旨在为完善城乡体育消费结构提供参考依据。%Sports consumption is not only a part of social life,but a core link in the reproduction and operation of sports industry as well.This paper compares the difference between sports consumption of urban and rural residents in Shanghai in view of economics and sociology,and probes into the problems facing sports demand in Shanghai and its influencing factors,so as to provide theoretical basis for promotion of sports economy in Shanghai.

  15. Challenges and Countermeasures in the integration of urban and rural residents medical insurance system%城乡居民医保制度整合面临的三大挑战及应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超群; 赵斌; 孙杨; 顾雪非

    2016-01-01

    The medical insurance system for urban and rural residents after the integration will face three challenges: sustainability of finance, balanced development of medical insurance and medical care, and national insurance. To cope with the challenges, this paper proposes to implement grading treatment by the payment reform, control the rapid growth of medical expenses, enhance the sustainability of the health insurance fund, and realize universal health insurance coverage by insurance innovation which made the family as a unit.%整合后的城乡居民医保制度将面临财务可持续性、医保与医疗协调发展、全民参保难题等三大挑战。为应对挑战,建议通过大小病统包基础下的支付方式改革落实分级诊疗,控制医疗费用快速增长,提升医保基金的财务可持续性;通过以家庭为单位的参保方式创新,实现医疗保险全民覆盖。

  16. A LARGE-SCALE CLUSTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF COMMUNITY-BASED DIETARY SODIUM REDUCTION – THE CHINA RURAL HEALTH INITIATIVE SODIUM REDUCTION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing L.; Niu, Wenyi; Labarthe, Darwin; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Chu, Hongling; Neiman, Andrea; Engelgau, Michael; Elliott, Paul; Wu, Yangfeng; Neal, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in China. High blood pressure caused by excess intake of dietary sodium is widespread and an effective sodium reduction program has potential to improve cardiovascular health. Design This study is a large-scale, cluster-randomized, trial done in five Northern Chinese provinces. Two counties have been selected from each province and 12 townships in each county making a total of 120 clusters. Within each township one village has been selected for participation with 1:1 randomization stratified by county. The sodium reduction intervention comprises community health education and a food supply strategy based upon providing access to salt substitute. Subsidization of the price of salt substitute was done in 30 intervention villages selected at random. Control villages continued usual practices. The primary outcome for the study is dietary sodium intake level estimated from assays of 24 hour urine. Trial status The trial recruited and randomized 120 townships in April 2011. The sodium reduction program was commenced in the 60 intervention villages between May and June of that year with outcome surveys scheduled for October to December 2012. Baseline data collection shows that randomisation achieved good balance across groups. Discussion The establishment of the China Rural Health Initiative has enabled the launch of this large-scale trial designed to identify a novel, scalable strategy for reduction of dietary sodium and control of blood pressure. If proved effective, the intervention could plausibly be implemented at low cost in large parts of China and other countries worldwide. PMID:24176436

  17. Effects of source- versus household contamination of tubewell water on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ercumen, Ayse; Naser, Abu Mohd; Unicomb, Leanne; Arnold, Benjamin F; Colford, Jr, John M; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    .... We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess whether improving the microbiological quality of tubewell drinking water by household water treatment and safe storage would reduce diarrhea in children...

  18. Influence of Urbanization on Growth of Rural Residents’ Consumption in Western Ethnic Minority Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU

    2015-01-01

    To make clear the relation between urbanization and growth of rural resident consumption in western ethnic minority areas of China,this paper selected cross-sectional area of 12 provinces( cities) in western ethnic minority areas in 2005- 2013 and made an empirical analysis through building panel data of influence of urbanization on rural resident consumption. Results indicate that there is positive correlation between urbanization and rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas. Urbanization increases income level of rural residents,strengthens demonstration effect of urban residents on rural resident consumption,and accordingly promotes rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas. Therefore,it is required to accelerate urbanization development,expand channels of increasing farmers’ income,improve resident consumption environment,and bring into play promotion function of counties,to drive rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas.

  19. Can care staff accurately assess health-related quality of life of care home residents? A secondary analysis of data from the OPERA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ben; Petrou, Stavros; Underwood, Martin; Madan, Jason

    2017-04-27

    To compare assessments of health-related quality of life outcomes of care home residents reported by residents and care staff acting as proxies. Linear regression and bivariate modelling of paired assessments from care home residents and care staff. 78 care homes in 2 regions in England. 556 care home residents aged 65 years or older and care staff. EQ-5D utility scores and responses to individual EQ-5D dimensions. The depression status, cognitive function, physical function, activities of daily living, social engagement, pain and dementia diagnosis of care home residents all predicted discrepancies in EQ-5D reporting. For residents with no depressive symptoms, care staff underestimated residents' mean EQ-5D utility score by 0.134 (95% CI 0.097 to 0.171) and for those with severe depressive symptoms they overstated mean utility scores by 0.222 (95% CI 0.104 to 0.339). With increasing levels of pain in residents the care staff progressively estimated EQ-5D utilities above self-reported values; by 0.236 (95% CI 0.003 to 0.469) in those with the second highest pain scores. For those with no cognitive impairment, proxies overstated mean utility scores by 0.097 (95% CI 0.049 to 0.146), while for those with severe cognitive impairment they underestimated mean utility scores by 0.192 (95% CI 0.143 to 0.241). Care home residents and staff appear to differ fundamentally in their assessment of the health-related quality of life, as measured by the EQ-5D, of residents with different levels of depression, pain and/or cognitive impairment. This could lead to interventions evaluated using proxy-based quality-adjusted life year estimates being wrongly rejected on cost-effectiveness grounds and may also make it difficult for carers to act as advocates with health and social care professionals for certain groups of residents. A more resident-focussed approach to assessment of health-related quality of life is needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  20. Effect of intervention on knowledge, attitude and practice about hypertension among rural residents%农村居民高血压知信行健康教育干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高辉; 马吉祥; 郭晓雷; 陈希; 董静; 张吉玉; 苏军英; 唐俊利; 徐爱强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of health education on knowledge,attitude and practice( KAP) about hypertension among rural residents. Methods Questionnaire survey and laboratory test were used in a baseline study and an evaluation survey three months after the intervention. The intervention included distributing free low-sodium salt and salt spoon monthly,training to make low-salt diet in the family,and distribution of leaflets about "salt and hypertension". Results After the intervention,there were significant increases in health awareness,attitude toward low-salt diet,and hypertension-related knowledge( P < 0. 05). Compared with the baseline, the subjects showed significantly increased rates of low salt use and low fat diet(P<0.05). Conclusion The low-salt health education can significantly improve the relevant knowledge of hypertension in rural population and promote low salt and low fat dietary pattern among rural residents.%目的 了解高血压健康教育对农村居民高血压相关知识、态度、行为的干预效果,为高血压预防提供参考依据.方法 采用随机整群抽样方法对在山东省菜芜市寨里镇抽取的2个农村社区共439名30~60岁农村常住居民进行高血压健康教育干预前后的问卷调查.结果 干预3个月后农村居民对高血压的临界值、高血压的危险因素及高血压的危害等12项相关知识的知晓率均高于干预前,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预后农村居民相信高血压能预防、相信遵医嘱服药可以控制血压和相信改善生活方式可以控制血压者的比例分别为91.0%、83.6%和90.4%,均高于干预前的74.9%、65.6%和82.1%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预后农村居民饮酒者的比例为34.6%,低于干预前49.5%,差异有统计学意义(x2=19.3,P=0.000),干预后农村居民坚持低盐和低脂饮食者的比例分别为20.6%和24.9%,均高于干预前的7.5%和12.2%,

  1. 农村居民健康档案管理人员的认知意向分析%Analysis of Administrators' Cognition and Intention on Health Records of Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜稚心; 何华明; 吴思静; 马海燕; 郭清

    2009-01-01

    Objective To learn about the cognition and views of the administrators about health records of rural residents.Methods Stratified sampling was used in questionnaire survey and interview on some administrators at basic level from three pilot counties respectively in eastern,central and western parts of China.Results Some 97.0% of the administrators approved of the implementation of health records administration for rural residents.The majority of the administrators at county level held that the health records should be filed in the town hospital,but those at basic health service organizations believed that the health records should be filed in the village clinics,with a significant difference(χ2=10.400,P=0.001).The majority of the administrators at basic health service organizations held that the health records should be kept by responsible doctors,but nor did those at county level,with a significant difference (χ2=11.059,P=0.004).Conclusion The administrators generally assent on the implementation of health records.However,there are differences on recognition of administration system of health records.The most outstanding problem in health record implementation is that informatization cannot be now realized.The implementation of health record can effectively promote the rural health development,but it needs to carry out an administration norm,gradually unify the cognition and get ready for information development of health record.%目的 了解管理人员对农村居民健康档案的认知和对档案管理工作的看法和意向.方法 用分层抽样方法,对全国东、中、西3个试点县的部分基层管理人员进行问卷调查与访谈.结果 97.0%的农村基层管理者对开展农村居民健康档案工作是赞同的.县卫生局的管理人员多认为健康档案应存放在乡镇卫生院,而基层卫生服务机构的大多数管理人员认为档案应存放在村卫生室,两者差异有统计学意义(χ2=10.400,P=0.001).基层卫生

  2. Investigation on health education and nursing intervention of risk tactors of hypertension among rural residents%农村居民高血压危险因素健康教育与护理干预调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兰

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究本地区高血压的流行特点,采取护理干预措施,提高当地居民高血压相关知识知晓率,使其建立健康的生活习惯,预防高血压的发生或控制延缓其并发症.方法:随机选取某村作为调查区,通过基本资料收集、危险度评价、护理干预分析,比较护理干预前后当地居民对高血压相关知识、态度、信念和行为的改变情况,评价健康教育与护理干预的效果.结果:根据基本资料调查情况,发现高血压的患病因素主要是不良的生活方式.通过相关工作的开展当地村民高血压相关知识知晓情况和不良生活方式改变情况都有很大改善.结论:在农村开展高血压健康教育、咨询和护理干预工作,提高农村居民高血压相关知识知晓率,建立健康的生活习惯,对预防高血压的发生或控制延缓其并发症及心脑血管疾病的健康管理和综合防治有着重要的意义.%Objective:To study the local epidemic characteristics of hypertension,adopt nursing intervention measures to enhance local resident hypertemion related knowledge rate,establish the healthy lifestyles to prevent or control the occurrence of hypertension and postpone its complications.Methods:Selected a village as a investigation area randomly,through the collection of basic information,risk assessment,attendance intervention,compared before and after the intervention of local residents on hypertension-related knowledge,attitudes,beliefs and behavior changes to estimate the effoctiveness of health education and health intervention.Results:According to the investigation data,found that hypertension prevalence factor is the poor way of life,carry out health education,counseling and attendance intervention work for rural residents of hypertension's understanding level and existence main bad life style,and so on.Through the work of local farmers to carry out the relevant knowledge of hypertension and the change of bad life style

  3. Catastrophic health expenditure for poor and low-income rural residents under New Rural Co-operative Medical Scheme%新农合贫困和低收入居民灾难性卫生支出研究--基于三省份的抽样调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈李娜; 魏伟; 王静; 张亮

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the catastrophic health expenditure for poor and lower-income rural residents and the ability of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme( NRCMS) to alleviate poverty. Methods:We selected Zhe-jiang, Hubei, and Chongqing provinces as sample areas and obtained 1661 questionnaires through a field survey. We calculated the out-of-pocket expenditure per year, incidence, average gap, relative gap, and concentration index of catastrophic health expenditure for participating households. Results:Both before and after compensation, incidence, average gap, and relative gap of catastrophic health payment for poverty group were the highest, followed by low-in-come group. After compensation, the concentration index decreased. This means that catastrophic health expenditure tends to be focused more on families with financial difficulties. Conclusion:To protect poor and low-income rural res-idents from catastrophic health expenditure, we should promote critical illness insurance, improve the medical assis-tance system, implement payment reform, and improve the NRCMS.%目的:分析农村居民灾难性卫生支出情况以及新农合缓解灾难性卫生支出的能力。方法:2011年分别选取浙江、湖北、重庆作为样本地区,通过现场调查获取问卷1661份,计算参合家庭的年自付医疗卫生费用、灾难性卫生支出发生率、平均差距和相对差距和集中指数。结果:补偿前后,贫困家庭的灾难性卫生支出发生率、平均差距、相对差距均最高,低收入组次之。补偿后,集中指数降低,灾难性卫生支出进一步向经济困难家庭集中。结论:通过推进农村大病医疗保险、完善医疗救助制度、实施支付方式改革和完善新农合配套措施等方式,帮助农村贫困和低收入居民抵御灾难性卫生支出。

  4. 经济欠发达地区农民家庭储药现状分析%Status Survey on Family-owned Drug Storage of Rural Residents in Economically Underdeveloped Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪凌燕; 周小军; 李冬晴; 李艳萍; 易敬林; 吴磊; 韩金祥; 李幼平; 李胜; 李鸿浩

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of reserve drugs,medical devices and portable medical kits of rural households in service areas of basic township health centers in economically underdeveloped areas, and to provide a reference for the design of portable medicine kits suitable for rural residents. Methods The methods of simple random and cluster sampling were used to investigate and analyze the situation of commonly used drugs,medical devices and storages of 139 rural households from 3 basic township health hospitals in Hebei,Jiangxi and Gansu provinces, respectively. Results The storage rates of commonly used drugs of rural households werecold medicine (63. 3%) ,wound paste (40. 3%) .essential balm (36. 7%) ,cooling oil (36. 0%) ,an-tihypertensive (23. 0%), iodine tincture (18. 0%), diabetes drugs (2, 2%) and other drugs (24.5%). The storage rates of medical devices were thermometer (44. 6%), cotton swab (39. 6%),sphygmomanometer (8. 6%), injector (7. 2%) and other devices (16. 5%). A total of 48. 9% of families stored drugs and medical devices in fixed drawers. Only 4. 3% of families stored drugs and medical devices in special portable medical kits. Conclusion Rural families have a higher storage rate of household drugs in service areas of basic township health hospitals,and most drugs are non-prescription drugs. The storage rates of medical devices are not high. Only few rural households have portable medical kits. A lot of rural families place drugs and medical devices randomly. It may be a hidden danger of irrational drug use. Therefore,the education and self-management of drug utilization must be strengthened and storage rates of portable medical kits should be increased to gradually improve irrational drug utilization in rural households.%目的 了解基本型乡镇卫生院辖区居民家庭所备存的药物、医药器械及便携式药包情况,为设计适合农村居民使用的便携药包提供参考.方法 采用单纯随机抽样与整群抽

  5. Effectiveness of a structured education reminiscence-based programme for staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units: A study protocol for a cluster randomised trial

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Eamon

    2011-02-14

    Abstract Background Current projections indicate that there will be a significant increase in the number of people with dementia in Ireland, from approximately 40,000 at present to 100,000 by 2036. Psychosocial interventions, such as reminiscence, have the potential to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. However, while reminiscence is used widely in dementia care, its impact on the quality of life of people with dementia remains largely undocumented and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of its overall effectiveness. The DementiA education programme incorporating REminiscence for Staff study will evaluate the effectiveness of a structured reminiscence-based education programme for care staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units. Methods\\/Design The study is a two-group, single-blind cluster randomised trial conducted in public and private long-stay residential settings in Ireland. Randomisation to control and intervention is at the level of the long-stay residential unit. Sample size calculations suggest that 18 residential units each containing 17 people with dementia are required for randomisation to control and intervention groups to achieve power of at least 80% with alpha levels of 0.05. Each resident in the intervention group is linked with a nurse and care assistant who have taken the structured reminiscence-based education programme. Participants in the control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome is quality of life of residents as measured by the Quality of Life-AD instrument. Secondary outcomes include agitation, depression and carer burden. Blinded outcome assessment is undertaken at baseline and at 18-22 weeks post-randomisation. Discussion Trials on reminiscence-based interventions for people with dementia have been scarce and the quality of the information arising from those that have been done has been undermined by methodological problems, particularly in relation to scale

  6. Effectiveness of a structured education reminiscence-based programme for staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units: A study protocol for a cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Fionnuala

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current projections indicate that there will be a significant increase in the number of people with dementia in Ireland, from approximately 40,000 at present to 100,000 by 2036. Psychosocial interventions, such as reminiscence, have the potential to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. However, while reminiscence is used widely in dementia care, its impact on the quality of life of people with dementia remains largely undocumented and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of its overall effectiveness. The DementiA education programme incorporating REminiscence for Staff study will evaluate the effectiveness of a structured reminiscence-based education programme for care staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units. Methods/Design The study is a two-group, single-blind cluster randomised trial conducted in public and private long-stay residential settings in Ireland. Randomisation to control and intervention is at the level of the long-stay residential unit. Sample size calculations suggest that 18 residential units each containing 17 people with dementia are required for randomisation to control and intervention groups to achieve power of at least 80% with alpha levels of 0.05. Each resident in the intervention group is linked with a nurse and care assistant who have taken the structured reminiscence-based education programme. Participants in the control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome is quality of life of residents as measured by the Quality of Life-AD instrument. Secondary outcomes include agitation, depression and carer burden. Blinded outcome assessment is undertaken at baseline and at 18-22 weeks post-randomisation. Discussion Trials on reminiscence-based interventions for people with dementia have been scarce and the quality of the information arising from those that have been done has been undermined by methodological problems, particularly in

  7. Analysis on the Problem of Private Supply for Rural Health Services Based on the Resident Perspective in Hubei Province%基于居民视角的湖北省农村卫生服务私人供给问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙翠环; 徐娟; 唐丽娟; 高红霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Analyze the present situation and question about the multi-provision of rural health services in Hubei province from the resident perspective. Methods: The method of random sampling was conducted to carry on questionnaire survey to 270 rural residents in Hubei province. Results: The rate of priority selection for the private medical institutions accounts for 4. 1 % when rural residents fall ill; the frequency of going to private medical institutions is low; the nearer distance. cheaper expense and better attitude is the three main reasons for rural residents to go to the private medical institutions, respectively accounts for 50.9%. 23. 1 %. and 9.3 % . The main obstacle that rural residents is not willing to accept the pnvate health service is the distrust for the private medical institutions. accounts for 41.0%; 18.9% residents consider that the medical technology of private medical institution is backward. Conclusion: The resident's distrust for the private medical institutions is the main obstacle that restricts the multi-provision of rural heajth services, technology, distance, and whether is the fixed point are the main effecl factors. To achieve the multi-provision system of rural medical services can't be short of the participation of social strength and market,the development of private medical institutions in rural area is slow, the govemment and the society should positively explore the pattern for multi-provision of rural health services, perfect the medical service market.%目的:从居民角度分析湖北省农村卫生服务多元化供给的现状和存在的问题.方法:采用随机抽样的方法对湖北省270名农村居民进行问卷调查.结果:农村居民患病时对私立卫生机构的首选率占4.1%;去私立医院就医的频率较低;距离近、费用便宜和态度好是农村居民去私立卫生机构就医的三大主要原因,分别占50.9%、23.1%和9.3%;对私立卫生机构的不信赖是农村居

  8. Rural Residents' Awareness of Environmental Protection and Willingness to Pay for Environmental Protection:A Case Study of the Nabanhe Nature Reserve%农村居民对环境保护的认知程度及支付意愿研究——以纳板河自然保护区居民为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳乐山; 郭建卿

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus on whether rural residents are willing to pay for environmental protection.Some people suggest that the rural residents are too poor to pay, or too illiterate to concern environmental protection, whereas others indicate that rural residents tend to be more reliant on the environment and natural resources and consequently they would pay attention to the status of the environment.With Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) the authors analyzed cognition and willingness of rural residents in the Nanbanhe Nature Reserve to pay for environmental protection in their community.Questions designed for surveys on 300 rural households in the Reserve were intended to investigate rural residents' willingness to pay for conserving the environment.Some conclusions can be drawn.More than half of the residents consider that economic development is as important as environmental conservation, and about a quarter of the residents think that environmental conservation is more important than economic development.However, people are generally reluctant to act in environmental conservation for various reasons.One reason they raised is that they believe that the government should do the job.Other reasons include that those who damage the environment should do the job.This shows that rural residents have more cognition than action regarding environmental protection.Many rural residents believe that environmental protection is the responsibility of the government.The willingness to pay for environmental conservation varies greatly with different payment vehicles.Rural residents prefer to pay in the form of labor rather than cash.The willingness to pay in the form of cash is 46.88 Yuan/year/household accounting for 0.36% of the household income of the rural residents.In the form of labor the willingness to pay becomes 249.24 Yuan/year/household with a labor wage rate of 30 Yuan/day, accounting for 1.94% of the household income.In fact, rural residents' willingness to pay

  9. Analysis of hypertension influencing factors among rural residents in Urumqi Midong area%乌鲁木齐市米东区农村居民高血压影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡筱蕾; 黄河

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of hypertension among rural residents in Urumqi Mi-dong areas,and provide basic health education for developing targeted interventions.Methods A multi-staged random sampling method was used.1200 residents from 4 administrative villages in Midong were selected to take part in questionnaire survey.Factors affecting hypertension were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.Results The number of respondents in hypertension was 109,prevalence rate was 9.1%,After logistic regression analysis,hypertension risk factors among rural population were age (OR =1.72),culture (OR =0.63),farmer occupation (OR =0.86),smoking (OR =1.62),ex-cessive alcohol consumption (OR =1.54),physical exercise (OR =0.93),irrational diet (OR =3.05).Conclusion It should be carried out health education interventions according to different resident population characteristics to effectively improve the prevention of hypertension KAP.%目的:了解乌鲁木齐市米东区农村居民高血压影响因素,为制定有针对性的健康教育干预措施提供基础。方法采用多阶段随机抽样方法,随机抽取米东区4个行政村合计1200名不同人群常住人口开展问卷调查,通过单因素分析及对多因素 Logistic 非条件回归分析,探讨乌鲁木齐市米东区农村居民高血压患病的影响因素。结果调查对象高血压患病人数为109人,患病率为9.1%。单因素分析显示不同年龄、性别、文化程度、职业的居民高血压患病差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示,影响米东区农村居民高血压患病的主要因素为年龄(OR =1.72)、文化程度(OR =0.63)、职业为农民(OR =0.86)、吸烟(OR =1.62)、过量饮酒(OR =1.54)、体育锻炼(OR =0.93)、超重/肥胖(OR =3.05)。结论应针对农村地区特点开展高血压健康教育干预工作,切实提高居民高血压预防知、信、行能力。

  10. Effectiveness of a smart phone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: study protocol for a paired cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Wang, Wei; Du, Xiaozhen; Rao, Xiuqin; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Yang, Ruikan; Zhang, Lin; Koepsell, Jeanne Catherine; Li, Ye; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2014-03-20

    Although good progress has been achieved in expanding immunization of children in China, disparities exist across different provinces. Information gaps both from the service supply and demand sides hinder timely vaccination of children in rural areas. The rapid development of mobile health technology (mHealth) provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services and reaching underserved populations. However, there is a lack of literature that rigorously evaluates the impact of mHealth interventions on immunization coverage as well as the usability and feasibility of smart phone applications (apps). This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a smart phone-based app (Expanded Program on Immunization app, or EPI app) on improving the coverage of children's immunization. This cluster randomized trial will take place in Xuanhan County, Sichuan Province, China. Functionalities of the app include the following: to make appointments automatically, record and update children's immunization information, generate a list of children who missed their vaccination appointments, and send health education information to village doctors. After pairing, 36 villages will be randomly allocated to the intervention arm (n=18) and control arm (n=18). The village doctors in the intervention arm will use the app while the village doctors in the control arm will record and manage immunization in the usual way in their catchment areas. A household survey will be used at baseline and at endline (8 months of implementation). The primary outcome is full-dose coverage and the secondary outcome is immunization coverage of the five vaccines that are included in the national Expanded Program on Immunization program as well as Hib vaccine, Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Multidimensional evaluation of the app will also be conducted to assess usability and feasibility. This study is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of a smart phone app for child

  11. Effectiveness of a strategy that uses educational games to implement clinical practice guidelines among Spanish residents of family and community medicine (e-EDUCAGUIA project): a clinical trial by clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cura-González, Isabel; López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Sanz-Cuesta, Teresa; Rodríguez-Barrientos, Ricardo; Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Ariza-Cardiel, Gloria; Polentinos-Castro, Elena; Román-Crespo, Begoña; Escortell-Mayor, Esperanza; Rico-Blázquez, Milagros; Hernández-Santiago, Virginia; Azcoaga-Lorenzo, Amaya; Ojeda-Ruiz, Elena; González-González, Ana I; Ávila-Tomas, José F; Barrio-Cortés, Jaime; Molero-García, José M; Ferrer-Peña, Raul; Tello-Bernabé, María Eugenia; Trujillo-Martín, Mar

    2016-05-17

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed with the aim of helping health professionals, patients, and caregivers make decisions about their health care, using the best available evidence. In many cases, incorporation of these recommendations into clinical practice also implies a need for changes in routine clinical practice. Using educational games as a strategy for implementing recommendations among health professionals has been demonstrated to be effective in some studies; however, evidence is still scarce. The primary objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a teaching strategy for the implementation of CPGs using educational games (e-learning EDUCAGUIA) to improve knowledge and skills related to clinical decision-making by residents in family medicine. The primary objective will be evaluated at 1 and 6 months after the intervention. The secondary objectives are to identify barriers and facilitators for the use of guidelines by residents of family medicine and to describe the educational strategies used by Spanish teaching units of family and community medicine to encourage implementation of CPGs. We propose a multicenter clinical trial with randomized allocation by clusters of family and community medicine teaching units in Spain. The sample size will be 394 residents (197 in each group), with the teaching units as the randomization unit and the residents comprising the analysis unit. For the intervention, both groups will receive an initial 1-h session on clinical practice guideline use and the usual dissemination strategy by e-mail. The intervention group (e-learning EDUCAGUIA) strategy will consist of educational games with hypothetical clinical scenarios in a virtual environment. The primary outcome will be the score obtained by the residents on evaluation questionnaires for each clinical practice guideline. Other included variables will be the sociodemographic and training variables of the residents and the teaching unit

  12. Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a…

  13. Defining "Rural" for Veterans' Health Care Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Alan N.; Lee, Richard E.; Shambaugh-Miller, Michael D.; Bair, Byron D.; Mueller, Keith J.; Lilly, Ryan S.; Kaboli, Peter J.; Hawthorne, Kara

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) devised an algorithm to classify veterans as Urban, Rural, or Highly Rural residents. To understand the policy implications of the VHA scheme, we compared its categories to 3 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and 4 Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) geographical categories. Method: Using…

  14. The Influence of the Development of Inclusive Finance on the Income Gap Between Urban and Rural Residents---Taking seven provinces in East China as an example%普惠金融的发展对城乡居民收入差距的影响--以华东七省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶伟超

    2016-01-01

    通过构建普惠金融发展指数,测算出华东地区七个省份2005—2014年历年普惠金融发展水平,测算结果显示:2005—2014年各个省份普惠金融发展水平都大幅提升,其中,上海提升幅度最大,2014年达到最高水平。实证分析普惠金融的发展对城乡居民收入差距的影响,表明普惠金融的发展缩小了城乡居民收入差距。同时,研究结果也表明经济发展水平越高的省份城乡居民收入差距越大,以上海城乡居民收入差距为最大。%in this paper, first of all, through the building inclusive financial development index, East China seven provinces 2005-2014 calendar year inclusive financial development level is calculated .The calculation results show that:the from 2005 to 2014 all provinces in the development of inclusive financial level are significantly improved, including Shanghai to enhance the maximum amplitude, 2014 reached the highest level.Fol-lowed by empirical analysis of the impact of the development of Inclusive Finance on the income gap between urban and rural residents , the results show that: the development of Inclusive Finance narrowed the income gap between urban and rural residents.At the same time, the results also show that the higher the level of economic development , the greater the income gap between urban and rural residents , which is the largest income gap between urban and rural residents in Shanghai.

  15. Effectiveness of household lockable pesticide storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Asia: a community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Melissa; Metcalfe, Chris; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Gunnell, David; Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pieris, Ravi; Priyadarshana, Chamil; Knipe, Duleeka W; Hawton, Keith; Dawson, Andrew H; Bandara, Palitha; deSilva, Dhammika; Gawarammana, Indika; Eddleston, Michael; Konradsen, Flemming

    2017-08-11

    Agricultural pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem in rural Asia. The use of safer household pesticide storage has been promoted to prevent deaths, but there is no evidence of effectiveness. We aimed to test the effectiveness of lockable household containers for prevention of pesticide self-poisoning. We did a community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial in a rural area of North Central Province, Sri Lanka. Clusters of households were randomly assigned (1:1), with a sequence computer-generated by a minimisation process, to intervention or usual practice (control) groups. Intervention households that had farmed or had used or stored pesticide in the preceding agricultural season were given a lockable storage container. Further promotion of use of the containers was restricted to community posters and 6-monthly reminders during routine community meetings. The primary outcome was incidence of pesticide self-poisoning in people aged 14 years or older during 3 years of follow-up. Identification of outcome events was done by staff who were unaware of group allocation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT1146496. Between Dec 31, 2010, and Feb 2, 2013, we randomly assigned 90 rural villages to the intervention group and 90 to the control group. 27 091 households (114 168 individuals) in the intervention group and 26 291 households (109 693 individuals) in the control group consented to participate. 20 457 household pesticide storage containers were distributed. In individuals aged 14 years or older, 611 cases of pesticide self-poisoning had occurred by 3 years in the intervention group compared with 641 cases in the control group; incidence of pesticide self-poisoning did not differ between groups (293·3 per 100 000 person-years of follow-up in the intervention group vs 318·0 per 100 000 in the control group; rate ratio [RR] 0·93, 95% CI 0·80-1·08; p=0·33). We found

  16. Study on Forms and Remolding of New Rural Residence in Hehuang Region-Taking Hongzhuang Village of Ledu County, Qinghai Province for Instance%河湟地区新农村住宅形制及其改造研究--以青海省乐都县红庄村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婧

    2015-01-01

    Taking rural residences of Hongzhuang Village of Ledu County, Qinghai Province as the object of study, this paper, on the basis of field survey to local traditional dwellings, concludes characters of rural residence in Hehuang Region and their causes, seeks spatial remolding methods from 4 aspects, i.e. plan layout, 3D mould, courtyard layout and energy efifciency design, and proposes strategies for spatial transformation and remolding of rural residences.%以青海省乐都县红庄村的农村住宅为研究对象,在对当地传统民居进行实地调研的基础上,归纳河湟地区农村住宅的形制特征及其成因,针对红庄村民居的现状,从平面布局、立面造型、院落布局及节能设计4个方面探索空间改造的方法,并提出农村住宅空间更新改造的策略。

  17. Long-chain PUFA supplementation in rural African infants: a randomized controlled trial of effects on gut integrity, growth, and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Liandré F; Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony J; Halliday, Katherine E; Drammeh, Saikou; Young, Stephen; Prentice, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal damage and malabsorption caused by chronic environmental enteropathy are associated with growth faltering seen in infants in less-developed countries. Evidence has suggested that supplementary omega-3 (n-3) long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) might ameliorate this damage by reducing gastrointestinal inflammation. LC-PUFA supplementation may also benefit cognitive development. We tested whether early n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation improves infant intestinal integrity, growth, and cognitive function. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial [200 mg DHA and 300 mg EPA or 2 mL olive oil/d for 6 mo] was conducted in a population of 172 rural Gambian infants aged 3-9 mo. The primary endpoints were anthropometric measures and gut integrity [assessed by using urinary lactulose:mannitol ratios (LMRs)]. Plasma fatty acid status, intestinal mucosal inflammation (fecal calprotectin), daily morbidity, and cognitive development (2-step means-end test and an attention assessment) were secondary endpoints. PUFA supplementation resulted in a significant increase in plasma n-3 LC-PUFA concentrations (P cognitive development. The trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as ISRCTN66645725.

  18. Pilot cluster randomized controlled trials to evaluate adoption of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions and their combination in rural western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Garret; Dentz, Holly N; Pickering, Amy J; Bourdier, Tomoé; Arnold, Benjamin F; Colford, John M; Null, Clair

    2015-02-01

    In preparation for a larger trial, the Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Benefits pilot study enrolled 72 villages and 499 subjects in two closely related randomized trials of WASH interventions in rural western Kenya. Intervention households received hardware and promotion for one of the following: water treatment, sanitation and latrine improvements, handwashing with soap, or the combination of all three. Interventions were clustered by village. A follow-up survey was conducted 4 months after intervention delivery to assess uptake. Intervention households were significantly more likely than controls to have chlorinated stored water (36-60 percentage point increases), covers over latrine drop holes (55-75 percentage point increases), less stool visible on latrine floors (16-47 percentage point reductions), and a place for handwashing (71-85 percentage point increases) with soap available (49-66 percentage point increases). The high uptake in all arms shows that combined interventions can achieve high short-term adoption rates if well-designed. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Household Air Pollution Intervention Implications: Findings from Qualitative Studies and a Field Trial of Clean Cookstoves in Two Rural Villages in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ashraful; Tawale, Nanda; Patel, Archana; Dibley, Michael J; Jadhao, Sunil; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-09-09

    Exposure to household air pollution is estimated to be the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of disease and the largest contributor in South Asia. Unacceptability of improved cook stoves by the intended user has been identified as a crucial factor hindering uptake and sustained use. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the socio-cultural factors that influence acceptance of improved cookstoves and conducted a systematic field trial in two rural villages in Maharashtra, India. The qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We included women primarily responsible for household cooking, their husbands, senior women in their households, and community health workers. We also conducted kitchen observations. The results indicated low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with traditional cookstove use although high prevalence of household air pollution (HAP) exposure symptoms among all groups. Women were resigned to using traditional cookstoves although they did not like them. The field trial findings were dominated by responses concerned with convenience and health advantages. We identify important issues to be considered when introducing an improved cookstove programme that will increase acceptability and potentially sustained used of improved cookstoves.

  20. Household Air Pollution Intervention Implications: Findings from Qualitative Studies and a Field Trial of Clean Cookstoves in Two Rural Villages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraful Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to household air pollution is estimated to be the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of disease and the largest contributor in South Asia. Unacceptability of improved cook stoves by the intended user has been identified as a crucial factor hindering uptake and sustained use. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the socio-cultural factors that influence acceptance of improved cookstoves and conducted a systematic field trial in two rural villages in Maharashtra, India. The qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We included women primarily responsible for household cooking, their husbands, senior women in their households, and community health workers. We also conducted kitchen observations. The results indicated low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with traditional cookstove use although high prevalence of household air pollution (HAP exposure symptoms among all groups. Women were resigned to using traditional cookstoves although they did not like them. The field trial findings were dominated by responses concerned with convenience and health advantages. We identify important issues to be considered when introducing an improved cookstove programme that will increase acceptability and potentially sustained used of improved cookstoves.

  1. Community mobilisation and health management committee strengthening to increase birth attendance by trained health workers in rural Makwanpur, Nepal: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manandhar Dharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth attendance by trained health workers is low in rural Nepal. Local participation in improving health services and increased interaction between health systems and communities may stimulate demand for health services. Significant increases in birth attendance by trained health workers may be affected through community mobilisation by local women's groups and health management committee strengthening. We will test the effect of community mobilisation through women's groups, and health management committee strengthening, on institutional deliveries and home deliveries attended by trained health workers in Makwanpur District. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial involving 43 village development committee clusters. 21 clusters will receive the intervention and 22 clusters will serve as control areas. In intervention areas, Female Community Health Volunteers are supported in convening monthly women's groups. The groups work through an action research cycle in which they consider barriers to institutional delivery, plan and implement strategies to address these barriers with their communities, and evaluate their progress. Health management committees participate in three-day workshops that use appreciative inquiry methods to explore and plan ways to improve maternal and newborn health services. Follow-up meetings are conducted every three months to review progress. Primary outcomes are institutional deliveries and home deliveries conducted by trained health workers. Secondary outcome measures include uptake of antenatal and postnatal care, neonatal mortality and stillbirth rates, and maternal morbidity. Trial registration number ISRCTN99834806

  2. Household Air Pollution Intervention Implications: Findings from Qualitative Studies and a Field Trial of Clean Cookstoves in Two Rural Villages in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ashraful; Tawale, Nanda; Patel, Archana; Dibley, Michael J.; Jadhao, Sunil; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to household air pollution is estimated to be the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of disease and the largest contributor in South Asia. Unacceptability of improved cook stoves by the intended user has been identified as a crucial factor hindering uptake and sustained use. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the socio-cultural factors that influence acceptance of improved cookstoves and conducted a systematic field trial in two rural villages in Maharashtra, India. The qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We included women primarily responsible for household cooking, their husbands, senior women in their households, and community health workers. We also conducted kitchen observations. The results indicated low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with traditional cookstove use although high prevalence of household air pollution (HAP) exposure symptoms among all groups. Women were resigned to using traditional cookstoves although they did not like them. The field trial findings were dominated by responses concerned with convenience and health advantages. We identify important issues to be considered when introducing an improved cookstove programme that will increase acceptability and potentially sustained used of improved cookstoves. PMID:27618083

  3. 新型社会保障、收入类型与农村居民消费——基于截面数据的经验分析%New Social Security, Types of Income and the Consumption of Rural Residents .An Empirical Analysis Using Cross Section Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈池波; 张攀峰

    2012-01-01

    Affecting economic downturn abroad, many Chinese enterprises suffer a disastrous decline of products sales volume for export, in order to solve the current business difficulties, stimulating domestic demand has become the hot topic of discussion. In China, a lot of people live in rural areas, and rural consumption potential is tremendous, but because Chinese farmers' income is low and the social security system is not perfect, so the consumption level of rural residents is far lower than the city. Excitedly, in recent years, the government increased investment in agriculture to raise peasant income, especially notably, new rural cooperative medical care is playing an important role in reducing peasant burden of medical expenditure, and the new rural endowment insurance system, which is under a pilot project, is to make aged residents life stability in rural region. To what extent the implementation of new rural cooperative medical care can stimulate demand of rural consumption? What role can new rural endowment insurance system play in stabilizing rural resident life expectancy in the future and reducing precautionary savings? The questions above need to be answered in this paper. Life cycle theory has become the analytical framework studying on the relationship between social security and consumption at home and abroad. The extended life cycle model presented in Feldstein showed a quite different reason why individual life cycle saving might not be decreased and might actually be increased by the introduction or increase of social security benefits. The essential feature of the extended life cycle model is that retirement and saving decision are made jointly. Whether and to what extent social security reduces saving depends on the relative strength of the traditional wealth replacement effect and the countervailing induced retirement effect. The social se- curity system in Chinese rural areas is not perfect, which leads to make related empirical study more

  4. Evaluation of an intervention to improve skills in diagnostic radiology of rural physicians over one year in four rural hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tienan Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary health care and patient triage are two basic functions of rural hospitals. As a routine test, the diagnostic radiology is still unavailable in some rural hospitals in China. Therefore, high-level hospitals are often the first choice of rural residents when they feel unwell. It brings serious social problems. This study was designed to propose an on-the-job drilling schema with integration of practical medical recordings and experienced radiological doctors as tutors to improve skills in diagnostic radiology of rural physicians. METHODS: The information technology was used to help the contact between rural doctors and tutors. In a longitudinal pre/post-test control study design, a cohort of 20 young physicians, each of whom was working in a rural hospital and had a work experience less than two years, were established as the trial group over one year. Another 20 similar counterparts were established as the control group. Participants' performances were evaluated in four categories at five-time point (TP. RESULTS: The trial group significantly outscored the control group on the style of writing at the second TP (d = 2.28; on the accuracy of the image description at final TP (d = 1.11; on the accuracy of the diagnosis at the fourth TP (d = 3.62; and on the correct treatment selection at the third TP (d = 6.45. The aspects with the most improvement were the accuracies of the diagnosis and the treatment selection. CONCLUSION: This study provided the detailed evidences that applying the on-the-job drilling schema has a significant effect on the skills improvement in diagnostic radiology of rural physicians. It was also concluded that the educational intervention based on practical cases was better than that only based on didactic slides presentation.

  5. Cross-sectional survey on oral health status of rural and urban residents in Guangxi%广西城乡居民口腔卫生现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙晓宇; 许晶晶; 黄佟

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解广西城乡居民的口腔卫生状况,为广西口腔预防保健工作开展提供参考依据。方法采用多阶段分层随机整群抽样方法,在广西国家级慢病监测6个项目市(县),对3600名18岁及以上城乡居民进行问卷调查。结果调查人群中牙齿因病拔除比例为39.73%,18~34岁的青年人群有15.08%的人发生牙齿因病拔除;牙龈出血比例为35.12%;86.58%的人从来没有洗牙(洁牙),在农村这个比例高达91.75%;就医看牙行为比例为44.29%;正常刷牙行为比例为47.57%;随着年龄的增长,正常刷牙行为比例呈明显下降趋势(P <0.05);农村居民就医看牙(32.18%)和正常刷牙(32.72%)行为的比例明显低于城市居民(68.50%、77.25%)(P <0.05);小学及以下文化程度人群就医看牙和正常刷牙行为都远低于高文化程度人群(P <0.05)。发生过牙龈出血的1264名调查对象中,只有22名调查对象(1.74%)请牙科医生进行过诊断治疗。结论广西城乡居民口腔卫生状况不容乐观,需要加强开展口腔预防保健工作,应重点关注农村地区、老年人群、小学及以下文化程度人群的宣传与教育。%Objective To investigate the oral health status of rural and urban residents in Guangxi,aiming at providing the references for oral health prevention and care in Guangxi.Methods 3 600 subjects aged 18 years or older from 6 noninfectious chronic disease(NCD) surveillance project cities and counties in Guangxi were selected by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method,and a questionnaire survey was implemented among them.Results Among the investigation subjects,the rate of tooth extraction due to dental disease was 39.73%,and this rate for population aged 18 to 34 years was 15.08%;the detection rate of gingival bleeding was 35.12%;86.58% of the subjects never had

  6. 青海某农村居民身体活动情况实证调查%Empirical Analysis of Physical Activity of Rural Residents in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓荣; 白雅敏; 高荣涛; 姜莹莹; 周敏茹; 赵文华

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解青海省某农村居民业余锻炼和交通往来等身体活动量的特点.方法 对青海省某国家级贫困县的两个自然村的18周岁及以上的居民询问业余锻炼和交通往来活动的信息,并进行体格检查、血压水平和空腹指尖血糖值测量.结果 908人中273人(30.1%)和79人(8.7%)分别为超重和肥胖,304人(33.5%)为中心性肥胖,222人(24.4%)和40人(6.1%)分别为高血压患者和糖尿病患者;分别有167人(18.4%)、354人(39.0%)和177人(19.5%)参与骑自行车、步行和业余锻炼,参与者的活动时间中位数分别为11.0 min/d、30.0 min/d 和30.0 min/d,65~87岁组业余锻炼率最高并且锻炼时间最长,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).该人群中身体活动水平偏低、中等和较高者的比例分别为66.1%(600人)、28.3%(257人)和5.6%(51人).18~岁组低活动水平的比例(73.0%)显著高于其他年龄组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).人群业余时间用于看电视、阅读、使用电脑等静态行为合计时间中位数为90 min/d.结论 该人群慢性病的患病形势较为严峻,业余锻炼率较低,总的身体活动量可能不足.积极开展身体活动促进可能是该人群慢性病防治的一个重要内容.%Objective To explore the characteristics of physical activity of rural residents in Qinghai. Methods All the adult rural residents from two villages of a state - designated poor county in Qinghai province were enrolled. Their information about traffic physical activity and leisure time exercise were inquired, anthropometric measurement and blood pressure were taken, and finger stick testing was used for fasting blood glucose. Results Of 908 rural adults enrolled, 273 ( 30. 1 % ) were o-verweight, 79 ( 8.7% ) were obese, 304 ( 33.5% ) had abdominal adiposity, 222 ( 24.4% ) had hypertension and 40 ( 6. 1% ) had diabetes. There were 167 ( 18. 4% ) who participated in bicycle exercise, 354 ( 39. 0% ) in walking exercise, and 177

  7. The current situation and countermeasures of urban and rural resident social endowment insurance implementation in Guyuan City%固原市统筹城乡居民社会养老保险试点工作现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维芳

    2012-01-01

    宁夏固原市推进城乡居民养老保险试点工作已经取得一定进展,但是由于农村经济发展不平衡、地方财力弱、经办服务能力不足以及传统养老观念的影响,统筹城乡居民社会养老保险工作的推进存在诸多问题.探讨完善统筹城乡居民社会养老保险制度应采取的措施,并提出行之有效的解决办法.%Although the Guyuan City urban and rural inhabitant old-age insurance pilot work has made certain progress, but also exist in rural economic development is not balanced and the local weak financial resources, traditional pension concepts influence as well as the agency services such as lack of overall planning of urban and rural residents effect of the social endowment insurance of the propulsion and other problems, affecting the pilot work. This paper discusses the establishment and improvement of urban and rural residents social endowment insurance system should take measures, and put forward effective solutions.

  8. 河南省城乡居民食品消费水平对农产品物流的影响分析%On the Influence Analysis of Food Consumption Level between Urban and Rural Residents in Henan Province to the Agricultural Products Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏胜林; 程腊梅

    2015-01-01

    文中运用回归分析方法,分析了河南省城乡居民食品消费水平对农产品物流的影响情况。城镇居民食品消费水平和农村居民食品消费水平对农产品物流有着不同的影响方式,前者是线性回归方程,后者是二次方程。最后,定性分析了城镇和农村居民食品消费水平对农产品物流产生不同影响方式的原因,城镇化进程、居民收入水平的提高、食品消费需求的变化等是造成影响差异的重要原因。%This paper uses regression analysis to analyze the influence of the food consumption level between urban and rural residents in Henan Province to the agricultural products logistics.The urban residents'food consumption level and the rural residents'food consumption level have different effects ways on agricultural products logistics.The former is the linear regression equation,and the latter is quadratic equation.Finally,qualitative analyzing the causes of which the food consumption level between urban and rural residents has different impacts to the agricultural products logistics.The process of urbanization,the increase of residents'income,changes in food consumption needs are important causes for affecting differences.

  9. The effect of India's total sanitation campaign on defecation behaviors and child health in rural Madhya Pradesh: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet R Patil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor sanitation is thought to be a major cause of enteric infections among young children. However, there are no previously published randomized trials to measure the health impacts of large-scale sanitation programs. India's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC is one such program that seeks to end the practice of open defecation by changing social norms and behaviors, and providing technical support and financial subsidies. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the TSC implemented with capacity building support from the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program in Madhya Pradesh on availability of individual household latrines (IHLs, defecation behaviors, and child health (diarrhea, highly credible gastrointestinal illness [HCGI], parasitic infections, anemia, growth.We conducted a cluster-randomized, controlled trial in 80 rural villages. Field staff collected baseline measures of sanitation conditions, behaviors, and child health (May-July 2009, and revisited households 21 months later (February-April 2011 after the program was delivered. The study enrolled a random sample of 5,209 children <5 years old from 3,039 households that had at least one child <24 months at the beginning of the study. A random subsample of 1,150 children <24 months at enrollment were tested for soil transmitted helminth and protozoan infections in stool. The randomization successfully balanced intervention and control groups, and we estimated differences between groups in an intention to treat analysis. The intervention increased percentage of households in a village with improved sanitation facilities as defined by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme by an average of 19% (95% CI for difference: 12%-26%; group means: 22% control versus 41% intervention, decreased open defecation among adults by an average of 10% (95% CI for difference: 4%-15%; group means: 73% intervention versus 84% control. However, the intervention did not improve child health

  10. Impact of a child stimulation intervention on early child development in rural Peru: a cluster randomised trial using a reciprocal control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, Stella Maria; Lanata, Claudio Franco; Hattendorf, Jan; Wolf, Jennyfer; Gil, Ana Isabel; Obando, Mariela Ortiz; Noblega, Magaly; Verastegui, Hector; Mäusezahl, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Stimulation in early childhood can alleviate adverse effects of poverty. In a community-randomised trial, we implemented 2 home-based interventions, each serving as an attention control for the other. One group received an integrated household intervention package (IHIP), whereas the other group received an early child development (ECD) intervention. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of IHIP on diarrhoea and respiratory infections, the details of which are described elsewhere. Here, we present the impact of the ECD intervention on early childhood development indicators. Methods In this non-blinded community-randomised trial, an ECD intervention, adapted from the Peruvian government's National Wawa Wasi ECD programme, was implemented in 25 rural Peruvian Andean communities. We enrolled 534 children aged 6–35 months, from 50 communities randomised 1:1 into ECD and IHIP communities. In ECD communities, trained fieldworkers instructed mothers every 3 weeks over the 12 months study, to stimulate and interact with their children and to use standard programme toys. IHIP communities received an improved stove and hygiene promotion. Using a nationally validated ECD evaluation instrument, all children were assessed at baseline and 12 months later for overall performance on age-specific developmental milestones which fall into 7 developmental domains. Findings At baseline, ECD-group and IHIP-group children performed similarly in all domains. After 12 months, data from 258 ECD-group and 251 IHIP-group children could be analysed. The proportion of children scoring above the mean in their specific age group was significantly higher in the ECD group in all domains (range: 12–23%-points higher than IHIP group). We observed the biggest difference in fine motor skills (62% vs 39% scores above the mean, OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.9). Conclusions The home-based ECD intervention effectively improved child development overall across

  11. 山东农村居民自杀意念的发生率及其危险因素研究%The prevalence and risk factors of suicide ideation anong rural residents in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志青; 李献云; 安静; 童永胜; 李可进

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解农村居民自杀意念的发生率及其危险因素,为自杀干预提供依据.方法 采用包括一般健康状况问卷、冲动性和攻击性量表、社会支持量表、家庭亲密度与适应性量表等对山东滕州市东郭镇19个村≥15岁的5039例农村居民进行自杀意念及其相关因素的调查,以多因素logistic模型分析自杀意念的危险因素.结果 在农村居民中,9.33%(470/5039)在过去任何时候有过自杀意念(95%CI:8.52%~10.13%),5.39%(299/5039,95%CI:5.28%~6.59%)近1年有过自杀意念.近1年自杀意念的危险因素排列为:近1年慢性压力大(OR=5.61,95%CI:4.04~7.78),攻击性高(OR=2.54,95%CI:1.93~3.35),非现婚状态(OR=2.04,95%CI:1.52~2.76),生命质量低(OR=1.86,95%CI:1.40~2.48),女性(OR=1.76,95%CI:1.34~2.32),自我感觉经济状况差(OR=1.70,95%CI:1.29~2.25),认识的人中有自杀(OR=1.53,95%CI:1.17~1.99),家庭亲密度低(OR=1.38,95%CI:1.06~1.80).结论 农村居民自杀意念发生率处于较高水平.慢性压力大、攻击性高、非现婚状态是近1年自杀意念最主要的危险因素.应根据其危险因素制订有针对性的干预计划.%Objective To explore the prevalence and risk factors of suicide ideation among rural residents and to provide appropriate suicide intervention strategies. Methods A battery of questionnaires including General Health Questionnaire, Impulsivity and Aggression Scale. Social Support Scale. Family Cohesion and Adaptability Scale was administered to 5039 residents who were 15 years or older from 19 villages of Dongguo Town, Tengzhou City, Shandong Province to investigate the prevalence of suicide ideation and related factors. Then we used the logistic regression to explore the risk factors of suicide ideation. Results The life-time prevalence of suicide ideation and the one-year prevalence among rural residents were 9. 33% ( 95% CI: 8. 52% ~ 10. 13% ) and 5. 39% ( 95% CI:5. 28% ~ 6. 59

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Decrease Job Burnout in First-Year Internal Medicine Residents Using a Facilitated Discussion Group Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Fallar, Robert; Korenstein, Deborah

    2016-05-01

    Background Burnout is common in internal medicine (IM) trainees and is associated with depression and suboptimal patient care. Facilitated group discussion reduces burnout among practicing clinicians. Objective We hypothesized that this type of intervention would reduce incident burnout among first-year IM residents. Methods Between June 2013 and May 2014, participants from a convenience sample of 51 incoming IM residents were randomly assigned (in groups of 3) to the intervention or a control. Twice-monthly theme-based discussion sessions (18 total) led by expert facilitators were held for intervention groups. Surveys were administered at study onset and completion. Demographic and personal characteristics were collected. Burnout and burnout domains were the primary outcomes. Following convention, we defined burnout as a high emotional exhaustion or depersonalization score on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results All 51 eligible residents participated; 39 (76%) completed both surveys. Initial burnout prevalence (10 of 21 [48%] versus 7 of 17 [41%], P = .69), incidence of burnout at year end (9 of 11 [82%] versus 5 of 10 [50%], P = .18), and secondary outcomes were similar in intervention and control arms. More residents in the intervention group had high year-end depersonalization scores (18 of 21 [86%] versus 9 of 17 [53%], P = .04). Many intervention residents revealed that sessions did not truly free them from clinical or educational responsibilities. Conclusions A facilitated group discussion intervention did not decrease burnout in resident physicians. Future discussion-based interventions for reducing resident burnout should be voluntary and effectively free participants from clinical duties.

  13. Permanent resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John F

    2016-01-01

    The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  14. Permanent resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  15. 某矿区周边农村砷污染对村民健康的影响分析%Effect of Mining Area Surrounding Arsenic Contamination on Rural Residents' Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘展华; 唐振柱; 黄柯; 黄江平; 黎勇; 黄兆勇; 黎智

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解某矿区周边2 km砷污染对村民的健康影响程度,探讨预防控制措施.方法 应用现场流行病学、卫生学、职业医学与实验室检测相结合的方法,对A、B 2个村开展现场调查.结果 2个村70.2%(450/641)的村民出现了尿砷超标,64.58%(93/144)出现头痛等神经症状,有消化道症状的占41.67%,发病村民大都饮用A村地下河自抽自来水,该水含砷2.58 mg/L,村民水柜水砷为4.90 mg/L.矿区停工2个月后,地下河水砷降低到0.001 mg/L(正常限值)以下.驱砷2个疗程后,村民尿砷恢复至正常水平.结论 调查村出现了地下水砷污染.建议加强矿区环保监管,加强饮水水质监测,保障村民健康安全.%[Objective]To investigate the effect of arsenic contamination on rural residents' health who lived in the area of 2 km surrounding the mining area, and explore the control measures. [Methods]The integration of field epidemiology, occupational medicine and laboratory tests was adopted to conduct field investigation on Village A and B.[Results]70.2%(450/641) residents of the 2 villages had over-standard urine arsenic; 64.58%(93/144) had neurological symptoms such as headache; 41.67% had gastrointestinal symptoms. Most of the patients had drunk the water pumped from underground river in Village A. It contained arsenic of 2.58mg/L, the arsenic level of water in tanks of residents home was 4.90 mg/L which decreased down to 0.001 mg/L(normal limit) after mining lay-off for 2 month. Treating arsenic poisoning for 2 courses, the levels of urine arsenic returned to normal.[Conclusion]The groundwater of the investigated villages has been contaminated by arsenic. It is suggested to strengthen the supervision of the environmental protection of mining area and the monitoring of drinking water quality, so as to ensure the health and safety of the residents.

  16. A comparison of mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors between rural and non-rural transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Iantaffi, Alex; Swinburne-Romine, Rebecca; Bockting, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and high levels of unprotected sex among transwomen. The results confirm that mental and physical health services for transgender persons residing in rural areas are urgently needed.

  17. Effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognition through 2 y of age in rural Bangladesh: the JiVitA-3 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Kim, Jeongyong; Mehra, Sucheta; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Ali, Hasmot; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Wu, Lee; Klemm, Rolf; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P

    2016-10-01

    Childhood undernutrition may have prenatal origins, and the impact of prenatal interventions on postnatal growth is not well known. We assessed the effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation on child growth and cognitive development. In a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, prenatal MM supplementation compared with iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation was examined for its impact on growth assessed longitudinally from birth up to 24 mo of age (n = 8529) and, in a subsample (n = 734), on cognitive function at 24 mo of age by use of the Bayley scales of infant and toddler development-third edition test. Prevalence of stunting at birth [length for age z score (LAZ): prenatal MM-exposed children sustained a higher mean predicted LAZ of ∼0.10 at 1 and 3 mo and 0.06 at 6 mo of age compared with children in the IFA group. Supplementation reduced the prevalence of stunting at 1 (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.98) and 3 (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.94) mo of age. Differences between groups were absent by 6, 12, and 24 mo of age, when nearly 50% of children had stunted growth. Ponderal and linear growth velocities were somewhat slower from 3 to 12 mo of age in the MM group than in the IFA group, but not from 12 to 24 mo of age. There was no difference between groups on composite scores of cognition, language, and motor performance at 24 mo of age. In this Bangladeshi trial, maternal pre- and postnatal MM supplementation resulted in improvements in LAZ and reduction in stunting through 3 mo of age, but not thereafter and had no impact on cognitive and motor function at 2 y. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT000860470. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Implementation of observational pain management protocol to improve pain management for long-term institutionalized older care residents with dementia: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Yat Wa; Lai, Claudia

    2014-03-13

    Systematic use of observational pain tools has been advocated as a means to improve pain management for care home residents with dementia. Pain experts suggest that any observational tool should be used as part of a comprehensive pain management protocol, which should include score interpretation and verification with appropriately suggested treatments. The Observational Pain Management Protocol (Protocol) was therefore developed. This study aims to investigate the extent to which the implementation of this Protocol can improve pain management in care home residents with dementia. In this two-group, single-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled trial, 122 care home residents with dementia and pain-related diagnoses will be recruited from eight care homes (that is 15 to 16 residents from each care home). Invitations will be sent to all local care homes who meet the home selection criteria. The eight care homes will be randomly selected from all care homes that agree to join this trial. They will then be randomized to either the control or experimental conditions. Participants from each care home will be placed into their home's corresponding group to avoid 'contamination' effects across participants. Each intervention cycle will take 16 weeks (that is, baseline assessment and care home staff training for 4 weeks and Protocol implementation for 12 weeks). The Protocol will guide the pain management of the participants in the experimental care homes. Meanwhile, the control care homes will continue their usual pain management strategies. Intervention effects will be measured weekly during the protocol implementation period and compared with the baseline measurements, as well as between the experimental and control conditions. Although similar pain protocols have been suggested previously, the recommendations were based on experts' opinions rather than evaluation of research studies. The feasibility and effectiveness of this kind of pain management protocol, tailored to

  19. Quality of Diabetes Mellitus Care by Rural Primary Care Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, Stephen A.; Makwana, Sohil; Salanitro, Amanda H.; Safford, Monika M.; Houston, Thomas K.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Curry, William; Estrada, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between degree of rurality and glucose (hemoglobin A1c), blood pressure (BP), and lipid (LDL) control among patients with diabetes. Methods: Descriptive study; 1,649 patients in 205 rural practices in the United States. Patients' residence ZIP codes defined degree of rurality (Rural-Urban Commuting Areas…

  20. 多源流理论视角下“城乡居民大病保险”政策分析%Policy Analysis on Serious Illness Medical Insurance of Urban and Rural Residents in Terms of Perspective of Multiple Streams Model Theory View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勇

    2015-01-01

    “城乡居民大病保险”明确针对城镇居民医保、新农合参保(合)人大病负担重的情况,引入市场机制,建立大病保险制度,减轻城乡居民的大病负担,大病保险报销比例不低于50%。本文基于金登多源流的公共政策过程分析框架,分别对“城乡居民大病保险”的问题源流、政策源流与政治源流进行了分析,指出了开启“城乡居民大病保险”政策的政策之窗(机会之窗),最终使“城乡居民大病保险”政策出台,这一政策的全面实施使得大病不再是“不能承受之重”,也是彰显我国社会公平正义的重要举措。%Serious illness medical insurance of urban and rural residents policy clearly for urban residents health insurance and new rural cooperative insurance of the burden of the disease. It introduces market mechanisms and establishes a serious illness insurance system, which reduce the burden of urban and rural residents, serious illness insurance reimbursement rate for not less than 50%. Based on the framework of the public policy process analysis of Kingdon’s multiple streams model theory, Separately analysis for the problem stream, policy stream and political stream of Serious illness medical insurance of urban and rural residents policy, also pointed out open the policy windows (open the opportunity windows) . Finally, it prompted Serious illness medical insurance of urban and rural residents policy, and full implementation of this policy makes a serious illness is not a’can not bear the heavy’, but also highlights the important measures of social fairness and justice in our country.

  1. 山东省3县农村居民被动吸烟情况研究%Passive smoking in rural residents in three counties of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕; 王健; 刘言训; 贾崇奇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate passive smoking conditions in rural residents, and further to provide the basis for developing policies and strategies of tobacco control and safeguarding health of non-smokers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among rural residents aged 15 years or older in 9 villages located in Pinyin, Liangshan, and Junan counties of Shandong Province. Information on tobacco use and passive smoking was collected by face-to-face interviews using a compiled questionnaire based on the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Results The general passive smoking rate was 39.00% , with 38.26% for males and 39.35% for females. In the young group, males had a higher passive smoking rate than females, while the old group was the opposite. The passive smoking rate was higher in unmarried males (42.61 % ) and in married females (41.19%). And the passive smoking rate was higher in peasant-worker for males (48.99% ) and in business/service practitioners for females (46.42% ). The main passive smoking site was the workplace for males (54.30% ) and the home for females (88.31% ). Conclusion The passive smoking rate in these three counties is higher than in other places in Shandong Province. Though people realize the harm of active and passive smoking, few of them take action against smoking. More work needs to done in the future.%目的 了解农村居民的被动吸烟现状,为制定适宜农村地区的控烟政策、有效地保护不吸烟者的健康提供依据.方法 参照全球成人吸烟行为调查( GATS)设计调查表,在山东省莒南、梁山和平阴3县中抽取9个自然村,面对面调查15岁及以上居民的被动吸烟情况.结果 被动吸烟率为39.00%,其中男性被动吸烟率为38.26%,女性为39.35%;低年龄组男性被动吸烟率高于女性,高年龄组女性高于男性;男性中未婚者被动吸烟率较高(42.61%),女性中已婚者被动吸烟率较高(41.19%);男性中打

  2. Enhancing physical and social environments to reduce obesity among public housing residents: rationale, trial design, and baseline data for the Healthy Families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; DeBiasse, Michele A; Branco, Jamie M; Bhosrekar, Sarah Gees; Rorie, Jo-Anna L; Bowen, Deborah J

    2014-11-01

    Intervention programs that change environments have the potential for greater population impact on obesity compared to individual-level programs. We began a cluster randomized, multi-component multi-level intervention to improve weight, diet, and physical activity among low-socioeconomic status public housing residents. Here we describe the rationale, intervention design, and baseline survey data. After approaching 12 developments, ten were randomized to intervention (n=5) or assessment-only control (n=5). All residents in intervention developments are welcome to attend any intervention component: health screenings, mobile food bus, walking groups, cooking demonstrations, and a social media campaign; all of which are facilitated by community health workers who are residents trained in health outreach. To evaluate weight and behavioral outcomes, a subgroup of female residents and their daughters age 8-15 were recruited into an evaluation cohort. In total, 211 households completed the survey (RR=46.44%). Respondents were Latino (63%), Black (24%), and had ≤ high school education (64%). Respondents reported ≤2 servings of fruits & vegetables/day (62%), visiting fast food restaurants 1+ times/week (32%), and drinking soft drinks daily or more (27%). The only difference between randomized groups was race/ethnicity, with more Black residents in the intervention vs. control group (28% vs. 19%, p=0.0146). Among low-socioeconomic status urban public housing residents, we successfully recruited and randomized families into a multi-level intervention targeting obesity. If successful, this intervention model could be adopted in other public housing developments or entities that also employ community health workers, such as food assistance programs or hospitals.

  3. Effect of daily versus weekly home fortification with multiple micronutrient powder on haemoglobin concentration of young children in a rural area, Lao People's Democratic Republic: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kounnavong Sengchanh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple micronutrient deficiencies, in particular iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is a severe public health problem in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR. Because of the practical difficulties encountered in improving the nutritional adequacy of traditional complementary foods and the limitations associated with the use of liquid iron supplementation for the treatment and prevention of IDA in infants and young children, recently, home-fortification with multivitamins and minerals sprinkles was recommended. This study aims to compare the effect of twice weekly versus daily supplementation with multivitamins and minerals powder (MMP on anaemia prevalence, haemoglobin concentration, and growth in infants and young children in a rural community in Lao PDR. Methods A randomized trial was conducted in six rural communities. Children aged 6 to 52 months (n = 336 were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 110 or to one of two intervention groups receiving either two sachets per week (n = 115 or a daily sachet (n = 111 of MMP for 24 weeks; 331 children completed the study. A finger prick of blood was taken at baseline, at week 12, and again at week 24 to determine haemoglobin concentration. Anthropometric measurements were taken every 4 weeks. The McNemar test was used to assess within group differences at three time points in the study subjects with anaemia and one-way ANOVA was used to assess changes in mean haemoglobin concentration in the treatment groups. Results MMP supplementation resulted in significant improvements in haemoglobin concentration and in the reduction of anaemia prevalence in the two treatment groups compared with the control group (p Conclusions MMP supplementation had positive effects in reduction of anaemia prevalence and in improving haemoglobin concentration. For severely to moderately anaemic children, daily MMP supplementation was more effective in improving haemoglobin concentration and reducing

  4. 关于农村住宅冬季热环境与节能改造的分析研究%Research on Indoor Thermal Environment of Rural Residences in Winter and Energy-saving Retrofit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文强; 赵蕾; 袁恩泽

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, based on the combination of field survey and simulation with software of DeST and TRNSYS.the research on building condition, heating methods and indoor thermal environment in Hua County