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Sample records for rural india electronic

  1. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, Rene M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO 2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO 2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  2. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India, particularly among vulnerable women and children. The research ... This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part of a long-term solution to rural poverty in India. ... Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India.

  3. Energy use in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revelle, R

    1976-06-01

    The methods are described by which human and animal energies have been calculated for India. From an energy standpoint, rural India can be thought of as a partially closed ecosystem in which energy derived by people and animals from the photosynthetic products of plants is used to grow and prepare food for humans which in turn provides an essential energy input to grow more food, resulting in an endless cycle. The ecosystem is being disrupted by rapid population growth in India. The extent of the use of non-commercial fuels in villages and towns was determined by the Energy Survey of India Committee in the early 1960's. The committee reported utilization of about 120 million metric tons of wood, 50 million tons of dried dung, and 30 million tons of vegetable waste each year in villages and in urban areas. In terms of U.N. coal equivalents, the energy derived from burning wood, dung, and crop residues adds up to 227 kg per capita per year, or a total for rural India of 100 million tons, with an energy content of 7.53 x 10/sup 14/ kcal. It is projected that 90 percent of this is utilized for cooking and space heating and 10 percent for pottery and brickmaking, metalworking and blacksmithing, and sugar making. In terms of U.N. coal equivalents, the commercial energy use per capita in rural India in 1971 was 37 kg, and the total use in rural population was 16.3 million tons. It is projected here that 12 percent was used for cooking and space heating, 40 percent for lighting, and 48 percent for agriculture. A comparison of U.S. and Indian energy consumption is made. The conclusion that more energy will be needed to support the populace in India is discussed. (MCW)

  4. Strategies for gender-equitable HIV services in rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gita; Peters, David H; Bollinger, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of HIV in rural India has the potential to heighten gender inequity in a context where women already suffer significant health disparities. Recent Indian health policies provide new opportunities to identify and implement gender-equitable rural HIV services. In this review, we adapt Mosley and Chen's conceptual framework of health to outline determinants for HIV health services utilization and outcomes. Examining the framework through a gender lens, we conduct a comprehensive literature review for gender-related gaps in HIV clinical services in rural India, focusing on patient access and outcomes, provider practices, and institutional partnerships. Contextualizing findings from rural India in the broader international literature, we describe potential strategies for gender-equitable HIV services in rural India, as responses to the following three questions: (1) What gender-specific patient needs should be addressed for gender-equitable HIV testing and care? (2) What do health care providers need to deliver HIV services with gender equity? (3) How should institutions enforce and sustain gender-equitable HIV services? Data at this early stage indicate substantial gender-related differences in HIV services in rural India, reflecting prevailing gender norms. Strategies including gender-specific HIV testing and care services would directly address current gender-specific patient needs. Rural care providers urgently need training in gender sensitivity and HIV-related communication and clinical skills. To enforce and sustain gender equity, multi-sectoral institutions must establish gender-equitable medical workplaces, interdisciplinary HIV services partnerships, and oversight methods, including analysis of gender-disaggregated data. A gender-equitable approach to rural India's rapidly evolving HIV services programmes could serve as a foundation for gender equity in the overall health care system. PMID:19244284

  5. Lighting Rural India : Load Segregation Eexperience in Selected States

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Ashish; Mukherjee, Mohua; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Saraswat, Kavita; Khurana, Mani

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic development of the rural populace is critical to India achieving its stated objective of inclusive growth. It is widely accepted that access to a reliable and sufficient power supply is a key enabler of rural economic growth. Traditionally, India's rural power supply has been restricted by having feeders to villages serve both agriculture and household loads. Because agric...

  6. Poverty Underestimation in Rural India- A Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu; Sarvalingam, A

    2010-01-01

    When ever the Planning Commission of India releases the poverty data, that data is being criticised by experts and economists. The main criticism is underestimation of poverty especially in rural India by the Planning Commission. This paper focuses on that criticism and compares the Indian Planning Commission’s 2004-05 rural poverty data with the India’s 2400 kcal poverty norms, World Bank’s US $1.08 poverty concept and Asian Development Bank’s US $1.35 poverty concept.

  7. Girl child in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  8. NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GENERATION GUARANTEE SCHEME IN INDIA ON RURAL POVERTY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. B. Sasikumar

    2017-01-01

    India has become the second most popular the most poverty-stricken countries. Seventy percent of people live in rural area. Poverty is widespread in India, with the Nation; developing economies including India have been plagued by skewed distribution of nation’s resources leading to poverty, illiteracy, low consumption and investment, lagged growth and the like. Economic reforms were introduced in India in 1991, after which there is a great deal of discussion on its impact on growth, employm...

  9. OVERVIEW OF INDIAN FAST MOVING CONSUMER GOODS SECTOR, FOCUS ON RURAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivam SAKSHI

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to examine the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG industry in India with an emphasis on rural India. This is a review article compiling information from various reports, articles and research papers in the related fields. This study shows how FMCG market is playing a vital role in the Indian economy and how rural areas of India are welcoming the FMCG sector. Predictions by various reports about the FMCG sector of India are also included in the article. It is understandable from this article that how world’s well known nation for its traditions and values is now also adapting to the new dimension of living standards. In FY17, rural India accounted for 60 per cent of the total FMCG market, 80% of FMCG categories are growing faster in rural India as against urban India. Total rural income, which is currently at around US$ 572 billion, is predicted to reach US$ 1.8 trillion by FY21. India’s rural per capita disposable income is estimated to increase at a CAGR of 4.4 per cent to US$ 631 by 2020.

  10. Biotelemetry: could technological developments assist healthcare in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanika

    2005-01-01

    In India 60-70% of the population live in rural villages. The rural population suffers from a burden of disease and disorders due to the non-availability of appropriate healthcare personnel and facilities. Since 1950, the Indian Government has responded with a series of five-year plans but has been unable to address the lack of healthcare professionals prepared to work in isolated and rural areas. The use of biotelemetry is proposed as a solution, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The development of biotelemetry in India will improve healthcare for the rural and remote population and ease the effects of the shortage of rural healthcare professionals. However, a number of questions remain and require further consideration.

  11. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Klaauw (Bas); L. Wang (Lihong)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated

  12. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, B.; Wang, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated using the

  13. Survival of Patients With Cervical Cancer in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Vinoda Thulaseedharan, Jissa; Malila, Nea; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Esmy Pulikottil, Okuru; Hakama, Matti; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients’ survival after diagnosis of cervical cancer is indirectly influenced by socio-economic factors. We evaluated this survival and its socio-economic determinants in a rural population in south India. Methods: We assessed 165 women diagnosed with cervical cancer from the routine care control arm of a randomized screening trial conducted in rural south India. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to illustrate the observed survival of cancer patients. The effect of socio-econom...

  14. SELCO: A model for solar rural electrification in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, H. Harish

    1999-11-01

    The following thesis presents the concept of a Rural Energy Service Company in India, known as SELCO. The model is being set up as a sustainable proposition for the implementation of solar photovoltaics as a viable alternative to provide reliable home lighting in the rural areas of India. The SELCO approach has already achieved noteworthy social and commercial results. Institutional, policy and operational problems have long plagued the rural electrification programs in India, resulting in thousands of villages without access to electricity. SELCO is a solar energy service company operating in Southern India since 1995, focusing on the enormous untapped market for home lighting where thousands of households have no access to electricity and severe power shortages face those already connected to the electric grid. The Company has installed nearly 2,000 solar home lighting systems. From a modest two employees company in 1995, it has grown to 35 in 1997 and from one office to eight. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that in rural India, in a market not subsidized by the government, a solar service company with available loans from local banks and cooperatives and with sales, installation, and maintenance personnel in the villages can be successful in introducing photovoltaic systems to provide basic amenities such as lighting and water pumping for the improvement of the quality of life, public health, and the environment. The initial success of SELCO lends considerable evidence to the acceptance of the hypothesis. To accomplish its mission, SELCO works with commercial, retail, and rural development banks with large rural branch networks to stimulate loans to SELCO's customers based on a standard set of attractive financing terms. SELCO through its successful model has convinced the policy makers that a way to increase rural families' access to consumer financing for solar home lighting systems is through the existing financial network available in the

  15. Landmark survey tracks decade of changes in India's rural schools ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... These are just a few comments from parents of school-aged children in rural ... Landmark survey tracks decade of changes in India's rural schools ... funded by Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

  16. Prevalence of diabetic complications in rural Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisa C Vaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and its associated diabetic complications in rural Goa, India. Materials and Methods: A community-based study was carried out in a rural setting in Goa, India. About 1,266 participants were selected by systematic random sampling. The participants were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire and were subjected to anthropometric, clinical evaluation and biochemical investigations. American Diabetes Association criteria were used to determine the prevalence of diabetes and standard operational definitions were used to define the diabetic complications. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 14.0 while chi-square and chi-square for trend were the tests used. Results: Among the total 1,266 study participants about 130 (10.3% were diabetics. The prevalence of the associated diabetic complications were as follows viz. neuropathy (60%, CHD (32.3% and cataract (20%, retinopathy (15.4%, peripheral vascular disease (11.5% and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs (6.9%. A significant rising trend in the prevalence of all diabetic complications was observed with advancing duration of diabetes. Conclusion: The prevalence of DM and its associated complications was higher among the diabetic individuals in the rural setting of Goa, India. All the associated diabetic complications observed need to be addressed with appropriate prevention and control strategies.

  17. Biofuel demand estimation in the rural domestic energy sector of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, C.S.; Joshi, Veena

    1994-01-01

    The major efforts and their limitations to formulate rural domestic energy requirements in India are discussed. Results of some of the recent efforts for quantifying biofuel consumption in rural areas are presented. Emphasis is on the recent efforts to collate and analyze results of energy consumption survey of 638 villages covering over 39,000 households. These are used to estimate biofuel use for different agro-climatic regions in India by estimating consumption at the district level in the rural domestic sector. The results are aggregated at the state level and they are compared with other estimates for India. The range of consumption aggregated at the national level is found to vary widely (93-252 million tonnes/yr of firewood, 54-107 million tonnes/yr of animal waste and 36-99 million tonnes/yr of agricultural residues). Reasons for the wide disparity in the results is briefly discussed. (author)

  18. Biofuel demand estimation in the rural domestic energy sector of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, C.S.; Joshi, V.

    1993-01-01

    The major efforts and their limitations to formulate rural domestic energy requirements in India are discussed. Results of some of the recent efforts for quantifying biofuel consumption in rural areas are presented thereafter. Emphasis in this paper is on the recent efforts to collate and analyze results of energy consumption survey of 638 villages covering over 39,000 households. These are used to estimate biofuel use for different agro-climatic regions in India by estimating consumption at the district level in the rural domestic sector. The results are aggregated at the state level and they are compared with other estimates for India. The range of consumption aggregated at the national level is found to vary widely (93-252 million tonnes/y of firewood, 54-107 million tonnes/y of animal waste and 36-99 million tonnes/y of agricultural residues). Reasons for the wide disparity in the results is briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Food as pharma: marketing nutraceuticals to India's rural poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Alice

    2015-05-27

    This commentary sketches out the politics of the expansion of affordable, fast-moving nutraceutical products into rural India, with a focus on fortified foods and beverages. It examines the relationships between industry, government and humanitarian organisations that are being forged alongside the development of markets for nutraceuticals; the production of evidence and the harnessing of science to support nutraceutical companies' claims; the ways in which nutraceuticals are being marketed and distributed in rural areas; and the concepts of health and well-being that are being promulgated through those marketing campaigns. Lastly, it asks what kinds of impact fast-moving nutraceuticals are likely to have on the lives of India's rural poor. It concludes by questioning how smooth a transition to nutraceutical consumption Big Food marketing strategies can really facilitate and how readily low-income families seeking to feed their families and safeguard health will actually adopt concepts of wellness and internalise micro-nutrient associated risks.

  20. Is caste destiny? Occupational diversification among Dalits in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Gang; Kunal Sen; Myeong-Su Yun

    2012-01-01

    The caste system - a system of elaborately stratified social hierarchy - distinguishes India from most other societies. Among the most distinctive factors of the caste system is the close link between castes and occupations, especially in rural India, with Dalits or Scheduled Castes (SC) clustered in occupations that were the least well paid and most degrading in terms of manual labour. Along with the Scheduled Tribes (STs), the SCs have the highest incidence of poverty in India, with poverty...

  1. Determinants of Prelacteal Feeding in Rural Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Pratim Roy

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The problem of prelacteal feeding is still prevalent in rural India. Age, caste, and place of delivery were associated with the problem. For ensuring neonatal health, the problem should be addressed with due gravity, with emphasis on exclusive breast feeding.

  2. Food as pharma: marketing nutraceuticals to India?s rural poor

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This commentary sketches out the politics of the expansion of affordable, fast-moving nutraceutical products into rural India, with a focus on fortified foods and beverages. It examines the relationships between industry, government and humanitarian organisations that are being forged alongside the development of markets for nutraceuticals; the production of evidence and the harnessing of science to support nutraceutical companies’ claims; the ways in which nutraceuticals are being marketed a...

  3. Induction stoves as an option for clean cooking in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Manjushree; Prasad, Rakesh; Rehman, Ibrahim H; Gill, Bigsna

    2016-01-01

    As part of a programme on ‘access to clean cooking alternatives in rural India’, induction stoves were introduced in nearly 4000 rural households in Himachal Pradesh, one of the few highly electrified states in India. Analysis of primary usage information from 1000 rural households revealed that electricity majorly replaced Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), generally used as a secondary cooking fuel, but did not influence a similar shift from traditional mud stoves as the primary cooking technology. Likewise, the shift from firewood to electricity as a primary cooking fuel was observed in only 5% of the households studied. Country level analysis indicates that rural households falling in lower monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) classes have lesser access to electricity and clean cooking options than those falling in higher MPCE classes. Again, only three states in India with high levels of rural household electrification report consumption statuses more than 82 kWh per month (the estimated mean for electricity consumption by induction stoves). Overall, the results of the study indicate that induction stoves will have limited potential in reducing the consumption of firewood and LPG if included in energy access programmes, that too only in regions where high levels of electrification exist. - Highlights: • Primary survey of induction stove users was conducted in 1000 rural households. • In 84% households, electricity replaced LPG as the secondary cooking fuel. • In only 5% households, electricity replaced firewood as the primary cooking fuel. • Electricity as a cooking fuel for rural India still needs massive investments. • Currently, induction stoves are only able to reduce consumption of firewood and LPG.

  4. Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2003-07-01

    The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of community screening for glaucoma in rural India: a decision analytical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D; Parikh, R

    2018-02-01

    Studies in several countries have demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of population-based screening for glaucoma when targeted at high-risk groups such as older adults and with familial history of disease. This study conducts a cost-effective analysis of a hypothetical community screening and subsequent treatment programme in comparison to opportunistic case finding for glaucoma in rural India. A hypothetical screening programme for both primary open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure disease was built for a population aged between 40 and 69 years in rural areas of India. A decision analytical model was built to model events, costs and treatment pathways with and without a hypothetical screening programme for glaucoma for a rural-based population aged between 40 and 69 years in India. The treatment pathway included both primary open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure disease. The data on costs of screening and treatment were provided by an administrator of a tertiary eye hospital in Eastern India. The probabilities for the screening and treatment pathway were derived from published literature and a glaucoma specialist. The glaucoma prevalence rates were adapted from the Chennai Glaucoma Study findings. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio value of ₹7292.30 per quality-adjusted life-year was calculated for a community-screening programme for glaucoma in rural India. The community screening for glaucoma would treat an additional 2872 cases and prevent 2190 person-years of blindness over a 10-year period. Community screening for glaucoma in rural India appears to be cost-effective when judged by a ratio of willingness-to-pay thresholds as per WHO-CHOICE guidelines. For community screening to be cost-effective, adequate resources, such as trained medical personnel and equipment would need to be made available. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Training and burn care in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamania Shobha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn care is a huge challenge in India, having the highest female mortality globally due to flame burns. Burns can happen anywhere, but are more common in the rural region, affecting the poor. Most common cause is flame burns, the culprit being kerosene and flammable flowing garments worn by the women. The infrastructure of healthcare network is good but there is a severe resource crunch. In order to bring a positive change, there will have to be more trained personnel willing to work in the rural areas. Strategies for prevention and training of burn team are discussed along with suggestions on making the career package attractive and satisfying. This will positively translate into improved outcomes in the burns managed in the rural region and quick transfer to appropriate facility for those requiring specialised attention.

  7. Setting up an index for the appropriatness of energy sources for rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, S K

    1979-07-01

    In India, widespread poverty is noticed specially in the rural section, the poverty being attributed to a variety of reasons. Rural development comprises the development of basic necessities like water, power, etc. Availability of energy is therefore a major pre-requisite for rural development. The author discusses a model with which various alternate sources can be evaluated with the rural context in picture.

  8. Caste dominance and economic performance in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalwij, Adriaan; Iversen, Vegard; Verschoor, Arjan; Dubey, Amaresh

    2014-01-01

    Using household panel data for rural India covering 1993–94 and 2004–5, we test whether scheduled castes (SCs) and other minority groups perform better or worse in terms of income when resident in villages dominated by (i) upper castes or (ii) their own group. Theoretically, upper-caste dominance

  9. Sex selection through traditional drugs in rural north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Repidly declining sex ratio has highlighted a strong son preference among many societies various methods are employed by people to get a son. Objective: To determine the use pattern of sex selection drugs (SSDs in rural North India. Methods: An integrated qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in rural North India. A rapid population and hospital based survey of women in their early reproductive life was done in the study area to enlist the respondents. Few SSD samples were collected and analyzed. Results: SSDs were freely available from grocers, chemist shops and specific people in villages. These contained Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria. SSD use rate was 46% and 30% in community based and hospital based studies respectively. Use rate was significantly higher in women who did not have any son. Of the SSD samples and two individual ingredients analyzed by thin layer chromatography, 3 contained testosterone and one progesterone; one ingredient contained testosterone and the other natural steroids. Conclusion: Use of SSDs seems to be very common in North India. Implication of presence of steroids in SSDs needs further evaluation.

  10. Design and Implementation of Improved Electronic Load Controller for Self-Excited Induction Generator for Rural Electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kathirvel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an alternative technique, namely, Improved Electronic Load Controller (IELC, which is proposal to improve power quality, maintaining voltage at frequency desired level for rural electrification. The design and development of IELC are considered as microhydroenergy system. The proposed work aims to concentrate on the new schemes for rural electrification with the help of different kinds of hybrid energy systems. The objective of the proposed scheme is to maintain the speed of generation against fluctuating rural demand. The Electronic Load Controller (ELC is used to connect and disconnect the dump load during the operation of the system, and which absorbs the load when consumer are not in active will enhance the lifestyle of the rural population and improve the living standards. Hydroelectricity is a promising option for electrification of remote villages in India. The conventional methods are not suitable to act as standalone system. Hence, the designing of a proper ELC is essential. The improved electronic load control performance tested with simulation at validated through hardware setup.

  11. Design and Implementation of Improved Electronic Load Controller for Self-Excited Induction Generator for Rural Electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvel, C; Porkumaran, K; Jaganathan, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative technique, namely, Improved Electronic Load Controller (IELC), which is proposal to improve power quality, maintaining voltage at frequency desired level for rural electrification. The design and development of IELC are considered as microhydroenergy system. The proposed work aims to concentrate on the new schemes for rural electrification with the help of different kinds of hybrid energy systems. The objective of the proposed scheme is to maintain the speed of generation against fluctuating rural demand. The Electronic Load Controller (ELC) is used to connect and disconnect the dump load during the operation of the system, and which absorbs the load when consumer are not in active will enhance the lifestyle of the rural population and improve the living standards. Hydroelectricity is a promising option for electrification of remote villages in India. The conventional methods are not suitable to act as standalone system. Hence, the designing of a proper ELC is essential. The improved electronic load control performance tested with simulation at validated through hardware setup.

  12. "Women's autonomy and pregnancy care in rural India: a contextual analysis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Ritesh; Galal, Osman; Lu, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Studies in low-income countries have shown that women's autonomy (i.e. the freedom of women to exercise their judgment in order to act for their own interests) influences a number of reproductive and child health outcomes, including the use of pregnancy care services. However, studies have not examined the full spectrum of pregnancy care services needed for safe motherhood and have not accounted for community context. This study analyzed data on women and their villages from the cross-sectional population-based National Family Health Survey-2 (1998-1999) of rural India to investigate whether women's autonomy (measured in the 3 dimensions of decision-making autonomy, permission to go out, and financial autonomy) was associated with the use of adequate prenatal, delivery and postnatal care. The findings indicate women's autonomy was associated with greater use of pregnancy care services, particularly prenatal and postnatal care. The effect of women's autonomy on pregnancy care use varied according to the region of India examined (North, East and South) such that it was most consistently associated with pregnancy care use in south India, which also had the highest level of self-reported women's autonomy. The results regarding village level factors suggest that public investment in rural economic development, primary health care access, social cohesion and basic infrastructure such as electrification and paved roads were associated with pregnancy care use. Improvements in women's autonomy and these village factors may improve healthier child bearing in rural India.

  13. E-karaoke learning for gender empowerment in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA folksongs karaoke product has been created to increase usage of subtitled media to enhance literacy and technology use, particularly among girls in rural India. This entails generating and proliferating popular local folksongs with social and cultural themes of interest to girls,

  14. Poverty decline, agricultural wages, and nonfarm employment in rural India : 1983-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku

    We analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/1988, 1993/1994, 1999/2000, and 2004/2005 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India has declined at a modest rate during this time period. We provide region-level estimates

  15. POVERTY AND CALORIE DEPRIVATION ACROSS SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS IN RURAL INDIA: A DISAGGREGATED ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Abha; Mishra, Deepak K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the linkages between calorie deprivation and poverty in rural India at a disaggregated level. It aims to explore the trends and pattern in levels of nutrient intake across social and economic groups. A spatial analysis at the state and NSS-region level unravels the spatial distribution of calorie deprivation in rural India. The gap between incidence of poverty and calorie deprivation has also been investigated. The paper also estimates the factors influencing calorie depri...

  16. Status, Caste, and the Time Allocation of Women in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Eswaran; Bharat Ramaswami; Wilima Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    We argue that women may be disinclined to participate in market work in the rural areas of India because of family status concerns in a culture that stigmatizes market work by married women. We set out a theoretical framework that offers predictions regarding the effects of caste-based status concerns on the time allocation of women. We then use the all-India National Sample Survey data for the year 2004-5 and the Time Use Survey for six states of India for the year 1998-99 to empirically tes...

  17. Economic growth, poverty and rural labour markets in India: a survey of research.

    OpenAIRE

    Bardhan K

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the relationship between agricultural development, agrarian structures, rural employment and poverty in India - based on a literature survey, examines trends in rural population, agricultural income, labour contracts, farm size and food prices; investigates the role of agricultural credit, wage determination and labour market segmentation; considers the informal sector and rural public works. Bibliography.

  18. Trends in child immunization across geographical regions in India: focus on urban-rural and gender differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Although child immunization is regarded as a highly cost-effective lifesaver, about fifty percent of the eligible children aged 12-23 months in India are without essential immunization coverage. Despite several programmatic initiatives, urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization pose an intimidating challenge to India's public health agenda. This study assesses the urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization coverage during 1992-2006 across six major geographical regions in India. Three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06 were analyzed. Bivariate analyses, urban-rural and gender inequality ratios, and the multivariate-pooled logistic regression model were applied to examine the trends and patterns of inequalities over time. The analysis of change over one and half decades (1992-2006) shows considerable variations in child immunization coverage across six geographical regions in India. Despite a decline in urban-rural and gender differences over time, children residing in rural areas and girls remained disadvantaged. Moreover, northeast, west and south regions, which had the lowest gender inequality in 1992 observed an increase in gender difference over time. Similarly, urban-rural inequality increased in the west region during 1992-2006. This study suggests periodic evaluation of the health care system is vital to assess the between and within group difference beyond average improvement. It is essential to integrate strong immunization systems with broad health systems and coordinate with other primary health care delivery programs to augment immunization coverage.

  19. Availability of kerosene to rural households: a case study from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Ibrahim Hafeezur; Malhotra, Preeti; Pal, Ram Chandra; Singh, Phool Badan

    2005-01-01

    A majority of the rural population in India continues to rely on kerosene for domestic lighting. Measures to promote inter-fuel substitution in domestic lighting by promoting rural electrification have met with partial success. Electrified households in rural areas also use kerosene as a back up fuel because of erratic and poor electricity supply. Kerosene is subsidised, and an extensive network has been put in place for its distribution. Both these measures are meant to facilitate access and affordability by the poor. However, this is not the case at the grass-roots level. Further, use of traditional lighting devices has also had an adverse affect on the quality of life of the people for these devices are inefficient, emit smoke, and give poor-quality light. In this the poorest of the poor, who have limited choices and options are worst affected. This paper, taking the example of a TERI (the Energy and Resources Institute) case study in the state of Rajasthan, analyses the issues of access and availability of kerosene to rural masses, especially the poor. It highlights the existing problems with the kerosene distribution system and examines the subsidy-based, supply driven approach to distribution in terms of facilitating access to the poor. It, accordingly, puts forward specific policy measures for improving access to kerosene and its more efficient use as a lighting fuel in rural India

  20. Determinants of maternity care services utilization among married adolescents in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Coupled with the largest number of maternal deaths, adolescent pregnancy in India has received paramount importance due to early age at marriage and low contraceptive use. The factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescents in rural India are poorly discussed.Using the data from third wave of National Family Health Survey (2005-06, available in public domain for the use by researchers, this paper examines the factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescent women (aged 15-19 years in rural India. Three components of maternal healthcare service utilization were measured: full antenatal care, safe delivery, and postnatal care within 42 days of delivery for the women who gave births in the last five years preceding the survey. Considering the framework on causes of maternal mortality proposed by Thaddeus and Maine (1994, selected socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors influencing outcome events were included as the predictor variables. Bi-variate analyses including chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion, and logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on selected outcomes were applied. Findings indicate the significant differences in the use of selected maternal healthcare utilization by educational attainment, economic status and region of residence. Muslim women, and women belonged to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes are less likely to avail safe delivery services. Additionally, adolescent women from the southern region utilizing the highest maternal healthcare services than the other regions.The present study documents several socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting the utilization of maternal healthcare services among rural adolescent women in India. The ongoing healthcare programs should start targeting household with married adolescent women belonging to

  1. Atypical bulimia nervosa in a male patient of rural north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabendra Makhal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa rarely seem to manifest in males from non-Western cultures like India, but occur infrequently in milder forms with fewer symptoms as atypical bulimia nervosa. This report describes a male case of bulimia nervosa from rural area of India presenting with atypical features. He was treated successfully with fluoxetine and cognitive behavioural therapy.

  2. Individual, household, programme and community effects on childhood malnutrition in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, S; Zottarelli, Lisa K; Sunil, T S

    2007-04-01

    The children living in rural areas of India disproportionately suffer from malnutrition compared with their urban counterparts. The present article analyses the individual, household, community and programme factors on nutritional status of children in rural India. Additionally, we consider the random variances at village and state levels after introducing various observed individual-, household- and programme-level characteristics in the model. A multilevel model is conducted using data from the National Family and Health Survey 2. The results show that maternal characteristics, such as socio-economic and behavioural factors, are more influential in determining childhood nutritional status than the prevalence of programme factors. Also, it was found that individual factors show evidence of state- and village-level clustering of malnutrition.

  3. Policy intervention for arsenic mitigation in drinking water in rural habitations in India: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Brajesh K

    2016-10-01

    This article provides updated status of the arsenic affected rural habitations in India, summarizes the policy initiatives of the Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation (Government of India), reviews the technologies for arsenic treatment and analyses the progress made by states in tackling arsenic problems in rural habitations. It also provides a list of constraints based on experiences and recommends suggested measures to tackle arsenic problems in an holistic manner. It is expected that the paper would be useful for policy formulators in states, non-government organizations, researchers of academic and scientific institutions and programme managers working in the area of arsenic mitigation in drinking water, especially in developing countries, as it provides better insights compared to other available information in India on mitigating arsenic problems in drinking water in rural areas.

  4. Hub and spoke model: making rural healthcare in India affordable, available and accessible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Srichand

    2016-01-01

    Quality health care should be within everyone's reach, especially in a developing country. While India has the largest private health sector in the world, only one-fifth of healthcare expenditure is publically financed; it is mostly an out-of-pocket expense. About 70% of Indians live in rural areas making about $3 per day, and a major portion of that goes towards food and shelter and, thus, not towards health care. Transportation facilities in rural India are poor, making access to medical facilities difficult, and infrastructure facilities are minimal, making the available medical care insufficient. The challenge presented to India was to provide health care that was accessible, available and affordable to people in rural areas and the low-income bracket. The intent of this article is to determine whether the hub and spoke model (HSM), when implemented in the healthcare industry, can expand the market reach and increase profits while reducing costs of operations for organizations and, thereby, cost to customers. This article also discusses the importance of information and communications technologies (ICT) in the HSM approach, which the handful of published articles in this topic have failed to discuss. This article opts for an exploratory study, including review of published literature, web articles, viewpoints of industry experts, published journals, and in-depth interviews. This article will discuss how and why the HSM works in India's healthcare industry while isolating its strengths and weaknesses, and analyzing the impact of India's success. India's HSM implementation has become a paramount example of an acceptable model that, while exceeding the needs and expectations of its patients, is cost-effective and has obtained operational and health-driven results. Despite being an emerging nation, India takes the top spot in terms of affordability of ICT as well as for having the highest number of computer-literate graduates and healthcare workers in the world

  5. Trends in child immunization across geographical regions in India: focus on urban-rural and gender differentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Although child immunization is regarded as a highly cost-effective lifesaver, about fifty percent of the eligible children aged 12-23 months in India are without essential immunization coverage. Despite several programmatic initiatives, urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization pose an intimidating challenge to India's public health agenda. This study assesses the urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization coverage during 1992-2006 across six major geographical regions in India.Three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06 were analyzed. Bivariate analyses, urban-rural and gender inequality ratios, and the multivariate-pooled logistic regression model were applied to examine the trends and patterns of inequalities over time.The analysis of change over one and half decades (1992-2006 shows considerable variations in child immunization coverage across six geographical regions in India. Despite a decline in urban-rural and gender differences over time, children residing in rural areas and girls remained disadvantaged. Moreover, northeast, west and south regions, which had the lowest gender inequality in 1992 observed an increase in gender difference over time. Similarly, urban-rural inequality increased in the west region during 1992-2006.This study suggests periodic evaluation of the health care system is vital to assess the between and within group difference beyond average improvement. It is essential to integrate strong immunization systems with broad health systems and coordinate with other primary health care delivery programs to augment immunization coverage.

  6. Benchmarking Local Government Performance on Rural Sanitation : Learning from Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Open defecation is a traditional behavior in rural India. Conventional rural sanitation programs have been based on the assumption that people defecate in the open because they are too poor to afford the cost of constructing a toilet. Therefore, subsidies for upfront capital costs were provided to generate demand for 'sanitation,' interpreted narrowly as a pour-flush toilet. These programs...

  7. Modern energy access to all in rural India: An integrated implementation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    Expanding energy access to the rural population of India presents a critical challenge for its government. The presence of 364 million people without access to electricity and 726 million who rely on biomass for cooking indicate both the failure of past policies and programs, and the need for a radical redesign of the current system. We propose an integrated implementation framework with recommendations for adopting business principles with innovative institutional, regulatory, financing and delivery mechanisms. The framework entails establishment of rural energy access authorities and energy access funds, both at the national and regional levels, to be empowered with enabling regulatory policies, capital resources and the support of multi-stakeholder partnership. These institutions are expected to design, lead, manage and monitor the rural energy interventions. At the other end, trained entrepreneurs would be expected to establish bioenergy-based micro-enterprises that will produce and distribute energy carriers to rural households at an affordable cost. The ESCOs will function as intermediaries between these enterprises and the international carbon market both in aggregating carbon credits and in trading them under CDM. If implemented, such a program could address the challenges of rural energy empowerment by creating access to modern energy carriers and climate change mitigation. - Highlights: ► Expanding rural energy access in India is critical with majority lacking access to modern energy. ► Innovative and integrated implementation strategy for achieving universal rural energy access. ► Design of an integrated rural energy policy and proposal for new institutional mechanism. ► Establishing rural energy access authorities and energy access funds as supporting mechanisms. ► Bioenergy-based micro-enterprises for delivering energy services at an affordable cost.

  8. Biomass, energy and economic and natural resource differentiation in rural southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavan, M.R.; Giriappa, S.

    1995-01-01

    The rural economy in India is as yet only partially monetized and continues to retain its semi-subsistence character, while at the same time undergoing the process of becoming more monetized and market-orientated. A large field study was conducted in rural Karnataka, a state in southern India, which uncovers the relations between the energy situations of the rural social classes and their access to labour, land, cash and physical assets. Of equal significance are regional variations in ecology, rainfall and irrigation. The study's principal focus is the rural household, but it also includes some analysis of the energy dimensions in agricultural activities and small-scale rural services. Eight villages were covered by the survey, one in each district, carefully selected to reflect the geographic, climatic, biomass-resource and socio-economic features of Karnataka. In each village an average of 55 households were studied in depth, making up a total of 450 households. Clear and marked differentiations are uncovered between the rural social classes in various aspects of energy production, purchase, sale and consumption, as well as in labour and cash inputs into the energy flows. It is found that traditional forms of biomass are still the dominant type of energy for all rural strata, and that only the rural middle class can be said to have begun the transition towards modern fuels, although its consumption of modern fuels is still negligibly small in absolute terms. The study reveals that the rural middle class faces no energy crisis, while the 'intermediate' class of the small peasantry is just about managing to make ends meet in energy terms. In contrast to this, the rural wage labour class continues to remain in a state of energy crisis. (author)

  9. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India | Page 4 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While staple foods such as wheat and rice are subsidized by the government, the subsidies do not consistently reach those most in need. The availability of affordable and nutritious alternative grains and legumes could help alleviate poverty and nutrition insecurity in rural India, particularly among vulnerable women and ...

  10. The effect of rural-to-urban migration on obesity and diabetes in India: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahim, Shah; Kinra, Sanjay; Bowen, Liza

    2010-01-01

    was identified. Migrants of rural origin, their rural dwelling sibs, and those of urban origin together with their urban dwelling sibs were assessed by interview, examination, and fasting blood samples. Obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular risk factors were compared. A total of 6,510 participants (42......BACKGROUND: Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and may increase the risk of obesity and diabetes. We tested the hypotheses that rural-to-urban migrants have a higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes than rural nonmigrants, that migrants would have an intermediate...... prevalence of obesity and diabetes compared with life-long urban and rural dwellers, and that longer time since migration would be associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and of diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The place of origin of people working in factories in north, central, and south India...

  11. Teaching Hinduism through a Rural Homestay in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Edward T.

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, in 2008, I offered a world religions study abroad course in South India. The special emphasis was meeting and befriending locals, and the centerpiece of the course was a six-night stay in rural homes. I considered this immersion in a Hindu context to be the best setting for learning Hindu thought. However, the environment was…

  12. Telemedicine in diabetic retinopathy: Access to rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraprasad Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a growing concern in India. The first step in management of DR is timely screening. With 10% prevalence in rural India, 11 million people are likely to have DR by the year 2030. With limited resources and skilled manpower, it will not be possible to have routine eye examination to identify and treat these patients on a regular basis. Telemedicine is a possible answer in these situations where patients could be remotely screened and appropriately advised. With the advent of several technological advances such as low cost hand-held nonmydriatic camera, increased capabilities of the smartphones to take external eye and retinal photographs coupled with improving broadband connectivity; teleophthalmology in the management of DR could be a reality in the not too distant future.

  13. The folksong jukebox: Singing along for social change in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn designing digital literacy content for marginalized demographics, we need to garner local resources to structure engaging and meaningful media experiences. This paper examines the socio-cognitive implications of a novel edutainment product in rural India on learning, stemming from an

  14. Mobile phone-based clinical guidance for rural health providers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Iyengar, M Sriram; Johnson, Craig W

    2015-12-01

    There are few tried and tested mobile technology applications to enhance and standardize the quality of health care by frontline rural health providers in low-resource settings. We developed a media-rich, mobile phone-based clinical guidance system for management of fevers, diarrhoeas and respiratory problems by rural health providers. Using a randomized control design, we field tested this application with 16 rural health providers and 128 patients at two rural/tribal sites in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Protocol compliance for both groups, phone usability, acceptability and patient feedback for the experimental group were evaluated. Linear mixed-model analyses showed statistically significant improvements in protocol compliance in the experimental group. Usability and acceptability among patients and rural health providers were very high. Our results indicate that mobile phone-based, media-rich procedural guidance applications have significant potential for achieving consistently standardized quality of care by diverse frontline rural health providers, with patient acceptance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Prevalence of Hypertension and its optimal management issues in Rural India: An unmet health care need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth HR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death globally. They account for approximately 17 million deaths in the world each year (1.Of these deaths, complications of high blood pressure account for more than nine million, including about half of all deaths from heart disease and stroke(2.The number of adults with hypertension in 2025 was predicted to increase by about 60% to a total of 1•56 billion (1•54–1•58 billion(3. In India too, overall morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs is rising rapidly which will have severe impact on the already frail economy (4. Many studies done in different settings in India have shown that the prevalence of hypertension ranges from as high as 20-50 percent in both rural and urban population (Table 1 (5. Contradictory to the earlier reports that the prevalence of hypertension is low in rural areas, the recent studies have shown that the rural-urban differences have largely disappeared and the hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are only equal or slightly greater in the rural population (6. A recent study done by the authors in a rural population in Tamilnadu found that 27.2% of adults between 18 to 60 years have hypertension (7. Also the studies show that more than 50% of the men and women above 60 years old are hypertensive in rural South India (8. This observation has major repercussion on India’s health system and health expenditure in the context of improved life expectancy and a significant increase in the proportion of people living in the age group of 60 years and above in India.

  16. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India....... Therefore, we aimed to study the metabolic impact of being born with LBW in a rural non-migrant Indian population....

  17. Probable psychiatric disorder in a rural community of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Sarkhel, Sujit; Basu, Saugata; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    India faces multiple challenges to mitigate a high burden of psychiatric disorders. The risk of developing psychiatric disorder among the rural Indian population is poorly investigated. This study aims to understand the factors associated with probable psychiatric disorder (PPD) among a select rural Indian population. Data from the Birbhum population project of the society for health and demographic surveillance, West Bengal, India, were utilized. Cross-sectional data covering a sample of 31,135 respondents (male 15,384 and female 15,751) aged ≥ 16 years were used. The General Health Questionnaire-28 was administered and the responses were computed into three categories: psychological case, psychological caseness, and normal. Bivariate and multivariate ordered logit regression analyses were applied to attain the study objective. Of the total population, 26% of respondents were identified with PPD. People aged ≥ 60 years, females, divorced/separated/widowed individuals, the unemployed and people with no formal education, individuals from the poorest economic group, and people with a history of selling or mortgaging assets towards their healthcare expenditure had a higher prevalence of psychiatric case within their respective group. A high burden of PPD was estimated in the select rural community. While designing an intervention for measuring and addressing psychiatric disorders, the socioeconomic gradient of PPD could be helpful.

  18. A case for biogas energy application for rural industries in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, V.K.; Prasad, R.; Singh, J.P.; Sorayan, V.P.S.

    1996-01-01

    Rural India has a vast potential of biogas generation and application. During the past two decades, biogas has been promoted mostly as a cooking fuel in the rural areas. According to the prevailing practices in these areas, fuel for cooking is not being purchased but collected by the users from the farm fields and surrounding areas. Majority of rural population feels that biogas generation does not offer them direct/monetary benefits, and therefore many of them are reluctant to accept it. However biogas, when used for production activities, say in small scale rural industries, may be able to fill the gap in energy availability and demand in the rural areas. Being a renewable source, biogas, when utilised properly, can replace the commercial and nonrenewable energy sources to a considerable extent in a variety of production activities. Biogas application in the above context has been found to be self sustaining, while fulfilling the rural energy demand. Other important aspects such as employment generation, socio economic and environmental impacts are also examined. (Author)

  19. Emerging Trilingual Literacies in Rural India: Linguistic, Marketing, and Developmental Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Tej K.; Ritchie, William C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines emerging forms of multilingualism and multiliteracy in rural India (where the term "literacy" is used broadly here to include digital media literacy and marketing literacy as well as literacy in the traditional sense of the knowledge of a writing system). Here forces of globalization and digital communication have…

  20. National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, poverty and prices in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S; Pandey, Manoj K; Imai, Katsushi S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is mainly to construct an intuitive measure of the performance of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) in India. The focus is on divergence between demand and supply at the district level. Some related issues addressed are: (i) whether the gap between demand and supply responds to poverty; and (ii) whether recent hikes in NREGS wages are inflationary. Our analysis confirms responsiveness of the positive gap between demand and supply to poverty. Also, apprehensions expressed about the inflationary potential of recent hikes in NREGS wages have been confirmed. More importantly, higher NREGS wages are likely to undermine self-selection of the poor in it.

  1. Prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation, alcohol intake and nicotine consumption in rural Central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideations, alcohol and nicotine consumption in adults in an agrarian society mostly unchanged by the effects of urbanization.The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study in rural Central India close to the tribal belt and included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD, suicidal ideation by six standardized questions, nicotine use by the Fagerstroem Nicotine Tolerance Questionnaire (FTNQ, and alcohol consumption by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT.Mild to moderate depression (CESD sum score: 15-21 was detected in 1862 (39.6% individuals (33.5% of men, 44.8 of women, and major depression (CESD sum score >21 in 613 (13.0% individuals (8.1 of men, 17.3% of women. Suicide attempt was reported by 199 (4.2% participants and suicidal thoughts during the last 6 months by 238 (5.1% individuals. There were 887 (18.9% smokers and smokeless tobacco was consumed by 1968 (41.8% subjects. Alcohol consumption was reported by 1081 (23.0% participants; 283 (6.0% subjects had an AUDIT score ≥ 8 (hazardous drinking, and 108 (4.63% subjects a score ≥ 13 (women or ≥ 15 (men (alcohol dependence.In rural Central India, prevalence of major depression was comparable to figures reported from other developing countries. Prevalence of smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption was higher than as reported from urban regions. Measures should be taken to address the relatively high prevalence of suicide attempts and thoughts on suicide in rural Central India.

  2. For more than love or money: attitudes of student and in-service health workers towards rural service in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Sudha; Rao, Krishna D; Ryan, Mandy; Vujicic, Marko; Berman, Peter

    2013-11-21

    While international literature on rural retention is expanding, there is a lack of research on relevant strategies from pluralistic healthcare environments such as India, where alternate medicine is an integral component of primary care. In such contexts, there is a constant tug of war in national policy on "Which health worker is needed in rural areas?" and "Who can, realistically, be got there?" In this article, we try to inform this debate by juxtaposing perspectives of three cadres involved in primary care in India-allopathic, ayurvedic and nursing-on rural service. We also identify key incentives for improved rural retention of these cadres. We present qualitative evidence from two states, Uttarakhand and Andhra Pradesh. Eighty-eight in-depth interviews with students and in-service personnel were conducted between January and July 2010. Generic thematic analysis techniques were employed, and the data were organized in a framework that clustered factors linked to rural service as organizational (salary, infrastructure, career) and contextual (housing, children's development, safety). Similar to other studies, we found that both pecuniary and non-pecuniary factors (salary, working conditions, children's education, living conditions and safety) affect career preferences of health workers. For the allopathic cadre, rural primary care jobs commanded little respect; respondents from this cadre aimed to specialize and preferred private sector jobs. Offering preferential admission to specialist courses in exchange for a rural stint appears to be a powerful incentive for this cadre. In contrast, respondents from the Ayurvedic and nursing cadres favored public sector jobs even if this meant rural postings. For these two cadres, better salary, working and rural living conditions can increase recruitment. Rural retention strategies in India have predominantly concentrated on the allopathic cadre. Our study suggests incentivizing rural service for the nursing and Ayurvedic

  3. Medical abortion: understanding perspectives of rural and marginalized women from rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri, B Subha; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2012-09-01

    To understand how rural and other groups of marginalized women define safe abortion; their perspectives and concerns regarding medical abortion (MA); and what factors affect their access to safe abortion. Focus group discussions were held with various groups of rural and marginalized women in Tamil Nadu to understand their perspectives and concerns on abortion, especially MA. Nearly a decade after mifepristone was approved for abortion in India, most study participants had never heard of MA. When they learned of the method, most preferred it over other methods of abortion. The women also had questions and concerns about the method and recommendations on how services should be provided. Their definition of a "safe abortion" included criteria beyond medical safety. They placed a high priority on "social safety," including confidentiality and privacy. In their view, factors affecting access to safe abortion and choice of provider included cost, assurance of secrecy, promptness of service provision, and absence of provider gatekeeping and provider-imposed conditions for receiving services. Women's preference for MA shows the potential of this technology to address the problem of unsafe abortion in India. Women need better access to information and services to realize this potential, however. Women's preferences regarding information dissemination and service provision need to be taken into account if policies and programs are to be truly responsive to the needs of marginalized women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Retaining health workforce in rural and underserved areas of India: What works and what doesn't? A critical interpretative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Angeli, Federica; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Singla, Neetu; Grover, Manoj; Maarse, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Human resource for health is critical in quality healthcare delivery. India, with a large rural population (68.8%), needs to urgently bridge the gaps in health workforce deployment between urban and rural areas. We did a critical interpretative synthesis of the existing literature by using a predefined selection criteria to assess relevant manuscripts to identify the reasons for retaining the health workforce in rural and underserved areas. We discuss different strategies for retention of health workforce in rural areas on the basis of four major retention interventions, viz. education, regulation, financial incentives, and personal and professional support recommended by WHO in 2010. This review focuses on the English-language material published during 2005-14 on human resources in health across low- and middle-income countries. Healthcare in India is delivered through a diverse set of providers. Inequity exists in health manpower distribution across states, area (urban-rural), gender and category of health personnel. India is deficient in health system development and financing where health workforce education and training occupy a low priority. Poor governance, insufficient salary and allowances, along with inability of employers to provide safe, satisfying and rewarding work conditions-are causing health worker attrition in rural India. The review suggests that the retention of health workers in rural areas can be ensured by multiplicity of interventions such as medical schools in rural areas, rural orientation of medical education, introducing compulsory rural service in lieu of incentives providing better pay packages and special allowances, and providing better living and working conditions in rural areas. A complex interplay of factors that impact on attraction and retention of health workforce necessitates bundling of interventions. In low-income countries, evidence- based strategies are needed to ensure context-specific, field- tested and cost

  5. Role of ESLs in reaching BARC technologies to rural India - experience at Kaiga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, P.D.; Ujjappa, K.M.; Ravi, P.M.; Hegde, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the various site selection requirements, most of the nuclear power plants in India under Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), are located in very remote locations. The Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) under Health Physics Division, BARC are located at all Nuclear Power Stations. This paper presents the experience gained at ESL, KGS, Kaiga in acting as an interface between BARC, the technology developer and the rural public, the end user of the technology. (author)

  6. ARE THE SERVICES DELIVERED EMPLOYABLE? A SCENARIO OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN RURAL INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Prashant; Golahit, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    International audience; ABSRACT Purpose One of the most appalling challenges in India is persistently rising unemployment, explicitly in the rural region. More than 20% of Indian youth between the ages of 15 and 24 years are " seeking or available for work, " as per 2011 census data. There will be no peace and prosperity in the country unless jobless people get appropriate channel. In India deficiency of skills is among the main constraints for recruitment of Technical Education. Productivity...

  7. Rural poverty in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan: profiles and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M H

    1987-01-01

    The problem of rural poverty in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan remains intractable mainly because it has not been confronted by policies with the biggest impact on the target groups, and because they have relied on "soft" policy options. The agricultural sectors in these countries have not been dynamic enough to sustain the growth process. What is even more disturbing is that agricultural growth has not provided new jobs and incomes to the landless poor. This sorry state of affairs is partly a reflection of the institutional impediments and partly a result of policies that have been contradictory. Industrial growth has not touched many of the rural communities, and the relative abundance of labor in these countries has not been used to advantage in selecting the industries which have the greatest impact on growth in both rural and urban areas. A direct attack on poverty requires that income earning opportunities are provided to the rural poor, by making available assets like land and human capital and through providing productive employment in and out of agriculture. The efforts made so far in the 3 countries do not represent an effective strategy to alleviate rural poverty.

  8. Subjective Well-Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linssen, Rik; van Kempen, Luuk; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2011-01-01

    Using data on 697 individuals from 375 rural low income households in India, we test expectations on the effects of relative income and conspicuous consumption on subjective well-being. The results of the multi-level regression analyses show that individuals who spent more on conspicuous consumption report lower levels of subjective well-being.…

  9. Beyond the Education Silo? Tackling Adolescent Secondary Education in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Orla; Bhabha, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the factors contributing to gender inequality in secondary schooling in India by critically reviewing the government's secondary education policy. Drawing on the findings of a study in rural Gujarat, we couple this analysis with an examination of the gendered dynamics that restrict girls' ability to fully benefit from the…

  10. School environment and sanitation in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Majra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : A school child educated about the benefits of sanitation and good hygiene behavior is a conduit for carrying those messages far beyond the school walls, bringing lasting improvement to community hygienic practices. Aims : To study the status of school environment and sanitation in rural India. Settings and Design: Government schools in rural Karnataka, cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected for the study. Informed consent was taken from the Heads of the schools. A pre tested close ended questionnaire was used to get the information. The minimum standards for sanitation of the school and its environment in India were used as the guiding principles to evaluate the appropriateness/ adequacy of the various attributes. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Results : Out of 20 schools selected, one fourth of the schools were located/ sited at inappropriate places. Only half of the schools had appropriate/ adequate structure. Eighteen (90% of the schools were overcrowded. Ventilation and day light was adequate for 12(60% and 14(70% of the schools respectively. Cleanliness of school compound/classrooms was adequate in 80% of the schools. There were no separate rooms for serving the midday meals in any of the schools under study. Eighteen (90% of the schools were having drinking water points. Liquid and solid waste disposal was insanitary in six (30% and eight (40% of the schools respectively. Only half of the schools had adequate latrines for boys and 60% for girls. Only two (10% of the schools had adequate hand washing points with soap. Conclusions : Environment and sanitation facilities at many of the schools are not fully satisfactory.

  11. Perception of electronic medical records (EMRs by nursing staff in a teaching hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Pera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, in India, many healthcare organizations and their managements appreciate the advantages of electronic medical records, but they often use them. The current push for universal health coverage in India with National Rural Health Mission (NRHM and National Urban Health Mission (NUHM helping toward healthcare reforms highlights the importance of implementing information technology as a means of cutting costs and improving efficiency in healthcare field. The quality of documentation of patient care rendered at healthcare destinations is very important to showcase the growing stature of healthcare in India. Aims: As maintaining the medical records is very important, storage and retrieval of the information is also important for future patient care. In this regard, implementation of electronic medical records in hospitals is essential. Through this study, we wanted to highlight the perceptions of healthcare personnel, who are in the core team of delivering healthcare, toward implementation of electronic medical records. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among doctors (post-graduates and staff nurses. The sample size for post-graduate students and nurses was 164 and 296, respectively, in this study. The study was carried out during the period from January to June 2013, and a survey was conducted with the help of a validated, pre-tested questionnaire in a tertiary care medical college hospital in India. Results: The results showed that 75% of the study population are comfortable working with electronic medical records. They mentioned that display of diagnosis, medications, and allergies of patients on the records was most important. Their perception was that electronic medical records improve timely decision-making and patient care due to immediate access to the patient′s disease history. Conclusion: The major problems faced by nurses, as per our study, are delay in services due to dispersion of records

  12. Some Critical Issues of Women Entrepreneurship in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    VIJAY KUMBHAR

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the issues regarding women entrepreneurship in rural India. This paper is mostly based on secondary data and some observations; for the identification of these issues the author has reviewed different research articles and reports. Findings of this study reveal that absence of definite agenda of life, absence of balance between family and career obligations of women, poor degree of financial freedom for women, absence of direct ownership of the property, th...

  13. Characteristics of suicidal attempts among farmers in rural South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, farming as an industry is considered a high-risk occupation for suicides. Certain states in India like Karnataka have a suicide rate higher than the national average, and this is generally attributed to the farmers' suicide. Aims: The aim is to study the characteristics of suicidal attempts among the farmer community in South India, with special emphasis on gender differences, modes used, and the immediate precipitant causes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, case register-based, explorative-descriptive study of 426 consecutive medicolegal case files of patients whose stated occupation was farming and who were admitted as cases of deliberate self-harm or suicide attempt to a rural tertiary care hospital in rural South India. Results: Out of the 426 farmers who attempted suicide, majority were male (355, 83.3%, in the age group of 21–40 years (318, 75%, married (358, 84%, and belonging to lower socioeconomic status (268, 62.9%. About 54% of them had attempted suicide by consuming pesticides (230. Surprisingly, 183 (43% and 86 (20.2% reported the immediate precipitant as being relationship issues and marital conflict, respectively, and only 100 (23.5% attributed it to financial reasons. Females were significantly associated with a past history of suicidal attempt while males tended to abuse alcohol before an attempt more frequently. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning was the most common mode for attempting suicide among the farmers. Contrary to public perception and other studies, relationship, and marital issues, not financial reasons were found to be the most common immediate precipitant for the attempters in our study.

  14. THREE DECADES OF CONSUMER PROTECTION OF RIGHTS ACT: RURAL INDIA NEEDS FOCUSED ATTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Amrit Patel

    2017-01-01

    India has been observing December 24 each year since 1986 as “National Consumer Rights Day”, when the Consumer Protection Act [CPA], 1986 came into force on this day. Despite the implementation of the CPA has completed three decades in the country, the rural India has yet to understand the meaning of consumer’s rights & the procedure to protect the right enshrined in the CPA,1986. This has its significance because according to the National Council of Applied Economic Research survey report th...

  15. Proceedings of the national symposium on BARC technologies for development of rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Empowering villages with Science and Technology (S and T) based on eco-friendly work plan for sustainable Techno-Economic growth of rural sector in a country of vast size, technology innovations and adaptations have to be evolved. This can be achieved to a great measure particularly since such technology will fit with varied local conditions and can be applied quickly to enhance the quality of life of larger population. Considering the wealth of technology and innovative capability generated in BARC, as an off-shoot of R and D in Nuclear Energy and its applications in power and non-power areas, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has launched - Societal Initiative for utilization of Non-Power Applications (NPAs) and Spinoff technologies (Spinoffs) in the area of water, land, agriculture, food processing and urban-rural waste management. Within this framework of societal initiative, structured programme called 'AKRUTI - KRUTIK - FORCE' has been formulated and is being implemented by BARC for techno-economic growth of the rural sector, as one of the many schemes for large-scale deployment of NPAs and spinoffs. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Officer's Association (BARCOA) is making a maiden attempt to hold a symposium where the scientists, technologists, agriculturists and the consumers will come on a common platform to discuss these issues. This symposium is organized to enable to take the fruits of technology to grass-root level to every villager in the remote corner and provide inclusive growth to the rural sector and tap the hidden innovative capability of large rural India. This symposium describes the various technologies developed indigenously by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for the development of rural India. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. India: an annotated bibliography on rural regional development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    References contained in this bibliography focus on rural regional development in India during the past fifteen years. They include works on administration, administrative law, agriculture, business, community development, decision making, demography, development indicators, development planning, economic development, economic policy, education, employment and labor utilization, energy, family planning, finance and taxation, geography, health, housing, human settlements, income distribution, industry, institutional development, intergovernmental relations, land reform, location and space economy, migration, models, national planning, plan implementation, planning and programming techniques, politics and government, popular participation, population policy, poverty, project and program evaluation, public works, reference works, regional analysis, regional development, regional planning, rural development, science and technology, social communication, social development, social integration and welfare, social policy, socioeconomic diagnosis, subregional planning, systems approach, tourism and recreation, training techniques, and utilities. The information sources are primarilly Indian, but a few significant documents of foreign imprints have also been included. All documents referred to are in English and include reference works, government publications, scholarly works (monographs), conference proceedings, and periodical articles.

  17. Role of AYUSH Doctors in Filling the Gap of Health Workforce Inequality in Rural India with Special Reference to National Rural Health Mission: A Situational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Janmejaya Samal

    2013-01-01

    Paucity of health workforce in rural India has always been a problem. Lack of interest of modern allopathic graduates in serving the rural poor has worsened the situation little more. The National Rural Health Mission brought an innovative concept of mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health tradition by collocating AYUSH doctors at various rural health facilities such as community health centers and primary health centers. In this context a study was aimed, based on secondary...

  18. Place of menstruation in the reproductive lives of women of rural North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To ascertain the perceptions and experiences of women regarding menstruation. Methods : An integrated qualitative and quantitative study on reproductive health of Indian women was conducted in two primary health centre areas of rural north India. Present article reports on the perceptions of 1205 women regarding various aspects of menstruation. Results : Major source of information about menarche/menstruation was friends/relatives (72%. Mean age at menarche was ~ 15 years. Very few women (0.4% used sanitary napkins. Majority of women had strong beliefs about effect of diet on menstruation. Most of them considered menstruation a dirty act and indulged in various taboo behaviours. Initial reaction was of fear/apprehension at menarche in majority of girls. Conclusion: Women in rural north India still hold tranditional beliefs regarding menstruation. Provision of a balanced and healthy family health education package to all girls is recommended.

  19. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejith S. Nair

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196 as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170. The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%, and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of  affected individuals in 80+ age group.Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly.  A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for

  20. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sreejith S; Raghunath, Pooja; Nair, Sreekanth S

    2015-01-01

    Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India. This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software. We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196) as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170). The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%), and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of affected individuals in 80+ age group. Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly. A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for this purpose as part of our future efforts.

  1. mHealth and the management of chronic conditions in rural areas: a note of caution from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen; Kannuri, Nanda Kishore; Mikkilineni, Sitamma; Murthy, G V S; Phillimore, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This article examines challenges facing implementation of likely mHealth programmes in rural India. Based on fieldwork in Andhra Pradesh in 2014, and taking as exemplars two chronic medical 'conditions' - type 2 diabetes and depression - we look at ways in which people in one rural area currently access medical treatment; we also explore how adults there currently use mobile phones in daily life, to gauge the realistic likelihood of uptake for possible mHealth initiatives. We identify the very different pathways to care for these two medical conditions, and we highlight the importance to the rural population of healthcare outside the formal health system provided by those known as registered medical practitioners (RMP), who despite their title are neither registered nor trained. We also show how limited is the use currently made of very basic mobile phones by the majority of the older adult population in this rural context. Not only may this inhibit mHealth potential in the near future; just as importantly, our data suggest how difficult it may be to identify a clinical partner for patients or their carers for any mHealth application designed to assist the management of chronic ill-health in rural India. Finally, we examine how the promotion of patient 'self-management' may not be as readily translated to a country like India as proponents of mHealth might assume.

  2. Energy use in the rural areas of India: setting up a rural energy data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Chandra Shekhar; Sinha, Shirish; Joshi, Veena

    1998-01-01

    Aggregating and forecasting demand are crucial parts of energy planning. While a large number of energy consumption surveys have been conducted in the past in the rural energy sector of India, the lack of sufficient data and its compilation, coupled with doubt about the quality of data, has made the task extremely difficult. This paper summarizes recent efforts to compile, computerize and analyze data from 638 village energy consumption surveys covering over 39,000 households, carried out by different organisations between 1985 and 1989. The details of the level of information provided in the survey reports, area of survey, land use pattern, asset ownership, etc., of the collated studies are presented. Results based on the analysis of the energy consumption data compiled are then discussed. The paper also compares the estimates with those based on other surveys in India. (author)

  3. The One Laptop School: Equipping Rural Elementary Schools in South India Through Public Private Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Jon Byker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a Public Private Partnership (PPP program in South India that provided information and communication technology (ICT to rural elementary schools. The article examined the current status of rural, government-run elementary schools in India by reviewing reports like the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER in India. Challenges like teacher absences, student drop-outs, lack of electricity, lack of separate toilets for genders, and a lack of teaching resources is discussed. To meet these challenges, the article describes the rise in popularity of India’s PPPs. Then the article reports on a case study of a PPP, called the SSA Foundation, which implemented a “one laptop per school” program in rural areas in the Indian States of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Using ethnographic data from field research, the case study includes a description of how the students in a rural Karnataka elementary school use their school’s laptop. The school was situated in a small village where most travel was non-motorized. Walking, usually without shoes, was the main form of transportation. A bicycle was considered a luxury. Most villagers worked in the surrounding ragi and millet fields; laboring, often with only simple tool blades. Wood fires were the main source of fuel for cooking. In this village, the school’s laptop became a prized possession. The case study offers a “thick description” (Geertz, 1973 of how the village school’s students used the laptop for learning basic computing skills and for learning English.

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of glaucoma in rural central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Nangia

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of glaucoma in rural Central India. METHODS: The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study performed in a rural region of Central India. The study included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years. A detailed ophthalmic and medical examination was performed. Glaucoma was defined by glaucomatous optic disc morphology, and in a second step, by the criteria of the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO. RESULTS: Optic disc photographs were available for 4570 (97.0% subjects. Glaucoma was detected in 122 subjects (51 unilateral (2.67% (95%CI: 2.20, 3.14. Glaucoma prevalence for the age groups of 30-39yrs, 40-49yrs, 50-59yrs, 60-69yrs, 70-79yrs, and 80+ years was 0.54% (95%CI: 0.11, 0.98, 1.03% (95%CI: 0.49, 1.57, 1.40% (95%CI: 0.58, 2.23, 6.62% (95%CI: 4.92, 8.31, 8.71% (95%CI: 5.55, 11.75, and 14.3% (95%CI: 4.13, 24.4, respectively. In multivariable analysis, glaucoma was associated with higher age (P<0.001, lower body mass index (P = 0.025, lower blood hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.03, higher intraocular pressure (P<0.001, disc hemorrhages (P<0.001, higher prevalence of myopic retinopathy (P<0.001, lower level of education (P = 0.03, longer axial length (P<0.001, thinner retinal nerve fiber layer (P<0.001, higher vertical cup/disc diameter ratio (P<0.001, and narrow anterior chamber angle (P = 0.02. Ratio of open-angle glaucoma to angle-closure glaucoma was 7.7:1 (1.93% (95%CI: 1.64, 2.22 to 0.24% (95%CI: 0.14, 0.34. Using the ISGEO criteria, glaucoma prevalence was 2.8% (95%CI: 2.3, 3.3 with a less clear association with older age. CONCLUSIONS: Glaucoma prevalence in remote rural Central India is comparable to other regions. Associated factors were older age, lower body mass index, lower blood concentration of hemoglobin, lower level of education, higher intraocular pressure, disc hemorrhage, myopic retinopathy, and longer axial

  5. Property Rights in Women's Empowerment in Rural India: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Kartik C.; Tisdell, Clement A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of property rights in women’s empowerment in rural India. Arguments justifying the need for granting property rights to women are presented and the distinction is made between legal (formal) and customary (informal) rights. The ineffectiveness of legal right in absence of customary rights has been discussed. Customary rights also become ineffective due to other institutional impediments. These impediments have been discussed. The results of extensive field w...

  6. Acceptability of, and willingness to pay for, community health insurance in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankit; Swetha, Selva; Johar, Zeena; Raghavan, Ramesh

    2014-09-01

    To understand the acceptability of, and willingness to pay for, community health insurance coverage among residents of rural India. We conducted a mixed methods study of 33 respondents located in 8 villages in southern India. Interview domains focused on health-seeking behaviors of the family for primary healthcare, household expenditures on primary healthcare, interest in pre-paid health insurance, and willingness to pay for such a product. Most respondents reported that they would seek care only when symptoms were manifest; only 6 respondents recognized the importance of preventative services. None reported impoverishment due to health expenditures. Few viewed health insurance as necessary either because they did not wish to be early adopters, because they had alternate sources of financial support, or because of concerns with the design of insurance coverage or the provider. Those who were interested reported being willing to pay Rs. 1500 ($27) as the modal annual insurance premium. Penetration of community health insurance programs in rural India will require education of the consumer base, careful attention to premium rate setting, and deeper understanding of social networks that may act as financial substitutes for health insurance. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mobile Phones: The Next Step towards Healthcare Delivery in Rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Sherwin I.; Rashmi, M. R.; Vasanthi, Agalya P.; Joseph, Suchitha Maria; Rodrigues, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. Objectives To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. Methods This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. Results The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%). Text messaging (SMS) was used by only 70 (14%) of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%), were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98%) of our respondents, 424 (89%) preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75%) were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. Conclusion The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian context. PMID

  8. Mobile phones: the next step towards healthcare delivery in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Sherwin I; Rashmi, M R; Vasanthi, Agalya P; Joseph, Suchitha Maria; Rodrigues, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%). Text messaging (SMS) was used by only 70 (14%) of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%), were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98%) of our respondents, 424 (89%) preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75%) were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian context.

  9. Mobile phones: the next step towards healthcare delivery in rural India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin I DeSouza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. OBJECTIVES: To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. METHODS: This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. RESULTS: The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%. Text messaging (SMS was used by only 70 (14% of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%, were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98% of our respondents, 424 (89% preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75% were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. CONCLUSION: The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian

  10. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  11. Proceedings of the national symposium on BARC technologies for development of rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.K.; Wadawale, Amey; Bhadauria, Y.S.; Joseph, Daisy; Kumar, Manoj; Girija, K.G.; Gautam, S; Rawat, A.S.; Misra, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    For empowering Indian villages, science and technology (S and T) based eco-friendly work plan have to be evolved. Sustainable techno-economic growth of rural sector in a country of vast size such as India requires technology innovations and their ingenious adaptation. This can be achieved to a great extent by adopting such technologies for varied local conditions so that it can be applied quickly to enhance the quality of life of larger population. Considering the wealth of technology and innovative capability generated in BARC, as an off-shoot of R and D in nuclear energy and its applications in power and non-power areas, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India has launched - Societal Initiative for utilization of Non-Power Applications (NPAs) and Spin off technologies (Spin-offs) in the area of water, land, agriculture, food processing and urban-rural waste management. Within this framework of societal initiative, structured programme called 'AKRUTI - KRUTIK - FORCE' has been formulated and is being implemented by BARC for techno-economic growth of the rural sector, as one of the many schemes for large-scale deployment of NPAs and spin-offs. This symposium consisting of invited lectures and poster presentations covered the topics like food and agriculture, health and environment, energy and conservation. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. Formal, Nonformal, and Informal Learning in Rural India: The Case of Fishing Families on the Chilika Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Matthias; Wilmshöfer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority--70%--of the Indian population lives in rural areas. They are far removed from India's image as a society with an emerging middle class and well-regarded schools. This research focuses on education and opportunities for skill development for this rural population. The researchers investigated the area around the Chilika Lagoon, a…

  13. Effects of Electronic Media Advertising on Rural Banking in Ghana: A Study of Unity Rural Bank Limited, Ho Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Kofi Nyarko

    2013-01-01

    Advertising which uses electronic energy to transmit information to the end user is called electronic media advertising. It appears as TV, radio, internet. The objective of this study is to establish the contribution of electronic media advertising to rural banking in Ghana. Hitherto, studies have covered advertising rural banks; the outcome of this study will help reveal contributions of electronic media ads to rural banking. Questionnaires were administered to 350 rural bank customers in Ho...

  14. Consequences of low birth weight, maternal illiteracy and poor access to medical care in rural India: infantile iatrogenic Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil

    2015-08-21

    Home delivery, low birth weight babies and maternal illiteracy among the poor in rural India are frequent. The rural poor prefer to seek healthcare from private providers, most of whom have no formal medical training and buy medicines from private pharmacies without a prescription owing to a weakly regulated environment. This report is of a 4-month-old baby from a remote village in northern India, who presented with exogenous Cushing syndrome. This baby was a full-term low birth weight home delivery. As the baby was not growing well, treatment was started at 1 month by a private doctor with betamethasone drops The mother on her own volition continued giving the betamethasone drops by buying the medicine over the counter from a private pharmacy. This case highlights the gaps in essential health services in rural India and the steps being taken to improve the situation. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Improving Educational Outcomes & Reducing Absenteeism at Remote Villages with Mobile Technology and WhatsAPP: Findings from Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedungadi, Prema; Mulki, Karunya; Raman, Raghu

    2018-01-01

    Reduction of teacher and student absenteeism, together with consistent teacher support and training, are critical factors in improving the quality of education in rural India. As part of an ongoing project involving schools and educational centers in rural areas spread across 21 Indian states, this study investigated how implementation of two…

  16. Consequences of low birth weight, maternal illiteracy and poor access to medical care in rural India: infantile iatrogenic Cushing syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Karande, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Home delivery, low birth weight babies and maternal illiteracy among the poor in rural India are frequent. The rural poor prefer to seek healthcare from private providers, most of whom have no formal medical training and buy medicines from private pharmacies without a prescription owing to a weakly regulated environment. This report is of a 4-month-old baby from a remote village in northern India, who presented with exogenous Cushing syndrome. This baby was a full-term low birth weight home d...

  17. Depression in an older adult rural population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sati P; Shrivastava, Saurabh R; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-10-01

    With a rapidly aging society, geriatric mental health is emerging as an important public health concern. According to the WHO, prevalence of depression in adults aged ≥60 years in developed and developing countries was 0.5 million and 4.8 million respectively in 2004. In India, increased life expectancy led to a rise in the older adult population between 2001 and 2011, expected to reach 324 million by 2050. To estimate the prevalence of depression and assess association between sociodemographic parameters and depression among older adults in a rural Indian community. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in February and March 2012 in the rural village of Sembakkam, Kancheepuram District in the state of Tamil Nadu, India; the village has a population of 5948, 3.1% of whom are aged ≥60 years. Universal sampling technique was employed, in which every household in the community was visited and all elderly persons were selected. After obtaining written informed consent (a thumbprint was taken if the person was illiterate), participants were assessed face to face for depression using the Short Form Geriatric Depression Scale. The inclusion criterion was a score >24 on the mini-mental state examination. Final sample size was 103. Study variables included sociodemographic parameters such as age, sex, education, occupation, socioeconomic status, and marital status. Data entry and statistical analysis used SPSS version 17. Of 103 respondents interviewed, 73 (70.9%) were aged 60-69 years and 58 (56.3%) were male. Forty-four (42.7%) individuals (17 males, 27 females) were found to be depressed; 23 (22.3%) with mild depression, 14 (13.6%) moderate depression and 7 (6.8%) severe depression. Female sex and widowhood were significantly associated with depression. Depression, particularly mild depression, is common in this rural population of older adults, particularly among women and widowed elderly. These study findings can help program managers implement a more

  18. Income Inequality in Rural India: Decomposing the Gini by Income Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtabul Azam; Abusaleh Shariff

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines income inequality in rural India in 1993 and 2005. It attempts to ascertain the contribution of different income sources to overall income inequality, and change in their relative importance between 1993 and 2005 through decomposition of Gini coefficient. The paper finds that income inequality has increased between 1993 and 2005. Agriculture income continues to contribute majorly in total income and income inequality; however its share in total income and total income ineq...

  19. Social dimensions related to anaemia among women of childbearing age from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Smita; Bhide, Pradnya; Puranik, Bhairavi; Kanade, Asawari

    2011-02-01

    To examine various sociodemographic aspects related to consumption of micronutrient-rich foods like green leafy vegetables (GLV), which will be helpful in modifying dietary habits, a strategy that merits consideration for prevention of anaemia. Cross-sectional study for collecting data on socio-economic and anthropometric (weight, height) variables, Hb, dietary pattern (FFQ) and peripheral smear examination for classifying nutritional and iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA). Three villages near Pune city, Maharashtra, India. Rural women (n 418) of childbearing age (15-35 years). Mean Hb was 11·07 g/dl. Seventy-seven per cent of the women were anaemic (Hb women had nutritional anaemia. Higher prevalence of IDA was associated with several sociodemographic and maternal parameters, but multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant (P lack of awareness about different recipes for GLV. Our findings highlight that low consumption of GLV, which are treasures of micronutrients including Fe, is associated with genuine social reasons. This indicates a need for developing action programmes to improve nutritional knowledge and awareness leading to enhanced consumption of Fe-rich foods for preventing anaemia in rural India.

  20. Healthcare seeking behaviour among self-help group households in Rural Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Raza (Wameq); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); P. Panda (Pradeep); D.M. Dror (David); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In recent years, supported by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), a number of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes have been operating in rural India. Such schemes design their benefit packages according to local priorities. This paper examines healthcare

  1. Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a young boy from rural part of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Mane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenolepis diminuta (H. diminuta is primarily a parasite of rats and mice. Humans are infected by eating meal contaminated with these arthropods. This infection is not seen commonly in Indian population. We present here a case report of infection with H. diminuta in a young boy from a rural area of the North India.

  2. Healthcare Seeking Behavior among Self-help Group Households in Rural Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Raza (Wameq); P. Panda (Pradeep); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); D.M. Dror (David); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, supported by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), a number of demand-driven community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes have been functioning in rural India. These CBHI schemes may design their benefit packages according to local priorities. In this paper we

  3. National rural drinking water monitoring: progress and challenges with India's IMIS database

    OpenAIRE

    Wescoat, James; Fletcher, Sarah Marie; Novellino, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    National drinking water programs seek to address monitoring challenges that include self-reporting, data sampling, data consistency and quality, and sufficient frequency to assess the sustainability of water systems. India stands out for its comprehensive rural water database known as Integrated Management Information System (IMIS), which conducts annual monitoring of drinking water coverage, water quality, and related program components from the habitation level to the district, state, and n...

  4. Urban rural differences in diet, physical activity and obesity in India: are we witnessing the great Indian equalisation? Results from a cross-sectional STEPS survey

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    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising morbidity and mortality due to non-communicable diseases can be partly attributed to the urbanized lifestyle leading to unhealthy dietary practices and increasing physical levels of inactivity. The demographic and nutrition transition in India has also contributed to the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases in this country. In this context, there is limited information in India on dietary patterns, levels of physical activity and obesity. The aim of the present study was thus to assess the urban rural differences in dietary habits, physical activity and obesity in India. Methods A household survey was done in the state of Punjab, India in a multistage stratified sample of 5127 individuals using the WHO STEPS questionnaire. Results No rural urban difference was found in dietary practices and prevalence of overweight and obesity except the fact that a significantly higher proportion of respondents belonging to rural area (15.6 % always/often add salt before/when eating as compared to urban area (9.1 %. Overall 95.8 % (94.6–97.0 of participants took less than 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables on average per day. No significant urban rural difference was noted in both sexes in all three domains of physical activity such as work, transport and recreation. However, rural females (19.1 % were found to be engaged in vigorous activity more than the urban females (6.3 %. Males reported high levels of physical activity in both the settings. Absence of recreational activity was reported by more than 95 % of the subjects. Higher prevalence of obesity (asian cut offs used was seen among urban females (34.3 % as compared to their rural counterparts (23.2 %. Abdominal obesity was found to be significantly higher among females in both the settings compared to males (p < 0.001. Conclusions Poor dietary practices and physical inactivity seems to fuel the non-communicable disease epidemic in India. Non

  5. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG RURAL PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN OF MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

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    N Arlappa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia continues to be a severe public health nutritional problem in India affecting all physiological groups, even after the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme has been in operation for more than three decades. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anaemia among rural pre-school (1-5-years children of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB covering a total of 404 (Boys-243; Girls-161 pre-school children. Information of socio-demographic particulars was obtained and the finger prick blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin levels by cyanmethmoglobin method. Results: The result shows that 59.2 % (CI: 54.4-64.0 of the rural pre-school children of Maharashtra were anaemic, and the prevalence was significantly (p40% among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra. Therefore, appropriate intervention measures such as supplementary iron & folic acid, periodic deworming and health & nutrition education should be strengthened. The community needs to be encouraged to diversify their diets by consuming iron rich foods.

  6. Dietary intake and rural-urban migration in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Bowen

    Full Text Available Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and lifestyle change, and dietary changes may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases. We tested the hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have different macronutrient and food group intake to rural non-migrants, and that migrants have a diet more similar to urban non-migrants.The diets of migrants of rural origin, their rural dwelling sibs, and those of urban origin together with their urban dwelling sibs were assessed by an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 6,509 participants were included. Median energy intake in the rural, migrant and urban groups was 2731, 3078, and 3224 kcal respectively for men, and 2153, 2504, and 2644 kcal for women (p<0.001. A similar trend was seen for overall intake of fat, protein and carbohydrates (p<0.001, though differences in the proportion of energy from these nutrients were <2%. Migrant and urban participants reported up to 80% higher fruit and vegetable intake than rural participants (p<0.001, and up to 35% higher sugar intake (p<0.001. Meat and dairy intake were higher in migrant and urban participants than rural participants (p<0.001, but varied by region. Sibling-pair analyses confirmed these results. There was no evidence of associations with time in urban area.Rural to urban migration appears to be associated with both positive (higher fruit and vegetables intake and negative (higher energy and fat intake dietary changes. These changes may be of relevance to cardiovascular health and warrant public health interventions.

  7. Developing e-banking services for rural India: making use of socio-technical prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Vaidyanathan, Lakshmi; Gonsalves, Timothy A; Jhunjhunwala, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the key enablers for including underserved communities in economic and societal development across the world. Our research analyzes several banking service projects developing technical solutions for rural India. This poster presents an experience report based on systematic debriefing of involved project leaders and initiators, triangulated with additional documentation. The concept of Socio-Technical Prototype is developed and used to ...

  8. A Tangled Weave: Tracing Outcomes of Education in Rural Women's Lives in North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for…

  9. Smart street lighting solution for remote rural areas of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut

    2017-09-01

    Though many smart street lighting solutions is available for urban areas, comparatively fewer solutions exist for rural areas. In the recent times, village streets have been illuminated with artificial lights as a part of rural development drive undertaken by the governments of respective countries. But, vehicle and pedestrian traffic is quite low through village roads. Hence, if light remains on all night long on such roads, then there is a huge wastage of energy. This calls for solutions to reduce this energy loss in an efficient manner. There are a lot of factors which must be kept in mind while designing solutions. Many villages lack the proper infrastructure to support new technologies. Communication facilities are limited, lack of local technically skilled labor, lack of security, etc. After evaluating these opportunities and challenges, an attempt has been made to devise a smart street lighting solution tailored for remote rural areas in India. One part of the solution discusses how intensity of the LED street lights can be varied according to the ambient lighting conditions using sensors and LED switching in LED matrix. An artificial intelligence (AI) has also been modelled to identify traffic conditions using PIR sensors and object identification through image processing and independently control the lights. It also tracks the performance and status of each light. It would send this data and necessary notifications to a distant control center for human evaluation. This solution is also applicable for other rural areas throughout the world.

  10. Correspondence: risk factors of acute respiratory infection in under-fives in a rural hospital of Central India – Authors’ reply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Taksande

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor,We thank the authors for their interest and comments on our paper. They have raised some very valid points. This corrispondence refers to the following article:Taksande AM, Yeole M. Risk factors of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI in under-fives in a rural hospital of Central India. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med. 2016;5(1:e050105. doi: 10.7363/050105 br />Comments can be found in the following article:Mandal A, Sahi PK. Correspondence: risk factors of acute respiratory infection in under-fives in a rural hospital of Central India. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med. 2016;5(2:e050207. doi: 10.7363/050207

  11. Human Rights as Practice: Dalit Women's Collective Action to Secure Livelihood Entitlements in rural South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangubhai, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate how Dalit women in rural South India secure livelihood entitlements by analysing processes of social exclusion as well as collective action by these women through their perspectives. This problematic requires focus on how caste, class and gender mutually construct

  12. Bioenergy and carbon sequestration potential from energy tree plantation in rural wasteland of North-Eastern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Medhi, Hemantajeet; Das, Karabee; Thakur, Indu Shekhar; Baruah, Debendra Chandra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, carbon sequestration potential via energy tree plantation in the rural wasteland of Assam, India was estimated under two different plantation species scenarios,viz., (i) Acacia nilotica, and (ii) Bambusa tulda. Furthermore, CO2 emission reduction potential in local tea industries by

  13. Rural power supply with local management: Examples from Bolivia, India and Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerger, Aa; Gullberg, M

    1997-08-01

    Local management of rural power supply is being evaluated in a joint research project conducted by Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) and Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) on new approaches to management and organization of rural electrification. The study is based on literature, and on data from eight visited local organizations for management of power supply in Bolivia (4), India (1) and Nepal (3). Common for these countries is that the national, rural electrification programmes have encountered difficulties. Governments have failed to generate enough funds from existing power supply systems to cover the cost for a continued rural electrification. In cases where large private companies exist, they have had few incentives for expanding into rural areas since it is often not profit making. A third category may be defined as local initiators to power supply, private or co-operative. In all these countries, locally managed power supply systems have developed as a complement to governmental and other large scale programmes. The national policies pertaining to rural power supply in general and local management thereof in particular are described for each country. From the study, it appears that local management of rural power supply is a feasible approach in developing countries. Local management of rural power supply can slightly lower the costs of electrification, and it may help accelerate the pace of load development in newly electrified areas. For successful local organizations though, the most significant factor appears to be local peoples` willingness to develop their own area. Important though, is that proper financial and technical assistance is provided the local organizations. Crucial for sound external assistance is that the national rural electrification policies are clear and consistent. 53 refs, 1 fig, 11 tabs

  14. Low utilization of HIV testing during pregnancy: What are the barriers to HIV testing for women in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gita; Dyalchand, Ashok; Khale, Manisha; Kulkarni, Gopal; Vasudevan, Shubha; Bollinger, Robert C

    2008-02-01

    Sixty percent of India's HIV cases occur in rural residents. Despite government policy to expand antenatal HIV screening and prevention of maternal-to-child transmission (PMTCT), little is known about HIV testing among rural women during pregnancy. Between January and March 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 400 recently pregnant women from rural Maharashtra was administered a questionnaire regarding HIV awareness, risk, and history of antenatal HIV testing. Thirteen women (3.3%) reported receiving antenatal HIV testing. Neither antenatal care utilization nor history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms influenced odds of receiving HIV testing. Women who did not receive HIV testing, compared with women who did, were 95% less likely to have received antenatal HIV counseling (odds ratio = 0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.02 to 0.17) and 80% less aware of an existing HIV testing facility (odds ratio = 0.19, 95% confidence interval: 0.04 to 0.75). Despite measurable HIV prevalence, high antenatal care utilization, and STI symptom history, recently pregnant rural Indian women report low HIV testing. Barriers to HIV testing during pregnancy include lack of discussion by antenatal care providers and lack of awareness of existing testing services. Provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing during pregnancy would optimize HIV prevention for women throughout rural India.

  15. Has the Rate of Reduction in Infant Mortality Increased in India Since the Launch of National Rural Health Mission? Analysis of Time Trends 2000-2009 with Projection to 2015

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    Rajesh Narwal, MD, MPH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: National Rural Health Mission (NRHM – India was launched in 2005 to tackle urban-rural health inequalities, especially in maternal and child health. We examined national and state level trends in Infant Mortality Rates (IMR from 2000 through 2009 to: 1 assess whether the NRHM had increased the average annual reduction rate (AARR of IMR 2 evaluate state-wise progress towards Millennium Development Goals (MDG4 and estimate required AARRs for ‘off track’ states. Methods: Log-linear regression models were applied to national and state IMR data collated from the Sample Registration System (SRS-India to estimate average annual reduction rates and compare AAARs before and after introduction of NRHM. The log-linear trend of infant mortality rates was also projected forward to 2015. Results: The infant mortality rate in rural India declined from 74 to 55/1000 live births between 2000 and 2009, with AARR of 3.0% (95% CI=2.6%-3.4% and the urban-rural gap in infant mortality narrowed (p =0.036. However there was no evidence (p=0.49 that AARR in rural India increased post NRHM (3.4%, 95% CI 2.0-4.7% compared to pre NRHM (2.8%, 95% CI 2.1%-3.5%. States varied widely in rates of infant mortality reduction. Projections of infant mortality rates suggested that only eight states might be on track to help India achieve MDG4 by 2015. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Despite a narrowing urban-rural gap and high AARRs in some states, there was no evidence that the rate of reduction in infant mortality has increased in rural India post NRHM introduction. India appears unlikely to achieve child survival-related NRHM and millennium development goals. Government should revisit the child survival related NRHM strategies and ensure equitable access to health services. More robust monitoring and evaluation mechanisms must be inbuilt for following years.

  16. Solution of energy crisis in rural areas lies in farm forestry. [India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing, R V

    1978-01-01

    It is estimated (data for 1962) that fuelwood meets about 60% of the energy requirements of rural communities in India. In view of cost and availability problems associated with other fuels, demand for fuelwood is expected to increase. If fuelwood replaced all the dung cake burnt, it is estimated that the annual requirement would be about 135 million tons (t). Annual production of fuelwood (1975 estimate) is only about 70 million t. To make up the difference, about 16.25 million hectares of fuelwood plantations would have to be established annually. Problems in the establishment and management of such plantations, and also of transport and sale of fuelwood to scattered rural populations are discussed. It is suggested that farm forestry may be a more practical means of solving the problem.

  17. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India

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    Kshirod Kumar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officially. Materials and Methods: All the cases of attempted suicide who were admitted and referred for psychiatric evaluation and management to a rural medical college of central India during a period of one Year (April 13-March-14, following initial recovery they were evaluated on a semi-structured performa on socio demographic profile, mode of attempt and reason for attempt. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical methods. Results: Total 68 cases were evaluated during the study period. 43% of the cases were involved in farming. Among 85% of the study population pesticide consumption was the common mode of attempt, which is easily available among the agrarian community of rural India. Interpersonal conflict in the family due to indebtedness, financial loss due to crop failure was the commonest reason for attempt. Conclusion: Though there is reduced reporting in the incidents of suicide cases in media from this region, still quite a number of people attempt suicide due to financial constraint from crop failure, ongoing indebtedness, and poor socioeconomic condition culminating into poor mental health among the rural agrarian community of central Maharashtra.

  18. Unsafe Disposal of Child Faeces: A Community-based Study in a Rural Block in West Bengal, India

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    Preeti PS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives A clean India is the responsibility of all Indians. One of the objectives of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Initiative is to bring about behavioural changes regarding healthy sanitation practices. While large-scale programs in India have increased latrine coverage, they have to some extent failed to bring behavioural changes ensuring optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child faeces, which is a significant source of exposure to faecal pathogens. Hence, this study was done to explore child faeces disposal practices in rural West Bengal and to elicit the determinants of unhygienic faeces disposal. Methods Data collection was done using an interview method among the mothers of 502 under-5 children, following a pre-designed, semi-structured schedule during house-to-house visits in a set of villages in the Hooghly district of West Bengal. Results The prevalence of unsafe disposal of child faeces was 72.4%, and maternal education, per capita income, and water source were found to be significantly associated with unsafe child faeces disposal. Conclusions This study draws attention to the unsafe disposal of child faeces in this area of India and raises questions about the efficiency of sanitation campaigns in rural India that focus on expanding coverage rather than emphasizing behavioural changes, which are crucial to ensure the safe disposal of child faeces. Thus, it is urgently necessary to strengthen efforts focusing on behavioural changes regarding the safe disposal of child faeces in order to minimise adverse health outcomes.

  19. Burden of anaemia in rural and urban jat women in haryana state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maninder, Kaur; Kochar, G K

    2009-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 600 Jat women (rural=300, urban=300), aged 40 to 70 years from Haryana state in North India. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the dietary intake of rural and urban middle-aged (40-59 years) and older (60 and above) Jat women. The findings indicated that all the subjects exhibited a decline in the mean values of haemoglobin (Hb) concentration with advancement in age. The mean blood Hb concentration of urban middle-aged and older women was 10.1±1.3g/dl and 9.91.4g/dl respectively, which was higher than their rural counterparts at all age groups, although the differences were statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The overall prevalence of anaemia reached 88.7% (rural women= 91.3%, urban women =86%). Daily dietary intake of rural and urban subjects was below the recommended dietary allowances. Physical performance of both groups of the women showed a decline with a decrease in Hb concentration. A significant and positive correlation of Hb status was observed with grip strength and vital capacity while a negative association was witnessed with blood pressure and pulse rate in both the rural and urban women. Anaemia among these women may be attributed to inadequate dietary intake, illiteracy, and poor access to health services.

  20. Assessment of periodontal health among the rural population of Moradabad, India

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    Manu Batra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an integral component of general health and is essential for well-being. India is one of the most populated countries in the world and majority of them resides in rural areas. Moradabad is one of the oldest cities of Uttar Pradesh with diverse culture and beliefs. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the periodontal health status of the rural Moradabad population. Materials and Methods: A representative transversal study on 550 adults aged 20-49 years of rural Moradabad was conducted from February 2011 to June 2011. The survey was carried out using a self-designed questionnaire. Periodontal health was assessed using WHO criteria (1997. Results: Overall the prevalence of periodontal diseases among study subjects was overall 91.6%. Males had a higher prevalence of periodontal disease (93.8% as compared to females (89.5%. Out of total subjects 37.8% had Community Periodontal Index (CPI score 4 and 32.5% had score 3. About 7.3% of subjects had loss of attachment (LOA with 20.2% of them having LOA score 1. Statistically, there was a significant difference (P 35 years, smoking, tobacco chewing (independent risk factors were significantly associated with CPI > 2 (dependent variable (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The current periodontal health status of rural adult population of Moradabad city can be attributed to low literacy along with socio economic status and oral habits. To improve the periodontal health status of the rural population of Moradabad, it is suggested that a community-based approach can be designed.

  1. Cardiometabolic risk factors and TV watching in a rural community in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Tanmay; Ghosh, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    No study has been undertaken among rural adult population of India to investigate the association of cardiometabolic risk factors with TV watching. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 1007 participants (645 males and 362 females) aged 20-80 years from a rural community. Anthropometric measures were collected using standard techniques. HOMA-IR was calculated accordingly. The significant higher value for MWC, WHtR, TER, SF4, BMI, %BF, FM, VFL, IVF, TC, LDL and FBG was observed with increasing duration of TV watching. No significant change was observed for TG, HDL, VLDL, DBP and MAP. Chi-square revealed significant difference for central obesity between male and females across TV watching category. The higher metabolic syndrome phenotypes were prevalent among both sexes with increasing duration of TV watching. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses (stepwise) revealed that occupation, monthly income, duration of TV watching in a day, education and monthly expenditure cumulatively explained ∼19% (R(2)=0.191) of the total variance of % body fat in the study. It seems rational to argue that lengthy TV watching time might have detrimental effect on CVD health. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal sessions in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ram, Faujdar; Ogollah, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India. The District Level Household Survey (2007-08) was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%-72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice. A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver appropriate and recommended advice to all clients, irrespective of

  3. Inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal sessions in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India.The District Level Household Survey (2007-08 was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%-72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice.A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver appropriate and recommended advice to all clients

  4. Stroke care challenges in rural India: Awareness of causes, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke among the rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaga Lakshmi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Management of stroke in the remote rural areas in India faces major challenges because of lack of awareness. Stroke care services can be optimally implemented only if the communities have an understanding of the disease. Method: A population based, cross sectional survey of an adult general population sample between the ages of 31-60 years in a rural block in Tamil Nadu, India was carried out to study their knowledge, attitude, beliefs about cause, signs and symptoms, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke. Results: Of the 174 subjects studied only 69% were aware of the term stroke and 63% were able to list the symptoms. Only a little more than half the participants (58% were aware that diabetes, smoking and hypertension are risk factors for stroke. None of the participants were aware of the endovascular thrombolysis injection for better recovery from stroke. About quarter (23% of the participants did not think that the stroke is an emergency condition and they need to take the patient urgently to the hospital. Only 56% of the participants had checked their blood pressure and 49% for diabetes. A history of having either hypertension or diabetes and stroke in the family was the only factor that was significantly associated with better awareness (p=<0.001 independent of other potential facilitating factors including age, occupation, education and gender. Conclusion: There is a need to educate the rural communities about the risk factors, how to recognize the onset, the preventive measures and optimum care of stroke to reduce the burden.

  5. Generation of electronic waste in India: Current scenario, dilemmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper tries to quantify the amount of E-waste generated in India with the related stakeholder involvement. Electronic waste (E-waste) or waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE), which is relatively a recent addition to the hazardous waste stream, is drawing rapid attention across the globe as the quantity ...

  6. Disparities in Prevalence of Cardiometablic Risk Factors in Rural, Urban-Poor, and Urban-Middle Class Women in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Mohan

    Full Text Available Urbanization is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. To determine location-based differences in CVD risk factors in India we performed studies among women in rural, urban-poor and urban middle-class locations.Population-based cross-sectional studies in rural, urban-poor, and urban-middle class women (35-70 y were performed at multiple sites. We evaluated 6853 women (rural 2616, 5 sites; urban-poor 2008, 4 sites; urban middle-class 2229, 11 sites for socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors. Descriptive statistics are reported.Mean levels of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR, systolic BP, fasting glucose and cholesterol in rural, urban-poor and urban-middle class women showed significantly increasing trends (ANOVAtrend, p 80 cm (28.3, 63.4, 61.9%, waist >90 cm (8.4, 31.4, 38.2%, waist hip ratio (WHR >0.8 (60.4, 90.7, 88.5, WHR>0.9 (13.0, 44.3, 56.1%, hypertension (31.6, 48.2, 59.0% and hypercholesterolemia (13.5, 27.7, 37.4% (Mantel Haenszel X2 ptrend <0.01. Inverse trend was observed for tobacco use (41.6, 19.6, 9.4%. There was significant association of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes with overweight and obesity (adjusted R2 0.89-0.99.There are significant location based differences in cardiometabolic risk factors in India. The urban-middle class women have the highest risk compared to urban-poor and rural.

  7. Scientific Journal Publishing in India: Promoting electronic publishing of scholarly journals in India

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Thomas; Minj, Suvarsha

    2007-01-01

    Provides a report about the Scientific Journal Publishing in India (SJPI) Project which promotes electronic publishing of scholarly journals. It covers briefly the objectives, implementation and outcomes of the Project. Open Journal Systems and Open Archives Harvester were used to achieve the goals of the Project.

  8. Benefits of an Android Based Tablet Application in Primary Screening for Eye Diseases in a Rural Population, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Sayed Ahmed; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Bharath, Balasubramaniam; Ramani, Ramanathan V

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effectiveness, efficiency and cost gains in collecting patient eye health information from remote rural villages of India by trained field investigators through an Android Based Tablet Application namely 'Sankara Electronic Remote Vision Information System (SERVIS)". During January and March 2016, a population based cross-sectional study was conducted in three Indian states employing SERVIS and manual method. The SERVIS application has a 48-items survey instrument programed into the application. Data on 281 individuals were collected for each of these methods as part of screening. The demographic details of individuals between both screening methods were comparable (P>0.05). The mean time (in minutes) to screen an individual by SERVIS was significantly less when compared to manual method (6.57±1.46 versus 11.93±1.53) (P<0.0001). The efficiency of SERVIS in screening was significantly evident as 26% (n = 73) of the patients screened have been referred to campsite and 69.8% (n = 51) of those referred were visited the campsite for a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist. The cost of screening through SERVIS is significantly less when compared to manual method; INR 7,633 (USD 113.9) Versus INR 24,780 (USD 370). SERVIS is an effective and efficient tool in terms of patients' referral conversion to the camp site leading to timely detection of potential blinding eye conditions and their appropriate treatment. This ensures timely prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. In addition, the storage and access of eye health epidemiological quality data is helpful to plan appropriate blindness prevention initiatives in rural India.

  9. Sociotechnical Narratives in Rural, High-Poverty Elementary Schools: Comparative Findings from East Texas and South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker, Erik J.

    2014-01-01

    The article's purpose is to compare case studies of computer technology use at two rural elementary schools across two international settings. This study uses the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) theory to guide this comparative investigation of how elementary school teachers and students in East Texas and South India construct meaning for…

  10. Caste Discrimination and Transaction Costs in the Labor Market: Evidence from Rural North India

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Ito

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an empirical attempt to quantify caste-based discrimination in thelabor market using household data taken from rural North India. In the regressionanalysis, transaction costs associated with entry into the labor market and reservationwages are estimated simultaneously along with market wages. The estimation resultsprovide evidence of the existence of transaction costs in the labor market anddiscrimination against backward classes with regard to access to regular employment. Inli...

  11. Gender differences, routes of transmission, socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV related infections of adults and children in an HIV cohort from a rural district of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Midde, Manoranjan; Pakam, Raghavakalyam; Naik, Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-02

    Despite 67% of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, the epidemiology of HIV in rural areas is not well known. This is an observational cohort study of 11,040 HIV infected people living in a rural district of India. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis of HIV infected patients were compared to the seroprevalence in 16,641 blood donors from the same area. The age of diagnosis in adults was below 35 years in 70% of cases and 56% were illiterate. One third of women were widows and only 3.6% of adults had a permanent job. Women were diagnosed at earlier age, had lower level of education, had poorer employment conditions and depended more on their relatives than men. In a survey performed to a subgroup of patients, 81% of women referred to have acquired HIV from their spouse, whereas 51% of men acquired HIV from commercial sex. Patients with HIV had significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis than blood donors. Seroprevalence of HIV-2, hepatitis C and toxoplasmosis were low compared to other sites. Six percent were children (illiteracy of people living with HIV in rural India, especially women. Future health programmes of HIV in India should take into account the particularities of the HIV epidemic in rural areas.

  12. People's participation in rural electrification - a successful case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalapur, G.D. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal (India); Udaykumar, R.Y. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Department of Electrical Engineering, Surathkal (India)

    2012-06-15

    Rural electrification is an integral component of poverty alleviation and rural growth of a nation. A developing nation, like India has 72.2 percent people living in rural areas. Still, electricity has not played an effective role in the socio-economic growth of villages. The Government of India has an ambitious target of providing electricity to all villages by 2008 and all rural households by 2012. Steps are already initiated with Rural Electric Corporation, Rural Electricity Supply Technology Mission, State Electricity Boards led reforms, Reforms in Power Sector, Electricity Act 2003, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana etc. An attempt has been made in this paper to assess the present status of rural electrification in India and the major factors contributing to rural electrical distribution. Steps initiated by the Government of India through Rural Electric Corporation (REC) and a successful case study of the people's participation model is presented. (orig.)

  13. Institutional delivery in rural India: the relative importance of accessibility and economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterton, Amy J; Cleland, John; Sloggett, Andy; Ronsmans, Carine

    2010-06-06

    Skilled attendance at delivery is an important indicator in monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. In addition to professional attention, it is important that mothers deliver their babies in an appropriate setting, where life saving equipment and hygienic conditions can also help reduce the risk of complications that may cause death or illness to mother and child. Over the past decade interest has grown in examining influences on care-seeking behavior and this study investigates the determinants of place of delivery in rural India, with a particular focus on assessing the relative importance of community access and economic status. A descriptive analysis of trends in place of delivery using data from two national representative sample surveys in 1992 and 1998 is followed by a two-level (child/mother and community) random-effects logistical regression model using the second survey to investigate the determinants. In this investigation of institutional care seeking for child birth in rural India, economic status emerges as a more crucial determinant than access. Economic status is also the strongest influence on the choice between a private-for-profit or public facility amongst institutional births. Greater availability of obstetric services will not alone solve the problem of low institutional delivery rates. This is particularly true for the use of private-for-profit institutions, in which the distance to services does not have a significant adjusted effect. In the light of these findings a focus on increasing demand for existing services seems the most rational action. In particular, financial constraints need to be addressed, and results support current trials of demand side financing in India.

  14. Reconsidering the popularity of primary health centers in India: a case study from rural Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, V R

    1995-07-01

    Most evaluations of India's primary health care (PHC) program have been critical of the ways government primary health centers have been functioning. It has been commonly noted that utilization of health services is poor and community participation in the PHC outreach program low. Additionally, medical officers and health center staff are often accused of being negligent in their duties. In this paper I argue that it is worthwhile examining how a popular primary health center functions in a context marked by a growing demand for Western medicines. Attention is drawn to the ingenious ways in which health personnel respond to client demands and government medicine shortages. The case of a popular primary health center in rural Maharashtra is presented. This health center is both the site of public and private health care. Discussed is the manner in which rural populations in India maximize available health care options given time, cash and transportation constraints. Current thinking about community health financing is considered in light of existing health care utilization patterns, community evaluation of free services, perceptions of entitlement and the likely response of practitioners to such schemes.

  15. Rural recruitment and retention of health workers across cadres and types of contract in north-east India: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbangshi, Preety R; Nambiar, Devaki; Choudhury, Nandini; Rao, Krishna D

    2017-09-01

    Background Like many other low- and middle-income countries, India faces challenges of recruiting and retaining health workers in rural areas. Efforts have been made to address this through contractual appointment of health workers in rural areas. While this has helped to temporarily bridge the gaps in human resources, the overall impact on the experience of rural services across cadres has yet to be understood. This study sought to identify motivations for, and the challenges of, rural recruitment and retention of nurses, doctors and specialists across types of contract in rural and remote areas in India's largely rural north-eastern states of Meghalaya and Nagaland. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken, in which 71 semi-structured interviews were carried out with doctors (n = 32), nurses (n = 28) and specialists (n = 11). In addition, unstructured key informant interviews (n = 11) were undertaken, along with observations at health facilities and review of state policies. Data were analysed using Ritchie and Spencer's framework method and the World Health Organization's 2010 framework of factors affecting decisions to relocate to, stay in or leave rural areas. Results It was found that rural background and community attachment were strongly associated with health workers' decision to join rural service, regardless of cadre or contract. However, this aspiration was challenged by health-systems factors of poor working and living conditions; low salary and incentives; and lack of professional growth and recognition. Contractual health workers faced unique challenges (lack of pay parity, job insecurity), as did those with permanent positions (irrational postings and political interference). Conclusion This study establishes that the crisis in recruiting and retaining health workers in rural areas will persist until and unless health systems address the core basic requirements of health workers in rural areas, which are related to health-sector policies

  16. The Effect of Early Childhood Developmental Program Attendance on Future School Enrollment in Rural North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Gautam; Viren, Vejoya

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of prior participation in early childhood developmental programs, considered endogenous, upon 7-18 years olds' school enrollment in rural North India. Analyses by age group of data from the World Bank's 1997-98 Survey of Living Conditions in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar reveal that 7-10 year olds, 11-14 year olds, and…

  17. Quality of Life Determinants in Breast Cancer Patients in Central Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangane, Nitin; Khairkar, Pravin; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2017-12-29

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women throughout world, with incidence rates increasing in India. Improved survival in breast cancer patients has resulted in their quality of life (QOL) becoming an important issue. Identifying determinants for QOL may provide insights into how to improve their living conditions. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic and clinical factors, as well as the role of self-efficacy, in relation to QOL among women with breast cancer in rural India. Methods: A total of 208 female patients with infiltrating carcinoma of the breast participated in the study. A questionnaire was administered that included sections for socio-demographic characteristics, clinical stage of the cancer and patient delay in seeking health care. A standardized instrument to measure self-efficacy was applied. To assess QOL, the WHOQOL – BREF instrument was used. Results: The overall mean score for QOL was 59.3. For domain 1 (physical health) the mean score across all groups was 55.5, for psychological health 58.2, for social relationships 63.2 and for environmental factors, 60.4. The environmental domain in QOL was negatively associated with lower education. Being divorced/widowed/unmarried had a negative association with the psychological health and social relationship dimensions, whereas higher income was positively associated with QOL parameters such as psychology, social relationships and environmental factors. Self-efficacy was positively associated with all four domains of QOL. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated a moderate QOL in women with breast cancer in rural India. Young age, lack of education and being without a partner were negatively related to QOL, and employment as casual and industrial workers, high monthly family income and higher self-efficacy were positively associated with QOL. A comprehensive public health initiative is required, including social, financial and environmental support, that

  18. Cognitive Access to TVWS in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kishor P.; Skouby, Knud Erik; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    The digital transition of TV transmission will make available some TV frequencies which are to be geographically unused called as TV White Spaces. The important regulatory trend in the context of Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is the Cognitive access of TV white Spaces. In this context, we have pe...... of India, we have proposed wireless broadband access to rural areas using TV White Spaces (TVWSs). This will help in bridging the digital divide by offering governance, banking, and health services online in the rural areas.......The digital transition of TV transmission will make available some TV frequencies which are to be geographically unused called as TV White Spaces. The important regulatory trend in the context of Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is the Cognitive access of TV white Spaces. In this context, we have...... performed spectrum measurements of TV band in Pune, India. Our result shows poor spectrum utilization in TV band, and good potential for Cognitive radio operation. Digital switchover in India will generate golden opportunity for empowering rural India. As majority of India’s population lives in rural part...

  19. CHARM, a gender equity and family planning intervention for men and couples in rural India: protocol for the cluster randomized controlled trial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Jennifer; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusadana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Raj, Anita

    2016-02-20

    Globally, 41% of all pregnancies are unintended, increasing risk for unsafe abortion, miscarriage and maternal and child morbidities and mortality. One in four pregnancies in India (3.3 million pregnancies, annually) are unintended; 2/3 of these occur in the context of no modern contraceptive use. In addition, no contraceptive use until desired number and sex composition of children is achieved remains a norm in India. Research shows that globally and in India, the youngest and most newly married wives are least likely to use contraception and most likely to report husband's exclusive family planning decision-making control, suggesting that male engagement and family planning support is important for this group. Thus, the Counseling Husbands to Achieve Reproductive Health and Marital Equity (CHARM) intervention was developed in recognition of the need for more male engagement family planning models that include gender equity counseling and focus on spacing contraception use in rural India. For this study, a multi-session intervention delivered to men but inclusive of their wives was developed and evaluated as a two-armed cluster randomized controlled design study conducted across 50 mapped clusters in rural Maharashtra, India. Eligible rural young husbands and their wives (N = 1081) participated in a three session gender-equity focused family planning program delivered to the men (Sessions 1 and 2) and their wives (Session 3) by village health providers in rural India. Survey assessments were conducted at baseline and 9&18 month follow-ups with eligible men and their wives, and pregnancy tests were obtained from wives at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Additional in-depth understanding of how intervention impact occurred was assessed via in-depth interviews at 18 month follow-up with VHPs and a subsample of couples (n = 50, 2 couples per intervention cluster). Process evaluation was conducted to collect feedback from husbands, wives, and VHPs on program

  20. Intrahousehold Allocation of Nutrients in Rural India: Are Boys Favored? Do Parents Exhibit Inequality Aversion?

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Jere R

    1988-01-01

    This paper develops a multinutrient input, multihealth related outcome model of intrahousehold nutrient allocation that permits identification of gender preferences and equity-productivity tradeoffs. Estimates for rural South India suggest that parents display male preference during the lean season, particularly in lower-caste households. Parents also exhibit inequality aversion so pure investment models may be misleading, though such inequality aversion is less in the lean season than estima...

  1. Attitude about mental illness of health care providers and community leaders in rural Haryana, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Ramesh Salve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attitude about mental illness determines health seeking of the people. Success of National Mental Health Programme (NMHP is dependent on attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders in the programme. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in Ballabgarh block of Faridabad district in Haryana. We aimed to study attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders of health care providers (HCP, community leaders in rural area of Haryana, north India. Study area consisting of five Primary Health Centers (PHCs serving 2,12,000 rural population. All HCP working at PHCs, Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and community leaders in study area were approached for participation. Hindi version of Opinion about Mental illness Scale for Chinese Community (OMICC was used to study attitude. Results: In total, 467 participants were participated in the study. Of which, HCP, ASHAs and community leaders were 81 (17.4%, 145 (31.0% and 241 (51.6% respectively. Community members reported socially restrictive, pessimistic and stereotyping attitude towards mentally ill person. ASHA and HCP reported stereotyping attitude about person with mental illness. None of the stakeholders reported stigmatizing attitude. Conclusion: Training programme focusing on spectrum of mental illness for HCP and ASHA working in rural area under NMHP programme is needed. Awareness generation of community leaders about bio-medical concept of mental illness is cornerstone of NMHP success in India.

  2. Application of Handheld Tele-ECG for Health Care Delivery in Rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Telemonitoring is a medical practice that involves remotely monitoring patients who are not at the same location as the health care provider. The purpose of our study was to use handheld tele-electrocardiogram (ECG developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC to identify heart conditions in the rural underserved population where the doctor-patient ratio is low and access to health care is difficult. The objective of our study was clinical validation of handheld tele-ECG as a screening tool for evaluation of cardiac diseases in the rural population. ECG was obtained in 450 individuals (mean age 31.49 ± 20.058 residing in the periphery of Chandigarh, India, from April 2011 to March 2013, using the handheld tele-ECG machine. The data were then transmitted to physicians in Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh, for their expert opinion. ECG was interpreted as normal in 70% individuals. Left ventricular hypertrophy (9.3% was the commonest abnormality followed closely by old myocardial infarction (5.3%. Patient satisfaction was reported to be ~95%. Thus, it can be safely concluded that tele-ECG is a portable, cost-effective, and convenient tool for diagnosis and monitoring of heart diseases and thus improves quality and accessibility, especially in rural areas.

  3. Significance of End-of-life Dreams and Visions Experienced by the Terminally Ill in Rural and Urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Abhijit Kanti

    2016-01-01

    End-of-life dreams and visions (ELDVs) are not uncommon and are experienced by many near the time of death. These visions can occur months, weeks, days or hours before death. We wanted to document ELDVs, if any, in rural and urban settings in India, where talking about death is usually considered a taboo and also to compare its incidence with the urban population. Do terminally ill patients receiving home care in rural and urban India experience ELDVs? If yes, then an enquiry into the nature of such ELDVs. Prospective, cohort based, with a mixed-methods research design. 60 terminally ill patients with Palliative Performance Scale of 7 (on a VAS of 1-10), which corresponded to 'severe distress'. 94.7% (36) patients felt much better having discussed their ELDVs with the team. The results of our study suggest that ELDVs are not uncommon in India and the incidence does not differ significantly between rural and urban population. Our subjects found them to be distressing initially, but felt better after discussing it with our team. There was a direct correlation between severity of symptoms and occurrence and frequency of ELDVs. Another finding exclusive to our study was that the persons visualized in ELDVs did not threaten or scare the patient and the known persons visualized were seen as they were in their prime of health. We feel that addressing such 'issues' is of paramount importance with a view to providing holistic care. I feel that they strongly suggest the presence of life after death and when properly explained, can reinforce a sense of hope.

  4. SELF HELP GROUPS (SHGS: MICRO FINANCE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivam SAKSHI

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro finance in India has developed in decades from an idea to implementation to many success stories to an overall success. The early dawn of the idea of micro financing was to provide the capital to the population which was considered the bottom of socio economic pyramid so as to carry out the small household business and this idea has gradually grown up to become the way to help improve the socio standards of the poor people. India is the country of villages, more than 70% of the nation’s population resides in the rural areas of the country and 60% of this rural population depends on agriculture for living. In such situation the micro financing can play a vital role in making the rural people’s life easy. In a developing country like India with a lot of people residing in rural areas, micro finance is undoubtedly the best implementation. Self Help Groups of India has emerged as the world’s largest and most successful network of Community Based Organisations. The main goal of an SHG is to elevate the living conditions of the rural poor with a maximum emphasize on women. The present paper’s objective is to explain the situation of micro finance in India and to explain the main channel of micro finance in India which is SHGs and the details of the SHGs.

  5. Seniors' recreation centers in rural India: Need of the hour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Susan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To empower and bring the underprivileged senior citizens in the rural areas to the mainstream of life through setting up of model “senior citizens' recreation centers” that can be replicated in the other parts of the country. Materials and Methods: Six senior citizens' recreation centers are run in six villages under a community health program of a leading Medical College in South India, which were started by looking into their perceived needs and in a location where organized self-help women groups (SHGs showed willingness to take the role of caretakers. Together there are 140 members in 6 centers and the most deserving members were identified using a participatory rural appraisal (PRA method. These centers are open for 5 days a week and the main attraction of the center has been provision of one good, wholesome, noon-meal a day, apart from several recreational activities. The members were also assessed for chronic energy deficiency (CED and quality of life at the beginning of enrolment using body mass index (BMI and WHO-BREF scale. Results: The attendance to these centers was nearly 90% of the enrolled beneficiaries. A statistically significant improvement was noticed in quality of life in the physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain (P < 0.05. There was also a significant increase in the average BMI after 1 year of the intervention (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Care of underprivileged senior citizens is a growing need in the rural areas and the “Recreation centers” proved to be a beneficial model that can be easily replicated.

  6. Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

  7. Snakebite and its socio-economic impact on the rural population of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families.

  8. Identifying Structural Changes from Within: Emancipatory Narratives Exploring Community Constraints to Women's Education and Empowerment in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Using a critical theory framework, the article explores emancipatory narratives obtained through a case study of women in rural India. In-depth interviews, focus group conversations, observations, and document analysis highlight the complexity of the subsequent set of challenges facing women as it relates to both the education and empowerment for…

  9. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

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    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  10. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Vijaykumar, Varalaxmi; Prashanth, N S; Sudarshan, H; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Black, Jim; Shet, Arun

    2009-02-17

    Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and our study design and technique provide a useful demonstration of a

  11. Changing trends in the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in a rural district of India: Systematic observations over a decade

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    Rohit C Khanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Globally, limited data are available on changing trends of blindness from a single region. Aims : To report the changing trends in the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment (VI, and visual outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural district of Andhra Pradesh, India, over period of one decade. Settings and Design : Rural setting; cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : Using a validated Rapid Assessment of Cataract Surgical Services (RACSS method, population-based, cross-sectional survey was done in a rural district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Two-stage sampling procedure was used to select participants ≥50 years of age. Further, a comparative analysis was done with participants ≥50 years from the previously concluded Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS study, who belonged to the same district. Statistical Analysis : Done using 11 th version of Stata. Results : Using RACSS, 2160/2300 (93.9% participants were examined as compared with the APEDS dataset (n=521. Age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness in RACSS and APEDS was 8% (95% CI, 6.9-9.1% and 11% (95% CI, 8.3-13.7%, while that of VI was 13.6% (95% CI, 12.2-15.1% and 40.3% (95% CI, 36.1-44.5%, respectively. Cataract was the major cause of blindness in both the studies. There was a significant reduction in blindness following cataract surgery as observed through RACSS (17.3%; 95% CI, 13.5-21.8% compared with APEDS (34%; 95% CI, 20.9-49.3%. Conclusion : There was a significant reduction in prevalence of blindness and VI in this rural district of India over a decade.

  12. Grasslands in India: Problems and perspectives for sustaining livestock and rural livelihoods

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    Ajoy K. Roy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In India, grazing-based livestock husbandry plays an important role in the rural economy as around 50% of animals depend on grazing. Pasturelands over an area of 12 Mha constitute the main grazing resources that are available. Temperate/alpine pastures are spread across elevations higher than 2000 m in the Eastern and Western Himalayas including the Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim states. Nearly 30 pastoral communities in hilly or arid/semi-arid regions in northern and western parts of India, as well as 20 in temperate/hilly regions, depend on grazing-based livestock production. Due to overgrazing coupled with poor management and care, these grazing lands have deteriorated to a large extent and need amelioration or rehabilitation. Appropriate technologies have been developed, refined and tested in various research and academic institutions. These technologies need to be implemented on a large scale in different parts of the country for augmenting forage resources, enhancing livestock production and sustaining livelihood options in an eco-friendly manner.

  13. Confronting the climate change challenge: discussing the role of rural India under cumulative emission budget approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaechele, Harald; Amjath-Babu, T.S.; Kutter, Thomas; Specht, Kathrin; Nautiyal, Sunil; Müller, Klaus; Raju, K.V.

    2011-01-01

    Current global climate policy architecture does not aim at stabilizing the greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere that may achieve the proclaimed 2 °C guard rail. An alternative approach that targets on limiting the global cumulative emission to accomplish such an outcome is put forward by German Advisory Board of Global Change (WBGU). This research work further elaborates the approach and its flexibility instrument i.e. carbon trading. As the approach visualises sharing of the carbon budget (750Gt CO 2 ) equally to every human being (2.7 t CO 2 per capita), India is the country with largest tradable surplus reflecting its low emission per capita and large population. The research work further analyzes the emission profile of rural India and the significance of its future emission pathways within the proposed framework. It also shows how low carbon development in India can assist in cost effective decarbonization of industrialized countries and mitigation of climate change, given a global climate treaty based on the WBGU approach.

  14. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: still too slow · Is Wireless the answer?

  15. Gender differences, routes of transmission, socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV related infections of adults and children in an HIV cohort from a rural district of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite 67% of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, the epidemiology of HIV in rural areas is not well known. This is an observational cohort study of 11,040 HIV infected people living in a rural district of India. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis of HIV infected patients were compared to the seroprevalence in 16,641 blood donors from the same area. The age of diagnosis in adults was below 35 years in 70% of cases and 56% were illiterate. One third of women were widows and only 3.6% of adults had a permanent job. Women were diagnosed at earlier age, had lower level of education, had poorer employment conditions and depended more on their relatives than men. In a survey performed to a subgroup of patients, 81% of women referred to have acquired HIV from their spouse, whereas 51% of men acquired HIV from commercial sex. Patients with HIV had significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis than blood donors. Seroprevalence of HIV-2, hepatitis C and toxoplasmosis were low compared to other sites. Six percent were children (<15 years and almost half of them had lost one or both of their parents. The study shows the poor socio-economical situation and the high level of illiteracy of people living with HIV in rural India, especially women. Future health programmes of HIV in India should take into account the particularities of the HIV epidemic in rural areas.

  16. An Entitlement Approach to Address the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, T. U.; Fishman, R.; Modi, V.; Lall, U.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater mining in India is one of the biggest water related present and future challenges of South Asia. In the agricultural sector, the negative impact from groundwater depletion is complex and affects farmers directly and indirectly in different ways according to their existing dependence on access to groundwater for irrigation. It stems from a) a reduction in buffer capacity of groundwater as a source of backup supply in critical times of drought, b) the deprivation of access to groundwater of those farmers that cannot raise the capital to continuously drill deeper so as to chase the declining groundwater table and c) the constant reduction of per pump well yield due to the declining water tables given more or less constant pumping energy supply. As a result, rural incomes have become less reliable and household as well as national level food security are increasingly compromised. It is feared that the current deterioration of the national food security situation in India might not easily be reversed due to the unsustainable nature of consumptive groundwater use over the past decades. Access to electricity and subsidized power so as to pump groundwater for irrigation have played a critical role in increasing food production thus linking the energy and agricultural sector. The current rural public finance mechanism is highly ineffective, however, and trapped in an inefficient equilibrium. The deficiencies are that low cost and low quality electricity for agriculture likely translate into wasteful groundwater as well as inefficient energy use and thus lead to resource depletion and contribute to an erosion of the rural electricity distribution system. It is estimated that the current commercial losses to the State Electricity Boards (SEBs) amount to about 23 percent of the gross fiscal deficit of the states. The original intent of the rural subsidy program is thus lost and the current system in urgent need of repair. The uncertain future development of energy

  17. Women's autonomy and experience of physical violence within marriage in rural India: evidence from a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarwal, Shagun; Santhya, K G; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence regarding the relationship between married women's autonomy and risk of marital violence remains mixed. Moreover, studies examining the contribution of specific aspects of women's autonomy in influencing the risk of marital violence using measures of autonomy that incorporate its dynamic nature are rare. We investigated the relationship between women's autonomy and their experience of marital violence in rural India using prospective data. We used data on 4,904 rural women drawn from two linked studies: the NFHS-2, conducted during 1998-1999 and a follow-up study for a subgroup of women carried out during 2002-2003. Three dimensions of autonomy were used: financial autonomy, freedom of movement, and household decision-making. Marital violence was measured as experience of physical violence in the year prior to the follow-up survey. Findings indicate the protective effects of financial autonomy and freedom of movement in reducing the risk of marital violence in the overall model. Furthermore, region-wise analysis revealed that in the more gender equitable settings of south India, financial autonomy exerted a protective influence on risk of marital violence. However, in the more gender-stratified settings of north India, none of the dimensions of autonomy were found to have any protective effect on women's risk of marital violence. Results argue for an increased focus on strategies aimed at improving women's financial status through livelihood skill-building opportunities, development of a strong savings orientation, and asset-building options.

  18. Operational challenges in conducting a community-based technology-enabled mental health services delivery model for rural India: Experiences from the SMART Mental Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Pallab K; Kallakuri, Sudha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha

    2018-01-01

    Background: There are large gaps in the delivery of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries such as India, and the problems are even more acute in rural settings due to lack of resources, remoteness, and lack of infrastructure, amongst other factors. The Systematic Medical Appraisal Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health Project was conceived as a mental health services delivery model using technology-based solutions for rural India. This paper reports on the operational strategies used to facilitate the implementation of the intervention. Method: Key components of the SMART Mental Health Project included delivering an anti-stigma campaign, training of primary health workers in screening, diagnosing and managing stress, depression and increased suicide risk and task sharing of responsibilities in delivering care; and using mobile technology based electronic decision support systems to support delivery of algorithm based care for such disorders. The intervention was conducted in 42 villages across two sites in the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India. A pre-post mixed methods evaluation was done, and in this paper operational challenges are reported. Results: Both quantitative and qualitative results from the evaluation from one site covering about 5000 adults showed that the intervention was feasible and acceptable, and initial results indicated that it was beneficial in increasing access to mental health care and reducing depression and anxiety symptoms. A number of strategies were initiated in response to operational challenges to ensure smoother conduct of the project and facilitated the project to be delivered as envisaged. Conclusions: The operational strategies initiated for this project were successful in ensuring the delivery of the intervention. Those, coupled with other more systematic processes have informed the researchers to understand key processes that need to be in place to develop a more robust study, that could eventually be

  19. EMERGENCE OF ENTIRELY NEW POISONING IN RURAL INDIA; AN UPCOMING HEALTH HAZARD TO THE COMMUNITY HEALTH.

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    A Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute agrochemical poisoning is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in India. Pendimethalin (herbicide and Pancycuron (fungicide are frequently used worldwide and considered quite a remarkably safe one for humans. Their acute toxicity is not yet widely known. Here we are reporting cases of their acute poisoning in young. To the best of our knowledge not a single such case of their poisoning has been reported so far in india. Such poisoning by entirely new compounds is an emerging problem in the tropics. In this communication we are reporting such unusual and entirely new toxicities and trying to highlight the need of their early recognition and timely management in rural regions where health facilities are already at the stake.

  20. Clinical and endoscopic profile of the patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in central rural India: A hospital-based cross-sectional study

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    Jyoti Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute Upper Gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB is one of the common causes with which the patients present to emergency. The upper gastrointestinal (UGI endoscopy remains a crucial tool in identification of UGIB. The aim of the present study was to determine the endoscopic profile of UGIB in adult population of rural central India admitted with history of UGIB (hemetemesis and/or malena. Methods: This prospective, cross sectional study was conducted in rural hospital in central India and we enrolled all consecutive patients aged 18 years and above who were admitted in the hospital ward with the history of UGIB. After obtaining the demographic data, all patients underwent clinical examination, laboratory investigations and video-endoscopy. We used Student's t test to compare means, Chi-square test to compare proportions and Mann-Whitney test to compare medians. P value <0.05 will be considered significant. Results: The mean age of our study population (N = 118 was 46.2 years. Among 118 patients who underwent endoscopy, 47.4% had esophageal varices, 27.1% had portal hypertensive gastropathy, 14.4% had gastric erosions, 5.9% each had duodenal ulcers and esophagitis, 5% had gastric ulcer disease, 4.2% each had Mallory-Weiss tear and had gastric malignancy, 1.7% had esophageal malignancy and 16.1% had normal endoscopic findings. Conclusion: Esophageal varices were the most common cause of UGIB in the adult population of rural central India presenting with UGIB, when diagnosed by video-endoscopy.

  1. Associations between active travel and adiposity in rural India and Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ailsa J; Laverty, Anthony A; Shridhar, Krithiga; Alam, Dewan; Dias, Amit; Williams, Joseph; Millett, Christopher; Ebrahim, Shah; Dhillon, Preet K

    2015-10-24

    Data on use and health benefits of active travel in rural low- and middle- income country settings are sparse. We aimed to examine correlates of active travel, and its association with adiposity, in rural India and Bangladesh. Cross sectional study of 2,122 adults (≥18 years) sampled in 2011-13 from two rural sites in India (Goa and Chennai) and one in Bangladesh (Matlab). Logistic regression was used to examine whether ≥150 min/week of active travel was associated with socio-demographic indices, smoking, oil/butter consumption, and additional physical activity. Adjusting for these same factors, associations between active travel and BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were examined using linear and logistic regression. Forty-six percent of the sample achieved recommended levels of physical activity (≥150 min/week) through active travel alone (range: 33.1 % in Matlab to 54.8 % in Goa). This was more frequent among smokers (adjusted odds ratio 1.36, 95 % confidence interval 1.07-1.72; p = 0.011) and those that spent ≥150 min/week in work-based physical activity (OR 1.71, 1.35-2.16; p travel was associated with lower BMI (adjusted coefficient -0.39 kg/m(2), -0.77 to -0.02; p = 0.037) and a lower likelihood of high waist circumference (OR 0.77, 0.63-0.96; p = 0.018) and high waist-to-hip ratio (OR 0.72, 0.58-0.89; p = 0.002). Use of active travel for ≥150 min/week was associated with being male, smoking, and higher levels of work-based physical activity. It was associated with lower BMI, and lower risk of a high waist circumference or high waist-to-hip ratio. Promotion of active travel is an important component of strategies to address the growing prevalence of overweight in rural low- and middle- income country settings.

  2. Economics of household technology adoption in developing countries: evidence from solar technology adoption in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Aklin, M.; Bayer, P.; Harish, S.P.; Urpelainen, J.

    2018-01-01

    Innovation is one of the most important drivers of economic development. Even in developing countries, households have access to a wide array of new technologies. However, factors affecting households’ technology adoption decisions remain poorly understood. Using data on solar microgrid adoption from rural India, we investigate the determinants of household technology adoption. We offer all households identical solar products to avoid bias from product differentiation. Households pay a monthl...

  3. How Can a Computer be Useful to You? A Feasibility Study to Elicit Perceptions of Computers in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavnani, Suresh K.; Chavan, Apala L.; Jain, Isha; Maroo, Sudhanshoo

    2011-01-01

    The growing influx of information and communication technologies (ICTs) into rural India provides new opportunities for the prevention and treatment of diseases across millions of residents. However, little is known about how rural Indians with little or no exposure to computers perceive computers and their uses, and how best to elicit those perceptions. Such perceptions could lead to new insights for using ICTs to affect health behavior change in developing countries. We therefore developed a semi-structured interview approach to probe how residents of a north Indian village perceived computers and their uses. The results suggest that besides helping to overturn several assumptions of the researchers through unexpected insights, the approach could be easily implemented in rural settings, which could lead to deeper insights for developing future culturally and medically-relevant ICTs for rural residents. PMID:22195062

  4. Rural perspectives of climate change: a study from Saurastra and Kutch of Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghariya, Dineshkumar P; Smardon, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    This research reports on rural people's beliefs and understandings of climate change in the Saurastra/ Kutch region of Western India. Results suggest that although most rural respondents have not heard about the scientific concept of climate change, they have detected changes in the climate. They appear to hold divergent understandings about climate change and have different priorities for causes and solutions. Many respondents appear to base their understandings of climate change upon a mix of ideas drawn from various sources and rely on different kinds of reasoning in relation to both causes of and solutions to climate change to those used by scientists. Environmental conditions were found to influence individuals' understanding of climate change, while demographic factors were not. The results suggest a need to learn more about people's conceptual models and understandings of climate change and a need to include local climate research in communication efforts.

  5. Metals in urine in relation to the prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes and atherosclerosis in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Ganesan; Swaminathan, Krishnan; Veerasekar, Ganesh; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Mohanraj, Sundaresan; Dhivakar, Mani; Avula, Anil Kumar; Cherian, Mathew; Palaniswami, Nalla G; Alexander, Thomas; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2018-04-19

    Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are growing burdens in rural communities worldwide. We have observed a high prevalence of diabetes among rural farming communities in India and sought to evaluate the association of non-traditional risk factors, such as metals, with diabetes and other cardiometabolic risk factors in this community. Anthropometric measurements, chemistries and carotid intima-media thickness were determined in 865 participants of the Kovai Medical Center and Hospital-Nallampatti Non-Communicable Disease Study-I (KMCH-NNCD-I, 2015), a cross-sectional study conducted in a farming village in South India. Urinary metal levels were determined by inductively couped plasma-mass spectrometry analysis and corrected to urinary creatinine level. Statistical analyses were performed to study the association between urinary metal levels and clinical parameters. 82.5% of the study population were involved in farming and high levels of toxic metals were detected in the synthetic fertilisers used in the study village. The prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes and atherosclerosis was 43.4%, 16.2% and 10.3%, respectively. On logistic regression analysis, no association of traditional risk factors such as body mass index, blood pressure and total cholesterol with disease conditions was observed, but urinary levels of metals such as arsenic, chromium, aluminium and zinc showed an association with diabetes, while arsenic and zinc showed an association with pre-diabetes and atherosclerosis. Our data suggest a probable role of metals in the aetiology of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in rural communities. Identifying and eliminating the causes of increased levels of these environmental chemicals could have a beneficial impact on the burden of non-communicable diseases in rural population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  6. Voluntary blood donation in a rural block of Vellore, South India: A knowledge, attitude and practice study

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    Akhil Kurup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a shortage of voluntary blood donors in developing countries which are, therefore, more dependent on replacement donors. Aim: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding voluntary blood donation in a rural block in Vellore, South India. Settings and Designs: A cross-sectional survey in randomly selected villages of a rural block in Vellore, South India. Materials and Methods: Knowledge, attitude, and practices were assessed using a pilot-tested, semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire on randomly chosen rural adults aged between 18 and 60 years. Results: Of the 104 individuals interviewed, 90% were aware of voluntary blood donation, the main source of this awareness being television. Nearly, two-thirds of the participants felt they would fall sick by donating blood and that women and manual laborers were not capable of blood donation. Among the interviewed, 70.3% were of the opinion that blood can purchased with money. Only 44% were willing to donate blood on a voluntary basis. Perceived weakness and a misconception on the apparent lack of blood were the major reasons for unwillingness to donate blood. There was a significant association between willingness to donate blood and educational status as well as occupation, with the less educated and manual laborers unwilling to donate blood on a voluntary basis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.758, confidence interval [CI] = 1.54–9.156; OR = 5.333, CI = 1.429–19.90, respectively. Conclusions: The study found that although awareness on voluntary blood donation among individuals in the rural community was widespread, hesitancy to donate blood in real life situation was high. Since voluntary unpaid donors are the best candidates for blood donation, community being the best available source, education, and motivation of the community should play a greater role in increasing voluntary blood donation.

  7. Urban-rural inequities in the parental attitudes and beliefs towards Human papillomavirus infection, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine in Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, Abraham; Krupp, Karl; Fennie, Kristopher; Li, Tan; Stephens, Dionne P; Marlow, Laura A V; Srinivas, Vijaya; Arun, Anjali; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2018-03-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the parental attitudes and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine between urban and rural areas, India. Cross sectional SETTING: Mysore, India PARTICIPANTS: Parents of school going adolescent girls INTERVENTION: Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: : Attitudes and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine RESULTS: A total of 1609 parents from urban (n=778) and rural (n=831) areas participated in this study. Majority of the parents had never heard about HPV (73.6%), did not know that their daughters could get an HPV infection (62.7%) or cervical cancer (64.1%) in the future, and believed that HPV vaccine was not effective (67.1%). Parents living in the urban area were more likely to believe that HPV infection (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 2.69; 95%CI:1.43, 5.06) and cervical cancer (aOR 2.68; 95%CI:1.83, 3.91) could cause serious health problems than those living in the rural area. The odds of agreeing that HPV vaccination will make girls sexually active was lower among urban than rural parents (aOR 0.55; 95%CI:0.33, 0.94). There was no significant difference among parents in the urban and rural areas in their beliefs about susceptibility of their daughter to HPV infection or cervical cancer, and beliefs about the safety and ability of HPV vaccine to protect cervical cancer. Rural parents might be reluctant to recommend behaviors that can help prevent HPV infection and cervical cancer such as HPV vaccination for their daughters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Kumar, Bhavana N; Adamson, Paul; Krupp, Karl

    2010-09-22

    There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT and maternal child health programs in

  9. Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health Programme for providing innovative mental health care in rural communities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Devarapalli, S; Kallakuri, S; Praveen, D; Jha, V; Patel, A

    2015-01-01

    India has few mental health professionals to treat the large number of people suffering from mental disorders. Rural areas are particularly disadvantaged due to lack of trained health workers. Ways to improve care could be by training village health workers in basic mental health care, and by using innovative methods of service delivery. The ongoing Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment Mental Health Programme will assess the acceptability, feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a task-shifting mobile-based intervention using mixed methods, in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. The key components of the study are an anti-stigma campaign followed by a mobile-based mental health services intervention. The study will be done across two sites in rural areas, with intervention periods of 1 year and 3 months, respectively. The programme uses a mobile-based clinical decision support tool to be used by non-physician health workers and primary care physicians to screen, diagnose and manage individuals suffering from depression, suicidal risk and emotional stress. The key aim of the study will be to assess any changes in mental health services use among those screened positive following the intervention. A number of other outcomes will also be assessed using mixed methods, specifically focussed on reduction of stigma, increase in mental health awareness and other process indicators. This project addresses a number of objectives as outlined in the Mental Health Action Plan of World Health Organization and India's National Mental Health Programme and Policy. If successful, the next phase will involve design and conduct of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

  10. Depression in chronic respiratory disorders in a tertiary rural hospital of Central India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer singhal; Pankaj Banode; Nitish Baisakhiya

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence of depression in chronic respiratory disorders in a tertiary rural hospital of Central India. Various studies done in past have shown that prevalence of depression in diabetes and hypertension is around 40%-57%. Few studies have been done to screen depression in chronic respiratory disorders. This study was conducted in a tertiary rural hospital of Central India to find out prevalence of depression in indoor patients suffering from chronic respiratory disorders. Methods: Total 68 patients were evaluated for depression. Patients suffering from chronic respiratory disorders (total duration of illness >3 months) were evaluated using Prime MD Questionnaire. Patients suffering from diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, having past history of psychiatric illness, drug abusers, having lack of social support and suffering from chronic upper respiratory tract infections were excluded from this study. Questionnaire was asked when treatment for acute phase of illness is over. Results: Out of 68 patients evaluated, 36 (53%) were found out to be suffering from depression. Female gender (80%) was more prone to depression, inspite of the fact that all alcoholics were male. 39% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were suffering from depression in comparison to 65% for pulmonary tuberculosis and 44% for other chronic respiratory illness. 54% of patients suffering from depression are 60 yrs of age, suggesting that age has no relation with depression. No association was seen between alcoholism and depression. Conclusion: Prevalence of depression in patients of chronic respiratory illness is very high, like in cases of diabetes and hypertension. Further community and hospital based studies are needed to find out exact prevalence of depression in chronic respiratory illnesses.

  11. High prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol use and overweight in a rural population in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, P; Rao, S R; Radhakrishnan, E; Ramachandran, R; Venkatachalam, R; Gupte, M D

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in India. There is high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in urban Tamil Nadu. There are limited data on the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and overweight in rural Tamil Nadu. We estimated prevalence of behavioral risk factors, overweight and central obesity in a rural population in Tamil Nadu, India. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 11 villages in Kancheepuram/Thiruvallur districts, Tamil Nadu. Study population included 10,500 subjects aged 25-64 years. We collected data on behavioral risk factors and anthropometric measurements. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized using the classification recommended for Asians. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women. We computed proportions for all risk factors and used trend chi-square to examine trend. Among the 10,500 subjects, 4927 (47%) were males. Among males, 1852 (37.6%) were current smokers and 3073 (62.4%) were current alcohol users. Among females, 840 (15.1%) were smokeless tobacco users. BMI was ≥23.0 kg/m 2 for 1618 (32.8%) males and 2126 (38.2%) females. 867 (17.6%) males and 1323 (23.7%) females were centrally obese. Most commonly used edible oil was palm oil followed by sunflower oil and groundnut oil. We observed high prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol use and central obesity in the rural population in Tamil Nadu. There is need for health promotion programs to encourage adoption of healthy lifestyle and policy interventions to create enabling environment.

  12. Processes and challenges of community mobilisation for latrine promotion under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in rural Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Jenkins, Marion W; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2017-05-16

    Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA - "Clean India Campaign"), the successor of India's Total Sanitation Campaign. This paper documents the strategies and processes of NBA community mobilisation for latrine promotion in these villages and assesses the strengths and limitations of the mobilisation activities. NBA's community mobilisation activities were observed and assessed against the programme's theory of change in 10 randomly selected programme villages from start to finish. Additional data was collected through review of documents, individual interviews (n = 80) and focus group discussions (n = 26) with staff of the implementing NGOs and community members. Our study revealed the lack of a consistent implementation strategy, lack of capacities and facilitation skills of NGO staff to implement sanitation programmes, political interference, challenges in accessing government financial incentives for latrine construction, and lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities among government and NGO staff, leading to failure in translating government policies into sustainable actions. Social divisions and village dynamics related to gender and caste further constrained the effectiveness of mobilisation activities. Meetings were often dominated by male members of upper caste households, and excluded low caste community members and views of women. Community discussions revolved largely around the government's cash incentive for latrines. Activities aimed at creating demand for sanitation and use of latrines often resonated poorly with community members. An assessment by the implementers, 1 year after community mobilisation found 19% of households had a completed latrine across the 50 villages, a marginal increase of 7 percentage points over baseline. In

  13. The Successful Implementation of Electronic Health Records at Small Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have been in use since the 1960s. U.S. rural hospital leaders and administrators face significant pressure to implement health information technology because of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. However, some leaders and managers of small rural hospital lack strategies to develop and implement…

  14. Retrospective study of antibiotic resistance among uropathogens from rural teaching hospital, Tamilnadu, India

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    Kasi Murugan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the community associated urinary tract infection (UTI causing uropathogen's prevalence, antibiotic resistance pattern and the risk factors predisposing infection in Indian rural settings. Methods: A pilot study was conducted between January and December 201 0 among out patients attending rural teaching medical college hospital at Tamilnadu, India. The demographic details, culture, common antibiotic Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay susceptibility profiles of the isolates and the resistance analysis by WHONET 5.6 software were performed. Results: During this surveillance study, a total number of 1 359 urinary samples were collected, among which 309 (22.78% gave positive culture. The common uropathogens encountered were Escherichia coli (66.02%, Staphylococcus sp. (12.62%, Klebsiella sp. (5.83%, Streptococcus sp. (5.1 8%, Enterococcus sp. (2.59% and Proteus sp., (2.26%. Antibiotic resistance analysis revealed the multiple drug resistance nature of the isolates to the commonly used antibiotics. It is also found that both genders at the specific age group of 40-50 were more prone to infection and seasonal variations also play an important role in their establishment. Conclusions: The obtained results suggest that antibiotic selection for empirical treatment should be based on individual drug-sensitive test results. There is also an urgent need to develop a new combination of chemotherapeutic agents and awareness on antibiotic use for the effective UTI management in rural settings.

  15. 'First we go to the small doctor': First contact for curative health care sought by rural communities in Andhra Pradesh & Orissa, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gautham (Meenakshi); E. Binnendijk (Erica); R. Koren (Ruth); D.M. Dror (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground & objectives: Against the backdrop of insufficient public supply of primary care and reports of informal providers, the present study sought to collect descriptive evidence on 1 st contact curative health care seeking choices among rural communities in two States of India -

  16. Self-reported morbidity and health service utilization in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Warren; King, Nia; Humphries, Sally; Little, Matthew; Dewey, Cate

    2016-07-01

    In Tamil Nadu, India, improvements have been made toward developing a high-quality, universally accessible healthcare system. However, some rural residents continue to confront significant barriers to obtaining healthcare. The primary objective of this study was to investigate self-reported morbidity, health literacy, and healthcare preferences, utilization, and experiences in order to identify priority areas for government health policies and programs. Drawing on 66 semi-structured interviews and 300 household surveys (including 1693 individuals), administered in 26 rural villages in Tamil Nadu's Krishnagiri district, we found that the prevalence of self-reported major health conditions was 22.3%. There was a large burden of non-communicable and chronic diseases, and the most common major morbidities were: connective tissue problems (7.6%), nervous system and sense organ diseases (5.0%), and circulatory and respiratory diseases (2.5%). Increased age and decreased education level were associated with higher odds of reporting most diseases. Low health literacy levels resulted in individuals seeking care only once pain interfered with daily activities. As such, individuals' health-seeking behaviour depended on which strategy was believed to result in the fastest return to work using the fewest resources. Although government facilities were the most common healthcare access point, they were mistrusted; 48.8% and 19.2% of respondents perceived inappropriate treatment protocols and corruption, respectively, at public facilities. Conversely, 93.3% of respondents reported high treatment cost as the main barrier to accessing private facilities. Our results highlight that addressing the chronic and non-communicable disease burdens amongst rural populations in this context will require health policies and village-level programs that address the low health literacy and the issues of rural healthcare accessibility and acceptability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases from a rural area in Kerala, southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Krishnaveni; Rakesh, P S; Balakrishnan, Shibu; Shanavas, A; Dharman, Varun

    2018-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. A community based survey was undertaken with an objective to estimate the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases and to describe the profile of people with CRDs in the rural area Nilamel health block in Kollam district, Kerala, southern India. A household information sheet and a translated respiratory symptom questionnaire based on International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) bronchial symptoms questionnaire was administered to 12,556 people above 15 years, selected randomly from Nilamel health block. Prevalence of self reported asthma was 2.82% (95% CI 2.52-3.12) and that of chronic bronchitis was 6.19% (95% CI 5.76-6.62) while other CRDs which did not fit to either constitute 1.89%. Prevalence of asthma among males was 2.44% (95% CI 2.05-2.85) while that of females was 3.14% (95% CI 2.71-3.57). Chronic bronchitis prevalence was 6.73% and 5.67% among males and females respectively. Although India has devised a programme to combat cancer, diabetes, cardio vascular disease and stroke, none have been devised for chronic respiratory illness till date. Considering high prevalence and its contributions to morbidity and mortality, a comprehensive programme to tackle chronic respiratory diseases is needed. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pragmatic prevention, permanent solution: Women's experiences with hysterectomy in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sapna

    2016-02-01

    Hysterectomy appears to be on the rise amongst low-income, rural women in India as routine treatment for gynaecological ailments. This paper explores the individual, household, socio-economic and health system factors that influenced women's decisions to undergo hysterectomy in rural Gujarat, with a focus on women's perspectives. Interviews were conducted with 35 rural, low-income women who had undergone hysterectomy, local gynaecologists and other key informants, alongside observation of daily life and health-related activities. Inductive, open coding was conducted within a framework analysis to identify thematic influences on the decision to undergo hysterectomy. Women underwent hysterectomy at an average age of 36, as treatment for typically severe gynaecological ailments. I argue that women, faced with embedded social inequality in the form of gender biases, lack of labour security and a maternal-centric health system, demonstrated pragmatic agency in their decision to remove the uterus. When they experienced gynaecological ailments, most sought two to three opinions and negotiated financial and logistical concerns. The health system offered few non-invasive services for non-maternal health issues. Moreover, women and health care providers believed there is limited utility of the uterus beyond childbearing. Women's responsibilities as caretakers, workers and producers drove them to seek permanent solutions that would secure their long-term work and health security. Thus, hysterectomy emerged as a normalised treatment for gynaecological ailments, particularly for low-income women with limited resources or awareness of potential side effects. In this setting, hysterectomy reflects the power structures and social inequalities in which women negotiated medical treatment--and the need to reverse a culture of permanent solutions for low-income women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice about animal bite and rabies among victims attending a rural hospital in eastern India

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    Sirshendu Chaudhuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is highly prevalent in India. It is almost always fatal but preventable by timely administration of vaccine and proper wound care. Rural population have high disease burden. This may be partly due to lack of knowledge regarding the disease. Objectives- To identify the knowledge, attitude & practice of rural people attending in a rural hospital for animal bite management. Materials and Methods- Cross sectional observational study with 119 patients (period prevalence in February 2013. Results- Dogs were the main biting animal (87.4%. Children were the main victim(47.9%. 21% (25 of the respondent said that animal bite may lead to rabies. Neighbors were the main source of knowledge (38.7%. Mean duration of delay in presenting to hospital was 5.02 days. Roughly one third applied soap water to clean the wound. Attitude and practice was significantly associated with knowledge and attitude respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion- Rural population lack enough knowledge on rabies. Targeted group approach like educating mother and children may help improving health care utilization correctly.

  20. Process evaluation of the systematic medical appraisal, referral and treatment (SMART) mental health project in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Tewari, Abha; Kallakuri, Sudha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha; Jha, Vivekanand; Patel, Anushka; Maulik, Pallab K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Availability of basic mental health services is limited in rural areas of India. Health system and individual level factors such as lack of mental health professionals and infrastructure, poor awareness about mental health, stigma related to help seeking, are responsible for poor awareness and use of mental health services. We implemented a mental health services delivery model that leveraged technology and task sharing to facilitate identification and treatment of common mental di...

  1. Empowering the people: Development of an HIV peer education model for low literacy rural communities in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupp Karl

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite ample evidence that HIV has entered the general population, most HIV awareness programs in India continue to neglect rural areas. Low HIV awareness and high stigma, fueled by low literacy, seasonal migration, gender inequity, spatial dispersion, and cultural taboos pose extra challenges to implement much-needed HIV education programs in rural areas. This paper describes a peer education model developed to educate and empower low-literacy communities in the rural district of Perambalur (Tamil Nadu, India. Methods From January to December 2005, six non-governmental organizations (NGO's with good community rapport collaborated to build and pilot-test an HIV peer education model for rural communities. The program used participatory methods to train 20 NGO field staff (Outreach Workers, 102 women's self-help group (SHG leaders, and 52 barbers to become peer educators. Cartoon-based educational materials were developed for low-literacy populations to convey simple, comprehensive messages on HIV transmission, prevention, support and care. In addition, street theatre cultural programs highlighted issues related to HIV and stigma in the community. Results The program is estimated to have reached over 30 000 villagers in the district through 2051 interactive HIV awareness programs and one-on-one communication. Outreach workers (OWs and peer educators distributed approximately 62 000 educational materials and 69 000 condoms, and also referred approximately 2844 people for services including voluntary counselling and testing (VCT, care and support for HIV, and diagnosis and treatment of sexually-transmitted infections (STI. At least 118 individuals were newly diagnosed as persons living with HIV (PLHIV; 129 PLHIV were referred to the Government Hospital for Thoracic Medicine (in Tambaram for extra medical support. Focus group discussions indicate that the program was well received in the communities, led to improved health

  2. Study of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding dengue in the urban and rural field practice area of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pune, India

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    Samir Singru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dengue is the most common disease among all the arthropod-borne viral diseases. There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for dengue. The sole method of prevention and control is the knowledge attitude and practices (KAP for the same. Although, dengue is considered an urban- and semi-urban disease, in recent years, due to water storage practices and large-scale development activities in rural areas, dengue has become endemic in rural areas of India as well. Aims: To assess the KAP regarding dengue. Settings and Design: Urban and rural field practice area of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Pune, India. Materials and Methods: A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to study the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding dengue. Stratified random sampling technique was used. A modified B. G. Prasad criterion was used for socio-economic classification. Statistical Analysis Used: KAP represented as proportion (%. Chi-square test was used as a test of significance. P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: 68.4% in urban areas and 40.4% in rural area knew that dengue is transmitted by mosquito. 62.6% in urban areas and 48% in rural areas respectively stated fever as a symptom of dengue. The use of anti-adult mosquito measures was 48.05% and 51.42% in urban and rural area respectively Conclusions: There is a definite need to increase the information education communication activities for dengue in the study area.

  3. India: From SITE to INSAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhri, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies core of India's illiteracy problem and describes use of educational technology to educate rural children. Highlights include descriptions of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) project; motivation behind low-cost educational aids development in rural areas; an educational radio pilot project; and development and…

  4. Mass loading and episodic variation of molecular markers in PM2.5 aerosols over a rural area in eastern central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Deb, Manas K.; Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak

    2015-09-01

    The impact of biomass burning in atmospheric aerosols load is poorly known. We investigated the impact of biomass burning through molecular markers on the concentration of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected from a rural site in eastern central India during three episodic periods from October to November 2011. The collected PM2.5 samples were chemically quantified for potassium as well as sugars and dicarboxylic acids using ion chromatography. Levoglucosan and glucose were found as the most abundant sugar compounds and sugar-alcohols showed the predominance of mannitol whereas oxalic acid was the most abundant diacid followed by maleic acid in PM2.5 aerosols. Substantially enhanced concentrations of K+ as well as levoglucosan and glucose were observed in eastern central India. Analysis of the source specific molecular markers and ratios of sugars and diacids infer that combustion of biomass was the major emission sources of organic compounds associated with PM2.5 aerosols over eastern central India. We applied Spearman correlation analysis and principal component analysis to further investigate the sources of measured sugars and diacids. The concentrations of K+ and levoglucosan were significantly correlated with sugars and diacids that verifying their common sources from biomass burning emission. This study demonstrates that biomass burning for domestic heating and cooking purposes and agricultural activities significantly influence the air quality of eastern central India during the investigation period. The obtained data in this research is helpful for the global scientific community to assessments and remedial of air quality parameters in rural areas of developing countries under similar atmospheric circumstances.

  5. Socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic systems implemented for rural electrification in selected villages of Sundarbans region of India

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    Rashmi Murali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The power situation in rural India continues to remain poor with around one-third of the rural population without access to any form of electricity. The consequence of which is kerosene being used as a major source of lighting for un-electrified households as well as households with intermittent access to electricity in rural areas. While grid based electrification has been the most common approach, decentralized renewable energy options especially, solar PV systems have also been adopted as a cost effective mode of electrification. This paper presents the results of socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic interventions namely, solar home systems, solar mini-grid and solar AC pico-grids, which have been used to electrify selected villages in Sundarbans region of India. The study is focused on technical, financial, and institutional aspects along with the social impact assessment of PV based electrification in the Sundarbans region. The results of the study elucidate that, in general, the impacts of the solar PV solutions used for electrification have been largely positive, especially benefits of reduced kerosene consumption, ease in studying and cooking and reduced health effects. The study also finds that technology is not the only factor on which the viability of a program depends, but institutional and financial aspects also play a significant role. The need of the hour is to develop a strong institutional framework and enabling policies for achieving higher success rates in PV programs.

  6. Demand for healthcare in India

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    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a developing country like India, allocation of scarce fiscal resources has to be based on a clear understanding of how investments in the heath sector are going to affect demand. Three aspects like overall healthcare demand, consumer decisions to use public and/or private care and role of price/quality influencing poor/rich consumer’s decisions are critical to assessing the equity implications of alternative policies. Our paper addresses these aspects through examining the pattern of healthcare demand in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey are used to model the healthcare choices that individuals make. We consider what these behavioral characteristics imply for public policy. This analysis aims to study disparities between rural and urban areas from all throughout India to five Indian states representing three levels of per capita incomes (all-India average, rich and poor. Results evidence that healthcare demand both in rural and urban areas is a commodity emerging as an essential need. Choices between public or private provider are guided by income and quality variables mainly with regard to public healthcare denoting thus a situation of very limited alternatives in terms of availing private providers. These results emphasize that existing public healthcare facilities do not serve the objective of providing care to the poor in a satisfactory manner in rural areas. Thus, any financing strategy to improve health system and reduce disparities across rich-poor states and rural-urban areas should also take into account not only overcoming inadequacy but also inefficiency in allocation and utilization of healthcare inputs.

  7. How poor are women in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajuladevi, A K

    1992-07-01

    The assessment of poor women in India as dependent and exploited regardless of poverty focused strategies is reflected in this review of relevant literature. The scholarly approaches to the problems of poor women involve redirection and expansion of resources to women (increase bank credit) through policy and institutional changes, and involve improving women's welfare through changes in class and gender hierarchies; both pertain to restructuring power groups. A little ascribed to belief is that the organization of women's numbers will empower women; the constraints are stated. There is also some argument over whether to design women-specific programs or integrate women into existing programs; some examples are given of successes and difficulties. The regionalization of poverty in eastern and central India is discussed. The growth of the poor has been among the landless, wage-dependent households. 9.6% of households (7.5 million) are headed by women. Women work fewer hours and at lower wage scales and have fewer employment opportunities. Lower earnings are coupled with differentials in demand for female and male labor in agriculture and a crowded labor market. There is a concentration of women in less visible, nonmonetary subsistence production and domestic work. Women are undercounted in employment studies. Women predominate in agricultural activity. Women's status is influenced by economic status, caste, and ethnic background. Domestic work increases status for women and households. The poorer households have greater labor force participation, particularly as wage laborers rather than unpaid family workers. Regional factors affecting rural household strategies are factors affecting the economy (topography, rainfall, climate) and the degree of development, plus sociocultural variables (kinship and religious beliefs which affect the social domain of women), and the degree of dependence on hired vs. family labor. There are sharp contrasts in the value and survival

  8. Living in the epilepsy treatment gap in rural South India: A focused ethnography of women and problems associated with stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gaudecker, Jane R; Taylor, Ann Gill; Keeling, Arlene W; Buelow, Janice M; Benjamin, Sailas

    2017-07-01

    In India, women with epilepsy face unique challenges. A focused ethnography of six women within the epilepsy treatment gap was conducted in rural South India. Women were asked to describe their day-to-day lives. Data were collected through open-ended, semistructured interview questions, participant observation, and field notes. Thematic analysis was done. The disease-related stigma contributed to the women's physical, psychological, and emotional struggles; the women and their family members made every effort to conceal the disease. Educational interventions to create awareness could help women seek effective treatments for their seizures, thereby reducing the stigma and improving the quality of their lives.

  9. Mobile phone consultation for community health care in rural north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Surya; Singh, Amar Jeet

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a study to ascertain the acceptability and feasibility of consultation by mobile phone in a rural area of northern India. The mobile phone number of a community physician was advertised to the general public and people were invited to telephone at any time for a medical consultation. Details of the calls received were recorded. During a seven-month study, 660 calls were received. The mean call duration was 2.7 min. Eighty percent of calls were made by men. Forty-eight percent of calls were made during office hours. A total of 417 (63%) calls were for seeking advice, 146 (22%) were for outpatient follow-up, 23 (4%) were for seeking appointments and the remaining 74 (11%) for other reasons. The most common problems were skin, respiratory, mental health and sexual problems. Of the 387 callers who were interviewed at follow-up, 302 (78%) stated that they had followed the advice provided. Of these, 91% found the advice very helpful in managing their health problems. About 96% of users wished to continue to use the service in future. The majority of calls made were of a primary care nature which could easily be dealt with by phone. The concept of using mobile phones for medical consultation seemed to be acceptable to people in rural Haryana.

  10. Capacity building for the effective adoption of renewable energy technologies in rural areas. Experience of India NGOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myles, R. [Integrated Sustainable Energy and Ecological Development Association (INSEDA), New Delhi (India)

    2002-07-01

    The experience of NGO network in the promotions of biogas and other low cost RET gadgets, devices, equipments and machines in the rural areas of India, for over two decades, have shown that there are serveral problems yet challenging opportunities in the promotion and implementation of renewable energy technologies in villages. First of all, the field and extension organizations should recognise that these technologies are new and aliens to the rural people, therefore like any other technologies, developed outside the rural environment, RETs are first view with skepticism by the rural community. Even if 100 units of a RE technology are successfully demonstrated, failure of even one could create negative impact within a radius of 30-50 KMs, and its shortcomings are spread like a wild fire. The appropriate technology demonstration backed by systematic capacity building of different stakeholders/actors/players (i.e. Energy Producers, Energy Service Providers and the Energy End Users) is a must for the acceptance and large-scale adoption of RETs in rural areas of the developing countries. The programme funds for the promotion and implementation of RETs should have good percentage earmarked for the capacity building as well as supporting infrastructure for awareness, motivation, promotional and post installation services activities by local field level organizations and NGOs on a long term basis. (orig.)

  11. Traditional food consumption and nutritional status of Dalit mothers in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M A; Egeland, G M; Salomeyesudas, B; Satheesh, P V; Kuhnlein, H V

    2006-11-01

    To describe prevalence of malnutrition and their correlates of nutrient and traditional food consumption in rural Dalit mothers. In a cross-sectional study, we used socio-cultural questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and clinical eye examinations during the rainy season in 2003. Food frequency questionnaires and 24-h recalls were conducted during both summer and rainy seasons. Dalit mothers with young children were recruited from 37 villages in the Medak District of rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Dalit mothers (n = 220) participated. The prevalence of chronic energy-deficient (CED) mothers (body mass index women and active women were more likely to have CED than those literate and non-active (relative risks (RR) = 1.6 and 1.4, respectively, P Dalit women are predominant problems in this area. Increased consumption of local traditional Dalit food (particularly sorghum, pulses, vegetables and animal source food) should be incorporated as an important component of intervention strategies to improve nutritional status.

  12. THE STUDY OF CARDIAC ABNORMALITY IN GERIATRIC POPULATION OF RURAL CENTRAL INDIA

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    Aman Chaturvedi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Health care of elderly in the society has emerged as an increasingly important issue in the recent years. As the elderly proportion of our population expands, maintaining health and wellness of the aged will continue to be an important research priority in the near future. This study was undertaken to determine cardiac abnormalities in geriatric population by echocardiography in rural central India. The aim of this study is to map the spectrum of cardiac abnormality in geriatric population of rural central India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out on subjects from September 2014 – August 2016. All geriatric subjects i.e. above the age of 60 years who were admitted in medicine ward or who attended medicine OPD were considered for the study. All the preliminary biodata was collected, history taking and physical examination were done, ECG was recorded and finally 2D echo was performed in MMode, 2D echo, Doppler (CW and PW and TDI. All observations were recorded on a standard proforma sheet, statistical analysis was performed and results and conclusions drawn. RESULTS In present study, there was higher prevalence of major diseases. On M-Mode echocardiography, left atrial enlargement, LV hypertrophy/dilatation was found in significant number of subjects. On 2D echo, Myocardial Scarring/Thinning, valvular Degeneration was found significantly higher in elderly males, mitral and aortic calcification was found most frequently with prevalence higher in males. On Doppler echocardiography, diastolic dysfunction was common in elderly with very few subjects having normal diastolic function, most of the subjects having grade II diastolic dysfunction. Aortic, mitral and tricuspid regurgitation was common in elderly, and stenotic lesions of aortic and mitral valve were common. CONCLUSION We recommend that echocardiography should become an investigative norm in the elderly, this will aid in early detection of cardiovascular abnormalities

  13. How do People in Rural India Perceive Improved Stoves and Clean Fuel? Evidence from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand

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    Vasundhara Bhojvaid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved cook stoves (ICS have been widely touted for their potential to deliver the triple benefits of improved household health and time savings, reduced deforestation and local environmental degradation, and reduced emissions of black carbon, a significant short-term contributor to global climate change. Yet diffusion of ICS technologies among potential users in many low-income settings, including India, remains slow, despite decades of promotion. This paper explores the variation in perceptions of and preferences for ICS in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, as revealed through a series of semi-structured focus groups and interviews from 11 rural villages or hamlets. We find cautious interest in new ICS technologies, and observe that preferences for ICS are positively related to perceptions of health and time savings. Other respondent and community characteristics, e.g., gender, education, prior experience with clean stoves and institutions promoting similar technologies, and social norms as perceived through the actions of neighbours, also appear important. Though they cannot be considered representative, our results suggest that efforts to increase adoption and use of ICS in rural India will likely require a combination of supply-chain improvements and carefully designed social marketing and promotion campaigns, and possibly incentives, to reduce the up-front cost of stoves.

  14. Changing epidemiology of maternal mortality in rural India: time to reset strategies for MDG-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pankaj; Shah, Shobha; Kutty, Raman V; Modi, Dhiren

    2014-05-01

    To understand changes in epidemiology of maternal mortality in rural India in the context of increasing institutional deliveries and implementation of community-based interventions that can inform policies to reach MDG-5. This study is a secondary analysis of prospectively collected community-based data of every pregnancy and its outcomes from 2002 to 2011 in a rural, tribal area of Gujarat, India as part of safe-motherhood programme implemented by voluntary organisation, SEWA Rural. The programme consisted of community-based interventions supported by a first referral unit, and promotion of institutional deliveries. For every maternal death, a verbal autopsy was conducted. The incidence rates for maternal mortality according to place, cause and timing of maternal deaths in relation to pregnancy were computed. Annual incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for caste and maternal education, were estimated using Poisson regression to test for linear trend in reduction in mortality during the study period. Thirty-two thousand eight hundred and ninety-three pregnancies, 29,817 live births and 80 maternal deaths were recorded. Maternal mortality ratio improved from 607 (19 deaths) in 2002-2003 to 161 (five deaths) in 2010-2011. The institutional delivery rate increased from 23% to 65%. The trend of falling maternal deaths was significant over time, with an annual reduction of 17% (adjusted IRR 0.83 CI 0.75-0.91, P-value rate of maternal deaths due to direct causes, during intrapartum and post-partum periods, and those which occurred at home. However, reductions in incidence of maternal deaths due to indirect causes, at hospital and during antepartum period were not statistically significant. Most maternal deaths are now occurring at hospitals and due to indirect causes. Gains in institutional deliveries and community-based interventions resulting in fewer maternal deaths due to direct causes should be maintained. However, it would be essential

  15. Factors associated with second trimester abortion in rural Maharashtra and Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavier, A J Francis; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Kalyanwala, Shveta

    2012-01-01

    Many married women in India experience abortion in their second trimester of pregnancy. While there is an impression that second trimester abortions are now overwhelmingly used for sex selection, little is known about the extent to which second trimester abortions are indeed associated with son preference and sex selection motives, relative to other factors. Using data from a community-based study in rural Maharashtra and Rajasthan, research highlights the role of limited access in explaining second trimester abortion. While women with a single child who was a daughter were indeed more likely than other women to have terminated a pregnancy carrying a female foetus in the second trimester, more strikingly, exclusion from abortion-related decision-making, unsuccessful prior attempts to terminate the pregnancy, and distance from the facility in which their abortion was performed, were significantly associated with second trimester abortion, even after controlling for confounding factors. The study calls for greater efficiency in implementing the PCPNDT Act and addressing deep-rooted son preference. At the same time, findings that poverty and limited access to facilities are as, if not more, important drivers of second trimester abortion, highlight the need to meet commitments to ensure accessible abortion facilities for poor rural women.

  16. High prescription of antimicrobials in a rural district hospital in India

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    Alvarez-Uria G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization (WHO recommends surveillance of antibiotic use as part of the strategy to fight against antimicrobial resistance. However, there is little information about the antibiotic consumption in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the antimicrobial consumption in a rural hospital in India Methods: The study was performed in a district hospital situated in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh. In accordance with WHO recommendations, we used the defined daily dose (DDD methodology to measure the antibiotic use during one year (from 1st August 2011 to 1st August 2012. The antibiotic use was measured using DDDs/100 admissions and DDDs/100 patient-days for inpatients, and DDDs/100 visits for outpatients. Results: During the study period, there were 15,735 admissions and 250,611 outpatient visits. Antibiotics were prescribed for 86% of inpatients and 12.5% of outpatients. Outpatient prescriptions accounted for 2/3 of the overall antibiotic consumption. For inpatients, the total antibiotic use was 222 DDDs/ 100 patient-days, 693 DDDs/ 100 admissions and the mean number of antibiotics prescribed was 1.8. For outpatients, the total antibiotic use was 86 DDDs/ 100 outpatient visits and the mean number of antibiotics prescribed was 1.2. The most common antibiotics prescribed were aminopenicillins and 3rd generation cephalosporins for inpatients, and tetracyclines and quinolones for outpatients. In a sample of patients with diarrhoea or upper respiratory tract infections (URTI, the proportion of patients who received antibiotics was 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67-93 and 52% (95% CI, 43-62, respectively. Conclusion: In this rural setting, the use of antimicrobials was extremely high, even in conditions with a predominantly viral aetiology such as diarrhoea or URTI.

  17. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of foot care in patients with diabetes at central rural India

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    Bharati Amar Taksande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic foot syndrome is one of the common and most devastating preventable complications of diabetes mellitus (DM. It is associated with morbidity and premature mortality due to long-term complications affecting foot. The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes should have a comprehensive foot examination once per year. Most of the foot problems can be prevented with careful foot care. It may take effort and time to build up good foot care habits, but self-care is essential. Aim: The main aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge, attitude, and practice of foot care in patients with DM in central rural India. Methodology: This study was conducted at a rural educational hospital in central part of India over 200 patients who have Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. They were evaluated for their knowledge about foot care and footwear practices. A structured and validated questionnaire was administered to cases. Results: Around 82.9% of the patients were aware of the disease and 23.2% were aware of the complications of the DM. In 63% of the patients, foot care examination and education regarding foot complications were not suggested by their treating physicians. Annual examination of feet by the physician and self-examination were not known facts to the diabetic population. Conclusion: It is necessary to firstly develop awareness of diabetes mellitus and the related complications, one amongst which is foot care. Certain educational strategies should be established for both the consultant physician and also the common man to create awareness for effective foot care.

  18. Coconut processing technologies for rural transformation – Case study on coconut water vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    6. Seeja Thomachan, Deepu Mathew and Habeeburrahman P. V.

    2010-01-01

    The role of coconut based technologies in social development of rural India is described based on the influence of coconut vinegar technology in the rural women of Malappuram district, Kerala state, India

  19. Utilization of Electronic Learning System in Swat Rural Areas

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    Nazir Ahmed Sangi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As developments in electronic technologies i.e. personal computers, laptops, tablets, mobiles and wearable devices, the way of learning is also changing. Therefore, utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT has great important role in schools and colleges. ICT is using by students, teachers and societies in District Swat, KP, Pakistan in the form of mobiles internet (for social contact and chat, computers internet (for knowledge exploration and entertainment and multimedia (for teaching and learning. One of the difficulties involved in rural areas’ students of District Swat is that they cannot join class rooms due to their poor livelihood condition and far away from schools and colleges. Especially most of the females of rural areas of Swat do not come to schools and colleges for their family tradition and culture. Various questions were examined in every aspect of educational technologies in this study. We surveyed 50 responded randomly at District Swat from different schools and colleges and discovered that the responded were generally positive and have great interest about e-learning in Swat. The use of proposed electronic system for the learning, the literacy rate will increase in rural areas and students will achieve their individual goals.

  20. The Tobacco-Free Village Program: Helping Rural Areas Implement and Achieve Goals of Tobacco Control Policies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nilesh; Patil, Deepak; Kadam, Rajashree; Fernandes, Genevie

    2017-09-27

    India has 274 million tobacco users and a tobacco use prevalence of 38% in rural areas. Tobacco consumption causes 1 million deaths and costs the health system nearly US$23 billion annually. Tobacco control policies exist but lack proper implementation. In this article, we review the Tobacco-free Village (TfV) program conducted in Maharashtra state in India and describe its process to help villages in rural India achieve "tobacco-free" status (i.e., the sale and use of tobacco are prohibited by law). We reviewed program documents and conducted 22 qualitative interviews with program staff and village-level stakeholders. From 2008 to 2014, Salaam Mumbai Foundation implemented the TfV program in 60 villages in Maharashtra state. The program used a number of strategies to help villages become tobacco free, including collaborating with a community-based organization, leveraging existing health workers, conducting a situation analysis, training health workers, engaging stakeholders, developing TfV assessment criteria, mobilizing the community, conducting health education, imposing sanctions, and offering incentives. By 2014, 4 villages had achieved tobacco-free status according to 11 assessment criteria. Successful villages demonstrated strong local leader involvement, ownership of the program, and commitment to the cause by residents. The TfV program faced barriers including poor motivation of health workers, difficulty in changing social norms of tobacco use, and refusal of local vendors to stop tobacco sales due to financial losses. This low-cost, community-driven program holds promise for helping public health practitioners and governments implement and achieve the goals of tobacco control policies, especially in resource-scarce settings. © Chatterjee et al.

  1. A cultural critique of community psychiatry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sumeet; Jadhav, Sushrut

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first comprehensive cultural critique of India's official community mental health policy and program. Data are based on a literature review of published papers, conference proceedings, analyses of official policy and popular media, interviews with key Indian mental health professionals, and fieldwork in Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh (2004-2006). The authors demonstrate how three influences have shaped community psychiatry in India: a cultural asymmetry between health professionals and the wider society, psychiatry's search for both professional and social legitimacy, and WHO policies that have provided the overall direction to the development of services. Taken together, the consequences are that rural community voices have been edited out. The authors hypothesize that community psychiatry in India is a bureaucratic and culturally incongruent endeavor that increases the divide between psychiatry and local rural communities. Such a claim requires sustained ethnographic fieldwork to reveal the dynamics of the gap between community and professional experiences. The development of culturally sensitive psychiatric theory and clinical services is essential to improve the mental health of rural citizens who place their trust in India's biomedical network.

  2. Are the energy poor also income poor? Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy poverty line is defined as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. This approach is applied to cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2005 household survey representative of both urban and rural India. The objective is to determine if the energy poor are also income poor and whether and how energy policies help reduce energy poverty, independent of income. The findings suggest that in rural areas some 57% of households are energy poor, versus 22% that are income poor. But in urban areas the energy poverty rate is 28% compared to 20% that are income poor. That is, energy policies are expected to play some roles in mitigating energy poverty. We find that reducing energy poverty requires not only support for rural electrification, but also more use of modern cooking fuels such as LPG. While income growth matters, a combination of energy related programs can play an independent and substantial role in reducing energy poverty. - Highlights: ► This paper applies a new approach to measuring energy poverty to rural and urban India. ► It also compares and contrasts income poverty with energy poverty in the context of India. ► Findings suggest that income poverty tracks energy poverty in urban India, but not in rural India. ► Income growth is very important in reducing energy poverty. ► In addition, access to and reliability of modern sources (electricity, LPG) are also helpful.

  3. Psidium guajava: A Single Plant for Multiple Health Problems of Rural Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daswani, Poonam G; Gholkar, Manasi S; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2017-01-01

    The rural population in India faces a number of health problems and often has to rely on local remedies. Psidium guajava Linn. (guava), a tropical plant which is used as food and medicine can be used by rural communities due to its several medicinal properties. A literature search was undertaken to gauge the rural health scenario in India and compile the available literature on guava so as to reflect its usage in the treatment of multiple health conditions prevalent in rural communities. Towards this, electronic databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, google scholar were scanned. Information on clinical trials on guava was obtained from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Clinicaltrial.gov. The literature survey revealed that guava possesses various medicinal properties which have been reported from across the globe in the form of ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological surveys, laboratory investigations and clinical trials. Besides documenting the safety of guava, the available literature shows that guava is efficacious against the following conditions which rural communities would encounter. (a) Gastrointestinal infections; (b) Malaria; (c)Respiratory infections; (d) Oral/dental infections; (e) Skin infections; (f) Diabetes; (g) Cardiovascular/hypertension; (h) Cancer; (i) Malnutrition; (j) Women problems; (k) Pain; (l) Fever; (m) Liver problems; (n) Kidney problems. In addition, guava can also be useful for treatment of animals and explored for its commercial applications. In conclusion, popularization of guava, can have multiple applications for rural communities.

  4. Designing Programme Implementation Strategies to Increase the Adoption and Use of Biosand Water Filters in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Tommy K.K. Ngai; Richard A. Fenner

    2014-01-01

    Low-cost household water treatment systems are innovations designed to improve the quality of drinking water at the point of use. This study investigates how an NGO can design appropriate programme strategies in order to increase the adoption and sustained use of household sand filters in rural India. A system dynamics computer model was developed and used to assess 18 potential programme strategies for their effectiveness in increasing filter use at two and ten years into the future, under s...

  5. Nutritional status among the Shabar tribal children living in urban, rural and forest habitats of Orissa, India

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    Suman Chakrabarty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The current trend towards increasing urbanization due to urban migration among the scheduled tribes in developing countries like India should be reflected in differential nutritional outcomes and its associated factors. The aims of the present study are to investigate the nutritional status amongst Shabar children living in urban, rural and forest habitats and factors associated to nutritional state.

    Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 577 Shabar children (boys and girls aged 5 to 19 years (258 urban, 195 rural and 124 forest. The anthropometric nutritional indices, socio-economic condition and disease prevalence were used to evaluate the present conditions.

    Results: The results revealed that children from forest regions had the highest prevalence of under-nutrition followed by their rural and urban counterparts, 33.87%, 24.62% and 20.16%, respectively. Malaria prevalence in forest areas and economic conditions in rural and urban habitats might have been significantly related to underweight and stunting.

    Conclusions: To reduce the prevalence and the extent of under-nutrition, it is essential to improve the economic conditions and to simultaneously carry out measurements for reducing malaria specifically in forest habitats.

  6. Prevalence and factors related to rheumatic musculoskeletal disorders in rural south India: WHO-ILAR-COPCORD-BJD India Calicut study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Binoy J; Rahim, Asma A; Bina, Thomas; Thekkekara, Romy J

    2013-08-01

    To assess the prevalence and factors related to rheumatic musculoskeletal disorders (RMSD) in a rural population of south India. The cross-sectional study included all individuals, 15 years and above, in a rural unit of Calicut District in North Kerala. Data were collected using the validated World Health Organization - International League of Associations for Rheumatology - Community Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Diseases - Bhigwan model questionnaire by trained volunteers. In Phase 1 details of demographic characteristics, major co-morbidities and perceived musculoskeletal aches and pains were elicited. Phases 2 and 3 further evaluated and diagnosed the subjects. Predictors for RMSD were assessed using binary logistic regression analysis. There were 4999 individuals in the study. The prevalence of RMSD was 24.9% (95% CI 23.73; 26.12%). Females constituted 50.7% of the population; 5.1% of the respondents were illiterate; 80.9% belonged to low-income groups. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension affected 4.1% and 5.4% of the subjects respectively. The predictors for RMSD in the population were female sex, age, illiteracy, married status, low-income group, vegetarian diet, current alcohol consumption, current tobacco use, history of injury or accidents, diabetes and hypertension. Symptom-related ill-defined rheumatism (10.39%) followed by osteoarthritis (3.85%) were the most prevalent in the Phase 3 rheumatological evaluation. There is an urgent need to introduce lifestyle modifications in high-risk groups and start rehabilitation for those affected. Community rheumatology in primary health care settings in rural areas needs to be strengthened by introducing national programs addressing RMSD at the grassroots level. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. AREVA in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    India is the sixth largest energy consumer in the world and its demand is rising rapidly. To support its economic growth, estimated to be 8% on average over the last three years and to ensure access to electricity for all, the country foresees massive investments in its power sector over the next five years. India is therefore an essential market for the AREVA Group, where its Transmission and Distribution division plays a leading role on the strategic grid modernization market. This document presents: 1 - the economic situation in India: Key figures, Growth, India's growing need for electricity, India's energy sources and policy: current mix, driving role of the State, the financial reorganization of the SEBs, the 'Mega-Power' projects, the electricity act, the rural electrification program, the Investments. 2 - Civil nuclear energy: a strong potential for development; 3 - India's transmission and distribution network: the power challenge of the transmission network, the efficiency challenge of the distribution network. 4 - AREVA T and D in India: AREVA T and D profile, Areva's presence in India, market share, T and D customers and flagship projects

  8. The prevalence of domestic violence and its associated factors among married women in a rural area of Puducherry, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jismary; Nair, Divya; Premkumar, Nancy R; Saravanan, Nirmala; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Roy, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Violence against women is an emerging problem worldwide and more so in India. Considering its adverse effects on women's health, assessing the burden of violence in the community will help in planning services for the victims. To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and to identify factors associated with domestic violence among married women in reproductive age group in rural Puducherry. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural area of Puducherry, South India. Married women in reproductive age group were interviewed using structured pretested questionnaire. Domestic violence was assessed using 12 questions that were used in National Family Health Survey-3. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with violence. Of 310 study participants, 56.7% of them reported some form of domestic violence, 51.3% reported psychological violence, 40% reported physical violence, and 13.5% reported sexual violence. A statistically significant association was found between illiteracy of women and domestic violence (AOR: 4.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-15.7 P: 0.03). The other factors such as love marriage and nonregistration of marriage were significantly associated with violence. The prevalence of domestic violence was found to be high in this rural setting. Multisectoral response such as improving literacy, creating awareness regarding legal aid and screening the victims of violence at primary health centers, should be initiated to mitigate this public health issue.

  9. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  10. All projects related to India | Page 11 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The secular Constitution of India guarantees protection and equality before the law to religious ... The socioeconomic context in India is characterized by persistent gender gaps and inequalities; an increasing demand for ... Reasoned Approach to Setting Priorities in Health ... Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India.

  11. Operational challenges in conducting a community-based technology-enabled mental health services delivery model for rural India: Experiences from the SMART Mental Health Project [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab K. Maulik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are large gaps in the delivery of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries such as India, and the problems are even more acute in rural settings due to lack of resources, remoteness, and lack of infrastructure, amongst other factors. The Systematic Medical Appraisal Referral and Treatment (SMART Mental Health Project was conceived as a mental health services delivery model using technology-based solutions for rural India. This paper reports on the operational strategies used to facilitate the implementation of the intervention. Method: Key components of the SMART Mental Health Project included delivering an anti-stigma campaign, training of primary health workers in screening, diagnosing and managing stress, depression and increased suicide risk and task sharing of responsibilities in delivering care; and using mobile technology based electronic decision support systems to support delivery of algorithm based care for such disorders. The intervention was conducted in 42 villages across two sites in the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India. A pre-post mixed methods evaluation was done, and in this paper operational challenges are reported. Results: Both quantitative and qualitative results from the evaluation from one site covering about 5000 adults showed that the intervention was feasible and acceptable, and initial results indicated that it was beneficial in increasing access to mental health care and reducing depression and anxiety symptoms. A number of strategies were initiated in response to operational challenges to ensure smoother conduct of the project and facilitated the project to be delivered as envisaged. Conclusions: The operational strategies initiated for this project were successful in ensuring the delivery of the intervention. Those, coupled with other more systematic processes have informed the researchers to understand key processes that need to be in place to develop a more robust study, that

  12. Evaluation of computerized health management information system for primary health care in rural India

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    Singh Satyavir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information System (HMIS since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized Health Management Information System in rural health system in India. Methods The data for evaluation were collected by in-depth interviews of the stakeholders i.e. program managers (authors and health workers. Health Workers from AIIMS and Non-AIIMS Primary Health Centers were interviewed to compare the manual with computerized HMIS. A cost comparison between the two methods was carried out based on market costs. The resource utilization for both manual and computerized HMIS was identified based on workers' interviews. Results There have been no major hardware problems in use of computerized HMIS. More than 95% of data was found to be accurate. Health workers acknowledge the usefulness of HMIS in service delivery, data storage, generation of workplans and reports. For program managers, it provides a better tool for monitoring and supervision and data management. The initial cost incurred in computerization of two Primary Health Centers was estimated to be Indian National Rupee (INR 1674,217 (USD 35,622. Equivalent annual incremental cost of capital items was estimated as INR 198,017 (USD 4213. The annual savings is around INR 894,283 (USD 11,924. Conclusion The major advantage of computerization has been in saving of time of health workers in record keeping and report generation. The initial capital costs of computerization can be recovered within two years of implementation if the system is fully operational. Computerization has enabled implementation of a good system for service delivery, monitoring and supervision.

  13. Biofuels and Women's Empowerment (REVISED VERSION: DECEMBER 2014) : A comparative theoretical analysis of 8 biofuel projects in rural India and Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoog, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Based upon a theoretical analysis of eight case studies in rural India and Sub-Saharan Africa, this research aims to test the hypothesis that the empowerment of women can be improved through women’s participation in small-scale biofuel projects. The hypothesis has been tested through the following

  14. "Yes" to abortion but "no" to sexual rights: the paradoxical reality of married women in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, T K Sundari; Balasubramanian, P

    2004-05-01

    This study in rural Tamil Nadu, India, explored the reasons why many married women in India undergo induced abortions rather than use reversible contraception to space or limit births in terms of women's sexual and reproductive rights within marriage, and in the context of gender relations between couples more generally. It is based on in-depth interviews with two generations of ever-married women, some of whom had had abortions and others who had not, from 98 rural hamlets. The respondents were 66 women and 44 of their husbands. Non-consensual sex, sexual violence and women's inability to refuse their husband's sexual demands appeared to underlie the need for abortion in both younger and older women. Many men seemed to believe that sex within marriage was their right, and that women had no say in the matter. The findings raise questions about the presumed association between legal abortion and the enjoyment of reproductive and sexual rights. A large number of women who had abortions in this study were denied their sexual rights but were permitted, even forced, to terminate their pregnancies for reasons unrelated to their right to choose abortion. The study brings home the need for activism to promote women's sexual rights and a campaign against sexual violence in marriage.

  15. Potato contract farming and ‘privileged spaces’: preliminary insights from rural Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicol, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of modern value chain schemes such as contract farming in rural India are exposing households to new forms of agricultural production. Evidently, the spread of such schemes in India will have spatial implications for rural development. This short communication offers preliminary insights of the contours of these spatial implications from a case study of potato contract farming in three villages in Maharashtra, India. It is proposed that studies that combine a local-scale livelihoods approach with global value chain analysis can strengthen understanding of agricultural change and rural development by grounding value chain analysis in the place-based everyday realities of rural households. Using this approach to adopt an evolutionary view of livelihoods and value chains will lead to a much deeper understanding of possible future development pathways for rural households under conditions of agricultural transformation.

  16. Evaluation of a training program of hypertension for accredited social health activists (ASHA) in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-All, Marwa; Thrift, Amanda Gay; Riddell, Michaela; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan; Mini, Gomathyamma Krishnakurup; Chow, Clara K; Maulik, Pallab Kumar; Mahal, Ajay; Guggilla, Rama; Kalyanram, Kartik; Kartik, Kamakshi; Suresh, Oduru; Evans, Roger George; Oldenburg, Brian; Thomas, Nihal; Joshi, Rohina

    2018-05-02

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of premature death and disability in India. Since access to health services is poor in rural India and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are available throughout India for maternal and child health, a potential solution for improving hypertension control is by utilising this available workforce. We aimed to develop and implement a training package for ASHAs to identify and control hypertension in the community, and evaluate the effectiveness of the training program using the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model. The training program was part of a cluster randomised feasibility trial of a 3-month intervention to improve hypertension outcomes in South India. Training materials incorporated details on managing hypertension, goal setting, facilitating group meetings, and how to measure blood pressure and weight. The 15 ASHAs attended a five-day training workshop that was delivered using interactive instructional strategies. ASHAs then led community-based education support groups for 3 months. Training was evaluated using Kirkpatrick's evaluation model for measuring reactions, learning, behaviour and results using tests on knowledge at baseline, post-training and post-intervention, observation of performance during meetings and post-intervention interviews. The ASHAs' knowledge of hypertension improved from a mean score of 64% at baseline to 76% post-training and 84% after the 3-month intervention. Research officers, who observed the community meetings, reported that ASHAs delivered the self-management content effectively without additional assistance. The ASHAs reported that the training materials were easy to understand and useful in educating community members. ASHAs can be trained to lead community-based group educational discussions and support individuals for the management of high blood pressure. The feasibility trial is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry - India (CTRI

  17. Challenges in diagnosing and treating snakebites in a rural population of Tamil Nadu, India: The views of clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harry F; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Hutchinson, Gail; Gibbins, Jonathan M; Bicknell, Andrew B; Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel

    2017-05-01

    Snakebites cause death, disability and economic devastation to their victims, people who live almost exclusively in rural areas. Annually an estimated two million venomous bites cause as many as 100,000 deaths worldwide as well as hundreds of thousands of deformities and amputations. Recent studies suggest that India has the highest incidence of snakebite and associated deaths worldwide. In this study, we interviewed 25 hospital-based clinicians who regularly treat snakebites in Tamil Nadu, India, in order to gauge their opinions and views on the diagnostic tools and treatment methods available at that time, the difficulties encountered in treating snakebites and improvements to snakebite management protocols they deem necessary. Clinicians identified the improvement of community education, training of medical personnel, development of standard treatment protocols and improved medication as priorities for the immediate future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Place of Residence and Cognitive Function among the Adult Population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanzhang; Ostbye, Truls; Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Dupre, Matthew E; Wu, Bei

    2018-03-07

    The place of residence has been linked to cognitive function among adults in developed countries. This study examined how urban and rural residence was associated with cognitive function among adults in India. The World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health data was used to examine cognition among 6,244 community-residing adults age 50+ in 6 states in India. Residential status was categorized as urban, rural, urban-to-urban, rural-to-urban, rural-to-rural, and urban-to-rural. Cognition was assessed by immediate and delayed recall tests, digit span test, and verbal fluency test. Multilevel models were used to account for state-level differences and adjusted for individual-level sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health-related factors. Urban residents and urban-to-urban migrants had the highest levels of cognition, whereas rural residents and those who migrated to (or within) rural areas had the lowest cognition. The differences largely persisted after adjustment for multiple covariates; however, rural-to-urban migrants had no difference in cognition from urban residents once socioeconomic factors were taken into account. Cognition among adults in India differed significantly according to their current and past place of residence. Socioeconomic factors played an important role in the cognitive function of adults in urban areas. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Effect of number of rooms and sibs on nutritional status among rural Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2011-12-01

    In developing countries including rural India, undernutrition among preschool children is one of the main barriers of the national development. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of underweight and stunting and their socio-demographic predictors among preschool children in India and West Bengal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of underweight and stunting and the impact of two socio-demographic indicators, namely number of living rooms (NLR) and number of sibs (NS), on them among 1-5 year old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Centres. This cross sectional study was undertaken at 30 randomly selected ICDS centre of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 children, aged 1-5 years were studied. The overall (age and sex combined) rates of underweight and stunting were 54.40% and 39.20%, respectively. NLR was significantly associated with the prevalence of underweight (chi2 = 4.34, df = 1, p or = 2 NLR. Moreover, girls with > or = 3 NS had significant higher rate of underweight (OR = 2.03, CI = 1.32-3.146) or stunting (OR = 1.69, C.I = 1.09-2.63) than those with Gender discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of NRL and NS. Moreover, logistic regression were also undertaken with underweight and stunting status (yes/ no) as dependent variables and NLR and NS (combined) as independent variables to identify their effects, when considered together, on undernutrition. Results showed that NS had significant impact on underweight (Wald = 8.28, p < 0.001) rather than NLR among girls. Results also demonstrated that NLR had significant impact on stunting (Wald = 6.874, p < 0.01) rather than NS.

  20. Innovation Systems for Inclusive Development : Lessons from Rural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Both China and India are currently attempting to balance rapid economic growth, ... Interrogating innovation systems : challenges of the excluded rural in India ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  1. Prevalence of ocular morbidity in rural population of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Anupama Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ocular morbidity is a significant problem in rural areas of India as it remains undiagnosed and neglected. Aims & Objectives:  To determine the prevalence of ocular morbidity in the rural population of Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in the villages around RHTC Satrikh of HIMS Barabanki. Ocular examination and vision testing was done among 812 people using ophthalmoscopic instruments. Information was collected using pre-tested questionnaire. Analysis was done using SPSS and appropriate Statistical tests. Results: Of the total 812 individuals interviewed, the prevalence of ocular morbidity was 41.3% (335 subjects had one or more ocular morbidity; with 88.8% elderly affected (age >65 years.   Myopia was the most common ocular morbidity 14.8%, followed by cataract (14.3% and hypermetropia (12.8%.  Allergic and infective conjunctivitis affected 5.8% and 3.9%, respectively.  The prevalence of Vitamin A deficiency disorder (including night blindness and bitot spots was 1.3%.  Higher ocular morbidity was present in houses with higher SES. Environmental conditions had no significant relation to ocular morbidity.  Conclusion: The prevalence of ocular diseases among the elderly was highest and requires prompt attention.  Myopia was the most common ocular morbidity having a prevalence of 14.8%, followed by cataract (14.3% and hypermetropia (12.8%.

  2. Urban Rural Comparisons of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Burden among Adolescent Girls in a Hospital Setting in India

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    Swetha Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a multifaceted disorder characterized by varying clinical presentations. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine urban and rural differences in the burden of polycystic ovarian syndrome among Indian adolescent females aged 12 to 19 years. Methods. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of one month (August-September 2013 at Balaji Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. The final sample included 126 study participants located in various urban (50%, n=63 and rural (50%, n=63 settings. Information was gathered on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, clinical history, occurrence of acne and hirsutism, serum testosterone levels, obstetric history, family history of chronic diseases, menstrual history, physical activity, and dietary intake. Results. Eighteen percent of the participants were confirmed of having PCOS by recent guidelines of Rotterdam Consensus for adolescent diagnosis of PCOS (presence of all three elements. Majority of the individuals with PCOS had an average age of 16 (SD = 2 (P=.02 years with an average age of menarche 12 years (SD = 1. Conclusion. The proportion of participants diagnosed with PCOS was higher among urban participants in comparison to rural participants.

  3. Regional analysis of sanitation performance in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, Debasree; Dutta, Arijita

    2017-01-01

    India bears a disproportionate burden of open defecation in spite of investing more and more funds and ushering in several institutional efforts including the Swachh Bharat Mission in the recent past. A large share of rural households still lack basic sanitation facilities in India and members

  4. The prevalence of domestic violence and its associated factors among married women in a rural area of Puducherry, South India

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    Jismary George

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence against women is an emerging problem worldwide and more so in India. Considering its adverse effects on women′s health, assessing the burden of violence in the community will help in planning services for the victims. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and to identify factors associated with domestic violence among married women in reproductive age group in rural Puducherry. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural area of Puducherry, South India. Married women in reproductive age group were interviewed using structured pretested questionnaire. Domestic violence was assessed using 12 questions that were used in National Family Health Survey-3. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs were calculated using multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with violence. Results: Of 310 study participants, 56.7% of them reported some form of domestic violence, 51.3% reported psychological violence, 40% reported physical violence, and 13.5% reported sexual violence. A statistically significant association was found between illiteracy of women and domestic violence (AOR: 4.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-15.7  P: 0.03. The other factors such as love marriage and nonregistration of marriage were significantly associated with violence. Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic violence was found to be high in this rural setting. Multisectoral response such as improving literacy, creating awareness regarding legal aid and screening the victims of violence at primary health centers, should be initiated to mitigate this public health issue.

  5. A survey of the domiciliary situation of urban and rural patients of a palliative care unit in south India

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    Ramu Kandasamy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A demographic study was conducted to understand the social status of the urban and rural patients attending a palliative care unit in South India. Methods: Fifty rural and 50 urban patients attending the palliative care outpatient clinic of the Christian Medical College and Hospital, South India were prospectively surveyed using a structured interview and home visits. Parameters studied included age, gender, marital status, education, occupation, religion, caste, housing, economic status, diagnosis, distance to the nearest health resource personnel and hospitals. Results: Occupation, religion, caste, housing, electricity, toilet and accessibility to health care were found to be significantly different between urban and rural patients. Seventy percent of the patients were below 60 years of age. The majority were unskilled laborers or housewives. One-third had never been to school and only 3% had been educated beyond high school. Half the patients slept on the floor, 50% of the dwellings had only one or two rooms and did not have toilets or running water. Ninety-five percent had electricity. The economic status of the patients correlated significantly with age, occupation and facilities in the house such as number of rooms, availability of beds, toilets and water supply. Women and older patients were significantly less likely to have completed school education. Women were less likely to be the main decision-makers and more likely to be the main caregivers. Conclusion: Economic status was a strong predictor of the various facilities available to the patient. A significant proportion of this population lived in deprived circumstances. A knowledge and understanding of the social conditions of the palliative care patients helps provide better-tailored care.

  6. Losing the plot. The threats to community land and the rural poor through the spread of the biofuel jatropha in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, H.; Bebb, A.

    2009-12-01

    This report looks at the impact of India's jatropha targets on rural communities, focusing on the state of Chhattisgarh - a traditional rice-growing area where the crop is being grown. The report finds that thousands of tribal and lower caste Indians have been forced from community lands which they have relied on for generations. Without consultation or consent, common lands traditionally used for livestock grazing and subsistence farming by some of India's poorest communities has been forcibly grabbed and planted with jatropha. Objectors have often faced brutal repercussions and legal battles. The report also questions the Indian government's designation of land as suitable for jatropha. Some 13.4 million hectares of land were earmarked for jatropha across the country, including 3 million hectares of forest land and 4 million hectares of 'waste land'. But the report finds that much of this so-called 'waste land' is not suitable for any form of cultivation, even though it often provides key shared community resources, such as village forests and commons, providing food, fuel and timber for many of the poorest rural communities. The forest lands are often inhabited by forest dwellers who depend on forest access to survive.

  7. Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Archana; Mburu, Gitau; Shivkumar, Poonam Varma; Sharma, Pankhuri; Campbell, Fiona; Behera, Jagannath; Dargan, Ritu; Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Mehra, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. Methods: A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick® HIV antibody test, and subse...

  8. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagangatharathilagar, M.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C.; Dwivedi, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 μg/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

  9. An integrated approach to improving rural livelihoods: examples from India and Bangladesh

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    B. Croke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of work in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and SW Bangladesh through a series of projects from 2005 to the present, considering the impact of farming systems, water shed development and/or agricultural intensification on livelihoods in selected rural areas of India and Bangladesh. The projects spanned a range of scales spanning from the village scale (∼  1 km2 to the meso-scale (∼  100 km2, and considered social as well as biophysical aspects. They focused mainly on the food and water part of the food-water-energy nexus. These projects were in collaboration with a range of organisations in India and Bangladesh, including NGOs, universities, and government research organisations and departments. The projects were part funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, and built on other projects that have been undertaken within the region. An element of each of these projects was to understand how the hydrological cycle could be managed sustainably to improve agricultural systems and livelihoods of marginal groups. As such, they evaluated appropriate technology that is generally not dependent on high-energy inputs (mechanisation. This includes assessing the availability of water, and identifying potential water resources that have not been developed; understanding current agricultural systems and investigating ways of improving water use efficiency; and understanding social dynamics of the affected communities including the potential opportunities and negative impacts of watershed development and agricultural development.

  10. An integrated approach to improving rural livelihoods: examples from India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Barry; Merritt, Wendy; Cornish, Peter; Syme, Geoffrey J.; Roth, Christian H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of work in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and SW Bangladesh through a series of projects from 2005 to the present, considering the impact of farming systems, water shed development and/or agricultural intensification on livelihoods in selected rural areas of India and Bangladesh. The projects spanned a range of scales spanning from the village scale (˜ 1 km2) to the meso-scale (˜ 100 km2), and considered social as well as biophysical aspects. They focused mainly on the food and water part of the food-water-energy nexus. These projects were in collaboration with a range of organisations in India and Bangladesh, including NGOs, universities, and government research organisations and departments. The projects were part funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, and built on other projects that have been undertaken within the region. An element of each of these projects was to understand how the hydrological cycle could be managed sustainably to improve agricultural systems and livelihoods of marginal groups. As such, they evaluated appropriate technology that is generally not dependent on high-energy inputs (mechanisation). This includes assessing the availability of water, and identifying potential water resources that have not been developed; understanding current agricultural systems and investigating ways of improving water use efficiency; and understanding social dynamics of the affected communities including the potential opportunities and negative impacts of watershed development and agricultural development.

  11. Under the banyan tree--exclusion and inclusion of people with mental disorders in rural North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Kaaren; Kermode, Michelle; San Sebastian, Miguel; Koschorke, Mirja; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-05-01

    Social exclusion is both cause and consequence of mental disorders. People with mental disorders (PWMD) are among the most socially excluded in all societies yet little is known about their experiences in North India. This qualitative study aims to describe experiences of exclusion and inclusion of PWMD in two rural communities in Uttar Pradesh, India. In-depth interviews with 20 PWMD and eight caregivers were carried out in May 2013. Interviews probed experiences of help-seeking, stigma, discrimination, exclusion, participation, agency and inclusion in their households and communities. Qualitative content analysis was used to generate codes, categories and finally 12 key themes. A continuum of exclusion was the dominant experience for participants, ranging from nuanced distancing, negative judgements and social isolation, and self-stigma to overt acts of exclusion such as ridicule, disinheritance and physical violence. Mixed in with this however, some participants described a sense of belonging, opportunity for participation and support from both family and community members. These findings underline the urgent need for initiatives that increase mental health literacy, access to services and social inclusion of PWMD in North India, and highlight the possibilities of using human rights frameworks in situations of physical and economic violence. The findings also highlight the urgent need to reduce stigma and take actions in policy and at all levels in society to increase inclusion of people with mental distress and disorders.

  12. Water-Energy Correlations: Analysis of Water Technologies, Processes and Systems in Rural and Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murumkar, A. R.; Gupta, S.; Kaurwar, A.; Satankar, R. K.; Mounish, N. K.; Pitta, D. S.; Virat, J.; Kumar, G.; Hatte, S.; Tripathi, R. S.; Shedekar, V.; George, K. J.; Plappally, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    In India, the present value of water, both potable and not potable, bears no relation to the energy of water production. However, electrical energy spent on ground water extraction alone is equivalent to the nation's hydroelectric capacity of 40.1 GWh. Likewise, desalinating 1m3 water of the Bay of Bengal would save three times the energy for potable ground water extraction along the coast of the Bay. It is estimated that every second woman in rural India expends 0.98 kWhe/m3/d for bringing water for household needs. Yet, the water-energy nexus remains to be a topic which is gravely ignored. This is largely caused by factors such as lack of awareness, defective public policies, and intrusive cultural practices. Furthermore, there are instances of unceasing dereliction towards water management and maintenance of the sparsely distributed water and waste water treatment plants across the country. This pollutes the local water across India apart from other geogenic impurities. Additionally, product aesthetics and deceptive advertisements take advantage of the abulia generated by users' ignorance of technical specifications of water technologies and processes in mismanagement of water use. Accordingly, urban residents are tempted to expend on energy intensive water technologies at end use. This worsens the water-energy equation at urban households. Cooking procedures play a significant role in determining the energy expended on water at households. The paper also evaluates total energy expense involved in cultivating some major Kharif and Rabi crops. Manual and traditional agricultural practices are more prominent than mechanized and novel agricultural techniques. The specific energy consumption estimate for different water technologies will help optimize energy expended on water in its life cycles. The implication of the present study of water-energy correlation will help plan and extend water management infrastructure at different locations across India.

  13. Evaluation of a community-based HIV preventive intervention for female sex workers in rural areas of Karnataka State, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Reynold G; Nath, Anita; Isac, Shajy; Javalkar, Prakash; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    To examine changes in behavioral outcomes among rural female sex workers (FSWs) involved in a community-based comprehensive HIV preventive intervention program in south India. A total of 14, 284 rural FSWs were reached by means of a community-based model for delivering outreach, medical, and referral services. Changes in behavior were assessed using 2 rounds of polling booth surveys conducted in 2008 and 2011. In all, 95% of the mapped FSWs were reached at least once, 80.3% received condoms as per need, and 71% received health services for sexually transmitted infections. There was a significant increase in condom use (from 60.4% to 72.4%, P = .001) and utilization of HIV counseling and testing services (from 63.9% to 92.4%; P = .000) between the 2 time periods. This model for a community-based rural outreach and HIV care was effective and could also be applied to many other health problems. © 2014 APJPH.

  14. The Prevalence and Correlates of Frailty in Urban and Rural Populations in Latin America, China, and India: A 10/66 Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Prina, A Matthew; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jimenez-Velasquez, Ivonne Z; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Jotheeswaran, A T; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Prince, Martin J

    2018-04-01

    There have been few cross-national studies of the prevalence of the frailty phenotype conducted among low or middle income countries. We aimed to study the variation in prevalence and correlates of frailty in rural and urban sites in Latin America, India, and China. Cross-sectional population-based catchment area surveys conducted in 8 urban and 4 rural catchment areas in 8 countries; Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China, and India. We assessed weight loss, exhaustion, slow walking speed, and low energy consumption, but not hand grip strength. Therefore, frailty phenotype was defined on 2 or more of 4 of the usual 5 criteria. We surveyed 17,031 adults aged 65 years and over. Overall frailty prevalence was 15.2% (95% confidence inteval 14.6%-15.7%). Prevalence was low in rural (5.4%) and urban China (9.1%) and varied between 12.6% and 21.5% in other sites. A similar pattern of variation was apparent after direct standardization for age and sex. Cross-site variation in prevalence of frailty indicators varied across the 4 indicators. Controlling for age, sex, and education, frailty was positively associated with older age, female sex, lower socioeconomic status, physical impairments, stroke, depression, dementia, disability and dependence, and high healthcare costs. There was substantial variation in the prevalence of frailty and its indicators across sites in Latin America, India, and China. Culture and other contextual factors may impact significantly on the assessment of frailty using questionnaire and physical performance-based measures, and achieving cross-cultural measurement invariance remains a challenge. A consistent pattern of correlates was identified, suggesting that in all sites, the frailty screen could identify older adults with multiple physical, mental, and cognitive morbidities, disability and needs for care, compounded by socioeconomic disadvantage and catastrophic healthcare spending. Copyright © 2017. Published

  15. ROLE OF PLANTS FOUND IN NORTH EAST INDIA AND BANGLADESH IN CONTROLLING POPULATION GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhimly Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Being part of the Indian subcontinent both the North Eastern region of India and the Bangladesh share a long common cultural, economic and political history. One of the most critical problems of developing countries like India as well as Bangladesh is their enormous increase in human population. Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR of India is 48.3 and that of Bangladesh is 53.8. As the large majority of population of both the countries belong to rural area, the family planning programmes have largely remained unsuccessful because of many factors including lack of availability of contraceptive drugs in rural markets, lack of accessibility of rural people to medical personnel as well as the lack of acceptability of synthetic drugs due to various socio-cultural and religious perceptions prevailing among many ethnic communities. These contributed to a growing interest among researchers in developing contraceptives of natural origin and at present natural herbal contraception have become one of the major focuses of modern contraceptive research. Since time immemorial herbal drugs are being practiced by various rural communities and ethnic tribes in North East India as well as in Bangladesh, and hence the acceptability of herbal contraceptives is expected to be much higher among rural folk. In different parts of North East India and Bangladesh, ethnic communities are using plant based medicinal products till today. This study aims at highlighting the contraceptive property of some plants found in North-Eastern India as well as in Bangladesh.

  16. Induced abortions among adolescent women in rural Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Bela; Hirve, Siddhi

    2002-05-01

    In a study in rural Maharashtra, India, adolescents constituted 13.1% of the 1717 married women who had an induced abortion during an 18-month period in 1996-1998. The 197 adolescents who were subsequently interviewed had a lesser role in the decision-making process on abortion than women older than them. Most abortions were obtained in the private sector. Though spacing was the main reason for adolescents seeking abortion, prior contraceptive use among them was low. Additionally, they were less likely to receive post-abortion contraceptive counselling or to adopt contraception. Sex selection accounted for more than a fifth of abortions among adolescents. Additional qualitative data from 43 never-married and separated adolescents seeking abortion showed that non-consensual sex made many pregnancies unwanted, and cost, limited mobility, lack of family and partner support and the need for privacy to prevent stigma led many to go to traditional providers, even though safer options existed. Family planning programmes need to address the contraceptive needs of newly married adolescent women as well as unmarried adolescents. Informing adolescents of their legal rights, sensitising providers to adopt an empathetic attitude, and exploring innovative ways of increasing access to safe services for unmarried adolescents are all recommended.

  17. Unintentional Childhood Injuries in Urban and Rural Ujjain, India: A Community-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Mathur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are a major global public health problem. There are very few community-based studies on childhood injury from India. The objective of this cross-sectional, community-based survey was to identify the incidence, type, and risk factors of unintentional childhood injuries. The study was done in seven villages and ten contiguous urban slums in Ujjain, India. World Health Organization (WHO tested tools and definitions were used for the survey, which included 2518 households having 6308 children up to 18 years of age, with 2907 children from urban households and 3401 from rural households. The annual incidence of all injuries was 16.6%, 95% Confidence Interval 15.7–17.5%, (n = 1049. The incidence was significantly higher among boys compared to girls (20.2% versus 12.7%, respectively, was highest in age group 6–10 years of age (18.9%, and in urban locations (17.5%. The most commonly identified injury types were: physical injuries (71%, burns (16%, poisonings (10%, agriculture-related injuries (2%, near drowning (2%, and suffocations (2%. The most common place of injury was streets followed by home. The study identified incidence of different types of unintentional childhood injuries and factors associated with increased risk of unintentional injuries. The results can help in designing injury prevention strategies and awareness programs in similar settings.

  18. Cervical cancer screening: knowledge, attitude and practices among nursing staff in a tertiary level teaching institution of rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Sharma, Chanderdeep; Thakur, Sita; Raina, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the nursing staff knowledge, attitude and practices about cervical cancer screening in a tertiary care teaching institute of rural India. A cross sectional, descriptive, interview- based survey was conducted with a pretested questionnaire among 262 staff nurses of a tertiary care teaching and research institute. In this study 77% respondents knew that Pap smear is used for detection of cervical cancer, but less than half knew that Pap smear can detect even precancerous lesions of cervix. Only 23.4% knew human papilloma virus infection as a risk factor. Only 26.7% of the respondents were judged as having adequate knowledge based on scores allotted for questions evaluating knowledge about cervical cancer and screening. Only 17 (7%) of the staff nurses had themselves been screened by Pap smear, while 85% had never taken a Pap smear of a patient. Adequate knowledge of cervical cancer and screening, higher parity and age >30 years were significantly associated with self screening for cervical cancer. Most nurses held a view that Pap test is a doctor procedure, and nearly 90% of nurses had never referred a patient for Pap testing. The majority of nursing staff in rural India may have inadequate knowledge about cervical cancer screening, and their attitude and practices towards cervical cancer screening could not be termed positive.

  19. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy and its Associated Factors in a Rural Area of Villupuram District of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajan, Balasubramanian; Saya, Ganesh Kumar; Krishna, Ramesh Babu; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha

    2017-07-01

    There is limited information on prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) among diabetic subjects and its associated factors in a rural setting in developing countries including India. The information will be useful for initiating early screening strategies for this group in the community. To assess the prevalence and certain associated factors of DR among diabetic subjects in a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 105 Type 2 diabetic subjects in Pakkam and Mandagapattu sub-center area of Kondur Primary Health Center in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu, India. Data on associated factors which include sociodemographic factors, duration of disease, family history, and frequency of blood test, treatment regularity, hypertension, visual acuity and cataract were collected. Detailed eye examination including visual acuity, direct ophthalmoscope and Non Mydriatic Fundus Camera was done. Data was analysed by univariate analysis and described in proportion or percentages. The mean age of the study population was 56.69 years. About 47 (44.8%) of the subjects were more than 60 years of age followed by 44 subjects (41.9%) in age group 45-59 years. Fundus examination in at least one eye was seen in 83 people (79.0%). Prevalence of DR in any eye and both the eye was 32.53% (27/83) and 31.58% (24/76) respectively. Severity of DR was moderate (51.9%) followed by mild (44.4%) and severe (3.7%). DR prevalence was more among >60 years age group (p=0.032) and lesser education level (p=0.057). There was no association of DR with duration of disease, family history of diabetes, treatment regularity, presence of hypertension, visual acuity and cataract (p>0.05). The prevalence of DR was inferred to be high and further larger follow up studies will explore the role of associated factors and its quantification in the causation of DR.

  20. Barriers to accessing eye care services among visually impaired populations in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovai Vilas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To understand the reasons why people in rural south India with visual impairment arising from various ocular diseases do not seek eye care. Materials and Methods: A total of 5,573 persons above the age of 15 were interviewed and examined in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh covering the districts of Adilabad, West Godavari and Mahaboobnagar. A pre-tested structured questionnaire on barriers to eye care was administered by trained field investigators. Results: Of the eligible subjects, 1234 (22.1%, N=5573 presented with distant visual acuity < 20/60 or equivalent visual field loss in the better eye. Of these, 898 (72.7%, N=1234 subjects had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision citing personal, economic and social reasons. The analysis also showed that the odds of seeking treatment was significantly higher for literates [odds ratio (OR 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.38 to 2.65], for those who would be defined as blind by visual acuity category (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.90 and for those with cataract and other causes of visual impairment (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.03. Barriers to seeking treatment among those who had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision over the past five years were personal in 52% of the respondents, economic in 37% and social in 21%. Conclusion: Routine planning for eye care services in rural areas of India must address the barriers to eye care perceived by communities to increase the utilization of services.

  1. Human wetland dependency and socio-economic evaluation of wetland functions through participatory approach in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabika Biswas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are an important source of natural resources upon which rural economies depend. They have increasingly been valuable for their goods and services, and the intrinsic ecological value they provide to local populations, as well as people living outside the periphery of the wetlands. Stakeholders' participation is essential to the protection and preservation of wetlands because it plays a very important role economically as well as ecologically in the wetland system. The objective of this study was to determine whether gender, educational status, mouzas (which are constituents of a block according to the land reform of the West Bengal Government in India, and wetland functions have any influence on the annual income of the local community. Considering a floodplain wetland in rural India, the focus was extended to recognize the pattern of wetland functions according to the nature of people's involvement through cluster analysis of the male and female populations. Using the statistical software R-2.8.1, an ANOVA (analysis of variance table was constructed. Since the p value (significance level was lower than 0.05 for each case, it can be concluded that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have a significant influence on annual income. However, S-PLUS-2000 was applied to obtain a complete scenario of the pattern of wetland functions, in terms of involvement of males and females, through cluster analysis. The main conclusion is that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have significant impacts on annual income, while the pattern of occupation of the local community based on wetland functions is completely different for the male and female populations.

  2. Effect of use of socially marketed faucet fitted earthen vessel/sodium hypochlorite solution on diarrhea prevention at household level in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Dongre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of socially marketed faucet fitted to earthen vessel / sodium hypochlorite solution on diarrhea prevention at rural household level as a social intervention for diarrhea prevention under ‘Community Led Initiatives for Child Survival (CLICS program. Methods: Unmatched case-control study was carried out in 10 villages of Primary Health Centre, Anji, located in rural central India. During the study period, 144 households used either faucet fitted earthen vessel to store drinking water or used sodium hypochlorite solution (SH for keeping drinking water safe. These served as case households for the present study. 213 neighborhood control households from same locality who used neither of the methods were also selected. Results: Odds ratio for households who used faucets fitted to earthen vessel was 0.49 (95% CI= 0.25 – 0.95. Odds ratio for households who used sodium hypochlorite solution was 0.55 (95% CI= 0.31 – 0.98. Use of these methods by the community, would prevent about 27 percent and 22 percent cases of the diarrhea (Population attributable risk proportion = 0.25 by faucets fitted to earthen vessels and 0.22 by use of sodium hypochlorite solution respectively. Conclusion: To ensure safe drinking water at household level, the effective and cheap methods like fitting faucet to traditionally used earthen vessel and/or use of sodium hypochlorite solution must be promoted through community participation at household level for cost and culture sensitive rural people in India.

  3. A Community-based Bacteriological Study of Quality of Drinking-water and Its Feedback to a Rural Community in Western Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Tambe, Prachi V.; Daswani, Poonam G.; Mistry, Nerges F.; Ghadge, Appasaheb A.; Antia, Noshir H.

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal study of the bacteriological quality of rural water supplies was undertaken for a movement towards self-help against diseases, such as diarrhoea, and improved water management through increased community participation. Three hundred and thirteen water samples from different sources, such as well, tank, community standpost, handpumps, percolation lakes, and streams, and from households were collected from six villages in Maharashtra, India, over a one-year period. Overall, 49.8%...

  4. Usage and recall of FMCG brands by rural consumers and relevant facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savanam Chandra Sekhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available India is a country of villages. It has mammoth rural population of 833 million spread over 640,867 villages. Rural markets are small in size, distantly scattered and heterogeneous. They provide awesome opportunities for fast moving consumer goods (FMCG companies. Rural consumers aspire to use brands rather than just commodities. At this juncture, understand rural consumer usage of FMCG brands and awareness is perceived appropriate. The objective of this research paper is to study the usage and recall of FMCG brands by rural consumers in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh in India. Thus, a modest attempt is made in this paper to divulge relevant facts of the topic with empirical data. This article is quite useful to the stakeholders of rural marketing.

  5. Operational Assessment of ICDS Scheme at Grass Root Level in a Rural Area of Eastern India: Time to Introspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jyotiranjan; Mahajan, Preetam B; Bhatia, Vikas; Patra, Abhinash K; Hembram, Dilip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS), a flagship program of Government of India (GoI) for early childhood development hasn’t delivered the desired results since its inception four decades ago. This could be due to infrastructural problems, lack of awareness and proper utilization by the local people, inadequate program monitoring and corruption in food supplies, etc. This study is an audit of 36 Anganwadi centres at Khordha district, Odisha, to evaluate the implementation of the ICDS. Aim To assess operational aspects of ICDS program in a rural area of Odisha, in Eastern India. Materials and Methods A total of 36 out of 50 Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) were included in the study. We interviewed the Anganwadi Workers (AWW) and carried out observations on the AWCs using a checklist. We gathered information under three domains manpower resource, material resource and functional aspects of the AWC. Results Most of the AWCs were adequately staffed. Most of the AWWs were well educated. However, more than 85% of the AWCs did not have designated building for daily functioning which resulted in issues related to implementation of program. Water, toilet and electricity facilities were almost non-existent. Indoor air pollution posed a serious threat to the health of the children. Lack of play materials; lack of health assessment tools for promoting, monitoring physical and mental development; and multiple de-motivating factors within the work environment, eventually translated into lack of faith among the beneficiaries in the rural community. Conclusion Inadequate infrastructure and logistic supply were the most prominent issues found, which resulted in poor implementation of ICDS program. Strengthening of grass root level facilities based on need assessment, effective monitoring and supervision will definitely help in revamping the ICDS program in rural areas. PMID:28208890

  6. India moves towards menstrual hygiene: subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it.

  7. Clinical profile and visual outcome of ocular injuries in a rural area of western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Somen; Nandwani, Rupali; Gogri, Pratik; Misra, Neeta

    2013-01-01

    Ocular trauma is a major cause of visual impairment and morbidity worldwide. To identify the various type of ocular injury in a rural area, determine the presence of any associated visual damage and assess the final visual outcome after treatment. Hospital-based, prospective study conducted over a period of two years. A total of 60 patients of ocular trauma were included. Ocular injuries were more commonly seen in adult (55 per cent) patients who were associated with agricultural work (43.33 per cent). They were more common in male patients (71.67 per cent). Closed globe injury (68.33 per cent) was more common than open globe injury (31.67 per cent). Both in open and closed globe injuries, the commonest object causing injury was a wooden stick. Just 26.7 per cent of the patients had a visual acuity better than 6/60 at presentation; while after completed treatment at two months follow-up, 68.3 per cent had best corrected visual acuity better than 6/60. Agricultural trauma is an important cause of monocular blindness in rural India. The visual outcome depends upon the site and size of the injury and the extent of the ocular damage.

  8. Community-based mental health intervention for underprivileged women in rural India: an experiential report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran; Vanguri, Prameela; Premchander, Smita

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To share experiences from a project that integrates a mental health intervention within a developmental framework of microcredit activity for economically underprivileged women in rural India. Method. The mental health intervention had two components: group counseling and stress management. The former comprised of ventilation and reassurance and the latter strengthening of coping skills and a relaxation technique. Focus group discussions were used to understand women's perception of how microcredit economic activity and the mental health intervention had affected their lives. Results. Women in the mental health intervention group reported reduction in psychological distress and bodily aches and pains. Majority (86%) reported that the quality of their sleep had improved with regular practice of relaxation and that sharing their problems in the group had helped them to unburden. The social support extended by the members to each other, made them feel that they were not alone and could face any life situation. Conclusion. The study provided qualitative evidence that adding the mental health intervention to the ongoing economic activity had made a positive difference in the lives of the women. Addressing mental health concerns along with livelihood initiatives can help to enhance both economic and social capital in rural poor women.

  9. An Educational Training on Cervical Cancer Screening Program for Rural Healthcare Providers in India

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    Rita Caroline Isaac

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional, cytology based Cervical cancer screening programmes used in the developed world is often not practical in developing countries. Training of health care work force on a feasible, low-tech, screening methods is urgently needed in low resource settings. Twenty providers including doctors and nurses participated in a 2-days training workshop organized by a Community Health Center in rural South India. The pre-post-training assessment showed significant improvement in knowledge about cervical cancer, ‘low tech’ screening, treatment options and counseling among the participants.  Twenty volunteers screened at the workshop, 2 women (10% tested positive and one had CINIII lesion and the other had cervical cancer stage IIIB. After the training, the participants felt confident about their ability to counsel and screen women for cervical cancer.

  10. Partnership for Self-Reliant Change: Institute for Integrated Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancey, John

    1994-01-01

    The Institute for Integrated Rural Development in the Maharashtra State of India seeks to break the cycle of poverty through sustainable rural development. It works closely with rural women on health and nutrition education and in other community partnerships based on horizontal structures. (SK)

  11. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saud, T.; Singh, D.P.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T.K.; Saxena, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Gautam, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhatnagar, R.P.; Pathak, H.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  12. Rural Marketing in India –Challenges, Opportunities and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Abhisek Kumar Tripathi

    2012-01-01

    The rural market in Indian economy can be classified under two broad categories. These are the market for consumer goods that comprise of both durable and non-durable goods and the market for agricultural inputs that include fertilizers, pesticides, seeds Key words: rural marketing, marketing, challenges in rural marketing, rural marketing environment

  13. an assessment of the incidence of poverty among rural active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-10

    Jan 10, 2013 ... Keyword: Incidence, Poverty, Rural, Active Population. Introduction ... economic growth, basic needs, employment- oriented, sectoral ..... strong and positive relationship. ... study of rural households in India has a somewhat.

  14. Contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care- does it work in rural India?

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    Randive Bharat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contracting in private sector is promoted in developing countries facing human resources shortages as a challenge to reduce maternal mortality. This study explored provision, practice, performance, barriers to execution and views about contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care (EmOC in rural India. Methods Facility survey was conducted in all secondary and tertiary public health facilities (44 in three heterogeneous districts in Maharashtra state of India. Interviews (42 were conducted with programme managers and district and block level officials and with public and private EmOC specialists. Locations of private obstetricians in the study districts were identified and mapped. Results Two schemes, namely Janani Suraksha Yojana and Indian Public Health standards (IPHS provided for contracting in EmOC specialists. The IPHS provision was chosen for use mainly due to greater sum for contracting in (US $ 30/service episode vs.300 US$/month. The positions of EmOC specialists were vacant in 83% of all facilities that hence had a potential for contracting in EmOC specialists. Private specialists were contracted in at 20% such facilities. The contracting in of specialists did not greatly increase EmOC service outputs at facilities, except in facilities with determined leadership. Contracting in specialists was useful for non emergency conditions, but not for obstetric emergencies. The contracts were more of a relational nature with poor monitoring structures. Inadequate infrastructure, longer distance to private specialists, insufficient financial provision for contracting in, and poor management capacities were barriers to effective implementation of contracting in. Dependency on the private sector was a concern among public partners while the private partners viewed contracting in as an opportunity to gain experience and credibility. Conclusions Density and geographic distribution of private specialists are important

  15. Contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care- does it work in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randive, Bharat; Chaturvedi, Sarika; Mistry, Nerges

    2012-12-31

    Contracting in private sector is promoted in developing countries facing human resources shortages as a challenge to reduce maternal mortality. This study explored provision, practice, performance, barriers to execution and views about contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in rural India. Facility survey was conducted in all secondary and tertiary public health facilities (44) in three heterogeneous districts in Maharashtra state of India. Interviews (42) were conducted with programme managers and district and block level officials and with public and private EmOC specialists. Locations of private obstetricians in the study districts were identified and mapped. Two schemes, namely Janani Suraksha Yojana and Indian Public Health standards (IPHS) provided for contracting in EmOC specialists. The IPHS provision was chosen for use mainly due to greater sum for contracting in (US $ 30/service episode vs.300 US$/month). The positions of EmOC specialists were vacant in 83% of all facilities that hence had a potential for contracting in EmOC specialists. Private specialists were contracted in at 20% such facilities. The contracting in of specialists did not greatly increase EmOC service outputs at facilities, except in facilities with determined leadership. Contracting in specialists was useful for non emergency conditions, but not for obstetric emergencies. The contracts were more of a relational nature with poor monitoring structures. Inadequate infrastructure, longer distance to private specialists, insufficient financial provision for contracting in, and poor management capacities were barriers to effective implementation of contracting in. Dependency on the private sector was a concern among public partners while the private partners viewed contracting in as an opportunity to gain experience and credibility. Density and geographic distribution of private specialists are important influencing factors in determining feasibility and use of

  16. Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health Programme for providing innovative mental health care in rural communities in India

    OpenAIRE

    Maulik, P. K.; Devarapalli, S.; Kallakuri, S.; Praveen, D.; Jha, V.; Patel, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. India has few mental health professionals to treat the large number of people suffering from mental disorders. Rural areas are particularly disadvantaged due to lack of trained health workers. Ways to improve care could be by training village health workers in basic mental health care, and by using innovative methods of service delivery. The ongoing Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment Mental Health Programme will assess the acceptability, feasibility and prelimina...

  17. Profile of pregnant women using delivery hut services of the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Haldar, Partha; Singh, Arvind K; Archana, S; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    To describe women who attended two delivery huts in rural Haryana, India. The present observational study assessed routinely collected service provision data from two delivery huts located at primary health centers in the district of Faridabad. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, prenatal care, use of free transport services, and maternal and neonatal indicators at delivery were assessed for all pregnant women who used the delivery hut services from January 2012 to June 2014. During the study period, 1796 deliveries occurred at the delivery huts. The mean age of the mothers was 23.3 ± 3.3 years (95% confidence interval 23.1-23.5). Of 1648 mothers for whom data were available, 1039 (63.0%) had travelled less than 5 km to the delivery hut. The proportion of mothers who belonged to a lower caste increased from 31.0% (193/622) in 2012 to 41.1% (162/394) in 2014. The proportion of mothers who were illiterate also increased, from 8.1% (53/651) in 2012 to 26.4% (104/394) in 2014. Belonging to a disadvantaged social group (in terms of caste or education) was not an obstacle to use of delivery hut services. The delivery huts might have satisfied some unmet needs of community members in rural India. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Community health workers in rural India: analysing the opportunities and challenges Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) face in realising their multiple roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saprii, Lipekho; Richards, Esther; Kokho, Puni; Theobald, Sally

    2015-12-09

    Globally, there is increasing interest in community health worker's (CHW) performance; however, there are gaps in the evidence with respect to CHWs' role in community participation and empowerment. Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), whose roles include social activism, are the key cadre in India's CHW programme which is designed to improve maternal and child health. In a diverse country like India, there is a need to understand how the ASHA programme operates in different underserved Indian contexts, such as rural Manipur. We undertook qualitative research to explore stakeholders' perceptions and experiences of the ASHA scheme in strengthening maternal health and uncover the opportunities and challenges ASHAs face in realising their multiple roles in rural Manipur, India. Data was collected through in-depth interviews (n = 18) and focus group discussions (n = 3 FGDs, 18 participants). Participants included ASHAs, key stakeholders and community members. They were purposively sampled based on remoteness of villages and primary health centres to capture diverse and relevant constituencies, as we believed experiences of ASHAs can be shaped by remoteness. Data were analysed using the thematic framework approach. Findings suggested that ASHAs are mostly understood as link workers. ASHA's ability to address the immediate needs of rural and marginalised communities meant that they were valued as service providers. The programme is perceived to be beneficial as it improves awareness and behaviour change towards maternal care. However, there are a number of challenges; the selection of ASHAs is influenced by power structures and poor community sensitisation of the ASHA programme presents a major risk to success and sustainability. The primary health centres which ASHAs link to are ill-equipped. Thus, ASHAs experience adverse consequences in their ability to inspire trust and credibility in the community. Small and irregular monetary incentives demotivate

  19. Research and Assessment of Learning Environments through Photoelicitation: Graduate Student Perceptions of Electronics Manufacturing in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Catherine G. P.; Cox, Monica F.

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the positive and negative perceptions of graduate students from the United States studying issues of sustainable electronics and electronics manufacturing in India as part of a National Science Foundation Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the…

  20. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in a rural community in South India: Results from the kidney disease screening (KIDS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y J Anupama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD appears to be increasing in India. A few studies have studied the prevalence of CKD in urban populations, but there is a paucity of such studies in the rural populations. This project was undertaken to study the prevalence of CKD among adults in a rural population near Shimoga, Karnataka and to study the risk factor profile. Door-to-door screening of 2091 people aged 18 and above was carried out. Demographic and anthropometric data were obtained, urine was analyzed for protein by dipstick and serum creatinine was measured in all participants. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR using the 4-variable modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD equation and Cockcroft-Gault equation corrected to the body surface area (CG-BSA. The total number of subjects studied was 2091. Mean age was 39.88 ± 15.87 years. 45.57% were males. The prevalence of proteinuria was 2.8%. CKD was seen in 131 (6.3% subjects when GFR was estimated by MDRD equation. The prevalence of CKD was 16.54% by the CG-BSA method. There was a statistically significant relationship of CKD with gender, advancing age, abdominal obesity, smoking, presence of diabetes and hypertension. The prevalence of CKD is higher compared to the previous studies from rural India and is comparable to that in the studies from the urban Indian populations. The wide difference between the CKD prevalence between MDRD and CG-BSA equations suggests the need for a better measure of kidney function applicable to Indian population.

  1. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in the rural population of Wardha, Central India: An exploratory factor analysis

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    Pradeep R Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Metabolic syndrome - a plausible precondition for type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is also on rise. To understand the mechanistic complexity of metabolic syndrome it is imperative to study the specific contribution of the determinants of metabolic syndrome. Such study can help to identify the most significant factor which may be of use in early detection as well as prevention efforts. Such information is scarcely available from India and especially from rural India. Hence, the present study was undertaken to explore for such factor which might be considered crucial for development of such pathogenesis particularly in rural population of Wardha. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising of 300 subjects was carried out in rural area of Primary Health Center, attached to medical college with approximate 31,000 populations. The anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist circumference were measured. Overnight fasting samples were collected for lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and fasting blood glucose levels. The National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel, ATP-III guidelines were used to categorize the study subjects. As many of the variables are highly intercorrelated, exploratory factor analysis was carried out to reduce the data to a smaller number of independent factors that accounts for the most of the variances in the data. Principal component analysis was used as a method of extraction. Results: For both sexes, three factors were extracted accounting for about 71% variance in the measured variables. An adiposity factor which accounted for highest explained variance (28%, was the initial factor extracted. It was loaded positively by waist circumference, triglyceride, and very low density lipoprotein and negatively loaded by high density lipoprotein. Second factor extracted

  3. Postnatal depression among rural women in South India: do socio-demographic, obstetric and pregnancy outcome have a role to play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Gururaj, Nandihal

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) is one of the most common psychopathology and is considered as a serious public health issue because of its devastating effects on mother, family, and infant or the child. To elicit socio-demographic, obstetric and pregnancy outcome predictors of Postnatal Depression (PND) among rural postnatal women in Karnataka state, India. Hospital based analytical cross sectional study. A rural tertiary care hospital of Mandya District, Karnataka state, India. PND prevalence based estimated sample of 102 women who came for postnatal follow up from 4th to 10th week of lactation. Study participants were interviewed using validated kannada version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Cut-off score of ≥ 13 was used as high risk of PND. The percentage of women at risk of PND was estimated, and differences according to socio-demographic, obstetric and pregnancy outcome were described. Logistic regression was applied to identify the independent predictors of PND risk. Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR of PND. Prevalence of PND was 31.4% (95% CI 22.7-41.4%). PND showed significant (P women, non-farmer husbands, poverty, female baby and pregnancy complications or known medical illness. In binomial logistic regression poverty (adjOR: 11.95, 95% CI:1.36-105), birth of female baby (adjOR: 3.6, 95% CI:1.26-10.23) and pregnancy complications or known medical illness (adjOR: 17.4, 95% CI:2.5-121.2) remained as independent predictors of PND. Risk of PND among rural postnatal women was high (31.4%). Birth of female baby, poverty and complications in pregnancy or known medical illness could predict the high risk of PND. PND screening should be an integral part of postnatal care. Capacity building of grass root level workers and feasibility trials for screening PND by them are needed.

  4. India's population: second and growing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visaria, P; Visaria, L

    1981-10-01

    Attention in this discussion of the population of India is directed to the following: international comparisons, population pressures, trends in population growth (interstate variations), sex ratio and literacy, urban-rural distribution, migration (interstate migration, international migration), fertility and mortality levels, fertility trends (birth rate decline, interstate fertility differentials, rural-urban fertility decline, fertility differentials by education and religion, marriage and fertility), mortality trends (mortality differentials, health care services), population pressures on socioeconomic development (per capita income and poverty, unemployment and employment, increasing foodgrain production, school enrollment shortfalls), the family planning program, implementing population policy statements, what actions would be effective, and goals and prospects for the future. India's population, a total of 684 million persons as of March 1, 1981, is 2nd only to the population of China. The 1981 population was up by 136 million persons, or 24.75%, over the 548 million enumerated in the 1971 census. For 1978, India's birth and death rates were estimated at 33.3 and 14.2/1000 population, down from about 41.1 and 18.9 during the mid-1960s. India's current 5-year plan has set a goal of a birth rate of 30/1000 population by 1985 and "replacement-level" fertility--about 2.3 births per woman--by 1996. The acceleration in India's population growth has come mainly in the past 3 decades and is due primarily to a decline in mortality that has markedly outstripped the fertility decline. The Janata Party which assumed government leadership in March 1977 did not dismantle the family planning program, but emphasis was shifted to promote family planning "without any compulsion, coercion or pressures of any sort." The policy statement stressed that efforts were to be directed towards those currently underserved, mainly in rural areas. Hard targets were rejected. Over the 1978

  5. SMARTHealth India: Development and Field Evaluation of a Mobile Clinical Decision Support System for Cardiovascular Diseases in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Devarsetty; Patel, Anushka; Raghu, Arvind; Clifford, Gari D; Maulik, Pallab K; Mohammad Abdul, Ameer; Mogulluru, Kishor; Tarassenko, Lionel; MacMahon, Stephen; Peiris, David

    2014-12-08

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of premature death and disability in India and yet few people at risk of CVD are able to access best practice health care. Mobile health (mHealth) is a promising solution, but very few mHealth interventions have been subjected to robust evaluation in India. The objectives were to develop a multifaceted, mobile clinical decision support system (CDSS) for CVD management and evaluate it for use by public nonphysician health care workers (NPHWs) and physicians in a rural Indian setting. Plain language clinical rules were developed based on standard guidelines and programmed into a computer tablet app. The algorithm was validated and field-tested in 11 villages in Andhra Pradesh, involving 11 NPHWs and 3 primary health center (PHC) physicians. A mixed method evaluation was conducted comprising clinical and survey data and in-depth patient and staff interviews to understand barriers and enablers to the use of the system. Then this was thematically analyzed using NVivo 10. During validation of the algorithm, there was an initial agreement for 70% of the 42 calculated variables between the CDSS and SPSS software outputs. Discrepancies were identified and amendments were made until perfect agreement was achieved. During field testing, NPHWs and PHC physicians used the CDSS to screen 227 and 65 adults, respectively. The NPHWs identified 39% (88/227) of patients for referral with 78% (69/88) of these having a definite indication for blood pressure (BP)-lowering medication. However, only 35% (24/69) attended a clinic within 1 month of referral, with 42% (10/24) of these reporting continuing medications at 3-month follow-up. Physicians identified and recommended 17% (11/65) of patients for BP-lowering medications. Qualitative interviews identified 3 interrelated interview themes: (1) the CDSS had potential to change prevailing health care models, (2) task-shifting to NPHWs was the central driver of change, and (3) despite high

  6. Process evaluation of the systematic medical appraisal, referral and treatment (SMART) mental health project in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Abha; Kallakuri, Sudha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha; Jha, Vivekanand; Patel, Anushka; Maulik, Pallab K

    2017-12-04

    Availability of basic mental health services is limited in rural areas of India. Health system and individual level factors such as lack of mental health professionals and infrastructure, poor awareness about mental health, stigma related to help seeking, are responsible for poor awareness and use of mental health services. We implemented a mental health services delivery model that leveraged technology and task sharing to facilitate identification and treatment of common mental disorders (CMDs) such as stress, depression, anxiety and suicide risk in rural areas of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The intervention was delivered by lay village health workers (Accredited Social Health Activists - ASHAs) and primary care doctors. An anti-stigma campaign was implemented prior to this activity. This paper reports the process evaluation of the intervention using mixed methods. A mixed methods pre-post evaluation assessed the intervention using quantitative service usage analytics from the server, and qualitative interviews with different stakeholders. Barriers and facilitators in implementing the intervention were identified. Health service use increased significantly at post-intervention, ASHAs could followup 78.6% of those who had screened positive, and 78.6% of the 1243 Interactive Voice Response System calls made, were successful. Most respondents were aware of the intervention. They indicated that knowledge received through the intervention empowered them to approach ASHAs and share their mental health symptoms. ASHAs and doctors opined that EDSS was useful and easy to use. Medical camps organized in villages to increase access to the doctor were received positively by all. However, some aspects or facilitators of the intervention need to be improved, including network connectivity, booster training, anti-stigma campaigns, quality of mental health services provided by doctors, provision of psychotropic medications at primary health centers and frequency of health

  7. A Decade of Rural Transformation : Lessons Learnt from the Bihar Rural Livelihoods Project—JEEViKA

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this booklet is to document a decade of journey of the Bihar Rural Livelihoods Project (BRLP) from 2006 to 2016 in the one of the poorest states in India. The project was successfully completed and a follow-on project, Bihar Transformative Development Project (BTDP) commenced in 2016 to expand the BRLP model. This booklet is a joint effort of the Bihar Rural Livelihood Pr...

  8. Why ethnicity and gender matters for fertility intention among married young people: a baseline evaluation from a gender transformative intervention in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Tina; Chandra, Murari; Singh, Ajay; Mehra, Sunil

    2018-04-13

    Social inequities in early child bearing persist among young married people, especially among tribal populations in India. Rural women belonging to tribal groups and those coming from poor households are more likely to give birth before age 18. This paper explores the connection between ethnicity, gender and early fertility intention among young married people in rural India. The data is drawn from a cross sectional baseline evaluation of an intervention programme in rural India. A sample of 273 married young people was taken. Respondents were selected using systematic random sampling. Logistic Regression was used to assess the effect of being a tribal on early fertility intention and also to determine if covariates associated with early fertility intention differed by tribal status. Qualitative data was analysed using deductive content analysis approach. Bivariate and logistic regression results indicated that young married people from tribal communities had higher odds of planning a child within one year of marriage than non-tribals (OR = 1.47, p-value-0.079). Findings further suggest that early fertility intention among tribals is driven by gender factors and higher education and among non-tribals, higher education and awareness on contraception are key predictors. Among tribals, the odds of planning a child within one year of marriage was strongly associated with inequitable gender norms (OR = 1.94, p-value-0.002). Higher education showed significant positive association with non-tribals (OR = 0.19, p-value-0.014) and positive association with tribals (OR = 0.56, p-value-0.416). Qualitative investigation confirms that fertility desires of young married people are strongly influenced by gender norms especially among tribal populations. Early child bearing was underpinned by complex ethnic factors and gender norms. Preference for early child bearing was seen most among tribal communities. Gender attitudes were a cause of concern especially among

  9. Patient satisfaction and acceptance of spherical equivalent spectacles correction wear in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B Sandeep; Das, Taraprasad; Mirdha, Ghansyam S; Reddy, Nagavardhan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possibilities of acceptance of a ready-to-dispense spherical equivalent (SE) of spherocylindrical (SC) correction spectacles in rural India. Snellen visual acuity with SE power of refracted SC lenses was prospectively collected from all individuals visiting vision centers in Phase 1 (vision correction accuracy) of the study conducted in two South Indian districts. The satisfaction level was recorded by asking one standard question. The SE spectacles were dispensed in vision centers of one district in Phase 2 (SE acceptance) with a suggestion to return, if unsatisfied, for free exchange of spectacles within a month of dispensing. In Phase 1, 929 of 3529 patients were refracted and it was found that 320 patients and one eye of one patient (641 eyes) had astigmatism. The average age was 41 (±16; range: 7-84) years. There was no reduction of visual acuity in SE of 0.25 Dcyl (100% satisfaction) and progressive decrease in satisfaction to 43%, 26%, and 19% with SE correction of 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 Dcyl, respectively. In Phase 2, 988 of 6168 patients needed refraction and 240 had astigmatism. A total of 103 patients (206 eyes) accepted SE equivalent spectacles. No client returned for the free exchange of spectacles. Dispensing SE power up to 1 Dcyl in ready - made spectacles could be considered in remote rural populations in resource-poor economic conditions.

  10. Life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel as transportation fuel in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, Wouter M.J. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Almeida, Joana [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Grupo de Disciplinas da Ecologia da Hidrosfera, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Fobelets, Vincent; Bolle, Evelien; Muys, Bart [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Mathijs, Erik [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, Virendra P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Tewari, Dina N. [Utthan NGO, Centre for Sustainable Development and Poverty Alleviation, 18-A, Auckland Road, Civil Lines, Allahabad 211 001 (India); Verchot, Louis V. [Centre for International Forestry Research, P.O. Box 0113 BOCBD, Bogor 16000 (Indonesia)

    2010-12-15

    Since 2003 India has been actively promoting the cultivation of Jatropha on unproductive and degraded lands (wastelands) for the production of biodiesel suitable as transportation fuel. In this paper the life cycle energy balance, global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and land use impact on ecosystem quality is evaluated for a small scale, low-input Jatropha biodiesel system established on wasteland in rural India. In addition to the life cycle assessment of the case at hand, the environmental performance of the same system expanded with a biogas installation digesting seed cake was quantified. The environmental impacts were compared to the life cycle impacts of a fossil fuel reference system delivering the same amount of products and functions as the Jatropha biodiesel system under research. The results show that the production and use of Jatropha biodiesel triggers an 82% decrease in non-renewable energy requirement (Net Energy Ratio, NER = 1.85) and a 55% reduction in global warming potential (GWP) compared to the reference fossil-fuel based system. However, there is an increase in acidification (49%) and eutrophication (430%) from the Jatropha system relative to the reference case. Although adding biogas production to the system boosts the energy efficiency of the system (NER = 3.40), the GWP reduction would not increase (51%) due to additional CH{sub 4} emissions. For the land use impact, Jatropha improved the structural ecosystem quality when planted on wasteland, but reduced the functional ecosystem quality. Fertilizer application (mainly N) is an important contributor to most negative impact categories. Optimizing fertilization, agronomic practices and genetics are the major system improvement options. (author)

  11. Life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel as transportation fuel in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achten, Wouter M.J.; Almeida, Joana; Fobelets, Vincent; Bolle, Evelien; Mathijs, Erik; Singh, Virendra P.; Tewari, Dina N.; Verchot, Louis V.; Muys, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003 India has been actively promoting the cultivation of Jatropha on unproductive and degraded lands (wastelands) for the production of biodiesel suitable as transportation fuel. In this paper the life cycle energy balance, global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and land use impact on ecosystem quality is evaluated for a small scale, low-input Jatropha biodiesel system established on wasteland in rural India. In addition to the life cycle assessment of the case at hand, the environmental performance of the same system expanded with a biogas installation digesting seed cake was quantified. The environmental impacts were compared to the life cycle impacts of a fossil fuel reference system delivering the same amount of products and functions as the Jatropha biodiesel system under research. The results show that the production and use of Jatropha biodiesel triggers an 82% decrease in non-renewable energy requirement (Net Energy Ratio, NER = 1.85) and a 55% reduction in global warming potential (GWP) compared to the reference fossil-fuel based system. However, there is an increase in acidification (49%) and eutrophication (430%) from the Jatropha system relative to the reference case. Although adding biogas production to the system boosts the energy efficiency of the system (NER = 3.40), the GWP reduction would not increase (51%) due to additional CH 4 emissions. For the land use impact, Jatropha improved the structural ecosystem quality when planted on wasteland, but reduced the functional ecosystem quality. Fertilizer application (mainly N) is an important contributor to most negative impact categories. Optimizing fertilization, agronomic practices and genetics are the major system improvement options.

  12. Women's role in sanitation decision making in rural coastal Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimita Routray

    Full Text Available While women and girls face special risks from lack of access to sanitation facilities, their ability to participate and influence household-level sanitation is not well understood. This paper examines the association between women's decision-making autonomy and latrine construction in rural areas of Odisha, India.We conducted a mixed-method study among rural households in Puri district. This included a cross sectional survey among 475 randomly selected households. These were classified as either having a functional latrine, a non-functional latrine or no latrine at all. We also conducted 17 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions among household members of these three categories of households.Decisions on the construction of household level sanitation facilities were made exclusively by the male head in 80% of households; in 11% the decision was made by men who consulted or otherwise involved women. In only 9% of households the decision was made by women. Households where women were more involved in general decision making processes were no more likely to build a latrine, compared to households where they were excluded from decisions. Qualitative research revealed that women's non-involvement in sanitation decision making is attributed to their low socio-economic status and inability to influence the household's financial decisions. Female heads lacked confidence to take decisions independently, and were dependent on their spouse or other male family members for most decisions. The study revealed the existence of power hierarchies and dynamics within households, which constrained female's participation in decision-making processes regarding sanitation.Though governments and implementers emphasize women's involvement in sanitation programmes, socio-cultural factors and community and household level dynamics often prevent women from participating in sanitation-related decisions. Measures are needed for strengthening sanitation policies

  13. Women's role in sanitation decision making in rural coastal Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2017-01-01

    While women and girls face special risks from lack of access to sanitation facilities, their ability to participate and influence household-level sanitation is not well understood. This paper examines the association between women's decision-making autonomy and latrine construction in rural areas of Odisha, India. We conducted a mixed-method study among rural households in Puri district. This included a cross sectional survey among 475 randomly selected households. These were classified as either having a functional latrine, a non-functional latrine or no latrine at all. We also conducted 17 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions among household members of these three categories of households. Decisions on the construction of household level sanitation facilities were made exclusively by the male head in 80% of households; in 11% the decision was made by men who consulted or otherwise involved women. In only 9% of households the decision was made by women. Households where women were more involved in general decision making processes were no more likely to build a latrine, compared to households where they were excluded from decisions. Qualitative research revealed that women's non-involvement in sanitation decision making is attributed to their low socio-economic status and inability to influence the household's financial decisions. Female heads lacked confidence to take decisions independently, and were dependent on their spouse or other male family members for most decisions. The study revealed the existence of power hierarchies and dynamics within households, which constrained female's participation in decision-making processes regarding sanitation. Though governments and implementers emphasize women's involvement in sanitation programmes, socio-cultural factors and community and household level dynamics often prevent women from participating in sanitation-related decisions. Measures are needed for strengthening sanitation policies and effective

  14. Constructed wetlands and solar-driven disinfection technologies for sustainable wastewater treatment and reclamation in rural India: SWINGS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, J A; Ávila, C; Otter, P; Kilian, R; Istenič, D; Rolletschek, M; Molle, P; Khalil, N; Ameršek, I; Mishra, V K; Jorgensen, C; Garfi, A; Carvalho, P; Brix, H; Arias, C A

    2017-09-01

    SWINGS was a cooperation project between the European Union and India, aiming at implementing state of the art low-cost technologies for the treatment and reuse of domestic wastewater in rural areas of India. The largest wastewater treatment plant consists of a high-rate anaerobic system, followed by vertical and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with a treatment area of around 1,900 m 2 and a final step consisting of solar-driven anodic oxidation (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection units allowing direct reuse of the treated water. The implementation and operation of two pilot plants in north (Aligarh Muslim University, AMU) and central India (Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, IGNTU) are shown in this study. The overall performance of AMU pilot plant during the first 7 months of operation showed organic matter removal efficiencies of 87% total suspended solids, 95% 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and 90% chemical oxygen demand, while Kjeldahl nitrogen removal reached 89%. The UV disinfection unit produces water for irrigation and toilet flushing with pathogenic indicator bacteria well below WHO guidelines. On the other hand, the AO disinfection unit implemented at IGNTU and operated for almost a year has been shown to produce an effluent of sufficient quality to be reused by the local population for agriculture and irrigation.

  15. India | Page 23 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · South Asia. India. Inde. Read more about ​Reducing malnutrition in India's agri-biodiversity hotspots. Language English. Read more about Recours aux cultures céréalières traditionnelles pour améliorer la nutrition en milieu rural en Inde. Language French. Read more about Augmentation de la production de petits ...

  16. Adoption of Electronic Health Records: A Roadmap for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to create a roadmap for the adoption of Electronic Health Record (EHR) in India based an analysis of the strategies of other countries and national scenarios of ICT use in India. Methods The strategies for adoption of EHR in other countries were analyzed to find the crucial steps taken. Apart from reports collected from stakeholders in the country, the study relied on the experience of the author in handling several e-health projects. Results It was found that there are four major areas where the countries considered have made substantial efforts: ICT infrastructure, Policy & regulations, Standards & interoperability, and Research, development & education. A set of crucial activities were identified in each area. Based on the analysis, a roadmap is suggested. It includes the creation of a secure health network; health information exchange; and the use of open-source software, a national health policy, privacy laws, an agency for health IT standards, R&D, human resource development, etc. Conclusions Although some steps have been initiated, several new steps need to be taken up for the successful adoption of EHR. It requires a coordinated effort from all the stakeholders. PMID:27895957

  17. Adoption of Electronic Health Records: A Roadmap for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sunil Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to create a roadmap for the adoption of Electronic Health Record (EHR) in India based an analysis of the strategies of other countries and national scenarios of ICT use in India. The strategies for adoption of EHR in other countries were analyzed to find the crucial steps taken. Apart from reports collected from stakeholders in the country, the study relied on the experience of the author in handling several e-health projects. It was found that there are four major areas where the countries considered have made substantial efforts: ICT infrastructure, Policy & regulations, Standards & interoperability, and Research, development & education. A set of crucial activities were identified in each area. Based on the analysis, a roadmap is suggested. It includes the creation of a secure health network; health information exchange; and the use of open-source software, a national health policy, privacy laws, an agency for health IT standards, R&D, human resource development, etc. Although some steps have been initiated, several new steps need to be taken up for the successful adoption of EHR. It requires a coordinated effort from all the stakeholders.

  18. Analysis of 88 nephrectomies in a rural tertiary care center of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Datta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrectomy is not an uncommon surgery in day-to-day practice of urology. Trauma is the most common cause of emergency nephrectomy. On the other hand, elective nephrectomy is done for both benign and malignant diseases of the kidney. This study has been performed to know the different causes of nephrectomy in a rural, tertiary care center of India. In our series, we have studied all the elective nephrectomies done in our hospital during a period of eight years. We have analyzed 88 cases of nephrectomies regarding their age, sex, laterality of disease, and histopathologic report of the nephrectomy specimens. Out of 88 cases, 61 were males and 27 were females. In our series, 62.5% cases of nephrectomies were done for benign causes and 37.5% cases for malignant causes. Among the benign causes, neglected pelviureteric junction obstruction was the leading cause, followed by calculus disease resulting in obstruction. On the other hand, renal cell carcinoma was the most common malignant pathology requiring nephrectomy.

  19. Design and implementation of an affordable, public sector electronic medical record in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Anant; Yarbrough, Chase; Singh, Vivek; Gauchan, Bikash; Citrin, David; Verma, Varun; Hawley, Jessica; Schwarz, Dan; Harsha Bangura, Alex; Shrestha, Biplav; Schwarz, Ryan; Adhikari, Mukesh; Maru, Duncan

    2017-06-23

    Globally, electronic medical records are central to the infrastructure of modern healthcare systems. Yet the vast majority of electronic medical records have been designed for resource-rich environments and are not feasible in settings of poverty. Here we describe the design and implementation of an electronic medical record at a public sector district hospital in rural Nepal, and its subsequent expansion to an additional public sector facility.DevelopmentThe electronic medical record was designed to solve for the following elements of public sector healthcare delivery: 1) integration of the systems across inpatient, surgical, outpatient, emergency, laboratory, radiology, and pharmacy sites of care; 2) effective data extraction for impact evaluation and government regulation; 3) optimization for longitudinal care provision and patient tracking; and 4) effectiveness for quality improvement initiatives. For these purposes, we adapted Bahmni, a product built with open-source components for patient tracking, clinical protocols, pharmacy, laboratory, imaging, financial management, and supply logistics. In close partnership with government officials, we deployed the system in February of 2015, added on additional functionality, and iteratively improved the system over the following year. This experience enabled us then to deploy the system at an additional district-level hospital in a different part of the country in under four weeks. We discuss the implementation challenges and the strategies we pursued to build an electronic medical record for the public sector in rural Nepal.DiscussionOver the course of 18 months, we were able to develop, deploy and iterate upon the electronic medical record, and then deploy the refined product at an additional facility within only four weeks. Our experience suggests the feasibility of an integrated electronic medical record for public sector care delivery even in settings of rural poverty.

  20. Perception of Rural and Urban Mothers about Consumption of Targeted Fortified Products in Jaipur, Rajasthan - India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Nagaraj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food fortification is the addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food whether or not it is normally contained in the food, for the purpose of preventing or correcting a demonstrated deficiency of one or more nutrients in the population or specific population groups. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain comprehensive in¬formation towards consumption of Targeted Fortified Products (TFP among rural and urban mothers of children < 3 years in Jaipur, India.Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2012, three hundred rural and urban mothers were selected from Primary Health Centre, Ach¬rol Village and Uniara Hospital in Jaipur, Rajasthan. The data were col¬lected using a self-administered questionnaire. The current nutritional sta¬tus of children was determined by anthropometric measurements. Results: A total of 53.33% rural and 65.33% urban mothers had know¬ledge (P=0.046, amongst which 52.67% rural and 66.00% urban mothers (P= 0.026 consumed TFP directed towards mothers. In addition, 56% rural and 94.67% urban mothers had knowledge (P=0.000 about TFP directed towards children, amongst which 19.33% rural and 50.67% urban mothers (P=0.000 fed their children with TFP.Conclusion: There was significantly less awareness regarding consump¬tion of TFP directed towards both pregnant women and children among rural when compared to urban population. Attitudes seemed to be go¬verned by the traditional beliefs and family influences of region rather than the knowledge obtained. There is a need of intensive coordinated efforts to create awareness among mothers to enhance the maternal and child diets through TFP.

  1. Physiological and behavioral risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Mazumdar, Sumit; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of physiological and behavioral risk factors of diabetes in rural India is poorly understood. Using data from a health and demographic surveillance site of Birbhum district in West Bengal, India, this study aims to assess the risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 7674 individuals aged ≥18 years participated in a cross-sectional study. Venous plasma glucose method was used for measuring and reporting glucose concentrations in blood, categorized as individuals with diabetes, pre-diabetes or impaired, and normoglycemic. Aside from a set of physiological and behavioral risk factors, a range of socioeconomic confounders of diabetes was computed. Bivariate analysis with χ(2) test, and multivariate ordered logit regression methods were deployed to attain the study's objective. Overall 2.95% and 3.34% of study participants were diagnosed as individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetes or impaired, respectively. Compared to the poorest, the richest have higher probability (β: 0.730; 95% CI 0.378 to 1.083) of being diagnosed with diabetes. As compared to people with normal body mass index, overweight/obese people are more prone to being diagnosed with diabetes (β: 0.388; 95% CI 0.147 to 0.628). With a decreasing level of physical activity, people are more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes. To curb the level of diabetes, this study recommends a culturally sensitive, focused intervention for the adoption of physical activity with more traditional dietary practices, to control the level of overweight/obesity. Attention should be paid to relatively older patients with diabetes or adults with pre-diabetes.

  2. Participatory women's groups and counselling through home visits to improve child growth in rural eastern India: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Gope, Rajkumar; Gagrai, Sumitra; Rath, Shibanand; Rath, Suchitra; Sinha, Rajesh; Roy, Swati Sarbani; Shewale, Suhas; Singh, Vijay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Pradhan, Hemanta; Costello, Anthony; Copas, Andrew; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Saville, Naomi; Prost, Audrey

    2015-04-15

    Child stunting (low height-for-age) is a marker of chronic undernutrition and predicts children's subsequent physical and cognitive development. Around one third of the world's stunted children live in India. Our study aims to assess the impact, cost-effectiveness, and scalability of a community intervention with a government-proposed community-based worker to improve growth in children under two in rural India. The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial in two rural districts of Jharkhand and Odisha (eastern India). The intervention tested involves a community-based worker carrying out two activities: (a) one home visit to all pregnant women in the third trimester, followed by subsequent monthly home visits to all infants aged 0-24 months to support appropriate feeding, infection control, and care-giving; (b) a monthly women's group meeting using participatory learning and action to catalyse individual and community action for maternal and child health and nutrition. Both intervention and control clusters also receive an intervention to strengthen Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committees. The unit of randomisation is a purposively selected cluster of approximately 1000 population. A total of 120 geographical clusters covering an estimated population of 121,531 were randomised to two trial arms: 60 clusters in the intervention arm receive home visits, group meetings, and support to Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committees; 60 clusters in the control arm receive support to Committees only. The study participants are pregnant women identified in the third trimester of pregnancy and their children (n = 2520). Mothers and their children are followed up at seven time points: during pregnancy, within 72 hours of delivery, and at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after birth. The trial's primary outcome is children's mean length-for-age Z scores at 18 months. Secondary outcomes include wasting and underweight at all time points, birth weight, growth

  3. Male out-migration: a factor for the spread of HIV infection among married men and women in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Saggurti

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Thus far, the reasons for increasing HIV prevalence in northern and eastern Indian states are unknown. We investigated the role of male out-migration in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection through a case-control study in rural India. METHODS: Currently married men and women were recruited from HIV testing and treatment centers across seven selected districts with high rates of male out-migration in eastern and northern India in 2010 using a case-control study design. Case subjects (men: 595, women: 609 were people who tested HIV seropositive and control subjects (men: 611, women: 600 were those tested HIV seronegative. For each gender, we obtained adjusted odds ratios (AORs and population attributable risks (PARs for migration, and behavioral factors. RESULTS: For men, the prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among those with a migration history (AOR, 4.4; for women, the prevalence of HIV was higher among those with migrant husbands (AOR, 2·3. For both genders, the returned male migration (men: AOR, 3·7; women: AOR, 28 was significantly associated with higher prevalence of HIV infection. The PAR associated with male migration was higher for men (54.5%-68.6% than for women (32·7%-56·9% across the study areas. DISCUSSION: Male out-migration is the most important risk factor influencing the spread of HIV infection in rural areas with high out-migration rates, thereby emphasizing the need for interventions, particularly, for returned migrants and spouses of those migrants.

  4. Hydraulic and hydrogeochemical characteristics of a riverbank filtration site in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boving, T B; Choudri, B S; Cady, P; Cording, A; Patil, K; Reddy, Veerabaswant

    2014-07-01

    A riverbank filtration (RBF) system was tested along the Kali River in rural part of the state of Karnataka in India. The polluted river and water from open wells served the local population as their principal irrigation water resource and some used it for drinking. Four RBF wells (up to 25 m deep) were installed. The mean hydraulic conductivity of the well field is 6.3 x 10(-3) cm/s and, based on Darcy's law, the water travel time from the river to the principal RBF well (MW3) is 45.2 days. A mixing model based on dissolved silica concentrations indicated that, depending on the distance from the river and closeness to irrigated rice fields, approximately 27 to 73% of the well water originated from groundwater. Stable isotopic data indicates that a fraction of the water was drawn in from the nearby rice fields that were irrigated with river water. Relative to preexisting drinking water sources (Kali River and an open well), RBF well water showed lower concentration of dissolved metals (60.1% zinc, 27.8% cadmium, 83.9% lead, 75.5% copper, 100% chromium). This study demonstrates that RBF technology can produce high-quality water from low-quality surface water sources in a rural, tropical setting typical for many emerging economies. Further, in parts of the world where flood irrigation is common, RBF well water may draw in infiltrated irrigation water, which possibly alters its geochemical composition. A combination of more than one mixing model, silica together with stable isotopes, was shown to be useful explaining the origin of the RBF water at this study site.

  5. The household energy transition in India and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Jiang, Leiwen

    2008-01-01

    Both India and China are countries in energy transition. This paper compares the household energy transitions in these nations through the analysis of both aggregate statistics and nationally representative household surveys. The two countries differ sharply in several respects. Residential energy consumption in China is twice that in India, in aggregate terms. In addition, Chinese households have almost universal access to electricity, while in India almost half of rural households and 10% of urban households still lack access. On aggregate, urban households in China also derive a larger share of their total energy from liquid fuels and grids (77%) as compared to urban Indian households (65%). Yet, at every income level, Indians derive a slightly larger fraction of their total household energy needs from liquid and grid sources of energy than Chinese with comparable incomes. Despite these differences, trends in energy use and the factors influencing a transition to modern energy in both nations are similar. Compared with rural households, urban households in both nations consume a disproportionately large share of commercial energy and are much further along in the transition to modern energy. However, total energy consumption in rural households exceeds that in urban households, because of a continued dependence on inefficient solid fuels, which contribute to over 85% of rural household energy needs in both countries. In addition to urbanisation, key drivers of the transition in both nations include income, energy prices, energy access and local fuel availability. (author)

  6. Comparison of indoor radon and thoron concentrations in the urban and rural dwellings of Chhattisgarh state of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, M.S.K.; Kher, R.S.; Rathore, V.B.; Pandey, S.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of nationwide radon/thoron monitoring program, indoor radon/thoron and their progeny concentrations have been estimated for 210 dwellings situated in 8 towns (urban) and 9 villages (rural) of Chhattisgarh state of India. The measurement has been made on quarterly integrating cycle for one full year in each dwelling. Twin chamber dosimeter cup with LR-115 Type-II Solid State Nuclear Track Detector was used for the measurement of indoor radon/thoron concentration. The results show that the geometric mean of indoor thoron concentration in urban dwellings varies from 11.57 to 25.88Bqm -3 with an overall geometric mean value of 16.65Bqm -3 , while in rural dwellings it varies from 12.50 to 30.08Bqm -3 with an overall geometric mean value of 19.00Bqm -3 . The potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) levels of thoron in the urban and rural dwellings are found to be 2.58 and 4.57 mWL, respectively. Similarly, the geometric mean of indoor radon concentrations in urban dwellings is found to vary from 20.20 to 30.13Bqm -3 with an overall geometric mean value of 25.28Bqm -3 , while in rural dwellings it varies from 15.50 to 36.05Bqm -3 with an overall geometric mean value of 27.32Bqm -3 . The PAEC levels of radon in the urban and rural dwellings are found to be 1.50 and 1.87 mWL, respectively. The dose contribution of thoron and progeny in total inhalation dose has been found to be more than 20% in all the surveyed places that show the necessity to pay attention to the presence of thoron and progeny from public health point of view

  7. Prevalence and determinants of depression among elderly persons in a rural community from northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Priyamadhaba; Sharan, Pratap; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Kant, Shashi; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Globally, more than 350 million people of all ages suffer from depression. Elderly persons are more vulnerable to depression. We conducted this study to estimate the prevalence of depression, and to study the association of depression with sociodemographic and clinical variables among elderly persons in a rural community. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study among 395 randomly selected elderly persons aged 60 years and above in a rural area of Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. The participants were screened by using the Geriatric Depression Scale, and diagnosis was confirmed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Multivariate analysis was done for independent predictors of depression. The prevalence of depression was 11.4% (95% CI 8.6%-14.9%). Living in a nuclear family (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 8.98, 95% CI 3.40-23.71), lack of physical activity (AOR 4.95, 95% CI 2.00-12.27), whole-time involvement in household work (AOR 4.47, 95% CI 1.18-16.93), presence of two or more chronic diseases (AOR 4.45, 95% CI 1.60-12.35), having no role in family decision-making (AOR 2.77, 95% CI 1.19-6.42), sleep problems in past one year (AOR 2.97, 95% CI 1.32-6.69) and bilateral hearing impairment (AOR 4.00, 95% CI 1.80-8.88) were factors associated with depression in elderly persons. Depression is common among elderly persons in rural areas. Individuals providing healthcare to elderly persons need to be trained to identify depression and take appropriate action; elderly persons with chronic diseases and hearing impairment deserve special attention.

  8. Use of traditional eye medicine and self-medication in rural India: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Kalaivani, Mani; Dwivedi, S N

    2017-01-01

    To determine the type and nature of traditional eye medicine (TEM), their sources and use and practices related to self-medication for ophthalmic diseases in a rural Indian population. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 randomly selected clusters of Rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India as part of CORE (Cornea Opacity Rural Epidemiological) study. In addition to comprehensive ophthalmic examination, health-seeking behavior and use of self-medication and TEM was assessed in the adult population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Physical verification of available ophthalmic medications in the enumerated households was conducted by the study team. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for use of self-medication and TEM. Of the 2160 participants interviewed, 396 (18.2%) reported using ophthalmic medications without consulting an ophthalmologist, mainly for symptoms like watering (37.1%), redness (27.7%), itching (19.2%) and infection (13.6%). On physical verification of available eye drops that were being used without prescription, 26.4% participants were practicing self-medication. Steroid, expired/unlabeled and indigenous eye drops were being used by 151(26.5%), 120(21.1%) and 75 (13.2%) participants respectively. Additionally, 25.7% (529) participants resorted to home remedies like 'kajal'(61.4%), honey (31.4%), ghee (11.7%) and rose water (9.1%). Use of TEM is prevalent in this population. The rampant use of steroid eye drops without prescription along with use of expired or unlabelled eye drops warrants greater emphasis on safe eye care practices in this population. Public awareness and regulatory legislations must be implemented to decrease harmful effects arising due to such practices.

  9. India's Firewood Crisis Re-examined

    OpenAIRE

    van 't Veld, Klaas; Narain, Urvashi; Gupta, Shreekant; Chopra, Neetu; Singh, Supriya

    2006-01-01

    Households in rural India are highly dependent on firewood as their main source of energy, partly because non-biofuels tend to be expensive. The prevailing view is therefore that, when faced with shortages of firewood in the village commons, such households, and especially the women in them, have to spend more and more time searching for firewood and eventually settle for poorer-quality biomass such as twigs, branches and dry leaves. Using data from a random sample of rural households in the ...

  10. Mean consumption, poverty and inequality in rural India in the 60th round of the National Sample Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Raghbendra; Gaiha, Raghav; Sharma, Anurag

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on mean consumption, poverty (all three FGT measures) and inequality during 2004 for rural India using National Sample Survey (NSS) data for the 60th Round. Mean consumption at the national level is much higher than the poverty line. However, the Gini coefficient is higher than in recent earlier rounds. The headcount ratio is 22.9 per cent. Mean consumption, all three measures of poverty and the Gini coefficient are computed at the level of 20 states and 63 agro-climatic zones in these 20 states. It is surmised that despite impressive growth rates deprivation is pervasive, pockets of severe poverty persist, and inequality is rampant.

  11. Women's cardiovascular health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clara K; Patel, Anushka A

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death among adult women in many parts of India and a major cause of morbidity. In some parts of the world, gender inequities have been observed in cardiovascular healthcare and cardiovascular outcomes. The authors discuss the data for potential disparities in cardiovascular healthcare for women in India. Data on cardiovascular healthcare provision and CVD outcomes among women in India are generally lacking. The little available data suggest that women in rural areas, younger women and girl children with CVD are less likely to receive appropriate management than men, with this disparity most apparent in those of lower socioeconomic status and education. However, there is a particular lack of information about the prevention and management of atherosclerotic heart disease in women from a range of communities that comprise the extremely diverse population of India.

  12. Short-Term Introduction of Air Pollutants from Fireworks During Diwali in Rural Palwal, Haryana, India: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, S.; Yadav, A.; Pillarisetti, A.; Smith, K.; Arora, N.

    2018-03-01

    The contribution of firework-related air pollutants into the rural atmosphere was monitored by measuring ambient air concentrations of PM2.5, CO, and metals over Mitrol- Aurangabad, Haryana, India, before, during, and after the 2015 Diwali celebration. PM2.5 concentrations were observed to be approximately 5 times and 12 times higher than Indian and WHO 24-h standards, respectively. CO concentrations on the day of Diwali were found to be nearly 7.5 times and nearly 1.5 times higher than Indian standards and WHO 8-h standards, respectively. Increased concentrations of SO4, K, N3, Al, and Na were observed. SO4, K, N3, Al, and Na were found between approximately 2 and 5 times higher on festival days than on a normal, non-festival day in November. Use of firecrackers during Diwali and surrounding celebrations thus contribute to decreased air quality and elevated levels of air pollutants associated with adverse health impacts. Optimization or controlled use of firecrackers during Diwali is suggested in rural areas.

  13. Biomonitoring of heavy metals in feathers of eleven common bird species in urban and rural environments of Tiruchirappalli, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, Menon; Mohanraj, R; Devi, M Prashanthi

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metals continue to remain as a major environmental concern in spite of emission control measures. In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd) in the feathers of 11 species of birds collected from urban and rural areas of Tiruchirappalli, Southern India. Metal concentrations followed the order: Fe > Cu > Zn > Cr > Mn > Ni > Cd. Irrespective of sample locations, heavy metals such as Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cu were detected in high concentrations, while Cd and Mn were observed in lower concentrations. In contrary to our assumption, there were no statistically significant intraspecific and urban-rural differences in the metal concentrations except for Zn. Pairwise comparisons among species irrespective of metal type showed significant interspecific differences between Acridotheres tristis and Centropus phasianinus, A. tristis and Milvus migrans, C. phasianinus and M. migrans, M. migrans and Eudynamys scolopaceus, and Psittacula krameri and E. scolopaceus. Principal component analysis carried out for urban data extracted Ni, Mn, Zn, Fe, and Cu accounting for 48% variance implying dietary intake and external contamination as important sources for metals. In the rural, association of Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cr suggests the impact of metal fabrication industries and leather tanning operations.

  14. Design and implementation of an affordable, public sector electronic medical record in rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Raut

    2017-06-01

    Over the course of 18 months, we were able to develop, deploy and iterate upon the electronic medical record, and then deploy the refined product at an additional facility within only four weeks. Our experience suggests the feasibility of an integrated electronic medical record for public sector care delivery even in settings of rural poverty.

  15. Large-scale mHealth professional support for health workers in rural Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shailendra Kumar B; Saride, Sriranga Prasad; Kuruganty, Sudha; Banker, Niraja; Patil, Chetan; Phanse, Vishal

    2018-04-01

    Expanding mobile telephony in India has prompted interest in the potential of mobile-telephone health (mHealth) in linking health workers in rural areas with specialist medical advice and other professional services. In 2012, a toll-free helpline offering specialist medical advice to community-based health workers throughout Maharashtra was launched. Calls are handled via a 24 h centre in Pune, staffed by health advisory officers and medical specialists. Health advisory officers handle general queries, which include medical advice via validated algorithms; blood on-call services; grievance issues; and mental health support - the latter calls are transferred to a qualified counsellor. Calls requiring more specialist advice are transferred to the appropriate medical specialist. This paper describes the experience of the first 4 years of this helpline, in terms of the services used, callers, nature of calls, types of queries serviced and lessons learnt. In the first 4 years of the helpline, 669 265 calls were serviced. Of these calls, 453 373 (67.74%) needed medical advice and were handled by health advisory officers. Specialist services were required to address 199 226 (29.77%) calls. Blood-bank-related services accounted for 7919 (1.18%) calls, while 2462 (0.37%) were grievance calls. Counselling for mental health issues accounted for 6285 (0.94%) calls. The large-scale mHealth professional support provided by this helpline in Maharashtra has reached many health workers serving rural communities. Future work is required to explore ways to expand the reach of the helpline further and to measure its effectiveness in improving health outcomes.

  16. Electricity access for geographically disadvantaged rural communities--technology and policy insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, Akanksha; Ranganathan, Malini; Mohanty, Parimita

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to weigh the issues and options for increasing electricity access in remote and geographically challenged villages in interior Rajasthan, the desertstate in Western India where power sector reforms are currently underway. By first providing an overview of reforms and various electrification policy initiatives in India, the paper then analyzes the specific problems as studied at the grass-roots level with respect to rural electricity access and the use of off-grid renewables. Finally, it discusses interventions that could facilitate access to electricity by suggesting a sequential distributed generation (DG)-based approach, wherein consecutive DG schemes--incorporating the requisite technological, financial, and institutional arrangements--are designed depending on the developmental requirements of the community. In essence, this approach fits under the broader need to understand how the three 'Rs'- rural electrification (the process), power sector reforms (the catalyst), and the use of renewable energy technologies (the means) - could potentially converge to meet the needs of India's rural poor

  17. Electricity access for geographically disadvantaged rural communities--technology and policy insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, Akanksha E-mail: akanksha@teri.res.in; Ranganathan, Malini E-mail: malinir@teri.res.in; Mohanty, Parimita

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to weigh the issues and options for increasing electricity access in remote and geographically challenged villages in interior Rajasthan, the desertstate in Western India where power sector reforms are currently underway. By first providing an overview of reforms and various electrification policy initiatives in India, the paper then analyzes the specific problems as studied at the grass-roots level with respect to rural electricity access and the use of off-grid renewables. Finally, it discusses interventions that could facilitate access to electricity by suggesting a sequential distributed generation (DG)-based approach, wherein consecutive DG schemes--incorporating the requisite technological, financial, and institutional arrangements--are designed depending on the developmental requirements of the community. In essence, this approach fits under the broader need to understand how the three 'Rs'- rural electrification (the process), power sector reforms (the catalyst), and the use of renewable energy technologies (the means) - could potentially converge to meet the needs of India's rural poor.

  18. Menstrual pad, a cervical cancer screening tool, a population-based study in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budukh, Atul; Palayekar, Vrushali; Maheshwari, Amita; Deodhar, Kedar; Purwar, Pallavi; Bagal, Sonali; Vadigoppula, Ashok; Lokhande, Manoj; Panse, Nandkumar; Dikshit, Rajesh; Badwe, Rajendra

    2017-07-12

    In the rural areas of India, women generally use a piece of old cloth as a menstrual device. The aim of this study was to detect human papilloma virus (HPV) from menstrual blood on the menstrual pad and assess whether this could be a useful screening tool for cervical cancer. In Jamkhed area of rural Maharashtra, (population A), we collected menstrual pads from women who provided consent in the 30-50 year age group. The women who had provided menstrual pads underwent HC2 testing. We standardized the method for extracting DNA by PCR from the menstrual pad. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of HC2/PCR testing, underwent colposcopy. In the rural population of Pune area of Maharashtra state (population B), menstrual pads were collected. HPV was tested using the PCR method. HPV-positive women and a few HPV-negative women, selected randomly, underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. In population A, 164 women provided their used menstrual pads and also underwent an HC2 screening test. Of these, six (3.2%) cases were reported as HPV positive. In population B, 365 women provided their used menstrual pads for HPV testing, of which 18 (4.9%) cases were diagnosed as HPV positive. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of PCR testing, and 10% randomly selected HPV-negative cases (37) and 18 women who voluntary requested testing underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. The sensitivity of menstrual pad HPV testing compared with gold standard HC2 testing was 83% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.97], 67% (95% CI: 0.30-0.91) and specificity was 99% (95% CI: 0.96-0.99), 88% (95% CI: 0.77-0.94) in population A and population B, respectively. The sensitivity of diagnosing CIN lesion was 83% (95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and specificity was 95% (95% CI: 0.91-0.97). On the basis of the sensitivity and specificity results, and the completely noninvasive, simple and convenient method of detecting HPV, menstrual pad might be considered a cervical cancer screening tool in rural

  19. India mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K

    2004-01-01

    India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this

  20. Knowledge of Health Effects and Intentions to Quit Among Smokers in India: Findings From the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP India Pilot Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh S. Pednekar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of the health risks of smoking is an important factor in predicting smoking-related behaviour; however, little is known about the knowledge of health risks in low-income countries such as India. The present study examined beliefs about the harms of smoking and the impact of health knowledge on intentions to quit among a sample of 249 current smokers in both urban and rural areas in two states (Maharashtra and Bihar from the 2006 TCP India Pilot Survey, conducted by the ITC Project. The overall awareness among smokers in India of the specific health risks of smoking was very low compared to other ITC countries, and only 10% of respondents reported that they had plans to quit in the next six months. In addition, smokers with higher knowledge were significantly more likely to have plans to quit smoking. For example, 26.2% of respondents who believed that smoking cause CHD and only 5.5% who did not believe that smoking causes CHD had intentions to quit (χ2 = 16.348, p < 0.001. Important differences were also found according to socioeconomic factors and state: higher levels of knowledge were found in Maharashtra than in Bihar, in urban compared to rural areas, among males, and among smokers with higher education. These findings highlight the need to increase awareness about the health risks of smoking in India, particularly in rural areas, where levels of education and health knowledge are lower.

  1. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0–23 months in rural India. Setting India. Participants A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005–2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. Primary outcome measures The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16–39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0–23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal

  2. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-02-12

    Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0-23 months in rural India. India. A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16-39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0-23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal association. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  3. What influences the decision to undergo institutional delivery by skilled birth attendants? A cohort study in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M; Ariana, P; Webster, P

    2012-01-01

    Despite continuing efforts to promote skilled institutional delivery, eight women die every hour in India due to causes related to pregnancy and child birth. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and the determinants of institutional delivery by skilled birth attendants in a rural population in Andhra Pradesh, India. This cross-sectional study used data from 'Young Lives', a longitudinal study on childhood poverty, and the study population was a cohort of 1419 rural, economically deprived women (from the Young Lives study) in Andhra Pradesh, India. The data are from round-1 of Young Lives younger cohort recruited in 2002 and followed until 2015. The participation rate of households was 99.5%. Prevalence of skilled institutional delivery was 36.8%. Women's education (odds ratio [OR] for secondary education 2.06; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.33-3.19), desire to be pregnant (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.12-3.22) and adequate prenatal care (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.30-2.21) were found to be the positive determinants of skilled institutional delivery. High birth order (OR for second birth 0.44; 95% CI 0.32-0.60, OR for third birth 0.47; 95% CI 0.30-0.72 and OR for ≥fourth 0.47; 95% CI 0.27-0.81), schedule caste/schedule tribe social background (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.53-0.93) and poor economic status of the household (OR for the poorest households 0.67; 95% CI 0.46-0.99) were negatively associated with skilled institutional delivery. Despite existence of supporting schemes, the utilisation of skilled institutional delivery services was low in the study population. Educated women and women with adequate prenatal care who have a desired pregnancy were more likely to utilise health institutions and skilled delivery care. There is a need for integrated approaches through maternal health, family planning and education programs, and a focus on uneducated, poor women belonging to disadvantaged social groups.

  4. C ERVICAL CANCER SCREENING: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES IN A PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE S IN RURAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer is the most common preventable cancer noted in Indian women , having a major impact on their lives. Approximately , 70% of people reside in villages in India. Hence, the objectives of this study were to find the knowledge of women regarding cervical cancer, to determine attitude and practices towards screening. METHODS : A cross - sectional study was conducted in Primary Health Centre , Periapodu, Tamil Nadu, India between January 2015 and May 2015 where 1670 participants between the ages of 21 - 65 years were randomly chosen by selecting every 3 rd woman attending the PHC for any reason. After exclusion, 1200 participants were included in the study. RESULTS : Mean age of the study population was 45.3 years. An awa reness of 75.42% was noted for cervical cancer, 43.25% for Human Papillomavirus and 32.42% that it was vaccine preventable, the major source of information being Healthcare Providers (70%. Despite 50.58% thinking that they were at risk of cervical cancer, only 31% had undergone a pap smear. However, 69.96% of the unscreened population were ready to undergo screening. Independent predictors for doing Pap test included age >35, higher parity, literacy and adequate knowledge of cervical cancer screening ( P <0. 05. CONCLUSION: This study shows a low level of knowledge, attitude and practice on cervical cancer among women in rural India. Increasing women’s awareness would be a first step in the long chain of conditions to attain a lower incidence and mortality

  5. Association of impairments of older persons with caregiver burden among family caregivers: Findings from rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, Shweta; Kasthuri, Arvind; Kiran, Pretesh; Malhotra, Rahul

    In India, owing to cultural norms and a lack of formal long-term care facilities, responsibility for care of the older person falls primarily on the family. Based on the stress process model, we assessed the association of type and number of impairments of older persons (∼primary stressors) with caregiver burden among their family caregivers in rural South India. All impaired older persons (aged ≥60, with impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) or cognition or vision or hearing) residing in 8 villages in Bangalore district, Karnataka, India, and their primary informal caregivers were interviewed. Caregiver burden was measured using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI; higher score indicating greater perceived burden). Linear regression models, adjusting for background characteristics of older persons and caregivers, assessed the association of type of impairment (physical [Yes/No], cognitive [Yes/No], vision [Yes/No] and hearing [Yes/No]) and number (1 or 2 or 3 or 4) of older person impairments with caregiver burden. A total of 140 caregivers, caring for 149 older persons, were interviewed. The mean (standard deviation) ZBI score was 21.2 (12.9). Of the various older person impairments, ZBI score was associated only with physical impairment (β=6.6; 95% CI: 2.1-11.1). Relative to caregivers of older person with one impairment, those caring for an older person with all 4 impairments had significantly higher ZBI score (β=13.9; CI: 2.5-25.4). Caregivers of older persons with multiple impairments, especially physical impairment, are vulnerable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Geographic and socio-economic barriers to rural electrification: New evidence from Indian villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugoua, Eugenie; Liu, Ruinan; Urpelainen, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The International Energy Agency estimates that more than a billion people remain without household electricity access. However, countries such as India have recently made major progress in rural electrification. Who has benefited from these achievements? We focus on 714 villages in six energy-poor states of northern and eastern India to investigate trends in electricity access. We use data both from the 2011 Census of India and an original energy access survey conducted in 2014 and 2015. During the three years that separated the surveys, distance to the nearest town and land area lose their power as predictors of the percentage of households in the village that has access to electricity. In this regard, the Indian government's flagship rural electrification program seems to have managed to overcome a major obstacle to grid extension. On the other hand, socio-economic inequalities between villages related to caste status and household expenditure remain strong predictors. These findings highlight the importance of socio-economic barriers to rural electricity access and alleviate concerns about remoteness and population density as obstacles to grid extension. - Highlights: • Empirical analysis of rural electrification progress in India. • Geographic differences across villages no longer explain electricity access. • Social and economic inequities remain stark. • Future policy should focus on household electrification within villages.

  7. Rural Nonfarm Employment andIncomes in the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Micevska, Maja; Rahut, Dil Bahadur

    2008-01-01

    Nonfarm activities generate on average about 60 percent of rural households' incomes in the Himalayas. This paper analyzes the determinants of participation in nonfarm activities and of nonfarm incomes across rural households. A unique data set collected in the Himalayan region of India allows us to deal with the heterogeneity of rural nonfarm activities by using aggregations into categories that are useful both analytically and for policy purposes. We conduct an empirical inquiry that reveal...

  8. Economic Viability Improvement of Solar Powered Indian Rural Banks through DC Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panguloori, R.

    2012-01-01

    Power shortages result in power outages for period of 8 to 10 Hrs aday in rural areas due to significant gap between electricity demandand supply. Rural banking is one of the sectors severely affected by power. Majority of population in emerging markets like India livein rural areas. Therefore,

  9. Planning for rural energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, V

    1979-12-15

    Roger Revell estimated the total energy use from all sources at 490 kg per capita in 1970 to 71 in terms of UN coal equivalent, while international statistics of energy use, based only on commercial energy, reported a figure of 150 to 190 kg per capita. The largest proportion of energy use was in the domestic sector - almost 2/3. Another interesting observation of Revelle is that, taking the proportion of food energy used in work, an adult woman works about as hard as a British coal miner. Is this low energy profile good or bad. To quote Revelle again: ''The men and women of rural India are tied to poverty and misery because they use too little of energy and use it inefficiently and really all they use is secured by their own physical efforts. A transformation of rural society could be brought about by increasing the quantity and in improving the technology of energy use''. Thus energy conservation - the dominant US theme - has limited significance in India, restricted to some industries. India with a per capita consumption of 201 kg compared to world average of 2059 kg in 1974, necessarily has to increase its energy consumption.

  10. Processes and challenges of community mobilisation for latrine promotion under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in rural Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimita Routray

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA – “Clean India Campaign”, the successor of India’s Total Sanitation Campaign. This paper documents the strategies and processes of NBA community mobilisation for latrine promotion in these villages and assesses the strengths and limitations of the mobilisation activities. Methods NBA’s community mobilisation activities were observed and assessed against the programme’s theory of change in 10 randomly selected programme villages from start to finish. Additional data was collected through review of documents, individual interviews (n = 80 and focus group discussions (n = 26 with staff of the implementing NGOs and community members. Results Our study revealed the lack of a consistent implementation strategy, lack of capacities and facilitation skills of NGO staff to implement sanitation programmes, political interference, challenges in accessing government financial incentives for latrine construction, and lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities among government and NGO staff, leading to failure in translating government policies into sustainable actions. Social divisions and village dynamics related to gender and caste further constrained the effectiveness of mobilisation activities. Meetings were often dominated by male members of upper caste households, and excluded low caste community members and views of women. Community discussions revolved largely around the government’s cash incentive for latrines. Activities aimed at creating demand for sanitation and use of latrines often resonated poorly with community members. An assessment by the implementers, 1 year after community mobilisation found 19% of households had a completed latrine across the 50

  11. Geriatric health policy in India: The need for scaling-up implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, N Sherin Susan; Asirvatham, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    In an anticipation of the rising geriatric population in India, the Central government constituted the National Policy for Older Persons in 1999 to promote the health and welfare of senior citizens in India. A major strategy of this policy is to encourage families to take care of their older family members. The policy also encourages voluntary organizations to supplement the care provided by the family and provide care and protection to vulnerable elderly people. The implementation of this policy, particularly in the rural areas, has been negligible and calls for a scaling-up of programs to address the physical, psychological, and social needs of the poor. Due to breakdown of the joint family system and the migration of the younger generation to the towns and cities, the elderly parents in the villages are left to fend for themselves. Too old to work and with little or no source of income, the elders are struggling even to satisfy their basic needs. This article primarily focuses on the various facets of elderly care in India. As a fledgling nation in elderly care, we should take cues from other nations who have pioneered in this field and should constantly evolve to identify and face the various challenges that come up, especially from rural India. The Rural Unit for Health and Social Affairs Department of a well-known Medical College in South India has developed a "senior recreation day care" model which proves to be a useful replicable model to improve the quality of life and nutritional status of the elderly in the lower rungs of society. More than a decade since its inception, it is now the right time to assess the implementation of our geriatric health policy and scale-up programs so that the elderly in our country, irrespective of urban and rural, will have a dignified and good quality life.

  12. Postnatal depression among rural women in South India: do socio-demographic, obstetric and pregnancy outcome have a role to play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharudha Shivalli

    Full Text Available Postnatal depression (PND is one of the most common psychopathology and is considered as a serious public health issue because of its devastating effects on mother, family, and infant or the child.To elicit socio-demographic, obstetric and pregnancy outcome predictors of Postnatal Depression (PND among rural postnatal women in Karnataka state, India.Hospital based analytical cross sectional study.A rural tertiary care hospital of Mandya District, Karnataka state, India.PND prevalence based estimated sample of 102 women who came for postnatal follow up from 4th to 10th week of lactation.Study participants were interviewed using validated kannada version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Cut-off score of ≥ 13 was used as high risk of PND. The percentage of women at risk of PND was estimated, and differences according to socio-demographic, obstetric and pregnancy outcome were described. Logistic regression was applied to identify the independent predictors of PND risk.Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR and adjusted (adj OR of PND.Prevalence of PND was 31.4% (95% CI 22.7-41.4%. PND showed significant (P < 0.05 association with joint family, working women, non-farmer husbands, poverty, female baby and pregnancy complications or known medical illness. In binomial logistic regression poverty (adjOR: 11.95, 95% CI:1.36-105, birth of female baby (adjOR: 3.6, 95% CI:1.26-10.23 and pregnancy complications or known medical illness (adjOR: 17.4, 95% CI:2.5-121.2 remained as independent predictors of PND.Risk of PND among rural postnatal women was high (31.4%. Birth of female baby, poverty and complications in pregnancy or known medical illness could predict the high risk of PND. PND screening should be an integral part of postnatal care. Capacity building of grass root level workers and feasibility trials for screening PND by them are needed.

  13. Collecting syndromic surveillance data by mobile phone in rural India: implementation and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Diwan

    2015-04-01

    surveillance applications in rural parts of India. The data collected may be used to better understand the health-seeking behaviour of those visiting informal providers, as they do not report through any official channels. We also show that the underreporting to the government can be enormous.

  14. Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Archana; Mburu, Gitau; Shivkumar, Poonam Varma; Sharma, Pankhuri; Campbell, Fiona; Behera, Jagannath; Dargan, Ritu; Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Mehra, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick(®) HIV antibody test, and subsequently asked to self-test under supervision of a community health worker. Test results were confirmed at a government-run integrated counselling and testing centre. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on patient demographics and the ease, acceptability and difficulties of self-testing. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 35 participants to understand their experiences. In total, 202 participants performed the non-invasive, oral fluid-based, rapid test under supervision for HIV screening. Acceptance rate was 100%. Motivators for self-testing included: ease of testing (43.4%), quick results (27.3%) and non-invasive procedure (23.2%). Sensitivity and specificity were 100% for 201 tests, and one test was invalid. Concordance of test result interpretation between community health workers and participants was 98.5% with a Cohen's Kappa (k) value of k=0.566 with pwomen in rural India. Participants were supportive of making self-testing publicly available. Policy guidelines and implementation research are required to advance HIV self-testing for larger populations at scale.

  15. Are sanitation interventions a threat to drinking water supplies in rural India? An application of tryptophan-like fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J P R; Sadhu, A; Sampath, G; Sugden, S; Dutta Gupta, S; Lapworth, D J; Marchant, B P; Pedley, S

    2016-01-01

    Open defecation is practised by over 600 million people in India and there is a strong political drive to eliminate this through the provision of on-site sanitation in rural areas. However, there are concerns that the subsequent leaching of excreta from subsurface storage could be adversely impacting underlying groundwater resources upon which rural populations are almost completely dependent for domestic water supply. We investigated this link in four villages undergoing sanitary interventions in Bihar State, India. A total of 150 supplies were sampled for thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms (TTC) and tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF): an emerging real-time indicator of faecal contamination. Sanitary risk inspections were also performed at all sites, including whether a supply was located within 10 m of a toilet, the recommended minimum separation. Overall, 18% of water supplies contained TTCs, 91% of which were located within 10 m of a toilet, 58% had TLF above detection limit, and sanitary risk scores were high. Statistical analysis demonstrated TLF was an effective indicator of TTC presence-absence, with a possibility of TTCs only where TLF exceeded 0.4 μg/L dissolved tryptophan. Analysis also indicated proximity to a toilet was the only significant sanitary risk factor predicting TTC presence-absence and the most significant predictor of TLF. Faecal contamination was considered a result of individual water supply vulnerability rather than indicative of widespread leaching into the aquifer. Therefore, increasing faecal contamination of groundwater-derived potable supplies is inevitable across the country as uptake of on-site sanitation intensifies. Communities need to be aware of this link and implement suitable decentralised low-cost treatment of water prior to consumption and improve the construction and protection of new supplies. Copyright © 2015 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding and defining sanitation insecurity: women’s gendered experiences of urination, defecation and menstruation in rural Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Hadley, Craig; Yount, Kathryn M; Haardörfer, Regine; Rout, Manaswini; Dasmohapatra, Munmun; Cooper, Hannah LF

    2017-01-01

    Background Research suggests that the lived experience of inadequate sanitation may contribute to poor health outcomes above and beyond pathogen exposure, particularly among women. The goal of this research was to understand women’s lived experiences of sanitation by documenting their urination-related, defecation-related and menstruation-related concerns, to use findings to develop a definition of sanitation insecurity among women in low-income settings and to develop a conceptual model to explain the factors that contribute to their experiences, including potential behavioural and health consequences. Methods We conducted 69 Free-List Interviews and eight focus group discussions in a rural population in Odisha, India to identify women’s sanitation concerns and to build an understanding of sanitation insecurity. Findings We found that women at different life stages in rural Odisha, India have a multitude of unaddressed urination, defecation and menstruation concerns. Concerns fell into four domains: the sociocultural context, the physical environment, the social environment and personal constraints. These varied by season, time of day, life stage and toilet ownership, and were linked with an array of adaptations (ie, suppression, withholding food and water) and consequences (ie, scolding, shame, fear). Our derived definition and conceptual model of sanitation insecurity reflect these four domains. Discussion To sincerely address women’s sanitation needs, our findings indicate that more is needed than facilities that change the physical environment alone. Efforts to enable urinating, defecating and managing menstruation independently, comfortably, safely, hygienically, privately, healthily, with dignity and as needed require transformative approaches that also address the gendered, sociocultural and social environments that impact women despite facility access. This research lays the groundwork for future sanitation studies to validate or refine the proposed

  17. Use of Electronic Journals in Astronomy and Astrophysics Libraries and Information Centres in India: A Librarians' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S. K.; Deshpande, N. J.; Rai, V.

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to find out whether librarians are satisfied with the present infrastructure for electronic journals and also to find out whether librarians are taking advantage of consortia. A structured questionnaire for librarians was divided into eight parts which were further sub-divided and designed to get information on various aspects of library infrastructure and usage of electronic journals. The goal was to find out the basic minimum infrastructure needed to provide access to electronic journals to a community of users and to facilitate communication in all major astronomy & astrophysics organizations in India. The study aims to highlight key insights from responses of librarians who are responsible for managing astronomy & astrophysics libraries in India and to identify the information needs of the users. Each community and discipline will have its own specific legacy of journal structure, reading, publishing, and researching practices, and time will show which kinds of e-journals are most effective and useful.

  18. Does maternal autonomy influence feeding practices and infant growth in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Monal R; Griffiths, Paula L; Suchindran, Chirayath; Nagalla, Balakrishna; Vazir, Shahnaz; Bentley, Margaret E

    2011-08-01

    The high prevalence of child under-nutrition remains a profound challenge in the developing world. Maternal autonomy was examined as a determinant of breast feeding and infant growth in children 3-5 months of age. Cross-sectional baseline data on 600 mother-infant pairs were collected in 60 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. The mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal randomized behavioral intervention trial. In addition to anthropometric and demographic measures, an autonomy questionnaire was administered to measure different dimensions of autonomy (e.g. decision-making, freedom of movement, financial autonomy, and acceptance of domestic violence). We conducted confirmatory factor analysis on maternal autonomy items and regression analyses on infant breast feeding and growth after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic variables, and accounting for infant birth weight, infant morbidity, and maternal nutritional status. Results indicated that mothers with higher financial autonomy were more likely to breastfeed 3-5 month old infants. Mothers with higher participation in decision-making in households had infants that were less underweight and less wasted. These results suggest that improving maternal financial and decision-making autonomy could have a positive impact on infant feeding and growth outcomes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Energy-microfinance intervention for below poverty line households in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra; Miller, Jeffrey B.; Wang, Young Doo; Byrne, John B.

    2009-01-01

    More than 72% of India's population resides in rural India and it also has a high concentration of people living under abject poverty. Of the total rural population 27.1-28.3% lives below the poverty line (BPL). A lack of energy-finance options is hampering the 'quality of life' of the BPL community. The members of this disadvantaged household which forms 27.1% and 23.6% of the India's rural and urban population has no ready access to mainstream finance or know-how of sustainable energy products nor do they have access to energy service providing agency. This lack of energy-finance options has provided the marginalized population little means to break the conventional energy paradigm and the corresponding poverty cycle. Considering the afore-mentioned problem we propose an energy-microfinance intervention or a model that encompasses two independent entities. One has an energy expertise and the other possesses finance management skills. Alternately, we also propose a special purpose entity that comprises of these two entities. This entity fosters different institutional, technical and financial engineering approaches to the provision of energy, finance and infrastructure services necessary for poverty alleviation.

  20. Changing structure of income indoor air pollution relationship in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavi Kumar, K.S.; Viswanathan, Brinda

    2007-01-01

    Bio fuels are still a major source for cooking by many households in developing countries such as India causing significant disease burden due to indoor air pollution. While household income influences the choice of fuel the policies that affect accessibility and price of fuels also have an important role in determining the fuel choice. This study analyzes the pollution-income relationship for the period 1983-2000, separately across rural and urban households in India based on unit record data on fuel consumption obtained through National Sample Surveys. While a non-monotonic relationship is observed in rural India in both the decades, in urban India a similar relationship is observed only for the initial period indicating faster transition towards 'cleaner' fuels mainly enabled by policies that have been pro-urban. The study also finds that the impact of household size and composition on bio fuels is more negative than for clean fuels and is increasingly negative over time possibly due to greater awareness about the ill effects of such fuels

  1. Household Debt and Relation to Intimate Partner Violence and Husbands' Attitudes Toward Gender Norms: A Study Among Young Married Couples in Rural Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay G; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has linked economic hardship with increased intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among males. However, less is known about how economic debt or gender norms related to men's roles in relationships or the household, which often underlie IPV perpetration, intersect in or may explain these associations. We assessed the intersection of economic debt, attitudes toward gender norms, and IPV perpetration among married men in India. Data were from the evaluation of a family planning intervention among young married couples (n=1,081) in rural Maharashtra, India. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models for dichotomous outcome variables and linear regression models for continuous outcomes were used to examine debt in relation to husbands' attitudes toward gender-based norms (i.e., beliefs supporting IPV and beliefs regarding male dominance in relationships and the household), as well as sexual and physical IPV perpetration. Twenty percent of husbands reported debt. In adjusted linear regression models, debt was associated with husbands' attitudes supportive of IPV (b=0.015, p=0.004) and norms supporting male dominance in relationships and the household (b=0.006, p=0.003). In logistic regression models adjusted for relevant demographics, debt was associated with perpetration of physical IPV (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.9) and sexual IPV (AOR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.1) from husbands. These findings related to debt and relation to IPV were slightly attenuated when further adjusted for men's attitudes toward gender norms. Findings suggest the need for combined gender equity and economic promotion interventions to address high levels of debt and related IPV reported among married couples in rural India.

  2. Skills Training and Employment Outcomes in Rural Bihar

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravorty, Bhaskar; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2017-01-01

    In a number of countries, youth unemployment is a pressing economic and political concern. In India, 54 percent of the country's population of 1.21 billion is below the age of 25 and faces a high rate of (disguised) unemployment. To augment youth employment, the Government of India has launched a number of skills training programs. This paper deals with participation in and the impact of one of these programs (DDUJKY) located in rural Bihar, one of India's poorest states. The analysis is base...

  3. Education Mitigates the Relationship of Stress and Mental Disorders Among Rural Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Nisha; Soni, Apurv; Allison, Jeroan; Vankar, Jagdish; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Byatt, Nancy; Phatak, Ajay; O'Keefe, Eileen; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    Common mental disorders (CMD) are a constellation of mental health conditions that include depression, anxiety, and other related nonpsychotic affective disorders. Qualitative explanatory models of mental health among reproductive-aged women in India reveal that distress is strongly associated with CMD. The relationship of perceived stress and CMD might be attenuated or exacerbated based on an individual's sociodemographic characteristics. To screen for Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among reproductive-aged women from rural western India and explore how the relationship between perceived stress and CMD screening status varies by sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional survey of 700 women from rural Gujarat, India. CMD screening status was assessed using Self-Reported Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20). Factors associated with CMD screening status were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Effect modification for the relationship of perceived stress and CMD screening status was assessed using interaction terms and interpreted in terms of predicted probabilities. The analytic cohort included 663 women, with roughly 1 in 4 screening positive for CMD (157, 23.7%). Poor income, low education, food insecurity, and recurrent thoughts after traumatic events were associated with increased risk of positive CMD screen. Perceived stress was closely associated with CMD screening status. Higher education attenuated the relationship between high levels of stress and CMD screening status (82.3%, 88.8%, 32.9%; P value for trend: 0.03). Increasing income and age attenuated the link between moderate stress and CMD. Our findings suggest a high burden of possible CMD among reproductive-aged women from rural western India. Higher education might mitigate the association between elevated stress and CMD. Future efforts to improve mental health in rural India should focus on preventing CMD by enhancing rural women's self-efficacy and problem-solving capabilities to overcome

  4. Caries prevalence and treatment needs of rural school children in Chidambaram Taluk, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain information on caries prevalence and treatment needs of children aged 5-10 years to plan appropriate dental care services in rural areas. Materials and Methods: Children studying in all the primary schools (six schools in the field practice area of the Rural Health Centre of the Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Each child was clinically examined in the schools by calibrated examiners. Dental caries was assessed using diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO (1997. The chi-square test and two-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and eight 5-10 year-old school children (247 boys and 261 girls were surveyed. Caries prevalence was 71.7 and 26.5% in primary and permanent dentition, respectively. The mean dmft and decayed missing filled tooth (DMFT scores were 3.00 and 0.42 respectively. The mean dmft decreased with age ( P < 0.01 whereas the mean DMFT increased with age ( P < 0.001. Although the mean dmft scores were not statistically significant different for the two sexes, the mean DMFT score was found to be higher among girls than among boys ( P < 0.02. The entire dmft/DMFT value represented the ′decay′ component only. There was a strong need for single surface restorations (60.6%. In the WHO index age (5-6 years, the caries prevalence was 70.2% (29.8% caries-free with a mean dmft value of 3.54 ± 3.71. Conclusion: Dental caries is a significant public health problem in this population. An extensive system to provide primary oral health care has to be developed in the rural areas of India.

  5. Disparities in earnings and education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, P. Geetha

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of different levels of education, religion, caste as well as the impact of living in urban and rural communities on earnings in India. Besides these conventional stratification, yet another academic caste which influence earnings-the English language ability, is also examined. The paper uses a large cross-section sample of India Human Development Survey to estimate Mincer and augmented Mincer equations. The rates of return estimates obtained in these data and met...

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering among rural adult population in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Tanmay; Ghosh, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor clustering in a rural adult population of West Bengal, India. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 1007 participants (645 males and 362 females) aged ≥20 years in a rural community. All participants were grouped: Group I (20-39 years); Group II (40-59 years); Group III (≥60 years). Anthropometric measures were collected using standard techniques. Metabolic profiles and blood pressure were also measured. Mean of minimum waist circumference (MWC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), trunk-extremity ratio (TER), fat free mass (FFM), basal metabolic rate (BMR), intra-abdominal visceral fat (IVF) and arm muscle area (AMA) was found to be higher among males in comparison to females, whereas, the mean of body mass index (BMI), maximum hip circumference (MHC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), sum of four skinfolds (∑SF4), percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), insulin, HOMA-IR and arm fat area (AFA) was higher in females. 37% of individuals (males 25% and females 49%) with high triglyceride (TG) also had low high density lipoprotein (HDL), whereas, 25% individuals (males 25% and females 24%) with overweight also had high fasting blood glucose (FBG). The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) among individuals having high %BF was higher in the age groups of 40-59 years for both sexes. The study showed that prevalence of CVD risk factor clustering is high in the study population and warranted early intervention to safeguard the cardiovascular health of the nation. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Socio-cultural and service delivery dimensions of maternal mortality in rural central India: a qualitative exploration using a human rights lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Tej Ram; Deo, Prakash R; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the avoidable nature of maternal mortality, unacceptably high numbers of maternal deaths occur in developing countries. Considering its preventability, maternal mortality is being increasingly recognised as a human rights issue. Integration of a human rights perspective in maternal health programmes could contribute positively in eliminating avertable maternal deaths. This study was conducted to explore socio-cultural and service delivery-related dimensions of maternal deaths in rural central India using a human rights lens. Social autopsies were conducted for 22 maternal deaths during 2011 in Khargone district in central India. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The factors associated with maternal deaths were classified by using the 'three delays' framework and were examined by using a human rights lens. All 22 women tried to access medical assistance, but various factors delayed their access to appropriate care. The underestimation of the severity of complications by family members, gender inequity, and perceptions of low-quality delivery services delayed decisions to seek care. Transportation problems and care seeking at multiple facilities delayed reaching appropriate health facilities. Negligence by health staff and unavailability of blood and emergency obstetric care services delayed receiving adequate care after reaching a health facility. The study highlighted various socio-cultural and service delivery-related factors which are violating women's human rights and resulting in maternal deaths in rural central India. This study highlights that, despite the health system's conscious effort to improve maternal health, normative elements of a human rights approach to maternal health (i.e. availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of maternal health services) were not upheld. The data and analysis suggest that the deceased women and their relatives were unable to claim their entitlements and that the duty bearers were not

  8. Socio-cultural and service delivery dimensions of maternal mortality in rural central India: a qualitative exploration using a human rights lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej Ram Jat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the avoidable nature of maternal mortality, unacceptably high numbers of maternal deaths occur in developing countries. Considering its preventability, maternal mortality is being increasingly recognised as a human rights issue. Integration of a human rights perspective in maternal health programmes could contribute positively in eliminating avertable maternal deaths. This study was conducted to explore socio-cultural and service delivery–related dimensions of maternal deaths in rural central India using a human rights lens. Design: Social autopsies were conducted for 22 maternal deaths during 2011 in Khargone district in central India. The data were analysed using the matic analysis. The factors associated with maternal deaths were classified by using the ‘three delays’ framework and were examined by using a human rights lens. Results: All 22 women tried to access medical assistance, but various factors delayed their access to appropriate care. The underestimation of the severity of complications by family members, gender inequity, and perceptions of low-quality delivery services delayed decisions to seek care. Transportation problems and care seeking at multiple facilities delayed reaching appropriate health facilities. Negligence by health staff and unavailability of blood and emergency obstetric care services delayed receiving adequate care after reaching a health facility. Conclusions: The study highlighted various socio-cultural and service delivery–related factors which are violating women's human rights and resulting in maternal deaths in rural central India. This study highlights that, despite the health system's conscious effort to improve maternal health, normative elements of a human rights approach to maternal health (i.e. availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of maternal health services were not upheld. The data and analysis suggest that the deceased women and their relatives were

  9. Electricity access for geographically disadvantaged rural communities - technology and policy insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A.; Malini Ranganathan [The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi (India). India Habitat Centre; Parimita Mohanty [Jadavpur University, Kolkota (India). School of Energy Studies

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to weigh the issues and options for increasing electricity access in remote and geographically challenged villages in interior Rajasthan, the desert state in Western India where power sector reforms are currently underway. By first providing an overview of reforms and various electrification policy initiatives in India, the paper then analyzes the specific problems as studied at the grass-roots level with respect to rural electricity access and the use of off-grid renewables. Finally, it discusses interventions that could facilitate access to electricity by suggesting a sequential distributed generation (DG)-based approach, wherein consecutive DG schemes-incorporating the requisite technological, financial, and institutional arrangements-are designed depending on the developmental requirements of the community. In essence, this approach fits under the broader need to understand how the three ''Rs'' - rural electrification (the process), power sector reforms (the catalyst), and the use of renewable energy technologies (the means)- could potentially converge to meet the needs of India's rural poor. (author)

  10. Risk factors for possible serious bacterial infection in a rural cohort of young infants in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible serious bacterial infection (PBSI is a major cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. We studied risk factors for PSBI in a large rural population in central India where facility deliveries have increased as a result of a government financial assistance program. Methods We studied 37,379 pregnant women and their singleton live born infants with birth weight ≥ 1.5 kg from 20 rural primary health centers around Nagpur, India, using data from the 2010–13 population-based Maternal and Newborn Health Registry supported by NICHD’s Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research. Factors associated with PSBI were identified using multivariable Poisson regression. Results Two thousand one hundred twenty-three infants (6 % had PSBI. Risk factors for PSBI included nulliparity (RR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.03–1.23, parity > 2 (RR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.07–1.57 compared to parity 1–2, first antenatal care visit in the 2nd/3rd trimester (RR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.08–1.98 compared to 1st trimester, administration of antenatal corticosteroids (RR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.60–2.61, low birth weight (RR 3.10, 95 % CI 2.17–4.42, male sex (RR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.10–1.31 and lack of early initiation of breastfeeding (RR 3.87, 95 % CI 2.69–5.58. Conclusion Infants who are low birth weight, born to mothers who present late to antenatal care or receive antenatal corticosteroids, or born to nulliparous women or those with a parity > 2, could be targeted for interventions before and after delivery to improve early recognition of signs and symptoms of PSBI and prompt referral. There also appears to be a need for a renewed focus on promoting early initiation of breastfeeding following delivery in facilities. Trial registration This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01073475 .

  11. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    P.K. Pathak; B.G. Nath

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  12. Integrated rural industrialization through biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Role of biogas in rural industrialization in India is explained. The Khadi and Village Industries Commission has installed over 2 lakhs (0.2 million) biogas plants during the last 30 years. A 15 cu.m. capacity plant costs Rs. 35,000/-. It produces 65 tons bio-manure worth Rs. 13,000/- in a year and fuel gas equivalent to 3,285 litres of kerosene worth Rs. 9855/-. It provides employment to 300 man days. In addition to serving as a source of energy and manure, it reduces deforestation, solves rural sanitation problem and maintain environmental equilibrium. Industrial activities suitable for rural areas and which can use biogas as a source of power are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  13. Use of spatiotemporal characteristics of ambient PM2.5 in rural South India to infer local versus regional contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Kishore; Sreekanth, V; Salmon, Maëlle; Tonne, Cathryn; Marshall, Julian D

    2018-05-08

    This study uses spatiotemporal patterns in ambient concentrations to infer the contribution of regional versus local sources. We collected 12 months of monitoring data for outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in rural southern India. Rural India includes more than one-tenth of the global population and annually accounts for around half a million air pollution deaths, yet little is known about the relative contribution of local sources to outdoor air pollution. We measured 1-min averaged outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations during June 2015-May 2016 in three villages, which varied in population size, socioeconomic status, and type and usage of domestic fuel. The daily geometric-mean PM 2.5 concentration was ∼30 μg m -3 (geometric standard deviation: ∼1.5). Concentrations exceeded the Indian National Ambient Air Quality standards (60 μg m -3 ) during 2-5% of observation days. Average concentrations were ∼25 μg m -3 higher during winter than during monsoon and ∼8 μg m -3 higher during morning hours than the diurnal average. A moving average subtraction method based on 1-min average PM 2.5 concentrations indicated that local contributions (e.g., nearby biomass combustion, brick kilns) were greater in the most populated village, and that overall the majority of ambient PM 2.5 in our study was regional, implying that local air pollution control strategies alone may have limited influence on local ambient concentrations. We compared the relatively new moving average subtraction method against a more established approach. Both methods broadly agree on the relative contribution of local sources across the three sites. The moving average subtraction method has broad applicability across locations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Biofuel production and implications for land use, food production and environment in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sita Lakshmi, C.; Manuvie, Ritumbra; Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large interest in biofuels in India as a substitute to petroleum-based fuels, with a purpose of enhancing energy security and promoting rural development. India has announced an ambitious target of substituting 20% of fossil fuel consumption by biodiesel and bioethanol by 2017. India has announced a national biofuel policy and launched a large program to promote biofuel production, particularly on wastelands: its implications need to be studied intensively considering the fact that India is a large developing country with high population density and large rural population depending upon land for their livelihood. Another factor is that Indian economy is experiencing high growth rate, which may lead to enhanced demand for food, livestock products, timber, paper, etc., with implications for land use. Studies have shown that area under agriculture and forest has nearly stabilized over the past 2-3 decades. This paper presents an assessment of the implications of projected large-scale biofuel production on land available for food production, water, biodiversity, rural development and GHG emissions. The assessment will be largely focused on first generation biofuel crops, since the Indian program is currently dominated by these crops. Technological and policy options required for promoting sustainable biofuel production will be discussed.

  15. Biofuel production and implications for land use, food production and environment in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sita Lakshmi, C.; Manuvie, Ritumbra [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Balachandra, P., E-mail: patilb@mgmt.iisc.ernet.in [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-15

    There is a large interest in biofuels in India as a substitute to petroleum-based fuels, with a purpose of enhancing energy security and promoting rural development. India has announced an ambitious target of substituting 20% of fossil fuel consumption by biodiesel and bioethanol by 2017. India has announced a national biofuel policy and launched a large program to promote biofuel production, particularly on wastelands: its implications need to be studied intensively considering the fact that India is a large developing country with high population density and large rural population depending upon land for their livelihood. Another factor is that Indian economy is experiencing high growth rate, which may lead to enhanced demand for food, livestock products, timber, paper, etc., with implications for land use. Studies have shown that area under agriculture and forest has nearly stabilized over the past 2-3 decades. This paper presents an assessment of the implications of projected large-scale biofuel production on land available for food production, water, biodiversity, rural development and GHG emissions. The assessment will be largely focused on first generation biofuel crops, since the Indian program is currently dominated by these crops. Technological and policy options required for promoting sustainable biofuel production will be discussed.

  16. India's misconceived family plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable.

  17. Foreword [IJEGMBE 2015: India-Japan expert group meeting on biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environment preservation, Fukuoka (Japan), 23-26 December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in organic nanotechnology and biomolecular electronics for environmental preservation, and in their anticipated impact on the economics of both the developing and the developed world. Keeping this in mind, the Department of Biological Functions, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology (KIT), Kitakyushu, Japan, and the Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics (DSTCBE), National Physical Laboratory (NPL) jointly organized the India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics and Organic Nanotechnology for Environmental Preservation (IJWBME 2009) at NPL, New Delhi from 17 th - 19 th December 2009, IJWBME 2011 at EGRET Himeji, Himeji, from 7 th - 10 th December, Japan, and IJWBME 2013 at Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, from 13 th - 15 th December. The India-Japan Expert Group Meeting on Biomolecular Electronics and Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation (IJEGMBE) will be held from 22 th – 25 th , December, 2015, at Nakamura Centenary Memorial Hall, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan in association with Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India. Recent years have seen rapid growth in the area of Biomolecular Electronics involving the association and expertise of physicists, biologists, chemists, electronics engineers and information technologists. There is increasing interest in the development of nanotechnology and biomolecular electronic devices for the preservation of our precious environment. In this context, the world of the electronics, which developed on Si semiconductors, is going to change drastically. A paradigm shift towards organic or printed electronics is more likely in the future. The field of organic electronics promises exciting new technologies based on inexpensive and mechanically flexible electronic devices, and is now starting to see commercial success. On the sidelines of this increasingly well

  18. Significados múltiples y contradictorios del sobreendeudamiento: Un estudio de caso de hogares en pobreza rural en Tamil Nadu, sur de la India

    OpenAIRE

    Guérin, Isabelle; Roesch, Marc; Venkatasubramanian, Govindan; Kumar, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Con base en el estudio de caso de una zona rural en el sur de la India argumentamos que la definición de sobreendeudamiento no puede restringirse a procesos de empobrecimiento material, puesto que las consecuencias de la deuda en términos de estatus social -los prestatarios valoran y clasifican las deudas de acuerdo con pérdidas de autorrespeto y dignidad- son de gran relevancia. El significado social de la deuda es tan importante como sus criterios financieros, depende de relaciones preexist...

  19. Rural energy transitions in developing countries: a case of the Uttam Urja initiative in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Ibrahim Hafeezur; Kar, Abhishek; Raven, Rob; Singh, Dilip; Tiwari, Jitendra; Jha, Rakesh; Sinha, Pramod Kumar; Mirza, Asim

    2010-01-01

    In most developing countries, at the household level, traditional burning of biomass or use of inefficient technologies for domestic applications like lighting is common, triggering concerns related to fuel or technology switching. The paper focuses on opportunities to promote cleaner energy options through development of value chains delivering improved energy efficiency and access in developing countries. We discuss the example of Uttam Urja, a field project involving the dissemination of photovoltaic lighting technologies in rural areas of India. We focus on the challenges of introducing radical innovations into the residential energy sector in developing countries. For the purpose of this paper the Uttam Urja project is conceptualized as an 'experiment' and analysed using the Strategic Niche Management (SNM) framework. The paper emphasizes that to effect socio-technical transitions to clean energy options on the ground, it is desirable to focus on technology customization and innovative financing to cater to the needs and concerns of end users.

  20. Estimating Cryptosporidium and Giardia disease burdens for children drinking untreated groundwater in a rural population in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles E Daniels

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many low-income settings, despite improvements in sanitation and hygiene, groundwater sources used for drinking may be contaminated with enteric pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which remain important causes of childhood morbidity. In this study, we examined the contribution of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia found in groundwater sources used for drinking to the total burden of diarrheal disease among children < 5 in rural India.We studied a population of 3,385 children < 5 years of age in 100 communities of Puri District, Odisha, India. We developed a coupled quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA and susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR population model based on observed levels of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in improved groundwater sources used for drinking and compared the QMRA-SIR estimates with independently measured all-cause (i.e., all fecal-oral enteric pathogens and exposure pathways child diarrhea prevalence rates observed in the study population during two monsoon seasons (2012 and 2013. We used site specific and regional studies to inform assumptions about the human pathogenicity of the Cryptosporidium and Giardia species present in local groundwater. In all three human pathogenicity scenarios evaluated, the mean daily risk of Cryptosporidium or Giardia infection (0.06-1.53%, far exceeded the tolerable daily risk of infection from drinking water in the US (< 0.0001%. Depending on which protozoa species were present, median estimates of daily child diarrhea prevalence due to either Cryptosporidium or Giardia infection from drinking water was as high as 6.5% or as low as < 1% and accounted for at least 2.9% and as much as 65.8% of the all-cause diarrhea disease burden measured in children < 5 during the study period. Cryptosporidium tended to account for a greater share of estimated waterborne protozoa infections causing diarrhea than did Giardia. Diarrhea prevalence estimates for waterborne

  1. Epidemiology of dental caries among adolescents in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasamy, Arthi; Kirk, Ray; Gage, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Economic and dietary changes in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu have led to compromised oral health status of the adolescent population. Adequate epidemiological data are not available to address the prevention or treatment needs in this region of India. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents of Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India. The study sample included 974 adolescent school students (12-15 years of age) from both rural and urban areas of Tamil Nadu, India. The decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index of these students was measured using the World Health Organization oral health survey method, in a quantitative cross-sectional study. The oral health survey indicated that the prevalence of dental caries among adolescents in rural and urban areas of Tamil Nadu was 61.4%, with an average DMFT score of 2.03. Multiple regression analyses indicated factors such as gender, mother's education, type of school and caste as significant predictors of dental caries. Female gender, Scheduled Caste and Tribes attending public schools in rural areas were identified as the more vulnerable populations to be affected by dental caries. Oral health policies should be targeted to these adolescent populations in the Tamil Nadu region. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. Decreasing prevalence of multi-drugs resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Nashik City, India

    OpenAIRE

    More, Arun Punaji; Nagdawane, Ramkrishna Panchamrao; Gangurde, Aniket K

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In India, increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR) has aggravated the control oftuberculosis problem. In many urban and semi-urban regions of India, no surveillance data of multidrug resistance inMycobacterium tuberculosisis available.Methods: A surveillance study on multidrug resistance was carried out in semi-urban and rural regions in and aroundNashik City of Maharashtra, India. The surveillance study was conducted in this region found that the prevalence...

  3. Human development, poverty, health & nutrition situation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, G M; Laxmaiah, A

    2008-08-01

    Human development index (HDI) is extensively used to measure the standard of living of a country. India made a study progress in the HDI value. Extreme poverty is concentrated in rural areas of northern States while income growth has been dynamic in southern States and urban areas. This study was undertaken to assess the trends in HDI, human poverty index (HPI) and incidence of poverty among Indian states, the socio-economic, health, and diet and nutritional indicators which determine the HDI, changes in protein and calorie adequacy status of rural population, and also trends in malnutrition among children in India. The variations in socio-economic, demographic and dietary indicators by grades of HDI were studied. The trends in poverty and nutrition were also studied. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to analyse data. While India's HDI value has improved over a time; our rank did not improve much compared to other developing countries. Human poverty has not reduced considerably as per the HPI values. The undernutrition among preschool children is still a major public health problem in India. The incidence of poverty at different levels of calorie requirement has not reduced in both rural and urban areas. The time trends in nutritional status of pre-school children showed that, even though, there is an improvement in stunting over the years, the trend in wasting and underweight has not improved much. Proper nutrition and health awareness are important to tackle the health hazards of developmental transition. Despite several national nutrition programmes in operation, we could not make a significant dent in the area of health and nutrition. The changing dietary practices of the urban population, especially the middle class, are of concern. Further studies are needed to measure the human development and poverty situation of different sections of the population in India using an index, which includes both income indicators and non income

  4. Geriatric health policy in India: The need for scaling-up implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sherin Susan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an anticipation of the rising geriatric population in India, the Central government constituted the National Policy for Older Persons in 1999 to promote the health and welfare of senior citizens in India. A major strategy of this policy is to encourage families to take care of their older family members. The policy also encourages voluntary organizations to supplement the care provided by the family and provide care and protection to vulnerable elderly people. The implementation of this policy, particularly in the rural areas, has been negligible and calls for a scaling-up of programs to address the physical, psychological, and social needs of the poor. Due to breakdown of the joint family system and the migration of the younger generation to the towns and cities, the elderly parents in the villages are left to fend for themselves. Too old to work and with little or no source of income, the elders are struggling even to satisfy their basic needs. This article primarily focuses on the various facets of elderly care in India. As a fledgling nation in elderly care, we should take cues from other nations who have pioneered in this field and should constantly evolve to identify and face the various challenges that come up, especially from rural India. The Rural Unit for Health and Social Affairs Department of a well-known Medical College in South India has developed a “senior recreation day care” model which proves to be a useful replicable model to improve the quality of life and nutritional status of the elderly in the lower rungs of society. More than a decade since its inception, it is now the right time to assess the implementation of our geriatric health policy and scale-up programs so that the elderly in our country, irrespective of urban and rural, will have a dignified and good quality life.

  5. Estimation of community-level influenza-associated illness in a low resource rural setting in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Siddhartha; Gupta, Vivek; Dawood, Fatimah S; Broor, Shobha; Lafond, Kathryn E; Chadha, Mandeep S; Rai, Sanjay K; Krishnan, Anand

    2018-01-01

    To estimate rates of community-level influenza-like-illness (ILI) and influenza-associated ILI in rural north India. During 2011, we conducted household-based healthcare utilization surveys (HUS) for any acute medical illness (AMI) in preceding 14days among residents of 28villages of Ballabgarh, in north India. Concurrently, we conducted clinic-based surveillance (CBS) in the area for AMI episodes with illness onset ≤3days and collected nasal and throat swabs for influenza virus testing using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Retrospectively, we applied ILI case definition (measured/reported fever and cough) to HUS and CBS data. We attributed 14days of risk-time per person surveyed in HUS and estimated community ILI rate by dividing the number of ILI cases in HUS by total risk-time. We used CBS data on influenza positivity and applied it to HUS-based community ILI rates by age, month, and clinic type, to estimate the community influenza-associated ILI rates. The HUS of 69,369 residents during the year generated risk-time of 3945 person-years (p-y) and identified 150 (5%, 95%CI: 4-6) ILI episodes (38 ILI episodes/1,000 p-y; 95% CI 32-44). Among 1,372 ILI cases enrolled from clinics, 126 (9%; 95% CI 8-11) had laboratory-confirmed influenza (A (H3N2) = 72; B = 54). After adjusting for age, month, and clinic type, overall influenza-associated ILI rate was 4.8/1,000 p-y; rates were highest among children value of influenza vaccination among target groups.

  6. When does unreliable grid supply become unacceptable policy? Costs of power supply and outages in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, Santosh M.; Morgan, Granger M.; Subrahmanian, Eswaran

    2014-01-01

    Despite frequent blackouts and brownouts, extension of the central grid remains the Indian government's preferred strategy for the country's rural electrification policy. This study reports an assessment that compares grid extension with distributed generation (DG) alternatives, based on the subsidies they will necessitate, and costs of service interruptions that are appropriate in the rural Indian context. Using cross-sectional household expenditure data and region fixed-effects models, average household demand is estimated. The price elasticity of demand is found to be in the range of −0.3 to −0.4. Interruption costs are estimated based on the loss of consumer surplus due to reduced consumption of electric lighting energy that results from intermittent power supply. Different grid reliability scenarios are simulated. Despite the inclusion of interruption costs, standalone DG does not appear to be competitive with grid extension at distances of less than 17 km. However, backing up unreliable grid service with local DG plants is attractive when reliability is very poor, even in previously electrified villages. Introduction of energy efficient lighting changes these economics, and the threshold for acceptable grid unreliability significantly reduces. A variety of polices to promote accelerated deployment and the wider adoption of improved end-use efficiency, warrant serious consideration. - Highlights: • We question the reliance on conventional grid in rural electricity supply in India. • Alternatives compared through government subsidies and consumer interruption costs. • Interruption costs are estimated based on loss of consumer surplus due to outages. • Augmenting unreliable grid with local biomass or diesel based backups preferable. • With efficient lighting, standalone biomass plants are optimal at very low distances

  7. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinekar, Anand; Jayadev, Chaitra; Kumar, Siddesh; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Dogra, Mangat Ram; Bauer, Noel J; Shetty, Bhujang

    2016-01-01

    To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP), is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011. Six government and eleven private neonatal centers in this zone were screened weekly. Specific neonatal guidelines for ROP were developed and introduced in these centers. They included awareness about risk factors, oxygen regulation protocols, use of pulse oxymetry, monitoring postnatal weight gain, nutritional best practices, and management of sepsis. The incidence and severity of ROP were compared before the guidelines were introduced (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012) and after the guidelines were introduced (July 2013 to June 2015). During this 4-year period, 4,167 infants were screened over 11,390 imaging sessions. The number of enrolled infants increased from 1,825 to 2,342 between the two periods ( P large, unscreened burden of ROP. Improving neonatal care in these centers can positively impact the incidence and severity of ROP even in a relatively short period. A combined approach of a robust ROP screening program and improved neonatal care practices is required to address the challenge.

  8. Why gender matters in the solution towards safe sanitation? Reflections from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Tina; Das, Madhumita

    2016-12-01

    While the topic of women and water, sanitation and hygiene is a widely accepted concern among academics and activists, it continues to be an issue in developing countries with serious consequences. Based on a qualitative research conducted in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, the paper affirms that sanitation issues for women and girls are compounded by inequitable gender norms that put them at greater risk of experiencing violence and multiple health vulnerabilities. Women, despite having a high demand for safe toilet facilities, continue to practise unsafe sanitation. The findings highlight the role of three structural constraints as the key factors influencing toilet construction and use: poverty, inadequate sanitation policy and its implementation and gender-based power dynamics at the household level. The paper concludes by emphasising the relevance of engendering sanitation programmes and policies by involving women and girls in the planning process to ensure that dignified and gender-sensitive sanitation solutions are developed. The paper also stresses the need to have measures for strengthening and effectively implementing a sanitation policy for the poor and for programmes to work with both men and women to address gender power relations which influence toilet adoption and use.

  9. Comparison of large central and small decentralized power generation in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-05-01

    This reports evaluates two options for providing reliable power to rural areas in India. The benefits and costs are compared for biomass based distributed generation (DG) systems versus a 1200-MW central grid coal-fired power plant. The biomass based DG systems are examined both as alternatives to grid extension and as supplements to central grid power. The benefits are divided into three categories: those associated with providing reliable power from any source, those associated specifically with biomass based DG technology, and benefits of a central grid coal plant. The report compares the estimated delivered costs of electricity from the DG systems to those of the central plant. The analysis includes estimates for a central grid coal plant and four potential DG system technologies: Stirling engines, direct-fired combustion turbines, fuel cells, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles. The report also discusses issues affecting India`s rural electricity demand, including economic development, power reliability, and environmental concerns. The results of the costs of electricity comparison between the biomass DG systems and the coal-fired central grid station demonstrated that the DG technologies may be able to produce very competitively priced electricity by the start of the next century. The use of DG technology may provide a practical means of addressing many rural electricity issues that India will face in the future. Biomass DG technologies in particular offer unique advantages for the environment and for economic development that will make them especially attractive. 58 refs., 31 figs.

  10. Hypersensitive reaction to tattoos: A growing menace in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Shashikumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased enthusiasm toward newer fashion trends among rural India along with the lack of government regulation has led to increased tattoo reactions. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe various clinical manifestations of hypersensitive reactions to tattoo ink reported at a tertiary care hospital in Mandya district. Materials and Methods: An observational study was carried out over a period of 1 year from June 2014 to May 2015 at Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya. All the patients reporting with allergic reaction due to tattooing were included in the present study after obtaining informed consent. Transient acute inflammatory reaction, infections, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area were excluded from this study. A detailed history regarding the onset, duration and color used for tattooing were collected. Cutaneous examination and biopsy was to done to know the type of reaction. Results: Fifty cutaneous allergic reactions were diagnosed among 39 patients. Mean age of subjects was 22 years and mean duration before the appearance of lesion was 7 months. Common colors associated with reactions were red (53.9%, black (33.3%, green (5.1%, and multicolor (7.7%. Itching was the predominant symptom. Skin lesions mainly consisted of lichenoid papules and plaques, eczematous lesions, and verrucous lesions. Lichenoid histopathology reaction was the most common tissue allergic reaction. Conclusion: Increasing popularity of tattooing among young people has predisposed to parallel increase in adverse reactions. Red pigment is most common cause of allergic reaction in the present study, and lichenoid reaction is the most common reaction.

  11. Hypersensitive Reaction to Tattoos: A Growing Menace in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, B M; Harish, M R; Shwetha, B; Kavya, M; Deepadarshan, K; Phani, H N

    2017-01-01

    Increased enthusiasm toward newer fashion trends among rural India along with the lack of government regulation has led to increased tattoo reactions. The objective of this study is to describe various clinical manifestations of hypersensitive reactions to tattoo ink reported at a tertiary care hospital in Mandya district. An observational study was carried out over a period of 1 year from June 2014 to May 2015 at Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya. All the patients reporting with allergic reaction due to tattooing were included in the present study after obtaining informed consent. Transient acute inflammatory reaction, infections, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area were excluded from this study. A detailed history regarding the onset, duration and color used for tattooing were collected. Cutaneous examination and biopsy was to done to know the type of reaction. Fifty cutaneous allergic reactions were diagnosed among 39 patients. Mean age of subjects was 22 years and mean duration before the appearance of lesion was 7 months. Common colors associated with reactions were red (53.9%), black (33.3%), green (5.1%), and multicolor (7.7%). Itching was the predominant symptom. Skin lesions mainly consisted of lichenoid papules and plaques, eczematous lesions, and verrucous lesions. Lichenoid histopathology reaction was the most common tissue allergic reaction. Increasing popularity of tattooing among young people has predisposed to parallel increase in adverse reactions. Red pigment is most common cause of allergic reaction in the present study, and lichenoid reaction is the most common reaction.

  12. Bacteriological examination of drinking water in Burdwan, India with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... Burdwan, India with reference to coliforms. Chatterjee ... ther the water supply system is being operated correctly, implying ... Proper management is immedia- ... tics of underground water in rural areas of tasham subdivisions,.

  13. Study of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with headache using a short structured clinical interview in a rural neurology clinic in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soaham Dilip Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are common in patients attending neurology clinics with headache. Evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with headache is often missed in the busy neurology clinics. Aims: To assess the prevalence of Axis-I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in patients with primary headache disorders in a rural-based tertiary neurology clinic in Western India. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional observation survey was conducting assessing all patients with migraine, tension-type headache and chronic daily headache attending the Neurology Clinic of Shree Krishna Hospital, a rural medical teaching hospital in Karamsad, in Gujarat in Western India. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 consecutive consenting adults with headache were interviewed using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I., a structured diagnostic clinical interview to assess prevalence of Axis-I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were calculated using SPSS software version 16 and a binomial regression model was used to study the relationship of psychiatric co-morbidity with patient-related factors. Results: 49 out of 101 (48.5% patients with headache suffered from depressive disorders (dysthymia or depression or suicidality, 18 out of 101 patients with headache (17.90% suffered from anxiety related disorders (generalized anxiety disorder or agoraphobia or social phobia or panic disorder. Conclusions: Axis-I psychiatric disorders are a significant comorbidity among patients with headache disorders. M.I.N.I. can be used as a short, less time consuming instrument to assess all patients with headache disorders.

  14. An analysis of current and desirable situation of electronic government service provision in rural areas of the Hamedan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Aazami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The informative society is seen as the central element of rural development at the beginning of the third millennium and the development of information technology and communication in villages has always been considered in current summits across the world. Nowadays, information and communication technology service offices are the basis of electronic government. Therefore, recognition of these offices is necessary for sustainable rural development. The purpose of this research was a comparative analysis between the current situation and the desirable situation of e-government services in the rural districts of the Hamedan province as perceived by their directors (Hamedan, Bahar and Famenin Counties. The study population consists of 91 respondents who were chosen and studied through the census method. The findings of this research study consist of two sections. The items related to satisfaction with the activities in information and communication technology service offices were prioritized in the first section. Moreover, the current and the desirable conditions for electronic service provision were identified. The gap between these two were analyzed in the second section. The results indicate that there is a significant difference between these two conditions of electronic service provisions in rural areas. This significant difference was recognized through the paired T test at the 0.05 level with 6.33 value that illustrates the existence of a gap between these two situations. Electronic government, information technology and communication, information and communication technology service offices

  15. Arsenic in groundwaters of rural India: its geochemistry and mitigation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Debashis; Majumder, Santanu; Kundu, Amit; Barman, Sandipan; Chatterjee, Debankur; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2016-04-01

    During the last few decades, arsenic (As) has been recognized as the most threatening contaminant in natural waters (especially groundwater). It has become a menace to the health of millions of people worldwide. Many large and small communities experience As contamination in groundwater and/or drinking water supplies in south-east Asia and the problem is grave in West Bengal and Bangladesh (Bengal Delta Plain, BDP) both in terms of human exposure as well as spatial coverage. It is frequently observed that As concentration in contaminated wells exceeds both WHO guideline value (10 mg/l) and stipulated National standard (50 mg/l) for both Bangladesh and India. Dissolved forms of As in the BDP water include arsenite (~50-70%), arsenate (~30-50%) and ultra-trace amount of monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid. Arsenite and arsenate species can interchange depending on redox potential (Eh), pH and biological processes. The prevailing local geomorphological features (surface water, sanitation, agricultural activity) can also influence the mobilization of As in addition to the dominant geological factors. Therefore, the local sedimentology and hydrogeology should also be given importance prior to implement or consider any policy to mitigate the As contamination of groundwater. Conventional treatment techniques to remove As from groundwater are costly and difficult to practice in rural areas of the BDP. There are several techniques available for groundwater As removal. Iron and Alum coagulation, softening [mediated by calcite or Mg(OH)2 formation], by reverse osmosis, using zero-valent iron and nanoparticulate zero-valent iron, several natural/synthetic metal oxides, naturally found minerals like siderite, hematite, using iron doped activated carbons, development of bio-physicochemical techniques, using granular TiO2 adsorbent are some of the many proposed removal techniques investigated by various researchers. Instead of using hazardous chemicals (e.g. chlorine

  16. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Adlakha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2% from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2% with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99. The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  17. Delay in DOTS for new pulmonary tuberculosis patient from rural area of Wardha District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Bawankule

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of active tuberculosis patients seeks treatment, do so promptly, still many patients spend a great deal of time and money “shopping for health” and too often they do not receive either accurate diagnosis or effective treatment, despite spending considerable resources. Objective: To find out the time taken to, for diagnosis of tuberculosis and to put patient on DOTS from the onset of symptoms and pattern of health seeking behavior of new pulmonary tuberculosis patients. A cross-sectional rapid assessment using qualitative (FGD and quantitative (Interview methods conducted at DOTS center of tertiary care hospital from rural Wardha. Participants: 53 pulmonary tuberculosis patients already on DOTS, in intensive phase. Main outcome measure: Delay in initiation of DOTS & health seeking behavior Results: Median total delay for starting DOTS was 111 days, (range: 10 to 321 days. Patient delay was more than provider delay. Patients delay was more in patients above 60 years, illiterate, per-capita income below 650 Rupees and HIV TB co-infection. Pattern of health seeking behavior was complex. Family physician was the preferred health care provider. Patient visited on an average four providers and spent around 1450 rupees (only direct cost before DOTS begin. Time taken from the onset of symptoms and start of DOT is a cause of concern for the tuberculosis control program. Early case detection is important rather than mere achieving target of 70% new case detection. Program manager needs to implement locally relevant & focused strategies for early case detection to improve the treatment success, especially in rural area of India.

  18. Renewable energy for rural communities in Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, T.; Coles, S.R; Kirwan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The desire for universal access to modern energy and the use of renewable energy technologies (RETs) as a means of delivering low carbon solutions are driven by several local and global factors, including climate change, population increase and future energy security. Social attitudes are a major challenge to overcome in order to successfully introduce low carbon technologies as a sustainable alternative to more traditional means of energy provision. It becomes a challenge to educate the target population in order to counteract any negative preconceptions or scepticisms in using these technologies which can have adverse effect upon their viability and long term success. This work presents the results of a rural energy survey conducted in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The survey highlights the opportunities and attitudes of these rural communities towards sustainable modern energy services and the technologies used to deliver them. Results from the survey show that there is interest in using sustainable or renewable technologies for energy provision and suggest that cost, reliability and ease of use are more important factors than the environmental benefits. A suggestion for a way to improve RET adoption in rural communities is also presented based on the results of this study. - Highlights: • Survey used to assess energy usage and perception of RETs in rural communities. • Despite lack of preference towards one RET the majority believe in their expanded use. • Cost, reliability and ease of use most influential factors when selecting a fuel. • Assessment of community needs can aid RET adoption by improving long term viability

  19. Significance of end-of-life dreams and visions experienced by the terminally ill in rural and Urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Kanti Dam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that ELDVs are not uncommon in India and the incidence does not differ significantly between rural and urban population. Our subjects found them to be distressing initially, but felt better after discussing it with our team. There was a direct correlation between severity of symptoms and occurrence and frequency of ELDVs. Another finding exclusive to our study was that the persons visualized in ELDVs did not threaten or scare the patient and the known persons visualized were seen as they were in their prime of health. We feel that addressing such 'issues' is of paramount importance with a view to providing holistic care. I feel that they strongly suggest the presence of life after death and when properly explained, can reinforce a sense of hope.

  20. Women living with AIDS in rural Southern India: Perspectives on mental health and lay health care worker support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Carpenter, Catherine; Satyanarayana, Veena; Ramakrishna, Padma; Ekstrand, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this study, focus groups were conducted with 16 rural Women Living with AIDS (WLA) from Andhra Pradesh, India who had previously participated in a clinical trial wherein 68 WLA were randomized into either an Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) – Life (AL) intervention or a Usual Care program. Findings are discussed in terms of: a) mental health issues, b) perceived stressors, c) individual resources for coping with mental health issues, and d) role of Asha support in coping with mental health issues. These findings highlight the salience of mental health issues in the lives of WLA and the role played by Asha in addressing some of these issues. The discussion section makes a case for increased emphasis on mental health care in future community-based interventions for this population. PMID:29056879

  1. kNOw Fear: Making Rural Public Spaces Safe for Women and Girls ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Acute violence against women and girls in rural areas has remained ... freedom from violence and safety for women and girls in rural public spaces in India. ... where both young women and men will come together to change attitudes, ... who are constitutionally mandated to ensure social justice and equitable development.

  2. Disparities in earnings and education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Geetha Rani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of different levels of education, religion, caste as well as the impact of living in urban and rural communities on earnings in India. Besides these conventional stratification, yet another academic caste which influence earnings—the English language ability, is also examined. The paper uses a large cross-section sample of India Human Development Survey to estimate Mincer and augmented Mincer equations. The rates of return estimates obtained in these data and method confirm that returns to education increase with the level of education across location, caste-religion and English language ability. Returns to lower levels of education are low across different groups, indicating the low quality of basic schooling in the country. Returns to higher education vary at a great deal ranging between 4.9% among the rural workers and 38.2% among fluent English ability group. This is in contrast to Duraisamy reporting the highest returns to secondary education in India, between the period 1983 and 1993–1994. In a decade’s time, with changes in the economy and in the labour market, higher education especially the English language ability along with higher education brings in the highest wage premium.

  3. Prevalence of Coronary Risk Factors among Population Aged 35 Years and Above From Rural Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is predicted that cardiovascular diseases will be the most important cause of mortality in India by the year 2015. Since the key to combating the increased incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD is the control of known risk factors by a population based strategy aimed at comprehensive risk reduction, it is pertinent to study the magnitude of the risk. Aim: The present study was therefore conducted to assess the prevalence of certain coronary risk factors among rural population aged 35 years and above in Maharashtra. Methods: The present community based cross sectional survey was carried out in the rural area of Pune district on 272 subjects using a structured questionnaire, clinical examination followed by lab investigations. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Results: Tobacco consumption was found to be prevalent in 51.83% of the study subjects followed by physical inactivity which was prevalent among 31.61% whereas high diastolic blood pressure was found to be prevalent in 29.41% of the study subjects. Obesity and alcohol consumption were found to be prevalent among 13.97% of the study subjects. Among the biochemical parameters studied, hypertriglyceridemia was found to be prevalent in 22.05% followed by raised fasting blood sugar in 15.44% of the study subjects. Conclusion: Behaviour change communication strategies targeting these modifiable known high risk factors need to be emphasized to lower coronary heart disease (CHD related morbidity burden in the community.

  4. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of a Gender Equity and Family Planning Intervention for Married Men and Couples in Rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Raj

    Full Text Available Despite ongoing recommendations to increase male engagement and gender-equity (GE counseling in family planning (FP services, few such programs have been implemented and rigorously evaluated. This study evaluates the impact of CHARM, a three-session GE+FP counseling intervention delivered by male health care providers to married men, alone (sessions 1&2 and with their wives (session 3 in India.A two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with young married couples (N = 1081 couples recruited from 50 geographic clusters (25 clusters randomized to CHARM and a control condition, respectively in rural Maharashtra, India. Couples were surveyed on demographics, contraceptive behaviors, and intimate partner violence (IPV attitudes and behaviors at baseline and 9 &18-month follow-ups, with pregnancy testing at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Outcome effects on contraceptive use and incident pregnancy, and secondarily, on contraceptive communication and men's IPV attitudes and behaviors, were assessed using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Most men recruited from CHARM communities (91.3% received at least one CHARM intervention session; 52.5% received the couple's session with their wife. Findings document that women from the CHARM condition, relative to controls, were more likely to report contraceptive communication at 9-month follow-up (AOR = 1.77, p = 0.04 and modern contraceptive use at 9 and 18-month follow-ups (AORs = 1.57-1.58, p = 0.05, and they were less likely to report sexual IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.48, p = 0.01. Men in the CHARM condition were less likely than those in the control clusters to report attitudes accepting of sexual IPV at 9-month (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.03 and 18-month (AOR = 0.51, p = 0.004 follow-up, and attitudes accepting of physical IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.02. No significant effect on pregnancy was seen.Findings demonstrate that men can be engaged in FP programming in

  5. Factors associated with persons with disability employment in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraharisetti, Ramya; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-10-07

    Over twenty million persons with disability in India are increasingly being offered poverty alleviation strategies, including employment programs. This study employs a spatial analytic approach to identify correlates of employment among persons with disability in India, considering sight, speech, hearing, movement, and mental disabilities. Based on 2001 Census data, this study utilizes linear regression and spatial autoregressive models to identify factors associated with the proportion employed among persons with disability at the district level. Models stratified by rural and urban areas were also considered. Spatial autoregressive models revealed that different factors contribute to employment of persons with disability in rural and urban areas. In rural areas, having mental disability decreased the likelihood of employment, while being female and having movement, or sight impairment (compared to other disabilities) increased the likelihood of employment. In urban areas, being female and illiterate decreased the likelihood of employment but having sight, mental and movement impairment (compared to other disabilities) increased the likelihood of employment. Poverty alleviation programs designed for persons with disability in India should account for differences in employment by disability types and should be spatially targeted. Since persons with disability in rural and urban areas have different factors contributing to their employment, it is vital that government and service-planning organizations account for these differences when creating programs aimed at livelihood development.

  6. Information Poverty = Rural Poverty? Computers as the New Knowledge Brokers in Rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe conventional ‘village’ is being digitalized. In the last decade, India has proudly embraced its new image as the world’s Silicon Valley and back-office (and arguably front office) for global business. This momentum is being driven by information and communication technologies (ICTs);

  7. Financial Burden and Impoverishment Due to Cardiovascular Medications in Low and Middle Income Countries: An Illustration from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kiran Raj; Meltzer, David O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Health expenditures are a major financial burden for many persons in low and middle-income countries, where individuals often lack health insurance. We estimate the effect of purchasing cardiovascular medicines on poverty in low and middle-income populations using rural and urban India as an example. Methods We created step-up treatment regimens for prevention of ischemic heart disease for the most common cardiovascular medications in India based on their cost and relative risk reduction. Cost was measured by Government of India mandated ceiling prices in rupees (Rs. 1 = $0·016) for essential medicines plus taxes. We calculated step-wise projected incidence and intensity of impoverishment due to medicine purchase. To do this we measured the resources available to individuals as daily per-capita expenditures from the latest National Sample Survey, subtracted daily medication costs, and compared this to 2014 poverty thresholds recommended by an expert group. Findings Analysis of cost-effectiveness resulted in five primary prevention drug regimens, created by progressive addition of Aspirin 75 mg, Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5mg, Losartan 25 mg, and Atorvastatin 10 mg or 40mg. Daily cost from steps 1 to 5 increased from Rs. 0·13, Rs. 1.16, Rs. 3.81, Rs. 10.07, to Rs. 28.85. At baseline, 31% of rural and 27% percent of urban Indian population are poor at the designated poverty thresholds. The Rs. 28.85 regimen would be unaffordable to 81% and 58% of rural and urban people. A secondary prevention regimen with aspirin, hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol and atorvastatin could be unaffordable to 81% and 57% rural and urban people respectively. According to our estimates, 17% of the rural 32% of the urban adult population could benefit with these medications, and their out of pocket purchase could impoverish 17 million rural and 10 million urban people in India and increase respective poverty gaps by 2.9%. Conclusion Medication costs for cardiovascular disease have the

  8. Financial Burden and Impoverishment Due to Cardiovascular Medications in Low and Middle Income Countries: An Illustration from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kiran Raj; Meltzer, David O

    2016-01-01

    Health expenditures are a major financial burden for many persons in low and middle-income countries, where individuals often lack health insurance. We estimate the effect of purchasing cardiovascular medicines on poverty in low and middle-income populations using rural and urban India as an example. We created step-up treatment regimens for prevention of ischemic heart disease for the most common cardiovascular medications in India based on their cost and relative risk reduction. Cost was measured by Government of India mandated ceiling prices in rupees (Rs. 1 = $0·016) for essential medicines plus taxes. We calculated step-wise projected incidence and intensity of impoverishment due to medicine purchase. To do this we measured the resources available to individuals as daily per-capita expenditures from the latest National Sample Survey, subtracted daily medication costs, and compared this to 2014 poverty thresholds recommended by an expert group. Analysis of cost-effectiveness resulted in five primary prevention drug regimens, created by progressive addition of Aspirin 75 mg, Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5mg, Losartan 25 mg, and Atorvastatin 10 mg or 40mg. Daily cost from steps 1 to 5 increased from Rs. 0·13, Rs. 1.16, Rs. 3.81, Rs. 10.07, to Rs. 28.85. At baseline, 31% of rural and 27% percent of urban Indian population are poor at the designated poverty thresholds. The Rs. 28.85 regimen would be unaffordable to 81% and 58% of rural and urban people. A secondary prevention regimen with aspirin, hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol and atorvastatin could be unaffordable to 81% and 57% rural and urban people respectively. According to our estimates, 17% of the rural 32% of the urban adult population could benefit with these medications, and their out of pocket purchase could impoverish 17 million rural and 10 million urban people in India and increase respective poverty gaps by 2.9%. Medication costs for cardiovascular disease have the potential to cause financial burden to

  9. Trees for energy and rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    A special commemorative issue of 14 papers is presented to mark the centenary of forestry education in India. Most of the papers discuss the current status and future potential of Indian energy forestry in general terms, and are listed below. The remaining 4 papers are noticed elsewhere. Kaul, R.N.; Gurumurti, K. Forest energy in India: the state of the art. 737-743. (Refs. 11). Revelle, R. Energy use in rural India. 744-757 (Refs. 25 reprinted from Science, USA (1976) 192,969-975). Oka, A.G. Energy plantations in India - prospects and perspectives. 758-766 (Refs. 3). Srivastava, B.P. High-density short rotation forestry for mitigating the energy crisis in India. 767-770. Ghosh, R.C. Energy problems and energy crops. 771-776. Pant, M.M. Wood to alleviate India's energy crisis. 795-803 (Refs. 14). The paper includes a table of the density and calorific value of 19 species. Choudhury, J.M. Energy plantations in Arunachal Pradesh. 804-807. Sarma, B.S.K. Forests for fuel. 808-812 (Refs. 1). Reddy, C.V.K. Meeting the challenge of energy. 813-817. Das, M.C. Planting for energy in Orissa. 823-829 (Refs. 11).

  10. Counting 15 million more poor in India, thanks to tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rijo M; Sung, Hai-Yen; Max, Wendy B; Ross, Hana

    2011-09-01

    To quantify the impact of tobacco use and the related medical expenditure on poverty in India. Tobacco expenditure and associated medical expenditure attributable to tobacco use were subtracted from the household monthly consumption expenditure in order to derive an appropriate measure of household disposable income. The 2004 National Sample Survey, a nationally representative survey of Indian households, was used to estimate the true level of poverty. Our estimates indicate that accounting for direct expenditure on tobacco would increase the rural and the urban poverty rates by 1.5% (affecting 11.8 million people) and 0.72% (affecting 2.3 million people), respectively. Similarly, the out-of-pocket costs of tobacco-attributable medical care result in 0.09% higher poverty rates in rural areas (affecting 0.7 million people) and in 0.07% higher poverty rates in urban locations (affecting 0.23 million people). Tobacco consumption impoverishes roughly 15 million people in India. Hence tobacco control measures would not only improve public health, but would also reduce poverty in India.

  11. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinekar, Anand; Jayadev, Chaitra; Kumar, Siddesh; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Dogra, Mangat Ram; Bauer, Noel J; Shetty, Bhujang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. Methods The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP), is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011. Six government and eleven private neonatal centers in this zone were screened weekly. Specific neonatal guidelines for ROP were developed and introduced in these centers. They included awareness about risk factors, oxygen regulation protocols, use of pulse oxymetry, monitoring postnatal weight gain, nutritional best practices, and management of sepsis. The incidence and severity of ROP were compared before the guidelines were introduced (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012) and after the guidelines were introduced (July 2013 to June 2015). Results During this 4-year period, 4,167 infants were screened over 11,390 imaging sessions. The number of enrolled infants increased from 1,825 to 2,342 between the two periods (P<0.001). The overall incidence of any stage ROP reduced significantly from 26.8% to 22.4% (P<0.001). The incidence of treatment-requiring ROP reduced from 20.7% to 16% (P=0.06), and of the treated disease, aggressive posterior ROP reduced from 20.8% to 13.1% (P=0.23) following introduction of the guidelines. Discussion Rural neonatal centers in middle-income countries have a large, unscreened burden of ROP. Improving neonatal care in these centers can positively impact the incidence and severity of ROP even in a relatively short period. A combined approach of a robust ROP screening program and improved neonatal care practices is required to address the challenge. PMID:28539801

  12. A study on knowledge and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among rural and urban adolescent girls in Udupi Taluk, Manipal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescent girls often lack knowledge regarding reproductive health including menstruation hygiene which can be due to socio-cultural barriers in which they grow up. Objectives: To explore the knowledge, practices and sources of information regarding menstruation and hygiene among adolescent girls in Udupi taluk, India. Methods: An epidemiologic study was undertaken using cross-sectional study method among 550 school-going adolescent girls aged13-16 years. A total of 270 were from urban and 280 from the rural area. Stratified cluster sampling was adopted to select the schools and simple random sampling technique to select the participants. Data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 15.Results Around 34% participants were aware about menstruation prior to menarche, and mothers were the main source of information among both groups. Overall, 70.4% of adolescent girls were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 25.6% were using both cloth and sanitary napkins. Almost half of the rural participants dried the absorbent inside their homes. Conclusions: There is a need to equip the adolescent girls with knowledge regarding safe, hygienic practices to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life.

  13. Mass awareness regarding snake bite induced early morning neuroparalysis can prevent many deaths in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rupinder; Dogra, Varundeep; Sharma, Gurudutt; Chauhan, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In North India snake bite deaths are predominantly seen with neurotoxic envenomations (NEs) whereas in South India the hemotoxic envenomation (HE) is more common. Krait is responsible for most deaths in North India. It bites people sleeping on the floors, mostly at night. We describe the profile of venomous snake bites over 1 year in 2013. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India. Demographics, circumstances of bite, envenom...

  14. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  15. Recent trends in coronary heart disease epidemiology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is epidemic in India and one of the major causes of disease-burden and deaths. Mortality data from the Registrar General of India shows that cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of death in India now. Studies to determine the precise causes of death in urban Chennai and rural areas of Andhra Pradesh have revealed that cardiovascular diseases cause about 40% of the deaths in urban areas and 30% in rural areas. Analysis of cross-sectional CHD epidemiological studies performed over the past 50 years reveals that this condition is increasing in both urban and rural areas. The adult prevalence has increased in urban areas from about 2% in 1960 to 6.5% in 1970, 7.0% in 1980, 9.7% in 1990 and 10.5% in 2000; while in rural areas, it increased from 2% in 1970, to 2.5% in 1980, 4% in 1990, and 4.5% in 2000. In terms of absolute numbers this translates into 30 million CHD patients in the country. The disease occurs at a much younger age in Indians as compared to those in North America and Western Europe. Rural-urban differences reveal that risk factors like obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and diabetes are more in urban areas. Case-control studies also confirm the importance of these risk factors. The INTERHEART-South Asia study identified that eight established coronary risk factors--abnormal lipids, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity, psychosocial factors, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and lack of physical activity--accounted for 89% of the cases of acute myocardial infarction in Indians. There is epidemiological evidence that all these risk factors are increasing. Over the past fifty years prevalence of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes have increased significantly in urban (R2 0.45-0.74) and slowly in rural areas (R2 0.19-0.29). There is an urgent need for development and implementation of suitable primordial, primary, and secondary prevention

  16. Economic diversification and poverty in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijima, Yoko; Lanjouw, Peter

    This paper analyses National Sample Survey data for 1987-88, 1993-94 and 1999-00 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. While there is little consensus regarding the rate of poverty decline during the 1990s, the region-level estimates provided here suggest that

  17. Providing India with Internet access anywhere there is electricity - and Canada with commercial opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Access to high-speed Internet service is booming all over the world but the cost of optic cable installation and other related broadband delivery technology is still too high for many developing countries to afford. A Canada-India R & D group is working on a broadband technology delivered over the power line in order to provide internet access wherever there is electricity. Moreover, the application of such a technology in rural India could also improve the distribution and management of India's national electrical grid, as the risk of electricity theft can be monitored by power assumption tracking. Since the required infrastructure is already in place across the country, this project could be deployed rapidly and in a cost-efficient manner, providing thousands of potential opportunities for rural dwellers as well as for Indian and international companies.

  18. Dominant control of agriculture and irrigation on urban heat island in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Mishra, Vimal; Buzan, Jonathan; Kumar, Rohini; Shindell, Drew; Huber, Matthew

    2017-10-25

    As is true in many regions, India experiences surface Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect that is well understood, but the causes of the more recently discovered Urban Cool Island (UCI) effect remain poorly constrained. This raises questions about our fundamental understanding of the drivers of rural-urban environmental gradients and hinders development of effective strategies for mitigation and adaptation to projected heat stress increases in rapidly urbanizing India. Here we show that more than 60% of Indian urban areas are observed to experience a day-time UCI. We use satellite observations and the Community Land Model (CLM) to identify the impact of irrigation and prove for the first time that UCI is caused by lack of vegetation and moisture in non-urban areas relative to cities. In contrast, urban areas in extensively irrigated landscapes generally experience the expected positive UHI effect. At night, UHI warming intensifies, occurring across a majority (90%) of India's urban areas. The magnitude of rural-urban temperature contrasts is largely controlled by agriculture and moisture availability from irrigation, but further analysis of model results indicate an important role for atmospheric aerosols. Thus both land-use decisions and aerosols are important factors governing, modulating, and even reversing the expected urban-rural temperature gradients.

  19. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    year and 274,000 women die of the disease annually. ... and the overall knowledge was equally poor. ... population and HPV in women with cervical cancer. 6 ..... This finding is similar to the study done among rural women in. 28 india.

  20. Socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors for cervical cancer and knowledge, attitude and practice in rural and urban areas of North Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Sreejata; Mandal, Sukanta

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is common among women worldwide. A multitude of risk factors aggravate the disease. This study was conducted to: (1) determine the prevalence and (2) make a comparative analysis of the socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors of cervical cancer and knowledge, attitude and practice between rural and urban women of North Bengal, India. Community-based cross-sectional study. A survey (first in North Bengal) was conducted among 133 women in a rural area (Kawakhali) and 88 women in an urban slum (Shaktigarh) using predesigned semi-structured questionnaires. The respondents were informed of the causes (including HPV), signs and symptoms, prevention of cervical cancer and treatment, and the procedure of the PAP test and HPV vaccination. The prevalence of risk factors like multiparity, early age of marriage, use of cloth during menstruation, use of condom and OCP, early age of first intercourse was 37.2%, 82%, 83.3%, 5.4%, 15.8% and 65.6% respectively. Awareness about the cause, signs and symptoms, prevention of cervical cancer, PAP test and HPV vaccination was 3.6%, 6.3%, 3.6%, 9.5% and 14.5% respectively. Chi-square testing revealed that in the study population, significant differential at 5% exists between rural and urban residents with respect to number of children, use of cloth/sanitary napkins, family history of cancer and awareness regarding causes of cervical cancer. Regarding KAP, again using chi-square tests, surprisingly, level of education is found to be significant for each element of KAP in urban areas in contrast to complete absence of association between education and elements of KAP in rural areas. A large number of risk factors were present in both areas, the prevalence being higher in the rural areas. The level of awareness and role of education appears to be insignificant determinants in rural compared to urban areas. This pilot study needs to be followed up by large scale programmes to re-orient awareness campaigns, especially in

  1. Environmental pollution of electronic waste recycling in India: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the production of electrical and electronic products has meant an equally rapid growth in the amount of electronic waste (e-waste), much of which is illegally imported to India, for disposal presenting a serious environmental challenge. The environmental impact during e-waste recycling was investigated and metal as well as other pollutants [e.g. polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] were found in excessive levels in soil, water and other habitats. The most e-waste is dealt with as general or crudely often by open burning, acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As resulted of these process; dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released and harmful to the surrounding environment, engaged workers, and also residents inhabiting near the sites. The informal e-waste sectors are growing rapidly in the developing countries over than in the developed countries because of cheapest labor cost and week legislations systems. It has been confirmed that contaminates are moving through the food chain via root plant translocation system, to the human body thereby threatening human health. We have suggested some possible solution toward in which plants and microbes combine to remediate highly contaminated sites. - Highlights: • It systematically reviewed Environmental deterioration through e-waste recycling in India. • We found heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd and Cr) potentially serious concern at recycling site. • The heavy metals can entered human body through the direct and indirect exposure. • Regular monitoring required to examine the possibility of risk through e-waste mismanagement. • Further phytoremedial approach can be use as one of the possible solution for contaminated soil and improve the land quality. - The e-waste recycling sites are highly contaminated with heavy metals as well as other pollutants (e.g. PBDEs, PCBs) in excessive levels.

  2. Approach to malaria in rural hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jency Maria Koshy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most common parasitic infections in the developing countries. In Rural India, most patients would be treated by primary and secondary care physicians. This article is aimed at providing a feasible approach to the cases of malaria in mission hospitals and other rural hospitals taking into account all the resource limitations. A study done over one year on patients detected to have malaria at Jiwan Jyoti Christian Hospital in Sonbhadra district has helped the authors to identify the various challenges faced by doctors working in the rural hospitals. The article has looked at the various complications associated with malaria and their management. It has also stressed upon the increasing incidence of chloroquine resistance.

  3. A community-based health education programme for bio-environmental control of malaria through folk theatre (Kalajatha in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Satyanarayan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health education is an important component in disease control programme. Kalajatha is a popular, traditional art form of folk theatre depicting various life processes of a local socio-cultural setting. It is an effective medium of mass communication in the Indian sub-continent especially in rural areas. Using this medium, an operational feasibility health education programme was carried out for malaria control. Methods In December 2001, the Kalajatha events were performed in the evening hours for two weeks in a malaria-affected district in Karnataka State, south India. Thirty local artists including ten governmental and non-governmental organizations actively participated. Impact of this programme was assessed after two months on exposed vs. non-exposed respondents. Results The exposed respondents had significant increase in knowledge and change in attitude about malaria and its control strategies, especially on bio-environmental measures (p Conclusion This study was carried out under the primary health care system involving the local community and various potential partners. Kalajatha conveyed the important messages on malaria control and prevention to the rural community. Similar methods of communication in the health education programme should be intensified with suitable modifications to reach all sectors, if malaria needs to be controlled.

  4. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Human Papilloma Virus Infection and its Health Effects among Rural Women, Karnataka, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeena, Sasidharanpillai; Bhat, Parvati V; Kamath, Veena; Aswathyraj, Sushama; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers among women all over the world. The association of cervical cancer with human papilloma virus (HPV) is well established. Knowledge about the causal relationship between HPV and cervical cancer is important to make appropriate, evidence-based health care choices. In this context we conducted a community based study among women about the knowledge, attitude and practice about HPV infections and their health effects. A cross sectional interview based house to house survey was conducted with a validated data collection tool covering sociodemographic factors, knowledge, attitude and practice about HPV and its health effects, among 1020 women from a rural village, Perdoor, in Udupi district, Karnataka, India in 2013-14. The mean age of participants was 38.9 years (SD=12.6). Study participants showed a high literacy rate (85.7%). Only 2.4% of sexually exposed women had undergone Pap smear testing. Partners of 4.4%women had undergone circumcision and they belonged to the Muslim community. Male condom usage was reported by 26 women (2.6%). However, none of the participants had heard of HPV and its health effects. This community based study found complete ignorance about HPV among rural South Indian women in spite of a high literacy level.

  5. ​Reducing malnutrition in India's agri-biodiversity hotspots | Page 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , vegetables, and fruit trees, and greater livestock diversity to increase income and improve food and nutrition security in rural India. Researchers will also investigate ways to increase the socio-economic empowerment of poor women, and ...

  6. Geographical targeting of poverty alleviation programs : methodology and applications in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigman, D.; Srinivasan, P.V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for mapping poverty within national borders at the level of relatively small geographical areas and illustrates this methodology for India. Poverty alleviation programs in India are presently targeted only at the level of the state. All states includes, however, many

  7. Domestic and environmental factors of chikungunya-affected families in Thiruvananthapuram (Rural district of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Anish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The world is experiencing a pandemic of chikungunya which has swept across Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent. Kerala the southernmost state of India was affected by the chikungunya epidemic twice, first in 2006 and then in 2007. Kerala has got geography and climate which are highly favorable for the breeding of Aedes albopictus, the suspected vector. Aim: The aim of the study was to highlight the various domestic and environmental factors of the families affected by chikungunya in 2007 in Thiruvananthapuram district (rural of Kerala. Settings and design: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in Thiruvananthapuram (rural district during November 2007. Materials and Methods : Samples were selected from field area under three Primary Health Centers. These areas represent the three terrains of the district namely the highland, midland, and lowland. The sample size was estimated to be 134 houses from each study area. The field area of health workers was selected as clusters and six subcenters from each primary health center were randomly selected (lot method. Results and Conclusions: The proportion of population affected by chikungunya fever is 39.9% (38.9-40.9%. The investigators observed water holding containers in the peri-domestic area of 95.6% of the houses. According to regression (binary logistic analysis, the area of residence [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 8.01 (6.06-14.60], residing in a non-remote area [adjusted OR=0.25 (0.16-0.38], perceived mosquito menace [adjusted OR=3.07 (2.31-4.64], and containers/tires outside the house [adjusted OR=5.61 (2.74-27.58] were the independent predictors of the occurrence of chikungunya in households.

  8. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  9. Assessing patterns and determinants of latrine use in rural settings: A longitudinal study in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Antara; Nagel, Corey L; Schmidt, Wolf P; Torondel, Belen; Boisson, Sophie; Routray, Parimita; Clasen, Thomas F

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring of sanitation programs is often limited to sanitation access and coverage, with little emphasis on use of the facilities despite increasing evidence of widespread non-use. We assessed patterns and determinants of individual latrine use over 12 months in a low- income rural study population that had recently received latrines as part of the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in coastal Puri district in Odisha, India. We surveyed 1938 individuals (>3years) in 310 rural households with latrines from 25 villages over 12 months. Data collection rounds were timed to correspond with the seasons. The primary outcome was reported use by each member of the household over the prior 48h. We classified use into three categories-"never", "sometimes" and "always/usually". We also assessed consistency of use over six days across the three seasons (dry cold, dry hot, rainy). We explored the association between individual and household-level variables and latrine use in any given season and longitudinally using multinomial logistic regression. We also inquired about reasons for non-use. Overall, latrine use was poor and inconsistent. The average response probability at any given round of never use was 43.5% (95% CI=37.9, 49.1), sometimes use was 4.6% (95% CI=3.8, 5.5), and always/usual use was 51.9% (95% CI=46.2, 57.5). Only two-thirds of those who reported always/usually using a latrine in round one reported the same for all three rounds. Across all three rounds, the study population was about equally divided among those who reported never using the latrine (30.1%, 95% CI=23.0, 37.2), sometimes using the latrine (33.2%, 95% CI=28.3, 38.1) and always/usually using the latrine (36.8%, 95% CI=31.8, 41.8). The reported likelihood of always/usually versus never using the latrine was significantly greater in the dry cold season (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.18, 1.89, p=0.001) and in the rainy season (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.07, 1.69, p=0.012), than in the dry hot season

  10. Reducing malnutrition in India's agri-biodiversity hotspots

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Many of India's poor live in rural areas that are heavily dependent on agriculture. Local crops have a rich heritage of genetic diversity, but this diversity is often threatened by government policies that promote rice and wheat cultivation. This results in a disconnect between the high potential of the agricultural ...

  11. Page Gender Differences in Rural Off-farm Employment Pa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    off-farm employment plays in the reduction of poverty in Asia (Sanchez 1991), Africa ( ... the rate at which women participate in off-farm employment increased faster than ...... Rural poverty and non-farm employment in India: evidence from.

  12. Household electricity access, availability and human well-being: Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Mathai, Manu V.; Parayil, Govindan

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2011 Census of India, over 31% of India's 1.2 billion people lived in nearly 8000 towns and cities; the remaining 830 million people lived in over 638,000 villages. About 55% of rural households and 93% of urban households had access to electricity. The 2005 Indian Human Development Survey showed that on average, electricity availability (hours of supply per day) in rural and urban households were 14 and 19 h, respectively (Desai et al., 2007). Using nationally representative data from Indian Human Development Survey, this study estimated the impact of electricity access and availability on two attributes of human well-being, viz. education and health attainment. It found a significant positive relationship between electricity availability and well-being in rural and urban households. Electricity accessibility, revealed a significant positive relationship only for rural households. The paper concludes with implications for electricity policy and infrastructure choices. - Graphical abstract: Impact of electricity security on the attributes of human well-being. - Highlights: • Nexus between well-being, and electricity access and availability is quantified. • Electricity access is positively associated with well-being in rural but not urban. • Electricity availability negatively associates with morbidity and absenteeism. • Electricity security as human well-being enabler seeks nuanced policy attention. • Decentralized rapidly deployable modular technologies and microgrids are advocated

  13. Are 'fruits and vegetables' intake really what they seem in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Sumedha; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V

    2018-04-01

    Fruits and vegetables are integral parts of a healthy diet. This study evaluated the quantity and diversity of the fruit and vegetable intake in India, with a focus on its distribution across sectors and wealth quintiles. A secondary data analysis on the nation-wide NSSO Household Consumer Expenditure Survey 2011-2012 was performed to estimate the amount (g/capita/day) and diversity of household intake of fruits and vegetables in the rural and the urban sectors of India. Using the expenditure data, households in both the sectors were further divided into wealth quintiles and differences in the diversity of intake was evaluated across these quintiles separately for each sector. The per capita household vegetable and fruit intake was found to be 145 and 15 g, respectively, for rural India, and 155 and 29 g for urban India. A significant portion of this intake came from energy-dense food items; potatoes and bananas for vegetable and fruit intake respectively. Further, while wealth marginally improved the diversity in vegetable intake, no such trend was observed in fruit intake. Given the high proportion of energy-dense fruits and vegetables in the Indian total intake, the focus should be on improving the diversity of vegetables, as well as on increasing the intake and diversity of fruits.

  14. Rural and urban energy scenario of the developing countries and related health assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    The pattern of energy use in India is considered in order to assess the impact on health of rural and urban energy sources in the developing countries. The health impact of the 'non-commercial' sources of energy used in India is discussed, with particular reference to the use of firewood and farm wastes for domestic cooking. The commercial energy sources considered include coal, oil and electricity. The generation of electricity from coal, hydro sources and nuclear fuels is discussed with regard to their health impact. The production and use of biogas instead of dried animal dung for domestic cooking in the rural areas of India is proposed in order to reduce the health detriment. On the basis of the past trend in the use of commercial and non-commercial energy in India, projections are made for the future, taking into consideration health detriment and evironmental damage associated with different sources. Finally, bases for changing the energy-use pattern in the developing countries are discussed, with particular emphasis on renewable sources and nuclear energy. (author)

  15. Suicide deaths in rural Andhra Pradesh--a cause for global health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohina; Guggilla, Rama; Praveen, Devarsetty; Maulik, Pallab K

    2015-02-01

    To determine the proportion of deaths attributable to suicides in rural Andhra Pradesh, India over a 4-year period using a verbal autopsy method. Deaths occurring in 45 villages (population 185,629) were documented over a 4-year period from 2003 to 2007 by non-physician healthcare workers trained in the use of a verbal autopsy tool. Causes of death were assigned by physicians trained in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10. All data were entered and processed electronically using a secure study website. Verbal autopsies were completed for 98.2% (5786) of the deaths (5895) recorded. The crude death rate was 8.0/1000. 4.8% (95% CI 4.3-5.4) of all deaths were suicides, giving a suicide rate of 37.5/100,000 population. Forty-three percent of suicides occurred in the age group 15-29 years, and 62% were in men. In the younger age groups (10-29 years), suicides by women (56%) were more common than by men (44%). Poisoning (40%) was the most common method of self-harm followed by hanging (12%). The suicide rate in this part of rural Andhra Pradesh is three times higher than the national average of 11.2/100,000, but is in line with that reported in the Million Death Study. There is an urgent need to develop strategies targeted at young individuals to prevent deaths by suicide in India. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Qualitative Analysis of Subsurface Water Quality in Challakere Taluk, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Manjunatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rural India relies mainly on groundwater for drinking and agriculture. Unsustainable withdrawal of groundwater has led to the spectra of depleting the problem of water scarcity. The available groundwater quality is not only contaminated by hazardous pathogenic germs and anthropogenic substances but also geogenic substances is adversely affect the water supply of many regions. The groundwater of Challakere taluk had many threats such as anthropogenic activities, quality deterioration by agricultural activities and over exploitation and also persistence of continuous drought condition. This paper mainly addresses the physico-chemical concentration of 30 groundwater samples during August 2009 in Challakere taluk, Karnataka (India. The results of all the findings are discussed in details which reflect the present status of the groundwater quality of the study area. Groundwater is extremely important to the future economy and growth of rural India. If the resource is to remain available as high quality water for future generation it is important to protect from possible contamination. Hence it is recommended that suitable water quality management is essential to avoid any further contamination.

  17. Unhealthy Fat in Street and Snack Foods in Low-Socioeconomic Settings in India: A Case Study of the Food Environments of Rural Villages and an Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vidhu; Downs, Shauna M; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Lock, Karen; Singh, Archna

    2016-04-01

    To describe the food environment in rural villages and an urban slum setting in India with reference to commercially available unbranded packaged snacks and street foods sold by vendors, and to analyze the type and quantity of fat in these foods. Cross-sectional. Two low-income villages in Haryana and an urban slum in Delhi. Street vendors (n = 44) were surveyed and the nutritional content of snacks (n = 49) sold by vendors was analyzed. Vendors' awareness and perception of fats and oils, as well as the type of snacks sold, along with the content and quality of fat present in the snacks. Descriptive statistics of vendor survey and gas chromatography to measure fatty acid content in snacks. A variety of snacks were sold, including those in unlabeled transparent packages and open glass jars. Mean fat content in snacks was 28.8 g per 100-g serving in rural settings and 29.6 g per 100-g serving in urban settings. Sampled oils contained high levels of saturated fats (25% to 69% total fatty acids) and trans fats (0.1% to 30% of total fatty acids). Interventions need to target the manufacturers of oils and fats used in freshly prepared products to improve the quality of foods available in the food environment of low-socioeconomic groups in India. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between farming and chronic energy deficiency in rural South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asvini K Subasinghe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with chronic energy deficiency (CED and anaemia in disadvantaged Indian adults who are mostly involved in subsistence farming. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study in which we collected information on socio-demographic factors, physical activity, anthropometry, blood haemoglobin concentration, and daily household food intake. These data were used to calculate body mass index (BMI, basal metabolic rate (BMR, daily energy expenditure, and energy and nutrient intake. Multivariable backward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with CED (defined as BMI<18 kg/m² and anaemia. SETTING: The study was conducted in 12 villages, in the Rishi Valley, Andhra Pradesh, India. SUBJECTS: Individuals aged 18 years and above, residing in the 12 villages, were eligible to participate. RESULTS: Data were available for 1178 individuals (45% male, median age 36 years (inter quartile range (IQR 27-50. The prevalence of CED (38% and anaemia (25% was high. Farming was associated with CED in women (2.20, 95% CI: 1.39-3.49 and men (1.71, 95% CI: (1.06-2.74. Low income was also significantly associated with CED, while not completing high school was positively associated with anaemia. Median iron intake was high: 35.7 mg/day (IQR 26-46 in women and 43.4 mg/day (IQR 34-55 in men. CONCLUSIONS: Farming is an important risk factor associated with CED in this rural Indian population and low dietary iron is not the main cause of anaemia. Better farming practice may help to reduce CED in this population.

  19. Reducing Poverty and Inequality in India: Has Liberalization Helped?

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Raghbendra

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the empirical relationship among inequality, poverty and economic growth in India. Using data on consumption from the 13th to the 55th Rounds of the National Sample Survey, the author computes, for both rural and urban sectors, the Gini coefficient and three popular measures of poverty. The observed changes in inequality and poverty are explained in terms of the behaviour of key macroeconomic aggregates. A sharp rise in rural and, particularly, urban inequality and only a ...

  20. 6. Characterization and Local Perceptions of Poverty Among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Background: Poverty has been linked with poor ... seeking behaviours especially for the rural poor ... of women and children to poverty and its effects. ..... India. 14. Francis Teal (2001) Education, incomes, poverty and inequality in Ghana in the ...

  1. Lines in the sand: Digital India, ethical data practices and privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Tânia

    2017-01-01

    The total number of internet users in India is said to surpass half a billion by 2018. Additionally, reports by The World Bank suggest that mobile penetration rates in many low and middle-income countries have crossed that 100% mark. In many such countries, including India, mobile phone subscriptions have outpaced developments in infrastructure, with many rural and inaccessible societies having more mobile subscriptions than instances of access to electricity. However, perhaps the most sig...

  2. Electronic health record use in an affluent region in India: Findings from a survey of Chandigarh hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Adam C; Ludhar, Jasmine K; Ostrovsky, Yuri

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the electronic health record (EHR) systems in use in an affluent region of India in order to understand the state-of-the-art within the Indian market. A survey on EHR features was created by combining an instrument developed by the Organisation for International Cooperation and Development and an instrument developed by an American team of researchers. An interviewer directly administered the survey to leaders from hospitals in greater Chandigarh which possessed electronic health information systems. Summary statistics from the survey are reported. 24 hospitals offering multi-specialty inpatient care were identified in greater Chandigarh. 18 of these hospitals had electronic health information systems, 17 of which were interviewed. Of the hospitals with systems, 17 (100%) could access patient demographic information internally, but 12 (71%) could not access vital sign, allergy, or immunization data internally. 11 (65%) of the systems were capable of sharing patient summaries internally, but 13 (76%) could not send electronic referrals internally. Among organizations which have adopted systems, major barriers tend to have been around financial and staff matters. Concerns over interoperability, privacy, and security were infrequently cited as barriers to adoption. EHRs are ubiquitous in at least one region of India. Systems are more likely to have capabilities for intra-organizational information sharing than for inter-organizational information sharing. The availability of EHR data may foster clinical research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. "Electric Power for Rural Growth: How Electricity Affects Rural Life in Developing Countries," by Douglas F. Barnes. [Book Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodwick, Dora G.; McIntosh, William A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a book assessing the effects of central grid rural electrification on the social and economic development of 192 communities in India and Colombia. The study examines the impact on agricultural productivity (through increased irrigation), the quality of life of women and children, business activities, and regional inequities. (SV)

  4. Promoting wellbeing and improving access to mental health care through community champions in rural India: the Atmiyata intervention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields-Zeeman, Laura; Pathare, Soumitra; Walters, Bethany Hipple; Kapadia-Kundu, Nandita; Joag, Kaustubh

    2017-01-01

    There are limited accounts of community-based interventions for reducing distress or providing support for people with common mental disorders (CMDs) in low and middle-income countries. The recently implemented Atmiyata programme is one such community-based mental health intervention focused on promoting wellness and reducing distress through community volunteers in a rural area in the state of Maharashtra, India. This case study describes the content and the process of implementation of Atmiyata and how community volunteers were trained to become Atmiyata champions and mitras ( friends ). The Atmiyata programme trained Atmiyata champions to provide support and basic counselling to community members with common mental health disorders, facilitate access to mental health care and social benefits, improve community awareness of mental health issues, and to promote well-being. Challenges to implementation included logistical challenges (difficult terrain and weather conditions at the implementation site), content-related challenges (securing social welfare benefits for people with CMDs), and partnership challenges (turnover of public health workers involved in referral chain, resistance from public sector mental health specialists). The case study serves as an example for how such a model can be sustained over time at low cost. The next steps of the programme include evaluation of the impact of the Atmiyata intervention through a pre-post study and adapting the intervention for further scale-up in other settings in India.

  5. Reducing out-of-pocket expenditures to reduce poverty: a disaggregated analysis at rural-urban and state level in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Charu C; Karan, Anup K

    2009-03-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure on health care has significant implications for poverty in many developing countries. This paper aims to assess the differential impact of OOP expenditure and its components, such as expenditure on inpatient care, outpatient care and on drugs, across different income quintiles, between developed and less developed regions in India. It also attempts to measure poverty at disaggregated rural-urban and state levels. Based on Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) data from the National Sample Survey (NSS), conducted in 1999-2000, the share of households' expenditure on health services and drugs was calculated. The number of individuals below the state-specific rural and urban poverty line in 17 major states, with and without netting out OOP expenditure, was determined. This also enabled the calculation of the poverty gap or poverty deepening in each region. Estimates show that OOP expenditure is about 5% of total household expenditure (ranging from about 2% in Assam to almost 7% in Kerala) with a higher proportion being recorded in rural areas and affluent states. Purchase of drugs constitutes 70% of the total OOP expenditure. Approximately 32.5 million persons fell below the poverty line in 1999-2000 through OOP payments, implying that the overall poverty increase after accounting for OOP expenditure is 3.2% (as against a rise of 2.2% shown in earlier literature). Also, the poverty headcount increase and poverty deepening is much higher in poorer states and rural areas compared with affluent states and urban areas, except in the case of Maharashtra. High OOP payment share in total health expenditures did not always imply a high poverty headcount; state-specific economic and social factors played a role. The paper argues for better methods of capturing drugs expenditure in household surveys and recommends that special attention be paid to expenditures on drugs, in particular for the poor. Targeted policies in just five poor states to reduce

  6. India : Note on Public Financial Management and Accountability in Centrally Sponsored Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    The budget outlay for Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) for India in 2005-06 is significantly higher as compared to the previous year's level of Rs.395,000 million. This includes increased allocations for rural roads, rural employment, and education and nutritional support for pre-school children. At present there are over 200 such schemes in operation, of which a dozen accounts for more t...

  7. Constraining the uncertainty in emissions over India with a regional air quality model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karambelas, Alexandra; Holloway, Tracey; Kiesewetter, Gregor; Heyes, Chris

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate uncertainty in the spatial distribution of air emissions over India, we compare satellite and surface observations with simulations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Seasonally representative simulations were completed for January, April, July, and October 2010 at 36 km × 36 km using anthropogenic emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model following version 5a of the Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants project (ECLIPSE v5a). We use both tropospheric columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and surface observations from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to closely examine modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) biases in urban and rural regions across India. Spatial average evaluation with satellite retrievals indicate a low bias in the modeled tropospheric column (-63.3%), which reflects broad low-biases in majority non-urban regions (-70.1% in rural areas) across the sub-continent to slightly lesser low biases reflected in semi-urban areas (-44.7%), with the threshold between semi-urban and rural defined as 400 people per km2. In contrast, modeled surface NO2 concentrations exhibit a slight high bias of +15.6% when compared to surface CPCB observations predominantly located in urban areas. Conversely, in examining extremely population dense urban regions with more than 5000 people per km2 (dense-urban), we find model overestimates in both the column (+57.8) and at the surface (+131.2%) compared to observations. Based on these results, we find that existing emission fields for India may overestimate urban emissions in densely populated regions and underestimate rural emissions. However, if we rely on model evaluation with predominantly urban surface observations from the CPCB, comparisons reflect model high biases, contradictory to the knowledge gained using satellite observations. Satellites thus

  8. Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnendijk, Erika; Koren, Ruth; Dror, David M

    2012-01-27

    This study examines health-related "hardship financing" in order to get better insights on how poor households finance their out-of-pocket healthcare costs. We define hardship financing as having to borrow money with interest or to sell assets to pay out-of-pocket healthcare costs. Using survey data of 5,383 low-income households in Orissa, one of the poorest states of India, we investigate factors influencing the risk of hardship financing with the use of a logistic regression. Overall, about 25% of the households (that had any healthcare cost) reported hardship financing during the year preceding the survey. Among households that experienced a hospitalization, this percentage was nearly 40%, but even among households with outpatient or maternity-related care around 25% experienced hardship financing.Hardship financing is explained not merely by the wealth of the household (measured by assets) or how much is spent out-of-pocket on healthcare costs, but also by when the payment occurs, its frequency and its duration (e.g. more severe in cases of chronic illnesses). The location where a household resides remains a major predictor of the likelihood to have hardship financing despite all other household features included in the model. Rural poor households are subjected to considerable and protracted financial hardship due to the indirect and longer-term deleterious effects of how they cope with out-of-pocket healthcare costs. The social network that households can access influences exposure to hardship financing. Our findings point to the need to develop a policy solution that would limit that exposure both in quantum and in time. We therefore conclude that policy interventions aiming to ensure health-related financial protection would have to demonstrate that they have reduced the frequency and the volume of hardship financing.

  9. Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binnendijk Erika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines health-related "hardship financing" in order to get better insights on how poor households finance their out-of-pocket healthcare costs. We define hardship financing as having to borrow money with interest or to sell assets to pay out-of-pocket healthcare costs. Methods Using survey data of 5,383 low-income households in Orissa, one of the poorest states of India, we investigate factors influencing the risk of hardship financing with the use of a logistic regression. Results Overall, about 25% of the households (that had any healthcare cost reported hardship financing during the year preceding the survey. Among households that experienced a hospitalization, this percentage was nearly 40%, but even among households with outpatient or maternity-related care around 25% experienced hardship financing. Hardship financing is explained not merely by the wealth of the household (measured by assets or how much is spent out-of-pocket on healthcare costs, but also by when the payment occurs, its frequency and its duration (e.g. more severe in cases of chronic illnesses. The location where a household resides remains a major predictor of the likelihood to have hardship financing despite all other household features included in the model. Conclusions Rural poor households are subjected to considerable and protracted financial hardship due to the indirect and longer-term deleterious effects of how they cope with out-of-pocket healthcare costs. The social network that households can access influences exposure to hardship financing. Our findings point to the need to develop a policy solution that would limit that exposure both in quantum and in time. We therefore conclude that policy interventions aiming to ensure health-related financial protection would have to demonstrate that they have reduced the frequency and the volume of hardship financing.

  10. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan

    2010-01-01

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India.

  11. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India. (author)

  12. Undernutrition among adults in India: the significance of individual-level and contextual factors impacting on the likelihood of underweight across sub-populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Md Zakaria; Donato, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the extent to which individual-level as well as macro-level contextual factors influence the likelihood of underweight across adult sub-populations in India. Population-based cross-sectional survey included in India's National Health Family Survey conducted in 2005-06. We disaggregated into eight sub-populations. Multistage nationally representative household survey covering 99 % of India's population. The survey covered 124 385 females aged 15-49 years and 74 369 males aged 15-54 years. A social gradient in underweight exists in India. Even after allowing for wealth status, differences in the predicted probability of underweight persisted based upon rurality, age/maturity and gender. We found individual-level education lowered the likelihood of underweight for males, but no statistical association for females. Paradoxically, rural young (15-24 years) females from more educated villages had a higher likelihood of underweight relative to those in less educated villages; but for rural mature (>24 years) females the opposite was the case. Christians had a significantly lower likelihood of underweight relative to other socio-religious groups (OR=0·53-0·80). Higher state-level inequality increased the likelihood of underweight across most population groups, while neighbourhood inequality exhibited a similar relationship for the rural young population subgroups only. Individual states/neighbourhoods accounted for 5-9 % of the variation in the prediction of underweight. We found that rural young females represent a particularly highly vulnerable sub-population. Economic growth alone is unlikely to reduce the burden of malnutrition in India; accordingly, policy makers need to address the broader social determinants that contribute to higher underweight prevalence in specific demographic subgroups.

  13. Evaluation of an anti-stigma campaign related to common mental disorders in rural India: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Devarapalli, S; Kallakuri, S; Tewari, A; Chilappagari, S; Koschorke, M; Thornicroft, G

    2017-02-01

    Stigma related to mental health is a major barrier to help-seeking resulting in a large treatment gap in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This study assessed changes in knowledge, attitude and behaviour, and stigma related to help-seeking among participants exposed to an anti-stigma campaign. The campaign, using multi-media interventions, was part of the SMART Mental Health Project, conducted for 3 months, across 42 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, in South India. Mixed-methods evaluation was conducted in two villages using a pre-post design. A total of 1576 and 2100 participants were interviewed, at pre- and post-intervention phases of the campaign. Knowledge was not increased. Attitudes and behaviours improved significantly (p Stigma related to help-seeking reduced significantly (p stigma related to help-seeking. Social contact was the most effective intervention. The study had implications for future research in LMIC.

  14. Unmet Needs of Family Planning Among Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Rural Area of Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnu Prasad, R; Venkatachalam, J; Singh, Zile

    2016-10-01

    Global contraceptive usage was 63.3 % in 2010 which was 9 % more than that in 1990. NFHS-III 2005-2006 revealed that the contraceptive prevalence rate was 56 % while in the past decade it was 48 %. In India, female sterilization is the most commonly preferred method of contraception accounting for 76 %, while in Tamil Nadu it was 90 %. Thus, this study aims at measuring the prevalence of unmet needs of family planning and its determinants in a rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was carried out as a community-based cross-sectional study in Chunambed panchayat, a rural area in Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India, among 505 women of age group 15-49 years. Cluster random sampling was done to select the households to include in the study. In every household, all the available and eligible women were explained about the study and recruited after obtaining informed consent. Chi-square test was applied for finding the difference in proportion, and p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of unmet need for family planning in our study population was nearly 31 %; it was even more for younger age groups and for the women whose family size was less. 51.7 % of the participants were currently using a contraceptive measure and very few of their partners used contraception. Government health facilities were the major source of contraceptive service and majority of our participants were well aware about the various contraceptive methods. Unmet needs of family planning were high in our study population, and the knowledge about the contraceptive use and family planning was found to be fairly adequate.

  15. A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha-Khetriwal, Deepali; Kraeuchi, Philipp; Schwaninger, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Electronic waste, commonly known as e-waste, is comprised of discarded computers, television sets, microwave ovens and other such appliances that are past their useful lives. As managing e-waste becomes a priority, countries are being forced to develop new models for the collection and environmentally sound disposal of this waste. Switzerland is one of the very few countries with over a decade of experience in managing e-waste. India, on the other hand, is only now experiencing the problems that e-waste poses. The paper aims to give the reader insight into the disposal of end-of-life appliances in both countries, including appliance collection and the financing of recycling systems as well as the social and environmental aspects of the current practices

  16. Innovation Systems for Inclusive Development : Lessons from Rural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Both China and India are currently attempting to balance rapid economic growth, technological growth and globalization with social equity and sustainable economic growth. This project will analyze inclusive innovations in two subsectors that are prominent in the rural context: agriculture and micro, small and medium ...

  17. Urban growth and poverty in India, 1983–2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku

    2010-01-01

    Although poverty in India remains disproportionately rural at the aggregate level, urban poverty is growing in importance. Efforts to address urban poverty should note its spatial distribution. This paper shows that the incidence of poverty in India’s small towns is markedly higher than in large

  18. Field Testing of Alternative Cookstove Performance in a Rural Setting of Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Muralidharan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly three billion people use solid fuels for cooking and heating, which leads to extremely high levels of household air pollution and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Many stove manufacturers have developed alternative cookstoves (ACSs that are aimed at reducing emissions and fuel consumption. Here, we tested a traditional clay chulha cookstove (TCS and five commercially available ACSs, including both natural draft (Greenway Smart Stove, Envirofit PCS-1 and forced draft stoves (BioLite HomeStove, Philips Woodstove HD4012, and Eco-Chulha XXL, in a test kitchen in a rural village of western India. Compared to the TCS, the ACSs produced significant reductions in particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 and CO concentrations (Envirofit: 22%/16%, Greenway: 24%/42%, BioLite: 40%/35%, Philips: 66%/55% and Eco-Chulha: 61%/42%, which persisted after normalization for fuel consumption or useful energy. PM2.5 and CO concentrations were lower for forced draft stoves than natural draft stoves. Furthermore, the Philips and Eco-Chulha units exhibited higher cooking efficiency than the TCS. Despite significant reductions in concentrations, all ACSs failed to achieve PM2.5 levels that are considered safe by the World Health Organization (ACSs: 277–714 μg/m3 or 11–28 fold higher than the WHO recommendation of 25 μg/m3.

  19. The North-South divide in snake bite envenomation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the ′big four′ that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel′s viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e.g. Saw scaled vipers in Rajasthan. We reviewed the published literature from various parts of India and found that there is a North-South divide in the snake bite profile from India. Neurotoxic envenomations are significantly higher in North India compared to South India where Hematotoxic envenomations are prevalent. Russel′s viper causes local necrosis, gangrene and compartment syndrome. These manifestations have never been reported in North Indian snake bite profile in the published literature. Early morning neuroparalysis caused by Krait is a common problem in North India leading to high mortality after snake bite. This review presents supporting evidence for the North-South divide and proposes a way forward in formulation and revision of guidelines for snake bite in India.

  20. Medical Device-Associated Candida Infections in a Rural Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin C. Deorukhkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care associated infections (HCAIs add incrementally to the morbidity, mortality, and cost expected of the patient’s underlying diseases alone. Approximately, about half all cases of HCAIs are associated with medical devices. As Candida medical device-associated infection is highly drug resistant and can lead to serious life-threatening complications, there is a need of continuous surveillance of these infections to initiate preventive and corrective measures. The present study was conducted at a rural tertiary care hospital of India with an aim to evaluate the rate of medical device-associated Candida infections. Three commonly encountered medical device-associated infections (MDAI, catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI, intravascular catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSI, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, were targeted. The overall rate of MDAI in our hospital was 2.1 per 1000 device days. The rate of Candida related CA-UTI and CR-BSI was noted as 1.0 and 0.3, respectively. Untiring efforts taken by team members of Hospital Acquired Infection Control Committee along with maintenance of meticulous hygiene of the hospital and wards may explain the low MDAI rates in our institute. The present surveillance helped us for systematic generation of institutional data regarding MDAI with special reference to role of Candida spp.

  1. Comparison of large central and small decentralized power generation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This reports evaluates two options for providing reliable power to rural areas in India. The benefits and costs are compared for biomass based distributed generation (DG) systems versus a 1200-MW central grid coal-fired power plant. The biomass based DG systems are examined both as alternatives to grid extension and as supplements to central grid power. The benefits are divided into three categories: those associated with providing reliable power from any source, those associated specifically with biomass based DG technology, and benefits of a central grid coal plant. The report compares the estimated delivered costs of electricity from the DG systems to those of the central plant. The analysis includes estimates for a central grid coal plant and four potential DG system technologies: Stirling engines, direct-fired combustion turbines, fuel cells, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles. The report also discusses issues affecting India's rural electricity demand, including economic development, power reliability, and environmental concerns. The results of the costs of electricity comparison between the biomass DG systems and the coal-fired central grid station demonstrated that the DG technologies may be able to produce very competitively priced electricity by the start of the next century. The use of DG technology may provide a practical means of addressing many rural electricity issues that India will face in the future. Biomass DG technologies in particular offer unique advantages for the environment and for economic development that will make them especially attractive. 58 refs., 31 figs

  2. Is disability in leprosy still a burden? A cross-sectional study in a rural block in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Dinesh Kumar; Muthunarayanan, Logaraj

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy, a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is an important cause of preventable disability. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among leprosy-affected persons in a rural block in Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India in the year 2013. The sample included treatment completed leprosy affected persons ≥18 y of age. Persons with difficulty in cognition and those who were not willing to participate in the study were excluded. Subjects were also graded for any deformities of the body using World Health Organization (WHO) disability grading. The present study, carried out among 171 people affected with leprosy in a rural block, showed the lifetime prevalence of disability was 88.3% (95% confidence interval 83.4 to 93.1). The mean age of the study participants was 61.58±12.31 y with almost equal distribution of males (49.7%) and females (50.3%). WHO disability grading showed that 147 (86%) of the subjects were grade 2 (visible deformity) while only 4 (2.3%) were grade 1. It was found that education, occupation, income and duration since diagnosis had statistical significance with disability. Disability was observed more in males and the most common type of deformity was hand and foot deformity. Further studies are needed to assess those patients who completed treatment and recommends periodic neurological assessment of those in treatment.

  3. Understanding Healthcare Workers Self-Reported Practices, Knowledge and Attitude about Hand Hygiene in a Medical Setting in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Gustafsson, Charlotte; Rosales Klintz, Senia; Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Rita; Sharma, Megha; Shah, Harshada; Pathak, Ashish; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    To describe self-reported practices and assess knowledge and attitudes regarding hand hygiene among healthcare workers in a rural Indian teaching hospital. A rural teaching hospital and its associated medical and nursing colleges in the district of Ujjain, India. The study population consisted of physicians, nurses, teaching staff, clinical instructors and nursing students. Self-administered questionnaires based on the World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare were used. Out of 489 healthcare workers, 259 participated in the study (response rate = 53%). The proportion of healthcare workers that reported to 'always' practice hand hygiene in the selected situations varied from 40-96% amongst categories. Reported barriers to maintaining good hand hygiene were mainly related to high workload, scarcity of resources, lack of scientific information and the perception that priority is not given to hand hygiene, either on an individual or institutional level. Previous training on the topic had a statistically significant association with self-reported practice (p = 0.001). Ninety three per cent of the respondents were willing to attend training on hand hygiene in the near future. Self-reported knowledge and adherence varied between situations, but hand hygiene practices have the potential to improve if the identified constraints could be reduced. Future training should focus on enhancing healthcare workers' knowledge and understanding regarding the importance of persistent practice in all situations.

  4. Exploring the relationship between subjective wellbeing and groundwater attitudes and practices of farmers in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J.; Varua, M. E.; Maheshwari, B.; Oza, S.; Purohit, R.; Hakimuddin; Dave, S.

    2016-09-01

    Failure to effectively coordinate opportunistic extractions by individual well owners with groundwater recharge has led to increasing Indian groundwater scarcity, affecting future opportunities for improved rural livelihoods and household wellbeing. Investigation of the relationship between groundwater institutions, management attitudes and subjective wellbeing of Indian rural households has substantial potential to reveal initiatives that jointly improve aquifer sustainability and household wellbeing, yet has received limited attention. Subjective wellbeing was calculated as an index of dissatisfaction (IDS), revealing ranked importance and the level of dissatisfaction of individual factors selected from economic, environmental and social/relational wellbeing dimensions. High economic and environmental IDS scores were calculated for respondents in the Meghraj and Dharta watersheds, India, respectively. We tested an exploratory hypothesis that observed IDS differences were correlated with differences in life circumstances, (household attributes, income and assets) and psychological disposition (life guiding values and willingness to adapt). The distribution of ranked IDS wellbeing scores was estimated across four statistically distinct clusters reflecting attitudes towards sustainable groundwater management and practice. Decision tree analysis identified significantly different correlates of overall wellbeing specific to cluster membership and the watershed, supporting the research hypothesis. High income IDS scores were weakly correlated with actual total household income (r < 0.25) consistent with international studies. The results suggest a singular reliance on initiatives to improve household income is unlikely to manifest as improved individual subjective wellbeing for the Dharta and Meghraj watersheds. In conclusion, correlates were tabulated into a systematic decision framework to assist the design of participatory processes at the village level, by

  5. Model projections for household energy use in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijven, Bas J. van; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Vries, Bert J.M. de; Isaac, Morna; van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.; Lucas, Paul L.; Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    Energy use in developing countries is heterogeneous across households. Present day global energy models are mostly too aggregate to account for this heterogeneity. Here, a bottom-up model for residential energy use that starts from key dynamic concepts on energy use in developing countries is presented and applied to India. Energy use and fuel choice is determined for five end-use functions (cooking, water heating, space heating, lighting and appliances) and for five different income quintiles in rural and urban areas. The paper specifically explores the consequences of different assumptions for income distribution and rural electrification on residential sector energy use and CO 2 emissions, finding that results are clearly sensitive to variations in these parameters. As a result of population and economic growth, total Indian residential energy use is expected to increase by around 65–75% in 2050 compared to 2005, but residential carbon emissions may increase by up to 9–10 times the 2005 level. While a more equal income distribution and rural electrification enhance the transition to commercial fuels and reduce poverty, there is a trade-off in terms of higher CO 2 emissions via increased electricity use. - Highlights: ► A bottom-up model for residential energy use was developed and applied to India. ► The model distinguishes five end-use functions and rural/urban income quintiles. ► We explore consequences of income distribution and electrification on energy use. ► Equal income and electrification enhance the transition to commercial fuels. ► Higher CO 2 emissions from increased electricity use are a trade-off.

  6. Impact of community-based mitanin programme on undernutrition in rural Chhattisgarh State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C; Kalita, Anuska; Mondal, Shinjini; Malik, Richa

    2014-03-01

    accelerated decrease in the annual rate of reduction of underweight and stunting was observed. The emerging findings point to the significant contributions that can be made by the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in India by involvement of community health volunteers known as Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) towards reducing the persistent problem of undernutrition in the country.

  7. A multifaceted strategy using mobile technology to assist rural primary healthcare doctors and frontline health workers in cardiovascular disease risk management: protocol for the SMARTHealth India cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Devarsetty; Patel, Anushka; McMahon, Stephen; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Clifford, Gari D; Maulik, Pallab K; Joshi, Rohina; Jan, Stephen; Heritier, Stephane; Peiris, David

    2013-11-25

    Blood Pressure related disease affected 118 million people in India in the year 2000; this figure will double by 2025. Around one in four adults in rural India have hypertension, and of those, only a minority are accessing appropriate care. Health systems in India face substantial challenges to meet these gaps in care, and innovative solutions are needed. We hypothesise that a multifaceted intervention involving capacity strengthening of primary healthcare doctors and non-physician healthcare workers through use of a mobile device-based clinical decision support system will result in improved blood pressure control for individuals at high risk of a cardiovascular disease event when compared with usual healthcare. This intervention will be implemented as a stepped wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial in 18 primary health centres and 54 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh involving adults aged ≥40 years at high cardiovascular disease event risk (approximately 15,000 people). Cardiovascular disease event risk will be calculated based on World Health Organisation/International Society of Hypertension's region-specific risk charts. Cluster randomisation will occur at the level of the primary health centres. Outcome analyses will be conducted blinded to intervention allocation. The primary study outcome is the difference in the proportion of people meeting guideline-recommended blood pressure targets in the intervention period vs. the control period. Secondary outcomes include mean reduction in blood pressure levels; change in other cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, current smoking, reported healthy eating habits, and reported physical activity levels; self-reported use of blood pressure and other cardiovascular medicines; quality of life (using the EQ-5D); and cardiovascular disease events (using hospitalisation data). Trial outcomes will be accompanied by detailed process and economic evaluations. The findings are likely to inform

  8. SPUTUM CYTOLOGY CULTURE HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES AND AIR QUALITY IN CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO SMOKE FROM BIOMASS FUEL IN RURAL AREA OF SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Sultana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Air pollution is generally perceived as an urban problem associated with automobiles and industries. However, half of the world’s population in rural areas of the developing countries is exposed to some of the highest levels of air pollution due to burning of traditional biomass fuels. In view of this, the health impact of biomass fuel use in rural India has been evaluated in this study. OBJECTIVES To analyse the mass concentration in biomass fuel user and LPG user household and to investigate the effects of biomass smoke exposure in a group of rural women who cook regularly with biomass fuels and compare the results obtained from control group women who cook relatively cleaner fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. METHODS Respiratory health was evaluated from Questionnaire survey, Clinical examination, haematology, sputum cytology culture and serum C-reactive protein (CRP levels are investigated in biomass and control users. RESULTS A total of 150 women were approached, of which only 70 non-smoking women without any history of any major chronic illness in the past were selected for this study. CRP levels differ significantly in biomass exposure than control users. CONCLUSION From our study it is clear that with increasing duration of exposure to biomass fuel combustion. Women who used to cook with traditional biomass fuels had low haemoglobin & Red Blood Cells values, increased neutrophil and allergic manifestations. Sputum cytology of majority biomass users revealed bacterial infections & chronic inflammation.

  9. Drug use behaviour of pregnant women in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, A.; Biswas, S.; Chattopadhyay, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the drug use habit of pregnant women in villages of central India. Methods: An observational, cross sectional study was conducted among six hundred fifty pregnant women from different randomly selected villages of Wardha district of central India through interviews on medicine use behaviour and evaluation of prescriptions. Results: Pregnant women of younger age group from lower socio economic status constituted the majority of the study population. Major portion (97.7) of this socio economically backward population followed the doctor's advice as far as dose, frequency and duration of the drug was concerned. The antenatal mothers were of the opinion that, if the instructions on the drug envelop or foil was in written in the local language, it could be more helpful for them. Conclusion: Majority of the study population used drugs or medicines regularly but some mothers were reluctant. This indicated that even in this age of advancement of scientific knowledge, all antenatal mothers were not conversant with the advantages of drug use. (author)

  10. Maternal nutritional status & practices & perinatal, neonatal mortality in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamji, Mahtab S; V S Murthy, P V; Williams, Livia; Vardhana Rao, M Vishnu

    2008-01-01

    Despite a vast network of primary health centres and sub-centres, health care outreach in rural parts of India is poor. The Dangoria Charitable Trust (DCT), Hyderabad, has developed a model of health care outreach through trained Village Health and Nutrition Entrepreneur and Mobilisers (HNEMs) in five villages of Medak district in Andhra Pradesh, not serviced by the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) of the Government of India. Impact of such a link worker on perinatal/ neonatal mortality has been positive. The present study attempts to examine the association of maternal nutrition and related factors with perinatal, and neonatal mortality in these villages. Women from five selected villages who had delivered between June 1998 and September 2003, were identified. Those who had lost a child before one month (28 days), including stillbirths, (group 1- mortality group), who could be contacted and were willing to participate, were compared with those who had not lost a child (group II- no mortality), through a structured questionnaire and physical examination for anthropometric status and signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Categorical data were analysed using Pearson chi square analysis. Continuous data were analysed using Student's t test. Mortality during perinatal, neonatal period was 8.2 per cent of all births. Malnutrition was rampant. Over 90 per cent women had 3 or more antenatal check-ups, had taken tetanus injections and had complied with regular consumption of iron-folic acid tablets. Higher percentage of women in group I (mortality group) tended to have height less than 145 cm (high risk) and signs and symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies. However, differences between groups I and II were not statistically significant. Pre-term delivery, difficult labour (use of forceps), first parity, birth asphyxia (no cry at birth) and day of initiating breastfeeding showed significant association with mortality. Significant association between signs

  11. Children's Moral Reasoning about Illness in Chhattisgarh, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froerer, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    This article is about children's moral reasoning about illness and supernatural retribution in a rural tribal community in Chhattisgarh, central India. Detailed ethnographic analysis is devoted to the norms and experiences within which conceptions about illness causality and morality are formed. The author is principally interested in the…

  12. Comparison of nutritional status of rural and urban school students receiving midday meals in schools of Bengaluru, India: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, C N; Murthy, N S; Shalini, S; Dinesh, R; Shivaraj, N S; Suryanarayana, S P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the mid day meal program by assessing the nutritional status of school students aged 5-15 years receiving midday meals in rural schools and compare them with those in urban schools in Bengaluru, India. This cross sectional study involved a sample of 4378 students from government and aided schools. Weight and height were measured and compared with ''means'' and ''percentiles'' of expected standards as endorsed by the Indian Association of Pediatrics. Regression coefficients were also estimated to assess the rate of growth. In all age groups and in both sexes, the observed mean weight and height were below the expected standards. The study findings showed that 13.8% and 13.1% of the studied students were underweight and stunted, respectively (below the third percentile for weight and height for age). A higher proportion of rural students were below the third percentile for both weight and height compared with urban students (weight: 16.3% and 11.5%; height: 17.0% and 10.0%; P nutrition in children and indirectly impact school performance, attendance and literacy.

  13. Use of Mobile Phones by the Rural Poor: Gender perspectives from ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Use of Mobile Phones by the Rural Poor: Gender perspectives from ... and South East Asia (Bangladesh, India, Indonesia [Java only], Pakistan, ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  14. Will electronic personal health records benefit providers and patients in rural America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, John S

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to educate stakeholders (e.g., providers, patients, insurers, government) in the healthcare industry about electronic personal health records (PHRs) and their potential application in rural America. Extensive research was performed on PHRs through standard literature search, product demonstrations, educational webinars, and fact finding via news releases. Various stakeholders are eager to transform the healthcare industry into the digital age like other industries (i.e., banking, retail). Despite low adoption of PHRs in 2008 (2.7% of U.S. adults), patients are interested in secure messaging and eVisits with their physicians, online appointment scheduling and reminders, and online access to their laboratory and radiology results. Federal agencies (e.g., Health and Human Services, Department of Defense, Veterans Affairs [VA]), popular information technology (IT) vendors (e.g., Google, Microsoft), and large insurers (e.g., Aetna) have energized the industry through pilot programs and new product announcements. It remains to be seen if barriers to adoption, including privacy concerns, lack of interoperability standards and funding, and provider resistance, can be overcome to enable PHRs to become a critical tool in the creation of a more efficient and less costly U.S. healthcare industry. Electronic PHRs hold great promise to enhance access and improve the quality of care provided to patients in rural America. Government, vendors, and insurers should create incentives for providers and patients to implement PHRs. Likewise, patients need to become more aware of PHRs and their ability to improve health outcomes.

  15. Understanding the Role of Rural Entrepreneurs in Telecentre Sustainability: A Comparative Study of the Akshaya and eSeva Projects in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In rural areas of India, telecentres provide access to computers and other digital technologies and have been utilized as a delivery channel for various government services. Following a public–private partnership (PPP model, there is a general belief among policy makers that the revenue from government-to-consumer (G2C services would be sufficient to cover the village-level entrepreneurs’ cash flow requirements and therefore provide financial sustainability. Also, the literature suggests that telecentres have a large enough market for public-access businesses to be commercially viable. In India, around 100,000 telecentres are being set up to serve 600,000 villages – one telecentre for every six villages – to provide one-window access to government services. In the literature, a lack of government services is often quoted as a reason for telecentre failure. This study, using an exploratory approach, aims to understand the parameters that relate to the sustainability of telecentres across a number of common, government-related services. It is observed that some telecentres perform better than the others even though they have the same number of government-related services. Reasons for such differences are explored and the learnings from this research will benefit the stakeholders who are engaged in providing telecentre-based services in other developing countries. In addition, a theoretical framework is suggested to understand the dynamics between different types of sustainability parameters such as financial, social, staff, technology, and institutional. The findings of this research have policy implications in terms of the way services are designed and delivered through telecentres in developing countries such as India.

  16. "One for all and all for one": consensus-building within communities in rural India on their health microinsurance package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror DM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available David M Dror,1,2 Pradeep Panda,1 Christina May,3 Atanu Majumdar,1 Ruth Koren4 1Micro Insurance Academy, New Delhi, India; 2Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 3University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 4Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel Introduction: This study deals with consensus by poor persons in the informal sector in rural India on the benefit-package of their community-based health insurance (CBHI. In this article we describe the process of involving rural poor in benefit-package design and assess the underlying reasons for choices they made and their ability to reach group consensus. Methods: The benefit-package selection process entailed four steps: narrowing down the options by community representatives, plus three Choosing Healthplans All Together (CHAT rounds conducted among female members of self-help groups. We use mixed-methods and four sources of data: baseline study, CHAT exercises, in-depth interviews, and evaluation questionnaires. We define consensus as a community resolution reached by discussion, considering all opinions, and to which everyone agrees. We use the coefficient of unalikeability to express consensus quantitatively (as variability of categorical variables rather than just categorically (as a binomial Yes/No. Findings: The coefficient of unalikeability decreased consistently over consecutive CHAT rounds, reaching zero (ie, 100% consensus in two locations, and confirmed gradual adoption of consensus. Evaluation interviews revealed that the wish to be part of a consensus was dominant in all locations. The in-depth interviews indicated that people enjoyed the participatory deliberations, were satisfied with the selection, and that group decisions reflected a consensus rather than majority. Moreover, evidence suggests that pre-selectors and communities aimed to enhance the likelihood that many households would benefit from CBHI. Conclusion: The voluntary and contributory CBHI relies on an engaging

  17. The diffusion of television in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Doshi, J K; Rogers, E M; Rahman, S A

    1988-01-01

    Between 1980 and 1987, the number of television sets increased by 10 times in India. Television now reaches an audience of about 800 million, 10% of the population. 3 main reasons account for the rapid diffusion of television in India: the role of communication satellites in expanding access to television signals, the introduction and popularity of soap operas, and the increasing revenues to the national television system (Doordarshan) from commercial advertising. Hum Log, the 1st soap opera on the national network, was patterned after pro-development soap operas in Mexico and addresses social issues such as family communication, women's status, small family size, national integration, dowry, and alcoholism. The main lesson from the Hum Log experience was that indigenous soap operas can attract large audiences and substantial profits. A 1987 household survey indicated that television ownership is more common in urban areas (88% of households) than rural areas (52%) and among households with incomes above RS 1500 (75% of television owners). The commercialization of Indian television has precipitated a policy debate about television's role. Supporters of further expansion of television services cite popular will, the potential to use this medium for educational development, high advertising incomes, the ability of satellite television to penetrate rural areas, and high government expenditures for television broadcasting. On the other hand, detractors of the commercialization policy argue that television promotes consumerism, widens the gap between the urban elite and the rural poor, disregards regional sociocultural norms, and diverts funding from development programs in areas such as health and education.

  18. Girl, woman, lover, mother: towards a new understanding of child prostitution among young Devadasis in rural Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Treena Rae

    2007-06-01

    The emotive issue of child prostitution is at the heart of international debates over 'trafficking' in women and girls, the "new slave trade", and how these phenomena are linked with globalization, sex tourism, and expanding transnational economies. However, young sex workers, particularly those in the 'third world', are often represented through tropes of victimization, poverty, and "backwards" cultural traditions, constructions that rarely capture the complexity of the girls' experiences and the role that prostitution plays in their lives. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with girls and young women who are part of the Devadasi (servant/slave of the God) system of sex work in India, this paper introduces an alternative example of child prostitution. Demonstrating the ways in which this practice is socially, economically, and culturally embedded in certain regions of rural south India underlies this new perspective. I argue that this embeddedness works to create, inform, and give meaning to these girls as they grow up in this particular context, not to isolate and produce totally different experiences of family, gender identity, and moral character as popular accounts of child prostitution contend. Data pertaining to socialization, 'positive' aspects of being a young sex worker in this context, political economy, HIV/AIDS, and changes in the Devadasi tradition are used to support my position. Taken together, this alternative example presents a more complex understanding of the micro- and macro-forces that impact child prostitution as well as the many factors that affect the girls' ideas of what they do and who they are as people, not just sex workers.

  19. Biomass status vis-a-vis bioenergy prospects and options for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panigrahhi, M.R.; Overend, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    India has a large biomass energy potential if its underutilized resources are used in modernized biofuels and bioenergy conversion systems. India uses about half traditional and half commercial energy sources. However, with a fast-growing population, a relatively slow-growing economy, and few fossil energy resources, the need to use indigenous resources more efficiency is becoming more pressing. Currently, about 400 million tonnes of biomass (fuel wood, crop residues, and cattle dung) is burnt in millions of traditional cooking stoves, especially in the rural sector. The net energy loss could be as much as 5 EJ. Converting only a fraction of this biomass to biogas, a much cleaner and more efficient fuel, could meet the total cooking requirements of the rural sector. The remainder of the biomass could be converted for use as producer of gas and ethanol. Nearly 15 percent of about 0.6 million villages are unelectrified. Modular power generation using biomass-fueled producer gas-fired generators could meet the rural needs at less cost than grid extensions. Ethanol is already proven in Brazil and the U.S. as a gasoline substitute and extender that mitigates air pollution in urban areas. (author)

  20. Impact assessment and cost-effectiveness of m-health application used by community health workers for maternal, newborn and child health care services in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Prinja, Shankar; Nimesh, Ruby; Gupta, Aditi; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Gupta, Madhu; Singh, Tarundeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: An m-health application has been developed and implemented with community health workers to improve their counseling in a rural area of India. The ultimate aim was to generate demand and improve utilization of key maternal, neonatal, and child health services. The present study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of this project.Methods/design: A pre–post quasi-experimental design with a control group will be used to undertake difference in differences analysis for as...

  1. Impact of floriculture development enhances livelihood of India’s rural women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindasamy Agoramoorthy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available India’s rural women are involved in various types of work and contribute considerably to the economy. However much of their work is not systematically accounted in the official statistics. India’s governmental and non-governmental data collection agencies admit that there is an under-estimation of tribal women’s contribution as rural workers. This study describes in detail a research project that focuses on the indicators for socioeconomic development in the least developed rural villages by examining the impact of floriculture on the lives of impoverished tribal women who inhabit the harsh drylands of western India.

  2. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... It is telling that in a famous paper authored by the Nobel Prize winner, Robert ..... Examples are the steam engine, railroad, electricity, electronics, the ...... According to Gartner's Senior Research Analyst 'India's domestic IT services .... in new areas such as engineering services and product development.

  3. A neoliberalisation of civil society? Self-help groups and the labouring class poor in rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattenden, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper notes the prominence of self-help groups (SHGs) within current anti-poverty policy in India, and analyses the impacts of government- and NGO-backed SHGs in rural North Karnataka. It argues that self-help groups represent a partial neoliberalisation of civil society in that they address poverty through low-cost methods that do not challenge the existing distribution of power and resources between the dominant class and the labouring class poor. It finds that intra-group savings and loans and external loans/subsidies can provide marginal economic and political gains for members of the dominant class and those members of the labouring classes whose insecure employment patterns currently provide above poverty line consumption levels, but provide neither material nor political gains for the labouring class poor. Target-oriented SHG catalysts are inattentive to how the social relations of production reproduce poverty and tend to overlook class relations and socio-economic and political differentiation within and outside of groups, which are subject to interference by dominant class local politicians and landowners.

  4. Perceived aesthetic impact of malocclusion in 16-24 year-old adults in the rural areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu M Marya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the self-perception of patients toward their dental appearance using the aesthetic component (AC of index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN index and whether age and gender had any influence on it. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the perceived esthetic impact of malocclusion in 16-24 year-old subjects selected from the rural population of Faridabad, Haryana, India. The sample was divided into two groups, older adolescents and younger adults, and the AC of the IOTN index was applied. Results: The results showed that most subjects scored themselves as having an attractive dentition with no need for orthodontic treatment (60.91%. Gender-wise differences were not found to be statistically significant in relation to the perceived needs (P = 0.095, whereas age-wise differences were found to be statistically significant in relation to the perceived needs (P < 0.001. Conclusion: While the age seemed to have an impact on the perceived esthetic impact of malocclusion, the gender did not seemingly influence this self-perception.

  5. ​Reducing malnutrition in India's agri-biodiversity hotspots | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Many of India's poor live in rural areas that are heavily dependent on agriculture. Local crops have a rich heritage of genetic diversity, but this diversity is often threatened by government policies that promote rice and wheat cultivation.This results in a disconnect between the high potential of the agricultural ...

  6. ​Reducing malnutrition in India's agri-biodiversity hotspots | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Many of India's poor live in rural areas that are heavily dependent on agriculture. Local crops have a rich heritage of genetic diversity, but this diversity is often threatened by government policies that promote rice and wheat cultivation.This results in a disconnect between the high potential of the agricultural ...

  7. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  8. Solar Energy a Path to India's Prosperity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Yogender Pal; Singh, Arashdeep; Kannojiya, Vikas; Kesari, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    Solar energy technology has grabbed a worldwide interest and attention these days. India also, having a huge solar influx and potential, is not falling back to feed its energy demand through non-conventional energy sources such as concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). This work will try to add some comprehensive insight on solar energy framework, policy, outlook and socio-economic challenges of India. This includes its prominent areas of working such as grid independent and `utility-scale' power production using CSP or PV power plants, rural as well as urban electrification using PV, solar powered public transportation systems, solar power in agrarian society—water pumping, irrigation, waste management and so on and so forth. Despite the fact that, a vast legion of furtherance and advancement has been done during the last decade of solar energy maturation and proliferation, improvements could be suggested so as to augment the solar energy usage in contrast to conventional energy sources in India.

  9. Impact of Rural-Urban Labour Migration on Education of Children: A Case Study of Left Behind and Accompanied Migrant Children in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Archana K Roy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, seasonal labour migration from rural to urban or from backward to developed region is a household livelihood strategy to cope with poverty. In this process, the children of those migrants are the worst affected whether they accompany their parents or are left behind in the villages. The present paper explores the impact of temporary labour migration of parent(s on school attendance of the children between 6–14 years and their dropping out from the school through an analysis of the cases from both the ends of migration stream in India. Data was collected from thirteen construction sites of Varanasi Uttar Pradesh and nine villages of Bihar by applying both qualitative and quantitative techniques. It is evident from the study that the migrants through remittances improve school accessibility for the left behind children and bridge gender gap in primary school education. However, among the accompanying migrant children of construction workers, many remain out of school and many are forced to drop out and some of them become vulnerable to work as child labour due to seasonal mobility of their parents. Thus, mainstreaming these children in development process is a big challenge in attaining the goal of universal primary education and inclusive growth in the country like India.

  10. Producing "science/fictions" about the rural and urban poor: Community-based learning at a medical college in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arur, Aditi Ashok

    This dissertation is an ethnographic case study of a community-based teaching program (CBTP) in public health at a medical college in South India that explored how the CBTP produced particular ways of seeing and understanding rural and urban poor communities. Drawing from critical, feminist, and postcolonial scholars, I suggest that the knowledge produced in the CBTP can be understood as "science/fictions", that is, as cultural texts shaped by transnational development discourses as well as medical teachers' and students' sociospatial imaginations of the rural and urban poor. I explored how these science/fictions mediated medical students' performative actions and interactions with a rural and an urban poor community in the context of the CBTP. At the same time, I also examined how knowledge produced in students' encounters with these communities disrupted their naturalized understandings about these communities, and how it was taken up to renarrativize science/fictions anew. Data collection and analyses procedures were informed by critical ethnographic and critical discourse analysis approaches. Data sources includes field notes constructed from observations of the CBTP, interviews with medical teachers and students, and curricular texts including the standardized national textbook of public health. The findings of this study illustrate how the CBTP staged the government and technology as central actors in the production of healthy bodies, communities, and environments, and implicitly positioned medical teachers and students as productive citizens of a modern nation while rural and urban poor communities were characterized sometimes as empowered, and at other times as not-yet-modern and in need of reform. However, the community also constituted an alternate pedagogical site of engagement in that students' encounters with community members disrupted students' assumptions about these communities to an extent. Nevertheless, institutionalized practices of assessment

  11. Determination of Appropriate Service Delivery Level for Quantitative Attributes of Household Toilets in Rural Settlements of India from Users' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mohammad; Pandit, Debapratim

    2018-04-01

    Improvement of quality of sanitation services in rural settlements is an important development goal in developing countries including India and accordingly several strategies are adopted which promote the demand and use of household toilets through creating awareness and providing subsidies to poor people for construction of household toilets with service-level standards specified from experts' perspective. In many cases, users are unsatisfied with the quality of toilets constructed using subsidies and the same remain unused. Users' satisfaction depends on their perceptions of service quality of individual attributes and overall service quality of the household toilets, which is an important determinant of sustainability and sustained use of toilets. This study aims to assess and benchmark the appropriate service delivery level for quantitative attributes of rural household toilets based on user perception. The service quality is determined with the help of level of service (LOS) scales developed using successive interval scaling technique, the zone of tolerance (ZOT), and users satisfaction level (USL) which relates service delivery levels with user satisfaction directly. The study finds that the service quality of most of the attributes of household toilets constructed using subsidies is perceived as poor. The results also suggest that most of the users expect to have a toilet with the service level of attributes ranging between LOS A and LOS B.

  12. Locomotor problems among rural elderly population in a District of Aligarh, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroof, Mohd; Ahmad, Anees; Khalique, Najam; Ansari, M Athar

    2017-01-01

    Locomotor functions decline with the age along with other physiological changes. This results in deterioration of the quality of life with decreased social and economic role in the society, as well as increased dependency, for the health care and other basic services. The demographic transition resulting in increased proportion of elderly may pose a burden to the health system. To find the prevalence of locomotor problems among the elderly population, and related sociodemographic factors. The study was a community-based cross-sectional study done at field practice area of Rural Health Training Centre, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. A sample of 225 was drawn from 1018 elderly population aged 60 years and above using systematic random sampling with probability proportionate to size. Sociodemographic characteristics were obtained using pretested and predesigned questionnaire. Locomotor problems were assessed using the criteria used by National Sample Survey Organization. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was used to test relationship of locomotor problems with sociodemographic factors. P locomotor problems among the elderly population was 25.8%. Locomotor problems were significantly associated with age, gender, and working status whereas no significant association with literacy status and marital status was observed. The study concluded that approximately one-fourth of the elderly population suffered from locomotor problems. The sociodemographic factors related to locomotor problems needs to be addressed properly to help them lead an independent and economically productive life.

  13. Post-partum depression in the community: a qualitative study from rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarimuthu, R J S; Ezhilarasu, P; Charles, H; Antonisamy, B; Kurian, S; Jacob, K S

    2010-01-01

    Post-partum depression, although heterogeneous, is often considered a medical disease when viewed from the biomedical perspective. However, recent reports from the Indian subcontinent have documented psychosocial causal factors. This study employed qualitative methodology in a representative sample of women in rural South India. Women in the post-partum period were assessed using the Tamil versions of the Short Explanatory Model Interview, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a semi-structured interview to diagnose ICD 10 depression. Socio-demographic and clinical details were also recorded. Some 137 women were recruited and assessed, of these, 26.3% were diagnosed to have post-partum depression. The following factors were associated with post-partum depression after adjusting for age and education: age less than 20 or over 30 years, schooling less than five years, thoughts of aborting current pregnancy, unhappy marriage, physical abuse during current pregnancy and after childbirth, husband's use of alcohol, girl child delivered in the absence of living boys and a preference for a boy, low birth weight, and a family history of depression. Post-partum depression was also associated with an increased number of causal models of illness, a number of non-medical models, treatment models and non-medical treatment models. Many social and cultural factors have a major impact on post-partum depression. Post-partum depression, when viewed from a biomedical framework, fails to acknowledge the role of context in the production of emotional distress in the post-partum period.

  14. Estimation of community-level influenza-associated illness in a low resource rural setting in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Saha

    Full Text Available To estimate rates of community-level influenza-like-illness (ILI and influenza-associated ILI in rural north India.During 2011, we conducted household-based healthcare utilization surveys (HUS for any acute medical illness (AMI in preceding 14days among residents of 28villages of Ballabgarh, in north India. Concurrently, we conducted clinic-based surveillance (CBS in the area for AMI episodes with illness onset ≤3days and collected nasal and throat swabs for influenza virus testing using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Retrospectively, we applied ILI case definition (measured/reported fever and cough to HUS and CBS data. We attributed 14days of risk-time per person surveyed in HUS and estimated community ILI rate by dividing the number of ILI cases in HUS by total risk-time. We used CBS data on influenza positivity and applied it to HUS-based community ILI rates by age, month, and clinic type, to estimate the community influenza-associated ILI rates.The HUS of 69,369 residents during the year generated risk-time of 3945 person-years (p-y and identified 150 (5%, 95%CI: 4-6 ILI episodes (38 ILI episodes/1,000 p-y; 95% CI 32-44. Among 1,372 ILI cases enrolled from clinics, 126 (9%; 95% CI 8-11 had laboratory-confirmed influenza (A (H3N2 = 72; B = 54. After adjusting for age, month, and clinic type, overall influenza-associated ILI rate was 4.8/1,000 p-y; rates were highest among children <5 years (13; 95% CI: 4-29 and persons≥60 years (11; 95%CI: 2-30.We present a novel way to use HUS and CBS data to generate estimates of community burden of influenza. Although the confidence intervals overlapped considerably, higher point estimates for burden among young children and older adults shows the utility for exploring the value of influenza vaccination among target groups.

  15. Potential of Livestock Generated Biomass: Untapped Energy Source in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies run on the backbone of electricity as one of major factors behind industrial development. India is endowed with plenty of natural resources and the majority of electricity within the country is generated from thermal and hydro-electric plants. A few nuclear plants assist in meeting the national requirements for electricity but still many rural areas remain uncovered. As India is primarily a rural agrarian economy, providing electricity to the remote, undeveloped regions of the country remains a top priority of the government. A vital, untapped source is livestock generated biomass which to some extent has been utilized to generate electricity in small scale biogas based plants under the government's thrust on rural development. This study is a preliminary attempt to correlate developments in this arena in the Asian region, as well as the developed world, to explore the possibilities of harnessing this resource in a better manner. The current potential of 2600 million tons of livestock dung generated per year, capable of yielding 263,702 million m3 of biogas is exploited. Our estimates suggest that if this resource is utilized judiciously, it possesses the potential of generating 477 TWh (Terawatt hour of electrical energy per annum.

  16. Adequacy of dietary intakes and poverty in India: trends in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahal, Ajay; Karan, Anup K

    2008-03-01

    Linear programming methods, indicators of nutritional adequacy from the Indian Council of Medical Research and household expenditure survey data from the National Sample Survey Organization were used to construct poverty lines for India. Poverty ratios were calculated for 1993--1994 and 1999--2000 on the basis of nutritional adequacy poverty lines and compared to official estimates of poverty based on energy requirements. Nutritional adequacy poverty lines are higher than official poverty lines, particularly in rural areas. The application of nutritional adequacy poverty lines points to greater rural-urban poverty differences than in official estimates. Declines in rural poverty during the 1990s were also slower under the nutritional adequacy definition, especially in south India. There is a greater degree of rural-urban and regional bias in nutritional adequacy poverty reduction than suggested by official data. Inter-state variations in changes in nutritional poverty and official poverty in the 1990s are largely explained by differences in assumptions on overall price movements. However, relative price movements in food items also played a role, particularly the slow increase in prices of cereals and edible oils in comparison to the prices of pulses, and in some southern states, compared to milk and vegetable prices as well.

  17. Associations between wife-beating and fetal and infant death: impressions from a survey in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jejeebhoy, S J

    1998-09-01

    This report examines the linkages between wife-beating and one health-related consequence for women, their experience of fetal and infant mortality. Community-based data are used drawn from women surveyed in two culturally distinct sites of rural India: Uttar Pradesh in the north, in which gender relations are highly stratified, and Tamil Nadu in the south, in which they are more egalitarian. Results suggest that wife-beating is deeply entrenched, that attitudes uniformly justify wife-beating, and that few women can escape an abusive marriage. They also suggest that the health consequences of domestic violence--in terms of pregnancy loss and infant mortality--are considerable and that Indian women's experience of infant and fetal mortality is powerfully conditioned by the strength of the patriarchal social system. Results are tentative because of data limitations, but they are consistent and strong enough to warrant concern. They argue for the integration of services to identify, refer, and prevent domestic violence in the primary or reproductive health programs of the country and for the safe motherhood programs to be particularly vigilant, sensitive, and responsive to the conditions of battered women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  18. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Karnal district, Haryana state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalra Sanjay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little work has been done on the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in north India. This paper reports the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal district of Haryana state, India. Materials and methods Prevalence of type 1 diabetes was assessed by a hospital-based registry and by analysis of data contributed by chemists and other physicians. Results The overall prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal district is 10.20/100,000 population, with a higher prevalence in urban (26.6/100,000 as compared to rural areas (4.27/100,000. Karnal city, with a population of 222017, has a relatively high prevalence of type 1 diabetes (31.9/100,000. The prevalence in men is higher (11.56/100,000 than in women (8.6/100,000. In the 5 to 16 years age group, the prevalence is 22.22/100,000, while in the 0-5 years age group, prevalence is 3.82/100,000. Conclusions This report highlights the urban-rural and male-female gradient in the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal, north India.

  19. Rural Non Farm Employment in Assam: Trends and Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrama Goswami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the rural labour market in Assam. The Work Participation Rates (WPR for males has increased during the period 1993-94 to 2009-10, whereas the same for females has been fluctuating around a lower level of 15 to 20 per cent. Thus, unemployment rates for females have been higher than males. A sector-wise distribution of workers shows that the proportion of males employed in the farm sector has been declining in favour of the Non-Farm Sector (NFS, while the females are more concentrated in the farm sector. Thus, females stand in a more disadvantageous situation in the rural labour market as indicated by their low WPR, higher unemployment rates and low level of diversification into NFS. However, gender equality is necessary for growth. This is more so with regard to education and employment. India has introduced the concept of inclusive growth in the Eleventh Five Year Plan. Inclusive growth ensures opportunities for all sections of the population, with a special emphasis on the poor, particularly women and young people, who are most likely to be marginalised. A rapidly growing population in India has not only increased the size of the rural labour force but has also led to fragmentation of land holdings. Thus, this sector alone cannot create additional employment opportunities, even in high growth agriculture states of India. This has led to the growth of a vibrant non-farm sector. The study comes up with the suggestion that the NFS, with its greater potential of employment generation, can not only solve the unemployment problem, but can also lead to the increased access of women to resources and employment opportunities.

  20. Role of Bhabhatron in rural cancer care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manjit

    2009-01-01

    Radiotherapy, using cobalt-60 is the most cost-effective and the most relevant method of cancer treatment in India. However, there is acute shortage of radiotherapy machines in the country, due the high cost of imported machines. As most of the radiotherapy machines in the country are located in urban areas, patients from rural areas have to travel a long distance and stay there to get treatment. BARC has developed Bhabhatron to meet the demand for affordable telecobalt machines. Compared to any imported unit, the indigenous machine is cheaper, superior in features and more suitable for rural use. Bhabhatrons are installed in many cancer hospitals in the country. (author)

  1. Intersectional inequalities in immunization in India, 1992-93 to 2005-06: a progress assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, William

    2015-05-01

    Immunization in India is marked with stark disparities across gender, caste, wealth and place of residence with severe shortfalls among those disadvantaged in more than one dimension. In this regard, an explicit recognition of intersectionality and intersectional inequalities has 2-fold relevance; one, being the pathway of health inequality and the other being its role as a deterrent of progress particularly at higher (better) levels of health. Against this backdrop, this study examines intersectional inequalities in immunization in India and also suggests a level-sensitive progress assessment method. The study uses group analogue of Gini coefficient for highlighting the magnitude of intersectional inequality and for comprehending its association with immunization level. The results unravel the plight of vulnerable intersectional groups and draw attention to disquieting shortfalls among female SCST (scheduled castes and tribes) children from rural areas. There is also some evidence to indicate leveraging among rural males in matters of immunization and it is further discerned that such gender advantage is greater among rural non-SCST community than the rural SCST group. In concluding, the study calls for intensive immunization planning to improve coverage among vulnerable communities in both rural and urban areas. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  2. 'Safe', yet violent? Women's experiences with obstetric violence during hospital births in rural Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sreeparna; Mishra, Arima; Jacob, Suraj

    2017-11-03

    The majority of maternal health interventions in India focus on increasing institutional deliveries to reduce maternal mortality, typically by incentivising village health workers to register births and making conditional cash transfers to mothers for hospital births. Based on over 15 months of ethnographically informed fieldwork conducted between 2015 and 2017 in rural Assam, the Indian state with the highest recorded rate of maternal deaths, we find that while there has been an expansion in institutional deliveries, the experience of childbirth in government facilities is characterised by obstetric violence. Poor and indigenous women who disproportionately use state facilities report both tangible and symbolic violence including iatrogenic procedures such as episiotomies, in some instances done without anaesthesia, improper pelvic examinations, beating and verbal abuse during labour, with sometimes the shouting directed at accompanying relatives. While the expansion of institutional deliveries and access to emergency obstetric care is likely to reduce maternal mortality, in the absence of humane care during labour, institutional deliveries will continue to be characterised by the paradox of "safe" births (defined as simply reducing maternal deaths) and the deployment of violent practices during labour, underscoring the unequal and complex relationship between the bodies of the poor and reproductive governance.

  3. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD control in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant S Pandav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a "mission approach" with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic, providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India.

  4. Are people at high risk for diabetes visiting health facility for confirmation of diagnosis? A population-based study from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasapura Venkateshmurthy, Nikhil; Soundappan, Kathirvel; Gummidi, Balaji; Bhaskara Rao, Malipeddi; Tandon, Nikhil; Reddy, K Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Mohan, Sailesh

    2018-01-01

    India is witnessing a rising burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus. India's National Programme for Prevention and Control of Diabetes, Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke recommends population-based screening and referral to primary health centre for diagnosis confirmation and treatment initiation. However, little is known about uptake of confirmatory tests among screen positives. To estimate the uptake of confirmatory tests and identify the reasons for not undergoing confirmation by those at high risk for developing diabetes. We analysed data collected under project UDAY, a comprehensive diabetes and hypertension prevention and management programme, being implemented in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Under UDAY, population-based screening for diabetes was carried out by project health workers using a diabetes risk score and capillary blood glucose test. Participants at high risk for diabetes were asked to undergo confirmatory tests. On follow-up visit, health workers assessed if the participant had undergone confirmation and ask for reasons if not so. Of the 35,475 eligible adults screened between April 2015 and August 2016, 10,960 (31%) were determined to be at high risk. Among those at high risk, 9670 (88%) were followed up, and of those, only 616 (6%) underwent confirmation. Of those who underwent confirmation, 'lack of symptoms of diabetes warranting visit to health facility' (52%) and 'being at high risk was not necessary enough to visit' (41%) were the most commonly reported reasons for non-confirmation. Inconvenient facility time (4.4%), no nearby facility (3.2%), un-affordability (2.2%) and long waiting time (1.6%) were the common health system-related factors that affected the uptake of the confirmatory test. Confirmation of diabetes was abysmally low in the study population. Low uptake of the confirmatory test might be due to low 'risk perception'. The uptake can be increased by improving the population risk perception through individual and

  5. Women in natural resource collection: Experience from rural Jharkhand in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bhola Nath; De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Women living in rural areas are closely associated with the natural environment. Poor families are mostly dependent on natural resources for their survival activities viz. grazing of cattle, collection of water for drinking and cooking purposes and collection of fuel wood. In the poor families due to the compulsion of earning, adult males mostly go for outside activities and sometimes female members of the family also join them. The aforementioned natural resource collection activities are considered to be inferior, less remunerative and hence suitable for the women or young kids to perform. Thus, they are found to be more close to the nature than men and this very close relationship makes them perfect managers of the eco-system in their vicinity. The life of rural women is so much intertwined with the environment that they can't even think of her survival without it. However, there might be significant inter-household differences in the distribution of such activities between male and female members of the families, depending upon their socio-economic characteristics, cultural and religious beliefs and attitude towards women and children. The involvement of women in such activities is also found to be more in the tribal dominated societies. This paper tried to examine the extent to which women in rural Jharkhand are involved in such natural resource collection and management activities. Also, we tried to unearth various economic and cultural reasons and their impact on the involvement of women in such activities across various social and economic groups. The analysis of primary data collected from the rural areas of tribal dominated Jharkhand reveals that income, occupation and status of the families have significant inverse link with the involvement of women and also of girl children at the cost of their educational prospects. Religious and cultural beliefs also enter in the determination of extent of involvement of women and children in the rural society. It is

  6. Empowering rural women's groups for strengthening economic linkages: some Indian experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal

    1999-05-01

    Through organizing informal self-help groups (SHGs), rural women in India are provided credit and extension support for various production-oriented income-generating activities. These activities usually include garment-making, embroidery, food processing, bee-keeping, basketry, gem cutting, weaving, and knitting. SHGs are self-governed, with decisions about production and marketing taken collectively, although the group leader is responsible for identifying potential marketing centers and consumers. These groups represent a new culture in rural development, breaking with traditional bureaucracy and top-down management. Informal groups empower rural women to manage rural industries and make decisions collectively for their common economic interests. Experience with SHGs in Orissa, lessons from nongovernmental organization intervention, and a model for empowering poor people in a small town in Kerala are discussed.

  7. Innovative financing for rural surgical patients: Experience in mission hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanaraj Jesudian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In rural India most of the surgical patients become impoverished due to surgical treatment pushing several families below poverty line. We describe the various methods that we tried to help these patients pay for the surgical procedures without becoming impoverished. Some of them were successful and many of them were not so successful. The large turnover and innovative methods helped the mission hospitals to serve the poor and the marginalized. Some of these methods might not be relevant in areas other than Northeast India while many could be used in other areas.

  8. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at a secondary level hospital in Northern India

    OpenAIRE

    Shashi Kant; Ayush Lohiya; Arti Kapil; Sanjeev Kumar Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy is frequently associated with complications. Currently, in India, there is no regular screening for UTI, and facility for diagnosis of UTI is not available at peripheral government health centers. Objective: To estimate the proportion of pregnant women with UTI among antenatal clinic attendees in rural Haryana. Methods: Eligible participants were pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of secondary care center of rural Haryana from ...

  9. "India Population Projects" in Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P H; Badari, V S

    1991-12-01

    An overview, objectives, implementation, and research and evaluation studies of 2 India Population Projects in Karnataka are presented. The India Population Project I (IPP-I) was conducted in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. India Population Project III (IPP-III) took place between 1984-92 in 6 districts of Karnataka: Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwad, Bidar, Gulbarga, and Raichur, and 4 districts in Kerala. The 6 districts in Karnataka accounted for 36% (13.2 million) of the total national population. The project cost was Rs. 713.1 million which was shared by the World Bank, and the Indian national and regional government. Due to poor past performance, these projects were undertaken to improve health and family welfare status. Specific project objectives are outlined. IPP-I included an urban component, and optimal Government of India program, and an intensive rural initiative. The urban program aimed to improved pre- and postnatal services and facilities, and the family planning (FP) in Bangalore city. The rural program was primarily to provide auxiliary nurse-midwives and hospitals and clinics, and also supplemental feeding program for pregnant and nursing mothers and children up to 2 years. The government program provided FP staff and facilities. IPP-I had 3 units to oversee building construction, to recruit staff and provide supplies and equipment, and to establish a Population Center. IPP-III was concerned with service delivery; information, education, and communication efforts (IEC) and population education; research and evaluation; and project management. Both projects contributed significantly to improving the infrastructure. A brief account of the types and kinds of studies undertaken is given. Studies were grouped into longitudinal studies of fertility, mortality, and FP; management information and evaluation systems for health and family welfare programs; experimental strategies; and other studies. Research and evaluation studies in IPP-III encompassed studies in

  10. Impact of community-based health insurance in rural India on self-medication & financial protection of the insured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Dror

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The evidence-base of the impact of community-based health insurance (CBHI on access to healthcare and financial protection in India is weak. We investigated the impact of CBHI in rural Uttar Pradesh and Bihar s0 tates of India on insured households′ self-medication and financial position. Methods: Data originated from (i household surveys, and (ii the Management Information System of each CBHI. Study design was "staggered implementation" cluster randomized controlled trial with enrollment of one-third of the treatment group in each of the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. Around 40-50 per cent of the households that were offered to enroll joined. The benefits-packages covered outpatient care in all three locations and in-patient care in two locations. To overcome self-selection enrollment bias, we constructed comparable control and treatment groups using Kernel Propensity Score Matching (K-PSM. To quantify impact, both difference-in-difference (DiD, and conditional-DiD (combined K-PSM with DiD were used to assess robustness of results. Results: Post-intervention (2013, self-medication was less practiced by insured HHs. Fewer insured households than uninsured households reported borrowing to finance care for non-hospitalization events. Being insured for two years also improved the HH′s location along the income distribution, namely insured HHs were more likely to experience income quintile-upgrade in one location, and less likely to experience a quintile-downgrade in two locations. Interpretation & conclusions: The realized benefits of insurance included better access to healthcare, reduced financial risks and improved economic mobility, suggesting that in our context health insurance creates welfare gains. These findings have implications for theoretical, ethical, policy and practice considerations.

  11. Mapping poverty from space in rural Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmough, G.; Atkinson, P.; Hutton, C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between welfare and geographical factors derived from remotely sensed satellite data within Assam, India. The pressure that natural resources experience from population growth is a significant barrier to sustainable human development and ecological conservation. Integrating social and geographic data offers the potential to increase our understanding of population-environment relationships. We construct a village welfare index for an extensive area of Assam in Northeast India. Classification and regression tree techniques were used to model the relationships between welfare and geographic conditions derived from remotely sensed data. Geographic metrics accounted for 61% of the variation in the lowest welfare quintile and 57% in the highest welfare quintile. Travel time to market towns, percentage of a village covered with woodland and winter crop were significantly related to welfare. These results support findings in the literature across a range of different developing countries which have used socioeconomic and geographic data derived only from household surveys. Model accuracy is unprecedented considering that the majority of information for the prediction is derived from remotely sensed data. As satellite data can provide continually updated geographic metrics, the results indicate the potential for substantially increasing our understanding of poverty-environment relationships by coupling remotely sensed and socioeconomic datasets. Further studies should be conducted using time series analysis as knowledge of population-environment inter-linkages will be required to help foster more effective policies for sustainable human development and ecological conservation.

  12. Environmental pollution of electronic waste recycling in India: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-04-01

    The rapid growth of the production of electrical and electronic products has meant an equally rapid growth in the amount of electronic waste (e-waste), much of which is illegally imported to India, for disposal presenting a serious environmental challenge. The environmental impact during e-waste recycling was investigated and metal as well as other pollutants [e.g. polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] were found in excessive levels in soil, water and other habitats. The most e-waste is dealt with as general or crudely often by open burning, acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As resulted of these process; dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released and harmful to the surrounding environment, engaged workers, and also residents inhabiting near the sites. The informal e-waste sectors are growing rapidly in the developing countries over than in the developed countries because of cheapest labor cost and week legislations systems. It has been confirmed that contaminates are moving through the food chain via root plant translocation system, to the human body thereby threatening human health. We have suggested some possible solution toward in which plants and microbes combine to remediate highly contaminated sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Large scale deployment of non power applications (NPAs) and spin-off technologies in rural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, A.M.; Mule, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years a large indigenous Science and Technology (S and T) know-how has been generated in various national laboratories and in parallel, several technologies have been imported. Urban sector has received the highest attention by way of deployment of large number of these technologies and know-how in urban areas resulting in rapid urban development leading to urban rural divide in terms of prosperity and opportunities. Further, India's young population is expected to be the largest in the world in decades ahead, over 500 millions. Creating gainful and productive work for them is the greatest challenge. Technical know-how generated in national laboratories related to basic needs such as water, food, energy and environment has been underutilized. Deployment and adaptation of this know-how to the rural needs could provide a creative opportunity for expected 500 million youths in rural and urban India to contribute to the national wealth with prosperity for everybody including villages

  14. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil

    2016-01-01

    . Objective: The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India...

  15. Alleviating Energy Poverty through innovation: The case of Jyotigram Yojana (rural lighting scheme) of Gujarat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Access to electricity is important for alleviation energy poverty in rural areas of developing countries. In spite of rural electrification schemes people in numerous villages do not have access to electricity because of inadequate and erratic power supply. The Jyotigram Yojana (Rural Lighting Scheme) of Gujarat in India transformed the rural electricity distribution scenario creating immense opportunities for socio-economic development. It shows how vision and political will can transcend the boundaries of technical and financial expertise and systemic rigidities, and facilitate successful adoption of simple but innovative approaches for alleviation of energy poverty and bringing about socio-economic development.

  16. Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

  17. Public health cadre in India: The need of the hour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Mohan Singh Rawat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available India has made considerable progress in public health since independence including eradication of small pox, poliomyelitis, guinea worm, and elimination of yaws, leprosy and neonatal tetanus from the country. The strategies of the National Rural Health Mission have resulted in significant improvements in key health indicators like institutional deliveries, full immunization, and availability of diagnostic and family welfare services in many