WorldWideScience

Sample records for rural distribution lines

  1. Assessment of overvoltage levels induced in rural distribution lines; Avaliacao dos niveis de sobretensoes induzidas em linhas de distribuicao rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomazella, Rogerio; Souza, Andre Nunes de; Silva, Ivan Nunes da [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil); Dotto, Fabio R.L. [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Haga, Amaury; Biazon, Rodolfo B. [Companhia Luz e Forca Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents a reliable computational tool to assess and to estimate the levels of induced voltage in rural lines. In this context, the traditional tools are used, such as ATP (Alternative Transients Program), that combined with a developed software, allows to quantify and to evaluate the level of overvoltage in the rural lines. (author)

  2. Rural electrification strategies for distributed generation

    CERN Document Server

    Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale Distributed Generation (DG), which run off diesel generators, could provide electricity to rural communities without an electricity grid. Rural Electrification compares around 20 DG enterprises and projects in Brazil, Cambodia and China, and each is a possible model for distributed rural electrification.

  3. Overhead distribution line models for harmonics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, M.; Xu, W.; Dommel, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Carson's formulae and Maxwell's potential coefficients are used for calculating the per unit length series impedances and shunt capacitances of the overhead lines. The per unit length values are then used for building the models, nominal pi-circuit, and equivalent pi-circuit at the harmonic frequencies. This paper studies the accuracy of these models for presenting the overhead distribution lines in steady-state harmonic solutions at frequencies up to 5 kHz. The models are verified with a field test on a 25 kV distribution line and the sensitivity of the models to ground resistivity, skin effect, and multiple grounding is reported.

  4. Electric distribution infrastructures for rural areas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirault, D.

    2004-03-01

    The main objective of the thesis was to study the architecture (network topology, mode of distribution, operation of energy sources, etc) distribution networks possible and adapted to the problem of rural electrification. Chapter I sets the context of rural electrification by detailing first the challenges of rural electrification for sustainable economic development and energy resources of these countries and the various existing network architectures. Specifications for the study is finally defined. Chapter II describes the design method developed to compare the costs of different architectures and choose the most suitable. Chapter III shows a method of sizing systems Decentralized Rural Electrification including generators, batteries and windmills. Chapter IV describes the results of a reliability study was carried out on different solutions. Chapter V describes the work done to analyze the operation of a production center consists of a generator and a wind turbine. (author)

  5. VT VEC Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont Electric Cooperative, Inc. (VEC) Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines. VEC’s Distribution lines were drawn from pole to...

  6. DC micro-grid with distributed generation for rural electrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarker, M.J.; Asare-Bediako, B.; Alipuria, B.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of low voltage DC distribution network for rural electrification within an intelligent grid concept. The goal is to provide local communities in sparsely populated areas with electricity supply generated from renewable energy sources. Since these communities subsist

  7. Research for the Influence of Distribution Network Line Reclosing Current on Line Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kansheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the distribution network line structure and reclosing control strategy, the system simulation model of distribution network lines has established based on the real-time digital simulation RTDS. Based on this, distribution network switching impulse current characteristic has researched with different capacity, different distribution and different load power factor under the different voltage switching angles. The results of the study provide a scientific basis for distribution network line protection setting, in order to further lay the foundation for improvement the validity and reliability of distribution network line protection action.

  8. Influence of Distributed Residential Energy Storage on Voltage in Rural Distribution Network and Capacity Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Tong, Yibin; Zhao, Zhigang; Zhang, Xuefen

    2018-03-01

    Large-scale access of distributed residential photovoltaic (PV) in rural areas has solved the voltage problem to a certain extent. However, due to the intermittency of PV and the particularity of rural residents’ power load, the problem of low voltage in the evening peak remains to be resolved. This paper proposes to solve the problem by accessing residential energy storage. Firstly, the influence of access location and capacity of energy storage on voltage distribution in rural distribution network is analyzed. Secondly, the relation between the storage capacity and load capacity is deduced for four typical load and energy storage cases when the voltage deviation meets the demand. Finally, the optimal storage position and capacity are obtained by using PSO and power flow simulation.

  9. 2015 Plan. Project 6: urban and rural distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The main development trends of distribution systems in 2015 Plan is studied, with the data of market continuity, costs and evolution of the physique system. Some factors that will influence the evolution of the distribution systems are presented and the impacts of economic view are discussed. The strategic lines that will give direction for the distribution expansion, including the energy conservation are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  10. On-line calculation of 3-D power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. H.; In, W. K.; Park, J. R.; Lee, C. C.; Auh, G. S.

    1996-01-01

    The 3-D power distribution synthesis scheme was implemented in Totally Integrated Core Operation Monitoring System (TICOMS), which is under development as the next generation core monitoring system. The on-line 3-D core power distribution obtained from the measured fixed incore detector readings is used to construct the hot pin power as well as the core average axial power distribution. The core average axial power distribution and the hot pin power of TICOMS were compared with those of the current digital on-line core monitoring system, COLSS, which construct the core average axial power distribution and the pseudo hot pin power. The comparison shows that TICOMS results in the slightly more accurate core average axial power distribution and the less conservative hot pin power. Therefore, these results increased the core operating margins. In addition, the on-line 3-D power distribution is expected to be very useful for the core operation in the future

  11. Improved quasi parton distribution through Wilson line renormalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei [Department of Physics, Center for Theoretical Sciences, and Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ji, Xiangdong [INPAC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Zhang, Jian-Hui, E-mail: jianhui.zhang@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Recent developments showed that hadron light-cone parton distributions could be directly extracted from spacelike correlators, known as quasi parton distributions, in the large hadron momentum limit. Unlike the normal light-cone parton distribution, a quasi parton distribution contains ultraviolet (UV) power divergence associated with the Wilson line self energy. We show that to all orders in the coupling expansion, the power divergence can be removed by a “mass” counterterm in the auxiliary z-field formalism, in the same way as the renormalization of power divergence for an open Wilson line. After adding this counterterm, the quasi quark distribution is improved such that it contains at most logarithmic divergences. Based on a simple version of discretized gauge action, we present the one-loop matching kernel between the improved non-singlet quasi quark distribution with a lattice regulator and the corresponding quark distribution in dimensional regularization.

  12. Improved quasi parton distribution through Wilson line renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Wei Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments showed that hadron light-cone parton distributions could be directly extracted from spacelike correlators, known as quasi parton distributions, in the large hadron momentum limit. Unlike the normal light-cone parton distribution, a quasi parton distribution contains ultraviolet (UV power divergence associated with the Wilson line self energy. We show that to all orders in the coupling expansion, the power divergence can be removed by a “mass” counterterm in the auxiliary z-field formalism, in the same way as the renormalization of power divergence for an open Wilson line. After adding this counterterm, the quasi quark distribution is improved such that it contains at most logarithmic divergences. Based on a simple version of discretized gauge action, we present the one-loop matching kernel between the improved non-singlet quasi quark distribution with a lattice regulator and the corresponding quark distribution in dimensional regularization.

  13. Rural and urban distribution of trauma incidents in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J J; McConnell, N J; Orman, J A; Egan, G; Jansen, J O

    2013-02-01

    Trauma systems reduce mortality and improve functional outcomes from injury. Regional trauma networks have been established in several European regions to address longstanding deficiencies in trauma care. A perception of the geography and population distribution as challenging has delayed the introduction of a trauma system in Scotland. The characteristics of trauma incidents attended by the Scottish Ambulance Service were analysed, to gain a better understanding of the geospatial characteristics of trauma in Scotland. Data on trauma incidents collected by the Scottish Ambulance Service between November 2008 and October 2010 were obtained. Incident location was analysed by health board region, rurality and social deprivation. The results are presented as number of patients, average annual incidence rates and relative risks. Of the 141,668 incidents identified, 72·1 per cent occurred in urban regions. The risk of being involved in an incident was similar across the most populous regions, and decreased slightly with increasing rurality. Social deprivation was associated with greater numbers and risk. A total of 53·1 per cent of patients were taken to a large general hospital, and 38·6 per cent to a teaching hospital; the distribution was similar for the subset of incidents involving patients with physiological derangements. The majority of trauma incidents in Scotland occur in urban and deprived areas. A regionalized system of trauma care appears plausible, although the precise configuration of such a system requires further study. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Lightning Performance on Overhead Distribution Lines : After Improvement Field Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Zoro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Two feeders of 20 kV overhead distribution lines which are located in a high lightning density area are chosen to be observed as a field study due to their good lightning performance after improvement of lightning protection system. These two feeders used the new overhead ground wire and new line arrester equipped with lightning counter on the main lines. The significant reduced of lines outages are reported. Study was carried out to observe these improvements by comparing to the other two feeders line which are not improved and not equipped yet with the ground wire and line arrester. These two feeders located in the nearby area. Two cameras were installed to record the trajectory of the lightning strikes on the improved lines. Lightning peak currents are measured using magnetic tape measurement system installed on the grounding lead of lightning arrester. Lightning overvoltage calculations are carried out by using several scenarios based on observation results and historical lightning data derived from lightning detection network. Lightning overvoltages caused by indirect or direct strikes are analyzed to get the lightning performance of the lines. The best scenario was chosen and performance of the lines were improved significantly by installing overhead ground wire and improvement of lightning arrester installation.

  15. Asymmetric Bimodal Exponential Power Distribution on the Real Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Niyazi Çankaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric bimodal exponential power (ABEP distribution is an extension of the generalized gamma distribution to the real line via adding two parameters that fit the shape of peakedness in bimodality on the real line. The special values of peakedness parameters of the distribution are a combination of half Laplace and half normal distributions on the real line. The distribution has two parameters fitting the height of bimodality, so capacity of bimodality is enhanced by using these parameters. Adding a skewness parameter is considered to model asymmetry in data. The location-scale form of this distribution is proposed. The Fisher information matrix of these parameters in ABEP is obtained explicitly. Properties of ABEP are examined. Real data examples are given to illustrate the modelling capacity of ABEP. The replicated artificial data from maximum likelihood estimates of parameters of ABEP and other distributions having an algorithm for artificial data generation procedure are provided to test the similarity with real data. A brief simulation study is presented.

  16. Wilson line distributions in hot SU(2) gluodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    Monte-Carlo results concerning the order parameter related to confinement and its distribution from the point of view of the dilute instanton gas approximation are Discussed. Identified is a threshold effect in the Wilson line distribution with the onset of instantons and established is the relation between the temperature of instanton saturation and the confinement temperature. Some other details of our Monte-Carlo results are reported as well

  17. Distribution Line Parameter Estimation Under Consideration of Measurement Tolerances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    conductance that the absolute compensated error is −1.05% and −1.07% for both representations, as opposed to the expected uncompensated error of −79.68%. Identification of a laboratory distribution line using real measurement data grid yields a deviation of 6.75% and 4.00%, respectively, from a calculation...

  18. Designing concept on lightning protection of overhead power distribution line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shigeru [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)], E-mail: yokoyama@criepi.denken.or.jp

    2007-07-01

    The principle is shown for lightning protection of power distribution lines taking the effects of surge arresters, overhead ground wires and their combined use into consideration. Moreover an outline of a rational design method targeting direct lightning hits, induced over voltages and back flow currents from high structures. (author)

  19. Frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutvei, Anders Peter; Fredlund, Erik; Lendahl, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated Notch signaling is linked to a variety of tumors and it is therefore important to learn more about the frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in a tumor context. In this report, we use data from the recently developed Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia to assess the frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in a large panel of cancer cell lines in silico. Our results show that the mutation frequency of Notch receptor and ligand genes is at par with that for established oncogenes and higher than for a set of house-keeping genes. Mutations were found across all four Notch receptor genes, but with notable differences between protein domains, mutations were for example more prevalent in the regions encoding the LNR and PEST domains in the Notch intracellular domain. Furthermore, an in silico estimation of functional impact showed that deleterious mutations cluster to the ligand-binding and the intracellular domains of NOTCH1. For most cell line groups, the mutation frequency of Notch genes is higher than in associated primary tumors. Our results shed new light on the spectrum of Notch mutations after in vitro culturing of tumor cells. The higher mutation frequency in tumor cell lines indicates that Notch mutations are associated with a growth advantage in vitro, and thus may be considered to be driver mutations in a tumor cell line context. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1278-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  20. On-line Professional Learning Communities: Increasing Teacher Learning and Productivity in Isolated Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Salazar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available On-line and distance professional learning communities provides teachers with increased access and flexibility as well as the combination of work and education. It also provides a more learner-centered approach, enrichment and new ways of interacting with teachers in isolated rural areas. For educational administrators, on-line learning offers high quality and usually cost-effective professional development for teachers. It allows upgrading of skills, increased productivity and development of a new learning culture. At the same time, it means sharing of costs, of training time, increased portability of training, and the exchange of creativity, information, and dialogue.

  1. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Yuan, Chenyi; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Tang, Jianhui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Coveney, Raymond M.; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM 10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM 10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 μg/m 3 , respectively. The similarities in PM 10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM 10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM 10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM 10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM 10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM 10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM 10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

  2. Deriving Particle Distributions from In-Line Fraunhofer Holographic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarcia, C.A.; Johnson, D.E.; Sorenson, D.S.; Frederickson, R.H.; Delanoy, A.D.; Malone, R.M.; Tunnel, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Holographic data are acquired during hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments produce a fine spray of fast-moving particles. Snapshots of the spray are captured using in-line Fraunhofer holographic techniques. Roughly one cubic centimeter is recorded by the hologram. Minimum detectable particle size in the data extends down to 2 microns. In a holography reconstruction system, a laser illuminates the hologram as it rests in a three-axis actuator, recreating the snapshot of the experiment. A computer guides the actuators through an orderly sequence programmed by the user. At selected intervals, slices of this volume are captured and digitized with a CCD camera. Intermittent on-line processing of the image data and computer control of the camera functions optimizes statistics of the acquired image data for off-line processing. Tens of thousands of individual data frames (30 to 40 gigabytes of data) are required to recreate a digital representation of the snapshot. Throughput of the reduction system is 550 megabytes per hour (MB/hr). Objects and associated features from the data are subsequently extracted during off-line processing. Discrimination and correlation tests reject noise, eliminate multiple counting of particles, and build an error model to estimate performance. Objects surviving these tests are classified as particles. The particle distributions are derived from the data base formed by these particles, their locations and features. Throughput of the off-line processing exceeds 500 MB/hr. This paper describes the reduction system, outlines the off-line processing procedure, summarizes the discrimination and correlation tests, and reports numerical results for a sample data set

  3. Determinant Factors of Rural Income Distribution with Special Reference to Information and Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sepehrdoust

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of information and communication technology development on economic development and income distribution of rural communities and to answer this question that whether the development of information and communication technologies in rural areas could improve income distribution condition in these communities or not. To this end, data on 30 province of country during 2000-2009 and panel data method has used. Results approves Kuznet's inverted U theory with respect to the economic growth and income distribution and shows that information and communication technology development has improved the income distribution and economic justice in country's rural communities. The negative and significant coefficient (-0.15, of number of computer users among rural households, show that the development of information and communication technologies in rural areas of the country play as a factor for improving income distribution in these communities. The model estimation also showed a significant and positive effect of urbanization and unemployment on the dependent variable. This means that with rising unemployment, the condition of income distribution has worsened in rural communities during the period of study.

  4. On-line analyzers to distributed control system linking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S.F.; Buchanan, B.R.; Sanders, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) of the Savannah River Laboratory is developing on-line analyzers to monitor various site processes. Data from some of the on-line analyzers (OLA's) will be used for process control by distributed control systems (DCS's) such as the Fisher PRoVOX. A problem in the past has been an efficient and cost effective way to get analyzer data onto the DCS data highway. ADS is developing a system to accomplish the linking of OLA's to PRoVOX DCS's. The system will be described, and results of operation in a research and development environment given. Plans for the installation in the production environment will be discussed.

  5. Optimal Coordination of Automatic Line Switches for Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Cherng Gu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower, the margins of coordination times between the lateral circuit breakers (LCB of underground 4-way automatic line switches and the protection equipment of high voltage customers are often too small. This could lead to sympathy tripping by the feeder circuit breaker (FCB of the distribution feeder and create difficulties in protection coordination between upstream and downstream protection equipment, identification of faults, and restoration operations. In order to solve the problem, it is necessary to reexamine the protection coordination between LCBs and high voltage customers’ protection equipment, and between LCBs and FCBs, in order to bring forth new proposals for settings and operations. This paper applies linear programming to optimize the protection coordination of protection devices, and proposes new time current curves (TCCs for the overcurrent (CO and low-energy overcurrent (LCO relays used in normally open distribution systems by performing simulations in the Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP environment. The simulation results show that the new TCCs solve the coordination problems among high voltage customer, lateral, feeder, bus-interconnection, and distribution transformer. The new proposals also satisfy the requirements of Taipower on protection coordination of the distribution feeder automation system (DFAS. Finally, the authors believe that the system configuration, operation experience, and relevant criteria mentioned in this paper may serve as valuable references for other companies or utilities when building DFAS of their own.

  6. Recording real case data of earth faults in distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most common fault type in the electrical distribution networks is the single phase to earth fault. According to the earlier studies, for instance in Nordic countries, about 80 % of all faults are of this type. To develop the protection and fault location systems, it is important to obtain real case data of disturbances and faults which occur in the networks. For example, the earth fault initial transients can be used for earth fault location. The aim of this project was to collect and analyze real case data of the earth fault disturbances in the medium voltage distribution networks (20 kV). Therefore, data of fault occurrences were recorded at two substations, of which one has an unearthed and the other a compensated neutral, measured as follows: (a) the phase currents and neutral current for each line in the case of low fault resistance (b) the phase voltages and neutral voltage from the voltage measuring bay in the case of low fault resistance (c) the neutral voltage and the components of 50 Hz at the substation in the case of high fault resistance. In addition, the basic data of the fault occurrences were collected (data of the line, fault location, cause and so on). The data will be used in the development work of fault location and earth fault protection systems

  7. Recording real case data of earth faults in distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, S [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The most common fault type in the electrical distribution networks is the single phase to earth fault. According to the earlier studies, for instance in Nordic countries, about 80 % of all faults are of this type. To develop the protection and fault location systems, it is important to obtain real case data of disturbances and faults which occur in the networks. For example, the earth fault initial transients can be used for earth fault location. The aim of this project was to collect and analyze real case data of the earth fault disturbances in the medium voltage distribution networks (20 kV). Therefore, data of fault occurrences were recorded at two substations, of which one has an unearthed and the other a compensated neutral, measured as follows: (a) the phase currents and neutral current for each line in the case of low fault resistance (b) the phase voltages and neutral voltage from the voltage measuring bay in the case of low fault resistance (c) the neutral voltage and the components of 50 Hz at the substation in the case of high fault resistance. In addition, the basic data of the fault occurrences were collected (data of the line, fault location, cause and so on). The data will be used in the development work of fault location and earth fault protection systems

  8. Distribution of Iron in Rural Groundwater of Benue State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... absence of any other alternative.Some form of treatment like filtering and or Reverse Osmosis if can be afforded may be required to reduce the risk to health over time. The study has demonstrated the need for groundwater quality monitoring and management in the rural areas to ensure the safety of water being provided.

  9. The development of insecticide-treated durable wall lining for malaria control: insights from rural and urban populations in Angola and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messenger Louisa A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Durable lining (DL is a deltamethrin-impregnated polyethylene material, which is designed to cover domestic walls that would normally be sprayed with residual insecticide. The operational success of DL as a long-lasting insecticidal substrate will be dependent on a high level of user acceptability as households must maintain correctly installed linings on their walls for several years. Preliminary trials were undertaken to identify a material to develop into a marketable wall lining and to assess its level of acceptability among rural and urban populations. Methods In Angola (n=60, prototype DL and insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS were installed on urban house walls and ceilings, respectively, and acceptability was compared to indoor residual spraying (IRS (n=20 using a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP questionnaire. In Nigeria (n=178, three materials (prototype DL, ITPS and insecticide-treated wall netting were distributed among rural and urban households. User opinions were gathered from focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and KAP questionnaires. Results In Angola, after two weeks, the majority of participants (98% expressed satisfaction with the products and identified the killing of insects as the materials’ principal benefits (73%. After one year, despite a loss of almost 50% of households to refugee repatriation, all 32 remaining households still asserted that they had liked the DL/ITPS in their homes and given the choice of intervention preferred DL/ITPS to IRS (94% or insecticide-treated nets (78%. In Nigeria, a dichotomy between rural and urban respondents emerged. Rural participants favoured wall adornments and accepted wall linings because of their perceived decorative value and entomological efficacy. By contrast, urban households preferred minimal wall decoration and rejected the materials based upon objections to their aesthetics and installation feasibility. Conclusions The high level

  10. The development of insecticide-treated durable wall lining for malaria control: insights from rural and urban populations in Angola and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Durable lining (DL) is a deltamethrin-impregnated polyethylene material, which is designed to cover domestic walls that would normally be sprayed with residual insecticide. The operational success of DL as a long-lasting insecticidal substrate will be dependent on a high level of user acceptability as households must maintain correctly installed linings on their walls for several years. Preliminary trials were undertaken to identify a material to develop into a marketable wall lining and to assess its level of acceptability among rural and urban populations. Methods In Angola (n=60), prototype DL and insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) were installed on urban house walls and ceilings, respectively, and acceptability was compared to indoor residual spraying (IRS) (n=20) using a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire. In Nigeria (n=178), three materials (prototype DL, ITPS and insecticide-treated wall netting) were distributed among rural and urban households. User opinions were gathered from focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and KAP questionnaires. Results In Angola, after two weeks, the majority of participants (98%) expressed satisfaction with the products and identified the killing of insects as the materials’ principal benefits (73%). After one year, despite a loss of almost 50% of households to refugee repatriation, all 32 remaining households still asserted that they had liked the DL/ITPS in their homes and given the choice of intervention preferred DL/ITPS to IRS (94%) or insecticide-treated nets (78%). In Nigeria, a dichotomy between rural and urban respondents emerged. Rural participants favoured wall adornments and accepted wall linings because of their perceived decorative value and entomological efficacy. By contrast, urban households preferred minimal wall decoration and rejected the materials based upon objections to their aesthetics and installation feasibility. Conclusions The high level of acceptability

  11. Forecasting electric demand of distribution system planing in rural and sparsely populated regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, H.L.; Buri, M.J. [ABB Automated Distribution Div., Raleigh, NC (United States); Finley, L.A. [Snohomish County PUD, Everett, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Modern computerized distribution load forecasting methods, although accurate when applied to urban areas, give somewhat less satisfactory results when forecasting load growth in sparsely populated rural areas. This paper examines the differences between rural and urban load growth histories, identifying a major difference in the observed behavior of load growth. This difference is exploited in a new simulation forecasting algorithm. Tests show the new method is as accurate in forecasting rural load growth and as useful for analyzing DSM impacts than past methods, while requiring considerably lower computer resources and data than other simulation methods of comparable accuracy.

  12. Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy for Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security and Equitability of Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates on how Malaysia’s development landscapes has been poweredby cheap oil and gas making it dependent and addicted on using large amounts of fossil fuels. As acountry that is primarily depended on fossil fuels for generating power supply, Malaysia needs tocogitate of long-term energy security due to fossil fuel depletion and peak oil issues. Loss of theseresources could leadto thereduction of power generation capacitywhich will threaten the stabilityof the electricity supply in Malaysia. This could potentially influence in an increase in electricitycosts which lead to a phase of power scarcity and load shedding for the country. With the risk ofinterrupted power supplies, rural households, especially those of low-income groups areparticularly vulnerable to the post-effects of a power outage and an inequitable distribution to thepeople. Distributed generation of electricity by solar PVs diminishes the vulnerability of thesehouseholds and can also offer an income to them by feeding the power supply to the national gridthrough Feed-in Tariff scheme. At the moment, the deployment of solar PV installations is still inthe introductory stage in Malaysia, where roof-mounted PV panels are only available to commercialand urban residential buildings. This is due to the lack of a suitable renewable energy policy forrural households and the high cost of the solar PV technology. This paper will put forward ananalysis for incorporating solar photovoltaic on roofs of rural houses by identifying the energyconsumption of these households and the extent to which PVs can alleviate electricity insecurity.The results present significant potential for distributed PV power generation in rural areas inMalaysia which shown a considerable amount of electricity needed to be harvested from roofmountedsolar PV for rural people in Malaysia.

  13. PHENIX On-Line Distributed Computing System Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmond, Edmond; Haggerty, John; Kehayias, Hyon Joo; Purschke, Martin L.; Witzig, Chris; Kozlowski, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    PHENIX is one of the two large experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detector consists of 11 sub-detectors, that are further subdivided into 29 units (''granules'') that can be operated independently, which includes simultaneous data taking with independent data streams and independent triggers. The detector has 250,000 channels and is read out by front end modules, where the data is buffered in a pipeline while awaiting the level trigger decision. Zero suppression and calibration is done after the level accept in custom built data collection modules (DCMs) with DSPs before the data is sent to an event builder (design throughput of 2 Gb/sec) and higher level triggers. The On-line Computing Systems Group (ONCS) has two responsibilities. Firstly it is responsible for receiving the data from the event builder, routing it through a network of workstations to consumer processes and archiving it at a data rate of 20 MB/sec. Secondly it is also responsible for the overall configuration, control and operation of the detector and data acquisition chain, which comprises the software integration for several thousand custom built hardware modules. The software must furthermore support the independent operation of the above mentioned granules, which includes the coordination of processes that run in 60-100 VME processors and workstations. ONOS has adapted the Shlaer- Mellor Object Oriented Methodology for the design of the top layer software. CORBA is used as communication layer between the distributed objects, which are implemented as asynchronous finite state machines. We will give an overview of the PHENIX online system with the main focus on the system architecture, software components and integration tasks of the On-line Computing group ONCS and report on the status of the current prototypes

  14. The Urban/Rural Dichotomy in the Distribution of Breast Cancer Across Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukovalas, Stefanos; Sariego, Jack

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer rates clearly differ across the United States. This is due to a variety of factors, but at least one determinant is the population density. Breast cancer detection rates and treatment paradigms may differ in rural areas when compared with more urban ones. As the population becomes more mobile and diffuse, this may or may not be a worsening problem. The current analysis was undertaken to examine the breast cancer incidence and outcomes in a single state in an attempt to plan for resource allocation in the future. A retrospective analysis was performed using data available from the Pennsylvania Department of Health regarding breast cancer rates by county, the distribution of cases with regard to degree of rurality, death rates by county as a function of rurality, and the age distribution of all presenting cases. Data from 1999 were compared with those of 2009. The United States Census Bureau definition of rurality was used, which specifies that a county be classified as rural if the population density is less than 284 persons/square mile. Between 1999 and 2009, the population of Pennsylvania increased by approximately 3.4 per cent (421,325 people). The urban population increased by 3.9 per cent, whereas the rural population increased by only 2.2 per cent. During that same period, the number of cancer cases/100,000 population remained about the same: 391.41 in 1999; 390.7 in 2009. However, the distribution of cases shifted during that time toward more rural areas of the state: in 1999, there were 372.3 breast cancer cases/100,000 population compared with 2009 when the rate was 384.4/100,000 population. The number of cancer deaths/100,000 population actually dropped overall during the decade: 98.5 in 1999 versus 82.3 in 2009. Though this was true in both urban and rural counties, the decrease was much less pronounced in the rural areas. In urban counties, the death rate dropped from 100.5 to 81.5/100,000 population, whereas in rural counties, the drop was

  15. A Distributed System for Learning Programming On-Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Elena; Regueras, Luisa M.; Verdu, Maria J.; Leal, Jose P.; de Castro, Juan P.; Queiros, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Several Web-based on-line judges or on-line programming trainers have been developed in order to allow students to train their programming skills. However, their pedagogical functionalities in the learning of programming have not been clearly defined. EduJudge is a project which aims to integrate the "UVA On-line Judge", an existing…

  16. 76 FR 25576 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials..., suggested that the scope should include low-stress gas pipelines such as those associated with coal bed...

  17. An assessment of electricity and income distributional trends following rural electrification in poor northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermaier, Martin; Szklo, Alexandre; La Rovere, Emilio Lèbre; Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Rural electrification is considered to be a key strategy for poverty alleviation and sustainable development. It should therefore include (1) expanding electricity access and (2) enable new consumers to increase their electricity consumption. In this paper we ask how Brazil’s recent rural electrification efforts have managed to reach these objectives. A new method to measure energy and income equity is presented which uses estimations of non-parametric density curves for the analysis of energy and income distributional trends following electrification. By applying our method to a panel data set from two Brazilian states situated in the country’s poor northeast region we find that (1) rural consumers take up electricity consumption after electrification, and that (2) low consumption levels give way to higher electricity consumption levels after only a few years. This indicates immediate social benefits for households through consumption of electricity services. However, our analysis cannot verify a direct link between electricity use and rural income generation in the short term. The results emphasize the need for government and other actors to integrate rural electrification into broader rural development strategies in order to enable long-term welfare increases through electricity use. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive analysis of Brazil’s recent rural electrification efforts. ► New methodology to analyze energy and income equity trends ex post electrification. ► Analysis indicates immediate social benefits for electrified households. ► We cannot establish a direct link between electricity use and income in the short-run. ► Electrification thus should be integrated in long-term rural development strategies.

  18. Risk distribution across multiple health insurance funds in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares Gamba; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    cross-subsidisation across the funds. This paper analyses whether the risk distribution varies across the Community Health Fund (CHF) and National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in two districts in Tanzania. Specifically we aim to 1) identify risk factors associated with increased utilisation of health...... services and 2) compare the distribution of identified risk factors among the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. METHODS: Data was collected from a survey of 695 households. A multivariate logisitic regression model was used to identify risk factors for increased health care utilisation. Chi-square tests...... were performed to test whether the distribution of identified risk factors varied across the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. RESULTS: There was a higher concentration of identified risk factors among CHF households compared to those of the NHIF. Non-member households have a similar wealth status...

  19. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular

  20. Improving distribution efficiency of electrical network using geo-electrical options. A case study in a rural area of Assam (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, S.; Hiloidhari, M.; Baruah, D.C. [Energy Conservation Laboratory, Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam (India)

    2012-11-15

    Reduction of electricity distribution loss is a major area of focus in India. This paper aims to investigate geo-electrical options to improve distribution efficiency of electrical network. Distribution efficiencies corresponding to several possible electrical network options are assessed using Geographical Information System (GIS) integrated electrical theory. An existing electrical distribution network of a rural area in Assam (India) is considered for the present investigation. Information related to characteristics of loads, features of conductors, and transformers of the existing network are used for this investigation. The line losses of the three existing transformers are estimated at about 36, 20, and 3 % of their respective connected loads. Longer distribution lines associated with higher loads are the causes of higher line losses. Using basic electrical theory and GIS tools, it is found that line losses can be reduced in the existing distribution system through management of distribution transformer and reconductoring. Two alternative locations for each of the three transformers are identified for optimal management of distribution transformers. Similarly, five different types of commercially available conductors are identified for possible reconductoring to reduce line loss. The economic viability of reconductoring of distribution lines are also assessed through an economic analysis. Net present values of total expenditure comprising purchase prices of conductor and cost attributed to line losses are estimated considering 30 years of useful life. The existing conductor has the worst economic merit, though it is the cheapest amongst all. A net saving of about USD 24,084 is possible through the best choice of distribution conductor for the village.

  1. Power distribution networks in rural extensions; Construcion de redes de distribucion con acometidas rurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-12-31

    This paper shows the technical, functional and social-economical aspects of the construction of power distribution networks in Mexico. The technical aspects under investigation includes: tension lowering, mechanical properties of the conductor devices and distances involved. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  2. Abate distribution and dengue control in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore H

    2007-02-01

    Sustainable public health and community collaboration and partnerships are essential for the effective elimination of vector breeding sites to prevent dengue fever. A prerequisite is that community members appreciate the importance of the infection, understand its transmission and preventive activities, and are able to translate such knowledge to action. In this paper, we draw on an ethnographic study of two villages in the eastern province of Kampong Cham, using data collected from qualitative research methods and entomological surveys to describe community knowledge of the vector, practices related to the reduction of breeding sources, and the effectiveness of temephos to control larvae. During the study period, temephos (distributed as Abate) was applied in water containers only in the rainy season, although these containers were also positive with larvae in the dry season. Discarded containers, ignored in terms of control activities, had twice the number of larvae as water storage containers. The continued reliance on Abate creates financial and technical problems, while its inappropriate distribution raises the possibility of larvicide resistance. Based on research findings, we argue that control strategies emphasizing the use of Abate should be reconsidered.

  3. Simulation and optimization of logistics distribution for an engine production line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, L.; Jin, S.; Tang, P.

    2016-07-01

    In order to analyze and study the factors about Logistics distribution system, solve the problems of out of stock on the production line and improve the efficiency of the assembly line. Using the method of industrial engineering, put forward the optimization scheme of distribution system. The simulation model of logistics distribution system for engine assembly line was build based on Witness software. The optimization plan is efficient to improve Logistics distribution efficiency, production of assembly line efficiency and reduce the storage of production line. Based on the study of the modeling and simulation of engine production logistics distribution system, the result reflects some influence factors about production logistics system, which has reference value to improving the efficiency of the production line. (Author)

  4. Simulation and optimization of logistics distribution for an engine production line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to analyze and study the factors about Logistics distribution system, solve the problems of out of stock on the production line and improve the efficiency of the assembly line. Design/methodology/approach: Using the method of industrial engineering, put forward the optimization scheme of distribution system. The simulation model of logistics distribution system for engine assembly line was build based on Witness software. Findings: The optimization plan is efficient to improve Logistics distribution efficiency, production of assembly line efficiency and reduce the storage of production line Originality/value: Based on the study of the modeling and simulation of engine production logistics distribution system, the result reflects some influence factors about production logistics system, which has reference value to improving the efficiency of the production line.

  5. Zenith distribution and flux of atmospheric muons measured with the 5-line ANTARES detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubertg, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Berting, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunnerg, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenweing, J. -P.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kretschmer, W.; Loehner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The ANTARES high-energy neutrino telescope is a three-dimensional array of about 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 mooring lines installed in the Mediterranean Sea. Between February and November 2007 it acquired data in a 5-line configuration. The zenith angular distribution of the

  6. A simple distributed sediment delivery approach for rural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Scherer, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The transfer of sediments from source areas to surface waters is a complex process. In process based erosion models sediment input is thus quantified by representing all relevant sub processes such as detachment, transport and deposition of sediment particles along the flow path to the river. A successful application of these models requires, however, a large amount of spatially highly resolved data on physical catchment characteristics, which is only available for a few, well examined small catchments. For the lack of appropriate models, the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is widely applied to quantify the sediment production in meso to large scale basins. As the USLE provides long-term mean soil loss rates, it is often combined with spatially lumped models to estimate the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). In these models, the SDR is related to data on morphological characteristics of the catchment such as average local relief, drainage density, proportion of depressions or soil texture. Some approaches include the relative distance between sediment source areas and the river channels. However, several studies showed that spatially lumped parameters describing the morphological characteristics are only of limited value to represent the factors of influence on sediment transport at the catchment scale. Sediment delivery is controlled by the location of the sediment source areas in the catchment and the morphology along the flow path to the surface water bodies. This complex interaction of spatially varied physiographic characteristics cannot be adequately represented by lumped morphological parameters. The objective of this study is to develop a simple but spatially distributed approach to quantify the sediment delivery ratio by considering the characteristics of the flow paths in a catchment. We selected a small catchment located in in an intensively cultivated loess region in Southwest Germany as study area for the development of the SDR approach. The

  7. Optimal Value of Series Capacitors for Uniform Field Distribution in Transmission Line MRI Coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Transmission lines are often used as coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to the distributed nature of transmission lines, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the coil....... The equations for optimal values of evenly distributed capacitors are derived and expressed in terms of the implemented transmission line parameters.The achieved magnetic field homogeneity is estimated under quasistatic approximation and compared to the regular transmission line resonator. Finally, a more...... practical case of a microstrip line coil with two series capacitors is considered....

  8. Stream lines for a pure multipole current distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora-T, A.

    1990-01-01

    We give an equation describing the electric current stream-lines on the surface of a sphere that generates a magnetic field which contains a single multipole component. The equation shows how to wind a coil in order to produce a pure multipole field and helps to give an intuitive grasp of how well existing traps approximate multipoles. (Author)

  9. Line and Circle Formation of Distributed Physical Mobile Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Xiaoping; Alptekin, Gokhan; Albayrak, Okay

    1997-01-01

    The formation problem of distributed mobile robots was studied in the literature for idealized robots. Idealized robots are able to instantaneously move in any directions, and are equipped with perfect range sensors. In this study, we address the formation problem of distributed mobile robots that are subject to physical constraints. Mobile robots considered in this study have physical dimensions and their motions are governed by physical laws. They are equipped with sonar and ...

  10. Considerations for decision-making on distributed power generation in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtmeyer, Melissa L.; Wang, Shuxiao; Axelbaum, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Energy resources for rural electrification are variable and widely dispersed, such that a solution for one region might not be appropriate for another. This study evaluates the feasibility of renewable energy technologies, centralized grid extension and local coal-fired power for rural areas that currently do not have sufficient access to electricity. The renewable power generation options considered are solar photovoltaic and wind power, with battery storage or fossil fuel generator backup. New local coal-fired power, as well as extension of the grid from an existing centralized power system, are considered to compare the impacts of scale and traditional approaches to power generation. A case study for a rural area in Northwestern China demonstrates the complexity of energy decision-making when faced with low peak demands and non-ideal renewable resource availability. Economic factors, including cost of electricity generation, breakeven grid extension distance, capacity shortage fraction (the ratio of the annual capacity shortage to the annual electric load) and land use are evaluated. - Highlights: • Considerations include technical and non-technical factors for energy decisions. • Coal and renewable power are compared based on cost and availability of resources. • Key factors for renewable power generation are capacity shortage and availability of resources. • Rural China case study evaluates the viability of distributed wind or solar power relative to coal

  11. The distribution of economic impacts among rural households: A general equilibrium evaluation of regional water policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernstedt, K.

    1991-01-01

    This study focuses on the relative distribution among urban and rural household income classes on the economic impacts of two water-related policies in the Columbia River Basin in the northwestern US. The two policies involve: (1) strategies to improve downstream anadromous fish migrations currently hindered by hydropower operations; and (2) proposals to transfer water from irrigation to hydropower generation. A regional input-output model traces the economic effects of the initial demand and price changes through the entire region. The model incorporates price changes in both a short-run (all endogenous prices are fixed) and a longer-run framework based on a Cobb-Douglas representation (all prices can vary). The analysis suggests that the construction of facilities to enhance fish migration and the physical transport of fish have opposite relative effects. The former benefits rural households, while the latter benefits urban households. Electricity price increases resulting from altered hydropower operations harm middle-income rural households, in the short-run. In the longer-run, electricity price increases seem to favor relatively all rural households. Changes associated with the water transfer policy also include electricity price alterations, as well as price and demand changes for agricultural products. Rural households benefit relative to urban households from agricultural product final demand increases, and tend to lose relatively with agricultural price and demand decreases. The inclusion of secondary impacts allows decision makers to asses the income effects of a project across a wider segment of the population, while the incorporation of short-and longer-run economic frameworks allows policy makers to assess both immediate and future income changes

  12. Techniques for obtaining velocity distributions of atoms or ions from Doppler-broadened spectral line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, T.G.

    1986-12-01

    Analysis of the doppler-broadened profiles of spectral lines radiated by atoms or ions in plasmas yields information about their velocity distributions. Researchers have analysed profiles of lines radiated by atoms in isotropic velocity distributions in several ways, one being the inversion of the integral equation which relates the velocity distribution to the line profile. This inversion formula was derived for a separate application and was given to within an arbitrary multiplicative constant. This paper presents a new derivation which obtains the inversion exactly, using a method which is easily generalized for determination of anisotropic velocity distribution functions. The technique to obtain an anisotropic velocity distribution function from line profiles measured at different angles is outlined

  13. A distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer for high voltage nanosecond pulse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Li, Longjie; He, Jiaxin; Li, Chenjie; Wang, Yifeng; Su, Can

    2017-09-01

    A transmission line transformer has potential advantages for nanosecond pulse generation including excellent frequency response and no leakage inductance. The wave propagation process in a secondary mode line is indispensable due to an obvious inside transient electromagnetic transition in this scenario. The equivalent model of the transmission line transformer is crucial for predicting the output waveform and evaluating the effects of magnetic cores on output performance. However, traditional lumped parameter models are not sufficient for nanosecond pulse generation due to the natural neglect of wave propagations in secondary mode lines based on a lumped parameter assumption. In this paper, a distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer was established to investigate wave propagation in the secondary mode line and its influential factors through theoretical analysis and experimental verification. The wave propagation discontinuity in the secondary mode line induced by magnetic cores is emphasized. Characteristics of the magnetic core under a nanosecond pulse were obtained by experiments. Distribution and formation of the secondary mode current were determined for revealing essential wave propagation processes in secondary mode lines. The output waveform and efficiency were found to be affected dramatically by wave propagation discontinuity in secondary mode lines induced by magnetic cores. The proposed distributed parameter model was proved more suitable for nanosecond pulse generation in aspects of secondary mode current, output efficiency, and output waveform. In depth, comprehension of underlying mechanisms and a broader view of the working principle of the transmission line transformer for nanosecond pulse generation can be obtained through this research.

  14. ON-LINE ADVERTISING AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOURISTIC SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Petkovska MIRCHEVSKA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet approach has a unique placement technology of the economic propaganda message and has an innovative campaign for development and maximization of the marketing message effectiveness, as well as information distribution and a feedback for its valorization. This medium arrays over 70 million unique visitors per month. More than 7 billion web site marketing messages are being delivered monthly on over 1900 web sites. According to demographic and geographic characteristics, there are specific channels that help companies to locate their desired audience. The Internet approach is exposed to innovations that are developing continuously in order to bigger creative role to be accomplished. Those innovative elements of the Internet approach can be media signs, floating messages, sound- audio effects, streaming, video etc.

  15. Prediction of the Voltage Quality in an Overhead Transmission Line with Distributed Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bulyga Leonid L.; Tarasov Evgeniy V.; Ushakov Vasily Ya.; Kharlov Nikolay N.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is devoted to investigation of an electrical transmission line with allowance for distributed parameters. From the results of voltage measurements at terminals of an actual transmission line, effective values of the voltage are calculated for every line section. Special attention is given to higher harmonics and asymmetry. Spectral composition of the voltage is presented and changes in values of harmonic components are analyzed. The effect of higher harmonics on the equipment...

  16. Prediction of the Voltage Quality in an Overhead Transmission Line with Distributed Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulyga Leonid L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to investigation of an electrical transmission line with allowance for distributed parameters. From the results of voltage measurements at terminals of an actual transmission line, effective values of the voltage are calculated for every line section. Special attention is given to higher harmonics and asymmetry. Spectral composition of the voltage is presented and changes in values of harmonic components are analyzed. The effect of higher harmonics on the equipment operation is analyzed.

  17. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A.

    2011-01-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments. PMID:21652741

  18. Identification of lines of electric lines of three-phase distribution networks in the composition of ASMAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorov Turatbek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of protection of a three-phase four-wire distribution network (DEN with a voltage of 0.4 kV from the interruption of electric power lines is considered. On the basis of the analysis of the values of complex resistances of interpersonal sections of the main line of the network, criteria are proposed that allow detecting critical situations associated with discontinuities in power transmission lines. Using these criteria makes it possible to localize the places of breaks of phase and neutral wires. Mathematical models and methods that are used to evaluate the complex resistances of interpersonal sections of a three-phase network are briefly considered. The obtained results are oriented for use in the automated system of electricity control and accounting (ASMAE.

  19. Effects of indirect lightning strokes on lossy power distribution lines in the presence of nonlinear loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimian, M. S.; Sadeghi, S. H. H.; Moini, R.

    2003-01-01

    Cloud-to-ground lightning strokes can include dangerous overvoltage on power distribution overhead lines. In this paper, a new algorithm is propagated within a distribution network including nonlinear apparatus. The coupling between the lightning channel and the overhead line is based on an antenna theory model and employs the method of moment for solving the governing electric field integral equation. The computed induced overvoltage is then used in the electromagnetic transient program to analyze its propagation within the distribution network. In this regard, the accuracy of the new coupling method is demonstrated by comparing the calculated induced over voltages using the new method and those obtained using the conventional methods. Simulation results are presented to show how the induced overvoltage is penetrated in a typical distribution network, consisting of overhead lines and underground cables, a distribution transformer protected by surge arresters and a three-phase resistive load

  20. [Migration from a rural zone to an urban one is associated with android distribution of body fat in obese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barranco, J; López-Alvarenga, J C; Roiz-Simancas, M; Bravo-García, A L; Fanghänel-Salmón, G; Laviada Arrigunaga, E; Castaño, L R; García Tapia, M P

    2001-01-01

    Studies about migration to industrialized countries have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemias, all of them related to android body fat distribution. Migration status might be influence body fat distribution but it has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and migration from rural to urban areas in Mexico. This sequential sample of 433 women were seen in the outpatient obesity clinic of four federal states: Tabasco (n = 81), Mexico City (n = 166), Coahuila (n = 80), and Yucatan (n = 106). Migration history from rural to urban area, familial history of diabetes, ages of onset of obesity, height and weight circumferences were obtained. A regression logistic model was used and maintained as dependent variable body fat distribution. Age and federal state were considered as confounders and they adjusted the model. Migrating women from rural to urban area were 121 (27.9%). The waist circumference was higher in Tabasco (102.2 +/- 12 cm), and lesser in Yucatan (93.6 +/- 15 cm, p < 0.001); no differences were found for hip circumference. The logistic regression model showed that body fat distribution is associated to migration from rural to urban area, and also to diabetes of mother and age of onset of obesity. Migrating from rural to urban area is a risk factor for android body fat distribution and this risk increases with age, history of diabetes in mother and adulthood onset o obesity.

  1. Experimental study on distributed optical fiber-based approach monitoring saturation line in levee engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huaizhi; Li, Hao; Kang, Yeyuan; Wen, Zhiping

    2018-02-01

    Seepage is one of key factors which affect the levee engineering safety. The seepage danger without timely detection and rapid response may likely lead to severe accidents such as seepage failure, slope instability, and even levee break. More than 90 percent of levee break events are caused by the seepage. It is very important for seepage behavior identification to determine accurately saturation line in levee engineering. Furthermore, the location of saturation line has a major impact on slope stability in levee engineering. Considering the structure characteristics and service condition of levee engineering, the distributed optical fiber sensing technology is introduced to implement the real-time observation of saturation line in levee engineering. The distributed optical fiber temperature sensor system (DTS)-based monitoring principle of saturation line in levee engineering is investigated. An experimental platform, which consists of DTS, heating system, water-supply system, auxiliary analysis system and levee model, is designed and constructed. The monitoring experiment of saturation line in levee model is implemented on this platform. According to the experimental results, the numerical relationship between moisture content and thermal conductivity in porous medium is identified. A line heat source-based distributed optical fiber method obtaining the thermal conductivity in porous medium is developed. A DTS-based approach is proposed to monitor the saturation line in levee engineering. The embedment pattern of optical fiber for monitoring saturation line is presented.

  2. The role of Decentralized Distributed Generation in achieving universal rural electrification in South Asia by 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Kapil; Nagai, Yu; Pachauri, Shonali

    2012-01-01

    This study is motivated by the goal of achieving ‘Universal Energy Access’ by 2030 and looks at electricity access for rural households in the South Asian region. The ‘MESSAGE-Access’ model is employed to assess the cost effectiveness of centralized and Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) technologies. Delivery mechanisms are modelled to include mini-grid and stand-alone systems and the analysis includes an estimation of rural household electricity demand from lighting and appliances. We assume two future demand scenarios with a ‘minimum threshold’ and a ‘higher threshold’ of electricity consumption of 65 and 420 kW h per household per year, respectively. We find that the cost of delivering electricity by centralized generation and grid distribution is up to four times the cost of stand-alone and mini-grid DDG options in the case of ‘minimum threshold’ demand scenario. These results are robust to alternate assumptions regarding costs of technologies. We also estimate that public subsidy bill for kerosene can be substantially reduced if all households switch to electricity as their primary source of lighting. Thus, promoting DDG options can reduce capital investments needed to meet access goals significantly and have an important role to play, in meeting the goal of universal electrification by 2030. - Highlights: ► We model and assess DDG options for rural electrification in South Asia. ► Particularly, when demand is low, off-grid and mini-grid are least cost options for electrification. ► DDG options can be 3–4 times cheaper than extending a central grid. ► Kerosene lighting is up to 6 times as expensive as electric lighting. ► If electricity replaces kerosene for lighting, large subsidy savings can be realized.

  3. Resources, not capital: A case study of the gendered distribution and productivity of social network ties in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Torkelsson, A.

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record A rigid division of labor between men and women in the rural areas of developing countries oblige women to pursue household responsibilities while men work in the field for economic purposes. They use different resources for their livelihood strategies; therefore, men and women experience different opportunities and limitations to access the resources. With a case study of a rural village in Ethiopia, the author examines the gendered role in the distribution and produc...

  4. Distribution and Determinants of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Rural Chinese Twins across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelong Ji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma homocysteine (Hcy is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD and is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to describe the gender- and age-specific distribution of Hcy concentration for 1117 subjects aged 10–66 years, a subset of a community-based rural Chinese twin cohort. In addition, we examined environmental and genetic contributions to variances in Hcy concentration by gender and age groups. We found that the distribution pattern for Hcy varied by both age and gender. Males had higher Hcy than females across all ages. Elevated Hcy was found in 43% of male adults and 13% of female adults. Moreover, nearly one fifth of children had elevated Hcy. Genetic factors could explain 52%, 36% and 69% of the variation in Hcy concentration among children, male adults and female adults, respectively. The MTHFR C677T variant was significantly associated with Hcy concentrations. Smokers with the TT genotype had the highest Hcy levels. Overall, our results indicate that elevated Hcy is prevalent in the children and adults in this rural Chinese population. The early identification of elevated Hcy will offer a window of opportunity for the primary prevention of CVD and metabolic syndrome.

  5. Millimeter-wave Line Ratios and Sub-beam Volume Density Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronmico Nacional (IGN), C/Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Schruba, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bigiel, Frank [Institute für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Schinnerer, Eva [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kepley, Amanda [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blanc, Guillermo A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy, Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and Joint Space Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cormier, Diane; Jiménez-Donaire, Maria J. [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Hughes, Annie [CNRS, IRAP, 9 av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    We explore the use of mm-wave emission line ratios to trace molecular gas density when observations integrate over a wide range of volume densities within a single telescope beam. For observations targeting external galaxies, this case is unavoidable. Using a framework similar to that of Krumholz and Thompson, we model emission for a set of common extragalactic lines from lognormal and power law density distributions. We consider the median density of gas that produces emission and the ability to predict density variations from observed line ratios. We emphasize line ratio variations because these do not require us to know the absolute abundance of our tracers. Patterns of line ratio variations have the potential to illuminate the high-end shape of the density distribution, and to capture changes in the dense gas fraction and median volume density. Our results with and without a high-density power law tail differ appreciably; we highlight better knowledge of the probability density function (PDF) shape as an important area. We also show the implications of sub-beam density distributions for isotopologue studies targeting dense gas tracers. Differential excitation often implies a significant correction to the naive case. We provide tabulated versions of many of our results, which can be used to interpret changes in mm-wave line ratios in terms of adjustments to the underlying density distributions.

  6. The Regional and Local Distribution of Funds Allocated by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA-MIRELA MARCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to present and analyze the regional and local distribution of the funds allocated by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD, European fund that finances rural development in Romania, in the post-accession period. This financing instrument was created by the European Union with the order to continue the main directions of investment of Special Pre-Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development (SAPARD. As a member state of the European Union, Romania observes the principles of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP while the development of the Romanian rural area for the programming period 2007-2013 is supported by the European Community through the National Rural Development Programme (RDP. This approach pays special attention to improving the quality of life in rural areas and the diversification of the rural economy because local communities in Romania have experienced some changes in this period, while accessing EAFRD funds contributed to increased regional disparities between developed and poor areas.

  7. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli: Prevalence and Pathotype Distribution in Children from Peruvian Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Gonzalo J; Vigo, Natalia I; Durand, David; Riveros, Maribel; Arango, Sara; Zambruni, Mara; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-09-07

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are common pathogens of childhood gastrointestinal infections worldwide. To date, research tracking DEC has mainly been completed in urban areas. This study aims to determine the prevalence and pathotype distribution of DEC strains in children from rural Peruvian communities and to establish their association with malnutrition. In this prospective cohort, 93 children aged 6-13 months from rural communities of Urubamba (Andes) and Moyobamba (jungle) were followed for 6 months. Diarrheal and control stool samples were analyzed using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction to identify the presence of virulence genes of DEC strains. The overall isolation rate of DEC was 43.0% (352/820). Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC, 20.4%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, 14.2%), and diffusely aggregative E. coli (DAEC, 11.0%) were the most prevalent pathotypes. EAEC was more frequently found in Moyobamba samples (P jungle of Peru. In addition, children with a greater decline in their growth rate had higher EAEC isolation rates, highlighting the importance of this pathogen in child malnutrition. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. A study of subsurface wastewater infiltration systems for distributed rural sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Dou, Junfeng; Ding, Aizhong; Xie, En; Zheng, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Three types of subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWIS) were developed to study the efficiency of organic pollutant removal from distributed rural sewage under various conditions. Of the three different layered substrate systems, the one with the greatest amount of decomposed cow dung (5%) and soil (DCDS) showed the highest removal efficiency with respect to total nitrogen (TN), where the others showed no significant difference. The TN removal efficiency was increased with an increasing filling height of DCDS. Compared with the TN removal efficiency of 25% in the system without DCDS, the removal efficiency of the systems in which DCDS filled half and one fourth of the height was increased by 72% and 31%, respectively. Based on seasonal variations in the discharge of the typical rural family, the SWIS were run at three different hydraulic loads of 6.5, 13 and 20 cm/d. These results illustrated that SWIS could perform well at any of the given hydraulic loads. The results of trials using different inlet configurations showed that the effluent concentration of the contaminants in the system operating a multiple-inlet mode was much lower compared with the system operated under single-inlet conditions. The effluent concentration ofa pilot-scale plant achieved the level III criteria specified by the Surface Water Quality Standard at the initial stage.

  9. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  10. Improving the Distribution of Rural Health Houses Using Elicitation and GIS in Khuzestan Province (the Southwest of Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Valinejadi, Ali; Sakipour, Sara; Hemmat, Morteza; Zarei, Javad; Askari Majdabadi, Hesamedin

    2017-08-27

    Rural health houses constitute a major provider of some primary health services in the villages of Iran. Given the challenges of providing health services in rural areas, health houses should be established based on the criteria of health network systems (HNSs). The value of these criteria and their precedence over others have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The present study was conducted to propose a model for improving the distribution of rural health houses in HNSs. The present applied study was conducted in Khuzestan province in the southwest of Iran in 2014-2016. First, the descriptive and spatial data required were collected and entered into ArcGIS after modifications, and the Geodatabase was then created. Based on the criteria of the HNS and according to experts' opinions, the main criteria and the sub-criteria for an optimal site selection were determined. To determine the criteria's coefficient of importance (ie, their weight), the main criteria and the sub-criteria were compared in pairs according to experts' opinions. The results of the pairwise comparisons were entered into Expert Choice and the weight of the main criteria and the sub-criteria were determined using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The application layers were then formed in geographic information system (GIS). A model was ultimately proposed in the GIS for the optimal distribution of rural health houses by overlaying the weighting layers and the other layers related to villages and rural health houses. Based on the experts' opinions, six criteria were determined as the main criteria for an optimal site selection for rural health houses, including welfare infrastructures, population, dispersion, accessibility, corresponding routes, distance to the rural health center and the absence of natural barriers to accessibility. Of the main criteria proposed, the highest weight was given to "population" (0.506). The priorities suggested in the proposed model for establishing rural

  11. On-line test of power distribution prediction system for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Y.; Kiguchi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Takumi, K.; Tanaka, H.; Tsutsumi, R.; Yokomi, M.

    1982-01-01

    A power distribution prediction system for boiling water reactors has been developed and its on-line performance test has proceeded at an operating commercial reactor. This system predicts the power distribution or thermal margin in advance of control rod operations and core flow rate change. This system consists of an on-line computer system, an operator's console with a color cathode-ray tube, and plant data input devices. The main functions of this system are present power distribution monitoring, power distribution prediction, and power-up trajectory prediction. The calculation method is based on a simplified nuclear thermal-hydraulic calculation, which is combined with a method of model identification to the actual reactor core state. It has been ascertained by the on-line test that the predicted power distribution (readings of traversing in-core probe) agrees with the measured data within 6% root-mean-square. The computing time required for one prediction calculation step is less than or equal to 1.5 min by an HIDIC-80 on-line computer

  12. Study on Distribution Reliability with Parallel and On-site Distributed Generation Considering Protection Miscoordination and Tie Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitusaney, Surachai; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    In distribution system, Distributed Generation (DG) is expected to improve the system reliability as its backup generation. However, DG contribution in fault current may cause the loss of the existing protection coordination, e.g. recloser-fuse coordination and breaker-breaker coordination. This problem can drastically deteriorate the system reliability, and it is more serious and complicated when there are several DG sources in the system. Hence, the above conflict in reliability aspect unavoidably needs a detailed investigation before the installation or enhancement of DG is done. The model of composite DG fault current is proposed to find the threshold beyond which existing protection coordination is lost. Cases of protection miscoordination are described, together with their consequences. Since a distribution system may be tied with another system, the issues of tie line and on-site DG are integrated into this study. Reliability indices are evaluated and compared in the distribution reliability test system RBTS Bus 2.

  13. The distribution of maternity services across rural and remote Australia: does it reflect population need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Margaret I; Donoghue, Deborah Anne; Longman, Jo M; Pilcher, Jennifer; Kildea, Sue; Kruske, Sue; Kornelsen, Jude; Grzybowski, Stefan; Barclay, Lesley; Morgan, Geoffrey Gerard

    2017-02-23

    Australia has a universal health care system and a comprehensive safety net. Despite this, outcomes for Australians living in rural and remote areas are worse than those living in cities. This study will examine the current state of equity of access to birthing services for women living in small communities in rural and remote Australia from a population perspective and investigates whether services are distributed according to need. Health facilities in Australia were identified and a service catchment was determined around each using a one-hour road travel time from that facility. Catchment exclusions: metropolitan areas, populations above 25,000 or below 1,000, and a non-birthing facility within the catchment of one with birthing. Catchments were attributed with population-based characteristics representing need: population size, births, demographic factors, socio-economic status, and a proxy for isolation - the time to the nearest facility providing a caesarean section (C-section). Facilities were dichotomised by service level - those providing birthing services (birthing) or not (no birthing). Birthing services were then divided by C-section provision (C-section vs no C-section birthing). Analysis used two-stage univariable and multivariable logistic regression. There were 259 health facilities identified after exclusions. Comparing services with birthing to no birthing, a population is more likely to have a birthing service if they have more births, (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 1.50 for every 10 births, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.33-1.69]), and a service offering C-sections 1 to 2 h drive away (aOR: 28.7, 95% CI [5.59-148]). Comparing the birthing services categorised by C-section vs no C-section, the likelihood of a facility having a C-section was again positively associated with increasing catchment births and with travel time to another service offering C-sections. Both models demonstrated significant associations with jurisdiction but not socio

  14. Vector optical fields with polarization distributions similar to electric and magnetic field lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Li, Si-Min; Mao, Lei; Kong, Ling-Jun; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Pei; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2013-07-01

    We present, design and generate a new kind of vector optical fields with linear polarization distributions modeling to electric and magnetic field lines. The geometric configurations of "electric charges" and "magnetic charges" can engineer the spatial structure and symmetry of polarizations of vector optical field, providing additional degrees of freedom assisting in controlling the field symmetry at the focus and allowing engineering of the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications.

  15. Evaluation of angular distributions and production cross-sections for discrete gamma lines in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, M.V.; Livke, A.V.; Zvenigorodskij, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The experimental data were compiled and the angular distributions and production cross-sections for the E γ = 846.8, 1238.3 and 1810.8 keV discrete gamma-lines evaluated. The Legendre polynomial coefficients describing the angular distributions in the energy range up to E n = 14.0 MeV and cross-section values in the E n = 0.85-19.0 MeV range were evaluated. (author)

  16. Rural outreach by specialist doctors in Australia: a national cross-sectional study of supply and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Belinda G; Joyce, Catherine M; McGrail, Matthew R

    2014-09-04

    Outreach has been endorsed as an important global strategy to promote universal access to health care but it depends on health workers who are willing to travel. In Australia, rural outreach is commonly provided by specialist doctors who periodically visit the same community over time. However information about the level of participation and the distribution of these services nationally is limited. This paper outlines the proportion of Australian specialist doctors who participate in rural outreach, describes their characteristics and assesses how these characteristics influence remote outreach provision. We used data from the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey, collected between June and November 2008. Weighted logistic regression analyses examined the effect of covariates: sex, age, specialist residential location, rural background, practice arrangements and specialist group on rural outreach. A separate logistic regression analysis studied the effect of covariates on remote outreach compared with other rural outreach. Of 4,596 specialist doctors, 19% (n = 909) provided outreach; of which, 16% (n = 149) provided remote outreach. Most (75%) outreach providers were metropolitan specialists. In multivariate analysis, outreach was associated with being male (OR 1.38, 1.12 to 1.69), having a rural residence (both inner regional: OR 2.07, 1.68 to 2.54; and outer regional/remote: OR 3.40, 2.38 to 4.87) and working in private consulting rooms (OR 1.24, 1.01 to 1.53). Remote outreach was associated with increasing 5-year age (OR1.17, 1.05 to 1.31) and residing in an outer regional/remote location (OR 10.84, 5.82 to 20.19). Specialists based in inner regional areas were less likely than metropolitan-based specialists to provide remote outreach (OR 0.35, 0.17 to 0.70). There is a healthy level of interest in rural outreach work, but remote outreach is less common. Whilst most providers are metropolitan-based, rural doctors are more

  17. Applicability of line outage distribution factors to evaluate distribution network expansion options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grond, M.O.W.; Pouw, J.I.P.; Morren, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Distribution network operators require more advanced planning tools to deal with the challenges of future network planning. An appropriate planning and optimization tool can identify which option for network extension should be selected from available alternatives. However, the evaluation part in

  18. Strain distribution analysis in Si/SiGe line structures for CMOS technology using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, M; Roelke, M; Hermann, P; Zschech, E; Vartanian, V

    2010-01-01

    Strained silicon underneath the field-effect transistor gate increases significantly the charge carrier mobility and thus improves the performance of leading-edge Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) devices. For better understanding of the structure-strain relationship on the nanoscale and for optimization of device structures, the measurement of the local strain state has become essential. Raman spectroscopy is used in the present investigation to analyze the strain distribution in and close to silicon/embedded silicon-germanium (SiGe) line structures in conjunction with strain modeling applying finite element analysis. Both experimental results and modeling indicate the impact of geometry on the stress state. An increase of compressive stress within the Si lines is obtained for increasing SiGe line widths and decreasing Si line widths. The stress state within the Si lines is shown to be a mixed one deviating from a pure uniaxial state. Underneath the SiGe cavities, the presence of a tensile stress was observed. To investigate a procedure to scale down the spatial resolution of the Raman measurements, tip-enhanced Raman scattering experiments have been performed on free-standing SiGe lines with 100nm line width and line distance. The results show superior resolution and strain information not attainable in conventional Raman scans.

  19. A system for on-line monitoring of light element concentration distributions in thin samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, P.J.M.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Voigt, de M.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    At the Cyclotron Laboratory, a scanning proton microprobe is used to determine concentration distributions in biomedical samples. The data acquired in these measurements used to be analysed in a time consuming off-line analysis. To avoid the loss of valuable measurement and analysis time, DYANA was

  20. Existence of the Wigner function with correct marginal distributions along tilted lines on a lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horibe, Minoru; Takami, Akiyoshi; Hashimoto, Takaaki; Hayashi, Akihisa

    2002-01-01

    For the Wigner function of a system in N-dimensional Hilbert space, we propose the condition, which ensures that the Wigner function has correct marginal distributions along tilted lines. Under this condition we get the Wigner function without ambiguity if N is odd. If N is even, the Wigner function does not exist

  1. Determination of the mass-ratio distribution, I: single-lined spectroscopic binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    For single-lined spectroscopic binary stars (sbi), the mass ratio q = Msec=Mprim is calculated from the mass function f(m), which is determined from observations. For statistical investigations of the mass-ratio distribution, the term sin^3 i, that remains in the cubic equation from which q is

  2. Optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff (DT) method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles. In the proposed DT concept, feeder reconfiguration (FR) is employed through mixed integer programm...

  3. Multiplicity distributions in the binary fragmenting with inhibition at the transition line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botet, R. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1996-03-01

    Properties of the fragment multiplicity distribution obtained in the sequential binary fragmentation process at the transition line are investigated. It is shown that the multifragment cumulant correlation functions have the hierarchical, linked-pair structure. Several distinct classes of multiplicity domains are clearly identified, and the asymptotic appearance of the Koba - Nielsen - Olesen scaling is discussed. (author). 36 refs.

  4. Multiplicity distributions in the binary fragmenting with inhibition at the transition line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1996-03-01

    Properties of the fragment multiplicity distribution obtained in the sequential binary fragmentation process at the transition line are investigated. It is shown that the multifragment cumulant correlation functions have the hierarchical, linked-pair structure. Several distinct classes of multiplicity domains are clearly identified, and the asymptotic appearance of the Koba - Nielsen - Olesen scaling is discussed. (author)

  5. Study and Comparison of Rural and Urban Household Income Distribution in Khorasan Province and Country during 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jamshidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined distrbution of household income in Khorasan Razavi province and the country for urban and rural areas, seprately. Using household income and expenditure statistics compiled by the Statistical Center of Iran during 2007-2012 the Gini index, Tile index, Atkinson index and the tenth docile to the first docile were applied.The study findings indicate that during the studied period income inequality in the country has been decreased. The levels of disparity in the urban areas have been usually higher than its levels in the country. , while the levels of disparity in the rural areas have been always lower than its levels in the country.. Morever, income distributions in the urban areas and the entire province have been always more uneven than what has been seen for the rural areas. Analysing the Tile and Atkinson indicies (ε=1 shows that both ascending and descending trends of the two indicies were consistent with the Gini index and thus, the three indicies are compatible and validate each other. On the other hand, analysing the Gross expenditures per capita for households and the Gini index shows that the levels of welfare in urban and rural areas of Khorasan were almost constant, however the index for the urban areas of the country has been decreased and for the rural areas has been increased. The social welfare often have been lower for the the rural areas than the social welfare for the urban areas. The results indicate significant differences in income distributions among the province, the country's rural areas and the urban areas.The sudy therefore proposes regional plannings to be considered.

  6. Community-based distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum haemorrhage at home births: results from operations research in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, S; Carnahan, L; Akosah, E; Asare, G; Agyemang, R; Dickson, R; Kapungu, C; Owusu-Ansah, L; Robinson, N; Mensah-Homiah, J

    2014-02-01

    To report on a rigorous distribution and monitoring plan to track misoprostol for community-based distribution to reduce postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in rural Ghana. Operations research. Rural Ghana. Women in third trimester of pregnancy presenting to primary health centres (PHCs) for antenatal care (ANC). Ghana Health Service (GHS), Millennium Village Projects, and the University of Illinois at Chicago conducted an operations research study designed to assess the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of community-based distribution of misoprostol to prevent PPH at home deliveries in rural Ghana. One thousand doses (3000 tablets, 200 μg each) were obtained from the Family Health Division of GHS. Three 200-μg tablets of misoprostol (600 μg) in foil packets were packaged together in secured transparent plastic packets labelled with pictorial messages and distributed to midwives at seven PHCs for distribution to pregnant women. Correct use of misoprostol in home deliveries and retrieval of unused misoprostol doses, PPH rates and maternal mortality. Of the 999 doses distributed to midwives, 982 (98.3%) were successfully tracked, with a 1.7% lost to follow-up rate. Midwives distributed 654 doses to women at third-trimester ANC visits. Of women who had misoprostol to use at home, 81% had an institutional delivery and were able to return the misoprostol safely to the midwife. Of the women that used misoprostol, 99% used the misoprostol correctly. This study clearly demonstrates that misoprostol distributed antenatally to pregnant women can be used accurately and reliably by rural Ghanaian women, and should be considered for policy implementation across Ghana and other countries with high home birth rates and maternal mortality ratios. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Multi-scale Clustering of Points Synthetically Considering Lines and Polygons Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the complexity and discontinuity of spatial data distribution, a clustering algorithm of points was proposed. To accurately identify and express the spatial correlation among points,lines and polygons, a Voronoi diagram that is generated by all spatial features is introduced. According to the distribution characteristics of point's position, an area threshold used to control clustering granularity was calculated. Meanwhile, judging scale convergence by constant area threshold, the algorithm classifies spatial features based on multi-scale, with an O(n log n running time.Results indicate that spatial scale converges self-adaptively according with distribution of points.Without the custom parameters, the algorithm capable to discover arbitrary shape clusters which be bound by lines and polygons, and is robust for outliers.

  8. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  9. The Circulation Distribution on the Lifting Line for a Given Extracted Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Helali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, there exist few numerical methods which treat the inverse problem for the determination of the geometry of wind turbine blades. In this work, authors intend to solve the inverse optimum project for horizontal axis wind turbine in which the selection of the circulation distribution is obtained by resolving two variational problems: the first consists in sorting the circulation distribution on the lifting line, which, for a given power extracted by the wind turbine, minimizes the loses due to the induced velocity. In the second, the optimal circulation distribution is selected such that the kinetic energy of the wind downstream of the rotor disc is minimum, when the energy extracted by the wind turbine for one rotating period is imposed. A code has been developed which incorporates the real pitch of the helicoidal vortex wake. Very promising results have been obtained: the circulation distribution for a given extracted power and the chord lengths distribution law along the blade span.

  10. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  11. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions of Infrared-Luminous Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR(8-1000 μm) >~ 1011 L sun), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR>1012 L sun), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)—the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293—using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  12. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR (8-1000 μm) ∼> 10 11 L sun ), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR >10 12 L sun ), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C + line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  13. On-line reconstruction of in-core power distribution by harmonics expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changhui; Wu Hongchun; Cao Liangzhi; Yang Ping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A harmonics expansion method for the on-line in-core power reconstruction is proposed. → A harmonics data library is pre-generated off-line and a code named COMS is developed. → Numerical results show that the maximum relative error of the reconstruction is less than 5.5%. → This method has a high computational speed compared to traditional methods. - Abstract: Fixed in-core detectors are most suitable in real-time response to in-core power distributions in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In this paper, a harmonics expansion method is used to reconstruct the in-core power distribution of a PWR on-line. In this method, the in-core power distribution is expanded by the harmonics of one reference case. The expansion coefficients are calculated using signals provided by fixed in-core detectors. To conserve computing time and improve reconstruction precision, a harmonics data library containing the harmonics of different reference cases is constructed. Upon reconstruction of the in-core power distribution on-line, the two closest reference cases are searched from the harmonics data library to produce expanded harmonics by interpolation. The Unit 1 reactor of DayaBay Nuclear Power Plant (DayaBay NPP) in China is considered for verification. The maximum relative error between the measurement and reconstruction results is less than 5.5%, and the computing time is about 0.53 s for a single reconstruction, indicating that this method is suitable for the on-line monitoring of PWRs.

  14. Partial discharge location technique for covered-conductor overhead distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isa, M.

    2013-02-01

    In Finland, covered-conductor (CC) overhead lines are commonly used in medium voltage (MV) networks because the loads are widely distributed in the forested terrain. Such parts of the network are exposed to leaning trees which produce partial discharges (PDs) in CC lines. This thesis presents a technique to locate the PD source on CC overhead distribution line networks. The algorithm is developed and tested using a simulated study and experimental measurements. The Electromagnetic Transient Program-Alternative Transient Program (EMTP-ATP) is used to simulate and analyze a three-phase PD monitoring system, while MATLAB is used for post-processing of the high frequency signals which were measured. A Rogowski coil is used as the measuring sensor. A multi-end correlation-based technique for PD location is implemented using the theory of maximum correlation factor in order to find the time difference of arrival (TDOA) between signal arrivals at three synchronized measuring points. The three stages of signal analysis used are: (1) denoising by applying discrete wavelet transform (DWT); (2) extracting the PD features using the absolute or windowed standard deviation (STD) and; (3) locating the PD point. The advantage of this technique is the ability to locate the PD source without the need to know the first arrival time and the propagation velocity of the signals. In addition, the faulty section of the CC line between three measuring points can also be identified based on the degrees of correlation. An experimental analysis is performed to evaluate the PD measurement system performance for PD location on CC overhead lines. The measuring set-up is arranged in a high voltage (HV) laboratory. A multi-end measuring method is chosen as a technique to locate the PD source point on the line. A power transformer 110/20 kV was used to energize the AC voltage up to 11.5 kV/phase (20 kV system). The tests were designed to cover different conditions such as offline and online

  15. Distributed Leadership And The Visibility/invisibility Paradox In On-line Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Jameson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of distributed leadership in three on-line communities, reflecting on an observed visibility/invisibility paradox in leadership within these communities. Leaders who downplay their seniority and assume a degree of invisibility, allocating discretionary powers to subordinate levels in an organizational hierarchy, may facilitate the emergence of distributed leadership. Yet, simultaneously, leader-led relations are enabled by high leadership visibility. This paradox—that leaders need to be both highly visible and also invisible, or hands-off, when the occasion requires it—was derived from prior research into e-learning communities and tested in the analysis of discussions from on-line communities using a case study pattern-matching process. The operation of both visibility and invisibility in leadership is a key issue for enabling effective collaborations in distributed leadership situations based on trust. Such collaboration fosters positive group interaction and participative decision making in a consensus facilitated through leadership distribution amongst on-line community members.

  16. Performance of single wire earth return transformers with amorphous alloy core in a rural electric energy distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Antonio Luciano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented some considerations about the performance of single wire earth return amorphous alloy core transformers in comparison with conventional silicon steel sheets cores transformers used in rural electric energy distribution network. It has been recognized that amorphous metal core transformers improve electrical power distribution efficiency by reducing transformer core losses. This reduction is due to some electromagnetic properties of the amorphous alloys such as: high magnetic permeability, high resistivity, and low coercivity. Experimental results obtained with some single-phase, 60 Hz, 5 kVA amorphous core transformers installed in a rural area electric distribution system in Northern Brazil have been confirming their superior performance in comparison to identical nominal rated transformers built with conventional silicon steel cores, particularly with regard to the excitation power and to the no-load losses.

  17. Shifts in the distribution of rural population in the non-Chernozem zone of the RSFSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igudina, A I; Ioffe, G V

    1986-04-01

    "Rural population change within the Non-Chernozem zone of the RSFRS [Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic] is examined over the period 1959-79 at several levels of analysis: the Non-Chernozem zone as a whole, its major economic regions, individual oblasts, individual rayons and individual farms and rural places. The overriding tendency at all levels of analysis has been the increasing spatial concentration of rural population." The authors observe that "this concentration assumes a variety of forms, from the concentration of rural population in the suburban zones of large cities and the immediate surroundings of rayon seats to a decline in the number of rural places (from 180,000 in 1959 to 118,000 in 1979) and the growth of local centers against a general background of rural population decline. The authors hint that the observed tendency is a positive development, in keeping with the policy of converting Soviet agriculture to a more intensive path of development." excerpt

  18. Detection of leaks in steam lines by distributed fibre-optic temperature sensing (DTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craik, N G [Maritime Nuclear, Fredericton, N.B. (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes an instrumentation system concept which should be capable of early detection of a leak-before-break in main steam lines. Distributed fibre-optic Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems have been used in commercial application for a few years now, but in other industries and applications. DTS uses very long fibre optical cable both as a temperature sensor and as a means of bringing the information back from the sensor to the terminal equipment. The entire length of the fibre is sensitive to temperature and each resolvable section of fibre is equivalent to a point sensor. This commercially available DTS system could be adapted to indicate leaks in steam lines. The fibre-optic cable could either be run either just underneath the aluminium sheathing covering the installation over a steam line, or between the two layers of insulation. This would detect an increase in the temperature of the insulation due to a steam leak. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  19. Impact of process parameters and design options on heat leaks of straight cryogenic distribution lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Future Circular Collider (FCC accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar®—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.

  20. Impact of process parameters and design options on heat leaks of straight cryogenic distribution lines

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Pawel; Chorowski, Maciej Pawel; Polinski, J

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.

  1. Detection of leaks in steam lines by distributed fibre-optic temperature sensing (DTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craik, N.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an instrumentation system concept which should be capable of early detection of a leak-before-break in main steam lines. Distributed fibre-optic Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems have been used in commercial application for a few years now, but in other industries and applications. DTS uses very long fibre optical cable both as a temperature sensor and as a means of bringing the information back from the sensor to the terminal equipment. The entire length of the fibre is sensitive to temperature and each resolvable section of fibre is equivalent to a point sensor. This commercially available DTS system could be adapted to indicate leaks in steam lines. The fibre-optic cable could either be run either just underneath the aluminium sheathing covering the installation over a steam line, or between the two layers of insulation. This would detect an increase in the temperature of the insulation due to a steam leak. 1 ref., 4 figs

  2. Rényi entropies of electrical transmission lines with Fibonacci distribution of inductances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, E., E-mail: elazo@uta.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile); Mellado, F. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile); Escuela Universitaria de Ingeniería Eléctrica-Electrónica, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile); Saavedra, E. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile)

    2012-10-01

    We study classical dual transmission lines with constant capacitances C{sub j}=C{sub 0}, ∀j, when we distribute two inductance values L{sub A} and L{sub B} according to the Fibonacci sequence. Using the electric current function I{sub j}(ω), we study the normalized localization length Λ(ω), the Rényi entropies R{sub m}(ω) and the normalized information length β(ω). We found three kinds of behavior of the I{sub j}(ω) function: localized, extended and intermediate. In addition, it is found that the transmission line with Fibonacci distribution of inductances shows a behavior characteristic of quasi-periodic systems, namely, a self-similar frequency spectrum, where each subband is divided into three subbands, but the number of global subbands is greater than four.

  3. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidt, Rafael de Faria; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M A R

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers

  4. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria Scheidt, Rafael; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers.

  5. A biomonitoring study of genotoxic risk to workers of transformers and distribution line stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikler, Serap; Aydemir, Nilufer; Vatan, Ozgur; Kurtuldu, Sevim; Bilaloglu, Rahmi

    2009-12-01

    A cytogenetic monitoring study was carried out on a group of workers from transformer and distribution line stations in the Bursa province of Turkey, to investigate the genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electric (ELF) and magnetic fields (EMF). Cytogenetic analysis, namely chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronucleus (MN) tests were performed on a strictly selected group of 55 workers and compared to 17 controls. CA and MN frequencies in electrical workers appeared significantly higher than in controls (p electric transformer and distribution stations.

  6. Renormalization, Wilson lines, and transverse-momentum-dependent parton-distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherednikov, I. O.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2008-01-01

    We perform an analysis of transverse-momentum dependent parton-distribution functions, making use of their renormalization properties in terms of their leading-order anomalous dimensions. We show that the appropriate Wilson line in the light cone gauge, associated with such quantities, is a cusped one at light cone infinity. To cancel the ensuing cusp anomalous dimension, we include in the definition of the transverse-momentum dependent parton-distribution functions an additional soft counter term (gauge link) along that cusped transverse contour. We demonstrate that this is tantamount to an 'intrinsic (Coulomb) phase', which accumulates the full gauge history of the color-charged particle.

  7. On-line gas mixing and multi-channel distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmani, S.D.; Mondal, N.K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.; Joshi, Avinash

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we describe a mass-flow controller based on-line gas mixing unit with the multi-channel distribution system. We highlight different aspects such as requirement, design, calibration, control and operation of this system. This unit has the capability to mix up to four different input gases and distribute over 16 output channels. Output in individual channels is controlled accurately by using capillary-based system. At present, we are using this gas mixing unit for prototype of iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector of India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO).

  8. Distributed power-line outage detection based on wide area measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-07-21

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  9. Geographic distribution of need and access to health care in rural population: an ecological study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafi Behzad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Equity in access to and utilization of health services is a common goal of policy-makers in most countries. The current study aimed to evaluate the distribution of need and access to health care services among Iran's rural population between 2006 and 2009. Methods Census data on population's characteristics in each province were obtained from the Statistical Centre of Iran and National Organization for civil registration. Data about the Rural Health Houses (RHHs were obtained from the Ministry of Health. The Health Houses-to-rural population ratio (RHP, crude birth rate (CBR and crude mortality rate (CMR in rural population were calculated in order to compare their distribution among the provinces. Lorenz curves of RHHs, CMR and CBR were plotted and their decile ratio, Gini Index and Index of Dissimilarity were calculated. Moreover, Spearman rank-order correlation was used to examine the relation between RHHs and CMR and CBR. Results There were substantial differences in RHHs, CMR and CBR across the provinces. CMR and CBR experienced changes toward more equal distributions between 2006 and 2009, while inverse trend was seen for RHHs. Excluding three provinces with markedly changes in data between 2006 and 2009 as outliers, did not change observed trends. Moreover; there was a significant positive relationship between CMR and RHP in 2009 and a significant negative association between CBR and RHP in 2006 and 2009. When three provinces with outliers were excluded, these significant associations were disappeared. Conclusion Results showed that there were significant variations in the distribution of RHHs, CMR and CBR across the country. Moreover, the distribution of RHHs did not reflect the needs for health care in terms of CMR and CBR in the study period.

  10. Study for reactive power on distribution system line B RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Bony Marsahala

    2010-01-01

    Study for reactive power on distribution system line B RSG-GA is already done. The study intended to evaluate how much inductive load need the reactive power (positive), how much power factor, and what will be done to increase the power factor. The reactive power is the losses power, can't be changed into energy, but it is need for transmission process and it is cause the energy losses. The loads on distribution system line B consist of induction motors which are used for primary cooling system and secondary cooling system, lift, blower on cooling tower, and air condition system. Due to the motors using, the power factor are falling down to low. By the calculation results give that the inductive loads on distribution line B are 850 KVA and these loads caused the low power factor 0.80. If we want to increase the power factor up to 0.95, it is need to install the reactive loads likes capacitor bank 250 KVAR. (author)

  11. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saud, T.; Singh, D.P.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T.K.; Saxena, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Gautam, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhatnagar, R.P.; Pathak, H.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  12. Multimoded rf delay line distribution system for the Next Linear Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tantawi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The delay line distribution system is an alternative to conventional pulse compression, which enhances the peak power of rf sources while matching the long pulse of those sources to the shorter filling time of accelerator structures. We present an implementation of this scheme that combines pairs of parallel delay lines of the system into single lines. The power of several sources is combined into a single waveguide delay line using a multimode launcher. The output mode of the launcher is determined by the phase coding of the input signals. The combined power is extracted from the delay line using mode-selective extractors, each of which extracts a single mode. Hence, the phase coding of the sources controls the output port of the combined power. The power is then fed to the local accelerator structures. We present a detailed design of such a system, including several implementation methods for the launchers, extractors, and ancillary high power rf components. The system is designed so that it can handle the 600 MW peak power required by the Next Linear Collider design while maintaining high efficiency.

  13. Power from the people: the empowerment of distributed generation of solar electricity for rural communities in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Nur Azfahani; Byrd, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the decreasing energy security in Malaysia and the likely impact on maintaining power supplies to low income groups. The most vulnerable group is the low-income people in the rural areas, who have limited access to generate their own power supplies. The paper reviews the potential of distributed generation (DG) using photovoltaics as a means of mitigating this problem. Examples from other countries are reviewed and alternative methods of funding PV installa...

  14. Characterizing subsurface water flow to artificial drain lines using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, D.; Brooks, E. S.; Heinse, R.; Keller, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last several years growers have experienced increasingly wet spring conditions in the Palouse Region located in North Idaho, Eastern Washington and Eastern Oregon. As a result more artificial drain lines are being installed so growers can access their fields earlier in the growing season. Additionally there has been increasing adoption of no-tillage practices among growers in order minimize erosion and runoff in the region. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests long-term no-tillage may lead to the establishment of large macropore networks through increased earthworm activity and the preservation of root channels. These macropore networks, in conjunctions with the presence of artificial drains lines, may create connected preferential flow paths from agricultural fields to receiving streams. This connectivity of flow paths from agricultural fields to receiving water bodies may increase the loading of nutrients and agricultural chemicals as some flow paths may largely bypass soil matrix interaction where materials can be sequestered. Our primary objective for this study was to characterize subsurface flow to two artificial drain lines, one under conventional tillage and the other under no-tillage, using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology. During the study (November 2016-April 2017) the near surface soil-water temperature was consistently colder than that of deeper depths. Temperature was thus used as a tracer as snow melt and soil-water moved from the near surface to the drain lines during snowmelt and precipitation events. The spatial and temporal variability of the temperature along the artificial drain line under no-tillage practices was found to be greater than that of the conventional tilled field. It is hypothesized that preferential flow paths are responsible for the increased variability of temperature seen in the drain line under long term no-till management. The temperature along the conventional till drain line showed a

  15. Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

    The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

  16. Distribution of dermatophytes from soils of urban and rural areas of cities of Paraiba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos de; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; Santos, Jozemar Pereira dos

    2013-01-01

    The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH.

  17. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  18. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame ∼0.1-5 μm spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  19. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Fan Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Plotkin, Richard M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Strauss, Michael A., E-mail: RyanLane@my.unt.edu, E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 {<=} z {<=} 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame {approx}0.1-5 {mu}m spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  20. A monolithic constant-fraction discriminator using distributed R-C delay-line shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, M.L.; Young, G.R.; Xu, M.

    1995-01-01

    A monolithic, CMOS, constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) was fabricated in the Orbit Semiconductor, 1.2 μ N-well process. This circuit uses an on-chip, distributed, R-C delay-line to realize the constant-fraction shaping. The delay-line is constructed from a narrow, 500-μ serpentine layer of polysilicon above a wide, grounded, second layer of polysilicon. This R-C delay-line generates about 1.1 ns of delay for 5 ns risetime signals with a slope degradation of only ≅ 15% and an amplitude reduction of about 6.1%. The CFD also features an automatic walk adjustment. The entire circuit, including the delay line, has a 200 μ pitch and is 950 μ long. The walk for a 5 ns risetime signal was measured as ± 100 ps over the 100:1 dynamic range from -15 mV to -1.5 mV. to -1.5 V. The CFD consumes 15 mW

  1. An approach to rural distribution network design for sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebitosi, A.B.; Pillay, P.; Khan, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The bulk of rural populations in sub-Saharan Africa have no access to electricity and are under-served by any other form of modern infrastructure. The cost of infrastructure to mainly scattered communities has been perennially cited as largely to blame. Quite often rural networks are overdesigned, resulting in under utilization and, therefore, costly overheads. One reason often cited for the overspecification is anticipation of load growth. In most sub-Sahara African rural areas, however, economic growth rates are low, and a designer has no justification in specifying an infrastructure capacity exceeding more than a few percent of existing consumer requirements. This paper proposes methods that critically look at the geometry of small grid network designs to address the construction challenges in rural sub-Saharan Africa

  2. [Analysis on the exposure level and geographic distribution trend of toxicological indicators in rural drinking water, Shandong Province, in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F; Lyu, S P; Kong, F L; Yang, X T; Zhou, J Y

    2017-09-06

    Objective: To analyze the exposure level and the geographical distribution trend of toxicological indicators of rural drinking water in Shandong Province. Methods: The drawing method was used to randomly select no less than 60% villages and towns from 137 counties (cities, districts) of 17 cities in Shandong Province in 2015, and then 1-3 rural centralized water supply units were selected according to the circumstance of rural centralized water supply units in each village and town. In total, 735 villages and towns, 1 473 rural centralized water supply units were selected, and 1 473 water samples were collected. The water treatment process, water supply population and other circumstances of the rural centralized water supply units were investigated, the water quality was monitored, the content of toxicological indicators of drinking water in different areas was compared, and the trend surface isogram of excessive toxicological indicators was drawn. Results: The qualified rate of toxicological indicators in 1 473 water samples was 83.64% ( n =1 232). The main toxicological indicators that affected the qualified rate of toxicological indicators of drinking water in rural areas in Shandong Province were nitrate and fluoride. The excessive rate of fluoride was 5.70% ( n =84) and the exposed population was 1 736 709 (4.22%). The excessive rate of nitrate (as nitrogen) was 12.29% ( n =181) and the exposed population was 1 393 612 (3.39%). The P (5)0 content of fluoride in the eastern, middle and western regions was 0.24, 0.29 and 0.59 mg/L, respective;which was higher in the western region than in the east and the middle regions ( P 0.05). The P (50) content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in the eastern, middle and western regions was 8.00, 7.48, and 2.00 mg/L, which was higher in the eastern and middle regions than in the west region ( P 0.05). The trend surface isogram of nitrate and fluoride content showed that the content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in rural drinking water in

  3. Manufacturing and Installation of the Compound Cryogenic Distribution Line for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Riddone,, G; Bouillot, A; Brodzinski, K; Dupont, M; Fathallah, M; Fournel, JL; Gitton, E; Junker, S; Moussavi, H; Parente, C; Riddone, G

    2007-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) [1] currently under construction at CERN will make use of superconducting magnets operating in superfluid helium below 2 K. A compound cryogenic distribution line (QRL) will feed with helium at different temperatures and pressures the local elementary cooling loops in the cryomagnet strings. Low heat inleak to all temperature levels is essential for the overall LHC cryogenic performance. Following a competitive tendering, CERN adjudicated in 2001 the contract for the series line to Air Liquide (France). This paper recalls the main features of the technical specification and shows the project status. The basic choices and achievements for the industrialization phase of the series production are also presented, as well as the installation issues and status.

  4. Anisotropic electron velocity distribution in an ECR helium plasma as determined from polarization of emission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, A; Sato, T; Horimoto, Y; Inoue, K; Fujimoto, T; Uchida, M; Maekawa, T

    2005-01-01

    A helium plasma is produced by electron-cyclotron resonance heating in a cusp-configuration magnetic field. Several neutral helium lines are found polarized in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field; the maximum polarization degree exceeds 10%. The polarization degree and intensity of the emission lines yield, respectively, the alignment and population of the upper levels. The population-alignment collisional-radiative model is developed, and the experimental result is interpreted in terms of an anisotropic electron velocity distribution; it is of a Saturn-type with the central thermal component of 14 eV and the 'ring' component displaced by 9.2 eV from the central component. The relative number of 'ring' electrons is 40%. (letter to the editor)

  5. Distribution of wild mammal assemblages along an urban-rural-forest landscape gradient in warm-temperate East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masayuki; Koike, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon), Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis), Japanese marten (Martes melampus), Japanese badger (Meles anakuma), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus) dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape). Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus) were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog) had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius) than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale of

  6. Distribution of wild mammal assemblages along an urban-rural-forest landscape gradient in warm-temperate East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Saito

    Full Text Available Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon, Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata, Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis, Japanese marten (Martes melampus, Japanese badger (Meles anakuma, and wild boar (Sus scrofa generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor, raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape. Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale

  7. Off-line tracking of series parameters in distribution systems using AMI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Sun, Yannan; Schneider, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Electric distribution systems have historically lacked measurement points, and equipment is often operated to its failure point, resulting in customer outages. The widespread deployment of sensors at the distribution level is enabling observability. This paper presents an off-line parameter value tracking procedure that takes advantage of the increasing number of measurement devices being deployed at the distribution level to estimate changes in series impedance parameter values over time. The tracking of parameter values enables non-diurnal and non-seasonal change to be flagged for investigation. The presented method uses an unbalanced Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) and a measurement residual-based parameter estimation procedure. Measurement residuals from multiple measurement snapshots are combined in order to increase the effective local redundancy and improve the robustness of the calculations in the presence of measurement noise. Data from devices on the primary distribution system and from customer meters, via an AMI system, form the input data set. Results of simulations on the IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder are presented to illustrate the proposed approach applied to changes in series impedance parameters. A 5% change in series resistance elements can be detected in the presence of 2% measurement error when combining less than 1 day of measurement snapshots into a single estimate.

  8. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, 1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field

  9. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... the purpose of this paragraph. (b) Localized corrosion pitting. Except for cast iron or ductile iron...

  10. Field line distribution of density at L=4.8 inferred from observations by CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schäfer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available For two events observed by the CLUSTER spacecraft, the field line distribution of mass density ρ was inferred from Alfvén wave harmonic frequencies and compared to the electron density ne from plasma wave data and the oxygen density nO+ from the ion composition experiment. In one case, the average ion mass M≈ρ/ne was about 5 amu (28 October 2002, while in the other it was about 3 amu (10 September 2002. Both events occurred when the CLUSTER 1 (C1 spacecraft was in the plasmatrough. Nevertheless, the electron density ne was significantly lower for the first event (ne=8 cm−3 than for the second event (ne=22 cm−3, and this seems to be the main difference leading to a different value of M. For the first event (28 October 2002, we were able to measure the Alfvén wave frequencies for eight harmonics with unprecedented precision, so that the error in the inferred mass density is probably dominated by factors other than the uncertainty in frequency (e.g., magnetic field model and theoretical wave equation. This field line distribution (at L=4.8 was very flat for magnetic latitude |MLAT|≲20° but very steeply increasing with respect to |MLAT| for |MLAT|≳40°. The total variation in ρ was about four orders of magnitude, with values at large |MLAT| roughly consistent with ionospheric values. For the second event (10 September 2002, there was a small local maximum in mass density near the magnetic equator. The inferred mass density decreases to a minimum 23% lower than the equatorial value at |MLAT|=15.5°, and then steeply increases as one moves along the field line toward the ionosphere. For this event we were also able to examine the spatial dependence of the electron density using measurements of ne from all four CLUSTER spacecraft. Our analysis indicates that the density varies with L at L~5 roughly like L−4, and that ne is also locally peaked at the magnetic equator, but with a smaller peak. The value of ne reaches a density minimum

  11. Dynamic Characteristics of Communication Lines with Distributed Parameters to Control the Throttle-controlled Hydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a mathematical model of the hydraulic line for remote control of electro-hydraulic servo drive (EHSD with throttle control. This type of hydraulic lines is designed as a backup to replace the electrical connections, which are used to control EHSD being remote from the site with devices located to form the control signals of any object. A disadvantage of electric connections is that they are sensitive to magnetic fields and thereby do not provide the required reliability of the remote control. Hydraulic lines have no this disadvantage and therefore are used in aircraft and other industrial systems. However, dynamic characteristics of hydraulic systems still have been investigated insufficiently in the case of transmitting control signals at a distance at which the signal may be distorted when emerging the wave processes.The article results of mathematical simulation, which are verified through physical experimentation, largely eliminate the shortcomings of said information.The mathematical model described in the paper is based on the theory of unsteady pressure compressible fluids. In the model there are formulas that provide calculation of frequency characteristics of the hydraulic lines under hydraulic oscillations of the laminar flow parameters of viscous fluid.A real mock-up of the system under consideration and an experimental ad hoc unit are used to verify the results of mathematically simulated hydraulic systems.Calculated logarithmic amplitude and phase frequency characteristics compared with those obtained experimentally prove, under certain conditions, the proposed theoretical method of calculation. These conditions have to ensure compliance with initial parameters of fluid defined under stationary conditions. The applied theory takes into consideration a non-stationary hydraulic resistance of the line when calculating frequency characteristics.The scientific novelty in the article material is presented in

  12. Below the poverty line and non-communicable diseases in Kerala: The Epidemiology of Non-communicable Diseases in Rural Areas (ENDIRA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Jaideep; Vijayakumar, N; Joseph, Joseph K; David, P C; Menon, M N; Mukundan, Shyam; Dorphy, P D; Banerjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    India carries the greatest burden of global non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Poverty is strongly associated with NCDs but there are few prevalence studies which have measured poverty in India, particularly in rural settings. In Kerala, India, a population of 113,462 individuals was identified. The "Epidemiology of Non-communicable Diseases in Rural Areas" (ENDIRA) study was conducted via ASHAs (Accredited Social Health Activists). Standardised questionnaires were used in household interviews of individuals ≥18years during 2012 to gather sociodemographic, lifestyle and medical data for this population. The Government of Kerala definition of "the poverty line" was used. The association between below poverty line (BPL) status, NCDs and risk factors was analysed in multivariable regression models. 84,456 adults were included in the analyses (25.4% below the poverty line). The prevalence of NCDs was relatively common: myocardial infarction (MI) 1.4%, stroke 0.3%, respiratory diseases 5.0%, and cancer 1.1%. BPL status was not associated with age (p=0.96) or gender (p=0.26). Compared with those above the poverty line (APL), the BPL group was less likely to have diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidaemia (ppoverty line status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive Marginal Costs-Based Distributed Economic Control of Microgrid Clusters Considering Line Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When several microgrids (MG are interconnected into microgrid clusters (MGC, they have great potential to improve their reliability. Traditional droop control tends to make the total operating costs higher as the power is distributed by capacity ratios of distributed energy resources (DERs. This paper proposes an adaptive distributed economic control for islanded microgrids which considers line loss, specifically, an interesting marginal costs-based economic droop control is proposed, and consensus-based adaptive controller is applied, to deal with power limits and capacity constraints for storage. The whole expense can be effectively lowered by achieving identical marginal costs for DERs in MGC. Specially, the capacity constraints only for storages are also included to do further optimization. Moreover, consensus-based distributed secondary controllers are used to rapidly restore system frequency and voltage magnitudes. The above controllers only need to interact with neighbor DERs by a sparse communication network, eliminating the necessity of a central controller and enhancing the stability. A MGC, incorporating three microgrids, is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  14. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions in Galactic Sources: Empirical Interpretation of Extragalactic Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indriolo, Nick; Bergin, E. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J. [Grupo de Astrofísica Molecular, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC) E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Gerin, M.; Gusdorf, A. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, École normale supérieure, F-75005, Paris (France); Lis, D. C. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, F-75014, Paris (France); Schilke, P., E-mail: nindriolo@stsci.edu [I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    The relative populations in rotational transitions of CO can be useful for inferring gas conditions and excitation mechanisms at work in the interstellar medium. We present CO emission lines from rotational transitions observed with Herschel /HIFI in the star-forming cores Orion S, Orion KL, Sgr B2(M), and W49N. Integrated line fluxes from these observations are combined with those from Herschel /PACS observations of the same sources to construct CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) from 5≤ J{sub u} ≤ 48. These CO SLEDs are compared to those reported in other galaxies, with the intention of empirically determining which mechanisms dominate excitation in such systems. We find that CO SLEDs in Galactic star-forming cores cannot be used to reproduce those observed in other galaxies, although the discrepancies arise primarily as a result of beam filling factors. The much larger regions sampled by the Herschel beams at distances of several megaparsecs contain significant amounts of cooler gas, which dominate the extragalactic CO SLEDs, in contrast to observations of Galactic star-forming regions, which are focused specifically on cores containing primarily hot molecular gas.

  15. An axial heat transfer analytical model for capillary-pumped loop vapor line temperature distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.-W.; Lin, W.-K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to study the capillary-pumped loop (CPL) vapor line temperature distributions. A simple axial heat transfer method is developed to predict the vapor line temperature from evaporator outlet to condenser inlet. CPL is a high efficiency two-phase heat transfer device. Since it does not need any other mechanical force such as pump, furthermore, it might be used to do the thermal management of high power electronic component such as spacecraft, notebook and computer servers. It is a cyclic circulation pumped by capillary force, and this force is generated from the fine porous structure in evaporator. A novel semi-arc porous evaporator to CPL in 1U server is designed on the ground with a horizontal position and scale down the whole device to the miniature size. From the experimental results, the CPL could remove heat 90 W in steady-state and keep the heat source temperature about 70 deg. C. Finally, a good agreement between the simulation and experimental values has been achieved. Comparing with experiment and simulation results, the deviation values of the distributions of the condenser inlet temperature are less than 8%

  16. Spatial distribution of FIR rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar PDR⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikka, A.; Habart, E.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Abergel, A.; Pilleri, P.; Dartois, E.; Joblin, C.; Gerin, M.; Godard, B.

    2016-01-01

    Context The methylidyne cation (CH+) and hydroxyl (OH) are key molecules in the warm interstellar chemistry, but their formation and excitation mechanisms are not well understood. Their abundance and excitation are predicted to be enhanced by the presence of vibrationally excited H2 or hot gas (~500–1000 K) in photodissociation regions with high incident FUV radiation field. The excitation may also originate in dense gas (> 105 cm−3) followed by nonreactive collisions with H2, H, and electrons. Previous observations of the Orion Bar suggest that the rotationally excited CH+ and OH correlate with the excited CO, a tracer of dense and warm gas, and formation pumping contributes to CH+ excitation. Aims Our goal is to examine the spatial distribution of the rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar in order to establish their physical origin and main formation and excitation mechanisms. Methods We present spatially sampled maps of the CH+ J=3-2 transition at 119.8 µm and the OH Λ-doublet at 84 µm in the Orion Bar over an area of 110″×110″ with Herschel (PACS). We compare the spatial distribution of these molecules with those of their chemical precursors, C+, O and H2, and tracers of warm and dense gas (high-J CO). We assess the spatial variation of CH+ J=2-1 velocity-resolved line profile at 1669 GHz with Herschel HIFI spectrometer observations. Results The OH and especially CH+ lines correlate well with the high-J CO emission and delineate the warm and dense molecular region at the edge of the Bar. While notably similar, the differences in the CH+ and OH morphologies indicate that CH+ formation and excitation are strongly related to the observed vibrationally excited H2. This, together with the observed broad CH+ line widths, indicates that formation pumping contributes to the excitation of this reactive molecular ion. Interestingly, the peak of the rotationally excited OH 84 µm emission coincides with a bright young object, proplyd

  17. Spatial distribution of FIR rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikka, A; Habart, E; Bernard-Salas, J; Goicoechea, J R; Abergel, A; Pilleri, P; Dartois, E; Joblin, C; Gerin, M; Godard, B

    2017-03-01

    The methylidyne cation (CH + ) and hydroxyl (OH) are key molecules in the warm interstellar chemistry, but their formation and excitation mechanisms are not well understood. Their abundance and excitation are predicted to be enhanced by the presence of vibrationally excited H 2 or hot gas (~500-1000 K) in photodissociation regions with high incident FUV radiation field. The excitation may also originate in dense gas (> 10 5 cm -3 ) followed by nonreactive collisions with H 2 , H, and electrons. Previous observations of the Orion Bar suggest that the rotationally excited CH + and OH correlate with the excited CO, a tracer of dense and warm gas, and formation pumping contributes to CH + excitation. Our goal is to examine the spatial distribution of the rotationally excited CH + and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar in order to establish their physical origin and main formation and excitation mechanisms. We present spatially sampled maps of the CH + J=3-2 transition at 119.8 µm and the OH Λ-doublet at 84 µm in the Orion Bar over an area of 110″×110″ with Herschel (PACS). We compare the spatial distribution of these molecules with those of their chemical precursors, C + , O and H 2 , and tracers of warm and dense gas (high-J CO). We assess the spatial variation of CH + J=2-1 velocity-resolved line profile at 1669 GHz with Herschel HIFI spectrometer observations. The OH and especially CH + lines correlate well with the high-J CO emission and delineate the warm and dense molecular region at the edge of the Bar. While notably similar, the differences in the CH + and OH morphologies indicate that CH + formation and excitation are strongly related to the observed vibrationally excited H 2 . This, together with the observed broad CH + line widths, indicates that formation pumping contributes to the excitation of this reactive molecular ion. Interestingly, the peak of the rotationally excited OH 84 µm emission coincides with a bright young object, proplyd 244

  18. The effect of the negative binomial distribution on the line-width of the micromaser cavity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremid, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of negative binomial distribution (NBD) on the line-width of the negative binomial distribution (NBD) on the line-width of the micromaser is considered. The threshold of the micromaser is shifted towards higher values of the pumping parameter q. Moreover the line-width exhibits sharp dips 'resonances' when the cavity temperature reduces to a very low value. These dips are very clear evidence for the occurrence of the so-called trapping states regime in the micromaser. This statistics prevents the appearance of these trapping states, namely by increasing the negative binomial parameter q these dips wash out and the line-width becomes more broadening. For small values of the parameter q the line-width at large values of q randomly oscillates around its transition line. As q becomes large this oscillatory behavior occurs at rarely values of q. (author)

  19. Resonance line shape, strain and electric potential distributions of composite magnetoelectric sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gerken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroic composite magnetoelectric (ME sensors are based on the elastic coupling of a magnetostrictive phase and a piezoelectric phase. A deformation of the magnetostrictive phase causes strain in the piezoelectric phase and thus an induced voltage. Such sensors may be applied both for static as well as for dynamic magnetic field measurements. Particularly high sensitivities are achieved for operation at a mechanical resonance. Here, the resonance line shape of layered (2-2 composite cantilever ME sensors at the first bending-mode resonance is investigated theoretically. Finite element method (FEM simulations using a linear material model reveal an asymmetric resonance profile and a zero-response frequency for the ME coefficient. Frequency-dependent strain and electric potential distributions inside the magnetoelectric composite are studied for the case of a magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayer. It is demonstrated that a positive or a negative voltage may be induced across the piezoelectric layer depending on the position of the neutral plane. The frequency-dependent induced electric potential is investigated for structured cantilevers that exhibit magnetostriction only at specific positions. For static operation an induced voltage is obtained locally at positions with magnetostriction. In addition to this direct effect a resonance-assisted effect is observed for dynamic operation. Magnetostriction in a limited area of the cantilever causes a global vibration of the cantilever. Thus, deformation of the piezoelectric layer and an induced electric potential also occur in areas of the cantilever without magnetostriction. The direct and the resonance-assisted pathway may induce voltages of equal or of opposite sign. The net induced voltage results from the superposition of the two effects. As the resonance-assisted induced voltage changes sign upon passing the resonance frequency, while the direct component is constant, an asymmetric line

  20. A Mirage or a Rural Life Line? Analysing the impact of Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act on Women Beneficiaries of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Bhattacharyya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA, launched in February 2006 was renamed in October 02, 2009 as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (henceforth, MGNREGA. It is an anti-poverty flagship programme of the Government of India. The key purpose of MGNREGA is to enhance wage employment in the rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed employment to every household in a financial year.  The MGNREGA implementation status report for the financial year 2012-2013 unfolds that the programme has already provided employment to 44.9 million households across 28 districts and five union territories. Hence, it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of MGNREGA on women beneficiaries. A plethora of research argues that MGNREGA, which promotes inclusive growth, is a vehicle of change, a lifeline for rural women. So far, however, there has been very little discussion about the impact of MGNREGA on women beneficiaries of Assam. This research is an attempt to examine the participation of women in MGNREGA, Assam. It critically looks at the issues, problems and challenges confronted by the women while working at MGNREGA. Written from a feminist perspective on gender, poverty and women’s empowerment, the research seeks to address the problems of the women beneficiaries through their lived experiences. For this, we conducted in-depth interviews with the women beneficiaries in the months of August and September, 2009 in four remote areas namely, Burka, Chandrapur, Barbhang and Muguriya, the first two situated in Kamrup, while the third and the fourth in Barpeta districts of Assam, where the programme of MGNREGA is on-going. The findings of the research suggest measures so that the programme can be made more effective in the long run.

  1. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-03-01

    Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, Pimpact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the analysis of locally relevant, actionable incentives, generated through the involvement of policy-makers at the design stage, this study provides an example of research directly linked to policy action to address a vitally important issue in global health.

  2. The Impact of Noise Models on Capacity Performance of Distribution Broadband over Power Lines Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers broadband potential of distribution Broadband over Power Lines (BPL networks when different well-known noise models of the BPL literature are applied. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, the seven most representative and used noise models of the BPL literature are synopsized in this paper. With reference to this set, the broadband performance of a great number of distribution BPL topologies either Overhead (OV or Underground (UN, either Medium-Voltage (MV or Low-Voltage (LV, is investigated in terms of suitable capacity metrics. Second, based on the proposed capacity metrics, a comparative capacity analysis is performed among various well-validated noise models. Through the careful study of its results, it is demonstrated that during capacity computations of distribution BPL networks, the flat Additive White Gaussian Noise (FL noise model can be comfortably assumed as an efficient noise model either in 3–30 MHz or in 3–88 MHz frequency range since its capacity differences with the other well-proven noise models are negligible.

  3. Star formation relations and CO spectral line energy distributions across the J-ladder and redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Leonidaki, I.; Xilouris, E. M. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Weiß, A.; Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zhang, Z.-Y. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Van der Werf, P.; Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Aalto, S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Observatory, 43994 Onsala (Sweden); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, A. S. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); González-Alfonso, E. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Departamento de Fśica, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Harris, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Naylor, D. A. [Institute for Space Imaging Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Smith, H. A. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Spaans, M., E-mail: t.greve@ucl.ac.uk [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present FIR [50-300 μm]–CO luminosity relations (i.e., log L{sub FIR}=αlog L{sub CO}{sup ′}+β) for the full CO rotational ladder from J = 1-0 up to J = 13-12 for a sample of 62 local (z ≤ 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR[8-1000} {sub μm]} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 submillimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations, and sufficiently well-sampled FIR/submillimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs), so that accurate FIR luminosities can be determined. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIR–CO luminosity relations toward the high-IR-luminosity end, while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-J/high-J CO line data (J = 5-4 and higher) that was available prior to Herschel. This new data set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIR–CO luminosity relations (i.e., α ≅ 1) for J = 1-0 up to J = 5-4, with a nearly constant normalization (β ∼ 2). In the simplest physical scenario, this is expected from the (also) linear FIR–(molecular line) relations recently found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However, from J = 6-5 and up to the J = 13-12 transition, we find an increasingly sublinear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (∼100 K) and dense (>10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star-formation-powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova-driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for

  4. Snakes of an urban-rural landscape in the central Andes of Colombia: species composition, distribution, and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Andrés Rojas-Morales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From 2005 to 2011, I studied the composition, distribution and natural history of an Andean urban-rural snake assemblage at the Cordillera Central of Colombia, based on three data sources: (1 examination of specimens in the MHN-UC [Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad de Caldas], (2 incidental encounters by author, and (3 collection of data by other researchers. Additionally, I provide natural history notes for the species involved. A total of 14 species, including two subspecies of snakes, belonging to 12 genera and four families, have been found in the studied area (municipality of Manizales, Caldas. Taking into account this total, 10 had atleast one record in the urban area, 13 in the rural area and 14 in forested areas. Only Liophis epinephelus bimaculatus was found exclusively in forest environment. Three species (21.4% are apparently endemic to the region, six species (42.8% correspond to afauna representative of the Tropical–Andean range of South America, four species (28.5% are distributed from Central America to the tropical Andes, and only one species is widely distributed in the whole continent. The snake assemblage in Manizales is mostly terrestrial, and in general, the species tend to be more active in the rainy periods of the year (mainly from October–December, and most of them may occasionally be found in urban areas, mainly close to areas of vegetation such as crops and pastures.

  5. Study on Microbiological Quality of Rural and Urban Drinking Water in Distribution Systems of Ijroud, Zanjan in 2013-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tohidloo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing safe drinking water has critical importance to human societies. The aim of this study was to investigate microbiological quality of drinking water in distribution system of urban and rural regions of Ijroud, in Zanjan province. Methods: In present descriptive study, the microbiological examination of drinking water was conducted in 15 facilities with 401 samples. Transportation and test procedures were according to standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Results: Total number of microbial samples were 401 and 66.66% of them were positive for total and fecal coliforms. Also, water of 10 villages were not suitable for drinking with respecting to national standards. In addition, samples of only 5 villages were suitable for human consumption. The range of fecal coliforms in distribution networks' samples were from 4 to 75 MPN/100 ml. Conclusion: This study showed that as microbiological aspect, drinking water is not potable in some rural communities. The consumption of drinking water in this distribution networks can threaten the health of consumers, thus, the water supply organizations have to improve operation and maintenance measurements due to prevent the spread of water-borne diseases.

  6. Glass fiber -reinforced plastic tapered poles for transmission and distribution lines: development and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Burachysnsky, V.; Polyzois, D.

    1999-01-01

    A research project to develop lightweight poles for use in power transmission and distribution lines and involving the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic using the filament winding process is described. Twelve full scale specimen poles were designed, fabricated and subjected to cantilever bending to test failure modes. The test parameters included fiber orientation, ratio of longitudinal-to-circumferential fiber, and the number of layers. Results showed that local buckling was the most dominant failure mode, attributable to the high radius-to-thickness ratio of the specimen poles. Overall, however, these fiber-reinforced plastic poles compared favourably to wooden poles in carrying capacity with significant weight reduction. Lateral displacement at ultimate loads did not exceed the acceptable limit of 10 per cent of the specimen free length. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Hydrogen Balmer alpha intensity distributions and line profiles from multiple scattering theory using realistic geocoronal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1987-01-01

    The H Balmer alpha nightglow is investigated by using Monte Carlo models of asymmetric geocoronal atomic hydrogen distributions as input to a radiative transfer model of solar Lyman-beta radiation in the thermosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it is essential to include multiple scattering of Lyman-beta radiation in the interpretation of Balmer alpha airglow data. Observations of diurnal variation in the Balmer alpha airglow showing slightly greater intensities in the morning relative to evening are consistent with theory. No evidence is found for anything other than a single sinusoidal diurnal variation of exobase density. Dramatic changes in effective temperature derived from the observed Balmer alpha line profiles are expected on the basis of changing illumination conditions in the thermosphere and exosphere as different regions of the sky are scanned.

  8. A vacuum system for the thermal insulation of the SciFi distribution lines and manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Joram, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This note describes some calculations and estimates for the layout, technology choice and performance of a vacuum system which shall ensure thermal insulation of the distribution lines and manifolds of the SiPM cooling system of the LHCb SciFi detector. We estimate the heat losses in concentric corrugated stainless steel pipes which leads to the conclusion that the pipes need to be evacuated to a pressure of about 1·10$^{-4}$ mbar. We then estimate the pumping conductance of the pipes and find that it will dominate over the effective pumping speed of any pump. We therefore conclude that a turbo molecular pump of small nominal pumping speed, which can easily achieve end pressures below 10$^{-5}$ mbar is adequate for this purpose. A preliminary layout of the vacuum system is being discussed at the end of the document.

  9. Dust Density Distribution and Imaging Analysis of Different Ice Lines in Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinilla, P. [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pohl, A. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stammler, S. M.; Birnstiel, T., E-mail: pinilla@email.arizona.edu [University Observatory, Faculty of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Münich (Germany)

    2017-08-10

    Recent high angular resolution observations of protoplanetary disks at different wavelengths have revealed several kinds of structures, including multiple bright and dark rings. Embedded planets are the most used explanation for such structures, but there are alternative models capable of shaping the dust in rings as it has been observed. We assume a disk around a Herbig star and investigate the effect that ice lines have on the dust evolution, following the growth, fragmentation, and dynamics of multiple dust size particles, covering from 1 μ m to 2 m sized objects. We use simplified prescriptions of the fragmentation velocity threshold, which is assumed to change radially at the location of one, two, or three ice lines. We assume changes at the radial location of main volatiles, specifically H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3}. Radiative transfer calculations are done using the resulting dust density distributions in order to compare with current multiwavelength observations. We find that the structures in the dust density profiles and radial intensities at different wavelengths strongly depend on the disk viscosity. A clear gap of emission can be formed between ice lines and be surrounded by ring-like structures, in particular between the H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} (or CO). The gaps are expected to be shallower and narrower at millimeter emission than at near-infrared, opposite to model predictions of particle trapping. In our models, the total gas surface density is not expected to show strong variations, in contrast to other gap-forming scenarios such as embedded giant planets or radial variations of the disk viscosity.

  10. Mitigating energy loss on distribution lines through the allocation of reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, T. M.; Romero, F.; Meffe, A.; Castilho Neto, J.; Abe, L. F. T.; Corradi, F. E.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a methodology for automatic reactors allocation on medium voltage distribution lines to reduce energy loss. In Brazil, some feeders are distinguished by their long lengths and very low load, which results in a high influence of the capacitance of the line on the circuit’s performance, requiring compensation through the installation of reactors. The automatic allocation is accomplished using an optimization meta-heuristic called Global Neighbourhood Algorithm. Given a set of reactor models and a circuit, it outputs an optimal solution in terms of reduction of energy loss. The algorithm is also able to verify if the voltage limits determined by the user are not being violated, besides checking for energy quality. The methodology was implemented in a software tool, which can also show the allocation graphically. A simulation with four real feeders is presented in the paper. The obtained results were able to reduce the energy loss significantly, from 50.56%, in the worst case, to 93.10%, in the best case.

  11. A system for on-line monitoring of light element concentration distributions in thin samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brands, P.J.M. E-mail: p.j.m.brands@tue.nl; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    1999-09-02

    At the Cyclotron Laboratory, a scanning proton microprobe is used to determine concentration distributions in biomedical samples. The data acquired in these measurements used to be analysed in a time consuming off-line analysis. To avoid the loss of valuable measurement and analysis time, DYANA was developed. DYANA is an on-line method for the analysis of data from biomedical measurements. By using a database of background shapes, light elements such as Na and Mg, can be fitted even more precisely than in conventional fitting procedures. The entire analysis takes only several seconds and is performed while the acquisition system is gathering a new subset of data. Data acquisition must be guaranteed and may not be interfered by other parallel processes. Therefore, the analysis, the data acquisition and the experiment control is performed on a PCI-based Pentium personal computer (PC), running a real-time operating system. A second PC is added to run a graphical user interface for interaction with the experimenter and the monitoring of the analysed results. The system is here illustrated using atherosclerotic tissue but is applicable to all kinds of thin samples.

  12. Distributed In-Line Analysis of Water Pollution in a Spanish Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan V. Capella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the architecture and implementation of a set of novel sensor nodes designed to measure ammonium, nitrate and chloride in real time, sending the data, by means of a network, to the base station in order to control the pollution in a lake. The results obtained being compared with those provided by the corresponding reference methods. Recovery analyses with ion selective electrodes and standard methods, study of interferences, and evaluation of major sensor features have also been carried out. The use of a wireless system for monitoring purposes will not only reduce the overall monitoring system cost in term of facilities setup and labor cost, but will also provide flexibility in terms of distance. The major advantages of the proposed in-line analysis compared with the classical off-line procedures are the elimination of contaminants due to sample handling, the minimization of the overall cost of data acquisition, the possibility of real-time analysis, allowing the rapid detection of pollutants, the ability to obtain detailed spatial and temporal data sets of complete environments, obtaining the spatial distribution of the analyzed parameters, as well as its variation with the passing of time, and finally the possibility of performing measurements in locations which are difficult to access (in this case a deep lake.

  13. Incident energy and target dependence of interaction cross sections and density distribution of neutron drip-line nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoura, S.

    1992-01-01

    The relation between nuclear density distribution and interaction cross section is discussed in terms of Glauber model. Based on the model, density distribution of neutron drip-line nucleus 11 Be and 11 Li is determined experimentally from incident energy dependence of interaction cross sections of 11 Be and 11 Li on light targets. The obtained distributions have long tails corresponding to neutron halos of loosely bound neutrons. (Author)

  14. Addressing Health Workforce Distribution Concerns: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Develop Rural Retention Strategies in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jacob Robyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001 and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58 respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001. On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001, was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on

  15. Technical and economical optimisation of overhead power distribution line lightning protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katic, N.A. [Elektrovojvodina Power Distribution Co., Nori Sad (Yugoslavia); Savic, M.S. [University of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering

    1998-05-01

    The existing methodology for overhead line lightning protection design does not take into account customer and utility costs of line outages. In the paper a new concept of line lightning protection design based on economic optimisation is presented. Different tower types are analysed and for various undelivered energy participation factors optimal line design suggested. In line lightning flashover rate estimation both direct and induced surges are analysed. (author)

  16. Development of Vehicle Platoon Distribution Models and Simulation of Platoon Movements on Indiana Rural Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yi; Li, Shou; Shamo, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1980s, traffic volumes have experienced a rapid growth of approximately 30% in Indiana. Traffic data indicates that more than 70% of vehicles travel in platoons on Indiana highway corridors in the vicinity of urban areas. At a rural highway intersection consisting of a major road with high traffic volume and a minor road with low traffic volume, it is very common that the green time cannot be used efficiently, especially when the vehicle detectors on the major road are imbedded clos...

  17. Measurements of visible forbidden lines and ion distributions of tungsten highly charged ions at the LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, D.; Sakaue, H.A.; Murakami, I.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.; Nakamura, N.; Koike, F.; Sasaki, Akira; Ding, X.-B.; Dong, C.-Z.

    2013-01-01

    Visible lines, which are presumably associated with forbidden lines from tungsten highly charged ions, were clearly observed in a spectrum of 370 - 410 nm recorded shortly after a tungsten pellet injection at the LHD. One of the measured lines has been assigned to a magnetic-dipole (M1) line of the ground-term fine-structure transition of W 26+ . Photon emission was observed at 44 lines of sight divided along the vertical direction of a horizontally elongated poloidal cross section of the LHD plasma. The line-integrated intensity of the lines along each line of sight indicates peaked profiles near the plasma center, while visible line emissions of neutral hydrogen and helium recoded in the same sampling time have a maximum located in the peripheral region of the poloidal cross section. (author)

  18. A Study on the construction of 22.9 kV distribution test line of KEPCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hi Kyun; Choi, Hung Sik; Hwang, Si Dole; Jung, Young Ho [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, Dong Hwan; Choi, Chang Huk [Korea Power Engineering Company and Architecture Engineers (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    In order to enhance the reliability of power supply and the quality of electricity, a study on the construction of 22.9 kV distribution test line was performed. The main objective of this study was to establish a construction plan and a basic design to perform the construction and the detailed design of the test line effectively. (author). 21 refs., 45 figs.

  19. Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Anbo [Center for Photonics Technology, Blacksburgh, VA (United States); Yu, Zhihao [Center for Photonics Technology, Blacksburgh, VA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health,” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The scope of work entails analyses of traveling grating generation technologies in an optical fiber, as well as the interrogation of the gratings to infer a distributed temperature along the fiber, for the purpose of developing a real-time refractory health condition monitoring technology for coal gasifiers. During the project period, which is from 2011-2015, three different sensing principles were studied, including four-wave mixing (FWM), coherent optical time-domain reflectometer (C-OTDR) and Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). By comparing the three methods, the BOTDA was selected for further development into a complete bench-top sensing system for the proposed high-temperature sensing application. Based on the input from Eastman Chemical, the industrial collaborator on this project, a cylindrical furnace was designed and constructed to simulate typical gasifier refractory temperature conditions in the laboratory, and verify the sensor’s capability to fully monitor refractory conditions on the back-side at temperatures up to 1000°C. In the later stages of the project, the sensing system was tested in the simulated environment for its sensing performance and high-temperature survivability. Through theoretical analyses and experimental research on the different factors affecting the sensor performance, a sensor field deployment strategy was proposed for possible future sensor field implementations.

  20. The spatial intensity distribution of selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 - Comparison between theory and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Bohm, K.H.; Raga, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that most of the spatial intensity distribution of 11 selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 (including the forbidden S II emission lines at 6731 A and 4069 A, the forbidden O III line at 5007 A, and the forbidden O II line at 3727 A) can be explained by a bow shock with a shock velocity of about 150-200 km/sec at the stagnation point, and under the assumption that the gas entering the shock is fully preionized. The results are based on three spectrograms (with a total exposure time of 180 min) obtained consecutively. Specifically, the ratios of each of the forbidden lines to H-alpha were studied, which permitted a critical test of the model. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observations was found to be remarkable, considering the complex geometry that a bow shock could have. 38 refs

  1. Line-to-Line Fault Analysis and Location in a VSC-Based Low-Voltage DC Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Xue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A DC cable short-circuit fault is the most severe fault type that occurs in DC distribution networks, having a negative impact on transmission equipment and the stability of system operation. When a short-circuit fault occurs in a DC distribution network based on a voltage source converter (VSC, an in-depth analysis and characterization of the fault is of great significance to establish relay protection, devise fault current limiters and realize fault location. However, research on short-circuit faults in VSC-based low-voltage DC (LVDC systems, which are greatly different from high-voltage DC (HVDC systems, is currently stagnant. The existing research in this area is not conclusive, with further study required to explain findings in HVDC systems that do not fit with simulated results or lack thorough theoretical analyses. In this paper, faults are divided into transient- and steady-state faults, and detailed formulas are provided. A more thorough and practical theoretical analysis with fewer errors can be used to develop protection schemes and short-circuit fault locations based on transient- and steady-state analytic formulas. Compared to the classical methods, the fault analyses in this paper provide more accurate computed results of fault current. Thus, the fault location method can rapidly evaluate the distance between the fault and converter. The analyses of error increase and an improved handshaking method coordinating with the proposed location method are presented.

  2. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, IV, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important aspects. First, DS relies on spectral filtering of the radiation at multiple locations along the undulator, with a monochromator located every few power gain lengths. Second, DS performs filtering early in the exponential gain region before SASE spikes start to appear in the radiation longitudinal profile. Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain curve, which leads to improved spectral contrast of the seeded FEL over the SASE background. Timedependent Genesis simulations show the power-vs-z growth curves for DS exhibit behaviors of a seeded FEL amplifier, such as exponential growth region immediately after the filters. Of the seeding approaches considered, the two-stage DS spectra produce the highest contrast of seeded FEL over the SASE background and that the three-stage DS provides the narrowest linewidth with a relative spectral FWHM of 8 X 10-5 .

  3. The use of Jatropha curcas to achieve a self sufficient water distribution system: A case study in rural Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Alexandra

    The use of Jatropha curcas as a source of oil for fueling water pumps holds promise for rural communities struggling to achieve water security in arid climates. The potential for use in developing communities as an affordable, sustainable fuel source has been highly recommended for many reasons: it is easily propagated, drought resistant, grows rapidly, and has high-oil-content seeds, as well as medicinal and economic potential. This study uses a rural community in Senegal, West Africa, and calculates at what level of Jatropha curcas production the village is able to be self-sufficient in fueling their water system to meet drinking, sanitation and irrigation requirements. The current water distribution system was modelled to represent irrigation requirements for nine different Jatropha curcas cultivation and processing schemes. It was found that a combination of using recycled greywater for irrigation and a mechanical press to maximize oil recovered from the seeds of mature Jatropha curcas trees, would be able to operate the water system with no diesel required.

  4. Methodology for the electric energy distribution systems planning of small and rural zones of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Metodologia para la planeacion de sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica de zonas pequenas y rurales de Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Gomez, Miguel Armando

    2008-12-15

    institutional procedures, the standards, the commercial programs and the programs developed by the Management of Planning, used in the CFE to make the electric distribution systems planning. In the same way, in Chapter 4 a methodology for the optimization of the electrical grids in low tension is proposed, standing out some errors that are commonly committed in the design of these types of networks, doing recommendations to correct them with low cost investments. Because of the importance in the design of medium tension lines, in Chapter 3 the set of economic conductors for 23 kV was determined for urban and rural areas, system type A (3F-4H, 2F-3H, 1F-2H), by means of the Modified Method. With this information we will be able to select the conductor that offers the best economy in the time, in each extension of the network. In Chapter 5 the proposed methodology in the planning of the electrical system of distribution of the Zapotlan Zone was applied, as much in substations as in the high and medium tension network. In this chapter analyses of optimization of the network were performed, capacitor banks application, attention to the incremental demand, power losses, contingencies by fault and reliability of the provision. Finally the obtained conclusions of the investigation and the work carried out are presented; as well as the recommendations for future facilities. [Spanish] Las 13 Divisiones de Distribucion en las cuales la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) tiene estructurada, administrativa y tecnicamente, la distribucion de la energia electrica en su territorio atendido, estan constituida a su vez por un total de 120 Zonas de Distribucion, clasificadas conforme al producto de su numero de clientes, por su volumen de ventas anuales, en media y baja tension, como zonas tipo I, II y III. Ejemplos de zonas tipo III son las Zona Guadalajara y la Zona Metropolitana Monterrey Norte, Oriente y Poniente (metropolis), la tipo II son zonas predominantemente urbanas como Queretaro

  5. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-01-01

    The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  6. Carnivore distributions across chaparral habitats exposed to wildfire and rural housing in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, P.A.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Deutschman, D.H.; Tremor, S.; Spencer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in southern California support biologically diverse plant and animal communities. However, native plant and animal species within these shrubland systems are increasingly exposed to human-caused wildfires and an expansion of the human–wildland interface. Few data exist to evaluate the effects of fire and anthropogenic pressures on plant and animal communities found in these environments. This is particularly true for carnivore communities. To address this knowledge gap, we collected detection–non-detection data with motion-sensor cameras and track plots to measure carnivore occupancy patterns following a large, human-caused wildfire (1134 km2) in eastern San Diego County, California, USA, in 2003. Our focal species set included coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). We evaluated the influence on species occupancies of the burned environment (burn edge, burn interior and unburned areas), proximity of rural homes, distance to riparian area and elevation. Gray fox occupancies were the highest overall, followed by striped skunk, coyote and bobcat. The three species considered as habitat and foraging generalists (gray fox, coyote, striped skunk) were common in all conditions. Occupancy patterns were consistent through time for all species except coyote, whose occupancies increased through time. In addition, environmental and anthropogenic variables had weak effects on all four species, and these responses were species-specific. Our results helped to describe a carnivore community exposed to frequent fire and rural human residences, and provide baseline data to inform fire management policy and wildlife management strategies in similar fire-prone ecosystems.

  7. Pollution distribution and health risk assessment of heavy metals in indoor dust in Anhui rural, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuesheng; Fang, Fengman; Wang, Fei; Xu, Minglu

    2015-09-01

    Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Co, and As concentrations of indoor dust in Anhui rural were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The degrees of metal pollution in indoor dust ranked as follows: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > V > Ni > Co > As, on average. The arithmetic means of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Co, and As were 427.17, 348.73, 107.05, 113.68, 52.64, 38.93, 10.29, and 4.46 mg/kg, respectively. These were higher than background values of Anhui soil for Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni, especially for Pb with the mean value of 13.21 times the background value. Heavy metal concentrations of indoor dust were different from different rural areas. House type (bungalows or storied house), sweeping frequency, and external environment around the house (such as the road grade) affected heavy metal concentrations in indoor dust. The results of factor analysis and correlation analysis indicated that Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Co concentrations were mainly due to interior paint, metal objects, and building materials. Pb and As concentrations were due to vehicle emissions. V concentration was mainly of natural source. Average daily doses for the exposure pathway of the studied heavy metals decreased in children in the following order: hand-to-mouth ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The non-carcinogenic risks of heavy metals ranked as Pb > V > Cr > Cu > Zn > As > Co > Ni, and the carcinogenic risks of metals decreased in the order of Cr > Co > As > Ni. The non-carcinogenic hazard indexes and carcinogenic risks of metals in indoor dust were both lower than the safe values.

  8. On the Distribution of Ion Density Depletion Along Magnetic Field Lines as Deduced Using C-NOFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, E.; Kelley, M. C.; Hysell, D. L.; Retterer, J. M.; Su, Y.-J.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Roddy, P. A.; Ballenthin, J. O.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate ion density depletion along magnetic field lines, we compare in situ-measured ion density fluctuations as seen from C/NOFS and compare them to the field-line-integrated depletion of the whole bubble as inferred from electric field measurements. Results show that, within C/NOFS' range, local measurement of the normalized density depletion, (Delta)n/n(sub 0), near the apex may be far less than at other points on the same field line. We argue that the distribution of (Delta)n/n(sub 0) is a weighted distribution concentrated at latitudes of the Appleton anomalies and becomes more heavily weighted the closer the field-aligned bubble rises to the peak of the anomalies. A three-dimensional simulation of an ionospheric bubble verifies our arguments.

  9. Stabilization and control of tie-line power flow of microgrid including wind generation by distributed energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, M.G.; Mercado, P.E. [CONICET, Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste 1109, J5400ARL San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    High penetration of wind generation in electrical microgrids causes fluctuations of tie-line power flow and significantly affects the power system operation. This can lead to severe problems, such as system frequency oscillations, and/or violations of power lines capability. With proper control, a distribution static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM) integrated with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is able to significantly enhance the dynamic security of the power system. This paper proposes the use of a SMES system in combination with a DSTATCOM as effective distributed energy storage (DES) for stabilization and control of the tie-line power flow of microgrids incorporating wind generation. A new detailed model of the integrated DSTATCOM-SMES device is derived and a novel three-level control scheme is designed. The dynamic performance of the proposed control schemes is fully validated using MATLAB/Simulink. (author)

  10. Agricultural Trade Liberalisation and Growth in Income of Rural Household in Bangladesh: A Quintile-Growth Approach to the Analysis of Distributional Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal Talukder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study has investigated the growth in income of rural households in Bangladesh with a view to analysing distributional consequences in the post-liberalisation era. Using data from secondary sources, it has applied a quintile-growth approach by dividing each group of households into five income clusters (quintiles to analyse the incidence of growth in real income. It has found that although all groups of rural households experienced a moderate to high increase in real income, non-farm households experienced a larger increase than farm households due to a large reduction in consumer price. Farm households gained from the increase in productivity but experienced losses from producer price reduction. The two opposite forces – increase in productivity and reduction in producer price – offset the effects of each other, thereby affecting the income growth of farm households. Amongst the farm households, large and medium farmers gained the most and small farmers gained the least from the growth in real income, indicating that rich households experienced a much higher increase in real income than poor households – thereby adversely affecting the distribution of income and widening the income gap between rich and poor households. These findings demonstrated that while agricultural trade liberalisation benefited rural households generally, the benefits were not distributed equally and in fact, inequality increased amongst rural households. This study argues that the growth in real income of rural household was not pro-poor during 1985- 86 to 2005. This study suggests that agricultural trade liberalisation contributed to higher growth in the rural economy but it contributed to greater inequality in income distribution amongst the rich and poor income groups (quintiles. Government should reduce inequality through policy interventions with income transfer from the rich to the poor.

  11. Differences in the distribution of risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population in urban and rural areas of Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Te; Sun, Shangwen; Du, Yifeng; Guo, Shougang; Cong, Lin; Cao, Mingfeng; Sun, Qinjian; Sun, Yi; Qu, Chuanqiang

    2016-05-01

    Considering the program of screening for risk factors of stroke in Eastern China, the aim of this study was to compare the distribution differences in risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population living in urban and rural areas. A total of 231,289 residents were screened and basic information collected. Risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population were compared between the urban and rural groups. A total of 117,776 high-risk residents from urban areas and 113,513 from rural areas were included in the analysis. The prevalence of hypertension was much higher in rural areas (73.3%) than that in urban areas (64.1%). Dyslipidemia (48.9% vs. 26.9%), sport lack (46.6% vs. 31.6%), diabetes mellitus (21.3% vs. 16.5%), and atrial fibrillation (18.7% vs. 9.8%) were more prevalent in the urban group, while smoking (26.5% vs. 28.8%), previous stroke (10.1% vs. 16.9%), and transient ischemic attack (20.9% vs. 24.6%) were less prevalent. Among the population at high risk of stroke, there were significant differences in the distribution of the following risk factors between the urban and rural groups: hypertension, atrial fibrillation, dyslipidemia, lack of physical exercise, and a previous stroke.

  12. Spectral line shapes in linear absorption and two-dimensional spectroscopy with skewed frequency distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Marwa H.; Hoenders, Bernhard J.; Knoester, Jasper; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Gaussian dynamics on the line shapes in linear absorption and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy is well understood as the second-order cumulant expansion provides exact spectra. Gaussian solvent dynamics can be well analyzed using slope line analysis of two-dimensional

  13. Distribution and pollution, toxicity and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments from urban and rural rivers of the Pearl River delta in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2013-12-01

    Sediments were collected from the upper, middle and lower reaches of both urban and rural rivers in a typical urbanization zone of the Pearl River delta. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and their spatial distribution, pollution levels, toxicity and ecological risk levels were evaluated to compare the characteristics of heavy metal pollution between the two rivers. Our results indicated that the total contents of the six metals in all samples exceeded the soil background value in Guangdong province. Based on the soil quality thresholds of the China SEPA, Cd levels at all sites exceeded class III criteria, and other metals exhibited pollution levels exceeding class II or III criteria at both river sites. According to the sediment quality guidelines of the US EPA, all samples were moderately to heavily polluted by Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Compared to rural river sites, urban river sites exhibited heavier pollution. Almost all sediment samples from both rivers exhibited moderate to serious toxicity to the environment, with higher contributions from Cr and Ni. A "hot area" of heavy metal pollution being observed in the upper and middle reaches of the urban river area, whereas a "hot spot" was identified at a specific site in the middle reach of the rural river. Contrary metal distribution patterns were also observed along typical sediment profiles from urban and rural rivers. However, the potential ecological risk indices of rural river sediments in this study were equal to those of urban river sediments, implying that the ecological health issues of the rivers in the undeveloped rural area should also be addressed. Sediment organic matter and grain size might be important factors influencing the distribution profiles of these heavy metals.

  14. Investigation of the physical and chemical characteristics of rural solid waste in China and its spatiotemporal distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yue, Bo; Huang, Qifei; Wang, Qi; Li, Zhilong; Wang, Yutang; Yu, Junying

    2018-04-13

    Despite governmental efforts toward the development of policies, funds, and technologies, the inherent characteristics of rural solid waste (RSW) discharge have led to great difficulties in RSW pollution control. However, establishing a realistic management strategy requires greater knowledge of RSW generation. Therefore, the RSW of 72 typical towns and villages from 12 provinces of China was analyzed for physicochemical characteristics, as well as its spatiotemporal distribution. The largest proportion of kitchen waste, coal ash, plastic, and paper of RSW was 33.70% ± 17.87%, 26.50% ± 17.61%, 13.48% ± 5.68%, and 10.75% ± 5.75%, respectively, in 2015. Although RSW had the potential for composting, it was still necessary to pay special attention to heavy metals pollution of RSW. The spatiotemporal distributions of RSW components were extremely non-homogenous, and significant variations existed in the kitchen residue, coal ash, plastic, and paper because of differences in economic growth, climatic changes, dietary habits, energy consumption structure, and consumer preferences. No obvious differences in RSW components were observed between villages and market towns. Overall, RSW treatment and management approaches should be considered based on local conditions of RSW generation.

  15. Climate change and drought effects on rural income distribution in the Mediterranean: a case study for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Sonia; Suárez, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of climate change and drought on agricultural incomes in Spanish rural areas. Present research has focused on the effects of these extreme climatological events through response functions, considering effects on crop productivity and average incomes. Among the impacts of droughts, we focused on potential effects on income distribution. The study of the effects on abnormally dry periods is therefore needed in order to perform an analysis of diverse social aspects in the long term. We estimate crop production functions for a range of Mediterranean crops in Spain and we use a measure of the decomposition of inequality to estimate the impact of climate change and drought on yield disparities. Certain adaptation measures may require a better understanding of risks by the public to achieve general acceptance. We provide empirical estimations for the marginal effects of the two impacts considered: farms' average income and income distribution. Our estimates consider crop production response to both biophysical and socio-economic aspects to analyse long-term implications on competitiveness and disparities. As for the results, we find disparities in the adaptation priorities depending on the crop and the region analysed.

  16. African and local wind-blown dist contributions at three rural sites in SE Spain: the aerosol size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orza, J. A. G.; Cabello, M.; Lidon, V.; Martinez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The entrainment of particulate material into the atmosphere by wind action on surface soils both disturbed and natural, as well as directly due to human activities like agricultural practices, mineral industry operations, construction works and traffic, is a significant contribution to the aerosol load in Mediterranean semi-arid areas. A further crustal contribution in the region comes from the frequent arrival of African mineral dust plumes. We summarize some of the results obtained after 4-6 month campaigns at three rural sites in SE Spain where the aerosol number size distribution (31 size bins between 0.25 and 32 μm) was continuously measured. The influence of both local wind speed and the arrival of air masses loaded with African dust on the airborne particulate distribution is assessed. Similarities and differences between the three locations give information that allows a better understanding of the influence of both local wind speed and African dust outbreaks (ADO), while highlight what is mostly related to local features. (Author)

  17. On-Line Detection of Distributed Attacks from Space-Time Network Flow Patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baras, J. S; Cardenas, A. A; Ramezani, V

    2003-01-01

    .... The directionality of the change in a network flow is assumed to have an objective or target. The particular problem of detecting distributed denial of service attacks from distributed observations is presented as a working framework...

  18. The LINEs and SINEs of Entamoeba histolytica: comparative analysis and genomic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Abhijeet A; Rawal, Kamal; Ramaswamy, Ram; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2005-07-01

    Autonomous non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons are commonly referred to as long interspersed elements (LINEs). Short non-autonomous elements that borrow the LINE machinery are called SINES. The Entamoeba histolytica genome contains three classes of LINEs and SINEs. Together the EhLINEs/SINEs account for about 6% of the genome. The recognizable functional domains in all three EhLINEs included reverse transcriptase and endonuclease. A novel feature was the presence of two types of members-some with a single long ORF (less frequent) and some with two ORFs (more frequent) in both EhLINE1 and 2. The two ORFs were generated by conserved changes leading to stop codon. Computational analysis of the immediate flanking sequences for each element showed that they inserted in AT-rich sequences, with a preponderance of Ts in the upstream site. The elements were very frequently located close to protein-coding genes and other EhLINEs/SINEs. The possible influence of these elements on expression of neighboring genes needs to be determined.

  19. Near-line Archive Data Mining at the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, L.; Mack, R.; Eng, E.; Lynnes, C.

    2002-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is generating immense volumes of data, in some cases too much to provide to users with data-intensive needs. As an alternative to moving the data to the user and his/her research algorithms, we are providing a means to move the algorithms to the data. The Near-line Archive Data Mining (NADM) system is the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center's (GES DAAC) web data mining portal to the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data pool, a 50-TB online disk cache. The NADM web portal enables registered users to submit and execute data mining algorithm codes on the data in the EOSDIS data pool. A web interface allows the user to access the NADM system. The users first develops personalized data mining code on their home platform and then uploads them to the NADM system. The C, FORTRAN and IDL languages are currently supported. The user developed code is automatically audited for any potential security problems before it is installed within the NADM system and made available to the user. Once the code has been installed the user is provided a test environment where he/she can test the execution of the software against data sets of the user's choosing. When the user is satisfied with the results, he/she can promote their code to the "operational" environment. From here the user can interactively run his/her code on the data available in the EOSDIS data pool. The user can also set up a processing subscription. The subscription will automatically process new data as it becomes available in the EOSDIS data pool. The generated mined data products are then made available for FTP pickup. The NADM system uses the GES DAAC-developed Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor (S4P) to automate tasks and perform the actual data processing. Users will also have the option of selecting a DAAC-provided data mining algorithm and using it to process the data of their choice.

  20. Distributed voltage control and load sharing for inverter-interfaced microdrid with resistive lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golsorkhi, Mohammad S.; Lu, D. D C; Shafiee, Q.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new distributed control method for coordination of distributed energy resources (DERs) in low-voltage resistive microgrids. The proposed framework consists of two level structure; primary and secondary control. Unlike the existing distributed control methods, the proposed me...

  1. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003–2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Alam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD to verbal autopsies (VAs generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS. This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Design: Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA, in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003–2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02 was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Results: Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8% and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6% were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7% in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1–4 and 5–14 years, neoplasms in 15–49 and 50–64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Conclusions

  2. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003-2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Chowdhury, Hafizur R; Ahmed, Ali; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Streatfield, P Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD) to verbal autopsies (VAs) generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP) services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA), in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003-2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02) was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs) were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8%) and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6%) were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7%) in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1-4 and 5-14 years, neoplasms in 15-49 and 50-64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Automated InterVA-4 coding of VA to determine probable Co

  3. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003–2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Chowdhury, Hafizur R.; Ahmed, Ali; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Streatfield, P. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD) to verbal autopsies (VAs) generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Design Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP) services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA), in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003–2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02) was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Results Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs) were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8%) and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6%) were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7%) in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1–4 and 5–14 years, neoplasms in 15–49 and 50–64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Conclusions Automated

  4. A Flexible Load Control Strategy for Distribution Network to Reduce the Line Losses and to Eliminate the Transmission Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many uncertain factors in the modern distribution network, including the access of renewable energy sources and the heavy load level. The existence of these factors has brought challenges to the stability of the power distribution network, as well as increasing the risk of exceeding transmission capacity of distribution lines. The appearance of flexible load control technology provides a new idea to solve the above problems. Air conditioners (ACs account for a great proportion of all loads. In this paper, the model of dispatching AC loads in the regional power grid is constructed, and the direct load control (DLC method is adopted to reduce the load of ACs. An improved tabu search technique is proposed to solve the problem of network dispatch in distribution systems in order to reduce the resistive line losses and to eliminate the transmission congestion in lines under normal operating conditions. The optimal node solution is obtained to find the best location and reduction capacity of ACs for load control. To demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method, a test system is studied. The numerical results are also given in this article, which reveal that the proposed method is promising.

  5. A Novel Fault Line Selection Method Based on Improved Oscillator System of Power Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of fault line selection based on IOS is presented. Firstly, the IOS is established by using math model, which adopted TZSC signal to replace built-in signal of duffing chaotic oscillator by selecting appropriate parameters. Then, each line’s TZSC decomposed by db10 wavelet packet to get CFB with the maximum energy principle, and CFB was solved by IOS. Finally, maximum chaotic distance and average chaotic distance on the phase trajectory are used to judge fault line. Simulation results show that the proposed method can accurately judge fault line and healthy line in strong noisy background. Besides, the nondetection zones of proposed method are elaborated.

  6. The effects of deregulation on rural electric distribution cooperatives: An empirical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Monica Lynne

    In 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC") issued Orders 888 and 889, which were designed to promote competition in wholesale markets for electricity. While these Orders were predominantly meant to apply to vertically integrated investor-owned utilities ("IOUs"), FERC recently issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that indicates its intent to make all transmission-owning entities, including those of cooperatively-owned utilities and the federal power administrations subject to FERC jurisdiction. Cooperatively owned utilities ("coops"), the focus of this paper, are organized as either generation and transmission ("G&T") or distribution only. And, although there are typically long-term contracts between the G&T and the distribution coops (thus rendering them quasi-vertically-integrated), they are very different from their investor-owned counterparts. It is because of these differences that the economic viability of these entities is being questioned in a deregulated environment. This dissertation examines the ability of coops to continue operating in their present form in a restructured electricity market. More specifically, using 1996 data for 831 distribution coops I estimate both quadratic and translogarithmic cost specifications so as to ascertain whether these firms are operating in such a fashion as to minimize costs. I find evidence that they are not. When delivered power is modeled as a single-output translogarithmic cost equation, I find that the majority of firms in the sample were operating in the increasing returns to scale portion of the average cost curve in 1996. This result reveals that coops delivered far less electricity to all customer classes than was necessary to attain the minimum efficient scale. And, upon estimating a multiple-output quadratic cost function, I find that there are ray economies, product specific returns to scale, and economies of scope in the distribution of electricity to the various customer classes that are

  7. 75 FR 35366 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... to the risks that hazardous liquid and natural gas pipelines pose to the environment. In the Pipeline...

  8. Meeting rural demand: a case for combining community-based distribution and social marketing of injectable contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can tailor interventions to match family

  9. The effects of lightning and high altitude electromagnetic pulse on power distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uman, M.A.; Rubinstein, M.; Yacoub, Z. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-01-01

    We simultaneously recorded the voltages induced by lightning on both ends of an unenergized 448-meter long unenergized electric power line and the lightning vertical electric and horizontal magnetic fields at ground level near the line. The lightning data studied and presented here were due both to cloud lightning and to very close (about 20 m from the line) artificially initiated lightning. For cloud sources, a frequency-domain computer program called EMPLIN was used to calculate induced line voltages as a function of source elevation, angle of incidence, and wave polarization of the radiated cloud discharge pulses in order to compare with the measurements. For very-close lightning, the measured line voltages could be grouped into two categories, those in which multiple, similarly shaped, evenly spaced pulses were observed, which we call oscillatory, and those dominated by a principal pulse with subsidiary oscillations of much smaller amplitude, which we call impulsive. The amplitude of the induced voltage ranged from tens of kilovolts for oscillatory voltages to hundreds of kilovolts for impulsive voltages. A new technique is derived for the calculation of the electromagnetic fields from nearby lightning to ground above an imperfectly conducting ground. This technique was used in conjunction with an existing time domain coupling theory and lightning return stroke model to calculate voltages at either end of the line. The results show fair agreement with the measured oscillatory voltage waveforms if corona is ignored and improved results when corona effects are modeled. The modeling of the impulsive voltage, for which local flashover probably successful. In an attempt to understand better the sources of the line voltages for very close lightning, measurements of the horizontal and vertical electric fields 30 m from triggered lightning were obtained.

  10. Using radio frequency and ultrasonic antennas for inspecting pin-type insulators on medium-voltage overhead distribution lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Lefort Borges

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the activities undertaken when using antennas (ultrasound and radiofrequency for identifying insulators in pre-failure state by detecting the noise emitted by the distribution line and correlating this with these insulators (porcelain pin type dielectric breakdown. This has led to developing low-cost maintenance procedures and providing support and criteria for engineer-ing decisions regarding replacing these insulators. The technique used two detectors; a radio frequency detector was used in a first investigation of a particular distribution line, set to 40 MHz and installed on the roof of a moving vehicle. The ultrasound detector was used for inspecting (phases A, B, C each structure (pole selected. Atmospheric conditions had no influence on defining pre-failure insulators (pin type based on the noise detection technique. Pin type insulators emitting noise should be replaced since measurement was made from the ground and near the base of the post.

  11. A new gamma-ray diagnostic for energetic ion distributions - The Compton tail on the neutron capture line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestrand, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a new radiation diagnostic for assaying the energy spectrum and the angular distribution of energetic ions incident on thick hydrogen-rich thermal targets. This diagnostic compares the number of emergent photons in the narrow neutron capture line at 2.223 MeV to the number of Compton scattered photons that form a low-energy tail on the line. It is shown that the relative strength of the tail can be used as a measure of the hardness of the incident ion-energy spectrum. Application of this diagnostic to solar flare conditions is the main thrust of the work presented here. It is examined how the strength of the Compton tail varies with flare viewing angle and the angular distribution of the flare-accelerated particles. Application to compact X-ray binary systems is also briefly discussed. 39 refs

  12. Monitoring the marketing, distribution, and use of Sprinkles micronutrient powders in rural western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchdev, Parminder S; Ruth, Laird; Obure, Alfredo; Were, Vincent; Ochieng, Cliff; Ogange, Lorraine; Owuor, Mercy; Ngure, Frances; Quick, Robert; Juliao, Patricia; Jung, Christina; Teates, Kathryn; Cruz, Kari; Jefferds, Maria Elena D

    2010-06-01

    In 2007, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with local Kenyan institutions to implement the Nyando Integrated Child Health and Education Project, an effectiveness study that used social marketing and a community-based distribution program to promote the sale of Sprinkles and other health products. To describe monitoring of wholesale sales, household demand, promotional strategies, and perceived factors influencing Sprinkles sales among vendors. Ongoing quantitative and qualitative monitoring of Sprinkles sales began in May 2007 in 30 intervention villages. Data sources included baseline and follow-up cross-sectional surveys; office records of Sprinkles sales to vendors; biweekly household monitoring of Sprinkles use; and qualitative data collection, including vendor focus groups and key informant interviews. A total of 550 children aged 6 to 35 months were enrolled at baseline, and 451 were available at 12-month follow-up. During this period, nearly 160,000 sachets were sold wholesale to vendors, with variability in sales influenced by the social, political, and economic context. Vendors living closer to the wholesale office purchased more Sprinkles, so a second office was opened closer to remote vendors. On average, 33% of households purchased Sprinkles during household monitoring visits. Training sessions and community launches were important for community support and raising awareness about Sprinkles. Vendor incentives motivated vendors to sell Sprinkles, and consumer incentives promoted purchases. Sprinkles program monitoring in Kenya was critically important for understanding sales and distribution trends and vendor perceptions. Understanding these trends led to strategic changes to the intervention over time.

  13. Line radiation of multicharged ions with the Fermi-Dirac level distribution of electrons at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garanin, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    Line radiation of multicharged ions with the Fermi-Dirac electron distribution by levels in the range of plasma temperatures, when electron movement may be considered quasiclassical, while potential, in which they move, is the Coulomb one, is considered. The spectrum and intensity of ion radiation are calculated. Within high plasma densities the radiation intensity per one ion proved to be independent of density and proportional to T 2 [ru

  14. On the front line of primary health care: the profile of community health workers in rural Quechua communities in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela; Malca, Rosa; Zumaran, Adriana; Miranda, J Jaime

    2006-05-17

    To describe the profile of community health workers--health promoters, traditional birth attendants and traditional healers--in rural Quechua communities from Ayacucho, Peru. Basic quantitative and qualitative information was gathered as part of a community health project implemented between 1997 and 2002 in 40 Andean communities with information from questionnaires, personal interviews and group discussions. The majority of current community health workers are men with limited education who are primarily Quechua speakers undertaking their work on a voluntary basis. Health promoters are mostly young, male, high school graduates. There exists a high drop-out rate among these workers. In contrast, traditional healers and traditional birth attendants possess an almost diametrically opposite profile in terms of age, education and drop-out rates, though males still predominate. At the community level the health promoters are the most visible community health workers. It is very important to consider and to be aware of the profile of community health workers in order to provide appropriate alternatives when working with these groups as well as with the indigenous population, particularly in terms of culture, language and gender issues.

  15. On the front line of primary health care: the profile of community health workers in rural Quechua communities in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumaran Adriana

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe the profile of community health workers – health promoters, traditional birth attendants and traditional healers – in rural Quechua communities from Ayacucho, Peru. Methods Basic quantitative and qualitative information was gathered as part of a community health project implemented between 1997 and 2002 in 40 Andean communities with information from questionnaires, personal interviews and group discussions. Results The majority of current community health workers are men with limited education who are primarily Quechua speakers undertaking their work on a voluntary basis. Health promoters are mostly young, male, high school graduates. There exists a high drop-out rate among these workers. In contrast, traditional healers and traditional birth attendants possess an almost diametrically opposite profile in terms of age, education and drop-out rates, though males still predominate. At the community level the health promoters are the most visible community health workers. Conclusion It is very important to consider and to be aware of the profile of community health workers in order to provide appropriate alternatives when working with these groups as well as with the indigenous population, particularly in terms of culture, language and gender issues.

  16. Feasibility of high-speed power line carrier system to Japanese overhead low voltage distribution lines; Teiatsu haidensen hanso no kosokuka no kanosei (hanso sningo denpa purogram no kanosei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T.; Takeshita, K.; Ishino, R.

    2000-06-01

    The high-speed distribution line carrier systems on underground distribution lines are being developed in Germany. To estimate these systems on Japanese overhead low voltage distribution lines, the Carrier Propagation Program has been developed and applicability of OFDM system was roughly estimated. 1. Carrier Propagation Program Carrier Propagation Program that calculates the carrier propagation characteristics of any line structure was developed. 2. Carrier propagation characteristics Carrier propagation characteristics on typical Japanese overhead low voltage distribution lines were calculated 3.Rough estimation of OFDM system Electric fields caused by carrier at near point were calculated on the basis on carrier propagation characteristics. Results of rough estimation are as follows: - Electric field caused by carrier of more than 2Mbps system exceeds the value of the regulation. (author)

  17. Size distribution of atmospheric Pb and 210Pb in rural New Jersey: implications for wet and dry deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuth, R.H.; Knutson, E.O.; Feely, H.W.; Volchok, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    High volume cascade impactor samples taken during spring, 1980, at the Chester sampling station in northern New Jersey showed a small but persistent difference in the size distributions of Pb and 210 Pb. On the average, 69% of Pb was below 0.58 μm and 12% was above 3.45 μm. For 210 Pb, the corresponding figures were 71% and 2.8%. These 210 Pb data indicate larger particles than found in Colorado, but smaller than those found over the Mediterranean Sea. The average air concentrations for the two species were 111 ng/m 3 (Pb) and 10.9 fCi/m 3 ( 210 Pb), in good agreement with other reported results for rural northeast areas. Experimental results imply a factor of three difference in dry deposition velocity between the two species, providing a qualitative explanation of a previously observed difference in wet/dry deposition of the two species. 19 references, 1 figure, 6 tables

  18. Stray dogs as indicators of Toxoplasma gondii distributed in the environment: the first report across an urban-rural gradient in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that is distributed world-wide and infects a variety of hosts. However, the prevalence of T. gondii in the environment (such as soil, water and food is largely unknown. Due to the technical difficulty in oocyst counting directly, an alternative assay using the serologic status of T. gondii in free-living animals, such as stray or free-living dogs, as an indicator, can be used to evaluate environmental contamination indirectly, as they are exposed to the same risk of infection as humans and other animals. Results In the present study, 231 stray or free-living dogs across an urban-rural gradient were examined to assess the frequency of T. gondii in the environment. Specific antibodies to T. gondii were found in 93 dogs (40.3% by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and no statistically significant differences were observed in seroprevalences of T. gondii between urban dogs (38.7% and rural dogs (41% (p > 0.05. Conclusions A high seroprevalence of T. gondii in stray or free-living dogs in the present study indicates that there would be a wide distribution and a constant infection pressure of T. gondii across an urban-rural gradient, and the oocysts of T. gondii in the environment would be an important source of infection for humans and other animals both in urban and rural areas in China.

  19. Lightning current distribution to ground at a power line tower carrying a radio base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Radio base stations are often mounted on towers of power transmission lines. They are usually powered from the low-voltage network through an isolating transformer, to separate the high- and low-voltage networks. The isolating transformer ensures security at customers' premises in the case of nearby

  20. Chemical characterization and spatial distribution of PAHs and heavy hydrocarbons in rural sites of Campania Region, South Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, D; Riccio, A; Chianese, E; Adamo, P; Di Rosa, S; Fagnano, M

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the behaviour and distribution patterns of heavy hydrocarbons and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) priority pollutants, as listed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, were evaluated in 891 soil samples. The samples were collected in three expected polluted rural sites in Campania (southern Italy) as part of the LIFE11 ECOREMED project, funded by the European Commission, to test innovative agriculture-based soil restoration techniques. These sites have been selected because they have been used for the temporary storage of urban and building waste (Teverola), subject to illicit dumping of unknown material (Trentola-Ducenta), or suspected to be polluted by metals due to agricultural practices (Giugliano). Chemical analysis of soil samples allowed the baseline pollution levels to be determined prior to any intervention. It was found that these areas can be considered contaminated for residential use, in accordance with Italian environmental law (Law Decree 152/2006). Statistical analysis applied to the data proved that average mean concentrations of heavy hydrocarbons could be as high as 140 mg/kg of dry soil with peaks of 700 mg/kg of dry soil, for the Trentola-Ducenta site; the median concentration of analytical results for hydrocarbon (HC) concentration for the Trentola-Ducenta and Giugliano sites was 63 and 73.4 mg/kg dry soil, respectively; for Teverola, the median level was 35 mg/kg dry soil. Some PAHs (usually benzo(a)pyrene) also exceeded the maximum allowed level in all sites. From the principal component analysis applied to PAH concentrations, it emerged that pollutants can be supposed to derive from a single source for the three sites. Diagnostic ratios calculated to determine possible PAH sources suggest petroleum combustion or disposal practice. Our sampling protocol also showed large dishomogeneity in soil pollutant spatial distribution, even at a scale as small as 3.3 m, indicating that variability could emerge at very

  1. Development of An On-Line, Core Power Distribution Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunc ALdemir; Don Miller; Peng Wang

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the proposed work was to develop a software package that can construct in three-dimensional core power distributions using the signals from constant temperature power sensors distributed in the reactor core. The software developed uses a mode-based state/parameter estimation technique that is particularly attractive when there are model uncertainties and/or large signal noise. The software yields the expected value of local power at the detector locations and points in between, as well as the probability distribution of the local power density

  2. Development of An On-Line, Core Power Distribution Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunc ALdemir; Don Miller; Peng Wang

    2007-10-02

    The objective of the proposed work was to develop a software package that can construct in three-dimensional core power distributions using the signals from constant temperature power sensors distributed in the reactor core. The software developed uses a mode-based state/parameter estmation technique that is particularly attractive when there are model uncertainties and/or large signal noise. The software yields the expected value of local power at the detector locations and points in between, as well as the probability distribution of the local power density

  3. Seroprevalence and distribution of arboviral infections among rural Kenyan adults: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoepp Randal J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthorpod-borne viruses (arboviruses cause wide-spread morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa, but little research has documented the burden and distribution of these pathogens. Methods Using a population-based, cross-sectional study design, we administered a detailed questionnaire and used ELISA to test the blood of 1,141 healthy Kenyan adults from three districts for the presence of anti-viral Immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies to the following viruses: dengue (DENV, West Nile (WNV, yellow fever (YFV, Chikungunya (CHIKV, and Rift Valley fever (RVFV. Results Of these, 14.4% were positive for DENV, 9.5% were WNV positive, 9.2% were YFV positive, 34.0% were positive for CHIKV and 0.7% were RVFV positive. In total, 46.6% had antibodies to at least one of these arboviruses. Conclusions For all arboviruses, district of residence was strongly associated with seropositivity. Seroprevalence to YFV, DENV and WNV increased with age, while there was no correlation between age and seropositivity for CHIKV, suggesting that much of the seropositivity to CHIKV is due to sporadic epidemics. Paradoxically, literacy was associated with increased seropositivity of CHIKV and DENV.

  4. The quantification and distribution of pollution Pb at a woodland in rural south central Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watmough, Shaun A.; Hutchinson, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    Lead concentrations and Pb isotope ratios were measured in the forest floor, mineral soil and vegetation at a white pine and a sugar maple stand in a woodland in south central Ontario. Lead concentrations decreased and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios increased with mineral soil depth reflecting the mixing of pollution and natural Pb sources. Lead concentrations and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios at 20-30 cm depth were ∼6-7 mg/kg and 1.31-1.32, respectively. Assuming an integrated 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio in deposition over time of 1.18, estimated from lichen measurements and published data for the region, approximately 65% of Pb in the surface (0-1 cm) mineral soil is from anthropogenic sources. Approximately 90% of pollution Pb is found in the 0-10 cm soil layer (Ah) and less than 3% of the pollution Pb is present in the forest biomass and mull-type forest floor combined. Despite low Pb concentrations in vegetation ( 2 , respectively. - The distribution of pollution lead was determined at a woodland through the use of stable leads isotopes

  5. Climate change and water scarcity effects on the rural income distribution in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Sonia; Suárez, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of climate change and water scarcity on the agricultural outputs in the Mediterranean region. By now the effects of water scarcity as a response to climate change or policy restrictions has been analyzed with response functions considering the direct effects on crop productivity. Here we consider a complementary indirect effect on social distribution of incomes which is essential in the long term. We estimate crop production functions for a range of Mediterranean crops in Spain and we use a decomposition of the Gini coefficient to estimate the impact of climate change and water scarcity on yield disparities. This social aspect is important for climate change policies since it can be determinant for the public acceptation of certain adaptation measures in a context of water scarcity. We provide the empirical estimations for the marginal effects on the two considered direct and indirect impacts. In our estimates we consider both bio-physical and socio-economic aspects to conclude that there are long term implications on both competitiveness and social disparities. We find disparities in the adaptation strategies depending on the crop and the region analyzed.

  6. Adoption of new HIV treatment guidelines and drug substitutions within first-line as a measure of quality of care in rural Lesotho: health centers and hospitals compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus D; Sello, Motlalepula; Lejone, Thabo; Ehmer, Jochen; Mokhantso, Mohlaba; Lynen, Lutgarde; Pfeiffer, Karolin

    2012-10-01

    In 2007, Lesotho launched new national antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines, prioritising tenofovir and zidovudine over stavudine as a backbone together with lamivudine. We compared the rate of adoption of these new guidelines and substitution of first-line drugs by health centers (HC) and hospitals in two catchment areas in rural Lesotho. Retrospective cohort analysis. Patients aged ≥16 years were stratified into a HC- and a hospital-group. Type of backbone at ART-initiation (i), substitutions within first line (ii) and type of backbone among patients retained by December 2010 (iii). A multiple logistic regression model including HC vs. hospital, patient characteristics (sex, age, WHO-stage, baseline CD4-count, concurrent pregnancy, concurrent tuberculosis treatment) and year of ART-start, was used. Of 3936 adult patients initiated on ART between 2007 and 2010, 1971 started at hospitals and 1965 at HCs. Hospitals were more likely to follow the new guidelines as measured by prescription of backbones without stavudine (Odds-ratio 1.55; 95%CI: 1.32-1.81) and had a higher rate of drug substitutions while on first-line ART (2.39; 1.83-3.13). By December 2010, patients followed at health centres were more likely to still receive stavudine (2.28; 1.83-2.84). Health centers took longer to adopt the new guidelines and substituted drugs less frequently. Decentralised ART-programmes need close support, supervision and mentoring to absorb new guidelines and to adhere to them. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The Distribution of Rural Settlement Environmental Quality (Case at Bantul, DIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ritohardoyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The housing environment problem is the inreased population and housing density  in certain areas, as a consequence of the high population growth rate. This situation has brought about the unavailability of the existing public facilities. Such as the evironmental problem is also faced by Bantul regency. Starting from those stated environment problems, this study has in phased its general objectives on to comprehend the variation of housing environmental quality within various topographical, and to comprehend environment factors influencing the housing environmental quality within various topographial background.this study employs so-called sampling technique. Area sampling is carried out aording to topographical condition. Ten villages are randomly selected representing the sampling areas. The number of respondent is 300 households, selected proportionally based on the area stratification. Primary data is collected direct communication with informants are key persons. Data analysis employed simple correlation technique, multiple regression analysis, and one way variance analysis. The study reveals that differences in topographical characteristics are strongly associated with the differences in the quality of housing environment. The level of village development is also the main variable determining the quality of housing environment. A significant different of housing environment quality both among various topographical zones and various level of village development is reported. The achievement of programs oriented to village environment improvement is varying according to the distribution of village on the topographical zone. A greater success is commonly achieved by villages located in the upland and low land than those in the hilly areas. The social-economic condition of the dwellers is determining the quality of housing environment. Nevertheless, differences in the contribution of various variables to housing environment are encountered. In

  8. Non-Gaussian Velocity Distributions in Solar Flares from Extreme Ultraviolet Lines: A Possible Diagnostic of Ion Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    In a solar flare, a large fraction of the magnetic energy released is converted rapidly to the kinetic energy of non-thermal particles and bulk plasma motion. This will likely result in non-equilibrium particle distributions and turbulent plasma conditions. We investigate this by analyzing the profiles of high temperature extreme ultraviolet emission lines from a major flare (SOL2014-03-29T17:44) observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode . We find that in many locations the line profiles are non-Gaussian, consistent with a kappa distribution of emitting ions with properties that vary in space and time. At the flare footpoints, close to sites of hard X-ray emission from non-thermal electrons, the κ index for the Fe xvi 262.976 Å line at 3 MK takes values of 3–5. In the corona, close to a low-energy HXR source, the Fe xxiii 263.760 Å line at 15 MK shows κ values of typically 4–7. The observed trends in the κ parameter show that we are most likely detecting the properties of the ion population rather than any instrumental effects. We calculate that a non-thermal ion population could exist if locally accelerated on timescales ≤0.1 s. However, observations of net redshifts in the lines also imply the presence of plasma downflows, which could lead to bulk turbulence, with increased non-Gaussianity in cooler regions. Both interpretations have important implications for theories of solar flare particle acceleration.

  9. [Expression and distribution of xenoantigen alpha-Gal in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Jian-guo; Mi, Jian-hong; Ying, Da-jun

    2002-09-01

    To investigate the expression and distribution of xenoantigen in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line, and to study the availability of xenograft transplantation of intervertebral disk. Samples of intervertebral disk were collected from six Banna pigs of 8 to 11-month-old. The fixation, embedment and slice were performed. alpha-Gal specific binding lection (BSI-B4) were used as affinity reagents and affinity-immunohistochemistry assays (SABC methods and DAB stain) were conducted to detect the expression and distribution of xenoantigen (alpha-Gal). alpha-Gal was found in chondrocyte cell and chondrocyte-like cell in intervertebral disk which have the positive yellow-stained particulate aggradation. There was no stain in the matrix, elastic fiber and collagen fiber. The distribution of xenoantigen is locally in the tissue of intervertebral disk and its expression is weak. This suggests that the intervertebral disk of Banna pig may be alternative donor for xenotransplantation.

  10. Methane distributions and transports in the nocturnal boundary layer at a rural station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Zeeman, Matthias; Brosy, Caroline; Münkel, Christoph; Fersch, Benjamin; Mauder, Matthias; Emeis, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the methane distributions and transports, the role of related atmospheric processes by determination of vertical profiles of wind, turbulence, temperature and humidity as well as nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) height and the quantification of methane emissions at local and plot scale the so-called ScaleX-campaign was performed in a pre-alpine observatory in Southern Germany from 01 June until 31 July 2015. The following measurements from the ground up to the free troposphere were performed: layering of the atmosphere by a ceilometer (Vaisala CL51); temperature, wind, turbulence profiles from 50 m up to 500 m by a Radio-Acoustic Sounding System (RASS, Metek GmbH); temperature, humidity profiles in situ by a hexacopter; methane farm emissions by two open-path laser spectrometers (Boreal GasFinder2); methane concentrations in situ (Los Gatos DLT-100) with tubes in 0.3 m agl and 5 sampling heads; and methane soil emissions by a big chamber (10 m length, 2.60 m width, up to 0.61 m height) with a plastic cover. The methane concentrations near the surface show a daily variation with a maximum and a frequent double-peak structure during night-time. Analysis of the variation of the nocturnal methane concentration together with the hexacopter and RASS data indicates that the first peak in the nocturnal methane concentration is probably due to local cooling and stabilization which keeps the methane emissions from the soil near the ground. The second peak seems to be due to advection of methane-enriched air which had formed in the environment of the nearby farm yards. These dairy farm emissions were determined by up-wind and down-wind open-path concentration measurements, turbulence data from an EC station nearby and Backward Lagrangian Simulation (WindTrax software). The methane fluxes at plot scale (big chamber) are characterized by emissions at water saturated grassland patches, by an exponential decrease of these emissions during grassland drying, and by an

  11. On-line detection of Escherichia coli intrusion in a pilot-scale drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Jenni; Pitkänen, Tarja; Kosse, Pascal; Ciszek, Robert; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2017-08-01

    Improvements in microbial drinking water quality monitoring are needed for the better control of drinking water distribution systems and for public health protection. Conventional water quality monitoring programmes are not always able to detect a microbial contamination of drinking water. In the drinking water production chain, in addition to the vulnerability of source waters, the distribution networks are prone to contamination. In this study, a pilot-scale drinking-water distribution network with an on-line monitoring system was utilized for detecting bacterial intrusion. During the experimental Escherichia coli intrusions, the contaminant was measured by applying a set of on-line sensors for electric conductivity (EC), pH, temperature (T), turbidity, UV-absorbance at 254 nm (UVAS SC) and with a device for particle counting. Monitored parameters were compared with the measured E. coli counts using the integral calculations of the detected peaks. EC measurement gave the strongest signal compared with the measured baseline during the E. coli intrusion. Integral calculations showed that the peaks in the EC, pH, T, turbidity and UVAS SC data were detected corresponding to the time predicted. However, the pH and temperature peaks detected were barely above the measured baseline and could easily be mixed with the background noise. The results indicate that on-line monitoring can be utilized for the rapid detection of microbial contaminants in the drinking water distribution system although the peak interpretation has to be performed carefully to avoid being mixed up with normal variations in the measurement data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptive settings of distance relay for MOV-protected series compensated line with distributed capacitance considering wind power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivov, Oleg Viktorovich

    Series compensated lines are protected from overvoltage by metal-oxide-varistors (MOVs) connected in parallel with the capacitor bank. The nonlinear characteristics of MOV devices add complexity to fault analysis and distance protection operation. During faults, the impedance of the line is modified by an equivalent impedance of the parallel MOV/capacitor circuit, which affects the distance protection. The intermittent wind generation introduces additional complexity to the system performance and distance protection. Wind variation affects the fault current level and equivalent MOV/capacitor impedance during a fault, and hence the distance relay operation. This thesis studies the impact of the intermittent wind power generation on the operation of MOV during faults. For the purpose of simulation, an equivalent wind farm model is proposed to generate a wind generation profile using wind farm generation from California independent system operator (ISO) as a guide for wind power variation to perform the study. The IEEE 12-bus test system is modified to include MOV-protected series capacitor and the equivalent wind farm model. The modified test system is simulated in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The study has been achieved considering three phase and single line to ground (SLG) faults on the series compensated line to show the effect of wind variation on the MOV operation. This thesis proposes an adaptive setting method for the mho relay distance protection of series compensated line considering effects of wind power variation and MOV operation. The distributed parameters of a transmission line are taken into account to avoid overreaching and underreaching of distance relays. The study shows that variable wind power affects system power flow and fault current in the compensated line during a fault which affects the operation of MOVs for different fault conditions. The equivalent per-phase impedance of the MOV/capacitor circuit has an effect on the system operation

  13. Establishment and cell cycle distribution pattern of a radioresistant subline from human lung cancer D6 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Qichun; Zheng Shu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To establish a radioresistant cell subline from a human D6 lung cancer cell line and investigate the mechanism of radioresistance. Methods: D6 human NSCLC cells were exposed to X-rays generated by a linear accelerator(650 cGy per fraction). After a total exposure dose of 5200 cGy, a monoclone was obtained. The radiosensitivity and cell cycle distribution of this clone, together with its parent D6 cells, were measured by clonogenic assay and flow cytometry. Results: The new clone, namely D 6 -R subline, had a higher D 0 (D 0 =2.08 Gy) and a broader initial shoulder(Dq=1.64 Gy, N=2.20) than those of the parent D6 cell line (D 0 =1.84 Gy, Dq=0.34 Gy, N=1.20), being 1.65-fold increase in radioresistance as regards to the SF 2 . The D6-R subline also showed higher percentage of cells in S phase(53.4% vs 37.8%), but lower percentages in G 1 (44.1% vs 57.2%) and G 2 /M(2.5% vs 5%) phases. Conclusion: The new subline D6-R is more radioresistant as compare to its parent D6 cell line, and has a different cell cycle distribution

  14. An automatic optimum number of well-distributed ground control lines selection procedure based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Somayeh; Valadan Zoej, Mohammad Javad; Salehi, Bahram

    2018-05-01

    The procedure of selecting an optimum number and best distribution of ground control information is important in order to reach accurate and robust registration results. This paper proposes a new general procedure based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is applicable for all kinds of features (point, line, and areal features). However, linear features due to their unique characteristics are of interest in this investigation. This method is called Optimum number of Well-Distributed ground control Information Selection (OWDIS) procedure. Using this method, a population of binary chromosomes is randomly initialized. The ones indicate the presence of a pair of conjugate lines as a GCL and zeros specify the absence. The chromosome length is considered equal to the number of all conjugate lines. For each chromosome, the unknown parameters of a proper mathematical model can be calculated using the selected GCLs (ones in each chromosome). Then, a limited number of Check Points (CPs) are used to evaluate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each chromosome as its fitness value. The procedure continues until reaching a stopping criterion. The number and position of ones in the best chromosome indicate the selected GCLs among all conjugate lines. To evaluate the proposed method, a GeoEye and an Ikonos Images are used over different areas of Iran. Comparing the obtained results by the proposed method in a traditional RFM with conventional methods that use all conjugate lines as GCLs shows five times the accuracy improvement (pixel level accuracy) as well as the strength of the proposed method. To prevent an over-parametrization error in a traditional RFM due to the selection of a high number of improper correlated terms, an optimized line-based RFM is also proposed. The results show the superiority of the combination of the proposed OWDIS method with an optimized line-based RFM in terms of increasing the accuracy to better than 0.7 pixel, reliability, and reducing systematic

  15. Expert system in power distribution lines switching; Sistema especialista em manobras de redes de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavellucci, Celso

    1989-07-01

    This work proposes an expert system integrated to procedures of numerical computation, denominated RD and projected to suggest alternatives of switching plans in the isolation and re-establishment of power distribution lines. The switching plans are based on the specialist's knowledge (network operator) and in evaluations of the electric conditions of the switching. Specialist's knowledge is represented in the form of triples (context, attribute, value) and production rules, that are evaluated conveniently by the machine of inference of the RD system. The electric power distribution is represented by a graph model, where the knots are load blocks and the arcs are key of the system. The evaluation of the electric requirements (voltage drop and physical capacity of the components of the power distribution lines) it is obtained through a maneuver simulator (numeric computation). The maneuver simulator bases on the Method of the Moments for the calculation of the voltage drop. With base in these ideas a prototype of the RD system was developed.

  16. Expert system in power distribution lines switching; Sistema especialista em manobras de redes de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavellucci, Celso

    1989-07-01

    This work proposes an expert system integrated to procedures of numerical computation, denominated RD and projected to suggest alternatives of switching plans in the isolation and re-establishment of power distribution lines. The switching plans are based on the specialist's knowledge (network operator) and in evaluations of the electric conditions of the switching. Specialist's knowledge is represented in the form of triples (context, attribute, value) and production rules, that are evaluated conveniently by the machine of inference of the RD system. The electric power distribution is represented by a graph model, where the knots are load blocks and the arcs are key of the system. The evaluation of the electric requirements (voltage drop and physical capacity of the components of the power distribution lines) it is obtained through a maneuver simulator (numeric computation). The maneuver simulator bases on the Method of the Moments for the calculation of the voltage drop. With base in these ideas a prototype of the RD system was developed.

  17. Study of dissociative collisions of hydrogen-line ions by mean of angular and energy distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, H.; Urquijo, J. de; Cisneros, C.; Alvarez, J.

    1988-01-01

    Angular and energy distribution of fragments produced in a collision, employed in conjunction with the 'step-model' that means excitation and binary dissociation, are used to determine the binding energy of H 3 (D 3 ) and HD + 2 and also to identify the principal channels in the dissociation processes. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  18. Recursive Estimation of π-Line Parameters for Electric Power Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) whose measurement noise covariance matrix is modified in order to account for all noisy variables in the overdetermined system. Simulations confirm the advantages of the EKF over the previously used Least-Squares (LSQ) estimator. In the low random noise cases considered...... in this paper, the EKF yields a four-fold improvement over the LSQ for the parallel susceptance across all quantization ranges. For the highest levels of random and quantization noise, the EKF performs about 1.5 to 3 times better than the LSQ for all line parameters. Furthermore, the EKF shows more consistent...

  19. Geographic distribution and mortality risk factors during the cholera outbreak in a rural region of Haiti, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Page

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 and 2011, Haiti was heavily affected by a large cholera outbreak that spread throughout the country. Although national health structure-based cholera surveillance was rapidly initiated, a substantial number of community cases might have been missed, particularly in remote areas. We conducted a community-based survey in a large rural, mountainous area across four districts of the Nord department including areas with good versus poor accessibility by road, and rapid versus delayed response to the outbreak to document the true cholera burden and assess geographic distribution and risk factors for cholera mortality.A two-stage, household-based cluster survey was conducted in 138 clusters of 23 households in four districts of the Nord Department from April 22nd to May 13th 2011. A total of 3,187 households and 16,900 individuals were included in the survey, of whom 2,034 (12.0% reported at least one episode of watery diarrhea since the beginning of the outbreak. The two more remote districts, Borgne and Pilate were most affected with attack rates up to 16.2%, and case fatality rates up to 15.2% as compared to the two more accessible districts. Care seeking was also less frequent in the more remote areas with as low as 61.6% of reported patients seeking care. Living in remote areas was found as a risk factor for mortality together with older age, greater severity of illness and not seeking care.These results highlight important geographical disparities and demonstrate that the epidemic caused the highest burden both in terms of cases and deaths in the most remote areas, where up to 5% of the population may have died during the first months of the epidemic. Adapted strategies are needed to rapidly provide treatment as well as prevention measures in remote communities.

  20. Distribution, utilization structure and potential of biomass resources in rural China: With special references of crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H [Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang, G M [Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Agronomy Department, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an 271018, Shandong Province (China); Zhuang, H Y [National Bio-Energy CO., LTD, No. 26B, Financial Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100032 (China); Shandong Academy of Sciences, No. 19, Keyuan Road, Ji' nan 250014, Shandong Province (China); Wang, K J [Agronomy Department, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an 271018, Shandong Province (China)

    2008-06-15

    As the largest developing country in the world, China is urgently in short of energy and natural resources. However, biological resources such as crop residues are burnt in the field, which cause serious environmental pollution. Still it is not clear how much storage and potential of these huge crop residues are in China. This paper firstly reported the distribution, utilization structure and potential of crop biomass and provided the tangible information of crop residues in rural China through careful collecting and recalculating data. From 1995 to 2005, China produces some 630 million tons of crop residues per year, 50% of which comes from east and central south of China. The amount of crop residues is 1.3 times of the total yield of crops, 2 times of the total fodder of grassland, which covers 41% of China's territory. Crop residues of corn, wheat and rice amounted to 239, 137 and 116 million tons, respectively, accounting for nearly 80% of the total crop residues. Unfortunately, the utilizing structure is seriously improper for such abundant biomass resources. Although 23% of the crop residues are used for forage, 4% for industry materials and 0.5% for biogas, the large parts are used with lower efficiency or wasted, with 37% being directly combusted by farmers, 15% lost during collection and the rest 20.5% discarded or directly burnt in the field. Reasonable adjustment of the utilizing pattern and popularization of the recycling agriculture are essential out-ways for residues, with the development of the forage industry being the breakthrough point. We suggested that utilizing the abandoned 20.5% of the total residues for forage and combining agriculture and stock raising can greatly improve the farm system and cut down fertilizer pollution. Through the development of forage industries, the use efficiency of crop residues could be largely enhanced. Commercializing and popularizing technologies of biomass gasification and liquefaction might be substitute

  1. Calculations of lightning-induced voltages in medium voltage distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munhoz Rojas, Patricio E. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: patricio@lactec.org.br; Pinto, Cleverson Luiz da Silva [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: cleverson@copel.com

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to show the results of a new computer program, written in Mat Lab environment, that is intended to calculate the lightning induced voltages in multi-conductor non-homogeneous lines, in order to be able to evaluate the impact of the usual protective measures implemented against lightning-induced disturbances. The main new features of this program are: a coupling model in terms of the scalar potentials referred to a remote ground was adopted; the coupling to the vertical conductors was considered in a manner similar to rest of the line; the describing equations were converted into a system of coupled ordinary differential equations, by a discretization only in space, which was subsequently solved using the powerful ODE solvers existing in Mat Lab. The validation of the new program has been performed by comparing its predicted results with other theoretical and computational results available in the literature and also with other experimental results published in the literature. It is shown that the agreement with other well established theoretical results is very good and, also, that the agreement between the newly calculated results and some published experimental results is better than previously obtained results. (author)

  2. A New Approach for High Pressure Pixel Polar Distribution on Off-line Signature Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús F. Vargas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Features representing information of High Pressure Points froma static image of a handwritten signature are analyzed for an offline verification system. From grayscale images, a new approach for High Pressure threshold estimation is proposed. Two images, one containingthe High Pressure Points extracted and other with a binary version ofthe original signature, are transformed to polar coordinates where a pixel density ratio between them is calculated. Polar space had been divided into angular and radial segments, which permit a local analysis of the high pressure distribution. Finally two vectors containing the density distribution ratio are calculated for nearest and farthest points from geometric center of the original signature image. Experiments were carried out using a database containing signature from 160 individual. The robustness of the analyzed system for simple forgeries is tested out with Support Vector Machines models. For the sake of completeness, a comparison of the results obtained by the proposed approach with similar works published is presented.

  3. System data structures for on-line distributed data base management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Described herein are the data structures used in implementing a distributed data base management system (DBMS) for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), a part of the Mirror Fusion Energy Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The hardware and software frameworks within which the DBMS have been developed are first described, followed by a brief look at the motivation and fundamental design goals of the system. The structures are given in detail

  4. System data structures for on-line distributed data base management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, J.A.

    1981-01-28

    Described herein are the data structures used in implementing a distributed data base management system (DBMS) for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), a part of the Mirror Fusion Energy Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The hardware and software frameworks within which the DBMS have been developed are first described, followed by a brief look at the motivation and fundamental design goals of the system. The structures are given in detail.

  5. Measurement of Line-to-Ground Capacitance in Distribution Network Considering Magnetizing Impedance’s Frequency Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal injection method (SIM is widely applied to the insulation parameters’ measurement in distribution network for its convenience and safety. It can be divided into two kinds of patterns: injecting a specific frequency signal or several frequencies’ groups, and scanning frequency in a scheduled frequency scope. In order to avoid the disadvantages in related researches, improved signal injection method (ISIM, in which the frequency characteristic of the transformer magnetizing impedance is taken into consideration, is proposed. In addition, optimization for signal injection position has been accomplished, and the corresponding three calculation methods of line-to-ground capacitance has been derived. Calculations are carried out through the vector information (vector calculation method, the amplitude information (amplitude calculation method, the phase information (phase calculation method of voltage and current in signal injecting port, respectively. The line-to-ground capacitance is represented by lumped parameter capacitances in high-voltage simulation test. Eight different sinusoidal signals are injected into zero-sequence circuit, and then line-to-ground capacitance is calculated with the above-mentioned vector calculation method based on the voltage and the current data of the injecting port. The results obtained by the vector calculation method show that ISIM has a wider application frequency range compared with signal injection method with rated parameters (RSIM and SIM. The RSIM is calculated with the rated transformer parameters of magnetizing impedance, and the SIM based on the ideal transformer model, and the relative errors of calculation results of ISIM are smaller than that for other methods in general. The six groups of two-frequency set are chosen in a specific scope which is recommended by vector calculation results. Based on ISIM, the line-to-ground capacitance calculations through the amplitude calculation method and

  6. Distributed flow estimation and closed-loop control of an underwater vehicle with a multi-modal artificial lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Levi; Lagor, Francis D; Lei, Hong; Tan, Xiaobo; Paley, Derek A

    2015-03-25

    Bio-inspired sensing modalities enhance the ability of autonomous vehicles to characterize and respond to their environment. This paper concerns the lateral line of cartilaginous and bony fish, which is sensitive to fluid motion and allows fish to sense oncoming flow and the presence of walls or obstacles. The lateral line consists of two types of sensing modalities: canal neuromasts measure approximate pressure gradients, whereas superficial neuromasts measure local flow velocities. By employing an artificial lateral line, the performance of underwater sensing and navigation strategies is improved in dark, cluttered, or murky environments where traditional sensing modalities may be hindered. This paper presents estimation and control strategies enabling an airfoil-shaped unmanned underwater vehicle to assimilate measurements from a bio-inspired, multi-modal artificial lateral line and estimate flow properties for feedback control. We utilize potential flow theory to model the fluid flow past a foil in a uniform flow and in the presence of an upstream obstacle. We derive theoretically justified nonlinear estimation strategies to estimate the free stream flowspeed, angle of attack, and the relative position of an upstream obstacle. The feedback control strategy uses the estimated flow properties to execute bio-inspired behaviors including rheotaxis (the tendency of fish to orient upstream) and station-holding (the tendency of fish to position behind an upstream obstacle). A robotic prototype outfitted with a multi-modal artificial lateral line composed of ionic polymer metal composite and embedded pressure sensors experimentally demonstrates the distributed flow sensing and closed-loop control strategies.

  7. Characterization of the source distribution of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides in rural and urban areas; Charakterisierung der Quellverteilung von Feinstaub und Stickoxiden in laendlichem und staedtischem Gebiet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Susanna

    2010-07-01

    composed of quantifying fractions of the regional and the urban background. The difference of the current measuring signals and the regional background represents the maximum achievable release potential through traffic related activities for traffic dominated trace substances. Moreover, typical particulate size distributions and VOC-compositions of different contamination scenarios (urban, suburban and rural with biogenic contribution) could be determined. Adequate weather conditions approved the investigation of inversion layers of trace substances by the passing of a mountain when using the ''driving air-lab''. During the measurement campaign in Duesseldorf three characteristic measuring scenarios of a city, arterial streets, side streets and a tunnel, were distinguished. The correlation analysis showed a coemission of particles and nitrogen oxides. Furthermore, a total background concentration-field with street resolution of a residential area was created which reveals that the representativeness of a hypothetical measuring station only reaches a few 100 m. The multiregression analysis with source pattern of different engine systems in variable operating conditions demonstrated that the main contribution of the VOC-emissions derives from gasoline engines in cold start status. To determine the reaching range of an intense line source, measurements on and close to the highway in the area of Juelich were performed. By means of the crossing of a highway bridge the particle size concentrations demonstrate that the sphere of influence of a highway reaches several 100 m depending on the meteorological and orographic conditions. The gas chromatographic analysis and the following pattern analysis of mobile collected filters of a measuring route in the area of Juelich with motorway, highway, urban and rural road parts revealed a diesel soot contribution of more than 40% to total particulate matter (PM10). The comparison with stationary measurements in the inner city area of

  8. Characterization of the source distribution of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides in rural and urban areas; Charakterisierung der Quellverteilung von Feinstaub und Stickoxiden in laendlichem und staedtischem Gebiet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Susanna

    2010-07-01

    . It could be demonstrated that the total background is composed of quantifying fractions of the regional and the urban background. The difference of the current measuring signals and the regional background represents the maximum achievable release potential through traffic related activities for traffic dominated trace substances. Moreover, typical particulate size distributions and VOC-compositions of different contamination scenarios (urban, suburban and rural with biogenic contribution) could be determined. Adequate weather conditions approved the investigation of inversion layers of trace substances by the passing of a mountain when using the ''driving air-lab''. During the measurement campaign in Duesseldorf three characteristic measuring scenarios of a city, arterial streets, side streets and a tunnel, were distinguished. The correlation analysis showed a coemission of particles and nitrogen oxides. Furthermore, a total background concentration-field with street resolution of a residential area was created which reveals that the representativeness of a hypothetical measuring station only reaches a few 100 m. The multiregression analysis with source pattern of different engine systems in variable operating conditions demonstrated that the main contribution of the VOC-emissions derives from gasoline engines in cold start status. To determine the reaching range of an intense line source, measurements on and close to the highway in the area of Juelich were performed. By means of the crossing of a highway bridge the particle size concentrations demonstrate that the sphere of influence of a highway reaches several 100 m depending on the meteorological and orographic conditions. The gas chromatographic analysis and the following pattern analysis of mobile collected filters of a measuring route in the area of Juelich with motorway, highway, urban and rural road parts revealed a diesel soot contribution of more than 40% to total particulate matter

  9. On-line determination of vertical distribution of filler materials in paper using x-ray techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusi, J.; Kumpulainen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Optimizing the use of mineral filler and coating materials in paper production is a significant technical and economic problem. These compounds improve the printability, opacity and finish of papers and may even be cheaper than fibres. Since good printing paper should display the least possible two-sidedness, the distribution of filler and coating materials is also of great importance. This paper describes principles and feasibility studies of a method which enables even on-line determination and thus also control of vertical distribution and content of filler materials in paper using X-ray techniques. The method is much faster than the ones presently used in paper industry and offers potential for considerable technical and economical benefits

  10. David and Goliath : the procedures for selling ENEL distribution lines to city-owned companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzed the economic impacts of the provisions under Article 9 of the Bersani Decree, relating to the sale of the ENEL distribution networks to city-owned companies, with particular reference to the ENEL-AEM Milano case. The Bersani Decree states that the sale of networks must be made according to normal market rules, but also rules that ENEL is obliged to sell its own distribution network. Through the use of analytical instruments inspired by the contract theory, this study highlighted several contradictions in the decree. It was noted that the deferment to private parties bargaining to perform the sale was contradictory, as it was counterbalanced and blocked by the legal compulsion to sell. The Bersani Decree influences the bargaining power of the parties by handing it over to the city-owned company, who then make as low an evaluation of the contract as possible. This has prompted several companies to seek arbitration. If the arbitrators are unable to arrive at a satisfactory price, the contract will not be completed. The refusal to accept a proposed price may be seen as an attempt to negotiate a different purchase price. In addition, magistrates undertake the bargaining power that would be be granted to both parties to respect the Bersani Decree, in that the magistrate has the power to order one or both parties to conclude the contract. The independent setting of the sale is compromised and does not necessarily reflect the evaluations of parties involved. Appeals to appraisers, hearings and research mean that the costs to both parties, and society, increases. It was suggested that legislators should allow the market to work independently, without mandating the terms of private companies' transactions, and without additional procedural phases. A market-oriented formulation could avoid useless extensions and costs in the sale of ENEL-owned distribution networks to city-owned companies. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs

  11. Fire Source Localization Based on Distributed Temperature Sensing by a Dual-Line Optical Fiber System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao; Tang, Yuquan; Yang, Shuang; Li, Jun; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-06-06

    We propose a method for localizing a fire source using an optical fiber distributed temperature sensor system. A section of two parallel optical fibers employed as the sensing element is installed near the ceiling of a closed room in which the fire source is located. By measuring the temperature of hot air flows, the problem of three-dimensional fire source localization is transformed to two dimensions. The method of the source location is verified with experiments using burning alcohol as fire source, and it is demonstrated that the method represents a robust and reliable technique for localizing a fire source also for long sensing ranges.

  12. Fire Source Localization Based on Distributed Temperature Sensing by a Dual-Line Optical Fiber System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for localizing a fire source using an optical fiber distributed temperature sensor system. A section of two parallel optical fibers employed as the sensing element is installed near the ceiling of a closed room in which the fire source is located. By measuring the temperature of hot air flows, the problem of three-dimensional fire source localization is transformed to two dimensions. The method of the source location is verified with experiments using burning alcohol as fire source, and it is demonstrated that the method represents a robust and reliable technique for localizing a fire source also for long sensing ranges.

  13. A database for on-line event analysis on a distributed memory machine

    CERN Document Server

    Argante, E; Van der Stok, P D V; Willers, Ian Malcolm

    1995-01-01

    Parallel in-memory databases can enhance the structuring and parallelization of programs used in High Energy Physics (HEP). Efficient database access routines are used as communication primitives which hide the communication topology in contrast to the more explicit communications like PVM or MPI. A parallel in-memory database, called SPIDER, has been implemented on a 32 node Meiko CS-2 distributed memory machine. The spider primitives generate a lower overhead than the one generated by PVM or PMI. The event reconstruction program, CPREAD of the CPLEAR experiment, has been used as a test case. Performance measurerate generated by CPLEAR.

  14. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study.

  15. [Population-based study on infection and genotype distribution of high-risk human among women in rural areas of China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, J L; Luo, X M; Wu, J L; Song, B; Ma, L

    2017-04-06

    Objective: To explore the epidemiologic characterization of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and genotype distribution of HR-HPV among women in rural areas of China. Methods: This study used multiple layers of stratified cluster random sampling method. During January to December in 2014, 117 counties of 27 provinces were selected as the HPV test screening pilot project counties. The women aged 35-64 years with rural areas Hukou in these project counties were selected as the study subjects. A total 457 799 women received HPV DNA test. Among them, 118 237 women from 32 counties in 11 provinces received qualified HPV DNA test by fluorescent PCR to detect HPV genotypes. Results: Among 118 237 rural women, the overall HR-HPV positive infection rate was 7.8% (9 249/118 237). The infection rate increased with age and reached an infection peak at the 60-64 age groups (9.9%, 831/8 394). The HR-HPV positive infection rate in western regions (6.9%, 2 144/31 130) was statistical significantly lower than in central regions (8.2%, 1 894/23 023) and eastern regions (8.1%, 5 211/64 084) (χ(2)=51.46, PChina. The single infection rates were 20.9% (1 355/6 496), 18.7% (1 215/6 496), and 11.2% (725/6 496), respectively. The multiple infection rates were 47.2% (77/163), 17.8% (29/163), and 18.4% (30/163), respectively. Conclusion: The HR-HPV positive infection rate in rural areas of Chinese woman was 7.8%, western region has lower infection rate compared with central and eastern regions. HPV 52 was first of the most common genotypes in rural areas of China.

  16. Retroelements (LINEs and SINEs) in vole genomes: differential distribution in the constitutive heterochromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M J; Marchal, J A; Fernández-Espartero, C H; Bullejos, M; Sánchez, A

    2008-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of mobile genetic elements is scarcely known in Arvicolinae species, but could be of relevance to understand the origin and complex evolution of the sex chromosome heterochromatin. In this work we cloned two retrotransposon sequences, L1 and SINE-B1, from the genome of Chionomys nivalis and investigated their chromosomal distribution on several arvicoline species. Our results demonstrate first that both retroelements are the most abundant repeated DNA sequences in the genome of these species. L1 elements, in most species, are highly accumulated in the sex chromosomes compared to the autosomes. This favoured L1 insertion could have played an important role in the origin of the enlarged heterochromatic blocks existing in the sex chromosomes of some Microtus species. Also, we propose that L1 accumulation on the X heterochromatin could have been the consequence of different, independent and rapid amplification processes acting in each species. SINE elements, however, were completely lacking from the constitutive heterochromatin, either in autosomes or in the heterochromatic blocks of sex chromosomes. These data could indicate that some SINE elements are incompatible with the formation of heterochromatic complexes and hence are necessarily missing from the constitutive heterochromatin.

  17. AKORT-1 on-line system for technological control of the mixed fuel distribution in fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanov, V.S.; Besednov, G.Yu.; Gadzhiev, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    An on-line system for technological control of experimental fuel elements with vibrocompacted UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel rods fabricated for the BOR-60 reactor is described. Equipment and performance specific features of the system mechanical part and electronic circuits are considered. The results of the system performance testing are given. The fuel element quality sorting is made on the base of the analysis of Pu and fuel density distributions in the rod length. Gamma-absorption method for density measuring and the method of Pu content determination by its own gamma radiation are used in the system simultaneously. The system has the following main characteristics: tested fuel element diameter is 6 mm; the range of fuel rod mean densities is 7-10 g/cm 3 ; Pu content in the fuel is more than 20%; gamma detectors are the NaI(Tl) detectors with dimensions 40x40 and 25x25 mm; energy resolution is 137 Cs gamma line. Electronic circuits of the system operating on-line with the D3-28 microcomputer are made using the VECTOR standard. The system testing has shown that the error in the fuel density determination is less than 1%, that for Pu content measuring is 4%, the system capacity is 6 fuel elements per hour

  18. Colorectal Cancer, Socioeconomic Distribution and Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Urban and Rural Counties in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaamel M Nuhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC ranks second for all cancer related deaths among men and women together and third for either sex when considered separately. Disparities exist in CRC incidence and mortality between rural and urban counties in the USA. This study sought to explore socioeconomic and behavioral factors that may partly explain these observed differences.Methods: Using educational and income levels as measures of socioeconomic status (SES, and average alcohol consumption and smoking frequency as behavioral factors, data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER program for analysis were coupled.Results: Results showed statistically significant inequalities for CRC incidence (t = 2.678, p = 0.010 and mortality (t = 2.567, p = 0.013, as well as socioeconomic (i.e., poverty; t = 5.644, p < 0.001 and behavioral (i.e., smoking; t = 2.885, p = 0.006 factors between selected rural and urban counties. Regression analysis for colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates at the rural, urban, and national levels yielded relative impacts of smoking frequency, alcohol consumption, and educational level.Conclusions: Health policies aimed at reducing disparities between rural and urban populations in the USA must therefore adequately address SES and behavioral factors.Key words: colorectal cancer, rural health, social determinants of health, health behavior 

  19. A data base for on-line event analysis on a distributed memory machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argante, E.; Meesters, M.R.J.; Willers, I.; Stok, P. van der

    1996-01-01

    Parallel in-memory databases can enhance the structuring and parallelization of programs used in High Energy Physics (HEP). Efficient database access routines are used as communication primitives which hide the communication topology in contrast to the more explicit communications like PVM or MPI. A parallel in-memory database, called SPIDER, has been implemented on a 32 node Meiko CS-2 distributed memory machine. The SPIDER primitives generate a lower overhead than the one generated by PVM or MPI. The even reconstruction program, CPREAD, of the CLEAR experiment, has been used as test case. Performance measurements showed that CPREAD interfaced to SPIDER can easily cope with the event rate generated by CPLEAR. (author)

  20. Study of Stand-Alone Microgrid under Condition of Faults on Distribution Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, S. G.; Bhende, C. N.

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of stand-alone microgrid is analyzed under the condition of faults on distribution feeders. During fault since battery is not able to maintain dc-link voltage within limit, the resistive dump load control is presented to do so. An inverter control is proposed to maintain balanced voltages at PCC under the unbalanced load condition and to reduce voltage unbalance factor (VUF) at load points. The proposed inverter control also has facility to protect itself from high fault current. Existing maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm is modified to limit the speed of generator during fault. Extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK established that the performance of the controllers is quite satisfactory under different fault conditions as well as unbalanced load conditions.

  1. The effect of on-line position correction on the dose distribution in focal radiotherapy for bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooijen, Dominique C van; Kamer, Jeroen B van de; Pool, René; Hulshof, Maarten CCM; Koning, Caro CE; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-09-24

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dosimetric effect of on-line position correction for bladder tumor irradiation and to find methods to predict and handle this effect. For 25 patients with unifocal bladder cancer intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with 5 beams was planned. The requirement for each plan was that 99% of the target volume received 95% of the prescribed dose. Tumor displacements from -2.0 cm to 2.0 cm in each dimension were simulated, using 0.5 cm increments, resulting in 729 simulations per patient. We assumed that on-line correction for the tumor was applied perfectly. We determined the correlation between the change in D{sub 99%} and the change in path length, which is defined here as the distance from the skin to the isocenter for each beam. In addition the margin needed to avoid underdosage was determined and the probability that an underdosage occurs in a real treatment was calculated. Adjustments for tumor displacement with perfect on-line position correction resulted in an altered dose distribution. The altered fraction dose to the target varied from 91.9% to 100.4% of the prescribed dose. The mean D{sub 99%} (± SD) was 95.8% ± 1.0%. There was a modest linear correlation between the difference in D{sub 99%} and the change in path length of the beams after correction (R{sup 2} = 0.590). The median probability that a systematic underdosage occurs in a real treatment was 0.23% (range: 0 - 24.5%). A margin of 2 mm reduced that probability to < 0.001% in all patients. On-line position correction does result in an altered target coverage, due to changes in average path length after position correction. An extra margin can be added to prevent underdosage.

  2. The effect of on-line position correction on the dose distribution in focal radiotherapy for bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koning Caro CE

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the dosimetric effect of on-line position correction for bladder tumor irradiation and to find methods to predict and handle this effect. Methods For 25 patients with unifocal bladder cancer intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT with 5 beams was planned. The requirement for each plan was that 99% of the target volume received 95% of the prescribed dose. Tumor displacements from -2.0 cm to 2.0 cm in each dimension were simulated, using 0.5 cm increments, resulting in 729 simulations per patient. We assumed that on-line correction for the tumor was applied perfectly. We determined the correlation between the change in D99% and the change in path length, which is defined here as the distance from the skin to the isocenter for each beam. In addition the margin needed to avoid underdosage was determined and the probability that an underdosage occurs in a real treatment was calculated. Results Adjustments for tumor displacement with perfect on-line position correction resulted in an altered dose distribution. The altered fraction dose to the target varied from 91.9% to 100.4% of the prescribed dose. The mean D99% (± SD was 95.8% ± 1.0%. There was a modest linear correlation between the difference in D99% and the change in path length of the beams after correction (R2 = 0.590. The median probability that a systematic underdosage occurs in a real treatment was 0.23% (range: 0 - 24.5%. A margin of 2 mm reduced that probability to Conclusion On-line position correction does result in an altered target coverage, due to changes in average path length after position correction. An extra margin can be added to prevent underdosage.

  3. The effect of on-line position correction on the dose distribution in focal radiotherapy for bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooijen, Dominique C; van de Kamer, Jeroen B; Pool, René; Hulshof, Maarten CCM; Koning, Caro CE; Bel, Arjan

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the dosimetric effect of on-line position correction for bladder tumor irradiation and to find methods to predict and handle this effect. Methods For 25 patients with unifocal bladder cancer intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with 5 beams was planned. The requirement for each plan was that 99% of the target volume received 95% of the prescribed dose. Tumor displacements from -2.0 cm to 2.0 cm in each dimension were simulated, using 0.5 cm increments, resulting in 729 simulations per patient. We assumed that on-line correction for the tumor was applied perfectly. We determined the correlation between the change in D99% and the change in path length, which is defined here as the distance from the skin to the isocenter for each beam. In addition the margin needed to avoid underdosage was determined and the probability that an underdosage occurs in a real treatment was calculated. Results Adjustments for tumor displacement with perfect on-line position correction resulted in an altered dose distribution. The altered fraction dose to the target varied from 91.9% to 100.4% of the prescribed dose. The mean D99% (± SD) was 95.8% ± 1.0%. There was a modest linear correlation between the difference in D99% and the change in path length of the beams after correction (R2 = 0.590). The median probability that a systematic underdosage occurs in a real treatment was 0.23% (range: 0 - 24.5%). A margin of 2 mm reduced that probability to < 0.001% in all patients. Conclusion On-line position correction does result in an altered target coverage, due to changes in average path length after position correction. An extra margin can be added to prevent underdosage. PMID:19775479

  4. The effect of on-line position correction on the dose distribution in focal radiotherapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, Dominique C van; Kamer, Jeroen B van de; Pool, René; Hulshof, Maarten CCM; Koning, Caro CE; Bel, Arjan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dosimetric effect of on-line position correction for bladder tumor irradiation and to find methods to predict and handle this effect. For 25 patients with unifocal bladder cancer intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with 5 beams was planned. The requirement for each plan was that 99% of the target volume received 95% of the prescribed dose. Tumor displacements from -2.0 cm to 2.0 cm in each dimension were simulated, using 0.5 cm increments, resulting in 729 simulations per patient. We assumed that on-line correction for the tumor was applied perfectly. We determined the correlation between the change in D 99% and the change in path length, which is defined here as the distance from the skin to the isocenter for each beam. In addition the margin needed to avoid underdosage was determined and the probability that an underdosage occurs in a real treatment was calculated. Adjustments for tumor displacement with perfect on-line position correction resulted in an altered dose distribution. The altered fraction dose to the target varied from 91.9% to 100.4% of the prescribed dose. The mean D 99% (± SD) was 95.8% ± 1.0%. There was a modest linear correlation between the difference in D 99% and the change in path length of the beams after correction (R 2 = 0.590). The median probability that a systematic underdosage occurs in a real treatment was 0.23% (range: 0 - 24.5%). A margin of 2 mm reduced that probability to < 0.001% in all patients. On-line position correction does result in an altered target coverage, due to changes in average path length after position correction. An extra margin can be added to prevent underdosage

  5. TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCES OF THEIR ROLE IN TRANSFORMING RURAL AND TONSHIP SCHOOLS: A DISTRIBUTED LEADERSHIP ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mafora

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in South Africa suggest that the social, material and curriculartransformation espoused in post-apartheid legislation and education policies donot always translate into implementation in schools. This article reports on aqualitative multi case study on transformative leadership in township schools anda follow up study in rural schools. The article isrestricted to three rural and threetownship secondary schools regarding the question:how do teachers perceive andexperience their role in school transformation. Semi-structured focus groupinterviews and phenomenological steps were the basis for data collection andanalysis, respectively. Findings suggests that while teachers query their limitedinvolvement in school transformation initiatives, and question the concentration ofdecision-making power regarding transformation issues on school management,they are equally reluctant to take additional non-teaching responsibilities.Perceived contextual barriers to teacher involvement in rural and township schooltransformation are outlined.

  6. On-line generation of core monitoring power distribution in the SCOMS couppled with core design code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. B.; Kim, K. K.; In, W. K.; Ji, S. K.; Jang, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides the description of the methodology and main program module of power distribution calculation of SCOMS(SMART COre Monitoring System). The simulation results of the SMART core using the developed SCOMS are included. The planar radial peaking factor(Fxy) is relatively high in SMART core because control banks are inserted to the core at normal operation. If the conventional core monitoring method is adapted to SMART, highly skewed planar radial peaking factor Fxy yields an excessive conservatism and reduces the operation margin. In addition to this, the error of the core monitoring would be enlarged and thus operating margin would be degraded, because it is impossible to precalculate the core monitoring constants for all the control banks configurations taking into account the operation history in the design stage. To get rid of these drawbacks in the conventional power distribution calculation methodology, new methodology to calculate the three dimensional power distribution is developed. Core monitoring constants are calculated with the core design code (MASTER) which is on-line coupled with SCOMS. Three dimensional (3D) power distribution and the several peaking factors are calculated using the in-core detector signals and core monitoring constant provided at real time. Developed methodology is applied to the SMART core and the various core states are simulated. Based on the simulation results, it is founded that the three dimensional peaking factor to calculate the Linear Power Density and the pseudo hot-pin axial power distribution to calculate the Departure Nucleate Boiling Ratio show the more conservative values than those of the best-estimated core design code, and SCOMS adapted developed methodology can secures the more operation margin than the conventional methodology

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF LONG RURAL FEEDERS USING A GENETIC ALGORITHM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wishart, Michael; Ledwich, Gerard; Ghosh, Arindam; Ivanovich, Grujica

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the optimization of conductor size and the voltage regulator location and magnitude of long rural distribution lines. The optimization minimizes the lifetime cost of the lines, including capital costs and losses while observing voltage drop and operational constraints using a Genetic Algorithm (GA). The GA optimization is applied to a real Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) network in regional Queensland and results are presented.

  8. Rainfall Characteristic on the Slopes of Mount Merapi Region (Empirical Formula, Duration, Distribution, And Critical Line Woro River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudak Juni Laksana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Debris flow on the slopes of Mount Merapi area became a serious natural disasters because it has great destructive force and velocity. Rainfall with a certain intensity and duration is one component triggering debris flow. Rainfall has variability of the temporal and spatial characteristics influenced by various factors, such as topography and climate. Dharma (2012 suggested to define the characteristics of the intensity of rainfall using rainfall data with a shorter duration with statistical tests to establish the best empirical IDF formula.  This research was using of 30 minutes rainfall data for short duration (<3 hours and a spreadsheet software representing duration and distribution of the rainfall. The most appropriate rainfall intensity formula was done by the empirical IDF formula, i.e. Sherman, Kimijima, Hasper and Mononobe. Rainfall intensity analysis applied Frequency Analysis Software (based on Microsoft Excel. Debris flow occurrence was analyzed using MLIT for method A to establish standard rainfall index.  Sherman formula performed the best fit to the IDF characteristics of rainfall in the region of the slopes of Mount Merapi. Rainfall distribution pattern showed high intensity rainfall in the first hour and then decreased in the next hour which means distribution for the duration of 3 hours, 12%, 28%, 25%, 16%, 12%, and 7%, respectively with an interval of 30 minutes. Based on critical line, 5 mm of standard rainfall index was gained in the case of warning (R1 and 28 mm in the case of evacuation (R2.

  9. Resources, Not Capital: A Case Study of the Gendered Distribution and Productivity of Social Network Ties in Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkelsson, Asa

    2007-01-01

    Poor people make use of a variety of contextually relevant resources to pursue their livelihood strategies, and there is wide empirical evidence that opportunities and constraints for accessing these may vary considerably for women and men, particularly in the rural areas of developing countries. In this article, micro-evidence from a case study…

  10. Global Positioning System – A new tool to measure the distribution of anaemia and nutritional status of children (5-10years in a rural area, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Chandra MR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Global Positioning System (GPS is a satellite based navigation system which is of late being used in the health field. Objectives: 1.To describe the geographical distribution of anaemia and malnutrition with GPS; 2.To assess the prevalence of anaemia and malnutrition in children aged 5-10 years. Subjects and methods: This exploratory study was conducted over a period of 2 months in the rural field practice area of a medical college situated in Bangalore during the months of June - July, 2012. Children in the age group of 5-10 years of age were the study subjects. Results: GPS was used for the describing the geographical distribution of anaemia and nutrition status on the Google earth map. The prevalence of anaemia in the study subjects was 8.7%.The prevalence of underweight, stunting, thinness and severe thinness among the study subjects was 52.8%, 28.5%, 23.5 % and 29.1% respectively, however  overweight  and obesity was observed only in 0.9 % and 1.2% of the study subjects respectively. Conclusion: GPS was easy to use and was able to demonstrate the actual distribution of morbidity at the household level in the rural area.

  11. On-line generation of three-dimensional core power distribution using incore detector signals to monitor safety limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Wook; Lee, Ki Bog; Na, Man Gyun; Lee, Yoon Joon

    2004-01-01

    It is essential in commercial reactors that the safety limits imposed on the fuel pellets and fuel clad barriers, such as the Linear Power Density (LPD) and the Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR), are not violated during reactor operations. In order to accurately monitor the safety limits of current reactor states, a detailed three-dimensional (3D) core power distribution should be estimated from the in-core detector signals. In this paper, we propose a calculation methodology for detailed 3D core power distribution, using in-core detector signals and core monitoring constants such as the 3D Coupling Coefficients (3DCC), node power fraction, and pin-to-node factors. Also, the calculation method for several core safety parameters is introduced. The core monitoring constants for the real core state are promptly provided by the core design code and on-line MASTER(Multi-purpose Analyzer for Static and Transient Effects of Reactors), coupled with the core monitoring program. Through the plant computer, core state variables, which include reactor thermal power, control rod bank position, boron concentration, inlet moderator temperature, and flow rate, are supplied as input data for MASTER. MASTER performs the core calculation based on the neutron balance equation and generates several core monitoring constants corresponding to the real core state in addition to the expected core power distribution. The accuracy of the developed method is verified through a comparison with the current CECOR method. Because in all the verification calculation cases the proposed method shows a more conservative value than the best estimated value and a less conservative one than the current CECOR and COLSS methods, it is also confirmed that this method secures a greater operating margin through the simulation of the YGN-3 cycle-1 core from the viewpoint of the power peaking factor for the LPD and the pseudo hot pin axial power distribution for the DNBR calculation

  12. High-levels of acquired drug resistance in adult patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in a rural HIV treatment programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen Manasa

    Full Text Available To determine the frequency and patterns of acquired antiretroviral drug resistance in a rural primary health care programme in South Africa.Cross-sectional study nested within HIV treatment programme.Adult (≥ 18 years HIV-infected individuals initially treated with a first-line stavudine- or zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen and with evidence of virological failure (one viral load >1000 copies/ml were enrolled from 17 rural primary health care clinics. Genotypic resistance testing was performed using the in-house SATuRN/Life Technologies system. Sequences were analysed and genotypic susceptibility scores (GSS for standard second-line regimens were calculated using the Stanford HIVDB 6.0.5 algorithms.A total of 222 adults were successfully genotyped for HIV drug resistance between December 2010 and March 2012. The most common regimens at time of genotype were stavudine, lamivudine and efavirenz (51%; and stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (24%. Median duration of ART was 42 months (interquartile range (IQR 32-53 and median duration of antiretroviral failure was 27 months (IQR 17-40. One hundred and ninety one (86% had at least one drug resistance mutation. For 34 individuals (15%, the GSS for the standard second-line regimen was <2, suggesting a significantly compromised regimen. In univariate analysis, individuals with a prior nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI substitution were more likely to have a GSS <2 than those on the same NRTIs throughout (odds ratio (OR 5.70, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.60-12.49.There are high levels of drug resistance in adults with failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in this rural primary health care programme. Standard second-line regimens could potentially have had reduced efficacy in about one in seven adults involved.

  13. NEW STRONG-LINE ABUNDANCE DIAGNOSTICS FOR H II REGIONS: EFFECTS OF κ-DISTRIBUTED ELECTRON ENERGIES AND NEW ATOMIC DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Nicholls, David C.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Vogt, Frédéric P. A., E-mail: Michael.Dopita@anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd., Weston ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Recently, Nicholls et al., inspired by in situ observations of solar system astrophysical plasmas, suggested that the electrons in H II regions are characterized by a κ-distribution of energies rather than a simple Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Here, we have collected together new atomic data within a modified photoionization code to explore the effects of both the new atomic data and the κ-distribution on the strong-line techniques used to determine chemical abundances in H II regions. By comparing the recombination temperatures (T {sub rec}) with the forbidden line temperatures (T {sub FL}), we conclude that κ ∼ 20. While representing only a mild deviation from equilibrium, this result is sufficient to strongly influence abundances determined using methods that depend on measurements of the electron temperature from forbidden lines. We present a number of new emission line ratio diagnostics that cleanly separate the two parameters determining the optical spectrum of H II regions—the ionization parameter q or U and the chemical abundance, 12+log(O/H). An automated code to extract these parameters is presented. Using the homogeneous data set from van Zee et al., we find self-consistent results between all of these different diagnostics. The systematic errors between different line ratio diagnostics are much smaller than those found in the earlier strong-line work. Overall, the effect of the κ-distribution on the strong-line abundances derived solely on the basis of theoretical models is rather small.

  14. A Distributed Control Strategy for Coordination of an Autonomous LVDC Microgrid Based on Power-Line Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In a MG, an energy management control is essential in order to handle the variety of prime movers which may include different types of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy storage systems (ESS). Specifically, the recharging process of secondary battery, the most prominent ESS, should be done...... of sources using power-line signaling (PLS), a distributed control strategy in which the units inject sinusoidal signals of specific frequency into the common bus in order to communicate with each other. The control structure that allows the application of this method is revealed and the optimal range...... of operating PLS frequencies is specified. In order to achieve a zero steady-state error of injected signals in the common bus, primary control of batteries has been extended with dedicated proportional-resonant (PR) controllers that are switched on only during injection period. Finally, a method...

  15. Small-Signal Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid Distributed Generation Systems in Presence of Ultracapacitor and Tie-Line Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Prakash K.; Mohanty, Soumya R.; Kishor, Nand

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents small-signal analysis of isolated as well as interconnected autonomous hybrid distributed generation system for sudden variation in load demand, wind speed and solar radiation. The hybrid systems comprise of different renewable energy resources such as wind, photovoltaic (PV) fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage devices such as flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). Further ultracapacitors (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and interconnection of hybrid systems through tie-line is incorporated into the system for improved performance. A comparative assessment of deviation of frequency profile for different hybrid systems in the presence of different storage system combinations is carried out graphically as well as in terms of the performance index (PI), ie integral square error (ISE). Both qualitative and quantitative analysis reflects the improvements of the deviation in frequency profiles in the presence of the ultracapacitors (UC) as compared to other energy storage elements.

  16. Short- and Long-Term Lead Release after Partial Lead Service Line Replacements in a Metropolitan Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshommes, Elise; Laroche, Laurent; Deveau, Dominique; Nour, Shokoufeh; Prévost, Michèle

    2017-09-05

    Thirty-three households were monitored in a full-scale water distribution system, to investigate the impact of recent (sampling over a period of 1-20 months. Point-of-entry filters were installed to capture sporadic release of particulate lead from the lead service lines (LSLs). Mean concentrations increased immediately after PLSLRs and erratic particulate lead spikes were observed over the 18 month post-PLSLR monitoring period. The mass of lead released during this time frame indicates the occurrence of galvanic corrosion and scale destabilization. System-wide, lead concentrations were however lower in households with PLSLRs as compared to those with no replacement, especially for old PLSLRs. Nonetheless, 61% of PLSLR samples still exceeded 10 μg/L, reflecting the importance of implementing full LSL replacement and efficient risk communication. Acute concentrations measured immediately after PLSLRs demonstrate the need for appropriate flushing procedures to prevent lead poisoning.

  17. EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT 1.0 < z < 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Hasinger, Günther; Steinhardt, Charles; Silverman, John D.; Schramm, Malte

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the redshift range 1.0 < z < 2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z ≲ 2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the “AGN cosmic downsizing” phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the comoving number density at the bright end of the AGN luminosity function, together with the corresponding selection effects. However, one might need to consider a correlation between the AGN luminosity and the accretion rate of black holes, in which luminous AGNs have higher Eddington ratios than low-luminosity AGNs, in order to understand the relatively small fraction of low-luminosity AGNs with high accretion rates in this epoch. Therefore, the observed downsizing trend could be interpreted as massive black holes with low accretion rates, which are relatively fainter than less-massive black holes with efficient accretion

  18. New insight into the levels, distribution and health risk diagnosis of indoor and outdoor dust-bound FRs in colder, rural and industrial zones of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Usman; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-09-01

    This is the first robust study designed to probe selected flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones of Pakistan with special emphasis upon their occurrence, distribution and associated health risk. For this purpose, we analyzed FRs such as polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in the total of 82 dust samples (indoor and outdoor) collected three from each zone: industrial, rural and background. We found higher concentrations of FRs (PBDEs, DP, NBFRs and OPFRs) in industrial zones as compared to the rural and background zones. Our results reveal that the concentrations of studied FRs are relatively higher in the indoor dust samples being compared with the outdoor dust and they are ranked as: ∑OPFRs > ∑NBFRs > ∑PBDEs > ∑DP. A significant correlation in the FRs levels between the indoor and outdoor dust suggest the potential intermixing of these compounds between them. The principal component analysis/multiple linear regression predicts the percent contribution of FRs from different consumer products in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones to trace their source origin. The FRs detected in the background zones reveal the dust-bound FRs suspended in the air might be shifted from different warmer zones or consumers products available/used in the same zones. Hazard quotient (HQ) for FRs via indoor and outdoor dust intake at mean and high dust scenarios to the exposed populations (adults and toddlers) are found free of risk (HQ < 1) in the target zones. Furthermore, our nascent results will provide a baseline record of FRs (PBDEs, DP, NBFRs and OPFRs) concentrations in the indoor and outdoor dust of Pakistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy solutions in rural Africa: mapping electrification costs of distributed solar and diesel generation versus grid extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, S; Bodis, K; Huld, T [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Renewable Energy Unit, 2749 via Enrico Fermi, TP450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Moner-Girona, M, E-mail: Sandor.Szabo@ec.europa.eu [UNEP Energy Branch Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, 15 rue de Milan, F-75441, Paris CEDEX09 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Three rural electrification options are analysed showing the cost optimal conditions for a sustainable energy development applying renewable energy sources in Africa. A spatial electricity cost model has been designed to point out whether diesel generators, photovoltaic systems or extension of the grid are the least-cost option in off-grid areas. The resulting mapping application offers support to decide in which regions the communities could be electrified either within the grid or in an isolated mini-grid. Donor programs and National Rural Electrification Agencies (or equivalent governmental departments) could use this type of delineation for their program boundaries and then could use the local optimization tools adapted to the prevailing parameters.

  20. Energy solutions in rural Africa: mapping electrification costs of distributed solar and diesel generation versus grid extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S; Bodis, K; Huld, T; Moner-Girona, M

    2011-01-01

    Three rural electrification options are analysed showing the cost optimal conditions for a sustainable energy development applying renewable energy sources in Africa. A spatial electricity cost model has been designed to point out whether diesel generators, photovoltaic systems or extension of the grid are the least-cost option in off-grid areas. The resulting mapping application offers support to decide in which regions the communities could be electrified either within the grid or in an isolated mini-grid. Donor programs and National Rural Electrification Agencies (or equivalent governmental departments) could use this type of delineation for their program boundaries and then could use the local optimization tools adapted to the prevailing parameters.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF ACTIVE SCREENING SYSTEM OF MAGNETIC FIELD OF HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINES OF DIFFERENT DESIGN TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines with different design allowing and development of recommendations for the design of active screening systems by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Methodology. Analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing is made on the basis of Maxwell's equations solutions in the quasi-stationary approximation. Determination of the number, configuration, spatial arrangement and the compensation coil currents is formulated in the form of multiobjective optimization problem that is solved by multi-agent multiswarm stochastic optimization based on Pareto optimal solutions. Results of active screening system for the synthesis of various types of transmission lines with different numbers of windings controlled. The possibility of a significant reduction in the level of the flux density of the magnetic field source within a given region of space. Originality. For the first time an analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of power lines with different types and based on findings developed recommendations for the design of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Practical value. Practical recommendations on reasonable choice of the number and spatial arrangement of compensating windings of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing for the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field. Results of active screening system synthesis of the magnetic field of industrial frequency generated by single-circuit 110 kV high voltage power lines with the supports have 330 - 1T «triangle» rotating magnetic field with full polarization in a residential five-storey building, located near the power lines. The system contains three compensating coil and reduces

  2. The effectiveness of non-pyrethroid insecticide-treated durable wall lining to control malaria in rural Tanzania: study protocol for a two-armed cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mtove

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite considerable reductions in malaria achieved by scaling-up long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS, maintaining sustained community protection remains operationally challenging. Increasing insecticide resistance also threatens to jeopardize the future of both strategies. Non-pyrethroid insecticide­treated wall lining (ITWL may represent an alternate or complementary control method and a potential tool to manage insecticide resistance. To date no study has demonstrated whether ITWL can reduce malaria transmission nor provide additional protection beyond the current best practice of universal coverage (UC of LLINs and prompt case management. Methods/design A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial will be conducted in rural Tanzania to assess whether non-pyrethroid ITWL and UC of LLINs provide added protection against malaria infection in children, compared to UC of LLINs alone. Stratified randomization based on malaria prevalence will be used to select 22 village clusters per arm. All 44 clusters will receive LLINs and half will also have ITWL installed on interior house walls. Study children, aged 6 months to 11 years old, will be enrolled from each cluster and followed monthly to estimate cumulative incidence of malaria parasitaemia (primary endpoint, time to first malaria episode and prevalence of anaemia before and after intervention. Entomological inoculation rate will be estimated using indoor CDC light traps and outdoor tent traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species, sporozoite infection, insecticide resistance and blood meal source. ITWL bioefficacy and durability will be monitored using WHO cone bioassays and household surveys, respectively. Social and cultural factors influencing community and household ITWL acceptability will be explored through focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews. Cost-effectiveness, compared between study arms, will be

  3. Rural electrification in Chihuahua, Mexico at one third of the cost vs a conventional substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Omar; Gomez, Rolando; Solano, Arturo; Acosta, Eduardo

    2010-09-15

    This paper and presentation describes technical details about a successful experience in a unique project in Mexico for making possible the rural electrification at one third of the total cost vs a traditional substation. This alternate solution for electrification of rural communities where construction of distribution lines or traditional substations are not economically possible due to local government's budget limits or because the electrical companies are looking for the ROI Return Over Investment in poverty communities.

  4. The distribution of henipaviruses in Southeast Asia and Australasia: is Wallace's line a barrier to Nipah virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Breed

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV (Genus Henipavirus is a recently emerged zoonotic virus that causes severe disease in humans and has been found in bats of the genus Pteropus. Whilst NiV has not been detected in Australia, evidence for NiV-infection has been found in pteropid bats in some of Australia's closest neighbours. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of henipaviruses in fruit bat (Family Pteropodidae populations to the north of Australia. In particular we tested the hypothesis that Nipah virus is restricted to west of Wallace's Line. Fruit bats from Australia, Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Indonesia were tested for the presence of antibodies to Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus, and tested for the presence of HeV, NiV or henipavirus RNA by PCR. Evidence was found for the presence of Nipah virus in both Pteropus vampyrus and Rousettus amplexicaudatus populations from East Timor. Serology and PCR also suggested the presence of a henipavirus that was neither HeV nor NiV in Pteropus alecto and Acerodon celebensis. The results demonstrate the presence of NiV in the fruit bat populations on the eastern side of Wallace's Line and within 500 km of Australia. They indicate the presence of non-NiV, non-HeV henipaviruses in fruit bat populations of Sulawesi and Sumba and possibly in Papua New Guinea. It appears that NiV is present where P. vampyrus occurs, such as in the fruit bat populations of Timor, but where this bat species is absent other henipaviruses may be present, as on Sulawesi and Sumba. Evidence was obtained for the presence henipaviruses in the non-Pteropid species R. amplexicaudatus and in A. celebensis. The findings of this work fill some gaps in knowledge in geographical and species distribution of henipaviruses in Australasia which will contribute to planning of risk management and surveillance activities.

  5. Integrating dynamic and distributed compressive sensing techniques to enhance image quality of the compressive line sensing system for unmanned aerial vehicles application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Bing; Hou, Weilin; Caimi, Frank M.; Dalgleish, Fraser R.; Vuorenkoski, Anni K.; Gong, Cuiling

    2017-07-01

    The compressive line sensing imaging system adopts distributed compressive sensing (CS) to acquire data and reconstruct images. Dynamic CS uses Bayesian inference to capture the correlated nature of the adjacent lines. An image reconstruction technique that incorporates dynamic CS in the distributed CS framework was developed to improve the quality of reconstructed images. The effectiveness of the technique was validated using experimental data acquired in an underwater imaging test facility. Results that demonstrate contrast and resolution improvements will be presented. The improved efficiency is desirable for unmanned aerial vehicles conducting long-duration missions.

  6. C II forbidden-line 158 micron mapping in Sagittarius A Rotation curve and mass distribution in the galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugten, J. B.; Genzel, R.; Crawford, M. K.; Townes, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Based on data obtained with the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory 91.4 cm telescope, the 158-micron fine structure line emission of C(+) is mapped near the galactic center. The strongest emission comes from a 10-pc FWHM diameter disk centered on Sgr A West whose dominant motion is rotation. Extended C(+) emission is also found from the +50 km/s galactic center molecular cloud, and a second cloud at v(LSR) of about -35 km/s. The rotation curve and mass distribution within 10 pc of the galactic center are derived, and the C(+) profiles show a drop-off of rotation velocity between 2 and 10 pc. A mass model is suggested with 2-4 million solar masses in a central point mass, and a M/L ratio of the central stellar cluster of 0.5 solar masses/solar luminosities, suggesting a large abundance of giants and relatively recent star formation in the center.

  7. Causes of pipe ruptures in distribution lines. Evaluation of long-term observations in a metropolitan pipe network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottmann, A

    1978-01-01

    Pipe ruptures and their causes are examined from the viewpoints of pipe material, corrosion, traffic, internal pressure, air temperature, ground temperature, ground frost, gas or water temperature, and ground moisture level. The examination relies on 17 years of statistics (1958-74) from (1) Technische Werke der Stadt Stuttgart AG on 11,986 pipe ruptures and (2) German weather-service data on ground-moisture readings at depths down to 80 in. in the Stuttgart area. Faced with replacing up to 280 miles (450 km) of cast-iron gas-distribution lines that seemed extraordinarily prone to rupture (company records showed at least 20 breaks/month) after the conversion to natural gas, TWS authorized this study to determine the boundary conditions that make cast-iron pipe susceptible to fracture, thus minimizing the extent of the replacement program. The investigation showed that corrosion had only a slight effect upon cracking. No significant effect was found for any of the following: temperature-caused changes in material properties, internal pressure or pressure changes, fluctuations in gas temperature, changes in air temperature, and summertime changes in ground temperature. Stress loading by heavy traffic, however, doubled the fracture incidence.

  8. A Narrow-Linewidth Atomic Line Filter for Free Space Quantum Key Distribution under Daytime Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin; Woolf, David; Hensley, Joel

    2016-05-01

    Quantum key distribution can provide secure optical data links using the established BB84 protocol, though solar backgrounds severely limit the performance through free space. Several approaches to reduce the solar background include time-gating the photon signal, limiting the field of view through geometrical design of the optical system, and spectral rejection using interference filters. Despite optimization of these parameters, the solar background continues to dominate under daytime atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate an improved spectral filter by replacing the interference filter (Δν ~ 50 GHz) with an atomic line filter (Δν ~ 1 GHz) based on optical rotation of linearly polarized light through a warm Rb vapor. By controlling the magnetic field and the optical depth of the vapor, a spectrally narrow region can be transmitted between crossed polarizers. We find that the transmission is more complex than a single peak and evaluate peak transmission as well as a ratio of peak transmission to average transmission of the local spectrum. We compare filters containing a natural abundance of Rb with those containing isotopically pure 87 Rb and 85 Rb. A filter providing > 95 % transmission and Δν ~ 1.1 GHz is achieved.

  9. IMPACTO DE LAS TIENDAS VIRTUALES Y DEL MARKETING ON LINE EN LAS PEQUEÑAS EMPRESAS DEL ÁMBITO RURAL

    OpenAIRE

    Vicario, Beatriz Palacios; Cruz Sánchez Gómez, Mª; López García, Camino; Belén Sánchez García, Ana

    2014-01-01

    La Era Digital ofrece nuevas oportunidades a las pequeñas empresas de zonas rurales que se han visto afectadas negativamente por la situación de crisis actual y la globalización. El estudio que se presenta es iniciativa del Centro Internacional de Tecnologías Avanzadas (CITA) con el objetivo de establecer un modelo práctico que facilite el impulso a través del uso de las TIC en las Pymes y microPymes del ámbito rural. La metodología es cualitativa y cuantitativa, utilizando la técnica del gru...

  10. Comparing solar photovoltaic energy versus stretch of the lines on transmission: real case of lacking rural community without electric energy; Comparativo entre energia solar fotovoltaica versus extensao de rede, aplicado em caso concreto de uma comunidade carente e remota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Rafael Pimenta; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de; Gastaldi, Andre Fava [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In the work observed a lacking rural community and without electric energy. They were analyzed and compared two approaches of lead energy to this population: Photovoltaic energy and stretch of the lines of transmission from the concessionaire. It carried out himself a study about the photovoltaic system as well as electric kinds of batteries, controllers, panels photovoltaic and invertors. Had also a hoist about the costs of acquisition, installation and maintenance of the photovoltaic system and of the conventional system (stretch from the net from the concessionaire of energy). Finally compared the two systems regarding the costs. (author)

  11. Beating the odds: The poisson distribution of all input cells during limiting dilution grossly underestimates whether a cell line is clonally-derived or not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yizhou; Shaw, David; Lam, Cynthia; Tsukuda, Joni; Yim, Mandy; Tang, Danming; Louie, Salina; Laird, Michael W; Snedecor, Brad; Misaghi, Shahram

    2017-09-23

    Establishing that a cell line was derived from a single cell progenitor and defined as clonally-derived for the production of clinical and commercial therapeutic protein drugs has been the subject of increased emphasis in cell line development (CLD). Several regulatory agencies have expressed that the prospective probability of clonality for CHO cell lines is assumed to follow the Poisson distribution based on the input cell count. The probability of obtaining monoclonal progenitors based on the Poisson distribution of all cells suggests that one round of limiting dilution may not be sufficient to assure the resulting cell lines are clonally-derived. We experimentally analyzed clonal derivatives originating from single cell cloning (SCC) via one round of limiting dilution, following our standard legacy cell line development practice. Two cell populations with stably integrated DNA spacers were mixed and subjected to SCC via limiting dilution. Cells were cultured in the presence of selection agent, screened, and ranked based on product titer. Post-SCC, the growing cell lines were screened by PCR analysis for the presence of identifying spacers. We observed that the percentage of nonclonal populations was below 9%, which is considerably lower than the determined probability based on the Poisson distribution of all cells. These results were further confirmed using fluorescence imaging of clonal derivatives originating from SCC via limiting dilution of mixed cell populations expressing GFP or RFP. Our results demonstrate that in the presence of selection agent, the Poisson distribution of all cells clearly underestimates the probability of obtaining clonally-derived cell lines. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of chemical properties of drainage watercourses in rural and peri-urban areas of Novi Sad (Serbia)-a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Radovan; Ondrasek, Gabrijel; Blagojevic, Bosko; Bubalo Kovacic, Marina; Zemunac, Rados

    2017-12-29

    Waters are among to the most vulnerable environmental resources exposed to the impact of various point and non-point pollutants from rural/urban activities. Systematic and long-term monitoring of hydro-resources is therefore of crucial importance for sustainable water management, although such practice is lacking across many (agro-)hydro-ecosystems. In the presented study, for the first time, the spatial distribution (covering almost 9000 ha) and temporal variation (2006-2013) in certain quality parameters was characterized in drainage watercourses Tatarnica and Subic, whose catchment is rural and suburban areas close to the city of Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia. Based on majority of observed parameters, both watercourses belonged to I and II water quality classes, with occasional presence of certain parameters (e.g., suspended solids, total phosphorus; ammonium) at extreme values exacerbating both watercourses to classes IV and V. The value of the synthetic pollution index (i.e., a combined effect of all considered parameters) showed a higher degree of water pollution in watercourse Subic (on average 2.00) than Tatarnica (on average 0.72). Also, cluster analysis for watercourse Tatarnica detected two groups of parameters (mostly related to nutrients and organic matter), indicating more complex impacts on water quality during the observed period, in which elucidation thus established water quality monitoring program would be of great importance.

  13. Electron velocity distribution function in a plasma with temperature gradient and in the presence of suprathermal electrons: application to incoherent-scatter plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    Full Text Available The plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution function are calculated numerically for any arbitrary velocity distribution function with cylindrical symmetry along the magnetic field. The electron velocity distribution is separated into two distributions representing the distribution of the ambient electrons and the suprathermal electrons. The velocity distribution function of the ambient electrons is modelled by a near-Maxwellian distribution function in presence of a temperature gradient and a potential electric field. The velocity distribution function of the suprathermal electrons is derived from a numerical model of the angular energy flux spectrum obtained by solving the transport equation of electrons. The numerical method used to calculate the plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution is described. The numerical code is used with simulated data to evaluate the Doppler frequency asymmetry between the up- and downshifted plasma lines of the incoherent-scatter plasma lines at different wave vectors. It is shown that the observed Doppler asymmetry is more dependent on deviation from the Maxwellian through the thermal part for high-frequency radars, while for low-frequency radars the Doppler asymmetry depends more on the presence of a suprathermal population. It is also seen that the full evaluation of the plasma dispersion function gives larger Doppler asymmetry than the heat flow approximation for Langmuir waves with phase velocity about three to six times the mean thermal velocity. For such waves the moment expansion of the dispersion function is not fully valid and the full calculation of the dispersion function is needed.

    Key words. Non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution · Incoherent scatter plasma lines · EISCAT · Dielectric response function

  14. Electron velocity distribution function in a plasma with temperature gradient and in the presence of suprathermal electrons: application to incoherent-scatter plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution function are calculated numerically for any arbitrary velocity distribution function with cylindrical symmetry along the magnetic field. The electron velocity distribution is separated into two distributions representing the distribution of the ambient electrons and the suprathermal electrons. The velocity distribution function of the ambient electrons is modelled by a near-Maxwellian distribution function in presence of a temperature gradient and a potential electric field. The velocity distribution function of the suprathermal electrons is derived from a numerical model of the angular energy flux spectrum obtained by solving the transport equation of electrons. The numerical method used to calculate the plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution is described. The numerical code is used with simulated data to evaluate the Doppler frequency asymmetry between the up- and downshifted plasma lines of the incoherent-scatter plasma lines at different wave vectors. It is shown that the observed Doppler asymmetry is more dependent on deviation from the Maxwellian through the thermal part for high-frequency radars, while for low-frequency radars the Doppler asymmetry depends more on the presence of a suprathermal population. It is also seen that the full evaluation of the plasma dispersion function gives larger Doppler asymmetry than the heat flow approximation for Langmuir waves with phase velocity about three to six times the mean thermal velocity. For such waves the moment expansion of the dispersion function is not fully valid and the full calculation of the dispersion function is needed.Key words. Non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution · Incoherent scatter plasma lines · EISCAT · Dielectric response function

  15. Village-randomized clinical trial of home distribution of zinc for treatment of childhood diarrhea in rural Western kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc treatment shortens diarrhea episodes and can prevent future episodes. In rural Africa, most children with diarrhea are not brought to health facilities. In a village-randomized trial in rural Kenya, we assessed if zinc treatment might have a community-level preventive effect on diarrhea incidence if available at home versus only at health facilities. METHODS: We randomized 16 Kenyan villages (1,903 eligible children to receive a 10-day course of zinc and two oral rehydration solution (ORS sachets every two months at home and 17 villages (2,241 eligible children to receive ORS at home, but zinc at the health-facility only. Children's caretakers were educated in zinc/ORS use by village workers, both unblinded to intervention arm. We evaluated whether incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI reported at biweekly home visits and presenting to clinic were lower in zinc villages, using poisson regression adjusting for baseline disease rates, distance to clinic, and children's age. RESULTS: There were no differences between village groups in diarrhea incidence either reported at the home or presenting to clinic. In zinc villages (1,440 children analyzed, 61.2% of diarrheal episodes were treated with zinc, compared to 5.4% in comparison villages (1,584 children analyzed, p<0.0001. There were no differences in ORS use between zinc (59.6% and comparison villages (58.8%. Among children with fever or cough without diarrhea, zinc use was low (<0.5%. There was a lower incidence of reported ALRI in zinc villages (adjusted RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99, but not presenting at clinic. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, home zinc use to treat diarrhea did not decrease disease rates in the community. However, with proper training, availability of zinc at home could lead to more episodes of pediatric diarrhea being treated with zinc in parts of rural Africa where healthcare utilization is low. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  16. Misoprostol for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage during home births in rural Lao PDR: establishing a pilot program for community distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Hose, Isaac; Vongxay, Viengnakhone; Xaysomphou, Douangphachanh; Rickart, Keith

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather the necessary data to support the design and implementation of a pilot program for women who are unable to deliver in a healthcare facility in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), by using community distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). The study builds on an earlier research that demonstrated both support and need for community-based distribution of misoprostol in Lao PDR. This qualitative study identified acceptability of misoprostol and healthcare system needs at varying levels to effectively distribute misoprostol to women with limited access to facility-based birthing. Interviews (n=25) were undertaken with stakeholders at the central, provincial, and district levels and with community members in five rural communities in Oudomxay, a province with high rates of maternal mortality. Focus group discussions (n=5) were undertaken in each community. Respondents agreed that PPH was the major cause of preventable maternal mortality with community distribution of misoprostol an acceptable and feasible interim preventative solution. Strong leadership, training, and community mobilization were identified as critical success factors. While several participants preferred midwives to distribute misoprostol, given the limited availability of midwives, there was a general agreement that village health workers or other lower level workers could safely administer misoprostol. Many key stakeholders, including women themselves, considered that these community-level staff may be able to provide misoprostol to women for self-administration, as long as appropriate education on its use was included. The collected data also helped identify appropriate educational messages and key indicators for monitoring and evaluation for a pilot program. The findings strengthen the case for a pilot program of community distribution of misoprostol to prevent PPH in remote communities where women have limited access to a

  17. Spatial heterogeneity in utilities, equity and collective efficiency: the case of rural electrification and demand side management; Heterogeneite spatiale d'un service de reseau, equite et efficacite collective: la distribution rurale d'electricite et la maitrise de la demande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadaud, F

    2005-11-15

    This thesis has for object the evolution of the economic optimum in the electric industry under spatial equity constraint that present a strong spatial heterogeneity of its supply conditions. One analyses the evolution of the rural electrification regime in France both in terms of economic and social efficiency. We examine the rationality of extending the sectoral optimization under equity constraint to the rationalization of electricity end-uses in the heterogeneous space of rural electricity supply. To this question are given two responses. The firsts pertains to modify the incentives in the institutional regime of rural electrification so the MDE may be integrated in the strategies of rural electrification syndicates. One inspire from incentives mechanisms of the anglo-saxon DSM practice. The second is statistical zoning method of demand and distribution grid whose object is to localize action basins for large scale MDE projects. (author)

  18. Techno-economic study of a distributed hybrid renewable energy system supplying electrical power and heat for a rural house in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jindou; Xu, Jinliang; Wang, Yaodong

    2018-03-01

    Energy saving and emission reduction have become targets for modern society due to the potential energy crisis and the threat of climate change. A distributed hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) consists of photovoltaic (PV) arrays, a wood-syngas combined heat and power generator (CHP) and back-up batteries is designed to power a typical semi-detached rural house in China which aims to meet the energy demand of a house and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Based on the annual load information of the house and the local meteorological data including solar radiation, air temperature, etc., a system model is set up using HOMER software and is used to simulate all practical configurations to carry out technical and economic evaluations. The performance of the whole HRES system and each component under different configurations are evaluated. The optimized configuration of the system is found

  19. Some of the QRL team in UJ22 of the LHC tunnel, where the last sector of the cryogenic distribution line was installed.

    CERN Multimedia

    Viviane Li

    2006-01-01

    The cryogenic distribution line "the QRL" is a circle built in 8 sectors, each approximately 3 km in length. It will circulate helium in liquid and gas phases, at different temperatures and pressures, to provide the cryogenic conditions for the superconducting magnets in the LHC tunnel.

  20. The weather-stains of care: interpreting the meaning of bad weather for front-line health care workers in rural long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Gillian M; Skinner, Mark W; Yantzi, Nicole M

    2013-08-01

    This paper addresses the gap in health services and policy research about the implications of everyday weather for health care work. Building on previous research on the weather-related challenges of caregiving in homes and communities, it examines the experiences of 'seasonal bad weather' for health care workers in long-term care institutions. It features a hermeneutic phenomenology analysis of six transcripts from interviews with nurses and personal support workers from a qualitative study of institutional long-term care work in rural Canada. Focussing on van Manen's existential themes of lived experience (body, relations, space, time), the analysis reveals important contradictions between the lived experiences of health care workers coping with bad weather and long-term care policies and practices that mitigate weather-related risk and vulnerability. The findings contribute to the growing concern for rural health issues particularly the neglected experiences of rural health providers and, in doing so, offer insight into the recent call for greater attention to the geographies of health care work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative investigation of the edge enhancement in in-line phase contrast projections and tomosynthesis provided by distributing microbubbles on the interface between two tissues: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Donovan Wong, Molly; Li, Yuhua; Fajardo, Laurie; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively investigate the ability to distribute microbubbles along the interface between two tissues, in an effort to improve the edge and/or boundary features in phase contrast imaging. The experiments were conducted by employing a custom designed tissue simulating phantom, which also simulated a clinical condition where the ligand-targeted microbubbles are self-aggregated on the endothelium of blood vessels surrounding malignant cells. Four different concentrations of microbubble suspensions were injected into the phantom: 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%. A time delay of 5 min was implemented before image acquisition to allow the microbubbles to become distributed at the interface between the acrylic and the cavity simulating a blood vessel segment. For comparison purposes, images were acquired using three system configurations for both projection and tomosynthesis imaging with a fixed radiation dose delivery: conventional low-energy contact mode, low-energy in-line phase contrast and high-energy in-line phase contrast. The resultant images illustrate the edge feature enhancements in the in-line phase contrast imaging mode when the microbubble concentration is extremely low. The quantitative edge-enhancement-to-noise ratio calculations not only agree with the direct image observations, but also indicate that the edge feature enhancement can be improved by increasing the microbubble concentration. In addition, high-energy in-line phase contrast imaging provided better performance in detecting low-concentration microbubble distributions.

  2. Multi-year analysis of distributed glacier mass balance modelling and equilibrium line altitude on King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Ulrike; López, Damián A.; Silva-Busso, Adrián

    2018-04-01

    The South Shetland Islands are located at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP). This region was subject to strong warming trends in the atmospheric surface layer. Surface air temperature increased about 3 K in 50 years, concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, ice surface lowering and rapid break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The positive trend in surface air temperature has currently come to a halt. Observed surface air temperature lapse rates show a high variability during winter months (standard deviations up to ±1.0 K (100 m)-1) and a distinct spatial heterogeneity reflecting the impact of synoptic weather patterns. The increased mesocyclonic activity during the wintertime over the past decades in the study area results in intensified advection of warm, moist air with high temperatures and rain and leads to melt conditions on the ice cap, fixating surface air temperatures to the melting point. Its impact on winter accumulation results in the observed negative mass balance estimates. Six years of continuous glaciological measurements on mass balance stake transects as well as 5 years of climatological data time series are presented and a spatially distributed glacier energy balance melt model adapted and run based on these multi-year data sets. The glaciological surface mass balance model is generally in good agreement with observations, except for atmospheric conditions promoting snow drift by high wind speeds, turbulence-driven snow deposition and snow layer erosion by rain. No drift in the difference between simulated mass balance and mass balance measurements can be seen over the course of the 5-year model run period. The winter accumulation does not suffice to compensate for the high variability in summer ablation. The results are analysed to assess changes in meltwater input to the coastal waters, specific glacier mass balance and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). The Fourcade Glacier catchment drains

  3. [Distribution of entero-parasitic infections in the Peruvian Highland: study carried out in six rural communities of the department of Puno, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco Flores, Vicente; Marcos Raymundo, Luis A; Terashima Iwashita, Angélica; Samalvides Cuba, Frine; Gotuzzo Herencia, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    A prevalence study was carried out in six rural communities in the Peruvian Highlands with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of entero-parasites. The communities were located along the banks of Lake Titicaca, in the provinces of Puno and El Collao, Department of Puno, Peru, at 3,800 m.a.s.l. To that effect, a total of 91 feces samples of adults and children from the following communities were analyzed: Conchaca, Puñutani, Capalla, Culta, Maraesqueña, and Jaillihuaya. Analysis techniques included Direct Examination, Kato Technique, Technique of Spontaneous Sedimentation in a Test Tube and the Lumbreras Rapid Sedimentation Technique. The general prelavence of intestinal parasitosis was found to be 91.2%. The pathogenic entero-parasites found were, in order of frequency, as follows: Hymenolepis nana 6.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 5.5%, Giardia lamblia 3.3%, Taenia sp. 2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura 1.1%, and Enterobius vermicularis 1.1%. The frequency of the non-pathogenic entero-parasites was as follows: Entamoeba coli 78%, Endolimax nana 39.6%, Iodamoeba butschlii 14.3%, Blastocystis hominis 9.9%, and Chilomastix mesnili 2.2%. Most of the patients had poly parasitism (58.2%), and protozoan infections prevailed over helminthic infection. From the total number of patients infected, 41.8% had one parasite, 33.0% had two parasites, 11.0% had three parasites, 4.4% had four parasites, and 1.1% had five parasites. These results show the high rates of parasitism in the rural population on the banks of Lake Titicaca, which would be associated with socioeconomic factors and the poor environmental sanitation conditions in this area.

  4. Misoprostol for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage during home births in rural Lao PDR: establishing a pilot program for community distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durham J

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Jo Durham,1 Alongkone Phengsavanh,2 Vanphanom Sychareun,2 Isaac Hose,1 Viengnakhone Vongxay,2 Douangphachanh Xaysomphou,2 Keith Rickart3 1Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 2Faculty of Post-Graduate Studies, University of Health Sciences, Vientiane, Lao PDR; 3Communicable Diseases Branch, Department of Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gather the necessary data to support the design and implementation of a pilot program for women who are unable to deliver in a healthcare facility in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR, by using community distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH. The study builds on an earlier research that demonstrated both support and need for community-based distribution of misoprostol in Lao PDR.Methods: This qualitative study identified acceptability of misoprostol and healthcare system needs at varying levels to effectively distribute misoprostol to women with limited access to facility-based birthing. Interviews (n=25 were undertaken with stakeholders at the central, provincial, and district levels and with community members in five rural communities in Oudomxay, a province with high rates of maternal mortality. Focus group discussions (n=5 were undertaken in each community.Results: Respondents agreed that PPH was the major cause of preventable maternal mortality with community distribution of misoprostol an acceptable and feasible interim preventative solution. Strong leadership, training, and community mobilization were identified as critical success factors. While several participants preferred midwives to distribute misoprostol, given the limited availability of midwives, there was a general agreement that village health workers or other lower level workers could safely administer misoprostol. Many key stakeholders, including women themselves, considered that these

  5. Entomological surveillance, spatial distribution, and diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) immatures in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest biome, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovezan, Rafael; Rosa, Stéfany Larissa; Rocha, Matheus Luca; de Azevedo, Thiago Salomão; Von Zuben, Cláudio José

    2013-12-01

    Because of the high adaptive capacity of mosquitoes, studies that focus on transitional environments become very important, such as those in rural areas, which are considered as bridges between wild diseases and human populations of urban areas. In this study, a survey of the existing species of mosquitoes was performed in an Atlantic Forest area of the city of Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo state, Brazil, using traps for immatures and analyzing the frequency and distribution of these insects over the sampling months. Five mosquito species were found: Aedes albopictus (the most frequent species), Aedes aegypti, Aedes fluviatilis, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Toxorhynchites theobaldi. The 4,524 eggs collected in ovitraps showed the presence of the tribe Aedini. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were identified after larval hatching in the laboratory, with different spatial distributions: the first of which coincides with the area of greatest diversity calculated using the Simpson index, while the second does not. The association of ecological analysis of spatial diversity with simple methods of data collection enables the identification of possible epidemiological risk situations and is a strategy that may be implemented to monitor ecological processes resulting from the interaction among different species of mosquitoes. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. Genetic Diversity and Distribution of Blastocystis Subtype 3 in Human Populations, with Special Reference to a Rural Population in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rojas-Velázquez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis subtype 3 (ST3 is a parasitic protist found in the digestive tract of symptomatic and asymptomatic humans around the world. While this parasite exhibits a high prevalence in the human population, its true geographic distribution and global genetic diversity are still unknown. This gap in knowledge limits the understanding of the spread mechanisms, epidemiology, and impact that this parasite has on human populations. Herein, we provided new data on the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of Blastocystis ST3 from a rural human population in Mexico. To do so, we collected and targeted the SSU-rDNA region in fecal samples from this population and further compared its genetic diversity and structure with that previously observed in populations of Blastocystis ST3 from other regions of the planet. Our analyses reveled that diversity of Blastocystis ST3 showed a high haplotype diversity and genetic structure to the world level; however, they were low in the Morelos population. The haplotype network revealed a common widespread haplotype from which the others were generated recently. Finally, our results suggested a recent expansion of the diversity of Blastocystis ST3 worldwide.

  7. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNANCE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalina TSYBULYAK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses current approaches to the process of assessing rural development governance, reveals its advantages and disadvantages. The article as well presents performance system indicators of governance process by means of two elements of dynamics assessment, rural development (economic, financial, and social sphere, ecology and population health and management process (assessment of strategic plan (concept of development, program of socioeconomic development of rural areas, current activity of local authorities, in particular. More over, it is suggested to use typology of approaches (objective (evolutionary, command and control, economic (infrastructural, complex, and qualitative to definition of process essence of rural development governance and correlation of traditional functions, performed by the subjects of the governance process of rural development (state authorities institutions, local authorities institutions, economic entities, and community. Adjusting traditional functions, performed by governance subjects of local development, their supplementing with new ones, relevant to the present-to-date model of «shared governance» is an important element of analysis of assessment tools for effectiveness of rural development governance. In addition, the author defines functioning of two forms of rural population involvement into the process of rural development governance: active and passive. Active one suggests that rural population participate in making and implementing governance decisions (public meetings, organization of social discussions, and development of territory community self-governance; passive one suggests that the emphasis is placed only on information distribution among population (meetings with parliament members, direct phone lines with territory governors, publication of normative and legal acts and reports on budget execution

  8. Speed Distribution on Two-Lane Rural Highways with Mixed Traffic: A Case Study in North East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Pritam; Roy, Nabanita; Sarkar, Ashoke Kumar; Pal, Manish

    2017-06-01

    This work focuses on minimising inaccuracies in distributional assumptions of speed data on two-lane roads with heterogeneous traffic to improve accuracy in capacity and level of service analysis. Accordingly, field study was conducted on a two-lane highway in India that exhibits heterogeneity in its traffic composition. Two distribution functions, namely, normal and logistic were examined for the observed speed data. The appropriate function was chosen using a methodology based on K-S test and field validation. Logistic distribution function was found to exhibit its aptness in describing speed under such traffic and was, thereby, considered in estimating the limiting speed of slower vehicles that tends to obstruct the flow of traffic. Vehicles that move at or below this speed cause delay to the faster ones resulting in formation of platoons at moderate and heavy flow when passing is restricted. Since the percent time-spent-following, a performance measure to assess level-of-service of two-lane highways, considers proportion of vehicles that are trapped inside platoons, it is imperative to estimate the limiting speed of slower vehicles correctly to approximate the delayed vehicles.

  9. Free vibration analysis of straight-line beam regarded as distributed system by combining Wittrick-Williams algorithm and transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myung Soo; Yang, Kyong Uk [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Kondou, Takahiro [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Bonkobara, Yasuhiro [University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    We developed a method for analyzing the free vibration of a structure regarded as a distributed system, by combining the Wittrick-Williams algorithm and the transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method. A computational algorithm was formulated for analyzing the free vibration of a straight-line beam regarded as a distributed system, to explain the concept of the developed method. To verify the effectiveness of the developed method, the natural frequencies of straight-line beams were computed using the finite element method, transfer matrix method, transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method, the exact solution, and the developed method. By comparing the computational results of the developed method with those of the other methods, we confirmed that the developed method exhibited superior performance over the other methods in terms of computational accuracy, cost and user convenience.

  10. Study of Unwanted Emissions in the CENELEC-A Band Generated by Distributed Energy Resources and Their Influence over Narrow Band Power Line Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Uribe-Pérez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Energy Resources might have a severe influence on Power Line Communications, as they can generate interfering signals and high frequency emissions or supraharmonics that may cause loss of metering and control data. In this paper, the influence of various energy resources on Narrowband Power Line Communications is described and analyzed through several test measurements performed in a real microgrid. Accordingly, the paper describes the effects on smart metering communications through the Medium Access Control (MAC layer analysis. Results show that the switching frequency of inverters and the presence of battery chargers are remarkable sources of disturbance in low voltage distribution networks. In this sense, the results presented can contribute to efforts towards standardization and normative of emissions at higher frequencies higher, such as CENELEC EN 50160 and IEC/TS 62749.

  11. Distribution of smile line, gingival angle and tooth shape among the Saudi Arabian subpopulation and their association with gingival biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Nabeeh A; Haralur, Satheesh B; AlMaqbol, Mohammad; AlMufarrij, Ali Jubran; Al Dera, Ahmed Ali; Al-Qarni, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    To determine the occurrence of smile line and maxillary tooth shape in the Saudi Arabian subpopulation, and to estimate the association between these parameters with gingival biotype. On the fulfillment of selection criteria, total 315 patients belong to Saudi Arabian ethnic group were randomly selected. Two frontal photographs of the patients were acquired. The tooth morphology, gingival angle, and smile line classification were determined with ImageJ image analyzing software. The gingival biotype was assessed by probe transparency method. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 19 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA) software to determine the frequency and association between other parameters and gingival biotype. Among the clinical parameters evaluated, the tapering tooth morphology (56.8%), thick gingival biotype (53%), and average smile line (57.5%) was more prevalent. The statistically significant association was found between thick gingival biotype and the square tooth, high smile line. The high gingival angle was associated with thin gingival biotype. The study results indicate the existence of an association between tooth shape, smile line, and gingival angle with gingival biotype.

  12. HVDC-System-Interaction Assessment through Line-Flow Change-Distribution Factor and Transient-Stability Analysis at Planning Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Hwang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the recent projects for new transmission line have considered the high-voltage direct current (HVDC system, owing to the many advantages of the direct current (DC system. The most noteworthy advantage is that a cable can serve as a substitute for the overhead transmission line in residential areas; therefore, the HVDC system application is increasing, and as the number of DC systems in the power system increases, the interaction assessment regarding the HVDC system gains importance. An index named multi-infeed interaction factor (MIIF is commonly used to estimate the interaction between power converters; however, the HVDC system is composed of two converters and a transmission line. The MIIF represents the interaction between the rectifiers and inverters, but not for the whole system. In this work, a method to assess the interaction of the whole system was therefore studied. To decide on the location of the new HVDC transmission system at the planning stage, in consideration of the interaction of the existing DC system, the line flow change distribution factor, according to the HVDC-transmission capacity change, was examined. Also, a power system transient -stability analysis was performed with different HVDC system locations, depending on the distribution factor. The simulation results indicate that when the factor is higher, two HVDC systems have a stronger interaction and are less stable in the transient state.

  13. Early outbreak detection by linking health advice line calls to water distribution areas retrospectively demonstrated in a large waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Bjelkmar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the winter and spring of 2011 a large outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in Skellefteå municipality, Sweden. This study summarizes the outbreak investigation in terms of outbreak size, duration, clinical characteristics, possible source(s and the potential for earlier detection using calls to a health advice line. Methods The investigation included two epidemiological questionnaires and microbial analysis of samples from patients, water and other environmental sources. In addition, a retrospective study based on phone calls to a health advice line was performed by comparing patterns of phone calls between different water distribution areas. Results Our analyses showed that approximately 18,500 individuals were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Skellefteå in 2011. This makes it the second largest outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Europe to date. Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts of subtype IbA10G2 were found in patient and sewage samples, but not in raw water or in drinking water, and the initial contamination source could not be determined. The outbreak went unnoticed to authorities for several months. The analysis of the calls to the health advice line provides strong indications early in the outbreak that it was linked to a particular water treatment plant. Conclusions We conclude that an earlier detection of the outbreak by linking calls to a health advice line to water distribution areas could have limited the outbreak substantially.

  14. Analysis of stress- strain distribution of dowel and glue line in L-type furniture joint by means of finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mossayeb dalvand

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study 3D stress-strain distribution of dowel and glue line on L-type joints made of plywood doweled was investigated. Members of joints made of 11-ply hardwood plywood (Hornbeam, Beech and Alder that were 19 mm in thickness. In this study effect of beech dowels in three levels diameters (6, 8 and 10 mm and penetration of depth (9, 13 and 17 mm on bending moment capacity of L-type joints under compression loading was investigated as experimental test, then stress-strain distribution of wood dowel and glue line in specimens were simulated by means of ANSYS 15 software with finite element method (FEM.Results have shown that bending moment resistance increased with increasing dowel diameter from 6 to 8 mm, but downward trend was observed with increasing 8 to 10 mm in dowel diameter. Bending moment resistance increased with increasing penetration depth. Also, result obtained of simulation by means of ANSYS software have shown that stress-strain in dowel and glue line increased with increasing diameter of dowel and Increasing stress in joints made of diameter dowel 10 mm due to fracture in joints and decrease in resistance once. According to results obtained of model analysis, the ultimate stress of dowel and glue line occurred in the area that joints were contacted.

  15. Multi-year analysis of distributed glacier mass balance modelling and equilibrium line altitude on King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Falk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The South Shetland Islands are located at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP. This region was subject to strong warming trends in the atmospheric surface layer. Surface air temperature increased about 3 K in 50 years, concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, ice surface lowering and rapid break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The positive trend in surface air temperature has currently come to a halt. Observed surface air temperature lapse rates show a high variability during winter months (standard deviations up to ±1.0 K (100 m−1 and a distinct spatial heterogeneity reflecting the impact of synoptic weather patterns. The increased mesocyclonic activity during the wintertime over the past decades in the study area results in intensified advection of warm, moist air with high temperatures and rain and leads to melt conditions on the ice cap, fixating surface air temperatures to the melting point. Its impact on winter accumulation results in the observed negative mass balance estimates. Six years of continuous glaciological measurements on mass balance stake transects as well as 5 years of climatological data time series are presented and a spatially distributed glacier energy balance melt model adapted and run based on these multi-year data sets. The glaciological surface mass balance model is generally in good agreement with observations, except for atmospheric conditions promoting snow drift by high wind speeds, turbulence-driven snow deposition and snow layer erosion by rain. No drift in the difference between simulated mass balance and mass balance measurements can be seen over the course of the 5-year model run period. The winter accumulation does not suffice to compensate for the high variability in summer ablation. The results are analysed to assess changes in meltwater input to the coastal waters, specific glacier mass balance and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA. The

  16. Rural Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Rural Airports database is the list of rural airports compiled annually by BTS for the Treasury Department/IRS. It is used by airlines to assist in establishing...

  17. Nonlinear Color–Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. VII. Nonlinear Absorption-line Index versus Metallicity Relations and Bimodal Index Distributions of NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin, E-mail: sjyoon0691@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of NGC 5128 revealed bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of its old GCs. GC division is a widely observed and studied phenomenon whose interpretation has depicted host galaxy formation and evolution such that it harbors two distinct metallicity groups. Such a conventional view of GC bimodality has mainly been based on photometry. The recent GC photometric data, however, presented an alternative perspective in which the nonlinear metallicity-to-color transformation is responsible for color bimodality of GC systems. Here we apply the same line of analysis to the spectral indices and examine the absorption-line index versus metallicity relations for the NGC 5128 GC system. NGC 5128 GCs display nonlinearity in the metallicity-index planes, most prominently for the Balmer lines and by a non-negligible degree for the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line. We demonstrate that the observed spectroscopic division of NGC 5128 GCs can be caused by the nonlinear nature of the metallicity-to-index conversions and thus one does not need to resort to two separate GC subgroups. Our analysis incorporating this nonlinearity provides a new perspective on the structure of NGC 5128's GC system, and a further piece to the global picture of the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  18. SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF MALARIA VECTORS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE IN RURAL LOCALITIES OF PORTO VELHO, RONDÔNIA, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Herman Soares GIL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of the malaria vectors in an area where a power line had been constructed, between the municipalities of Porto Velho and Rio Branco, in the states of Rondônia and Acre, respectively. The present paper relates to the results of the survey of Anopheles fauna conducted in the state of Rondônia. Mosquito field collections were performed in six villages along the federal highway BR 364 in the municipality of Porto Velho, namely Porto Velho, Jaci Paraná, Mutum Paraná, Vila Abunã, Vista Alegre do Abunã, and Extrema. Mosquito captures were performed at three distinct sites in each locality during the months of February, July, and October 2011 using a protected human-landing catch method; outdoor and indoor captures were conducted simultaneously at each site for six hours. In the six sampled areas, we captured 2,185 mosquitoes belonging to seven Anopheles species. Of these specimens, 95.1% consisted of Anopheles darlingi, 1.8% An. triannulatus l.s., 1.7% An. deaneorum, 0.8% An. konderi l.s., 0.4 An. braziliensis, 0.1% An. albitarsis l.s., and 0.1% An. benarrochi. An. darlingi was the only species found in all localities; the remaining species occurred in sites with specific characteristics.

  19. Evaluation of different types of sensors and their positioning for on-line PD detection and localisation in distribution cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der P.C.J.M.; Veen, J.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.

    2003-01-01

    Different types of sensors can be used for on-line detection and localisation of PDs in medium voltage cables. These sensors can be placed on different locations in the substa-tions where the cable under test is terminated. Both aspects have a significant influence on the measured signals. In this

  20. Frequency domain analysis of the lightning current distribution to ground at the transmission line tower with cellular phone base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cellular phone base stations are often placed in the poles of power transmission lines. We consider the case when such base stations are powered from the low-voltage network. Of special concern is the current that might be led through the cable metallic shields to other customers' premises in case

  1. Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p43s2) 1D in Li+-Ne collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oud, M.; Pas, S.F. te; Westerveld, W.B.; Niehaus, A.

    1993-01-01

    Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p 4 3s 2 ) 1 D due to Li + -Ne collisions measured in coincidence with the scattered projectile ions are presented. The measurements are performed at four different collision energies between 1.0 keV and 3.0 keV, and the complex population amplitudes for the excited 1 D state are determined. A nearly pure M = O sublevel population is found with respect to an axis coinciding with the direction of the angular distribution. The direction of the angular distribution is found to deviate from the final direction of the asymptotic internuclear axis. (author)

  2. Distribution and Schistosoma mansoni infection of Biomphalaria glabrata in different habitats in a rural area in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil: environmental and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kloos

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the distribution and infection of Biomphalaria glabrata with Schistosoma mansoni in all aquatic snail habitats in a rural area in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to physico/biotic and behavioral factors. Snail and environmental surveys were carried out semi-annually between July 2001 and November 2002 at 106 sites. Collected snails were examined in the laboratory for infection. B. glabrata densities were highest in overflow ponds, irrigation ponds, springs, canals and wells, and lowest in fishponds and water tanks. Snail densities were higher during the hot, rainy season except for streams and canals and were statistically associated with the presence of fish, pollution, and vegetation density. Tilapia fish and an unidentified Diptera larva were found to be predators of B. glabrata but ducks were not. Twenty-four of the 25 infected snails were collected in 2001(1.4% infection rate and only one in 2002, after mass chemotherapy. The occurrence of B. glabrata in all 11 snail habitats both at and away from water contact sites studied indicates widespread risk of human infection in the study area. In spite of the strong association between B. glabrata and tilapia in fishponds we do not recommend its use in schistosomiasis control for ecological reasons and its relative inefficiency in streams and dams.

  3. The size distribution of chemical elements of atmospheric aerosol at a semi-rural coastal site in Venice (Italy). The role of atmospheric circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Squizzato, Stefania; Ceccato, Daniele; Pavoni, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of selected elemental tracers were determined in the aerosol of a semi-rural coastal site near Venice (Italy). Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using an 8-stage cascade impactor set at 15m above ground, during the cold season (late autumn and winter), when high levels of many pollutants are known to cause risks for human health. From the experimental data, information was extracted on potential pollutant sources by investigating the relationships between elements in the different size fractions. Moreover, an approach to highlight the importance of local atmospheric circulation and air mass origin in influencing the PM composition and fractional distribution is proposed. Anthropogenic elements are strongly inter-correlated in the submicrometric (4 μm) Fe and Zn are well correlated and are probably linked to tire and brake wear emissions. Regarding atmospheric circulation, results show increasing levels of elements related to pollution sources (S, K, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) when air masses come from Central and Eastern Europe direction and on the ground wind blows from NWN-N-NE (from mainland Venice). Low wind speed and high percentage of wind calm hours favor element accumulation in the submicrometric and intermediate modes. Furthermore, strong winds favor the formation of sea-spray and the increase of Si in the coarse mode due to the resuspension of sand fine particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bounds on the distribution of the number of gaps when circles and lines are covered by fragments: Theory and practical application to genomic and metagenomic projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchesi Julian R

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of how a circle or line segment becomes covered when random arcs are marked off has arisen repeatedly in bioinformatics. The number of uncovered gaps is of particular interest. Approximate distributions for the number of gaps have been given in the literature, one motivation being ease of computation. Error bounds for these approximate distributions have not been given. Results We give bounds on the probability distribution of the number of gaps when a circle is covered by fragments of fixed size. The absolute error in the approximation is typically on the order of 0.1% at 10× coverage depth. The method can be applied to coverage problems on the interval, including edge effects, and applications are given to metagenomic libraries and shotgun sequencing.

  5. The spatial distribution and velocity field of the molecular hydrogen line emission from the centre of the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, I.; Krisciunas, K.; Jones, T.J.; Hyland, A.R.; Geballe, T.R.; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

    1986-01-01

    In an earlier paper the existence of a ring of molecular hydrogen-line emission surrounding the nucleus of the Galaxy was demonstrated. Here are presented the first detailed maps of the surface brightness and the velocity field, made in the upsilon=1-0 S(1) line of molecular hydrogen with a spatial resolution of 18 arcsec and a velocity resolution of 130 km s -1 . It is found that the molecular ring is tilted approximately 20 0 out of the plane of the Galaxy, has a broken and clumpy appearance, rotates at 100 km s -1 in the sense of galactic rotation, and exhibits radial motion at a velocity of 50 km s -1 . (author)

  6. Verbal Autopsies in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality rates in rural Tanzania are high. In preparation for the introduction of an intervention to reduce maternal deaths by distribution of misoprostol and erythromycin to women living in rural Rorya District, Mara Region, Tanzania, we conducted a limited verbal autopsy by surveying family members of women ...

  7. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  8. CONSTRAINING THE DISTRIBUTION OF DARK MATTER IN THE INNER GALAXY WITH AN INDIRECT DETECTION SIGNAL: THE CASE OF A TENTATIVE 130 GeV γ-RAY LINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ruizhi; Feng Lei; Li Xiang; Fan Yizhong

    2013-01-01

    Dark matter distribution in the very inner region of our Galaxy is still debated. In N-body simulations, a cuspy dark matter halo density profile is favored. Several dissipative baryonic processes, however, are found to be able to significantly flatten dark matter distribution, and a cored dark matter halo density profile is possible. Baryons dominate the gravitational potential in the inner Galaxy, hence a direct constraint on the abundance of dark matter particles is rather challenging. Recently, a few groups have identified a tentative 130 GeV line signal in the Galactic center, which could be interpreted as the signal of dark matter annihilation. Using current 130 GeV line data and adopting the generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile of the dark matter halo—local dark matter density ρ 0 = 0.4 GeV cm –3 and r s = 20 kpc—we obtain a 95% confidence level lower (upper) limit on the inner slope of dark matter density distribution, α = 1.06 (the cross section of dark matter annihilation into γ-rays (σv) χχ →γ γ = 1.3 × 10 –27 cm 3 s –1 ). Such a slope is consistent with the results of some N-body simulations and, if the signal is due to dark matter, suggests that baryonic processes may be unimportant.

  9. The 3D Morphology of VY Canis Majoris II: Polarimetry and the Line-of-Sight Distribution of the Ejecta

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Terry Jay; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Helton, L. Andrew; Gui, Changfeng; Huang, Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We use imaging polarimetry taken with the HST/ACS/HRC to explore the three dimensional structure of the circumstellar dust distribution around the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris. The polarization vectors of the nebulosity surrounding VY CMa show a strong centro-symmetric pattern in all directions except directly East and range from 10% - 80% in fractional polarization. In regions that are optically thin, and therefore likely have only single scattering, we use the fractional polarization and...

  10. Wintertime pollution level, size distribution and personal daily exposure to particulate matters in the northern and southern rural Chinese homes and variation in different household fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Zhuo, Shaojie; Xu, Yang; Li, Xinyue; Pan, Xuelian; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated and compared wintertime air pollution and personal exposure in the rural northern and southern Chinese homes. Daily indoor and outdoor particle samples were simultaneously collected by using stationary samplers, and personal exposure was directly measured using portable carried samplers. The daily average concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 were 521 ± 234 and 365 ± 185 μg/m 3 in the northern village, that were about 2.3-2.7 times of 188 ± 104 and 150 ± 29 μg/m 3 in indoor and outdoor air in the southern villages. Particle size distribution was similar between indoor and outdoor air, and had relatively smaller difference between the two sites, relative to the particle mass concentration difference. PM 2.5 contributed to ∼80% of the TSP mass, and in PM 2.5 , near 90% were PM 1.0 . In homes using electricity in the southern villages, outdoor air pollution could explain 70-80% of the variation in indoor air pollution. The daily exposure to PM 2.5 measured using personal carried samplers were 451 ± 301 μg/m 3 in the northern villages with traditional solid fuels used for daily cooking and heating, and in the southern villages without heating, the exposure to PM 2.5 were 184 ± 83 and 166 ± 45 μg/m 3 , respectively, for the population using wood and electricity for daily cooking. Time-weighted daily average exposure estimated from area concentration and time spent indoor and outdoor was generally correlated the directly measured exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aerosol number size distribution and new particle formation at a rural/coastal site in Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shang; Hu, Min; Wu, Zhijun; Wehner, Birgit; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Cheng, Yafang

    Continuous measurements of aerosol number size distribution in the range of 3 nm-10 μm were performed in Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. These measurements were made during the period of 3 October to 5 November in 2004 at rural/coastal site, Xinken (22°37'N, 113°35'E, 6 m above sea level), in the south suburb of Guangzhou City (22°37'N, 113°35'E, 6 m above sea level), using a Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) combined with an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The aerosol particles at Xinken were divided into four groups according to the observation results: nucleation mode particles (3-30 nm), Aitken mode particles (30-130 nm), accumulation mode particles (130-1000 nm) and coarse mode particles (1-10 μm). Concentrations of nucleation mode, Aitken mode and accumulation mode particles were observed in the same order of magnitude (about 10,000 cm -3), among which the concentration of Aitken mode particle was the highest. The Aitken mode particles usually had two peaks: the morning peak may be caused by the land-sea circulation, which is proven to be important for transporting aged aerosols back to the sampling site, while the noon peak was ascribed to the condensational growth of new particles. New particle formation events were found on 7 days of 27 days, the new particle growth rates ranged from 2.2 to 19.8 nm h -1 and the formation rates ranged from 0.5 to 5.2 cm -3 s -1, both of them were in the range of typical observed formation rates (0.01-10 cm -3 s -1) and typical particle growth rates (1-20 nm h -1). The sustained growth of the new particles for several hours under steady northeast wind indicated that the new particle formation events may occur in a large homogeneous air mass.

  12. Prevalence and socio-economic distribution of eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among South Australian children in urban and rural communities: baseline findings from the OPAL evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L; Ullah, S; Olds, T; Magarey, A; Leslie, E; Jones, M; Miller, M; Cobiac, L

    2016-11-01

    To identify current prevalence and sociodemographic distribution of adherence to national diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines among Australian primary school children. Cross-sectional survey of children (n = 4637, 9-11 years) participating at baseline in the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) programme evaluation. Self-reported diet, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) behaviours were assessed via questionnaire. Children were classified as meeting or not meeting each guideline (two or more serves of fruit, five or more serves of vegetables, two or less serves of discretionary food, ≥60 min of PA, and ≤2 h of ST per day). Although 65% of children met fruit recommendations, only 22% met vegetable recommendations (17% consumed no vegetables). Approximately one-quarter (28%) of children met discretionary food recommendations. Only 17% of children met the ST recommendations and 33% met PA recommendations. Less than 1% of children met all five recommendations. Rural children were more likely to meet both PA (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.21-1.74, P < 0.001) and ST (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.14-1.66, P < 0.01) recommendations than urban counterparts. Children at least socio-economic disadvantage performed better than those at greatest disadvantage for most behaviours. Improvement in Australian children's diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours, particularly urban children and those at greatest socio-economic disadvantage, is urgently warranted. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  13. Protection set-points lines for the reactor core and considerations about power distribution and peak factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furieri, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to assure the reactor core integrity during the slow operational transients (power excursion above the nominal value and the high coolant temperature), the formation of a steam film (DNB-Departure from Nucleate Boiling) in the control rods must be avoided. The protection set points lines presents the points where DNBR (relation between critical heat flux-q sub(DNB) and the local heat flux-q' sub(local) is equal to 1.30, corrected by peak factors and uncertainty in function of ΔTr and T sub(R), respectively coolant elevation and medium coolant temperature in reactor pressure vessel. The curve set-points were determined using a new version of COBRA-IIIF (CUPRO) computer code, implemented with new subroutines and linearized convergence scheme. Pratical results for Angra-1 core were obtained and its were compared with the results from the fabricator. (E.G.) [pt

  14. The challenge of global water access monitoring: evaluating straight-line distance versus self-reported travel time among rural households in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeff C; Russel, Kory C; Davis, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Support is growing for the incorporation of fetching time and/or distance considerations in the definition of access to improved water supply used for global monitoring. Current efforts typically rely on self-reported distance and/or travel time data that have been shown to be unreliable. To date, however, there has been no head-to-head comparison of such indicators with other possible distance/time metrics. This study provides such a comparison. We examine the association between both straight-line distance and self-reported one-way travel time with measured route distances to water sources for 1,103 households in Nampula province, Mozambique. We find straight-line, or Euclidean, distance to be a good proxy for route distance (R(2) = 0.98), while self-reported travel time is a poor proxy (R(2) = 0.12). We also apply a variety of time- and distance-based indicators proposed in the literature to our sample data, finding that the share of households classified as having versus lacking access would differ by more than 70 percentage points depending on the particular indicator employed. This work highlights the importance of the ongoing debate regarding valid, reliable, and feasible strategies for monitoring progress in the provision of improved water supply services.

  15. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm −1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm −1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis

  16. On-line extraction of the variance caused by burn-up in in-core three-dimensional power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yaqi; Luo Zhengpei; Li Fu; Liu Wenfeng

    2001-01-01

    In most of PWRs, the ex-core ion-chambers are the sole real-time sensors to respond to in-core power and its axial offset. However, the calibration coefficient of the ion-chambers depends on the (3D) power distribution and varies with the burn-up. People expect to know the variance in distribution caused by burn-up directly from the signals of ion-chambers. This expectation is not realized as yet, because an ion-chamber almost only responds to its nearest fuel assemblies. The authors then developed a two-step method for burn-up characteristic extraction: the harmonics synthesis method and harmonics' burn-up grouping. Using the extracted burn-up characteristics, the relationship between the readings of the ex-core ion-chambers and the in-core 3D power distribution is set up. Through the simulation on the heating reactor, the method of burn-up characteristic extraction is verified under engineering conditions. It is possible to on-line extract the variance caused by burn-up in 3D power distribution

  17. Cancerous epithelial cell lines shed extracellular vesicles with a bimodal size distribution that is sensitive to glutamine inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Steven Michael; Kirby, Brian J; Antonyak, Marc A; Cerione, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles (ESVs) facilitate a unique mode of cell–cell communication wherein vesicle uptake can induce a change in the recipient cell's state. Despite the intensity of ESV research, currently reported data represent the bulk characterization of concentrated vesicle samples with little attention paid to heterogeneity. ESV populations likely represent diversity in mechanisms of formation, cargo and size. To better understand ESV subpopulations and the signaling cascades implicated in their formation, we characterize ESV size distributions to identify subpopulations in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. We have discovered that cancer cells exhibit bimodal ESV distributions, one small-diameter and another large-diameter population, suggesting that two mechanisms may govern ESV formation, an exosome population and a cancer-specific microvesicle population. Altered glutamine metabolism in cancer is thought to fuel cancer growth but may also support metastatic niche formation through microvesicle production. We describe the role of a glutaminase inhibitor, compound 968, in ESV production. We have discovered that inhibiting glutamine metabolism significantly impairs large-diameter microvesicle production in cancer cells. (paper)

  18. In-Line Acoustic Device Inspection of Leakage in Water Distribution Pipes Based on Wavelet and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally permanent acoustic sensors leak detection techniques have been proven to be very effective in water distribution pipes. However, these methods need long distance deployment and proper position of sensors and cannot be implemented on underground pipelines. An inline-inspection acoustic device is developed which consists of acoustic sensors. The device will travel by the flow of water through the pipes which record all noise events and detect small leaks. However, it records all the noise events regarding background noises, but the time domain noisy acoustic signal cannot manifest complete features such as the leak flow rate which does not distinguish the leak signal and environmental disturbance. This paper presents an algorithm structure with the modularity of wavelet and neural network, which combines the capability of wavelet transform analyzing leakage signals and classification capability of artificial neural networks. This study validates that the time domain is not evident to the complete features regarding noisy leak signals and significance of selection of mother wavelet to extract the noise event features in water distribution pipes. The simulation consequences have shown that an appropriate mother wavelet has been selected and localized to extract the features of the signal with leak noise and background noise, and by neural network implementation, the method improves the classification performance of extracted features.

  19. Experiences with non-intrusive monitoring of distribution transformers based on the on-line frequency response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomez Luna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the results obtained in experiences that use the Impulse Frequency Response Analysis (IFRA method with a transformer in service. The IFRA method has been implemented in order to transform the transient signals to the frequency domain using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT. However, it can be considered that the DFT is not the most suitable tool for this type of analysis, since, by definition, this tool is useful for processing stationary signals. Taking that into consideration, the analysis of transient signals could be hypothetically improved by using continuous wavelet transform (CWT, given their variable time/frequency resolution. The analysis of transient signals in Wavelet domain has improved the repeatability of the frequency response curves, as it has been ob-served in experimental results. The proposed on-line IFRA method, based on Wavelet transform, was validated under load and no-load conditions on a 150 kVA three-phase transformer 13200/225 Volts, in the Campus of the Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

  20. FISHING GROUND, CACTH COMPOSITION, HOOK RATE AND LENGTH DISTRIBUTION OF BILLFISHES CAUGHT BY TUNA LONG LINE IN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathur Rochman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Billfishes area by cacth of tuna long line vessels in Indian Ocean. Billfish are consist of swordfish Xiphias gladius, black marlin Makaira indica, indo facific blue marlin Makaira mazara, stripe marlin Tetrapturus audax, indo facific sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and shortbill spearfish Tetrapturus angustirostris. Besides that, billfishes also have important economic value compared with tuna as an exsported species such as swordfish and marlin. To optimize the catch of billfishes in Indian Ocean, data and information of potential fishing ground, size and catch composition of this species are needed. The billfishes cacth composition collected in 2011 were dominated by 45% swordfish, 20% black marlin, 19% blue marlin,9% short bill spearfish, 6% sailfish and 1%stripe marlin. The billfishes size range which were caught between 60 - 280 cm LJFL (Lower Jaw Fork Length. The sword fish average length was 150 cm, blue marlin 197 cm, black Marlin 189 cm, sailfish 150cm ,short bill spearfish 144 cm and stripe marlin159 cm. From this observation, it was found that most of billfishes caught were in mature.

  1. Remote monitoring of bond line defects between a composite panel and a stiffener using distributed piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xudong; Fan, Zheng; Puliyakote, Sreedhar; Castaings, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) using ultrasonic guided waves has proven to be attractive for the identification of damage in composite plate-like structures, due to its realization of both significant propagation distances and reasonable sensitivity to defects. However, topographical features such as bends, lap joints, and bonded stiffeners are often encountered in these structures, and they are susceptible to various types of defects as a consequence of stress concentration and cyclic loading during the service life. Therefore, the health condition of such features has to be assessed effectively to ensure the safe operation of the entire structure. This paper proposes a novel feature guided wave (FGW) based SHM strategy, in which proper FGWs are exploited as a screening tool to rapidly interrogate the representative stiffener-adhesive bond-composite skin assembly. An array of sensors permanently attached to the vicinity of the feature is used to capture scattered waves from the localized damage occurring in the bond line. This technique is combined with an imaging approach, and the damage reconstruction is achieved by the synthetic focusing algorithm using these scattered signals. The proposed SHM scheme is implemented in both the 3D finite element simulation and the experiment, and the results are in good agreement, demonstrating the feasibility of such SHM strategy.

  2. Methodology for energy diagnosis in distribution steam lines; Metodologia para diagnostico de energia en lineas de distribucion de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, M; Ambriz, J J; Romero P, H [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper shows a methodology that results of great advantage in the development of the energy analysis of an industrial facility that utilizes steam as a mean of energy transport and where the steam operated equipment is physically located in a remote place, away from the generation site. Mention is made here of the equipment characteristics that can be used for such purpose, the most important parameters to identify in a rapid and efficient way the faults presented in the steam distribution system in the industrial plants and the formats that contribute to keep the corresponding records for efficiently maintain in operation the steam pipeline net in conjunction with the involved accessories. [Espanol] En el presenta trabajo se muestra una metodologia que resulta de gran utilidad en el desarrollo del analisis energetico de una planta industrial, en la cual se emplee el vapor como medio de transporte de la energia y en donde el equipo que utiliza el vapor se encuentre fisicamente en un lugar apartado de la zona de generacion. Aqui se mencionan las caracteristicas del equipo que se puede utilizar para dicho diagnostico, los parametros de mayor importancia para identificar en forma rapida y eficiente las fallas que se presentan en el sistema de distribucion de vapor en las plantas industriales y los formatos que contribuyen a llevar los registros correspondientes para mantener operando eficientemente la red de vapor, en conjunto con los accesorios que en ella se involucran.

  3. Methodology for energy diagnosis in distribution steam lines; Metodologia para diagnostico de energia en lineas de distribucion de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, M.; Ambriz, J. J.; Romero P, H. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper shows a methodology that results of great advantage in the development of the energy analysis of an industrial facility that utilizes steam as a mean of energy transport and where the steam operated equipment is physically located in a remote place, away from the generation site. Mention is made here of the equipment characteristics that can be used for such purpose, the most important parameters to identify in a rapid and efficient way the faults presented in the steam distribution system in the industrial plants and the formats that contribute to keep the corresponding records for efficiently maintain in operation the steam pipeline net in conjunction with the involved accessories. [Espanol] En el presenta trabajo se muestra una metodologia que resulta de gran utilidad en el desarrollo del analisis energetico de una planta industrial, en la cual se emplee el vapor como medio de transporte de la energia y en donde el equipo que utiliza el vapor se encuentre fisicamente en un lugar apartado de la zona de generacion. Aqui se mencionan las caracteristicas del equipo que se puede utilizar para dicho diagnostico, los parametros de mayor importancia para identificar en forma rapida y eficiente las fallas que se presentan en el sistema de distribucion de vapor en las plantas industriales y los formatos que contribuyen a llevar los registros correspondientes para mantener operando eficientemente la red de vapor, en conjunto con los accesorios que en ella se involucran.

  4. Two-dimensional distribution of electron temperature in ergodic layer of LHD measured from line intensity ratio of CIV and NeVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Erhui; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Murakami, Izumi; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Dong, Chunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional distribution of impurity lines emitted from ergodic layer with stochastic magnetic field lines in Large Helical Device (LHD) has been observed using a space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer. The two-dimensional electron temperature distribution in the ergodic layer is successfully measured using the line intensity ratio of Li-like NeVIII 2s-3p ( 2 S 1/2 - 2 P 3/2 : 88.09 Å, 2 S 1/2 - 2 P 1/2 : 88.13 Å) to 2p-3s ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 102.91 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 103.09 Å) transitions emitted from radial location near Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS). The intensity ratio analyzed with ADAS code shows no dependence on the electron density below 10 14 cm -3 . The result indicates a little higher temperature, i.e., 220 eV, in the poloidal location at high-field side near helical coils called O-point compared to the temperature near X-point, i.e., 170 eV. The electron temperature profile is also measured at the edge boundary of ergodic layer using the line intensity ratio of Li-like CIV 2p-3d ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 D 3/2 : 384.03 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 D 5/2 : 384.18 Å) to 2p-3s ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 419.53 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 419.71 Å) transitions. The intensity ratios analyzed with CHIANTI, ADAS and T.Kawachi codes show a slightly higher temperature near O-point, i.e., 25 eV for CHIANTI, 21 eV for ADAS and 11 eV for T.Kawachi's codes, compared to the temperature at X-point, i.e., 15 - 21 eV for CHIANTI, 9 - 15 eV for ADAS and 6 - 9 eV for T.Kawachi codes. It suggests that the transport coefficient in the ergodic layer is varied with three-dimensional structure. (author)

  5. Caracterização do MP10 e MP2,5 e distribuição por tamanho de cloreto, nitrato e sulfato em atmosfera urbana e rural de Londrina Characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 and size distribution of chloride, nitrate and sulphate in urban and rural atmospheres of Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Marques Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Samplings of atmospheric particulate matter (PM were carried out between the months of March and April of 2007, simultaneously in two areas of Londrina, an urban (Historical Museum and other rural (Farm School-UEL. PM was collected using the cascade impactor consisting of four impaction stages (0.25 to 10 μm. The results indicated that the fine fraction (PM2.5 represented a significant portion of the mass of PM10 (70 and 67% in the urban and rural places, respectively. Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2- were determined by ion chromatography and the size distribution is presented. Natural and anthropogenic sources were suggested to the ionic components in the fine and coarse mode of PM.

  6. Distribution of natural radionuclides and uranium activity ratio in Gulf of Thailand sediments as base line data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Hideki, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Kritsananuwat, R.; Fukushi, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Chanyotha, S.; Pangza, K. [Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides and uranium activity ratio in marine sediments from selected coast, along the Gulf of Thailand to establish baseline data. Thailand has a plan to construct nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as coal-fired thermal power plants to generate adequate and reliable electricity supply for rapid growth of industrialization. Therefore, it is important to focus not only on security and adequacy of power system but also on environmental protection and monitoring and risk assessment. To carry out environmental monitoring, baseline data plays a significant role. These data should be established and available before set up of mega projects that could impact the environment and health. Therefore, we have collected samples from five areas in the Gulf of Thailand, which are proposed as potential sites, to set up power plants by Thailand government. A total number of fifty-four marine sediment samples were collected. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides e.g. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 40}K. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 40}K vary from 2.91-67.17 Bq/kg with an average of 26.64±14.57 Bq/kg, 4.42-109.17 Bq/kg with an average of 43.79±23.92 Bq/kg and 3.36-1004.56 Bq/kg with an average of 393.56±208.04 Bq/kg, respectively. The radiation hazard parameters including absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), radium equivalent activity (AGDE) and external hazard index (Hex) were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. We have noticed that sediments from two sites characterized by similar geological nature of landforms with a rocky coast have higher concentration of natural radionuclides. Concentration of uranium was determined using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotopic composition of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U were determined using

  7. A Cryogenic Test Set-Up for the Qualification of Pre-Series Test Cells for the LHC Cryogenic Distribution Line

    CERN Document Server

    Livran, J; Parente, C; Riddone, G; Rybkowski, D; Veillet, N

    2000-01-01

    Three pre-series Test Cells of the LHC Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) [1], manufactured by three European industrial companies, will be tested in the year 2000 to qualify the design chosen and verify the thermal and mechanical performances. A dedicated test stand (170 m x 13 m) has been built for extensive testing and performance assessment of the pre-series units in parallel. They will be fed with saturated liquid helium at 4.2 K supplied by a mobile helium dewar. In addition, LN2 cooled helium will be used for cool-down and thermal shielding. For each of the three pre-series units, a set of end boxes has been designed and manufactured at CERN. This paper presents the layout of the cryogenic system for the pre-series units, the calorimetric methods as well as the results of the thermal calculation of the end box test.

  8. On the sub-micron aerosol size distribution in a coastal-rural site at El Arenosillo Station (SW – Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sorribas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the analysis of the sub-micron aerosol characteristics at El Arenosillo Station, a rural and coastal environment in South-western Spain between 1 August 2004 and 31 July 2006 (594 days. The mean total concentration (NT was 8660 cm−3 and the mean concentrations in the nucleation (NNUC, Aitken (NAIT and accumulation (NACC particle size ranges were 2830 cm−3, 4110 cm−3 and 1720 cm−3, respectively. Median size distribution was characterised by a single-modal fit, with a geometric diameter, median number concentration and geometric standard deviation of 60 nm, 5390 cm−3 and 2.31, respectively. Characterisation of primary emissions, secondary particle formation, changes to meteorology and long-term transport has been necessary to understand the seasonal and annual variability of the total and modal particle concentration. Number concentrations exhibited a diurnal pattern with maximum concentrations around noon. This was governed by the concentrations of the nucleation and Aitken modes during the warm seasons and only by the nucleation mode during the cold seasons. Similar monthly mean total concentrations were observed throughout the year due to a clear inverse variation between the monthly mean NNUC and NACC. It was related to the impact of desert dust and continental air masses on the monthly mean particle levels. These air masses were associated with high values of NACC which suppressed the new particle formation (decreasing NNUC. Each day was classified according to a land breeze flow or a synoptic pattern influence. The median size distribution for desert dust and continental aerosol was dominated by the Aitken and accumulation modes, and marine air masses were dominated by the nucleation and Aitken modes. Particles

  9. A TALE OF TWO NARROW-LINE REGIONS: IONIZATION, KINEMATICS, AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR A LOCAL PAIR OF MERGING OBSCURED ACTIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Chen, Chien-Ting; Carroll, Christopher M.; Jones, Mackenzie L.; Zervos, Alexandros S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Goulding, Andrew D. [Department Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    We explore the gas ionization and kinematics, as well as the optical-IR spectral energy distributions for UGC 11185, a nearby pair of merging galaxies hosting obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), also known as SDSS J181611.72+423941.6 and J181609.37+423923.0 (J1816NE and J1816SW, z ≈ 0.04). Due to the wide separation between these interacting galaxies (∼23 kpc), observations of these objects provide a rare glimpse of the concurrent growth of supermassive black holes at an early merger stage. We use BPT line diagnostics to show that the full extent of the narrow-line emission in both galaxies is photoionized by an AGN, and confirm the existence of a 10 kpc-scale ionization cone in J1816NE, while in J1816SW the AGN narrow-line region is much more compact (1–2 kpc) and relatively undisturbed. Our observations also reveal the presence of ionized gas that nearly spans the entire distance between the galaxies, which is likely in a merger-induced tidal stream. In addition, we carry out a spectral analysis of the X-ray emission using data from XMM-Newton . These galaxies represent a useful pair to explore how the [O iii] luminosity of an AGN is dependent on the size of the region used to explore the extended emission. Given the growing evidence for AGN “flickering” over short timescales, we speculate that the appearances and impacts of these AGNs may change multiple times over the course of the galaxy merger, which is especially important given that these objects are likely the progenitors of the types of systems commonly classified as “dual AGNs.”.

  10. Autophagosome Proteins LC3A, LC3B and LC3C Have Distinct Subcellular Distribution Kinetics and Expression in Cancer Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I Koukourakis

    Full Text Available LC3s (MAP1-LC3A, B and C are structural proteins of autophagosomal membranes, widely used as biomarkers of autophagy. Whether these three LC3 proteins have a similar biological role in autophagy remains obscure. We examine in parallel the subcellular expression patterns of the three LC3 proteins in a panel of human cancer cell lines, as well as in normal MRC5 fibroblasts and HUVEC, using confocal microscopy and western blot analysis of cell fractions. In the cytoplasm, there was a minimal co-localization between LC3A, B and C staining, suggesting that the relevant autophagosomes are formed by only one out of the three LC3 proteins. LC3A showed a perinuclear and nuclear localization, while LC3B was equally distributed throughout the cytoplasm and localized in the nucleolar regions. LC3C was located in the cytoplasm and strongly in the nuclei (excluding nucleoli, where it extensively co-localized with the LC3A and the Beclin-1 autophagy initiating protein. Beclin 1 is known to contain a nuclear trafficking signal. Blocking nuclear export function by Leptomycin B resulted in nuclear accumulation of all LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins, while Ivermectin that blocks nuclear import showed reduction of accumulation, but not in all cell lines. Since endogenous LC3 proteins are used as major markers of autophagy in clinical studies and cell lines, it is essential to check the specificity of the antibodies used, as the kinetics of these molecules are not identical and may have distinct biological roles. The distinct subcellular expression patterns of LC3s provide a basis for further studies.

  11. Spatial distribution of osteopontin, CD44v6 and podoplanin in the lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst, and their biological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechik, Khamisah Awang; Siar, Chong Huat

    2018-02-01

    The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) remains the most challenging jaw cyst to treat because of its locally-aggressive behaviour and high recurrence potential. Emerging evidence suggests that osteopontin, its receptors CD44v6 and integrin α v , and podoplanin, have a role in the local invasiveness of this cyst. However the spatial distribution characteristics of these pro-invasive markers in the lining epithelium of OKC, and their association with the clinicopathologic parameters of OKC are largely unexplored. This study sought to address these issues in comparison with dentigerous cysts (DCs) and radicular cysts (RCs) and to evaluate their biological relevance. A sample consisting of 20 OKC cases, 10 DCs and 10 RCs was subjected to immunohistochemical staining for osteopontin, CD44v6 and integrin α v , and podoplanin, and semiquantitative analysis was performed. All factors (except integrin α v ) were detected heterogeneously in the constitutive layers of the lining epithelium in all three cyst types. Key observations were significant upregulation of CD44v6 and podoplanin in OKC compared to DCs and RCs, suggesting that these protein molecules may play crucial roles in promoting local invasiveness in OKC (P<0.05). Osteopontin underexpression and distribution patterns were indistinctive among all three cysts indicating its limited role as pro-invasive factor. Clinical parameters showed no significant correlations with all protein factors investigated. Present findings suggest that an osteopontin low CD44v6 high and podoplanin high immunoprofile most probably represent epithelial signatures of OKC and are markers of local invasiveness in this cyst. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rural Depopulation Pattern at Yogyakarta Special Province (DIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Baiquni

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on a secondary data research i.e. statistical data at rural levels in Yogyakarta, thematics maps and other documents. Statistical methodes and map pattern analysis are employed to analysis data. The result of this research are as follows: a the rural depopulation in DIY can be found in 189 rural areas of 393 rural areas (48.09%; b the spatial distribution of the rural depopulation are in Gunung Kidul District (80 rural areas, Kulon Progo District (59 rural areas Sleman District (33 rural areas, and Bantul District (17 rural areas; c the rural depopulation in Yogyakarta at least related to six factors whih have been identified as out – migration, local resources, carrying capacity, geographycal location or accessibility, rural infrastructure, and service availability.

  13. Legal and management aspects in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alem Deaces, J.

    1994-01-01

    Present work considers that the rural electrification is generally deficit, as well in the line of transmission builds as the generation sources constructions. The big benefits of the rural electrification would be the improvement of quality of the human life as well as in the agricultural economic development. The participation of all the social agents' collaboration would be necessary

  14. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Transportation to medical appointments, grocery shopping, and other essential and leisure activities Housing quality and affordability, including ...

  15. Analysis of Food Poverty of Rural Women in Villages of Central district of Boyer-Ahmad County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The findings revealed that about 31 percent of women were below and 69% were above the food poverty line. Comparison of averages of some variables including education status, employment (head of household, income, banking facilities such as credit and loans, property and assets, savings, economic skills, economic participation, government supports, husband's attitude, self-confidence, self-esteem, physical and mental healths showed that there are significant differences between poor and non-poor rural women. The discriminant analysis indicated that variables like husband attitude, self-confidence, and self-essteem correctly classified about 87.7 percent of rural women as poor or non-poor. Due to the husband's attitude had a significant role in differentiation of the two groups, the social and cultural education of rural men are recommended. Furthermore, the supporting sterategies that includes the distribution of food commodities, unemployment insurance and pensions, medical insurance and development of educational services for rural women is suggested.

  16. A study on the stakeholder of holistic rural tourism: A case of Yangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanheng; Wang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Holistic rural tourism is an important model to rural economy; however, there are a number of issues in the developing of the holistic rural tourism, one of the most prominent problems is the interests of community residents cannot be guaranteed. From the perspective of the stakeholders, the article describes the main stakeholders in the development of holistic rural tourism and analyzes the demands of different stakeholders' interests. The paper summarizes the principles of distribution mechanism of holistic rural tourism interests. Finally, it proposes the primary distribution mechanism and re-distribution mechanism of holistic rural tourism interests to provide some inspiration for the interest distribution in the sustainable development of holistic rural tourism.

  17. The impact of rural-urban gradient and spatial distribution on predation rates on sentinel prey in a riparian forest in Hungary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eötvös, Csaba Béla; Magura, Tibor; Lövei, Gabor L.

    2015-01-01

    is the predation pressure in this kind of habitat? (2) What are the differences in predation between rural, suburban and urban habitats? (3) What inter-prey distances are necessary for different predator groups that the dummy caterpillars would be independent? We found 17.76% overall predation rate, decreasing...... from rural to urban habitats (33.5%, 18.29% and 3.91%, respectively). Most of the ground level arthropod predation was related to carabids. We applied variogram analysis to acquire optimal placement distances. According to our results, in case all of the predators (except mammals), 5-10 m distances......Measuring predation rates under field conditions is rife with ecological and logistical difficulties. The use of artificial sentinel prey offers a simple and cheap possibility to comparable predation activity in various habitats by various predator groups. This method can replace the classical...

  18. A variation of the housing unit method for estimating the age and gender distribution of small, rural areas: A case study of the local expert procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.F.; Roe, L.K.; Williams, C.A.; Swanson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the methodologies used in the development of a demographic data base established in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Radiological Monitoring Plan (RadMP). It also examines the suitability of a survey-based procedure for estimating population in small, rural areas. The procedure is a variation of the Housing Unit Method. It employs the use of local experts enlisted to provide information about the demographic characteristics of households randomly selected from residential units sample frames developed from utility records. The procedure is nonintrusive and less costly than traditional survey data collection efforts. Because the procedure is based on random sampling, confidence intervals can be constructed around the population estimated by the technique. The results of a case study are provided in which the total population, and age and gender of the population, is estimated for three unincorporated communities in rural, southern Nevada

  19. Use of deformed intensity distributions for on-line modification of image-guided IMRT to account for interfractional anatomic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Radhe; Zhang Xiaodong; Wang He; Kang Yixiu; Wang Xiaochun; Liu, Helen; Ang, K.; Kuban, Deborah; Dong Lei

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Recent imaging studies have demonstrated that there can be significant changes in anatomy from day to day and over the course of radiotherapy as a result of daily positioning uncertainties and physiologic and clinical factors. There are a number of strategies to minimize such changes, reduce their impact, or correct for them. Measures to date have included improved immobilization of external and internal anatomy or adjustment of positions based on portal or ultrasound images. Perhaps the most accurate way is to use CT image-guided radiotherapy, for which the possibilities range from simple correction of setup based on daily CT images to on-line near real-time intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) replanning. In addition, there are numerous intermediate possibilities. In this paper, we report the development of one such intermediate method that takes into account anatomic changes by deforming the intensity distributions of each beam based on deformations of anatomy as seen in the beam's-eye-view. Methods and materials: The intensity distribution deformations are computed based on anatomy deformations discerned from the changes in the current image relative to a reference image (e.g., the pretreatment CT scan). First, a reference IMRT plan is generated based on the reference CT image. A new CT image is acquired using an in-room CT for every fraction. The anatomic structure contours are obtained for the new image. (For this article, these contours were manually drawn. When image guided IMRT methods are implemented, anatomic structure contours on subsequent images will likely be obtained with automatic or semiautomatic means. This could be achieved by, for example, first deforming the original CT image to match today's image, and then using the same deformation transformation to map original contours to today's image.) The reference intensity distributions for each beam are then deformed so that the projected geometric relationship within the beam

  20. Sustaining the Entrepreneurship in Rural Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhafiza Md Sharif

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs play an important role in sustaining rural tourism and formulation of sustainable strategies being the initiators of the tourism business and the engine of the local development. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate the development of entrepreneurial activities for the recovery of rural tourism potential and regional traditions, maintaining local employment growth and increase living standards in line with identifies needs and priorities of regional human resources development. This article aims to discuss the involvement of local communities in development of rural tourism entrepreneurship as well as addressing the issue of entrepreneurship in rural tourism.

  1. Single-phase to three-phase converter system of high quality for rural applications and distributed generation; Sistema conversor mono-trifasico de alta qualidade para aplicacoes rurais e de geracao distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Ricardo Q.; Pomilio, Jose A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao], e-mail: ricardom@dsce.fee.unicamp.br; Buso, Simone [Universidade de Padova, Padua (Italy). Dept. de Engenharia da Informacao], e-mail: simone.buso@dei.unipd.it

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a line-interactive single-phase to three-phase converter. The typical application is in rural areas supplied by the single-wire with earth return. The traditional objective of feeding a three-phase induction motor is not anymore the main concern for such conversion. Due to the evolution of the agro business, some of the local load (as electronic power converters, computers, communication equipment, etc.) requires high quality power, intended as sinusoidal, symmetrical and balanced three-phase voltage. Additionally, to maximize the power got from the feeder, the system provides a unitary power factor to the feeder. A three-phase PWM converter is used for this purpose. The power converter does not process all the load power, as in the conventional solutions, but only the fraction necessary to regulate the three-phase bus voltage. The control strategy, design highlights and experimental results are presented. (author)

  2. CONSTRAINTS ON BLACK HOLE GROWTH, QUASAR LIFETIMES, AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE SDSS BROAD-LINE QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Hernquist, Lars; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan Xiaohui; Hopkins, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We present an estimate of the black hole mass function of broad-line quasars (BLQSOs) that self-consistently corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates, based on a sample of 9886 quasars at 1 1 it is highly incomplete at M BH ∼ 9 M sun and L/L Edd ∼ BL > 150 ± 15 Myr for black holes at z = 1 with a mass of M BH = 10 9 M sun , and we constrain the maximum mass of a black hole in a BLQSO to be ∼3 x 10 10 M sun . Our estimated distribution of BLQSO Eddington ratios peaks at L/L Edd ∼ 0.05 and has a dispersion of ∼0.4 dex, implying that most BLQSOs are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit; however, the location of the peak is subject to considerable uncertainty. The steep increase in number density of BLQSOs toward lower Eddington ratios is expected if the BLQSO accretion rate monotonically decays with time. Furthermore, our estimated lifetime and Eddington ratio distributions imply that the majority of the most massive black holes spend a significant amount of time growing in an earlier obscured phase, a conclusion which is independent of the unknown obscured fraction. These results are consistent with models for self-regulated black hole growth, at least for massive systems at z > 1, where the BLQSO phase occurs at the end of a fueling event when black hole feedback unbinds the accreting gas, halting the accretion flow.

  3. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  4. Effect of Chromatin Structure on the Extent and Distribution of DNA Double Strand Breaks Produced by Ionizing Radiation; Comparative Study of hESC and Differentiated Cells Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Priyanka; Panyutin, Irina V; Remeeva, Evgenia; Neumann, Ronald D; Panyutin, Igor G

    2016-01-02

    Chromatin structure affects the extent of DNA damage and repair. Thus, it has been shown that heterochromatin is more protective against DNA double strand breaks (DSB) formation by ionizing radiation (IR); and that DNA DSB repair may proceed differently in hetero- and euchromatin regions. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have a more open chromatin structure than differentiated cells. Here, we study the effect of chromatin structure in hESC on initial DSB formation and subsequent DSB repair. DSB were scored by comet assay; and DSB repair was assessed by repair foci formation via 53BP1 antibody staining. We found that in hESC, heterochromatin is confined to distinct regions, while in differentiated cells it is distributed more evenly within the nuclei. The same dose of ionizing radiation produced considerably more DSB in hESC than in differentiated derivatives, normal human fibroblasts; and one cancer cell line. At the same time, the number of DNA repair foci were not statistically different among these cells. We showed that in hESC, DNA repair foci localized almost exclusively outside the heterochromatin regions. We also noticed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in an increase in heterochromatin marker H3K9me3 in cancer HT1080 cells, and to a lesser extent in IMR90 normal fibroblasts, but not in hESCs. These results demonstrate the importance of chromatin conformation for DNA protection and DNA damage repair; and indicate the difference of these processes in hESC.

  5. The Three-Dimensional Morphology of VY Canis Majoris. II. Polarimetry and the Line-of-Sight Distribution of the Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Helton, L. Andrew; Gui, Changfeng; Huang, Xiang

    2007-06-01

    We use imaging polarimetry taken with the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys High Resolution Camera to explore the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar dust distribution around the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris. The polarization vectors of the nebulosity surrounding VY CMa show a strong centrosymmetric pattern in all directions except directly east and range from 10% to 80% in fractional polarization. In regions that are optically thin, and therefore likely to have only single scattering, we use the fractional polarization and photometric color to locate the physical position of the dust along the line of sight. Most of the individual arclike features and clumps seen in the intensity image are also features in the fractional polarization map. These features must be distinct geometric objects. If they were just local density enhancements, the fractional polarization would not change so abruptly at the edge of the feature. The location of these features in the ejecta of VY CMa using polarimetry provides a determination of their three-dimensional geometry independent of, but in close agreement with, the results from our study of their kinematics (Paper I). Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  6. Long-Term Profiles of Wind and Weibull Distribution Parameters up to 600 m in a Rural Coastal and an Inland Suburban Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of the long-term variability of wind profiles for wind energy applications is presented. The observations consists of wind measurements obtained from a ground-based wind lidar at heights between 100 and 600 m, in combination with measurements from tallmeteorological towers...... by the root-mean-square error was about 10 % lower for the analysis compared to the forecast simulations. At the rural coastal site, the observed mean wind speeds above 60 m were underestimated by both the analysis and forecast model runs. For the inland suburban area, the mean wind speed is overestimated...

  7. Legal and management aspects in rural electrification; Aspectos juridicos y empresariales de la electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alem Deaces, J [Administracion Nacional de Usinas y trasmisiones Electricas (UTE), Montevideo (Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    Present work considers that the rural electrification is generally deficit, as well in the line of transmission builds as the generation sources constructions. The big benefits of the rural electrification would be the improvement of quality of the human life as well as in the agricultural economic development. The participation of all the social agents' collaboration would be necessary.

  8. Impulse tests on distribution transformers protected by means of spark gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pykaelae, M.L.; Palva, V. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). High Voltage Institute; Niskanen, K. [ABB Corporate Research, Vaasa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Distribution transformers in rural networks have to cope with transient overvoltages, even with those caused by the direct lightning strokes to the lines. In Finland the 24 kV network conditions, such as wooden pole lines, high soil resistivity and isolated neutral network, lead into fast transient overvoltages. Impulse testing of pole-mounted distribution transformers ({<=} 200 kVA) protected by means of spark gaps were studied. Different failure detection methods were used. Results can be used as background information for standardization work dealing with distribution transformers protected by means of spark gaps. (orig.) 9 refs.

  9. Impulse tests on distribution transformers protected by means of spark gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pykaelae, M L; Palva, V [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). High Voltage Institute; Niskanen, K [ABB Corporate Research, Vaasa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Distribution transformers in rural networks have to cope with transient overvoltages, even with those caused by the direct lightning strokes to the lines. In Finland the 24 kV network conditions, such as wooden pole lines, high soil resistivity and isolated neutral network, lead into fast transient overvoltages. Impulse testing of pole-mounted distribution transformers ({<=} 200 kVA) protected by means of spark gaps were studied. Different failure detection methods were used. Results can be used as background information for standardization work dealing with distribution transformers protected by means of spark gaps. (orig.) 9 refs.

  10. Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Marcos Souza de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandflies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflies were collected and 11 species were identified. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (rate of 95.15%, which suggests its participation in the transmission of VL. A total of 1,451 Lu. longipalpis females were dissected and no Leishmania infections were detected. Most of the sandflies were captured at the border of a forest (88.25% and no flies were captured in the urban area, which suggests that transmission is still restricted to rural sites. However, the fact that a specimen was collected in an intermediate area indicates that urbanisation is a real possibility and that vector monitoring is important.

  11. Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on…

  12. Rural Policy in a New Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ray

    Past rural policies are reviewed, noting the effects of globalization and information technology. Rural business profits can be maximized by direct cost or value-added competition, but cost competition limits the development of productive capacity and leads to unequal income distribution. In contrast, value-added competition could create steep…

  13. Differential distribution of a SINE element in the Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar genomes: Role of the LINE-encoded endonuclease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Abhishek K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar are closely related protistan parasites but while E. histolytica can be invasive, E. dispar is completely non pathogenic. Transposable elements constitute a significant portion of the genome in these species; there being three families of LINEs and SINEs. These elements can profoundly influence the expression of neighboring genes. Thus their genomic location can have important phenotypic consequences. A genome-wide comparison of the location of these elements in the E. histolytica and E. dispar genomes has not been carried out. It is also not known whether the retrotransposition machinery works similarly in both species. The present study was undertaken to address these issues. Results Here we extracted all genomic occurrences of full-length copies of EhSINE1 in the E. histolytica genome and matched them with the homologous regions in E. dispar, and vice versa, wherever it was possible to establish synteny. We found that only about 20% of syntenic sites were occupied by SINE1 in both species. We checked whether the different genomic location in the two species was due to differences in the activity of the LINE-encoded endonuclease which is required for nicking the target site. We found that the endonucleases of both species were essentially very similar, both in their kinetic properties and in their substrate sequence specificity. Hence the differential distribution of SINEs in these species is not likely to be influenced by the endonuclease. Further we found that the physical properties of the DNA sequences adjoining the insertion sites were similar in both species. Conclusions Our data shows that the basic retrotransposition machinery is conserved in these sibling species. SINEs may indeed have occupied all of the insertion sites in the genome of the common ancestor of E. histolytica and E. dispar but these may have been subsequently lost from some locations. Alternatively, SINE

  14. The Spectral Energy Distributions of z ~ 8 Galaxies from the IRAC Ultra Deep Fields: Emission Lines, Stellar Masses, and Specific Star Formation Rates at 650 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, I.; Oesch, P. A.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V.; Carollo, C. M.; Franx, M.; Trenti, M.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Stiavelli, M.

    2013-11-01

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ~ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ~120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ~28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct >=3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at >=5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ~ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ~ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ~ 7 and z ~ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of {W}_{[O\\,\\scriptsize{III}]\\ \\lambda \\lambda 4959,5007+H\\beta }=670^{+260}_{-170} Å contributing 0.56^{+0.16}_{-0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ~ 8. The corresponding {W}_{H\\alpha }=430^{+160}_{-110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11_{-5}^{+11} Gyr-1 and a stellar population age of 100_{-50}^{+100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ~3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to \\rho ^*(z=8,M_{\\rm{UV}}Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #11563, 9797. Based on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of

  15. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF z ∼ 8 GALAXIES FROM THE IRAC ULTRA DEEP FIELDS: EMISSION LINES, STELLAR MASSES, AND SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATES AT 650 MYR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Carollo, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Trenti, M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Van Dokkum, P. G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Stiavelli, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ∼ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ∼120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ∼28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct ≥3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at ≥5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ∼ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ∼ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ∼ 7 and z ∼ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of contributing 0.56{sup +0.16}{sub -0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ∼ 8. The corresponding W{sub Hα}=430{sup +160}{sub -110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11{sub -5}{sup +11} Gyr{sup –1} and a stellar population age of 100{sub -50}{sup +100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ∼3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to ρ{sup *}(z=8,M{sub UV}<-18)=0.6{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3}×10{sup 6} M{sub sun} Mpc{sup –3}.

  16. Multi-Sensor Distributive On-line Processing, Visualization, and Analysis Infrastructure for an Agricultural Information System at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, W.; Berrick, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Pham, L.; Shen, S.; Zhu, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS), which will operationally provide precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be integrated into existing operational decision support systems for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output on screen in a matter of seconds. The currently available output options are (1) area plot - averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area; (2) time plot - time series averaged over any rectangular area; (3) Hovmoller plots - longitude-time and latitude-time plots; (4) ASCII

  17. Species composition and fauna distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and its importance for vector-borne diseases in a rural area of Central Western - Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Alexandre Leal-Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study describes ecological data obtained in a rural area in the State of Mato Grosso, including the insects belonging to the family Culicidae, especially those framed as potential vectors of tropical diseases. In 2015, we collected adult mosquitoes in fragments of forest in a rural area located in Mato Grosso Central West of Brazil. We captured 18,256 mosquitoes of the sub-families Culicinae and Anophelinae and have identified 34 species belonging to 12 genera: Aedes (1 species, Anopheles (8 species, Coquillettidia (1 species, Haemagogus (1 species, Culex (5 species, Psorophora  (5 species, Ochlerotatus (4 species, Deinocerites (1 species,  Mansonia (4 species, Sabethes (2 species, Limatus (1 species, Wyeomyia (1 species. The family Culicidae presented high richness and abundance, established by diversity indexes (Margalef α =3.26; Shannon H' = 2.09; Simpson D = 0.19 with dominance of the species Anopheles (Nyssorhyncus darlingi Root (89.8%. This species has considerable epidemiological value, considered the main vector of malaria in Mato Grosso. Many species of mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause disease in humans and domestic animals, transmitting pathogens including viruses (arboviruses, filaria worms (helminths and protozoa. Composição de espécies e distribuição da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae e sua importância para doenças transmitidas por vetores em uma área rural do centro-ocidental - Mato Grosso, Brasil Resumo. Este estudo descreve dados ecológicos de uma área rural do Estado de Mato Grosso e dos insetos da família Culicidae especialmente aqueles enquadrados como vetores potenciais de doenças tropicais. Em 2015, coletamos mosquitos adultos em fragmentos de floresta em localidades de áreas rurais no Mato Grosso região Centro Oeste do Brasil. Foram capturados 18.256 exemplares alados de mosquitos das subfamílias Culicinae e Anophelinae e identificadas 34 espécies pertencentes a 12 g

  18. Rural science education as social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Karen

    2017-03-01

    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  19. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITY AND POVERTY DYNAMICS AMONG RURAL FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Anayochukwu Mbanasor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed income inequality and poverty dynamics among rural farm households in Abia State, Nigeria. Beyond the broad objective, the study sought specifically to estimate the income distribution and determine the poverty line, gap and incidence of the rural farm households. A total of 240 households were selected across the agricultural zones using multistage sampling technique from which data and information were elicited. Data collection was between 2010 and 2011. Analytically, the study employed Gini coefficient in the estimation of income distribution while poverty indicators (Mean household income, headcount ratio and poverty gap index were used to measure poverty line, poverty incidence and gap. Income distribution showed high level of inequality (Gini index = 0.987 with per capita income falling below the operational national minimum wage. The poverty gap and incidence gave a scary picture of worsening poverty situation, judging from the poverty indicators (head count index = 0.567; poverty gap = 0.568. To reverse the trend, it is important that concerted efforts are made by way of policy direction to ensure that the rural economy which is largely agrarian is improved. This can be achieved by adopting input subsidy, private sector driven market access policy, labour intensive techniques in execution of public projects among others.

  20. Design of village power and micro-grids for rural areas of Zimbabwe with specific attention to voltage regulation on low voltage meshed distribution grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinarwo, David

    2009-07-01

    This work constitutes a feasibility study of the use of renewable energy resources in rural farming villages in Zimbabwe. A case study was done for a farming village consisting of a dairy farm called Rosenwald with 627 dairy cows and surrounded by local villagers offering manpower labour for the dairy activities. The village setup presents great opportunities for a sustainable power supply system in the form of village power system using the powerful microgrid concept since the farm is already connected to the national grid but with great problems of reliability, which is already a national problem if not regional due to the worst economics crisis facing the country coupled with the present regional power shortage experiencing the whole Southern Africa region. With the intended on-farm energy generation, the energy services are to be extended to the surrounding villages. Thus the study aims to stimulate better focus to the use of locally available renewable energy resources at bigger scales starting from the disadvantaged communities in the rural areas. The focus is put to these rural farming communities because these could be a strong force in the speedy electrification of the poor communities surrounding them. This could be more viable given the already existing business activities in these farms. So in this thesis the study of the on-farm energy generation using the farm and animal waste has shown that such communities can be totally independent from the electric grid by using the locally available resources. Here the technologies assessed are the biogas and solar and all the evaluation of the designs, choice of components and their suitable sizes was done with the help of a micropower optimization model HOMER simulation programme from National Renewable Energy Laboratory available at their website www.nrel.gov/homer. From the assessment done for the case study farm, it was shown that an electricity price of EUR 0.26/kWh is possible from the on - farm energy

  1. Medicaid and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State Guides Rural Data Visualizations Rural Data Explorer Chart Gallery Maps Case Studies & Conversations Rural Health Models & ... services provided by state Medicaid programs might include dental care, physical therapy, home and community-based services, ...

  2. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  3. Welfare service in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.Assessment......Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.......Assessment of development potential for individual localities using a place-based approach is in line with EU policies for rural development thereby setting a competitive framework for local development. This paper addresses place bound approaches in relation to service adjustment and discusses how local resources...... and place bound potentials are identified and how they are addressed in plans for future development. The paper draws on a study on service adjustments in rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are decided, how they are managed by rural communities...

  4. Sensitising rural policy: Assessing spatial variation in rural development options for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van D.B.; Verburg, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Regional distinctiveness is supported by the European Union in rural development policy. However, there is little information about the spatial distribution of the potential for rural development across Europe. The concept of territorial capital is used to consider spatial characteristics in

  5. Distributed generation of sustainable energy as a common pool resource: social acceptance in rural setting of smart (micro-)grid configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.; Frantál, B.; Martinát, S.

    2014-01-01

    According to the major trend in the literature on distributed generation adoption of composite multi-generation systems may yield significant benefits in terms of energy efficiency and reduced carbon emissions. The microgrid is a cluster of loads of electricity users and micro-sources that operate

  6. Supply chain solutions to improve the distribution of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs to clinics in rural areas: A case study of the QwaQwa district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamolise Mokheseng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article serves as a case study based on research that was performed in the QwaQwa district in the Free State Province where the distribution of ARVs to the regional Manapo hospital, as well as between the hospital and its peripheral clinics, was interrupted and inconsistent due to problems in the supply chain. An unreliable and interrupted ARV supply chain creates the risk of virus reactivation and eventual patient mortality. The objectives of the study were to explore the problems experienced with the ARV distribution practices at the Manapo hospital, and to recommend ways in which the distribution of ARVs can be improved so that patients can receive an uninterrupted supply. The nature of the topic researched dictated the use of mainly the quantitative research method. The main problems identified include: Wrong and no uniform practice of ordering stock by the hospital and the clinics; lack of reliable, structured transportation from the depot to the hospital; as well as poor inventory management and poor overall communication. Recommendations to address the problems include: Implementing a supply chain planning and design process; improving inventory management and warehousing practices; implementing more effective and reliable distribution and transportation processes; as well as improving supply chain coordination and overall communication.

  7. Rural origin plus a rural clinical school placement is a significant predictor of medical students' intentions to practice rurally: a multi-university study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith H; Dewitt, Dawn E; Pallant, Julie F; Cunningham, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    Health workforce shortages are a major problem in rural areas. Australian medical schools have implemented a number of rural education and training interventions aimed at increasing medical graduates' willingness to work in rural areas. These initiatives include recruiting students from rural backgrounds, delivering training in rural areas, and providing all students with some rural exposure during their medical training. However there is little evidence regarding the impact of rural exposure versus rural origin on workforce outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify and assess factors affecting preference for future rural practice among medical students participating in the Australian Rural Clinical Schools (RCS) Program. Questionnaires were distributed to 166 medical students who had completed their RCS term in 2006; 125 (75%) responded. Medical students were asked about their preferred location and specialty for future practice, their beliefs about rural work and life, and the impact of the RCS experience on their future rural training and practice preferences. Almost half the students (47%; n=58) self-reported a 'rural background'. Significantly, students from rural backgrounds were 10 times more likely to prefer to work in rural areas when compared with other students (ppreferring general practice, 80% (n=24) wished to do so rurally. Eighty-five per cent (n=105) of students agreed that their RCS experience increased their interest in rural training and practice with 62% (n=75) of students indicating a preference for rural internship/basic training after their RCS experience. A substantial percentage (86%; n=108) agreed they would consider rural practice after their RCS experience. This baseline study provides significant evidence to support rural medical recruitment and retention through education and training, with important insights into the factors affecting preference for future rural practice. By far the most significant predictor of rural practice

  8. Rural electrification in multiethnic Arizona: A study of power, urbanization and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Leah Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    transmission and distribution lines that eventually crossed rural farms, mountains, valleys, and ranges, connected isolated communities, towns, and settlements, stimulated household modernization, and promoted economic change. Although this process may have occurred at different times for different populations, the resulting electrical systems were locally initiated, controlled, and customized to the needs and characteristics of the region and its component communities.

  9. Attracting and retaining doctors in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P R

    2010-01-01

    In Nepal, a number of private sector medical schools have opened recently; although sufficient numbers of doctors are graduating there continues to be a doctor shortage in rural areas. This article analysed the rural doctor shortage in Nepal and reviewed the international literature for strategies that may be suitable for use in Nepal. Original research articles, reviews, magazine articles and project reports dealing with Nepal and other developing countries during the period 1995 to 2010 were sourced via Google, Google Scholar and Pubmed. Full text access was obtained via WHO's HINARI database. The health workforce in Nepal is unevenly distributed resulting in doctor shortages in rural areas. The recent introduction of mandatory rural service for scholarship students was aimed to reduce the loss of medical graduates to developed nations. High tuition fees in private medical schools and low Government wages prevent recent graduates from taking up rural positions, and those who do face many challenges. Potential corrective strategies include community-based medical education, selecting rural-background medical students, and providing a partial or complete tuition fee waiver for medical students who commit to rural service. Traditional healers and paramedical staff can also be trained for and authorized to provide rural health care. A range of strategies developed elsewhere could be used in Nepal, especially community-oriented medical education that involves rural doctors in training medical students. The reimbursement of tuition fees, assistance with relocation, and provision of opportunities for academic and professional advancement for rural doctors should also be considered. Government investment in improving working conditions in rural Nepal would assist rural communities to attract and retain doctors.

  10. Supply chain solutions to improve the distribution of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to clinics in rural areas: A case study of the QwaQwa district

    OpenAIRE

    Mokheseng, Mamolise; Horn, Gideon S.; Klopper, Aileen G.

    2017-01-01

    This article serves as a case study based on research that was performed in the QwaQwa district in the Free State Province where the distribution of ARVs to the regional Manapo hospital, as well as between the hospital and its peripheral clinics, was interrupted and inconsistent due to problems in the supply chain. An unreliable and interrupted ARV supply chain creates the risk of virus reactivation and eventual patient mortality. The objectives of the study were to explore the problems e...

  11. Crowdsourcing Vector Surveillance: Using Community Knowledge and Experiences to Predict Densities and Distribution of Outdoor-Biting Mosquitoes in Rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Peter Mwangungulu

    Full Text Available Lack of reliable techniques for large-scale monitoring of disease-transmitting mosquitoes is a major public health challenge, especially where advanced geo-information systems are not regularly applicable. We tested an innovative crowd-sourcing approach, which relies simply on knowledge and experiences of residents to rapidly predict areas where disease-transmitting mosquitoes are most abundant. Guided by community-based resource persons, we mapped boundaries and major physical features in three rural Tanzanian villages. We then selected 60 community members, taught them basic map-reading skills, and offered them gridded maps of their own villages (grid size: 200m×200m so they could identify locations where they believed mosquitoes were most abundant, by ranking the grids from one (highest density to five (lowest density. The ranks were interpolated in ArcGIS-10 (ESRI-USA using inverse distance weighting (IDW method, and re-classified to depict areas people believed had high, medium and low mosquito densities. Finally, we used odor-baited mosquito traps to compare and verify actual outdoor mosquito densities in the same areas. We repeated this process for 12 months, each time with a different group of 60 residents. All entomological surveys depicted similar geographical stratification of mosquito densities in areas classified by community members as having high, medium and low vector abundance. These similarities were observed when all mosquito species were combined, and also when only malaria vectors were considered. Of the 12,412 mosquitoes caught, 60.9% (7,555 were from areas considered by community members as having high mosquito densities, 28% (3,470 from medium density areas, and 11.2% (1,387 from low density areas. This study provides evidence that we can rely on community knowledge and experiences to identify areas where mosquitoes are most abundant or least abundant, even without entomological surveys. This crowd-sourcing method could

  12. Dynamics of the accumulation of polluting agents on transmission and distribution power line insulators; Dinamica de acumulacion de contaminantes sobre aisladores de lineas de transmision y distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Moreno, Felipe de Jesus

    1988-07-01

    The increment in the electricity use and the necessity or transferring large volumes of energy in an efficient and safe form, raises the necessity of looking for the faults frequency diminution, as well as the transmission and distribution power line optimization. For this purpose, the calculation of the required dielectric distances in the power lines design stage, can only be obtained through a better knowledge of the dielectric stresses resulting from the surges of internal origin (connection maneuvers) or external (atmospheric discharges) and from the temporary or permanent degradation, introduced on the insulating materials by the diverse environmental factors and meteorological parameters (contamination, humidity, temperature, rain, etc.). Of these, the contamination is the cause of a high percentage of faults and the present thesis work is related to the contingencies originated by this factor. In order to face the problem, in Mexico, it is being developed a research project in the matter of contamination denominated Contamination Effects on Insulations. As a part of this project, this thesis work analyzes some hypotheses about the dynamics of the accumulation of polluting agents on the insulators, considering the most important factors in the evolution of the contamination phenomenon; namely: the meteorological parameters, the insulator morphology and the period of exposure to the environment. In its present state, the investigation in our country in this field, as well as the computer tools and data banks of the project, allow to obtain in this work saturation curves for the insulators under study. These curves, essentially give the maximum contamination levels as well as the accumulation velocity of polluting agents, time based. The usefulness of these curves is in its application in the insulation coordination calculation to determine the fault distance required and the insulator appropriate configuration in regions in severe contamination regions. Also

  13. Distribution of chronic disease mortality and deterioration in household socioeconomic status in rural Bangladesh: an analysis over a 24-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahangir Am; Trujillo, Antonio J; Ahmed, Sayem; Siddiquee, Ali Tanweer; Alam, Nurul; Mirelman, Andrew J; Koehlmoos, Tracey Perez; Niessen, Louis Wilhelmus; Peters, David H

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about long-term changes linking chronic diseases and poverty in low-income countries such as Bangladesh. This study examines how chronic disease mortality rates change across socioeconomic groups over time in Bangladesh, and whether such mortality is associated with households falling into poverty. Age-sex standardized chronic diseases mortality rates were estimated across socioeconomic groups in 1982, 1996 and 2005, using data from the health and demographic surveillance system in Matlab, Bangladesh. Changes in households falling below a poverty threshold after a chronic disease death were estimated between 1982-96 and 1996-2005. Age-sex standardized chronic disease mortality rates rose from 646 per 100 000 population in 1982 to 670 in 2005. Mortality rates were higher in wealthier compared with poorer households in 1982 [Concentration Index = 0.037; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.002, 0.072], but switched direction in 1996 (Concentration Index = -0.007; 95% CI: -0.023, 0.009), with an even higher concentration in the poor by 2005 (Concentration Index = -0.047; 95% CI: -0.061, -0.033). Between 1982-96 and 1996-2005, the highest chronic disease mortality rates were found among those households that fell below the poverty line. Households that had a chronic disease death in 1982 were 1.33 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.70) times more likely to fall below the poverty line in 1996 compared with households that did not. Chronic disease mortality is a growing proportion of the disease burden in Bangladesh, with poorer households being more affected over time periods, leading to future household poverty. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  14. What Is Rural? Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  15. Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenjun

    2017-03-22

    Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study's aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case. The results indicate the following: (1) Similar spatial distribution characteristics are detected between Pb, Cu, and Zn, between Cr and Ni, and between Hg and Cd. The Yitong River catchment in the central region, and the residential community of Lanjia County in the west, are the main hotspots for eight heavy metals and PLI. Beihu Wetland Park, with a larger-area distribution of ecological land in the southeast, has low level for both heavy metal concentrations and PLI values. Spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated heavy metals are related to types of surrounding land use and industry; (2) Spatial lag regression has a better fit for PLI than the ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicate the inverse relationship between heavy metal pollution degree and distance from long-standing residential land and surface water. Following rapid urban land expansion and a longer accumulation period, residential land sprawl is going to threaten cultivated land with heavy metal pollution in the suburban black soil region, and cultivated land irrigated with urban river water in the suburbs will have a higher tendency for heavy metal pollution.

  16. Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study’s aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case. The results indicate the following: (1) Similar spatial distribution characteristics are detected between Pb, Cu, and Zn, between Cr and Ni, and between Hg and Cd. The Yitong River catchment in the central region, and the residential community of Lanjia County in the west, are the main hotspots for eight heavy metals and PLI. Beihu Wetland Park, with a larger-area distribution of ecological land in the southeast, has low level for both heavy metal concentrations and PLI values. Spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated heavy metals are related to types of surrounding land use and industry; (2) Spatial lag regression has a better fit for PLI than the ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicate the inverse relationship between heavy metal pollution degree and distance from long-standing residential land and surface water. Following rapid urban land expansion and a longer accumulation period, residential land sprawl is going to threaten cultivated land with heavy metal pollution in the suburban black soil region, and cultivated land irrigated with urban river water in the suburbs will have a higher tendency for heavy metal pollution. PMID:28327541

  17. Size distributions of non-volatile particle residuals (Dp<800 nm at a rural site in Germany and relation to air mass origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tuch

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particle size distributions at a continental background site in Eastern Germany were examined for a one-year period. Particles were classified using a twin differential mobility particle sizer in a size range between 3 and 800 nm. As a novelty, every second measurement of this experiment involved the removal of volatile chemical compounds in a thermodenuder at 300°C. This concept allowed to quantify the number size distribution of non-volatile particle cores – primarily associated with elemental carbon, and to compare this to the original non-conditioned size distribution. As a byproduct of the volatility analysis, new particles originating from nucleation inside the thermodenuder can be observed, however, overwhelmingly at diameters below 6 nm. Within the measurement uncertainty, every particle down to particle sizes of 15 nm is concluded to contain a non-volatile core. The volume fraction of non-volatile particulate matter (non-conditioned diameter < 800 nm varied between 10 and 30% and was largely consistent with the experimentally determined mass fraction of elemental carbon. The average size of the non-volatile particle cores was estimated as a function of original non-conditioned size using a summation method, which showed that larger particles (>200 nm contained more non-volatile compounds than smaller particles (<50 nm, thus indicating a significantly different chemical composition. Two alternative air mass classification schemes based on either, synoptic chart analysis (Berliner Wetterkarte or back trajectories showed that the volume and number fraction of non-volatile cores depended less on air mass than the total particle number concentration. In all air masses, the non-volatile size distributions showed a more and a less volatile ("soot" mode, the latter being located at about 50 nm. During unstable conditions and in maritime air masses, smaller values were observed compared to stable or continental conditions

  18. A new scramble for land or an unprecedented opportunity for the rural poor? Distributional consequences of increasing land rents in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna; Henningsen, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Price induced increases in land rents trigger an increasing incentive for rent- seeking behavior. To analyse distributional and welfare eects of increasing land rents in developing countries, we develop a game theoretic model where a large and heterogeneous group of farmers competes with a small...... and wealthy elite. The results indicate that only relatively small rent increases benet the farmers more than the elite. Moreover, political institutions have an ambiguous eect on farmers' rent share, and may even reduce overall welfare, because they induce wasteful expenditure on rent-seeking....

  19. Northern and southern water masses in the equatorial Atlantic: Distribution of nutrients on the WOCE A6 and A7 lines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Oudot, C.; Morin, P.; Baurand, F.; Wafar, M.V.M.; Le Corre, P.

    In the framework of the WOCE Hydrographic Program, two trans-Atlantic CTDO/tracer sections with closely-spaced stations, along 7 degrees 30'N and 4 degrees 30'S (WHP Lines A6 and A7), and two meridional sections, along 3 degrees 50'W and 35 degrees...

  20. Simulation and experimental determination of the macro-scale layer thickness distribution of electrodeposited Cu-line patterns on a wafer substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Bossche, Bart van den; Purcar, Marius

    2005-01-01

    The impact of adjacent patterned zones with different active area densities on the current density and electrodeposited layer thickness distribution over a wafer substrate is examined, both by experiment and numerical simulation. The experiments consist in running an acid copper plating process o......) approach to compute the current density distribution over the electrodes. Experimental and computed layer thickness distributions are in very good agreement.......The impact of adjacent patterned zones with different active area densities on the current density and electrodeposited layer thickness distribution over a wafer substrate is examined, both by experiment and numerical simulation. The experiments consist in running an acid copper plating process...... on the patterned wafer, and layer thickness measurements by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The simulations are based on a potential model approach taking into account electrolyte ohmic drop and electrode polarization effects, combined to a boundary element method (BEM...

  1. Duration and setting of rural immersion during the medical degree relates to rural work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Belinda; McGrail, Matthew; Russell, Deborah; Walker, Judi; Chambers, Helen; Major, Laura; Langham, Robyn

    2018-04-19

    Providing year-long rural immersion as part of the medical degree is commonly used to increase the number of doctors with an interest in rural practice. However, the optimal duration and setting of immersion has not been fully established. This paper explores associations between various durations and settings of rural immersion during the medical degree and whether doctors work in rural areas after graduation. Eligible participants were medical graduates of Monash University between 2008 and 2016 in postgraduate years 1-9, whose characteristics, rural immersion information and work location had been prospectively collected. Separate multiple logistic regression and multinomial logit regression models tested associations between the duration and setting of any rural immersion they did during the medical degree and (i) working in a rural area and (ii) working in large or smaller rural towns, in 2017. The adjusted odds of working in a rural area were significantly increased if students were immersed for one full year (odds ratio [OR], 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-2.79), for between 1 and 2 years (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.54-3.32) and for 2 or more years (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 3.03-6.47) relative to no rural immersion. The strongest association was for immersion in a mix of both regional hospitals and rural general practice (OR, 3.26; 95% CI, 2.31-4.61), followed by immersion in regional hospitals only (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.39-2.70) and rural general practice only (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.06-3.45). More than 1 year's immersion in a mix of regional hospitals and rural general practices was associated with working in smaller regional or rural towns (immersion programmes. Longer rural immersion and immersion in both regional hospitals and rural general practices are likely to increase rural work and rural distribution of early career doctors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  2. (Hydro-Quebec) Illustrated vocabulary representing power line transmission and distribution of electric power. 4, maintenance. (Hydro-Quebec) Vocabulaire illustre des lignes aeriennes de transport et de distribution d'electricite. Fascicule 4, entretien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This dictionary is intended to help standardize the terminology used among Hydro-Quebec personnel involved with power lines. This volume is concerned with words applicable to power line maintenance, and is arranged in six parts: poles and link sticks, adapters and related tools, safety devices, safety clothing and climbing equipment, measurement and control devices, and techniques. Virtually all of the terms are illustrated. English language equivalents are given, but these are not standardized terms and are included for informative purposes only. English and French indexes are included. 184 refs., 256 figs.

  3. How the macroscopic current correlates with the microscopic flux-line distribution in a type-II superconductor: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecher, Johannes; Zehetmayer, Martin; Weber, Harald W

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the real-space flux-line lattice (FLL) of pristine and neutron irradiated conventional type-II superconductors using scanning tunnelling microscopy. Our work is focused on the magnetic field range, where the critical current density shows a second peak as a result of neutron irradiation. Scanning tunnelling microscopy images, including more than 2000 flux lines, are used to evaluate various microscopic parameters describing the disorder of the FLL, such as the defect density, the nearest neighbour distances and correlation functions. These parameters are compared with the macroscopic critical current density of the samples. The results show a direct correlation of the micro- and macroscopic properties. We observe a clear transition from an ordered to a disordered lattice at the onset of the second peak. Moreover, we discuss the defects of the FLL and their accumulation to large clusters in the second peak region. (papers)

  4. A tentative detection of the 183-GHz water vapor line in the martian atmosphere: Constraints upon the H2O abundance and vertical distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, TH.; Lellouch, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Paubert, G.; Gulkis, S.

    1995-01-01

    The 183-GHz water vapor line was tentatively detected on Mars in January 1991, with the IRAM 30-m millimeter antenna, under extremely dry atmospheric conditions. The measurement refers to the whole disk. The spectral line, although marginally detected, can be fit with a constant H2O mixing ratio of 1.0 x 10(exp -5), which corresponds to a water abundance of 1 pr-microns; in any case, an upper limit of 3 pr-microns is inferred. This value is comparable to the very small abundances measured by Clancy (1992) 5 weeks before our observation and seems to imply both seasonal and long-term variations in the martian water cycle.

  5. Type of Material in the Pipes Overhead Power Lines Impact on the Distribution on the Size of the Overhang and the Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Urszula; Pawlak, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the material type from which the conductors of the overhead power lines are produced influences on the size of the overhang and the tension. The aim of the calculations was to present the benefits of the mechanics of the cable resulting from the type of cable used. The analysis was performed for two types of cables: aluminium with steel core and aluminium with composite core, twice span power line section. 10 different conductor-to-strand coil, wind, icing, and temperature variations were included in the calculations. The string description was made by means of a chain curve, while the horizontal component H of the tension force was determined using the bisection method. The loads were collected in accordance with applicable Eurocode.

  6. Turning Australia into a 'flat-land': what are the implications for workforce supply of addressing the disparity in rural-city dentist distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie

    2014-02-01

    Dentistry in Australia has faced, and continues to face, significant workforce issues, in particular, a grossly distorted workforce distribution. In this study, an analysis of the consequences for the workforce that would occur under a series of reduced maldistribution scenarios is examined and reported. Three different scenarios were tested based on existing dental practice to population data at a national level. This study clearly highlights the very significant maldistribution of practices in Australia. However, more importantly, it highlights that to address this maldistribution requires something in the order of a tenfold increase in dental practice numbers (and the commensurate increase in workforce), which is not possible (or reasonable). As a nation, Australia has to look to other methods of achieving equity in access to good oral health. The application of modes of care delivery including, but not limited to visiting services needs to be examined and extended. Clearly, these new methodologies are going to rely on non-dental health professionals taking a far more significant role in leading oral health-care models as well as the expanded application of technology to bring unique skill bases to areas where these skilled individuals do not (and will not) reside. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. Capital Improvements Business Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  8. Women in rural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, I

    1980-01-01

    The integration of women in rural development means something more than mere labor involvement, but there has never been a clear definition of what it means. 4 principal concerns of policy-makers are briefly described as they affect women: unemployment and inadequate employment; 2) the satisfaction of basic needs and women's participation in decision-making; 3) population issues; and 4) rural-to-urban migration. The actual inter-household and inter-personal distribution of more work and higher productivity work could result in some hard-working people working even longer hours because of additional tasks with others losing their intermittent employment opportunities due to mechanization. These contradictions can be particularly acute for women. The non-material basic need of decision-making powers is more important in the case of women than of men, yet the personal status of women is being threatened by the institution-building that accompanies peasant-based agricultural intensification plans and anti-poverty programs. The education of females has been seen as a possible factor favoring family planning. In addition, education for women can mean access to public information and new expectations from life for themselves. At this time more women than men seem to be migrating to towns and cities in a number of countries with varied economic structures. 3 cases studies of agricultural development in Kenya, Bangladesh and Java, Indonesia are presented.

  9. A Persistent Disparity: Smoking in Rural Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Keisa; McElroy, Jane A; Johnson, Andrew O; Munk, Niki; Everett, Kevin D

    2015-03-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) smoke cigarettes at higher rates than the general population. Historically, research in SGM health issues was conducted in urban populations and recent population-based studies seldom have sufficient SGM participants to distinguish urban from rural. Given that rural populations also tend to have a smoking disparity, and that many SGM live in rural areas, it is vitally important to understand the intersection of rural residence, SGM identity, and smoking. This study analyzes the patterns of smoking in urban and rural SGM in a large sample. We conducted an analysis of 4280 adult participants in the Out, Proud, and Healthy project with complete data on SGM status, smoking status, and zip code. Surveys were conducted at 6 Missouri Pride Festivals and online in 2012. Analysis involved descriptive and bivariate methods, and multivariable logistic regression. We used GIS mapping to demonstrate the dispersion of rural SGM participants. SGM had higher smoking proportion than the non-SGM recruited from these settings. In the multivariable model, SGM identity conferred 1.35 times the odds of being a current smoker when controlled for covariates. Rural residence was not independently significant, demonstrating the persistence of the smoking disparity in rural SGM. Mapping revealed widespread distribution of SGM in rural areas. The SGM smoking disparity persists among rural SGM. These communities would benefit from continued research into interventions targeting both SGM and rural tobacco control measures. Recruitment at Pride Festivals may provide a venue for reaching rural SGM for intervention.

  10. Multi-Criteria Optimization of the Deployment of a Grid for Rural Electrification Based on a Heuristic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Matos, L.; Aguila-Tellez, A.; Hincapié-Reyes, R. C.; González-Sanchez, J. W.

    2017-07-01

    In order to design electrification systems, recent mathematical models solve the problem of location, type of electrification components, and the design of possible distribution microgrids. However, due to the amount of points to be electrified increases, the solution to these models require high computational times, thereby becoming unviable practice models. This study posed a new heuristic method for the electrification of rural areas in order to solve the problem. This heuristic algorithm presents the deployment of rural electrification microgrids in the world, by finding routes for optimal placement lines and transformers in transmission and distribution microgrids. The challenge is to obtain a display with equity in losses, considering the capacity constraints of the devices and topology of the land at minimal economic cost. An optimal scenario ensures the electrification of all neighbourhoods to a minimum investment cost in terms of the distance between electric conductors and the amount of transformation devices.

  11. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  12. Synthesis of dansyl-labeled probe of thiophene analogue of annonaceous acetogenins for visualization of cell distribution and growth inhibitory activity toward human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Naoto; Suga, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takuya; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Akatsuka, Akinobu; Yamori, Takao; Dan, Shingo; Iwasaki, Hiroki; Yamashita, Masayuki

    2015-03-15

    The convergent synthesis of the dansyl-labeled probe of the thiophene-3-carboxamide analogue of annonaceous acetogenins, which shows potent antitumor activity, was accomplished by two asymmetric alkynylations of the 2,5-diformyl THF equivalent with an alkyne having a thiophene moiety and another alkyne tagged with a dansyl group. The growth inhibitory profiles toward 39 human cancer cell lines revealed that the probe retained the biological function of its mother compound, and would be useful for studying cellular activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of pathogens in central line-associated bloodstream infections among patients with and without neutropenia following chemotherapy: evidence for a proposed modification to the current surveillance definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, James P; Robichaux, Chad; Tejedor, Sheri Chernetsky; Reyes, Mary Dent; Jacob, Jesse T

    2013-02-01

    Many bloodstream infections (BSIs) occurring in patients with febrile neutropenia following cytotoxic chemotherapy are due to translocation of intestinal microbiota. However, these infections meet the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition of central line-associated BSIs (CLABSIs). We sought to determine the differences in the microbiology of NHSN-defined CLABSIs in patients with and without neutropenia and, using these data, to propose a modification of the CLABSI definition. Retrospective review. Two large university hospitals over 18 months. All hospital-acquired BSIs occurring in patients with central venous catheters in place were classified using the NHSN CLABSI definition. Patients with postchemotherapy neutropenia (500 neutrophils/mm(3) or lower) at the time of blood culture were considered neutropenic. Pathogens overrepresented in the neutropenic group were identified to inform development of a modified CLABSI definition. Organisms that were more commonly observed in the neutropenic group compared with the nonneutropenic group included Escherichia coli (22.7% vs 2.5%; P definition (removing BSI with enterococci, streptococci, or E. coli) excluded 33 of 66 neutropenic CLABSIs and decreased the CLABSI rate in one study hospital with large transplant and oncology populations from 2.12 to 1.79 cases per 1,000 line-days. Common gastrointestinal organisms were more common in the neutropenia group, suggesting that many BSIs meeting the NHSN criteria for CLABSI in the setting of neutropenia may represent translocation of gut organisms. These findings support modification of the NHSN CLABSI definition.

  14. GPU-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration of measured acceleration field to obtain the 3D pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    A PIV based method to reconstruct the volumetric pressure field by direct integration of the 3D material acceleration directions has been developed. Extending the 2D virtual-boundary omni-directional method (Omni2D, Liu & Katz, 2013), the new 3D parallel-line omni-directional method (Omni3D) integrates the material acceleration along parallel lines aligned in multiple directions. Their angles are set by a spherical virtual grid. The integration is parallelized on a Tesla K40c GPU, which reduced the computing time from three hours to one minute for a single realization. To validate its performance, this method is utilized to calculate the 3D pressure fields in isotropic turbulence and channel flow using the JHU DNS Databases (http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu). Both integration of the DNS acceleration as well as acceleration from synthetic 3D particles are tested. Results are compared to other method, e.g. solution to the Pressure Poisson Equation (e.g. PPE, Ghaemi et al., 2012) with Bernoulli based Dirichlet boundary conditions, and the Omni2D method. The error in Omni3D prediction is uniformly low, and its sensitivity to acceleration errors is local. It agrees with the PPE/Bernoulli prediction away from the Dirichlet boundary. The Omni3D method is also applied to experimental data obtained using tomographic PIV, and results are correlated with deformation of a compliant wall. ONR.

  15. Models of Emission-Line Profiles and Spectral Energy Distributions to Characterize the Multi-Frequency Properties of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni La Mura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs are often characterized by a wealth of emission lines with different profiles and intensity ratios that lead to a complicated classification. Their electromagnetic radiation spans more than 10 orders of magnitude in frequency. In spite of the differences between various classes, the origin of their activity is attributed to a combination of emitting components, surrounding an accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH, in the unified model. Currently, the execution of sky surveys, with instruments operating at various frequencies, provides the possibility to detect and to investigate the properties of AGNs on very large statistical samples. As a result of the spectroscopic surveys that allow the investigation of many objects, we have the opportunity to place new constraints on the nature and evolution of AGNs. In this contribution, we present the results obtained by working on multi-frequency data, and we discuss their relations with the available optical spectra. We compare our findings with the AGN unified model predictions, and we present a revised technique to select AGNs of different types from other line-emitting objects. We discuss the multi-frequency properties in terms of the innermost structures of the sources.

  16. Management plan for electrical insulation, transformers and bulbs high pressure sodium retired from electrical distribution lines of the Unidad Estrategica de Negocios Servicio al Cliente Electricidad of the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badilla Sanabria, Daniela; Chaves Morales, Angelica; Rodriguez Mendez, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The Unidad Estrategica de Negocios Servicio al Cliente Electricidad of Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad has completed a management plan for electrical insulation, transformers and sodium vapor bulbs high pressure, that are retired from electrical distribution lines. The three residues have been characterized and identified in its physical composition, chemical and hazardous properties, generating selection, analysis and proposals for alternative of recovery, treatment or final disposal, viable from an environmental, technical and economic view. A series of recommendations and procedures have been performed using tabs and instructions for the purpose of unifying management practices appropriate in the Area de Sostenibilidad Ambiental of the ICE. (author) [es

  17. Local management of rural power supply. A new approach in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Monica; Katyega, Maneno; Kjellstroem, Bjoern

    1999-07-01

    The rural electrification program in Tanzania has been on going since independence in 1961, with the national utility, Tanzania Electric Supply Company Ltd. (TANESCO) being responsible for its implementation. By 1992, 14 townships and 37 villages had been electrified as a result of this program. This covers only a small fraction of rural Tanzania. It is estimated that in 1998, less than 1% of the rural households in Tanzania had access to electricity. Electricity constitutes only 1% of Tanzania's final energy consumption. Except for the few latest years, electricity generation and distribution in Tanzania has been the full responsibility of TANESCO. The national electricity grid is mainly supplied by large-scale hydro power plants (391 MW), and thermal power plants (148 MW). Rural areas are supplied either by a transmission line from the national grid or by diesel generator sets. The isolated branches run by TANESCO have an installed capacity amounting to a total of 23 MW. Electric lighting is the dominating use of electricity in rural areas. Industrial use in these areas is marginal. Very few rural households use electricity for cooking. Cooking is made with fuelwood and to some extent charcoal and kerosene. Where electricity is not available, kerosene in simple wick lamps is used for lighting. As part of the research co-operation between TANESCO and the Stockholm Environment Institute, SEI, an extensive evaluation of the experiences from the rural electrification program in Tanzania was carried out in 1989 - 1991. The four main conclusions from this evaluation were in summary: The rural people appreciate electrification. Rural electrification is a large financial burden on TANESCO. The quality of the service, in particular the supply reliability, is low in rural areas. Many of the perceived benefits of rural electrification, like the creation of small scale industries or reduced use of fuel wood for cooking, have not materialised to a significant degree. As

  18. Rural Renewal of China in the Context of Rural-Urban Integration: Governance Fit and Performance Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyu Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rural-urban integrated development has become a vital national strategy in China. In this context, many regions have implemented rural renewal projects to enhance the vitality and development of rural areas. The objective of this study is to reveal the reasons why different rural renewal modes have emerged in contemporary China and assess their ability to facilitate rural-urban integration. An analytical framework, the Institution of Sustainability (IoS and a comparative analysis of two cases are used for the rural renewal evaluation. Our findings indicate that the properties of transactions and the characteristics of the actors involved jointly determine the governance structures of rural renewal. Furthermore, different governance structures contribute to performance differences, particularly differences in the physical outcomes, distribution effects and process efficiency. Finally, we suggest relevant policy recommendations.

  19. Rural Health Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    People in rural areas face some different health issues than people who live in towns and cities. Getting health care can ... long distances to get routine checkups and screenings. Rural areas often have fewer doctors and dentists, and ...

  20. Medicare and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... community has a significant impact on the local economy. In rural areas, Medicare reimbursement is a critical source of that healthcare spending, particularly since the higher percentage of elderly population in rural areas mean that Medicare accounts for ...

  1. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D. [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  2. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  3. Seasonality of Rural Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Badruddoza, Syed

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneity of borrowing, withdrawal of savings, and loan defaults due to the pronounced seasonality of agriculture often leads to investment failure of rural financial institutions. Lack of borrowing leads to lack of in-come- and consumption-smoothing, and in turn, causes inefficient resource allocation by rural households. Financial institutions that are active in rural areas take diffe...

  4. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunxu@buaa.edu.cn; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronic Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory of Precision Opto-Mechatronics Technology, Beijing 100191 (China); Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-01-15

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm{sup −1} (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm{sup −1} (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  5. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  6. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  7. Integrating multiple lines of evidence to better understand the evolutionary divergence of humpback dolphins along their entire distribution range: a new dolphin species in Australian waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Martin; Jefferson, Thomas A; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Krützen, Michael; Parra, Guido J; Collins, Tim; Minton, Giana; Baldwin, Robert; Berggren, Per; Särnblad, Anna; Amir, Omar A; Peddemors, Vic M; Karczmarski, Leszek; Guissamulo, Almeida; Smith, Brian; Sutaria, Dipani; Amato, George; Rosenbaum, Howard C

    2013-12-01

    The conservation of humpback dolphins, distributed in coastal waters of the Indo-West Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans, has been hindered by a lack of understanding about the number of species in the genus (Sousa) and their population structure. To address this issue, we present a combined analysis of genetic and morphologic data collected from beach-cast, remote-biopsied and museum specimens from throughout the known Sousa range. We extracted genetic sequence data from 235 samples from extant populations and explored the mitochondrial control region and four nuclear introns through phylogenetic, population-level and population aggregation frameworks. In addition, 180 cranial specimens from the same geographical regions allowed comparisons of 24 morphological characters through multivariate analyses. The genetic and morphological data showed significant and concordant patterns of geographical segregation, which are typical for the kind of demographic isolation displayed by species units, across the Sousa genus distribution range. Based on our combined genetic and morphological analyses, there is convincing evidence for at least four species within the genus (S. teuszii in the Atlantic off West Africa, S. plumbea in the central and western Indian Ocean, S. chinensis in the eastern Indian and West Pacific Oceans, and a new as-yet-unnamed species off northern Australia). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  9. Sound-structure interaction analysis of an infinite-long cylindrical shell submerged in a quarter water domain and subject to a line-distributed harmonic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenjie; Li, Tianyun; Zhu, Xiang; Miao, Yuyue

    2018-05-01

    The sound-structure coupling problem of a cylindrical shell submerged in a quarter water domain is studied. A semi-analytical method based on the double wave reflection method and the Graf's addition theorem is proposed to solve the vibration and acoustic radiation of an infinite cylindrical shell excited by an axially uniform harmonic line force, in which the acoustic boundary conditions consist of a free surface and a vertical rigid surface. The influences of the complex acoustic boundary conditions on the vibration and acoustic radiation of the cylindrical shell are discussed. It is found that the complex acoustic boundary has crucial influence on the vibration of the cylindrical shell when the cylindrical shell approaches the boundary, and the influence tends to vanish when the distances between the cylindrical shell and the boundaries exceed certain values. However, the influence of the complex acoustic boundary on the far-field sound pressure of the cylindrical shell cannot be ignored. The far-field acoustic directivity of the cylindrical shell varies with the distances between the cylindrical shell and the boundaries, besides the driving frequency. The work provides more understanding on the vibration and acoustic radiation behaviors of cylindrical shells with complex acoustic boundary conditions.

  10. Location and determination of steps of capacitors in shunt for distribution power lines; Localizacion y determinacion de pasos de capacitores en derivacion para lineas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampin Vergara, Gabriela; Sarmiento Uruchurtu, Hector [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    A methodology is presented to determine the optimal location of the capacitor banks in shunt for distribution networks. The proposed tool allows knowing the bank type to install (fixed, disconnect able or of pass), as well as the electrical parameters of the feeder and the economic benefit that the banks of capacitors represent, with a minimum of input data. Its development in a spreadsheet allows the analysis of numerous alternatives in an easy way. The method is based on that the structure of the feeders of distribution is, generally, of radial type, with which, and by means of an iterative process, the optimal location of the capacitor banks in shunt is looked for. The type of bank is determined based of the demand, as well as the number of steps. The results of the analysis in feeders of the network of the central area are shown. [Spanish] Se presenta una metodologia para determinar la localizacion optima de los bancos de capacitores en derivacion en redes de distribucion. La herramienta propuesta permite conocer el tipo de banco a instalar (fijo, desconcectable o de paso), asi como los parametros electricos del alimentador y el beneficio economico que representan los bancos de capacitores, con un minimo de datos de entrada. Su desarrollo en una hoja de calculo permite el analisis de numerosas alternativas de manera facil. El metodo se basa en que la estructura de los alimentadores de distribucion es, por lo general, de tipo radial, con lo cual, y por medio de un proceso iterativo, se busca la localizacion optima de los bancos de capacitores en derivacion. Se determina el tipo de banco en funcion de la demanda, asi como el numero de pasos. Se muestran resultados del analisis en alimentadores de la red del area central.

  11. Surgical skills deficiencies and needs of rural general practitioners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This open-access article is distributed under. Creative ... procedures performed in rural hospitals in Africa; and Framework for CPD ..... quality surgical care in rural areas is a challenge faced by the present .... Mullan F. The metrics of the physician brain drain. N Engl J Med ... Dare AJ, NgKamstra JS, Patra J, et al. Deaths ...

  12. Poverty induced characteristics and their effects on the rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on poverty induced characteristics and their effect on the rural development was conducted in 45 rural communities in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected with structured questionnaire from 90 randomly selected community leaders and analyzed with frequency distribution and percentages. The- most ...

  13. Water Distribution Lines, Includes water pipes (not connections to structures, fire hydrants and other features. Capture in Microstation and does not contain attribution. Has annotation and is converted to GIS semi-anually. Only available upon permission., Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Distribution Lines dataset current as of 2011. Includes water pipes (not connections to structures, fire hydrants and other features. Capture in Microstation...

  14. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  15. Waggawagga-CLI: A command-line tool for predicting stable single α-helices (SAH-domains, and the SAH-domain distribution across eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Simm

    Full Text Available Stable single-alpha helices (SAH-domains function as rigid connectors and constant force springs between structural domains, and can provide contact surfaces for protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. SAH-domains mainly consist of charged amino acids and are monomeric and stable in polar solutions, characteristics which distinguish them from coiled-coil domains and intrinsically disordered regions. Although the number of reported SAH-domains is steadily increasing, genome-wide analyses of SAH-domains in eukaryotic genomes are still missing. Here, we present Waggawagga-CLI, a command-line tool for predicting and analysing SAH-domains in protein sequence datasets. Using Waggawagga-CLI we predicted SAH-domains in 24 datasets from eukaryotes across the tree of life. SAH-domains were predicted in 0.5 to 3.5% of the protein-coding content per species. SAH-domains are particularly present in longer proteins supporting their function as structural building block in multi-domain proteins. In human, SAH-domains are mainly used as alternative building blocks not being present in all transcripts of a gene. Gene ontology analysis showed that yeast proteins with SAH-domains are particular enriched in macromolecular complex subunit organization, cellular component biogenesis and RNA metabolic processes, and that they have a strong nuclear and ribonucleoprotein complex localization and function in ribosome and nucleic acid binding. Human proteins with SAH-domains have roles in all types of RNA processing and cytoskeleton organization, and are predicted to function in RNA binding, protein binding involved in cell and cell-cell adhesion, and cytoskeletal protein binding. Waggawagga-CLI allows the user to adjust the stabilizing and destabilizing contribution of amino acid interactions in i,i+3 and i,i+4 spacings, and provides extensive flexibility for user-designed analyses.

  16. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place” and ...... these processes are enabled and constrained by the immediate context or “place”. The paper weaves space and place in order to show the importance of context for entrepreneurship, which responds to the recent calls for contextualizing entrepreneurship research and theories....

  17. Rural development--national improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, R C

    1984-05-01

    Rural development should be viewed as the core of any viable strategy for national development in developing countries where an average 2/3 of the population live in rural areas. Rural development is multisectoral, including economic, sociopolitical, environmental, and cultural aspects of rural life. Initially, the focus is on the provision of basic minimum needs in food, shelter, clothing, health, and education, through optimum use and employment of all available resources, including human labor. The development goal is the total development of the human potential. The hierarchy of goals of development may be shown in the form of an inverted pyramid. At the base are basic minimum needs for subsistence whose fulfillment leads to a higher set of sociopolitical needs and ultimately to the goal of total developmentand the release of creative energies of every individual. If development, as outlined, were to benefit the majority of the people then they would have to participate in decision making which affects their lives. This would require that the people mobilize themselves in the people'ssector. The majority can equitably benefit from development only if they are mobilized effectively. Such mobilization requires raising the consciousness of the people concerning their rights and obligations. All development with the twin objectives of growth with equity could be reduced to restructuring the socioeconomic, and hence political relationships. Desinging and implementing an intergrated approach to rural development is the 1st and fundamental issue of rural development management. The commonly accepted goals and objectives of a target group oriented antipoverty development strategy include: higher productivity and growth in gross national product (GNP); equitable distribution of the benefits of development; provision of basic minimum needs for all; gainful employment; participation in development; self reliance or self sustaining growth and development; maintenance of

  18. The Role Of Rural Women In Crop And Poultry Production In Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the roles of rural women in crops and poultry production in rural areas in Cross River State, and their contribution to food production and preservation. The paper also revealed that rural women participate in food production and bearing responsibility for food marketing and distribution, family health, ...

  19. Agrofuels policy in Colombia: expectations and rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejia Alfonso Sandra Liliana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    line-height: normal; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none;">The debate over the current biofuels policy has two positions: first, those considering it as an alternative aimed at reducing dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming; secondly, those who argue about the distributional conflicts that can bring socio-environmental adoption of these policies at local level. This article presents the national policy settings and scenarios of biofuel production based on agro-energy projects, which are used raw materials such as palm oil to produce biodiesel, sugar cane, sugar loaf cane and cassava for the distillation of ethanol. Thus regional dynamics observed that intersect with the new rural environment in the Colombian countryside connection between the local and global that generate expectations to achieve rural development goals.

  20. People's participation in rural electrification - a successful case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalapur, G.D. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal (India); Udaykumar, R.Y. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Department of Electrical Engineering, Surathkal (India)

    2012-06-15

    Rural electrification is an integral component of poverty alleviation and rural growth of a nation. A developing nation, like India has 72.2 percent people living in rural areas. Still, electricity has not played an effective role in the socio-economic growth of villages. The Government of India has an ambitious target of providing electricity to all villages by 2008 and all rural households by 2012. Steps are already initiated with Rural Electric Corporation, Rural Electricity Supply Technology Mission, State Electricity Boards led reforms, Reforms in Power Sector, Electricity Act 2003, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana etc. An attempt has been made in this paper to assess the present status of rural electrification in India and the major factors contributing to rural electrical distribution. Steps initiated by the Government of India through Rural Electric Corporation (REC) and a successful case study of the people's participation model is presented. (orig.)

  1. Desarrollo rural vs. desarrollo local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Moreno, M.ª Luisa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the discussion about the concepts of rural development and local development starting from the different lines that tend in their making up: the Geographic epistemology, the politics based on them and the material processes of development. The issues of this discussion are: the difficulty of reflect this development processes in quantitative evidences (indicators due to their rather qualitative character; the ambiguous definition of their scale, and related to that, their condition spread or concentrated; their suitability to make compatible objectives of both territorial and social cohesion; the limitations to be extrapolated the concept of stakeholders, own of local development, to rural development; the lack of coordination between economic planning and urban planning to the detriment of a true sustainability and, in the opposite, the threats that are to the rural space the application of sustainability politics designed from the urban context.

    El objeto de este artículo es la discusión de los conceptos de desarrollo rural y local a partir de las distintas líneas que convergen en su definición: las elaboraciones epistemológicas de la Geografía, los instrumentos de planificación en ellos basados y los procesos reales. Los términos de esta discusión son los siguientes: La dificultad de expresar en indicadores los resultados de estos procesos de desarrollo, dado su carácter más cualitativo que cuantitativo; la ambigua definición de su escala, y, en relación con ello, su carácter difuso o concentrado; su idoneidad para compatibilizar objetivos de cohesión social y territorial; las limitaciones de la extrapolación al desarrollo rural del concepto de «actores» propio del desarrollo local; la carencia de coordinación entre planificación económica y urbana en detrimento de una sostenibilidad real y, a la inversa, las amenazas para el espacio rural derivadas de la aplicación de políticas de

  2. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with partial edentulism when compared to urban (Urban, 38.4%, High Poverty Rural 51.3%, Other Rural, 45%). Counties with high rates of full edentulism are also rural (Urban, 4.3%, High-Poverty Rural 10.5%, Other Rural, 8.2%). ( Mitchell, ...

  3. Rural and Urban Youth Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Kenneth; And Others

    This publication provides a variety of information on prevention and intervention programs for rural and urban children and adolescents. Drawing from a rural sociological perspective, the introductory paper defines "rural," discusses rural-urban economic and social differences, and lists indicators of risk for rural youth. It discusses the extent…

  4. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Il paesaggio rurale: memoria e sviluppo. Torino, aprile 2004. La multifunzionalità dell’agricoltura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Finotto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rural landscape is a scenery divided among aesthetic, environmental and functional expectations, and productive needs that are often contrasting. It is also, today, part of a cyclical process of transformation making it a yet more complex space. The complexity of its nature is ingrained in the thousand faces reflected within the landscapes of modern agriculture through their unification and contrast, through their neglect at once dangerous and promising of their marginal areas and through their traditional agrarian techniques slowly developed by a collective project. To undertake a dialogue about development and tradition, to trace an ideal line of demarcation between transformation and conservation, between a replanning of the rural landscape and its preservation, is a problem that raises many questions with regard to both the methodologies to be employed and the contents of said methodologies. In light of the most recent political and cultural tendencies of the national and international community, the answers to such questions must be sought in agriculture’s multifunctionality, as a turning point for the configuration of a new regulatory model for rural landscapes. Such multifunctionality is necessary to put the concept of a sustainable rural development in a concrete form.Once this concept has been made clear we must remind ourselves of the necessity for a projectual action which is aware of the needs of the rural landscape. Such projectual action should detach itself from a unified distribution of both territorial interventions and financial resources. It should instead create a system connecting the organization of the landscape itself to its needs, incrementing in such way its synergy and potentialities. 

  6. Rural Settlement Development and Environment Carrying Capacity Changes in Progo River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Su Ritohardoyo; P Priyono

    2016-01-01

    Generally the broader rural settlement the heavier population pressure on agricultural land. It indicates that carrying capacity of the rural environment threatened lower. The spatial distribution of the threat in a river basin is quite important as one of the river basin management inputs. Therefore, this article aims at exposing result of research about influence rural population growth and rural settlement land changes to environment carrying capacity. This research was carried out in the ...

  7. The case for distributed irrigation as a development priority in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Jennifer A; Naylor, Rosamond L; Postel, Sandra L

    2013-07-30

    Distributed irrigation systems are those in which the water access (via pump or human power), distribution (via furrow, watering can, sprinkler, drip lines, etc.), and use all occur at or near the same location. Distributed systems are typically privately owned and managed by individuals or groups, in contrast to centralized irrigation systems, which tend to be publicly operated and involve large water extractions and distribution over significant distances for use by scores of farmers. Here we draw on a growing body of evidence on smallholder farmers, distributed irrigation systems, and land and water resource availability across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to show how investments in distributed smallholder irrigation technologies might be used to (i) use the water sources of SSA more productively, (ii) improve nutritional outcomes and rural development throughout SSA, and (iii) narrow the income disparities that permit widespread hunger to persist despite aggregate economic advancement.

  8. Rural Brazil at the cross-roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.

    1951-01-01

    The study attempts to detect and discuss the most urgently needed changes, as to resource distribution, production methods and supporting services in Brazilian agriculture. For that, it was necessary to describe and evaluate the existing situation in rural Brazil, a task taken up in the first part

  9. Rural school in the Tenza Valley, rural education and agroecology reflections on rural “development”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejia Alfonso Miguel Fernando

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available line-height: 115%; font-family: ";Arial";,";sans-serif";; font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: MinionPro-Regular; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-US">

    line-height: normal; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none;">The municipality of Sutatenza (Boyaca, constitutes an important reference for rural education in Colombia due to “Radio Sutatenza” (Educational Radio and the People’s Cultural Action in the mid-twentieth century. Currently, in the same town, a process called the Campesina Community School del Valle de Tenza has been brewing, under an agroecological approach, guided in its work to the cultural and productive Andean farmers, their families and their young people to cultivate in them a return the field. This article addresses this educational experience for contrasting approaches of “development” with the perceptions and visions that emerge from the rural world, without being radically different, it raises important questions for the call for and controversy of development, from the local.

  10. Rural nurse job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A

    2008-01-01

    The lack of rural nursing studies makes it impossible to know whether rural and urban nurses perceive personal and organizational factors of job satisfaction similarly. Few reports of rural nurse job satisfaction are available. Since the unprecedented shortage of qualified rural nurses requires a greater understanding of what factors are important to retention, studies are needed. An analysis of the literature indicates job satisfaction is studied as both an independent and dependent variable. In this study, the concept is used to examine the intention to remain employed by measuring individual and organizational characteristics; thus, job satisfaction is used as a dependent variable. One hundred and three rural hospital nurses, from hospitals throughout the Northwest region of the United States were recruited for the study. Only nurses employed for more than one year were accepted. The sample completed surveys online. The McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale, and two open-ended job satisfaction questions were completed. The qualitative analysis of the open-ended questions identified themes which were then used to support the quantitative findings. Overall alphas were 0.89 for the McCloskey/Mueller Scale and 0.96 for the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale. Rural nurses indicate a preference for rural lifestyles and the incorporation of rural values in organizational practices. Nurses preferred the generalist role with its job variability, and patient variety. Most participants intended to remain employed. The majority of nurses planning to leave employment were unmarried, without children at home, and stated no preference for a rural lifestyle. The least overall satisfied nurses in the sample were employed from 1 to 3 years. Several new findings inform the literature while others support previous workforce studies. Data suggest some job satisfaction elements can be altered by addressing organizational characteristics and by

  11. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  12. All Rural Places Are Not Created Equal: Revisiting the Rural Mortality Penalty in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I investigated mortality disparities between urban and rural areas by measuring disparities in urban US areas compared with 6 rural classifications, ranging from suburban to remote locales. Methods. Data from the Compressed Mortality File, National Center for Health Statistics, from 1968 to 2007, was used to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates for all rural and urban regions by year. Criteria measuring disparity between regions included excess deaths, annual rate of change in mortality, and proportion of excess deaths by population size. I used multivariable analysis to test for differences in determinants across regions. Results. The rural mortality penalty existed in all rural classifications, but the degree of disparity varied considerably. Rural–urban continuum code 6 was highly disadvantaged, and rural–urban continuum code 9 displayed a favorable mortality profile. Population, socioeconomic, and health care determinants of mortality varied across regions. Conclusions. A 2-decade long trend in mortality disparities existed in all rural classifications, but the penalty was not distributed evenly. This constitutes an important public health problem. Research should target the slow rates of improvement in mortality in the rural United States as an area of concern. PMID:25211763

  13. Africa and electricity: To electrify Africa - necessary financial and human investments; The development of hydroelectricity in sub-Saharan Africa; A major challenge: to improve distribution efficiency; Smart grids in Africa?; Rural electrification in Africa; The development of renewable energies in Ethiopia - an example of empowerment of a local structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvilleur, Jacques; Favennec, Jean-Pierre; Cerdan, Jean-Pierre; Bauley, Jacky; Caumon, Pauline; Guerin, Andre-Jean; Beaussant, Henri; Louis, Frederic; Sall, Ousmane; Ledoux, Thierry; Boye, Henri; Bagayoko, Moussa

    2016-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of six articles which address various aspects related to the issue of Africa electrification. More precisely, the authors propose a general presentation of the present situation and an assessment of necessary financial, organisational, governance and training investments or needs (To electrify Africa: necessary financial and human investment), illustrate these issues in the case of hydroelectricity-rich Republic of Congo, discuss the issue of financing hydroelectricity development in Africa and of the need of operation and maintenance policies to meet needs associated with sustainable installations (The development of hydroelectricity in sub-Saharan Africa), address issues related to distribution through an improvement of existing distribution networks (A major challenge: to improve distribution efficiency) and through a possible development of smart grids (Smart grids in Africa?), comment issues related to rural electrification as a major challenge for these sometimes very poor areas with almost none financial resources, and evoke the possibilities associated with decentralised photovoltaic production (Rural electrification in Africa), and report interventions of an NGO in Ethiopia based on solar installations and actions of empowerment of local structures (The development of renewable energies in Ethiopia - an example of empowerment of a local structure)

  14. Trickling Down: Are Rural and Rural Poor Family Incomes Responsive to Regional Economic Growth? Institute for Research on Poverty, Discussion Papers No. 210-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bruce A.

    The past decade has seen a number of studies of how the poverty incidence (the percentage of families below the poverty line) of certain demographic groups changes in response to economic growth. The question of whether regional economic growth trickles down to rural and rural poor families was examined by statistically estimating the relationship…

  15. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water

  16. Tourism in rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrina Church-Chmielowski

    2007-01-01

    Tourism in rural Alaska is an education curriculum with worldwide relevance. Students have started small businesses, obtained employment in the tourism industry and gotten in touch with their people. The Developing Alaska Rural Tourism collaborative project has resulted in student scholarships, workshops on website development, marketing, small...

  17. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  18. Rural tourism development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BarneyM

    Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation ..... intellectual springboard for development of goods and services, crafts, local foods, music, dance, ..... established tourism market as well as the positive attitude of the respondents ... improve the congruence between the rural destination image and the visitor.

  19. Networking the rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiongson, K H; Arneson, S I

    1993-04-01

    A branch network of affiliate hospitals has been providing home care services to rural North Dakota residents successfully for a decade. Here's how this effective system meets the special challenges that a rural environment poses for hiring, training, scheduling, and supporting home care aides.

  20. Rural Revitalization through Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Charles

    In recent years, service programs targeted for Georgia's rural communities have decreased proportionately in relation to those intended for the state's rapidly expanding population centers. At the same time, erosion of traditional manufacturing industries and an adverse agricultural economy have decreased the ability of rural communities to…

  1. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martinez, P. [Northern New Mexico Community Coll., Espanola, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  2. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.

  3. Innovating for Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of ‘public good extension services’ like rural development services and ‘innovation intermediation’ in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among...... the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal...... as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social...

  4. Rural perception to the effects of climate change in Otukpo, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Clement Abah

    2014-01-01

    The study has further examined rural perception to the effects of climate change. The study used rural settlements in Otukpo, Nigeria as a case study. Primary and secondary data were utilised for the study. Data collection was done through the use of a questionnaire with open-ended questions and questions with multiple answers. A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among household heads in 10 settlements selected from 58 rural settlements for the study. Spatial distribution ...

  5. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  6. ICTs for rural development: potential applications and barriers involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Stratigea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rural policy nowadays is at the heart of the policy discussion in many countries all over the world, in the effort to address and effectively support the specific needs and opportunities of rural places and their population in the new era. Along these lines, the focus of the present paper is twofold: on the one hand it attempts to shed light on the role of ICTs and their applications as enabling tools empowering rural development; while on the other hand it explores the barriers appearing towards the adoption and use of ICTs in rural regions. In such a context, it firstly places emphasis on the evolving new rural development paradigm. Then, the range and potential of ICTs applications is explored, that can serve the implementation of the new policy paradigm in rural regions. It follows a discussion on the steps that are needed in order to develop value-added ICTs applications in rural regions and the barriers appearing in the adoption and use of ICTs in these regions. Finally, are presented some issues of policy concern in respect to the adoption and use of ICTs in a rural development perspective.

  7. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  8. Training system for the maintenance of power lines of the distribution network, ALEn3D; Sistema para la capacitacion y entrenamiento para el mantenimiento de lineas de la red de distribucion, ALEn3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan Bobadilla, Israel; Perez Ramirez, Miguel; Ayala Garcia, Andres; Munoz Roman, Jaime Javier; Rodriguez Gallegos, Eric; Salgado Martinez, Marco Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sierra Rodriguez, Benjamin [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    The maintenance of power lines is a complex activity with many inherent risks. Therefore, training of personnel in this area is a priority for electric energy companies. This article presents a capacity-building system based on virtual reality developed by the Federal Electric Commission (CFE), called ALEn3D. This allows maintenance technicians to train in risk-free interactive 3D environments and to later use that knowledge with an actual installation. The work was validated by expert electricians and, therefore, the system represents a wealth of knowledge and best practices for the maintenance of distribution lines. ALEn3D was designed as a tool for self capacity-building for adults, and therefore includes usability and e-learning elements to facilitate learning and automate the students' ongoing progress. The system can be run by a personal computer, is low-cost, optimized and user friendly. It is being used in the 16 distribution divisions of the CFE. [Spanish] El mantenimiento en lineas energizadas es un actividad compleja y con muchos riesgos inherentes, por lo que la capacitacion del personal en esta area es una prioridad para las empresas de energia electrica. Este articulo presenta un sistema de capacitacion basado en realidad virtual desarrollado para la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), denominado ALEn3D, el cual permite a los tecnicos de mantenimiento capacitarse en ambientes 3D interactivos libes de riesgos, para posteriormente usar esos conocimientos en una instalacion real. El trabajo fue validado por expertos electricistas, por lo tanto, el sistema es un acervo de conocimientos y mejores practicas del mantenimiento a lineas de distribucion. ALEn3D fue disenado como una herramienta de autocapacitacion para adultos, por lo que se incluyeron aspectos de usabilidad y e-learning que facilitan el aprendizaje y automatizan el seguimiento del estudiante. El sistema puede ser ejecutado en una computadora personal y es utilizado en las 16

  9. Previdência social rural e gênero Rural Social Welfare and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Brumer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta uma análise das principais transformações da previdência social rural no Brasil, que culminaram com a inclusão das mulheres trabalhadoras rurais como beneficiárias (direito à aposentadoria por idade e salário-maternidade na legislação aprovada pelo Congresso Nacional em 1988. Paralelamente, faz-se um exame do papel do Estado e da sociedade civil na evolução da legislação relativa à previdência social rural, procurando-se evidenciar seu caráter de "doação" por parte do Estado ou da "conquista" polos próprios trabalhadores(as. Finalmente, são examinados alguns impactos da implantação da previdência social rural no Sul do Brasil, ressaltando-se seu papel na diminuição da pobreza rural e da desigualdade na distribuição da renda, assim como sua importância material e simbólica na mudança de relações de gênero no meio rural.The work analyzes the main transformations in the rural Social Welfare in Brazil. The outcome of these transformations has been the inclusion of rural hard-working women in the welfare system as of the legislation approved by the National Congress in 1988. Rural-work women in Brazil have become entitled to the benefits of paid maternity leave and retirement accordant to a legal age limit. Concurrently, the article examines the role played by the State and the civil society in the unfolding of the legislation related to rural Social Welfare, in an attempt of exposing its character of either a "donation" given by the State or the workers' own "conquest". Finally, the author queries the impact of rural Social Welfare implementation in the South of Brazil, emphasizing its achievements in the decrease of rural poverty and unequal income distribution, as well as its material and symbolic importance in the gender relationship shift in rural areas.

  10. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, Rene M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO 2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO 2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  11. Performing rurality. But who?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymitrow Mirek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflective inquiries to better understand ‘the rural’ have tried to embed rural research within the notion of performativity. Performativity assumes that the capacity of language is not simply to communicate but also to consummate action, whereupon citational uses of concepts produce a series of material effects. Of late, this philosophical shift has also implicated geographers as active agents in producing, reproducing and performing rurality. This paper provides a critical evaluation of what this new insistence really means for the production of geographical knowledge. Using framework analysis as a method, the paper scrutinizes several reportedly influential papers on the topic of rural performativity. Our findings reveal that, while indeed reflexive on issues of academic integrity, methodology and ethics, performances of rurality are continuedly placed ‘out there’ amongst ‘rural people’, i.e. in a priori defined and often stereotypically understood contexts, either by way of ‘spatial delimitation’ or ‘activity delimitation’. Effectively, such testimonies provide a truncated state of fidelity, where performance- oriented reflexivity is seconded by contradictory empirics of uneven value and with few commonalities. We conclude that by turning towards performativity as an allegedly more helpful way of obtaining rural coherence, we at the same time overlook our own role in keeping ‘rural theory’ alive.

  12. Culture and rural health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Bourke, Lisa; Taylor, Judy; Marley, Julia V; Reid, John; Bracksley, Stacey; Johnson, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    This paper considers the role of culture in rural health, suggesting that the concept and its impacts are insufficiently understood and studied. It reviews some of the ways that culture has been considered in (rural) health, and states that culture is either used ambiguously and broadly - for example, suggesting that there is a rural culture, or narrowly - indeed perhaps interchangeably with ethnicity, for example Aboriginal culture as a unity. The paper notes that, although culture is a dynamic social concept, it has been adopted into a biomedical research paradigm as though it is fixed. Culture is often treated as though it is something that can be addressed simplistically, for example, through cultural sensitivity education. Authors suggest that culture is an unaddressed 'elephant in the room' in rural health, and that exploring cultural differences and beliefs and facing up to cultural differences are vital in understanding and addressing rural health and health system challenges. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. The Rural School Leadership Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

  14. Countermeasures for Intensive Use of Land from the Perspective of Urban-Rural Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Li-bin

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes problems of excessive emphasis on expansion of urban land, improper village and town construction, and low land utilization efficiency in urban-rural integration construction. In line with characteristics and principle of intensive land use of urban-rural integration, it puts forward integration of urban-rural land layout, practically exploring connotation, and improving land intensification in many ways. Based on these, it presents countermeasures for intensive use of lan...

  15. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  16. The rural energy alternatives project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstatter, L.; Panetti, C.; DeWein, M.

    1993-01-01

    A cooperative survey by the New York State Energy Office (SEO) and Office of Rural Affairs (ORA) identified hundreds of residences without utility electric power due to excessive line extension costs. SEO selected several of these residences for feasibility studies which compared site specific options for electricity generation, including existing fossil fuel generator(s), generator/battery sets, photovoltaic (PV) hybrid and micro-hydroelectric systems as well as utility provided electric service. Comprehensive reports included examination of a range of energy conservation measures. Alternatives to present fossil fuel systems were assessed for domestic hot water, refrigeration, and water pumping. Results included electric load data, solar and hydroelectric potential, life cycle cost estimates for electricity, and estimated system sizing information based on energy cost considerations. In addition to providing useful information to individual homeowners, these studies served as the basis for cooperative efforts to install and monitor stand-alone prototype PV hybrid systems

  17. Rural Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Imedashvili, Sopiko; Kekua, Ani; Ivchenko, Polina

    2013-01-01

    According to World Bank Report published in 2012, the rural population in Sweden is 15.3 %. Rural population is calculated as difference between total populations minus urban population. 15.3 % clearly shows how important rural areas are for Sweden’s future development. Entrepreneurship plays the integral role in rural area development. However, earlier research has shown only economic perspective of rural development. On the other hand, the new ways to discover the challenges and opportuniti...

  18. Agritourism Rural Development Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MORTAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available For Romania agritourism development represents the opportunity to differentiate between the rural and urban environment, as well as the best way for the preservation of traditions and customs in the rural areas, supplying a sustainable rural development. This work portrays agritourism as an element of rural development and critically analyzes the way in which the public administration should become involved in sustaining rural development in general and in sustaining agritourism development in particular.

  19. Avoided intersections of nodal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastra, Alejandro G; Smilansky, Uzy; Gnutzmann, Sven

    2003-01-01

    We consider real eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger operator in 2D. The nodal lines of separable systems form a regular grid, and the number of nodal crossings equals the number of nodal domains. In contrast, for wavefunctions of non-integrable systems nodal intersections are rare, and for random waves, the expected number of intersections in any finite area vanishes. However, nodal lines display characteristic avoided crossings which we study in this work. We define a measure for the avoidance range and compute its distribution for the random wave ensemble. We show that the avoidance range distribution of wavefunctions of chaotic systems follows the expected random wave distributions, whereas for wavefunctions of classically integrable but quantum non-separable systems, the distribution is quite different. Thus, the study of the avoidance distribution provides more support to the conjecture that nodal structures of chaotic systems are reproduced by the predictions of the random wave ensemble

  20. The participation of the sectors of electric energy consumption in a rural electrification cooperative; A participacao dos setores de consumo de energia eletrica em uma cooperativa de eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Cristiane Aparecida Pelegrin [Instituicao Toledo de Ensino (ITE), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Contabeis], e-mail: cristiane.higuchi@itelefonica.com.br; Siqueira, Jair Antonio Cruz [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura], e-mail: jairsiqueira@fca.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], e-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br; Ielo, Frederico G. de Paula F. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

    2004-07-01

    This work had the objective of to evaluate the behavior of the electrical energy distribution in a Rural Electrification Cooperative, placed inside the State of Sao Paulo, embracing the region of the county of Itai, Avare and Paranapanema. Were appraised the electric energy distribution data of the Rural Electrification Cooperative of Itai, Avare and Paranapanema - CERIPA, during the years of 2000, 2001 and 2002. Was evaluated the sale of energy evolution, clearance evolution, general load factor and the electrical distribution for consumer type. The found results allowed to end that the Rural electrification Cooperative, show a good electric energy distribution in residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  1. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  2. Rural Health Information Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. (2011-2015): Individual-level & Placed-based Disparities Source: Southwest Rural Health Research Center Online Library » Resource and Referral Service Need help finding information? RHIhub can provide free assistance customized to your ...

  3. Development in Rural Uganda*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /or single among .... labour supply, consumer demand, pcr capita income, productivity, etc. ..... The respondents were asked to state the reasons for their status in the social ..... purehase grains from the market for consumption, rural dwellers are.

  4. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they are a captive audience. To create healthier work environments, governors in recent years have banned smoking in ... alerts also available FEATURED MODEL Faith, Activity, and Nutrition view details RELATED TOPICS Chronic Disease in Rural ...

  5. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  6. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  7. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. Rural versus Urban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøning, Signe Wedel

    and take position within larger social structures of unequal power structures through such employment. The adolescents did not explicitly discuss power relations between urban and rural Denmark in their everyday social encounters, but when they employ Stylised vestjysk and Stylised københavnsk......This ethnographic project discerns how rural adolescents living in West Jutland, Denmark, carry out their daily lives under globalised conditions. The project shows how the young speakers (re)activate, align with and discard ideological perceptions of rural and urban Denmark. By investigating......, they continuously ascribe low social status to the former and high social status to the latter. Thus, the overall picture is one reproducing urban Denmark as a powerful and prestigious centre, whereas rural Denmark is disempowered....

  9. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    OpenAIRE

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-01-01

    The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. ...

  10. Limit lines for risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.C.; Baybutt, P.

    1982-01-01

    Approaches to the regulation of risk from technological systems, such as nuclear power plants or chemical process plants, in which potential accidents may result in a broad range of adverse consequences must take into account several different aspects of risk. These include overall or average risk, accidents posing high relative risks, the rate at which accident probability decreases with increasing accident consequences, and the impact of high frequency, low consequence accidents. A hypothetical complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF), with appropriately chosen parametric form, meets all these requirements. The Farmer limit line, by contrast, places limits on the risks due to individual accident sequences, and cannot adequately account for overall risk. This reduces its usefulness as a regulatory tool. In practice, the CCDF is used in the Canadian nuclear licensing process, while the Farmer limit line approach, supplemented by separate qualitative limits on overall risk, is employed in the United Kingdom

  11. producto turismo rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca García Henche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El turismo rural lleva un largo periodo establecido en Europa, pero en los últimos años crece su importancia ya que supone un nuevo producto turístico y una fuente de ingresos para la economía rural. Actualmente, los turistas buscan experiencias distintas al tradicional turismo de sol y playa, prefieren un turismo más individualizado y flexible, buscan nuevas formas de alojamiento y muestran un interés creciente por el contacto con la naturaleza. La oferta turística rural ha de adaptarse a las exigencias de esta demanda, lo que implica más flexibilidad y alojamientos y pueblos adaptados a las necesidades emergentes. Se ha de definir el turismo rural como una alternativa de adaptación a los cambios en las necesidades de los consumidores. El presente documento muestra los componentes del turismo rural. Los recursos turísticos son la materia prima, a la que se ha de añadir los servicios. Estos servicios pueden ser básicos o complementarios. Además de los servicios hay que añadir las actividades complementarias e infraestructuras No hay duda de que el turismo rural puede beneficiarse de la aplicación del marketing. El marketing implica entender qué es lo que los consumidores desean y crear productos para satisfacer sus necesidades, además de comercializar el producto correctamente.

  12. Managing Emergencies in Rural North Queensland: The Feasibility of Teletraining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsh Pandit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Historically, the use of videoconference technologies in emergency medicine training has been limited. Whilst there are anecdotal reports of the use of teletraining for emergency medicine by rural doctors in Australia, minimal evidence exists in the literature. This paper aimed to explore the use of teletraining in the context of managing emergency presentations in rural hospitals. Methods. Using a qualitative approach, a mixture of junior and senior doctors were invited to participate in semistructured interviews. Data were transcribed and analysed line by line. Applying the grounded theory principles of open and axial coding, themes and subthemes were generated. Results. A total of 20 interviews were conducted with rural doctors, rural doctors who are medical educators, and emergency medicine specialists. Two major themes—(1 teletraining as education and (2 personal considerations—and ten subthemes were evident from the data. Most participants had some previous experience with teletraining. Access to peer teaching over videoconference was requested by rural generalist registrars. There was a preference for interactive training sessions, over didactic lectures with little mention of technical barriers to engagement. The ability of teletraining to reduce professional isolation was a major benefit for doctors practicing in remote locations. Discussion. For these rural doctors, teletraining is a feasible method of education delivery. Wider application of teletraining such as its use in peer teaching needs to be explored. The benefits of teletraining suggest that teletraining models need to be core business for health services and training providers, including specialist colleges.

  13. Rural maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  14. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  15. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  16. Remittances, Inequality and Poverty: Evidence from Rural Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J. Edward; Mora, Jorge; Adams, Richard H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Economic research has produced conflicting findings on the distributional impacts of migrant remittances, and there has been little research on the effects of changes in remittances on poverty. This paper utilizes new data from the Mexico National Rural Household Survey, together with inequality and poverty decomposition techniques, to explore the impacts of remittances on rural inequality and poverty. Our findings suggest that remittances from international migrants become more equalizing (o...

  17. Rural women caregivers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosato, Kay E; Leipert, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    Informal caregiving within rural contexts in Canada is increasing. This is due in part to a number of factors related to the restructuring of the Canadian health care system, the regionalization of services to urban locations, the increased population of people 65 years and older, and the desire of this population to age within their rural homes. Most often, the informal caregiving role is assumed by rural women. Women tend to fall into the role of informal caregiver to elders because of the many societal and gender expectations and values that are present within the rural culture. The purpose of this literature review is to identify the context in which women provide care for an elder in rural Canada. Illustrating these issues will help to uncover challenges and barriers rural women face when providing care and highlight recommendations and implications for rural women caregivers and nurses employed within rural settings. Many rural women share similar caregiving experiences as urban informal caregivers, but rural women are faced with additional challenges in providing quality care for an elder. Rural women caregivers are faced with such issues as limited access to adequate and appropriate healthcare services, culturally incongruent health care, geographical distance from regionalized centers and health services, transportation challenges, and social/geographical isolation. In addition to these issues, many rural women are faced with the multiple role demands that attend being a wife, mother, caregiver and employee. The pile up of these factors leaves rural women caregivers susceptible to additional stresses and burn out, with limited resources on which to depend. Through reviewing pertinent literature, appropriate implications and recommendations can be made that may assist rural women caregivers and rural nurses. Nurses working within rural communities are in ideal settings to work collaboratively in building supportive relationships with rural women in order to

  18. An Assessment of the Incidence of Poverty Among Rural Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the incidence and spatial distribution of poverty among rural active population in Mangu Local Government of Plateau State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the socio-demographic and economic characteristics of the respondents; the incidence and spatial distribution of poverty ...

  19. Social justice and rural education in South Africa | Hlalele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, grounded in a distributive paradigm that views social justice as a proper distribution of social benefits and burdens among members of society, traverses the positive and negative features of rural education related to social justice. It concedes that difference is an inherent, inevitable and indispensable feature of ...

  20. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayse Hilal; Demirbas, Imren

    2007-01-01

    Energy resources will play an important role in the world's future. Rural bioenergy is still the predominant form of energy used by people in the less developed countries, and bioenergy from biomass accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and about 38% of the primary energy consumption in developing countries. Furthermore, bioenergy often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in some developing countries. Earth life in rural areas of the world has changed dramatically over time. Industrial development in developing countries, coming at a time of low cost plentiful oil supplies, has resulted in greater reliance on the source of rural bioenergy than is true in the developed countries. In developed countries, there is a growing trend towards employing modern technologies and efficient bioenergy conversion using a range of biofuels, which are becoming cost wise competitive with fossil fuels. Currently, much attention has been a major focus on renewable alternatives in the developing countries. Renewable energy can be particularly appropriate for developing countries. In rural areas, particularly in remote locations, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Renewable energy can facilitate economic and social development in communities but only if the projects are intelligently designed and carefully planned with local input and cooperation. Particularly in poor rural areas, the costs of renewable energy projects will absorb a significant part of participants' small incomes. Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. Biomass and biofuels can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Generally speaking, biofuels are generally considered as offering many benefits, including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regional

  1. Pedagogy for rural health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Stephen J

    2011-04-01

    As the body of literature on rural health has grown, the need to develop a unifying theoretical framework has become more apparent. There are many different ways of seeing the same phenomenon, depending on the assumptions we make and the perspective we choose. A conceptual and theoretical basis for the education of health professionals in rural health has not yet been described. This paper examines a number of theoretical frameworks that have been used in the rural health discourse and aims to identify relevant theory that originates from an educational paradigm. The experience of students in rural health is described phenomenologically in terms of two complementary perspectives, using a geographic basis on the one hand, and a developmental viewpoint on the other. The educational features and implications of these perspectives are drawn out. The concept of a 'pedagogy of place' recognizes the importance of the context of learning and allows the uniqueness of a local community to integrate learning at all levels. The theory of critical pedagogy is also found relevant to education for rural health, which would ideally produce 'transformative' graduates who understand the privilege of their position, and who are capable of and committed to engaging in the struggles for equity and justice, both within their practices as well as in the wider society. It is proposed that a 'critical pedagogy of place,' which gives due acknowledgement to local peculiarities and strengths, while situating this within a wider framework of the political, social and economic disparities that impact on the health of rural people, is an appropriate theoretical basis for a distinct rural pedagogy in the health sciences.

  2. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Tomashuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to study problems of rural development management, to analyse the effectiveness of management of the resource potential of rural areas, and to study the socio-economic priorities of their development, as well as to determine the justified ways of their solution in modern conditions. Methodology. The system approach to studying the development of rural areas makes it possible to consider components in the relationship between themselves and interaction with components of other systems. The state, problems, and prospects of rural development management are considered. The necessity of significant changes in the state policy of rural management is determined. It is substantiated that the current trends in the development of rural areas of Ukraine take place in the direction of narrowing the sphere of application of labour and the mismatch of professional and skilled workers’ quality to the needs of employers, and the growth of unemployment. The results showed that the revival of rural areas depends primarily on the level of economic development of the country. Multifunctional development of the village should be carried out taking into account the integrated approach to solving the problems of the agrarian complex, villages, rural areas in general, through the combination of interests of inhabitants of rural areas, rural communities, local government, and the state, applying social and economic levers of regulation of the relevant relations in conjunction with the organizational and legal ones. The subject of the research is the mechanisms for managing the development of rural areas. The emphasis is made on the imperfection of the modern mechanism of the financial and economic provision of rural development management, in particular, regarding the distribution of state budget funds in this area. The impact of a clear state policy that is aimed at supporting regional development is outlined. The importance of the

  3. Strengthening rural health placements for medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening rural health placements for medical students: Lessons for South Africa ... rural health, primary healthcare and National Health Insurance strategies. ... preferential selection of students with a rural background, positioning rural ...

  4. The U-line line balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  5. Enhancing the Motivation for Rural Career: The Collaboration between the Local Government and Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguchi, Masaru; Furuta, Noriko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Kato, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Kouji; Hori, Hiroki; Okuno, Masataka

    2015-07-01

    The shortage of medical workforce in rural areas is a global long-standing problem. Due to the severity of shortages in the medical workforce, Mie prefectural government has collaborated with a medical school and the municipal governments to increase the rural medical workforce. Since 2010, this collaboration has led to an annual lecture series on rural practice for medical students. We distributed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the lecture series to examine the effect of this program. The questionnaire consisted of two parts that included an understanding of rural practice and the motivation to work in rural areas. The lecture series significantly improved the responses to the following questions "Rural practice is interesting" (p motivation of medical students and their interest in a rural career. While collaboration between the local government and medical school rarely occurs in planning medical education programs, this approach may offer a promising way to foster local health professionals.

  6. The internet of things in agriculture for sustainable rural development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available these issues. The intention of this research is to investigate the potential contributions of internet of things technologies (IoT) towards poverty reduction in these rural areas, in line with the needs identified in these communities and with emphasis...

  7. Draft report of energetic sector in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present work about the main line of action identify at national level to improve the rural energy development, list of the energy sector, current situation of the energy and actions and its promotion.Suggestion of improvements in the structures and functions of the energy sector

  8. Has Rural Banking Developed Rural Nigeria? | Amadasu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is problem of rural development in Nigeria because of increasing poverty in the rural areas where about 70% of the people live. Reducing poverty means increasing income. Increasing income means increasing bank loans and advances for efficient application to agricultural and industrial activities in the rural Nigeria ...

  9. Rural transportation emergency preparedness plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Improving the emergency preparedness of rural transportation systems is the overall goal of this research. Unique characteristics exist in rural transportation systems including widely dispersed and diverse populations and geographic areas. Exploring...

  10. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenges for rural communities: Behavioral health and detoxification (detox) services are not as readily available in rural ... the supplemental services necessary for positive outcomes. Detoxification (detox) services, for example, provide the initial treatment for ...

  11. Rural energetic troubles in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, A

    1994-01-01

    The present work presents a general situation of Ecuador, its demand of Energy, programs of electrification rural, energy requirements in the hydroelectric rural sector, central sector built in Ecuador and the priorities of energy use

  12. Turismo rural en Cataluña. Estrategias empresariales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunet, Ignasi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we expose the findings of a research that aims to reveal the nature of the strategies of rural business creation. These strategies are situated according to the unequal social position and the connection with the rural world of rural tourism entrepreneurs. In accordance with their social and professional position in the rural habitat, we have identified three types of owner operators: a farmers, b professionals with no agricultural activity and c neo-rurals. These types are explained by the processes of deagriculturalisation and a differentiation between agriculture and tourism. We emphasize that the motive for the development of rural tourism is property ownership and fundamentally originates from those who have been able to take advantage of the deagriculturalisation process and the new distribution of property resulting from the rural exodus that has occurred in the region during the last few decades.

    En este artículo se exponen los resultados de una investigación que trata de analizar la naturaleza de las estrategias de creación de negocios rurales. Estas estrategias las situamos en relación a la desigual posición social y conexión con el mundo rural de los empresarios de turismo rural. De acuerdo con su situación social y profesional en el mundo rural hemos identificado tres tipos de propietarios de establecimientos turísticos: a granjeros-ganaderos; b profesionales sin actividades agrícolas o ganaderas; c neorrurales. Esta tipología de propietarios se explica por el proceso de desagrarización y de diferenciación entre agricultura y turismo. Enfatizamos que el motivo para el desarrollo de establecimientos de turismo rural es la propiedad de patrimonio por parte de aquellos que pueden beneficiarse del proceso de desagrarización y de la nueva distribución de la propiedad rural fruto del exodo rural que ha ocurrido en la región durante las últimas décadas.

  13. Draft report of energetic sector in rural areas; Informe borrador del sector energetico en el medio rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The present work about the main line of action identify at national level to improve the rural energy development, list of the energy sector, current situation of the energy and actions and its promotion.Suggestion of improvements in the structures and functions of the energy sector.

  14. The influence of loan repayment on rural healthcare provider recruitment and retention in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Daniel M; Westfall, John M; Wilroy, Lou Ann; Ginde, Adit A

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing shortage of rural healthcare providers relative to urban healthcare providers worldwide. Many strategies have been implemented to increase the distribution of rural healthcare providers, and financial incentives such as loan repayment programs have become popular means to both recruit and retain healthcare providers in rural communities. Studies detailing the effects of such programs on rural provider recruitment and retention are limited. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of loan repayment and other factors on the recruitment and retention of healthcare providers in rural Colorado, USA, and to compare the motivations and attitudes of these rural providers with their urban counterparts. A survey was sent to 122 healthcare providers who had participated in one of three loan repayment programs in Colorado between the years of 1992 and 2007: the Colorado Health Professional Loan Repayment Program; the Colorado Rural Outreach Program; and the Dental Loan Repayment Program of Colorado. Differentiation between rural and urban communities was accomplished by using the Rural Urban Commuting Area Codes developed by the University of Washington's Rural Health Research Center and Economic Research Service. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA from StataCorp. Of the 93 respondents included in the study, 57 worked in rural communities and 36 worked in urban communities during their programs. Of the rural participants, 74% were already working in or intending to work in an eligible community when they were made aware of the loan repayment program. Of those planning to work in a rural community regardless of any loan repayment option, 42% reported that the loan repayment program had an important influence on the specific community in which they chose to practice. Of the rural participants already working in a rural community, 38% reported loan repayment as being an important factor in their retention. The most important factors

  15. A HYBRID APPROACH FOR RURAL FEEDER DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMANJEET KAUR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a population based approach for conductor size selection in rural radial distribution system is presented. The proposed hybrid approach implies a particle swarm optimization (PSO approach in combination with mutant property of differential evolution (DE for conductor size selection in radial distribution system. The conductor size for each feeder segment is selected such that the total cost of capital investment and capitalized cost of energy losses is minimized while constraints of voltage at each node and current carrying capacity of conductor is within the limits. The applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with the help of 32-node test system.

  16. Changing Rural Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2016-01-01

    In this article I will review the historical, cultural and social formation of rural development policies in Denmark and situate these in a Scandinavian context. The review is based on a reading of commission reports, law documents and texts produced by the planners and scholars involved...... paradigm” (OECD 2006) and its implications for ethnological scholars and practitioners of today. In the “new rural paradigm”, bottom-up processes, “place-bound” cultural and historical values are highlighted as essential to local development. This of course empowers the ethnologists, but also put us...

  17. Rural women's health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thurston, Wilfreda E; Leach, Belinda; Leipert, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    ... about reduction of government funding and access to health care, and about the shortage of new volunteers to replace them when they burn out. These are a few of the stories told in the chapters of this book. This ground-breaking collection of essays identifies priority issues that must be addressed to ensure rural women's well-being, and offers innovative ideas for improvement and further research. Rural women play a critical role within their families and communities, and the health of these wome...

  18. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to 2002, reflecting increased market integration; but the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. Credit rationing depends on education and credit history, but we find no evidence of a bias against women. Regional differences are striking, and a ‘one size fits all’ approach...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  19. Rural energy and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.

  20. Social Welfare in Rural Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shucksmith, Mark; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Literature review on social exclusion and disadvantage in rural Europe suggests that rural poverty arises from unemployment, low wages, and, most significantly, inadequate income in old age. Discusses difficulties in identifying rural incidence of exclusion and disadvantage, as well as the need for such research in light of major ongoing social…