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Sample records for rural chinese population

  1. Socioeconomic status influences sex ratios in a Chinese rural population.

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    Luo, Liqun; Ding, Rui; Gao, Xiali; Sun, Jingjing; Zhao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    According to the logic of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, in a human population, if socioeconomic status is transmitted across generations to some extent, and if sons of high-status parents tend to have higher reproductive success than daughters, while daughters of low-status parents tend to have higher reproductive success than sons, then we should expect that offspring sex ratio is positively associated with socioeconomic status. This study examines whether the assumptions and prediction of this hypothesis apply to a rural population in northern China. Results show that (1) current family socioeconomic status is positively related to family head's father's socioeconomic status in around 1950, (2) low-status family heads have more grandchildren through their daughters than their sons, whereas high- or middle-status family heads have more grandchildren through sons, and (3) as family heads' status increases, they tend to produce a higher offspring sex ratio. Therefore, the assumptions and prediction of the hypothesis are met in the study population. These results are discussed in reference to past studies on sex ratio manipulation among humans.

  2. Psychometric Characteristics of the Duke Social Support Index in a Young Rural Chinese Population

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    Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15-34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI, which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support, and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high…

  3. Association of obesity categories and high blood pressure in a rural adult Chinese population.

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    Zhao, Y; Zhang, M; Luo, X; Yin, L; Pang, C; Feng, T; Ren, Y; Wang, B; Zhang, L; Li, L; Zhang, H; Yang, X; Han, C; Wu, D; Zhou, J; Shen, Y; Wang, C; Zhao, J; Hu, D

    2016-10-01

    Limited information is available on the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure (HBP) in rural China. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a rural adult Chinese population during July to August of 2007 and 2008. The relationship between various obesity categories and HBP was analysed by gender for 20 194 participants. Obesity categories were classified as general and central obesity in terms of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), respectively; cross-classification of BMI and WC created another four groups: both BMI and WC normal (BNWN), BMI obesity and WC normal (BOWN), BMI normal and WC obesity (BNWO), and both BMI and WC obesity (BOWO). The rates of HBP for BNWN, BOWN, BNWO and BOWO groups were 20.8, 63.3, 39.8 and 48.7%, respectively, for men and 20.1, 28.0, 34.7 and 54.2%, respectively, for women. As compared with BNWN group, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of BOWN and BOWO for having HBP in men were 6.227 (2.712-14.300) and 4.842 (4.036-5.808), respectively. As compared with BNWN women, BNWO and BOWO women showed increased risk of HBP (adjusted OR=1.342, 95%CI=1.139-1.581 and adjusted OR=4.530, 95%CI=4.004-5.124, respectively). The prevalence of general and central obesity was strongly related to HBP. Men with obese BMI but normal WC may be at increased risk of HBP. Women should pay more attention to changes in visceral adipose distribution and keep both BMI and WC values within normal ranges to reduce obesity-related health problems.

  4. Age- and gender-specific associations of napping duration with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Chinese rural population: the RuralDiab study.

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    Liu, Ruihua; Li, Yuqian; Wang, Fang; Liu, Xiaotian; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Panpan; Fan, Jingjing; Xu, Fei; Yang, Kaili; Hu, Dongsheng; Bie, Ronghai; Wang, Chongjian

    2017-05-01

    The consistency and strength of the relationship between napping duration and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remained uncertain, especially in the rural population. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between napping duration and T2DM in a Chinese rural population. A total of 12663 participants (4365 males and 8298 females) were derived from the RuralDiab study in China. Napping duration was obtained through a standardized questionnaire, and was divided into five categories: no napping (reference), 1∼, 31∼, 61∼, and ≥91 min. Fasting blood glucose was measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A meta-analysis including seven studies was conducted to validate the result of the RuralDiab study. The crude and age-standardized prevalence of T2DM were 10.31% and 8.14%, respectively. Compared with no napping, the adjusted OR (95%CI) for napping duration ≥91 min was 1.23 (1.05-1.45). A similar relationship was found only in females aged 45-54 years, but not in males and other age group females. In addition, napping duration was associated with T2DM in a positive dose-dependent manner among females aged 45-54 years (P for trend napping duration compared with no napping was 1.28 (1.22-1.35). Longer napping duration is associated with higher risk of T2DM in the Chinese rural population, and this association varies across gender and age. Further multi-center prospective researches are needed to confirm the relationship and reveal underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Suicidal Ideation among the Chinese Elderly and Its Correlates: A Comparison between the Rural and Urban Populations

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    Jianwen Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As China is going through a profound aging process, the mental health of the elderly is becoming an issue. As in many other societies, the elderly in China is a population at high risk of suicide; Methods: Data for the study were taken from the Sample Survey of the Aged Population in Urban/Rural China (SSAPUR accomplished in 2010 by the China Ministry of Civil Affairs. The valid sample for this study was composed of 18,683 individuals, including 9416 urban residents and 9267 rural residents both aged 60 or more years; Results: Logistic regression analyses showed that household income and expenditure, the number of children, chronic diseases, disability of daily living, depression, the frequency of visiting neighbors and having friends or relatives who can help or not had remarkable effects on the suicidal ideation among urban and rural old people. Gender, education, political affiliation, marital status and self-rated health status did not work on the dependent variable. However, some risk factors for suicidal ideation among the Chinese elderly were different between rural and urban regions; Conclusions: We should take different measures when facing the different groups of the elderly.

  6. [Prevalence of hyperlipidemia and possible risk factors in rural Chinese adults: cohort study of health population in Yuhuan rural].

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    Su, Meifang; Fu, Chaowei; Li, Songtao; Ying, Xuhua; He, Na; Jiang, Qingwu

    2013-09-01

    To examine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia and its related factors in adults in rural Yuhuan, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out as a baseline study of Rural Yuhuan Health Population Cohort in all communities in Yuhuan County, Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 118,571 subjects aged 35 years old or above participated in this study. The trained health/medical workers collected the general information, health conditions and so on by the face-to-face interview. Totally, 5 ml blood samples were taken. Hyperlipidemia was defined as blood triglyceride > or = 1.70 mmol/L and/or total cholesterols > or = 5.18 mmol/L. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Data of the fifth China population census 2000 was used as the standard population. Among 118,571 eligible subjects, the averages of blood triglyceride and total cholesterols were (1.71 +/- 14.42) mmol/L and (5.48 +/- 40.25 ) mmol/L, respectively, and there was a statistical difference in gender on blood triglyceride (t = 4.163, P education levels, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index were significantly related to hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia, especial hypercholesterolemia, was common in adults aged 35 years old or above living in rural China.

  7. Carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment amongst older Chinese adults living in a rural area: a population-based study.

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    Yan, Z; Liang, Y; Shi, J; Cai, C; Jiang, H; Song, A; Qiu, C

    2016-01-01

    The possible association between carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment in the Chinese population has been rarely investigated. The association between the severity of carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment amongst older Chinese people living in a rural area was assessed. This cross-sectional study included 1375 participants (age ≥60 years) from the Confucius Hometown Aging Project in Shandong. In 2010-2011, data were collected through interviews and clinical examinations. Carotid stenosis was assessed using ultrasonography. Cognitive impairment was defined according to the education-specific cutoff scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic models. The overall prevalence was 7.0% for moderate carotid stenosis, 2.0% for severe stenosis and 6.0% for cognitive impairment. The multi-adjusted odds ratio of cognitive impairment was 1.43 (95% confidence interval 0.63-3.22) for moderate carotid stenosis and 3.75 (1.24-11.40) for severe carotid stenosis (P(trend) = 0.023). Similar results were obtained in people without a history of cerebrovascular disease. Severe carotid stenosis, even asymptomatic, is associated with cognitive impairment independent of atherosclerotic risk factors and disorders amongst older Chinese people. © 2015 EAN.

  8. Optimal Cutoff Scores for Alzheimer's Disease Using the Chinese Version of Mini-Mental State Examination Among Chinese Population Living in Rural Areas.

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    Yang, Zhao; Holt, Hunter K; Fan, Jin-Hu; Ma, Li; Liu, Ying; Chen, Wen; Como, Peter; Zhang, Lin; Qiao, You-Lin

    2016-12-01

    To explore the optimal cutoff score for initial detection of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) through the Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE) in rural areas in China, we conducted a cross-sectional study within the Linxian General Population Nutritional Follow-up study. 16,488 eligible cohort members participated in the survey and 881 completed the CMMSE. Among 881 participants, the median age (Interquartile range) was 69.00 (10.00), 634 (71.92%) were female, 657 (74.57%) were illiterate, 35 (3.97%) had 6 years of education or higher, and 295 (33.48%) were diagnosed with AD. By reducing the CMMSE criteria for illiterate to 16 points, primary school to 19 points, and middle school or higher to 23 points, the efficiency of Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination can be significantly improved for initial detection of AD in rural areas in China, especially in those nutrition deficient areas. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Relationship between spicy flavor, spicy food intake frequency, and general obesity in a rural adult Chinese population: The RuralDiab study.

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    Yang, K; Li, Y; Mao, Z; Liu, X; Zhang, H; Liu, R; Xue, Y; Tu, R; Liu, X; Zhang, X; Li, W; Wang, C

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between spicy flavor, spicy food frequency, and general obesity in Chinese rural adults. A total of 15,683 subjects (5907 males, 9776 females) aged 35-74 years from the RuralDiab Study were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Analysis of covariance was used to determine the differences of participant characteristics across body mass index (BMI) categories. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for obesity associated with the level of spicy flavor and frequency of spicy food intake. A meta-analysis was conducted to validate the result of the cross-sectional study. The crude and standardized prevalence of obesity were 16.78% and 17.57%, respectively. Compared with No spicy flavor, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of Mild, Middle, and Heavy spicy flavor for obesity were 1.232 (1.117-1.359), 1.463 (1.290-1.659), and 1.591 (1.293-1.958), respectively (P trend  food consumption, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of 1 or 2 days/week, 3-5 days/week, and 6 or 7 days/week were 1.097 (0.735-1.639), 1.294 (0.932-1.796), and 1.250 (1.025-1.525), respectively (P trend  = 0.026). The point estimate and 95% CI of mean BMI difference between the spicy food consuming group and spicy food non-consuming group was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.30-0.44) in the meta-analysis. The data indicated that spicy flavor and spicy food frequency were positively associated with general obesity in Chinese rural populations. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol consumption and visual impairment in a rural Northern Chinese population.

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    Li, Zhijian; Xu, Keke; Wu, Shubin; Sun, Ying; Song, Zhen; Jin, Di; Liu, Ping

    2014-12-01

    To investigate alcohol drinking status and the association between drinking patterns and visual impairment in an adult population in northern China. Cluster sampling was used to select samples. The protocol consisted of an interview, pilot study, visual acuity (VA) testing and a clinical examination. Visual impairment was defined as presenting VA worse than 20/60 in any eye. Drinking patterns included drinking quantity (standard drinks per week) and frequency (drinking days in the past week). Information on alcohol consumption was obtained from 8445 subjects, 963 (11.4%) of whom reported consuming alcohol. In multivariate analysis, alcohol consumption was significantly associated with older age (p 14 drinks/week) was associated with higher odds of visual impairment. However, moderate intake (>1-14 drinks/week) was significantly associated with lower odds (adjusted odds ratio, OR, 0.7, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.5-1.0) of visual impairment (p = 0.03). Higher drinking frequency was significantly associated with higher odds of visual impairment. Multivariate analysis showed that older age, male sex, and higher education level were associated with visual impairment among current drinkers. Age- and sex-adjusted ORs for the association of cataract and alcohol intake showed that higher alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with an increased prevalence of cataract (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.4-3.6), whereas light and moderate alcohol consumption appeared to reduce incidence of cataract. Drinking patterns were associated with visual impairment. Heavy intake had negative effects on distance vision; meanwhile, moderate intake had a positive effect on distance vision.

  11. Development and Validation of a Risk-Score Model for Type 2 Diabetes: A Cohort Study of a Rural Adult Chinese Population.

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    Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available Some global models to predict the risk of diabetes may not be applicable to local populations. We aimed to develop and validate a score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in a rural adult Chinese population. Data for a cohort of 12,849 participants were randomly divided into derivation (n = 11,564 and validation (n = 1285 datasets. A questionnaire interview and physical and blood biochemical examinations were performed at baseline (July to August 2007 and July to August 2008 and follow-up (July to August 2013 and July to October 2014. A Cox regression model was used to weigh each variable in the derivation dataset. For each significant variable, a score was calculated by multiplying β by 100 and rounding to the nearest integer. Age, body mass index, triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (scores 3, 12, 24 and 76, respectively were predictors of incident T2DM. The model accuracy was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC, with optimal cut-off value 936. With the derivation dataset, sensitivity, specificity and AUC of the model were 66.7%, 74.0% and 0.768 (95% CI 0.760-0.776, respectively. With the validation dataset, the performance of the model was superior to the Chinese (simple, FINDRISC, Oman and IDRS models of T2DM risk but equivalent to the Framingham model, which is widely applicable in a variety of populations. Our model for predicting 6-year risk of T2DM could be used in a rural adult Chinese population.

  12. Season and outdoor temperature in relation to detection and control of hypertension in a large rural Chinese population.

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    Su, Danting; Du, Huaidong; Zhang, Xinwei; Qian, Yijian; Chen, Lingli; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming; Yu, Min

    2014-12-01

    In many Western populations, blood pressure varies moderately with season and outdoor temperature. Relatively little is known about effects of seasonal changes in blood pressure on the detection and control of hypertension in general populations, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We analysed cross-sectional data of 57 375 (42% men) participants aged 30-79 (mean 52.3) years who were enrolled during 2004-08, as part of the China Kadoorie Biobank, from a rural county in the south-east costal Zhejiang Province. Analyses related daily mean outdoor temperature, obtained from local Meteorological Bureau, to mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), rate of newly detected hypertension and, among those with self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension, rate of adequate blood pressure control, using multiple linear and logistic regression models. The overall mean blood pressure was 135.9 mmHg for SBP and 80.5 mmHg for DBP. Daily outdoor temperature ranged between -2.9 and 33.7°C, with July being the hottest month (mean 29.4°C) and January the coldest (mean 4.0°C). Comparing January (the coldest month) with July (the warmest), the differences in the adjusted SBP/DBP were 19.2/7.7 mmHg. Each 10°C lower ambient temperature was associated with 6.9/2.9 mmHg higher SBP/DBP,14.1% higher prevalence of newly detected hypertension and, among those with pre-diagnosed hypertension, 13.0% lower hypertension control rate. In rural China, lower outdoor temperature is strongly associated with higher mean blood pressure and hypertension prevalence as well as poorer hypertension control, and should be considered when conducting population-based hypertension surveys and providing treatment for hypertensive patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. The Role of Hopelessness in the Health of Low-Class Rural Chinese Residents.

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    Zhang, Huiping; Wu, Lei; Cheng, Mingming

    2018-03-12

    It is well known that health inequality has been happening between rural and urban Chinese populations, however, the health differences among rural Chinese residents remain unclear. This study aims to assess the physical and mental health of rural Chinese residents in different social classes, and then to examine the mediating role of hopelessness between social class and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A stratified multi-stage sampling was used to recruit 2003 rural residents responding to the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). The results showed that lower-class rural Chinese residents reported lower physical and mental health as well as a higher level of hopelessness. Furthermore, hopelessness could fully mediate the association between social class and physical and mental health. These findings will generate significant implications for identifying those at particular risk for lower quality of life and designing social work intervention programs in rural China's context.

  14. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population.

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    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    .56 for the prudent pattern and from 0.42 to 0.44 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.42 to 0.46 for prudent pattern and from 0.43 to 0.60 for processed food pattern. The Bland-Altman plots and limits of agreement indicated that the deviation/divergence was not obvious for both of the patterns between FFQ1 and FFQ2 and between FFQs and 24HRs. The study suggests that the FFQ is reasonably reproducible and valid to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern methods in the Chinese rural population.

  15. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population.

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    Xudong Liu

    from 0.41 to 0.56 for the prudent pattern and from 0.42 to 0.44 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.42 to 0.46 for prudent pattern and from 0.43 to 0.60 for processed food pattern. The Bland-Altman plots and limits of agreement indicated that the deviation/divergence was not obvious for both of the patterns between FFQ1 and FFQ2 and between FFQs and 24HRs.The study suggests that the FFQ is reasonably reproducible and valid to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern methods in the Chinese rural population.

  16. Population dynamics of rural Ethiopia.

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    Bariabagar, H

    1978-01-01

    2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction.

  17. Population dynamics and rural poverty.

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    Fong, M S

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the relationship between demographic factors and rural poverty in developing countries is presented. The author examines both the micro- and macro-level perspectives of this relationship and the determinants and consequences of population growth. The author notes the prospects for a rapid increase in the rural labor force and considers its implications for the agricultural production structure and the need for institutional change. Consideration is also given to the continuing demand for high fertility at the family level and the role of infant and child mortality in the poverty cycle. "The paper concludes by drawing attention to the need for developing the mechanism for reconciliation of social and individual optima with respect to family size and population growth." The need for rural development projects that take demographic factors into account is stressed as is the need for effective population programs. (summary in FRE, ITA) excerpt

  18. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

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    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  19. Labor allocation in transition: evidence from Chinese rural households

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    Wang, X.; Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical models are developed in this paper to quantitatively analyze households' participation in decisions on hiring labor and supplying labor off the farm, hired labor demand and off-farm labor supply of rural Chinese households. Econometric estimates use micro-level data from Zhejiang province

  20. The dynamics of Chinese rural households' participation in labor markets

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    Brosig, S.; Glauben, T.; Herzfeld, T.; Rozelle, S.; Wang, X.

    2007-01-01

    The work is devoted to the dynamics of labor market participation of Chinese rural households. Based on a theoretical farm household framework the choice between four distinct labor market participation states is empirically analyzed. Using household data over the period 1995¿2002 from the province

  1. Lifelong learning of Chinese rural physicians: preliminary psychometrics and influencing factors.

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    Li, Honghe; Wang, Ziwei; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Wen, Deliang

    2015-10-30

    There are more than 4.9 million rural health workers undertaking the health care need of rural population of over 629 million in China. The lifelong learning of physicians is vital in maintaining up-to-date and qualified health care, but rural physicians in many developing countries lack adequate medical professional developments. There has also been no empirical research focused on the lifelong learning of rural physician populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the primary levels of lifelong learning of the rural physicians and to analyze group differences. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 1197 rural physicians using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning (JSPLL). Cronbach's α coefficient, exploratory factor analysis, independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test were performed to analyze the data. For Chinese rural physicians, the JSPLL was reliable (Cronbach's α coefficient = 0.872) and valid, with exploratory factor analysis fitting a 3-factor model and accounting for a total of 60.46 % of the variance. The mean lifelong learning score was 45.56. Rural physicians generally performed worse in the technical skills in seeking information domain. Rural physicians with 21-30 working years have a lower score of lifelong learning (P < 0.05) than other phases of working years. Career satisfaction and professional titles had a significantly positive influence on physicians' orientation towards lifelong learning (P < 0.05). The overall lifelong learning scores of physicians who received more training after completion of medical school were higher than those with less additional post-medical school training (P <0.05). The JSPLL is effective for the Chinese rural physician population. In order to cope with impacting factors on rural physicians' lifelong learning, the results of the study reinforced the importance of continuing medical education and career satisfaction for lifelong

  2. Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality

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    Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…

  3. The moderating effects of impulsivity on Chinese rural young suicide.

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    Zhang, Jie; Lin, Lin

    2014-06-01

    As only about 50% of Chinese suicides have mental disorders, nonpsychiatric factors such as social environment and personality may account for the variance that is not explained by mental problems. We try to explore the effects of impulsivity on Chinese suicides and the role impulsivity plays in the relationship between negative life events (NLEs) and suicidal behavior. A total of 392 suicide cases (178 female and 214 male, aged 15-34 years) and 416 community controls (202 males and 214 females) of the same age range were sampled in China. The case-control data were obtained using psychological autopsy method with structured and semistructured instruments. Impulsivity was an important predictor of Chinese rural young suicides and it was a moderator between NLEs and suicide. Findings of the study may be translated into practical measures in suicide prevention in China as well as elsewhere in the world. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ancient Human Parasites in Ethnic Chinese Populations.

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    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D

    2016-10-01

    Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski . It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range.

  5. Selenium Level and Dyslipidemia in Rural Elderly Chinese.

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    Liqin Su

    Full Text Available Higher selenium level has been hypothesized to have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases including dyslipidemia. However, results from previous studies are inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between selenium level and dyslipidemia in elderly Chinese with relatively low selenium status.A cross-sectional study of 1859 participants aged 65 or older from four rural counties in China was conducted. Serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC, nail selenium concentration and APOE genotype were measured in all subjects. The four types of dyslipidemia were defined as >5.17 mmol/L for High-TC, >1.69 mmol/L for High-TG, >3.36 mmol/L for High-LDLC, and <1.04 mmol/L for Low-HDLC according to Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. Logistic models adjusting for age, gender, APOE genotype, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, medication use for cardiovascular diseases were used to examine the relationship between selenium levels and the risk of dyslipidemia.Mean nail selenium concentration was 0.465 μg/gin this sample. Rates for High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, Low-HDLC were 18.13%, 13.23%, 12.21% and 32.76% respectively. Results from logistic models indicated that higher selenium levels were significantly associated with higher risk of High-TC, High-LDLC and lower risk of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates (p < 0.0001. Compared with the lowest selenium quartile group, participants in selenium quartile groups 2, 3 and 4 had significantly higher rates of High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, and lower rate of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates. No significant association was observed between selenium level and the risk of High-TG. APOEε4 carriers had higher rates of High-TC and High-LDLC. There was no interaction between selenium level and APOE with the rates of

  6. Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.

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    Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China.

  7. Psychological health among Chinese college students: a rural/urban comparison.

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    Zhang, Jie; Qi, Qing; Delprino, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    The literature on suicide among the Chinese indicates that younger individuals from rural areas are at higher risk of suicide than their urban counterparts. While earlier studies have investigated the relationship between psychological health and major demographic variables, the relationship of psychological health as it relates to suicide by those from urban and rural areas have been rare. Studying the psychological health of college students from rural China in comparison with students who originate from urban areas may shed light on the mental health disparities of the two populations. This study examined the relationship of psychological health and rural/urban origins of college students in China. Data was obtained from 2 400 college students who completed a survey questionnaire while in attendance at a key university in Beijing China in 2013. Four standardised psychological health scales were administered to obtain measures of participants' self-esteem, depression, social support, and suicide ideation. Findings indicated that urban students had significantly higher scores than their rural counterparts on self-esteem and social support. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups on measures of depression and suicide ideation.

  8. Selenium Level and Dyslipidemia in Rural Elderly Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liqin; Gao, Sujuan; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Cheng, Yibin; Hake, Ann M.; Xin, Pengju; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jingyi; Ma, Feng; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Jin, Yinlong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Higher selenium level has been hypothesized to have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases including dyslipidemia. However, results from previous studies are inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between selenium level and dyslipidemia in elderly Chinese with relatively low selenium status. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1859 participants aged 65 or older from four rural counties in China was conducted. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC), nail selenium concentration and APOE genotype were measured in all subjects. The four types of dyslipidemia were defined as >5.17mmol/L for High-TC, >1.69 mmol/L for High-TG, >3.36 mmol/L for High-LDLC, and selenium levels and the risk of dyslipidemia. Results Mean nail selenium concentration was 0.465μg/gin this sample. Rates for High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, Low-HDLC were 18.13%, 13.23%, 12.21% and 32.76% respectively. Results from logistic models indicated that higher selenium levels were significantly associated with higher risk of High-TC, High-LDLC and lower risk of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates (p selenium quartile group, participants in selenium quartile groups 2, 3 and 4 had significantly higher rates of High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, and lower rate of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates. No significant association was observed between selenium level and the risk of High-TG. APOEε4 carriers had higher rates of High-TC and High-LDLC. There was no interaction between selenium level and APOE with the rates of dyslipidemia. Conclusions Our results suggest long-term selenium exposure level may be associated with the risk of dyslipidemia in elderly population. Future studies are needed to examine the underlying mechanism of the association. PMID:26380972

  9. Cognitive and Behavioral Risk Factors for Unintentional Drowning Among Rural Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiabin; Pang, Shulan; Schwebel, David C

    2016-04-01

    Unintentional drowning is among the top causes of pediatric death worldwide and the leading cause of death for children under age 14 in China. Environmental factors such as abundant bodies of water and psychosocial factors such as lack of parental supervision contribute to heightened risk of pediatric drowning in rural China, but little is known about the role of individual characteristics such as knowledge and perceived vulnerability in the drowning risk of rural Chinese children. The present study aimed to explore the cognitive and behavioral risk factors for unintentional drowning among school-aged rural Chinese children. Two hundred and eighty children (mean age = 10.03 years, range 8-13) enrolled at an elementary school in rural Zhejiang Province, China completed self-report assessments of knowledge about drowning prevention, perceived vulnerability toward drowning, and history of non-fatal drowning experiences, as well as demographic information. A simulation task using a dollhouse assessed children's anticipated behaviors with water. Fifty-two percent of the sample reported exposure to water sources at least once daily, and 21 % of the sample reported at least one non-fatal drowning experience in their lifetime. Regression analysis showed that male gender, better swimming ability, less safety knowledge, and lower levels of perceived vulnerability were associated with more self-reported risky practice in/near water. More safety knowledge also predicted safer behaviors in the dollhouse simulation task. None of the risk factors predicted self-reported history of non-fatal drowning incidents. High exposure to water sources and non-fatal drowning experiences were found among school-aged children in rural China. Drowning risk factors included demographic, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of children. Results offer evidence for developing interventions in both Zhejiang Province and other regions with similar geographic and population characteristics.

  10. Bioenergy: a sustainable resource for rural population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlawat, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Bio energy is a renewable resource. It is a product of the abundant solar energy. The plant kingdom collects solar energy by photosynthesis and stores it as biomass. This is a big source of energy that sustains the mankind in many ways-food, fuel, fibre and several others. The non-food biomass like agro-waste and forest residues already constitute a large component of the traditional energy sources of most rural population the world over. A scientific study and proper planning are required for an optimum use of this abundant renewable bio energy (biomass). This paper discusses various options to evolve workable technologies for an efficient use of biomass as a sustainable energy resource for rural areas where it is mostly produced. An integrated strategy is proposed. (author)

  11. A lastly booming rural population and the youth employment challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Losch, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Population in sub-Saharan Africa continues to grow at an unprecedented scale. This will translate into a massive expansion of the labour force, which will account for two thirds of the global increase. Both urban and rural areas are affected but, due to a delayed and stabilized pace of urbanization, population in rural areas continues to grow steadily. This results in a challenging densification of rural areas, with direct impacts on rural livelihoods, increased mobility and diversification o...

  12. Increasing imputation and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins using joint Chinese-Nordic reference population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Ding, X

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows...... was improved slightly when using the marker data imputed based on the combined HD reference data, compared with using the marker data imputed based on the Chinese HD reference data only. On the other hand, when using the combined reference population including 4398 Nordic Holstein bulls, the accuracy...... to increase reference population rather than increasing marker density...

  13. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Associated Factors in Chinese Community-Dwelling Elderly: Comparison Between Rural and Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Langli; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Yang, Ming; Hao, Qiukui; Luo, Li; Dong, Birong

    2015-11-01

    To compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in urban and rural Chinese elderly adults and to identify the risk factors related to sarcopenia. A cross-sectional study. Urban and rural communities in western China. A total of 887 community-dwelling elderly adults aged 60 years or older. Sarcopenia was defined according to the recommended algorithm of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Cognitive function, depression, and nutrition status were assessed using the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), the Chinese version of the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30), and the revised Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form (MNA-SF), respectively. A total of 612 individuals aged 70.6 ± 6.7 years (range, 60-91 years) were included in this study. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the study population was 9.8% (women, 12.0%; men, 6.7%; P = .031). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 13.1% in rural elders and 7.0% in urban elders (P = .012). Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.29), women (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.20-5.65), malnutrition or at risk for malnutrition (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.68-7.41), rural residence (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.33-4.51), and the number of medications (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.06-1.44) were independently associated with sarcopenia. Rural elders are more vulnerable to sarcopenia than urban elders in a sample of western China's elderly population. More attention should focus on rural populations in future sarcopenia studies. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of village-based health education of tobacco control on the current smoking rate in Chinese rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-miao; Xiong, Wei-ning; Xie, Jun-gang; Liu, Xian-sheng; Zhao, Jian-ping; Zhang, Zhen-xiang; Xu, Yong-jian

    2016-02-01

    The number of smokers in Chinese rural areas is more than 200 million, which is twice that in cities. It is very significant to carry out tobacco control interventions in rural areas. We performed this community intervention study to evaluate the efficacy of village-based health education of tobacco control on the male current smoking rate in rural areas. The population of this study was the males above 15 years old from 6 villages in rural areas. The villages were randomly assigned to intervention group or control group (3 villages in each group). Self-designed smoking questionnaire was applied. The intervention group received the village-based health education of tobacco control for one year. The primary outcome measurement was the male current smoking rate. In the baseline investigation, completed surveys were returned by 814 male residents from the control group and 831 male residents from the intervention group. The male current smoking rate in the control group and the intervention group was 61.2% and 58.5%, respectively, before intervention. There was no significant difference between these two groups (P>0.05). After one-year intervention, the current smoking rate in the intervention group (51.2%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (62.8%) (Peducation of tobacco control was effective in lowering the male current smoking rate in rural areas, which could be a suitable and feasible way for tobacco control in the Chinese rural areas.

  15. [Development and validation of the Chinese version of modified body imgae scale in Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X X; Zhu, L; Yu, S J; Xu, T

    2018-02-25

    Objective: To develop the Chinese version of modified body image scale (MBIS) questionnaires, and to validate them in Chinese population. Methods: The original English MBIS questionnaire was translated into Chinese, following the WHO cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures. The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of MBIS questionnaires were evaluated in Chinese population, MRKH syndrome patients. Results: Totally 50 patients with MRKH syndrome completed the MBIS and short-form 12-item health survey (SF-12) questionnaires. The Cronbach's alpha of MBIS was 0.741, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.472-0.815 ( PChinese version of MBIS has high reliability and validity in Chinese population, therefore is suitable for clinic and research.

  16. Mental health status and related characteristics of Chinese male rural-urban migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), which was higher than among urban residents (20.2%, 95% CI: 18.8-21.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that five characteristics were positively associated with risk for probable mental disorders: originating in the South (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.00), higher life stress (OR = 7.63; 95% CI = 5.88, 10.00), staying in the city for 5-9 months each year (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.67, 3.85), higher work stress (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.96, 3.33), and separation from wife (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.61, 3.57). Employment in machinery and transportation (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.81) and higher self-worth (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.62) were negatively associated. Findings support an urgent need to develop specific policies and programs to address mental health problems among Chinese rural-urban migrants.

  17. A map of copy number variations in Chinese populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyi Lou

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the human genome contains extensive copy number variations (CNVs. Investigating the medical and evolutionary impacts of CNVs requires the knowledge of locations, sizes and frequency distribution of them within and between populations. However, CNV study of Chinese minorities, which harbor the majority of genetic diversity of Chinese populations, has been underrepresented considering the same efforts in other populations. Here we constructed, to our knowledge, a first CNV map in seven Chinese populations representing the major linguistic groups in China with 1,440 CNV regions identified using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 Array. Considerable differences in distributions of CNV regions between populations and substantial population structures were observed. We showed that ∼35% of CNV regions identified in minority ethnic groups are not shared by Han Chinese population, indicating that the contribution of the minorities to genetic architecture of Chinese population could not be ignored. We further identified highly differentiated CNV regions between populations. For example, a common deletion in Dong and Zhuang (44.4% and 50%, which overlaps two keratin-associated protein genes contributing to the structure of hair fibers, was not observed in Han Chinese. Interestingly, the most differentiated CNV deletion between HapMap CEU and YRI containing CCL3L1 gene reported in previous studies was also the highest differentiated regions between Tibetan and other populations. Besides, by jointly analyzing CNVs and SNPs, we found a CNV region containing gene CTDSPL were in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium between flanking SNPs in Tibetan while not in other populations except HapMap CHD. Furthermore, we found the SNP taggability of CNVs in Chinese populations was much lower than that in European populations. Our results suggest the necessity of a full characterization of CNVs in Chinese populations, and the CNV map we constructed serves as a

  18. A Map of Copy Number Variations in Chinese Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajun; Kang, Longli; Zhang, Xin; Jin, Wenfei; Wu, Bailin; Jin, Li; Xu, Shuhua

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that the human genome contains extensive copy number variations (CNVs). Investigating the medical and evolutionary impacts of CNVs requires the knowledge of locations, sizes and frequency distribution of them within and between populations. However, CNV study of Chinese minorities, which harbor the majority of genetic diversity of Chinese populations, has been underrepresented considering the same efforts in other populations. Here we constructed, to our knowledge, a first CNV map in seven Chinese populations representing the major linguistic groups in China with 1,440 CNV regions identified using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 Array. Considerable differences in distributions of CNV regions between populations and substantial population structures were observed. We showed that ∼35% of CNV regions identified in minority ethnic groups are not shared by Han Chinese population, indicating that the contribution of the minorities to genetic architecture of Chinese population could not be ignored. We further identified highly differentiated CNV regions between populations. For example, a common deletion in Dong and Zhuang (44.4% and 50%), which overlaps two keratin-associated protein genes contributing to the structure of hair fibers, was not observed in Han Chinese. Interestingly, the most differentiated CNV deletion between HapMap CEU and YRI containing CCL3L1 gene reported in previous studies was also the highest differentiated regions between Tibetan and other populations. Besides, by jointly analyzing CNVs and SNPs, we found a CNV region containing gene CTDSPL were in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium between flanking SNPs in Tibetan while not in other populations except HapMap CHD. Furthermore, we found the SNP taggability of CNVs in Chinese populations was much lower than that in European populations. Our results suggest the necessity of a full characterization of CNVs in Chinese populations, and the CNV map we constructed serves as a useful resource in

  19. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  20. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  1. Distribution and Determinants of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Rural Chinese Twins across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelong Ji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma homocysteine (Hcy is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD and is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to describe the gender- and age-specific distribution of Hcy concentration for 1117 subjects aged 10–66 years, a subset of a community-based rural Chinese twin cohort. In addition, we examined environmental and genetic contributions to variances in Hcy concentration by gender and age groups. We found that the distribution pattern for Hcy varied by both age and gender. Males had higher Hcy than females across all ages. Elevated Hcy was found in 43% of male adults and 13% of female adults. Moreover, nearly one fifth of children had elevated Hcy. Genetic factors could explain 52%, 36% and 69% of the variation in Hcy concentration among children, male adults and female adults, respectively. The MTHFR C677T variant was significantly associated with Hcy concentrations. Smokers with the TT genotype had the highest Hcy levels. Overall, our results indicate that elevated Hcy is prevalent in the children and adults in this rural Chinese population. The early identification of elevated Hcy will offer a window of opportunity for the primary prevention of CVD and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Does workplace social capital associate with hazardous drinking among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Gao

    Full Text Available The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW.A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking.Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04-1.23, 1.17(95%CI: 1.05-1.56 and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13-1.72, respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking.Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population.

  3. Does workplace social capital associate with hazardous drinking among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R; Fua, Hua; Pan, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD) among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW). A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking. Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04-1.23), 1.17(95%CI: 1.05-1.56) and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13-1.72), respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking. Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population.

  4. Patterns of Life Events Preceding the Suicide in Rural Young Chinese: A Case Control Study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Ma, Zhenyu

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the Chinese suicide found some life events prior to the suicide different from those in the West, but there is a lack of summary of the Chinese life event patterns to better understand the effects of the social structure on Chinese suicide. Aim We tried to identify the life events that precede the Chinese rural youth suicides and compare them with what found in the West, so as to find the patterns that are particularly true in the Chinese culture contexts. Methods Suicide cases were investigated with a psychological autopsy study in rural China, and local community living controls were also interviewed with the same protocol. Results We collapsed 64 negative life events into six categories: (1) Marriage/Love, (2) Family/Home, (3) Work/Business, (4) Health/Hospital, (5) Law/Legal, (6) Friend/Relationship. About 92.3% of the suicides studied had experienced at least one type of negative life events. The three most common negative life events categories in the past one year were Family/Home (60.7%), Health/Hospital (53.8%) and Marriage/Love (51.3%) in the rural young suicide victims. Conclusions Among the negative life events, those related to family relations, love affairs, and marital issues were most likely to precede a suicide of rural suicides in China, and it is especially true of rural young women. Family is an important social institution in rural China for suicide prevention efforts. PMID:22595373

  5. Automated Determination of Bone Age in a Modern Chinese Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shao-Yan; Liu, Gang; Ma, Chen-Guo; Han, Yi-San; Shen, Xun-Zhang; Xu, Rui-Long; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objective. Large studies have previously been performed to set up a Chinese bone age reference, but it has been difficult to compare the maturation of Chinese children with populations elsewhere due to the potential variability between raters in different parts of the world. We re-analysed the radiographs from a large study of normal Chinese children using an automated bone age rating method to establish a Chinese bone age reference, and to compare the tempo of maturation in the Chinese with other populations. Materials and Methods. X-rays from 2883 boys and 3143 girls aged 2–20 years from five Chinese cities, taken in 2005, were evaluated using the BoneXpert automated method. Results. Chinese children reached full maturity at the same age as previously studied Asian children from Los Angeles, but 0.6 years earlier than Caucasian children in Los Angeles. The Greulich-Pyle bone age method was adapted to the Chinese population creating a new bone age scale BX-China05. The standard deviation between BX-China05 and chronologic age was 1.01 years in boys aged 8–14, and 1.08 years in girls aged 7–12. Conclusion. By eliminating rater variability, the automated method provides a reliable and efficient standard for bone age determination in China

  6. Secular trends of obesity prevalence in Chinese children from 1985 to 2010: Urban-rural disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing; Agard, Anette

    2015-02-01

    To examine the trend of urban-rural disparity in obesity prevalence among Chinese children from 1985 to 2010. The data were from five cross-sectional surveys (1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010) of Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio (POR) of urban-rural areas for obesity prevalence in different surveys. The standardized prevalence of obesity in Chinese children increased rapidly from 0.1% in 1985 to 5.0% in 2010, and significant differences were found between two adjacent surveys in most of the age subgroups (Pobesity prevalence was significantly higher in urban than in rural children of all age subgroups at different survey points, the changing pace was faster in rural than in urban areas from 1995 to 2010. The PORs had increased in 1995 in most age subgroups and then began to decline in all age subgroups after 1995. The gradually decreasing urban-rural disparity suggests that the obesity prevalence in rural areas would contribute to a growing proportion of obese children. Therefore, rural children should be included in obesity prevention efforts even though obesity rates are still lower in rural than in urban areas. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. Metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms among rural Northeast general population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous researches aiming to estimate the association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms come out with inconsistent results. Besides, most of them are conducted in the developed areas. There is lack of the data from rural China. The aim of this study is to confirm whether gender difference exists among the relationship between MetS, metabolic components and depressive symptoms in the rural Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional analysis enrolled 11430 subjects’ aged ≥35 from rural Northeast China. Metabolic and anthropometric indicators were measured according to standard methods. Depressive symptoms were defined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 6% among rural Northeast general population and the prevalence of MetS and its components were 39.0% for MetS, 42.9% for abdominal obesity, 67.1% for elevated blood pressure, 47.1% for hyperglycemia, 32.1% for hypertriglyceridemia, 29.5% for low HDL-C. Depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.05–1.46, P = 0.01 but not MetS (OR = 1.11, 95%CI: 0.94–1.30, P = 0.23. Moreover, depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.00–1.47, P = 0.05 in women only. But once adjusted for menopause status, depressive symptoms were no longer statically associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.99–1.46, P = 0.07. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component but not MetS in rural Chinese population. Routine lipid screening should be recommended among rural depressed residents especially among female.

  8. [The rural population problem in China and its solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S

    1980-03-01

    The author discusses the question of whether the size of China's rural population, representing approximately 85 percent of the total population, is too large. Suggestions for reducing the size of the rural population are considered, including the development of brigade- and commune-level enterprises, the development of industries in newly emerging urban areas, the development of satellite towns, and the encouragement of internal migration.

  9. Mini-Mental State Examination in Elderly Chinese: A Population-Based Normative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanzhi; Jia, Jianping; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-07

    Chinese nationwide norms of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) have not been established despite its wide use. To obtain norms for the MMSE based on age, gender, education, and rural or urban residences and to determine the optimal cut-off points of the MMSE in elderly Chinese. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chinese community residents aged 65 years or over selected by cluster random sampling. The MMSE was administered to 9,629 subjects (7,110 cognitively normal, 2,024 with mild cognitive impairment, and 495 with dementia). The demographic influences on MMSE scores were investigated and the norms were established considering those factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points. Years of education (standardized β= 0.399), rural residence (standardized β= -0.261), age (standardized β= -0.198), and being female (standardized β= -0.101) had significant effects on MMSE scores (p < 0.001). Accordingly, we presented the demographic-stratified normative data for the MMSE. The optimal cut-off points for dementia screening were 16/17 for illiterate (sensitivity 87.6% and specificity 80.8%), 19/20 for individuals with 1-6 years of education (sensitivity 93.6% and specificity 92.7%), and 23/24 for individuals with 7 or more years of education (sensitivity 94.3% and specificity 94.3%). We provide the age-, gender-, education-, and residence-specific reference norms for the MMSE derived from an investigation of a large-scale, multicenter, nationwide representative Chinese elderly population. It could be of great improvement for the use of the MMSE in dementia screening in Chinese elderly population.

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese honeybees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese honeybees (Apis cerana) under microsatellite markers. T Ji, L Yin, G Chen. Abstract. Using 21 microsatellite markers and PCR method, the polymorphisms of 20 Apis cerana honeybee populations across China was investigated and the genetic structure and diversity of ...

  11. Prevalence and etiology of vertigo in adult rural population

    OpenAIRE

    Abrol, Raman; Nehru, Vikas I.; Venkatramana, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A survey on 10.000 adults between the age of 20 and 79 years out of a total population of 66.186 persons in rural settlements under the inrisduction of Union Territory of Chandigarh between June 1993 to June 1995 was conducted to find out the prevalence and various causes of vertigo. In general community, in rural population, we found that more people suffer from non-otologic vertigo rather than otologic vertigo. We found overall prevalence of vertigo in rural adult community to be 0.71%. Ver...

  12. Patterns of life events preceding the suicide in rural young Chinese: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Ma, Zhenyu

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies on the Chinese suicide found some life events prior to the suicide different from those in the West, but there is a lack of summary of the Chinese life event patterns to better understand the effects of the social structure on Chinese suicide. We tried to identify the life events that precede the Chinese rural youth suicides and compare them with what are found in the West, so as to find the patterns that are particularly true in the Chinese culture contexts. Suicide cases were investigated with a psychological autopsy study in rural China, and local community living controls were also interviewed with the same protocol. We collapsed 64 negative life events into six categories: (1) Marriage/Love, (2) Family/Home, (3) Work/Business, (4) Health/Hospital, (5) Law/Legal, (6) Friend/Relationship. About 92.3% of the suicides studied had experienced at least one type of negative life events. The three most common negative life events categories in the past one year were Family/Home (60.7%), Health/Hospital (53.8%) and Marriage/Love (51.3%) in the rural young suicide victims. Among the negative life events, those related to family relations, love affairs, and marital issues were most likely to precede a suicide of rural suicides in China, and it is especially true of rural young women. Family is an important social institution in rural China for suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cerebral asymmetry in a selected Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.X.; He, G.X.; Tong, G.H.; Wang, D.B.; Xu, K.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated anatomical differences between the two cerebral hemispheres and ethnic differences in cerebral asymmetry. This study examined asymmetry of Chinese living in Shanghai. Measurements were taken across the frontal, mid-cerebral and occipital regions from normal head computed tomography (CT) scans of 200 Chinese Shanghai residents (100 male and 100 female, aged 6-73 years, average 48.7 years). The results were compared with reported data in the literature. The following results were found: (i) In the frontal region the right side was larger than the left in 57.5% of cases, equal in 10.5% and smaller in 32% of cases; in the mid-cerebral region the right side was larger than the left in 65.5% of cases, equal in 12.5% and smaller in 22% of cases; in the occipital regions the right side was larger than the left in 34.5% of cases, equal in 8.5% and smaller in 57% of cases. The average right-left differences between the frontal, mid-cerebral and occipital regions were 0.43 mm, 0.9 mm and 0.4 mm respectively. No difference in cerebral asymmetry existed between males and females. The occipital lobes showed the greatest individual asymmetry. The distribution of cerebral asymmetry of Chinese in Shanghai showed similarity to North American Whites rather than North American Blacks, but the average right-left differences were smaller than those of Whites. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  15. Rural-Urban Differences of Dietary Patterns, Overweight, and Bone Mineral Status in Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available China is an urban and rural social model country. In the past three decades, the developing speed of rural areas has been much slower than urban areas, which may lead to the differences in dietary patterns. This study aimed to investigate the disparities of dietary structures from urban and rural children, and to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns on their adverse outcome. Among 1590 students, aged 11 years to 17 years, from primary and middle schools, a cross-sectional study was conducted. There were three dietary patterns recognized: Westernization structure, meat diet structure, and Western and Chinese structure. Compared with rural students, more urban students were in the highest categories of the whole dietary patterns (p < 0.001. Overweight/obesity and central adiposity were more prevailing among urban students, while rural students had a more prevailing risk of bone fracture (p < 0.05. Through the adjustment for all confounding factors, the Westernization structure could increase the risk of overweight/obesity and central adiposity, the meat structure could increase the risk of elevated blood pressure/hypertension, while the risk of low bone mineral quality could be reduced by the Chinese and Western structure. In conclusion, a rural-urban disparity in dietary patterns was found in our study, and different dietary patterns were associated with the risk of some adverse outcomes. Therefore, there were different prevalences of the adverse outcomes between rural and urban students.

  16. Predictors of Physical Functioning Trajectories among Chinese Oldest Old Adults: Rural and Urban Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Park, Nan Sook; Klemmack, David L.; Roff, Lucinda L.; Li, Zhihong

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the differences between rural/urban older adults in their trajectories of activities of daily living (ADL) over a 4-year period. The sample included 2,490 community dwelling older adults who completed three waves (1998, 2000, and 2002) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Among them, 63.5% were from rural…

  17. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  18. Fate control and well-being in Chinese rural people living with HIV: mediation effect of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Chow, Amy Y M; Chan, Celia H Y; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2017-01-01

    Fate control has been often misconceptualized as a superstitious belief and overlooked in health psychology. It is not known how this cultural belief might impact the well-being of Chinese people living with HIV. This study examined the protective role of fate control for well-being and the potential mediation effect of resilience. Participants in this study were rural patients who contracted HIV via commercial blood donation. In this cross-sectional survey, 250 participants completed measures of fate control, well-being, and resilience. The results showed that fate control and resilience were positively associated with well-being. Resilience mediated the association between fate control and well-being. Our findings provide insight into the adaptive function of fate control as a cognitive defensive mechanism and highlight the need to incorporate this cultural belief in developing culturally sensitive intervention programs for resilience enhancement tailored for this understudied population infected with HIV living in rural China.

  19. Psychological health among Chinese college students: a rural/urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... higher scores than their rural counterparts on self-esteem and social support. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups on ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Volatility and Growth in Populations of Rural Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollebaek, Dag

    2010-01-01

    This article uses unique community-level data aggregated from censuses of associations to analyze growth and volatility in rural populations of grassroots associations. A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) shows that the two main paths to growth were (1) centralization in polycephalous (multicentered) municipalities and (2) population growth…

  1. Population attributable risk of overweight and obesity for high blood pressure in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hai-Jun; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about whether eliminating overweight and obesity could effectively reduce the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in Chinese children. This study aimed to estimate the magnitude of contribution of overweight and obesity associated with HBP in Chinese children, and assess the theoretical HBP prevalence if overweight and obesity were eliminated. Data on 197,191 participants aged 7-17 years with complete records from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health conducted in 2010 were included. The population attributable risk of overweight and obesity for HBP was calculated. The prevalence of HBP was 6.8% and 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively. HBP in about 22.9% (95% CI 21.5, 24.2%) of boys and 14.7% (95% CI 13.5, 15.8%) of girls could be attributable to overweight and obesity. If both overweight and obesity were eliminated, the prevalence of HBP theoretically could be reduced to 5.2% in boys and 5.0% in girls. Similar results were found in different age and urban/rural area groups. Eliminating overweight and obesity could theoretically lead to a moderate reduction in the prevalence of HBP in Chinese children.

  2. Public knowledge and beliefs about depression among urban and rural Chinese in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Phik-Wern; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-09-01

    The study compared knowledge and beliefs about depression among urban and rural Chinese in a Malaysian sample. A total of 409 participants were asked to identify cases of depression varying in intensity from two vignettes and rate their beliefs regarding a list of possible causes and treatments for depression. The urban Chinese were more likely to identify depression as the problem in the vignette. Beliefs about causes of depression were factored into five components, whereas beliefs about treatment for depression factored into four components. The results indicated that the causes most strongly endorsed were stress and pressure, and standard treatments rated the highest as treatments for depression. Overall, depression literacy was moderate for Chinese Malaysians. The results are discussed in relation to Chinese cultural beliefs about depression. Limitations of this preliminary study were acknowledged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Problems Of Aged In A Rural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Charan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the social problems of aged persons in a rural population? Objectives: i To study social problems of aged. ii To identify measures to eliminate them. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of Machhra Rural Health & Training Centre attached with Deptt. of SPM, Medical College, Meerut. Participants: Population above 60 years of age. Sample Size: 1000 households from 5 villages, which had 464 participants. Study Variables: Chi- square test. Results: In all, 259 (55.8% aged persons were engaged in productive work while 205 (44.2% were not doing any productive work. Of 376 aged persons living in joint families, 207 (55% were being respected, 71(18.9% were indifferently treated and 98 (26.1% were being neglected by family members. Recommendations: It is a strong case for proper planning to improve the lot of old age population especially for their social problems at the earliest.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of restless legs syndrome among Chinese adults in a rural community of Shanghai in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Shi

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS in an adult Chinese population living in a rural community. We also aimed to determine the predictive diagnostic value of the 4-item screening questionnaire for RLS in this population.This study was designed as a 2-phase survey. In phase 1 we performed a face-to-face interview of eligible individuals living in a rural community in Shanghai using a 4-item screening questionnaire. In phase 2, sleep specialists performed a phone interview of the individuals who screened positive to diagnosis RLS.Forty-one RLS cases were confirmed among 2941 eligible individuals 18 years of age or older in the study community. The prevalence of RLS was 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.0-1.9%, with a significantly higher rate observed in females (1.9% [95%CI =1.3-2.7%] than that in males (0.9% [95%CI = 0.5-1.5%], p = 0.019. The prevalence rate increased significantly with age, from 0.2% (95% CI = 0.08-0.6% in those 18-39 years old to 4.1% (95% CI = 2.1-7.9% in those ≥ 70 years old (p < 0.001. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that gastritis, anemia and hypertension were risk factors for RLS. The sensitivity and specificity of the 4-item screening questionnaire used in this study were 63.4% and 97.5%, respectively.RLS prevalence is relatively low among Chinese adults living in rural Shanghai. Furthermore, population-based studies with a larger sample size and a longitudinal follow-up may help to determine the risk factors of RLS and potential interventions for RLS.

  5. A comparison of rural and urban rheumatoid arthritis populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N; Steven, M

    2009-02-01

    There is evidence to suggest that remote populations have poorer clinical outcomes in certain disease processes such as asthma and cancer. This study looks to identify any disparities in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the context of rurality. A retrospective observational study was performed on all 1314 patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis who have been under the care of the principal rheumatologist at Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, between the years 1994 and 2004 inclusive. Rurality was defined according to the Scottish Household Survey. Populations were assessed in terms of age; sex; duration of diagnosis; number of years of Disease Modifying AntiRheumatic Drugs (DMARD) therapy, prednisolone use and the number of musculoskeletal practical interventions undertaken (eg joint aspiration or replacement). Two thirds of patients were considered rural dwellers. No significant difference was established between the populations with regards to management. DMARD therapy had been prescribed in 77% of rural patients vs 70% of their city counterparts for a mean 5.4 and 4.0 years respectively. The proportion of patients exposed to prednisolone therapy and who underwent musculoskeletal procedures were equivalent. Rural dwellers, with rheumatoid arthritis in the Highlands of Scotland, do not appear to be disadvantaged in regards to their disease management in comparison to the urban population.

  6. Prevalence and etiology of vertigo in adult rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, R; Nehru, V I; Venkatramana, Y

    2001-01-01

    A survey on 10.000 adults between the age of 20 and 79 years out of a total population of 66.186 persons in rural settlements under the inrisduction of Union Territory of Chandigarh between June 1993 to June 1995 was conducted to find out the prevalence and various causes of vertigo. In general community, in rural population, we found that more people suffer from non-otologic vertigo rather than otologic vertigo. We found overall prevalence of vertigo in rural adult community to be 0.71%. Vertigo secondary to cardiovascular disease was most common and prevalent in 0.32% of population. Neurologic disease accounted for vertigo in 0.14%, metabolic disease in 0.09% and otologic disease 0.08%. Miscellaneous disorders were present in remaining 0.08% of population studied. To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first population based survey of prevalence of various causes of vertigo in general community in adult rural population.

  7. Cardiovascular risk assessment between urban and rural population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Hassim, I; Norazman, M R; Diana, M; Khairul Hazdi, Y; Rosnah, I

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused significant burden to Malaysia as it accounted for 36% of total deaths. This study aims to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adult and assess the difference between urban and rural population in the selected communities. This study is part of the ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) database, whereby the baseline data were collected since June 2008. CVD risk was measured using INTERHEART risk score which comprised of eleven risk factors i.e. age and gender, family history of heart attack, smoking status, exposure to second hand smoke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension status, waist-hip ratio, self-reported stress, depression, dietary habits and physical activity status. Majority of the studied participants had low cardiovascular risk (57%). Participants from rural area were generally older, had lower educational status, higher prevalence of smokers, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and more likely to be depressed. In comparison, urbanites had lower physical activities and more likely to be stressful. Mean INTERHEART score among rural participants were higher, especially for male, in comparison to urbanite (11.5±5.83 vs. 10.01±5.74, p<0.001). Contradict to common beliefs, participants in rural areas generally have higher cardiovascular risk factors compared to their urban counterparts. The rural population should be targeted for focused preventive interventions, taking account the socioeconomic and cultural context.

  8. Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, ...

  9. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population Estimates, Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Estimates consists of country-level estimates of urban, rural and total population and land area country-wide and...

  10. A Simple Risk Score for Identifying Individuals with Impaired Fasting Glucose in the Southern Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ≥20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006–2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008–2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ≥28 for men and ≥18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008–2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice.

  11. Transfer of ERR for radiation-related leukemia from Japanese population to Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liqiong; Sun Zhijuan; Zhao Yongcheng; Wang Jixian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a transfer model for excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-related leukemia from Japanese population to Chinese population. Methods: Combined ERR of several subtypes of leukemia published in 1994, with the corresponding leukemia baseline incidence rates obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Vol. Ⅸ (CI5-Ⅸ) for Japanese population and Chinese population, a weighted risk transfer model was employed between an additive model and a multiplicative model, to execute ERR transfer. Results: A range of weighing factors was proposed for risk transfer models: weighing factor was 0.4 for male and 0.3 for female, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. The uncertainty for ERR transfer was characterized by lognormal distribution. Conclusions: Based on the difference of baseline incidence rate for subtypes of leukemia between Japanese population and Chinese population, the transfer model and these weighing factors discussed in the present study could be applicable to transfer ERR for radiation-related leukemia from Japanese population to Chinese population. (authors)

  12. On Constructing Ageing Rural Populations: "Capturing" the Grey Nomad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The world's population is ageing, with forecasts predicting this ageing is likely to be particularly severe in the rural areas of more developed countries. These forecasts are developed from nationally aggregated census and survey data and assume spatial homogeneity in ageing. They also draw on narrow understandings of older people and construct…

  13. Elder abuse in Chinese populations: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the epidemiology of elder abuse in the global Chinese population with respect to its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences, as well as the perceptions of elder abuse. Evidence revealed that elder abuse and its subtypes are common among the global Chinese population with prevalence ranging from 0.2% to 64%. Younger age, lower income levels, depression, cognitive impairment, and lack of social support were consistently associated with self-reported elder abuse. Caregiver burden was a constant risk factor for the proclivity to elder abuse by caregivers. The adverse health outcomes of elder abuse included suicidal ideation and psychological stress. Some primary research gaps exist: such as, lack of consistency in measurements and recall periods, insufficient studies on the causal relationships between potential risk factors and elder abuse, consequences of elder abuse, and possible interventions. In order to reduce the risk of elder abuse in the global Chinese population, collaboration is encouraged among researchers, health care professionals, social service providers, and policy makers.

  14. [A study of population pharmacokinetics of linezolid in Chinese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Bai, N; Liu, Y N; Wang, R

    2016-12-12

    Objective: To study the population pharmacokinetic (PPK) profiles of linezolid in Chinese healthy volunteers and infected patients. Methods: Linezolid 600 mg was administered to 31 Chinese healthy volunteers with a single dose and to 57 infected patients every 12 h for at least 5 doses. High performance liquid chromatography was applied to determine the plasma concentration of linezolid. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling method was applied to analyze the PPK profiles. Results: For healthy volunteers with single dose of linezolid, 2-compartment with linear elimination model was the most appropriate structural pharmacokinetic model. The population typical value of apparent volume of central compartment was 26.99 L, volume of peripheral compartment was 22.22 L, apparent clearance of central compartment was 7.99 L/h, and clearance of peripheral compartment was 101.28 L/h. For each 1 kg deviation of weight from the mean value, 0.62 L of volume of peripheral compartment was correlated. For Chinese infected patients with multiple doses of linezolid, 1-compartment with linear elimination model was the most appropriate structural pharmacokinetic model. The population typical value of apparent volume was 38.85 L, and apparent clearance was 4.70 L/h. For each 1 kg deviation of weight from the mean value, 0.79 L of volume, as well as 0.04 L/h of clearance were correlated. For each 1 year deviation of age from the mean value, -0.045 L/h of clearance was correlated. Conclusions: The pharmacokinetic profiles of linezolid in Chinese simulate a 2-compartment with linear elimination model when single dose is administrated, and the weight is linearly positive-correlated to volume. While a 1-compartment with linear elimination model is appropriate when multiple doses are administrated, and the weight is linearly positive-correlated to volume and clearance, but the age is linearly negative-correlated to clearance.

  15. Population Ageing in Rural Settlements in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic demographic characteristics of Croatia is the inherited dispersed population density with a large number of small settlements and the undeveloped system of regional and micro-regional centres. Such settlement structure was entirely inappropriate in the conditions of accelerated and urban-based industrialization after the Second World War. This period was characterised by a mass transition of agricultural population into non-agricultural activities, along with the abandonment of rural settlements. In addition to the strong emigration from rural areas in which younger age groups participated for the most part, there was a continuous reduction in fertility, too. All this has led to the narrowing of young age groups and consequently to the increase in the proportion of the elderly. An important factor of demographic ageing is the reduction in mortality of persons over 30 years of age and longer life respectively. Life expectancy of the Croatian population was 64.8 years in 1960 and 77.2 years in 1972. The average age constantly increased: it was 32.5 years in 1961, 35.4 in 1981 and it reached the high 41.7 years in 2011. The aggression and war against Croatia happened in the 1990s. Dramatic events affected the general social conditions and processes, strongly accelerating negative demographic trends. All this had further affected the socio-demographically eroded rural areas. There was a particularly difficult situation in the regions directly affected by the war; part of these areas had had the features of extreme demographic regression before the war sufferings and the war only further strengthened it. The overall population of Croatia is characterised by decreasing fertility, natural depopulation (negative natural change, total depopulation (since 1990 and intense population ageing. The duration and intensity of these processes clearly testifies to the demographic development of Croatia being very unfavourable. All this also

  16. Characteristics of Chinese Rural Young Suicides Who Did Not Have a Strong Intention to Die1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background In exploration of the risk factors of the Chinese rural young suicide, previous researchers found low prevalence of mental problems, high degree of impulsivity, and great proportion of lethal pesticide consumption. It noticed that some of the young suicides in rural China did not intend to die from the suicidal behavior which was only instrumentally used for certain gains. Aims This study aims to look into the characteristics of those young suicides who did not really intend to die and compare them with those young suicides who had a strong intent to die. Methods Subjects were 386 suicides aged 15-34 years in the rural areas of three provinces in China. The data were obtained by psychological autopsy method. The degree of suicidal intent of the subjects was evaluated by the first 8 items of Beck’s Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). Results It was found that those suicides who had a strong intent of death were more likely to have higher age, more years of education, live alone, and suffer mental disease. On the other hand, the low intent suicides were more likely to have pesticides at home and to be impulsive. In other words, pesticides and impulsivity killed some Chinese rural young men and women who did not really want to die by suicide. Conclusion Findings of the study may be translated into practical measures in suicide prevention in China as well as elsewhere in the world. PMID:25497170

  17. Characteristics of Chinese rural young suicides: who did not have a strong intent to die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie

    2015-02-01

    In exploration of the risk factors of the Chinese rural young suicide, previous researchers found low prevalence of mental problems, high degree of impulsivity, and great proportion of lethal pesticide consumption. It noticed that some of the young suicides in rural China did not intend to die from the suicidal behavior which was only instrumentally used for certain gains. This study aims to look into the characteristics of those young suicides who did not really intend to die and compare them with those young suicides who had a strong intent to die. Subjects were 386 suicides aged 15-34years in the rural areas of three provinces in China. The data were obtained by psychological autopsy method. The degree of suicidal intent of the subjects was evaluated by the first 8 items of Beck's Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). It was found that those suicides that had a strong intent of death were more likely to have higher age, more years of education, live alone, and suffer mental disease. On the other hand, the low intent suicides were more likely to have pesticides at home and to be impulsive. In other words, pesticides and impulsivity killed some Chinese rural young men and women who did not really want to die by suicide. Findings of the study may be translated into practical measures in suicide prevention in China as well as elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Revisiting a Dramatic Triangle: The State, Villagers, and Social Activists in Chinese Rural Reconstruction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Thøgersen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the movement to “construct a new socialist countryside”, Chinese officials and social activists are experimenting with transforming rural social and economic relations. They often draw on discourses dating back to the Rural Reconstruction Movement of the 1920s and 1930s, which saw urban intellectuals making similar efforts to modernize the villages and their inhabitants. This paper analyses the different types of relationships between the state, social activists, and villagers in a number of rural reconstruction projects. The state is still the major player in this field, but traditional top-down procedures are often perceived to be unproductive when it comes to micro-level community building, so state actors are forced to find allies among village elites and social activists.

  19. Attitudes towards suicide in urban and rural China: a population based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaming; Leung, Ricky; Lin, Shao; Yang, Mingan; Lu, Tao; Li, Xianyun; Gu, Jing; Hao, Chun; Dong, Guanghui; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-05-26

    Suicide intervention programs have been guided by findings that attitude towards suicide and suicidal behavior may be causally linked. These findings also make it imperative to identify the factors that influence attitudes towards suicide. However, there has been little research on attitudes towards suicide among the general population, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. This population-based, cross-sectional study investigated the associated factors of attitudes towards suicide among a representative sample of urban and rural adult residents in China. A multi-stage, stratified random sampling approach was implemented to select participants. Data were collected by a survey using the Scale of Public Attitudes about Suicide (SPAS). The survey also collected some socio-demographic factors and suicidal history of participants. Statistical tests were conducted to identify associated factors that account for variations in attitudes towards suicide. The residents in China generally hold a neutral attitude towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide among Chinese residents were associated with age, duration of formal education, marital status, job and suicidal ideation. Different attitudinal subscales seemed not to share the same risk factors. However, gender, ethnicity, religious belief, housing style and economic status might not influence residents' attitudes towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide among Chinese urban and rural residents generally had no statistical difference with one notable exception: opinions on whether or not suicides and suicide attempts are different phenomena. Age, duration of formal education, marital status, job and suicidal ideation seem to have an impact on attitudes towards suicide among residents. Urban and rural residents have similar attitudes towards suicide with the only statistically significance difference being their opinions on whether or not suicides and suicide attempts are different phenomena.

  20. Impact of Biogas Technology in the Development of Rural Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Nasreen, Z.; Usman, S.; Zahra, N.

    2013-01-01

    Biogas technology is useful technology to produce a renewable, high-quality fuel i.e. biogas. In Rural areas people use biomass fuels (firewood and dried dung) for meeting their energy utilization demands. This demand is fulfilled by deforestation and land degradation which results in different health and societal problems and also cause excessive emission of greenhouse gases. The rural population of developing countries is in dire need of biogas for cooking, lighting, heating and feedstock etc. The biogas production derives from various agricultural resources, such as manure and harvest remains enormously available. Biogas technology represents a sustainable way to produce energy for household, particularly in developing countries. It can be cost-effective and environment friendly technology for the people in rural areas. So, Biogas can be a best substitute of biomass fuels for use in rural areas. This review evaluates the use of biogas in developing rural areas and glances at problems and challenges as well as benefits and success factors. (author)

  1. Impact of Biogas Technology in the Development of Rural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhawat Ali1

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas technology is useful technology to produce a renewable, high-quality fuel i.e. biogas. In Rural areas people use biomass fuels (firewood and dried dung for meeting their energy utilization demands. This demand is fulfilled by deforestation and land degradation which results in different health and societal problems and also cause excessive emission of greenhouse gases. The rural population of developing countries is in dire need of biogas for cooking, lighting, heating and feedstock etc. The biogas production derives from various agricultural resources, such as manure and harvest remains enormously available. Biogas technology represents a sustainable way to produce energy for household, particularly in developing countries. It can be cost-effective and environment friendly technology for the people in rural areas. So, Biogas can be a best substitute of biomass fuels for use in rural areas. This review evaluates the use of biogas in developing rural areas and glances at problems and challenges as well as benefits and success factors.

  2. The Chinese electricity access model for rural electrification: Approach, experience and lessons for others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Ohiare, Sanusi

    2012-01-01

    The economic and infrastructural disparities between the rural and urban communities of most developing countries in general and in terms of energy access in particular are quite glaring. China presents a good example of a developing country that has successfully embarked on rural electrification projects over the last few decades and achieved a great feat of almost 100% electrification rate (. World Energy Outlook, 2009, International Energy Agency, Paris (see IEA website at (http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/electricity.asp).)). The purpose of this paper is to find out how China has achieved this feat; how China’s rural energy projects were financed and whether China provides lessons for other countries to follow. The above questions are examined through an extensive literature review and the paper finds that unlike many other countries following the top-down approach to rural electrification, China has preferred to use a phased development through a bottom-up approach where local resources, and village level development and empowerment played an important role. While the state provided the overall guidance and financial support, the integrated rural development approach has produced local-level solutions that are subsequently integrated to produce an alternative development pathway. Strong government commitment, active local participation, technological flexibility and diversity, strong emphasis on rural development through agricultural and industrial activities and an emphasis on capacity building and training have also played an important role in the success. However, despite achieving the universal access objective, China still faces a number of issues related to rural electricity use, especially in terms of regional use patterns, long-term sustainability of supply and commercial operation of the systems. The Chinese model could serve as an inspiration for other developing countries trying to ensure universal electricity access. - Highlights: ► It

  3. Asthma susceptible genes in Chinese population: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published data regarding the associations between genetic variants and asthma risk in Chinese population were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate asthma susceptible genes in Chinese population. Methods The authors conducted 18 meta-analyzes for 18 polymorphisms in 13 genes from eighty-two publications. Results Seven polymorphisms were found being associated with risk of asthma, namely: A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33 T1-C/T (odds ratio [OR] = 6.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.69-13.73, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE D/I (OR = 3.85, 95%CI: 2.49-5.94, High-affinity IgE receptor β chain (FcεRIβ -6843G/A (OR = 1.49, 95%CI: 1.01-2.22, Interleukin 13(IL-13 -1923C/T (OR = 2.99, 95%CI: 2.12-4.24, IL-13 -2044A/G (OR = 1.49, 95%CI: 1.07-2.08, Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES -28C/G (OR = 1.64, 95%CI: 1.09-2.46, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α -308G/A(OR = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.09, 1.85. After subgroup analysis by age, the ACE D/I, β2-Adrenergic Receptor (β2-AR -79G/C, TNF-α -308G/A, Interleukin 4 receptor(IL-4R -1902G/A and IL-13 -1923C/T polymorphisms were found significantly associated with asthma risk in Chinese children. In addition, the ACE D/I, FcεRIβ -6843G/A, TNF-α -308G/A, IL-13 -1923C/T and IL-13 -2044A/G polymorphisms were associated with asthma risk in Chinese adults. Conclusion ADAM33, FcεRIβ, RANTES, TNF-α, ACE, β2-AR, IL-4R and IL-13 genes could be proposed as asthma susceptible genes in Chinese population. Given the limited number of studies, more data are required to validate these associations.

  4. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  5. Sleep quality and covariates as predictors of pain intensity among the general population in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Kun; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Mi; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Hui-Ming

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of sleep quality and its relationship with the prevalence of pain among rural Chinese people and to explore the association between sleep quality and pain intensity among the general population in real-life settings. This cross-sectional survey included a total of 2052 adults from rural areas in Liuyang, Hunan Province, recruited through random multistage sampling. The distributions of sleep quality and pain prevalence among the participants over a 4-week period were described. Because of multicollinearity among variables, the influence of self-rated sleep quality and psychosocial covariates on pain intensity was explored using a ridge regression model. The data showed that participants reporting all categories of sleep quality experienced some degree of pain. Sleep quality, along with physical and mental health, was a negative predictor of pain intensity among the general population. Symptoms of depression positively predicted pain intensity. Poor sleep quality increased pain intensity among the participants. Both previous research and the present data suggest that improving sleep quality may significantly decrease pain intensity in the general population. The relationship between sleep and pain may be bidirectional. This finding also suggests that treatment for sleep disorders and insomnia should be addressed in future efforts to alleviate pain intensity.

  6. FINANCIAL EXCLUSION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN POLAND

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    Ryszard Kata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to assess the extent of fi nancial exclusion of the rural population in Poland. One of the most basic measures of fi nancial exclusion is percentage of adult residents lacking a bank account. This and other measures verifying the population’s use of fundamental banking services and the statistical data on development of banking infrastructure in the territorial context were then employed to conduct an assessment of the extent and causes of fi nancial exclusion with a particular emphasis on the rural areas. The fi ndings show that, like in many other countries, the extent of provision of fi nancial services among the rural population is more limited compared to the urban population. The fi nancial exclusion, has much deeper roots going beyond the geographical factors. The real causes of the fi nancial exclusion lie not only in access to banking services but also in their price, the population’s income, as well as being strongly aff ected by information and behaviour.

  7. Direct health care costs associated with obesity in Chinese population in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingcheng; Wang, Yao; Cheng, Wenwei; Shao, Hui; Shi, Lizheng

    2017-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are established major risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and major public health concerns in China. This study aims to assess the economic burden associated with overweight and obesity in the Chinese population ages 45 and older. The Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) in 2011 included 13,323 respondents of ages 45 and older living in 450 rural and urban communities across China. Demographic information, height, weight, direct health care costs for outpatient visits, hospitalization, and medications for self-care were extracted from the CHARLS database. Health Care costs were calculated in 2011 Chinese currency. The body mass index (BMI) was used to categorize underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese populations. Descriptive analyses and a two-part regression model were performed to investigate the association of BMI with health care costs. To account for non-normality of the cost data, we applied a non-parametric bootstrap approach using the percentile method to estimate the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Overweight and obese groups had significantly higher total direct health care costs (RMB 2246.4, RMB 2050.7, respectively) as compared with the normal-weight group (RMB 1886.0). When controlling for demographic characteristics, overweight and obese adults were 15.0% and 35.9% more likely to incur total health care costs, and obese individuals had 14.2% higher total health care costs compared with the normal-weight group. Compared with the normal-weight counterparts, the annual total direct health care costs were significantly higher among obese adults in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatiotemporal Changes in Rural Settlement Land and Rural Population in the Middle Basin of the Heihe River, China

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    Manjiang Shi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between the spatiotemporal expansion of rural settlement land and the variation of rural population is the foundation of rational and specific planning for sustainable development. Based on the integration of Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI images and demographic data, using mathematical models, landscape indexes, and a decoupling model, the spatiotemporal changes of the rural settlement land area and its decoupling relationship with the rural registered population were analyzed for the middle basin of the Heihe River in China. During the period 1986–2014, the following changes occurred: (1 The study area experienced increases of 124.94%, 55.16%, and 1.56% in rural settlement land area, number of patches, and rural registered population, respectively; (2 Edge-expansion, dispersion, and urban encroachment were the dominant patterns of dynamic changes in the studied rural settlement land. Among these, edge-expansion was the most prevalent development pattern; it contributed more than half of the total increase in the number of patches and the total area growth; (3 The annual growth rate of the rural registered population increased from 0.7% in 1986–2002 to −0.5% in 2002–2014. By that time the rural settlement land area had undergone a gentle increase from 3.4% to 3.6%. Generally, the rural registered population and rural settlement land has experienced a shift from weakly decoupled in 1986–2009 to strongly decoupled in 2009–2014; (4 From 1986 to 2014, rural urbanization and modernization were the main causes that led to the decline in the rural registered population; however, economic growth promoted the expansion of rural settlement land during this same period. We believe that with the rapid development of urbanization, the decoupling relationship between the rural settlement land area and the reduction in the rural registered population cannot be completely reversed in the short term. It is recommended that

  9. Growth of rural population in Punjab, 1971-81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, M S

    1987-01-01

    Except for the decade 1941-1951, in which Punjab's population declined because of a huge exchange of population between India and Pakistan and a large loss of life, the decade 1971-1981 was the 1st decade since 1911 to experience a deceleration in the growth rate of the rural population of Punjab, India. The deceleration was due to out-migration to urban areas. The scheduled caste population increased 28.37% between 1971 and 1981, while the nonscheduled caste population increased by only 13.32%, which was considerably below the rate of natural increase. Nonscheduled castes had experienced substantial out-migration because of 1) improved transport and communication facilities which enabled them to move to urban centers; 2) mechanization of main farming operations and easy availability of migrant laborers which lessened the need for family labor; 3) the rise of a relatively mobile younger generation with a high literacy rate; 4) rapidly decreasing land holdings which strengthened the push factor in the countryside; and 5) rising aspirations, especially among the younger generation. In 1981, Sikhs constituted 71.3% of the rural population in Punjab, followed by Hindus (26.51%), Christians (1.25%), and Muslims (.89%). From 1971-1981, Muslims experienced the greatest increase (49.29%). Sikhs grew by 20.74% and Hindus by 9.02%. The Sikhs high growth rate was due to 1) a new technique for counting religious affiliation in which all members of a household are considered the same religion as the head of household and 2) conversion of Hindus to Sikhism. Hindus had a low growth rate because 1) the new method of counting religious affiliation and 2) rural-urban migration. The area with the lowest population increase resulted from industrialists and other nonagriculturists buying farmland, causing the agriculturists to move away to less desirable land. Conclusions are 1) the sharp rural-urban division along religious lines should be lessened, 2) Sikhs' lag in urbanization and

  10. The Role of Responses to Experiences of Rural Population Decline in the Social Capital of Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshof, Hans; Bailey, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Population decline in rural areas has an impact on rural villages. This research investigates to what extent families with children in rural villages experience consequences of population decline, in which ways they respond to these experiences, and how that plays a role in their individual social

  11. Study on the trend and disease burden of injury deaths in Chinese population, 2004-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Injuries are a growing public health concern in China, accounting for more than 30% of all Person Years of Life Lost (PYLL due to premature mortality. This study analyzes the trend and disease burden of injury deaths in Chinese population from 2004 to 2010, using data from the National Disease Surveillance Points (DSPs system, as injury deaths are classified based on the International Classification of Disease-10(th Revision (ICD-10. We observed that injury death accounted for nearly 10% of all deaths in China throughout the period 2004-2010, and the injury mortality rates were higher in males than those in females, and higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Traffic crashes (33.79-38.47% of all injury deaths and suicides (16.20-22.01% were the two leading causes of injury deaths. Alarmingly, suicide surpassed traffic crashes as the leading cause of injury mortality in rural females, yet adults aged 65 and older suffered the greatest number of fatal falls (20,701 deaths, 2004-2010. The burden of injury among men (72.11% was about three times more than that of women's (28.89%. This study provides indispensible evidence that China Authority needs to improve the surveillance and deterrence of three major types of injuries: Traffic-related injury deaths should be targeted for injury prevention activities in all population, people aged 65+ should be encouraged to take individual fall precautions, and prevention of suicidal behavior in rural females should be another key priority for the government of China.

  12. Anthropometric growth study of the ear in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shichun; Li, Dianguo; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yibiao; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Duyin; Pan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    A large number of anthropometric studies of the auricle have been reported in different nations, but little data were available in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze growth changes in the ear by measuring the width and length of ears in a Chinese population. A total of 480 participants were enrolled and classified into 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 14-, and 18-year groups (half were boys and half were girls in each group). Ear length, ear width, body weight, and body length were measured and recorded; ear index was calculated according to ear length and ear width. The growth of auricle and differences between genders were analyzed. Growth of ear in relation to body height and weight and the degree of emphasis on the length and width of the auricle were also analyzed. Ear length and width increased with age. Ear length achieved its mature size in both 14-year-old males and females. Ear width reached its mature size in males at 7 years and in females at 5 years. Different trends of ear index were shown between males and females. People in this population paid more attention to the length than the width of the auricle. The data indicated that ear development followed increase in age. There were gender and ethnic difference in the development of ear. These results may have potential implications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations, syndromes, and planning of ear reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RURAL POPULATION AS A RESOURCE OF LABOR FORCE IN ROMANIA

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    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the dynamics of Romania’s population and mainly of the rural population in the period 2005-2010. The following indicators were used: total population, rural population, the share of rural population in the total population, active population at national level, in the rural areas and the share of the rural active population in the total population, employment, unemployment, activity rate, employment rate, unemployment rate, employment rate by educational level, employment in agriculture by population’s age, active persons by age group. As a conclusion, Romania’s rural population accounts for 45 % of total population. A series of restraining factors such as: ageing, low training level, low capital and financial resources, lack of investments and other job alternatives affect the development of the rural areas where most of the population is dealing with agriculture. Rural space requires a multifunctional development meaning to achieve a balanced combination between agriculture, connected industries and services which could create jobs and raise the population income and living standard. This means investments both in agricultural and non-agricultural activities, a new national and local policy concerning the development of rural communities.

  14. Urban and rural factors associated with life satisfaction among older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengbo; Chi, Iris; Zhang, Xu; Cheng, Zhaowen; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong

    2015-01-01

    This study compared urban and rural factors associated with life satisfaction among older adults in mainland China. Study data were extracted at random from 10% of the Sample Survey on Aged Population in urban/rural China in 2006 for 1980 participants aged 60 and older, including 997 from urban cities and 983 from rural villages. In this study, 54.6% of urban older adults and 44.1% of rural older adults reported satisfaction with their lives. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that financial strain, depressive symptoms, filial piety, and accessibility of health services were significantly associated with life satisfaction for both urban and rural participants, but age and financial exchange with children were only associated with life satisfaction among urban older adults. Findings are consistent with some previous studies that indicated the importance of financial strain, depressive symptoms, filial piety, and accessibility of health services to life satisfaction among the older adults in both urban and rural areas. This study also demonstrated the importance of age and family financial exchange to the life satisfaction of urban older adults.

  15. Infant mortality in a rural population of Meerut

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    C Prakash

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in eight selected villages of Meerut District [UJP.} to find out infant mortality rate alongwith other various health care delivery practices associated with this. An infant mortality rate of 106.7/1000 LB was found in the study population. Infant mortality was higher in female infants, infants of mothers not availed antenatal care, not received tetanus toxoid, delivered by untrained personnel and where cow-dung was applied to cord stump. Among the causes of infant deaths prematurity or low birth weight was the commonest cause followed by respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases and tetanus neonatorum Infant mortality in a rural population of meerut

  16. Association between Chinese cooking oil fumes and sleep quality among a middle-aged Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fu; Nie, Guanghui; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Liang; Ma, Yifei; Peng, Suwan; Ou, Songfeng; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Li'e; Li, Shu; Zou, Ruosi; Zeng, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Yunfeng

    2017-08-01

    Poor sleep quality is an important symptom of many medical or psychiatric disorders. However, the impact of cooking oil fumes (COFs) on sleep quality has not been studied. This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the association between COFs of Chinese household cooking and sleep quality. Individual sleep quality assessment was completed in 2197 participants with an average age of 37.52 years, through Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Information about their cooking practice were also collected by self-reported questionnaire. As an internal biomarker of COFs, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) (n = 562) was further measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Binary logistic regression models were performed to evaluate the association between exposure to COFs and individual sleep quality. We found that, subjective poor kitchen ventilation, preheating oil to smoking, and cooking for over 30 minutes were positively associated with overall poor sleep quality (global PSQI score >5) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.43-2.16; 1.25, (1.03-1.52); 1.42, (1.15-1.76), respectively]. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjective poor kitchen ventilation still tend to increase the risk of long sleep latency, sleep disturbances, and daytime dysfunction [OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.09-1.73; 1.91, (1.39-2.61); 1.54, (1.23-1.93), respectively]. Similar results were observed in participants who preheated oil to smoking [OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.08-1.72; 1.55, (1.14-2.14); 1.25, (1.02-1.55), respectively] and cooked for over 30 minutes [OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.05-1.72; 1.46, (1.03-2.06); 1.36, (1.08-1.72), respectively]. Furthermore, high urinary 1-HOP level was also positively associated with overall poor sleep quality (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.31-4.05). The results indicated that exposure to COFs from Chinese household cooking may be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among middle-aged Chinese

  17. Chinese rural development and agricultural technology extension in Hunan province : analysis based on value chain and farmer participation perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Bin; Herman, Joost; Zhao, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    As the Chinese rural development has made remarkable achievements in the past forty years, which is shown in agricultural productivity increase and poverty reduction, the administrative agricultural technology extension system is an important factor for those outcomes. However, in recent years, the

  18. A survey of the dog population in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Moazzem; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Marma, Aung Swi Prue; Hossain, Sohrab; Ali, Mohammad Azmat; Shamsuzzaman, Abul Khair Mohammad; Nishizono, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Globally, Bangladesh ranks third in the number of human deaths from rabies. Although dogs are the principal known transmitters of rabies and knowledge of dog populations is essential for effective national control and proper planning, dog control programs are scarce in Bangladesh. Our objective was to count dogs in a rural area to understand the dog population of the country. For this purpose we selected six unions of Raipura upazila in Narsingdi district. Dog counting was done by direct observation following accepted guidelines. We determined the mean density of the dog population in Bangladesh to be 14 dog/km(2) (95% CI 3.7, 24) and the human:dog ratio to be 120 (95% CI 55, 184). Our paper contribute to the literature which shows great variation in the human:dog ratio across regions of the developing world. The human:dog ratio depends on the area's human (as well as dog) population, whereas dog density per unit area indicates the true number of dogs. We propose that extrapolating from the human:dog ratios of other regions not be relied upon for estimating dog populations, unless the ratios can be supplemented by actual counts of dogs within the target area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Population pharmacokinetics of adefovir dipivoxil tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihan; Zhang, Yaping; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Lujin; Li, Yunfei; Wang, Kun; Yang, Juan; He, Yingchun; Lv, Yinghua; Zheng, Qingshan

    2014-01-01

    To develop a population pharmacokinetic model of adefovir dipivoxil in healthy volunteers and evaluate the effect of individual factors on the pharmacokinetics of adefovir dipivoxil. Plasma concentration data collected from 32 healthy Chinese subjects in a Phase I clinical study was pooled. Subjects received a single oral dose of 10 mg, 20 mg, or 30 mg adefovir dipivoxil, or multiple doses of 10 mg once a day for 9 days. Plasma concentrations of adefovir dipivoxil were measured using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method. A nonlinear mixed-effect model was used to analyze the plasma concentration data of adefovir dipivoxil in healthy volunteers and to calculate the relevant parameters as well as inter- and intra-individual variability. The time course of adefovir dipivoxil concentration is best described by a first-order absorption and first-order elimination two-compartment model with lag time. The final estimate of total body clearance (CL) is 56.9 L/h and 78.7 L/h for single and multiple dosing regimen, respectively; the volume distribution of the central compartment (V2) is 106 L; inter-compartmental clearance (Q) is 220 L/h; volume distribution of the peripheral compartment (V3) is 498 L and 800 L for single and multiple dosing regimen, respectively; absorption rate is 0.509 h-1; and lag time is 0.315 hours. The inter-individual variabilities of CL and V2 were 22.4% and 58.9%, respectively. The proportional error of residual variability is 14.1% and the additive error is 0.30 ng/L. The final pharmacokinetic model was evaluated using a bootstrap method. A nonlinear mixed effect model for oral adefovir dipivoxil formulations was developed in healthy Chinese subjects. A multiple dosing regimen may significantly increase the body clearance and volume distribution of the peripheral compartment compared to a single dosing regimen. *These authors contribute equally to this work.

  20. Warfarin dosage response related pharmacogenetics in Chinese population.

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    Siyue Li

    Full Text Available As the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant, warfarin has large inter-individual variability in dosage. Genetic polymorphisms could largely explain the differences in dosage requirement. rs9923231 (VKORC1, rs7294 (VKORC1, rs1057910 (CYP2C9, rs2108622 (CYP4F2, and rs699664 (GGCX involved in the warfarin action mechanism and the circulatory vitamin K were selected to investigate their polymorphism characteristics and their effects on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of warfarin in Chinese population.220 patients with cardiac valve replacement were recruited. International normalized ratio and plasma warfarin concentrations were determined. The five genetic polymorphisms were genotyping by pyro-sequencing. The relationships of maintenance dose, plasma warfarin concentration and INR were assessed among groups categorized by genotypes.rs9923231 and rs7294 in VKORC1 had the analogous genotype frequencies (D': 0.969. 158 of 220 recruited individuals had the target INR (1.5-2.5. Patients with AA of rs9923231 and CC of rs7294 required a significantly lower maintenance dose and plasma concentration than those with AG and TC, respectively. The mean weekly maintenance dose was also significantly lower in CYP2C9 rs1057910 mutated heterozygote than in patients with the wild homozygote. Eliminating the influence from environment factors (age, body weight and gender, rs9923231 and rs1057910 could explain about 32.0% of the variability in warfarin maintenance dose; rs7294 could explain 26.7% of the variability in plasma concentration. For patients with allele G of rs9923231 and allele T of rs7294, higher plasma concentration was needed to achieve the similar goal INR.A better understanding of the genetic variants in individuals can be the foundation of warfarin dosing algorithm and facilitate the reasonable and effective use of warfarin in Chinese.

  1. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. The relationship between new media exposure and fast food consumption among Chinese children and adolescents in school: a rural-urban comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansstein, Francesca Valeria; Hong, Yu; Di, Chen

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, China has experienced an exponential growth in the number of internet users, especially among the youngest population, as well as a rapid proliferation of Western-type fast food restaurants. The health consequences of internet availability and fast food consumption among youth have been largely studied in Western countries, but few studies have focused on China. This paper has two goals. The first is to evaluate the differences in new media exposure and preferences for fast foods between rural and urban areas. The second goal is to test the association between new media exposure and fast food consumption. The targets of this analysis are Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-18 attending school at the time of the interview. Research hypotheses were tested using mean-groups comparisons for differences between rural urban sub-samples, and logistic regressions with odds ratios to estimate the relationship between media exposure and preferences towards fast foods. Cross-sectional data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey were employed. Watching online videos and playing computer games are behaviors associated with higher probabilities of eating at fast food restaurants in both rural and urban young residents, with higher odds in rural areas. Surfing the internet is associated with higher odds of being overweight in both rural and urban settings. Results also show that children living in rural areas spend significantly more time playing computer games, watching TV and videotapes, but less time doing homework than their urban peers. This paper suggests that monitoring the nutritional effects of new media exposure in China is of key importance in order to develop adequate health promotion policies, in both rural and urban areas.

  3. Blood lipid levels in a rural male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, A; Stiernström, E L; Holmberg, S

    2001-06-01

    Farmers have a low risk for cardiovascular disease, which may be related to a favourable blood lipid profile. In order to study the blood lipid levels and evaluate the effect of other cardiovascular risk factors on the blood lipid profile, this cross-sectional study was made. A total of 1013 farmers and 769 non-farming rural men in nine different Swedish counties were examined, interviewed, and replied to questionnaires. The inter-relationships between different risk factors were analysed using a multivariate linear regression model. The farmers had a significantly more favourable blood lipid profile than the non-farmers although the total cholesterol levels were almost the same for the two groups. In the total study population there were significant positive relationships between total cholesterol level and body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure and smoking. The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was positively related to physical workload and alcohol consumption, and negatively related to BMI, waist/hip ratio and smoking. Triglyceride levels showed a positive relationship to BMI, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Differences between farmers and other rural males were seen, especially with respect to the effect of physical activity and psychosocial factors. Among the farmers, a negative correlation between the Karasek-Theorell authority over work index and total cholesterol, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/HDL ratio and triglyceride levels was observed. This study indicated that diet is of minor significance for the blood lipid profile, whereas factors such as physical activity, body weight and the waist/hip ratio, smoking, alcohol consumption, and perhaps psychosocial working conditions are major independent factors affecting the blood lipid profile most prominently among farmers, but also among non-farming rural men.

  4. Association between Chinese cooking oil fumes and sleep quality among a middle-aged Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Fu; Nie, Guanghui; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Liang; Ma, Yifei; Peng, Suwan; Ou, Songfeng; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Li'e; Li, Shu; Zou, Ruosi; Zeng, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    Poor sleep quality is an important symptom of many medical or psychiatric disorders. However, the impact of cooking oil fumes (COFs) on sleep quality has not been studied. This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the association between COFs of Chinese household cooking and sleep quality. Individual sleep quality assessment was completed in 2197 participants with an average age of 37.52 years, through Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Information about their cooking practice were also collected by self-reported questionnaire. As an internal biomarker of COFs, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) (n = 562) was further measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Binary logistic regression models were performed to evaluate the association between exposure to COFs and individual sleep quality. We found that, subjective poor kitchen ventilation, preheating oil to smoking, and cooking for over 30 minutes were positively associated with overall poor sleep quality (global PSQI score >5) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.43–2.16; 1.25, (1.03–1.52); 1.42, (1.15–1.76), respectively]. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjective poor kitchen ventilation still tend to increase the risk of long sleep latency, sleep disturbances, and daytime dysfunction [OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.09–1.73; 1.91, (1.39–2.61); 1.54, (1.23–1.93), respectively]. Similar results were observed in participants who preheated oil to smoking [OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.08–1.72; 1.55, (1.14–2.14); 1.25, (1.02–1.55), respectively] and cooked for over 30 minutes [OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.05–1.72; 1.46, (1.03–2.06); 1.36, (1.08–1.72), respectively]. Furthermore, high urinary 1-HOP level was also positively associated with overall poor sleep quality (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.31–4.05). The results indicated that exposure to COFs from Chinese household cooking may be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among

  5. Depression in an older adult rural population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sati P; Shrivastava, Saurabh R; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-10-01

    With a rapidly aging society, geriatric mental health is emerging as an important public health concern. According to the WHO, prevalence of depression in adults aged ≥60 years in developed and developing countries was 0.5 million and 4.8 million respectively in 2004. In India, increased life expectancy led to a rise in the older adult population between 2001 and 2011, expected to reach 324 million by 2050. To estimate the prevalence of depression and assess association between sociodemographic parameters and depression among older adults in a rural Indian community. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in February and March 2012 in the rural village of Sembakkam, Kancheepuram District in the state of Tamil Nadu, India; the village has a population of 5948, 3.1% of whom are aged ≥60 years. Universal sampling technique was employed, in which every household in the community was visited and all elderly persons were selected. After obtaining written informed consent (a thumbprint was taken if the person was illiterate), participants were assessed face to face for depression using the Short Form Geriatric Depression Scale. The inclusion criterion was a score >24 on the mini-mental state examination. Final sample size was 103. Study variables included sociodemographic parameters such as age, sex, education, occupation, socioeconomic status, and marital status. Data entry and statistical analysis used SPSS version 17. Of 103 respondents interviewed, 73 (70.9%) were aged 60-69 years and 58 (56.3%) were male. Forty-four (42.7%) individuals (17 males, 27 females) were found to be depressed; 23 (22.3%) with mild depression, 14 (13.6%) moderate depression and 7 (6.8%) severe depression. Female sex and widowhood were significantly associated with depression. Depression, particularly mild depression, is common in this rural population of older adults, particularly among women and widowed elderly. These study findings can help program managers implement a more

  6. Cognitive impairment in rural elderly population in ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Wong-Achi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mini-Cog is a simple and short test that identifies cognitive impairment. Its detection helps provide an early dementia diagnosis, rapid access to treatments, and even delay or reversion. Materials and Methods: This multicenter, observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study included 214 patients. Patients enrolled in this study were community dwellers aged ≥55-year-old, without prior diagnosis of cognitive impairment or dementia, with adequate hearing and vision functions. It was conducted in primary care health centers localized in rural communities of Ecuador. Results: Ages ranged from 50 to 98 years and there was predominance of female gender: 66% versus 33%. The percentage of illiteracy was 26.4% (CI: 25.32–27.48, and 63% (CI: 62.1–63.94 of patients had complete primary educational level. The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment was 50.9% (95% CI: 48.5–53.3 and 47.2% (95% CI: 45.2–49.2 in patients with risk factors. We found several established risk factors associated with cognitive impairment onset, including social factors, physiological factors, and comorbidities. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological research of CI in rural populations in this country using the Mini-Cog as a screening tool. Adopting public health measures for the prevention and control of those modifiable risk factors could reduce the prevalence of cognitive impairment and even its progression to dementia.

  7. Clinical and genetic characteristics of Pseudohypoparathyroidism in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xueying; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Ou; Nie, Min; Quan, Tingting; Xue, Yu; Wang, Wenbo; Jiang, Yan; Li, Mei; Xia, Weibo; Xing, Xiaoping

    2018-02-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is caused by mutations and epimutations in the GNAS locus, and characterized by the possibility of resistance to multiple hormones and Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. PHP can be classified into the forms 1A/C, sporadic 1B and familial 1B. To obtain an overall view of the clinical and genetic characteristics of the Chinese PHP patient population. From 2000 to 2016, 120 patients were recruited and studied using Sanger sequencing, methylation-specific multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA). Of these patients, 104 had positive molecular alterations indicative of certain forms of PHP and were included in data analysis. Clinical and laboratory features were compared between PHP1A/C and PHP1B patients. Ten PHP1A/C, 21 familial PHP1B and 73 sporadic PHP1B patients were identified. Four novel GNAS mutations were discovered in these patients, including c.1038+1G>T, c.530+2T>C, c.880_883delCAAG and c.311_312delAAG, insT. The most common symptoms in this series were recurrent tetany (89.4%) and epilepsy (47.1%). The prevalence of weight excess increased with age for PHP1B (10%-35%) and PHP1A/C (50%-75%). Intracranial calcification had a prevalence of 94.6% and correlated with seizures (r = .227, P = .029). Cataracts occurred in 56.2% PHP patients, and there was a trend towards longer disease duration in patients with cataracts (P = .051). Statistically significant differences (P PHP1B and PHP1A/C patients, including age of onset (10 vs 7 year), short stature (21.3% vs 70%), rounded face (60.6% vs 100%), brachydactyly (25.5% vs 100%), ectopic ossification (1.1% vs 40%) and TSH resistance (44.6% vs 90%), respectively. This study is the largest single-centre series of PHP patients and summarizes the clinical and genetic features of the Chinese PHP population. While there was substantial clinical overlap between PHP1A/C and PHP1B, differences in disease progression

  8. Quality of life of the population as an indicator of sustainable development of rural territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Alexandrovna Tretiakova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is theoretical justification of socio-economic foundations of sustainable livelihoods in rural areas and development of practical recommendations for evaluating and improving quality of life in rural areas. The subject of this study is a system of socio-economic relations that defines processes and patterns of sustainable livelihoods in rural areas. Methodological basis is a systematic approach and method of dialectical cognition, which examine processes of development of rural territories in relationship and complementarity. The results described in this paper are: the degree of differentiation of rural population under qualitative levels of well-being was studied; the authors’ system of indicators of regional socio-economic development on a basis of detailed hierarchical structure was presented; priority areas for improving standards and quality of life of the rural population were identified. A scope of results was developed and science-based recommendations and suggestions for sustainable development of rural territories based on authors’ methodology for evaluating quality life in rural areas may be subject to legislative and executive authorities in development socio-economic projects and programmes aimed at enhancing rural employment and income were made. The conclusions are: sustainable development of rural territories involves not only increase of efficiency of rural economy, but, above all, increasing and improving the quality of life of the rural population; on a system of complementarities, the evaluation of sustainability of livelihood strategies should take into account the economic, environmental, social and institutional factors

  9. Shifts in the distribution of rural population in the non-Chernozem zone of the RSFSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igudina, A I; Ioffe, G V

    1986-04-01

    "Rural population change within the Non-Chernozem zone of the RSFRS [Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic] is examined over the period 1959-79 at several levels of analysis: the Non-Chernozem zone as a whole, its major economic regions, individual oblasts, individual rayons and individual farms and rural places. The overriding tendency at all levels of analysis has been the increasing spatial concentration of rural population." The authors observe that "this concentration assumes a variety of forms, from the concentration of rural population in the suburban zones of large cities and the immediate surroundings of rayon seats to a decline in the number of rural places (from 180,000 in 1959 to 118,000 in 1979) and the growth of local centers against a general background of rural population decline. The authors hint that the observed tendency is a positive development, in keeping with the policy of converting Soviet agriculture to a more intensive path of development." excerpt

  10. Ocular injury: Prevalence in different rural population of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A K

    2013-12-01

    This population based cross-sectional study was conducted on 8283 persons of all ages in five districts, selected conveniently, to assess the magnitude of ocular injuries, their causes and consequences in rural Bangladesh. Six Upazilas from five districts and from each Upazila one Union was selected randomly. One village, the ultimate cluster, was then selected conveniently from each Union. All people (n = 8283) in the 8 villages were then surveyed. Out of 8283 population (ranging from 1-120 years) surveyed, 167(2%) had history and/or evidence of past ocular trauma with a yearly incidence of 6.2 per 1000 per year. Study demonstrated a female predominance with male to female ratio being roughly 4:5. Majority (82%) had at least one episode of trauma in their life-time with mean age at 1st trauma being 20 years. Nearly 40% of the traumas were caused by blunt objects followed by penetrating object (22.3%) and sharp instrument (18.1%) with home being the primary place of occurrence (55.1%). Evidence of ocular trauma was found on eye-lid (15%), conjunctiva (11.4%) and cornea (10.2%) as scars. The older participants (≥ 30 years), females, illiterates, agriculture labors, housewives and household workers were more likely to receive trauma. Majority (86.8%) of the subjects received treatment following injury. The median time lapsed between injuries and receiving first treatment was 5 days and that between injury and visiting an eye-specialist was 18 days. Self-treatment and treatment from over-the-counter comprised 45% and 42.1% respectively followed by eye-specialists (25.5%), village quack (22.8%), graduate doctors (19.3%) and traditional healers (6.9%). About 87% received conservative management, with 12.4% needing hospitalization. Most of the injured (92.8%) and non-injured (95.2%) eyes had normal vision before trauma as informed by the respondents. Following trauma, 18% had impaired, 10.7% severely impaired vision and about 6% were blind. Job abstinence due to trauma

  11. Transplantation or rurality? Migration and HIV risk among Chinese men who have sex with men in the urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuncheng; Fu, Rong; Tang, Weiming; Cao, Bolin; Pan, Stephen W; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D; Kumi Smith, M

    2018-01-01

    /migrant categorization obscures important differences in HIV risk present between urban/rural subgroups among them. Previous studies of HIV risks in Chinese "migrant" may have failed to consider the role of structural factors such as discrimination or barriers to healthcare when interpreting their findings of higher HIV prevalence in this population. Low ART uptake among rural transplant MSM in this study is particularly concerning and underscore the need for HIV-related interventions tailored for this group. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in Chinese older adults: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Li, J.; Cuijpers, P.; Wu, S.; Wu, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In China, the rapid socioeconomic transition and the consequential traditional culture change had significant influences on Chinese older-adult depression. In the present study, the prevalence, the potential risk, and the protective factors of depression in the Chinese older population

  13. Community Leadership in Rural Tourism Development: A Tale of Two Ancient Chinese Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuai Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are paying increasing attention to questions of community leadership and rural tourism development. Based on leadership theories and the literature on community leadership and tourism development, this study developed a framework for community leadership in rural tourism development and used it to examine two ancient Chinese villages. We used the longitudinal case study method to collect data, and we used textual analysis to analyze these data. The results show that the rebel leadership characteristic of confrontational actions played an important role in starting the tourism industry in both villages. However, this leadership was difficult to maintain because community leaders and residents had limited power compared to that of outsiders. Losing control of tourism development in the two villages led to banal management, which prevented the emergence of strong community leadership. In the future, we argue that resilient community leadership should be nurtured in the two villages to address more complex problems occurring in tourism development, such as those characterized by vision tensions and conflicts of interest among the stakeholders affected by tourism development. Finally, we suggest that, based on the longitudinal method, future research can focus on the relationship between resilient leadership and the resilience of tourism communities.

  14. The effects of ageing and urbanisation on China's future rural and urban populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates China's future population and labour force by developing a novel forecasting model for population. It combines information about age-specific parameters on fertility and mortality for both rural and urban areas using information about rural-urban migration and the transformation

  15. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  16. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Developmental dyslexia in Chinese and English populations: dissociating the effect of dyslexia from language differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Lee, Hwee Ling; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Tao; Geng, Li Bo; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Shakeshaft, Clare; Twomey, Tae; Green, David W.; Yang, Yi Ming

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that developmental dyslexia has a different neural basis in Chinese and English populations because of known differences in the processing demands of the Chinese and English writing systems. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provide the first direct statistically based investigation into how the effect of dyslexia on brain activation is influenced by the Chinese and English writing systems. Brain activation for semantic decisions on written words was compared in English dyslexics, Chinese dyslexics, English normal readers and Chinese normal readers, while controlling for all other experimental parameters. By investigating the effects of dyslexia and language in one study, we show common activation in Chinese and English dyslexics despite different activation in Chinese versus English normal readers. The effect of dyslexia in both languages was observed as less than normal activation in the left angular gyrus and in left middle frontal, posterior temporal and occipitotemporal regions. Differences in Chinese and English normal reading were observed as increased activation for Chinese relative to English in the left inferior frontal sulcus; and increased activation for English relative to Chinese in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus. These cultural differences were not observed in dyslexics who activated both left inferior frontal sulcus and left posterior superior temporal sulcus, consistent with the use of culturally independent strategies when reading is less efficient. By dissociating the effect of dyslexia from differences in Chinese and English normal reading, our results reconcile brain activation results with a substantial body of behavioural studies showing commonalities in the cognitive manifestation of dyslexia in Chinese and English populations. They also demonstrate the influence of cognitive ability and learning environment on a common neural system for reading. PMID:20488886

  18. Assessing Cardiovascular Health Using Life′s Simple 7 in a Chinese Population Undergoing Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Few Chinese patients undergoing stroke prevention had optimal CVH (determined using LS7. Additionally, fewer patients undergoing secondary prevention had optimal CVH than those undergoing primary prevention. In particular, physical activity and diet status in this population require improvement.

  19. Ethnic dental analysis of shovel and Carabelli's traits in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J W; Tsai, P L; Hsiao, T H; Chang, H P; Lin, L M; Liu, K M; Yu, H S; Ferguson, D

    1999-03-01

    Chinese populations differ from Caucasoids by having a high prevalence of shovel trait and a low prevalence of Carabelli's trait. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the shovel and the Carabelli's traits in a Chinese population. The research design investigated a Chinese population that resides in southern Taiwan. The ancestors of this Chinese population migrated to Taiwan from mainland China, mainly from Fukien and Kwangtung. The effects of sex and age on Carabelli's trait were controlled in this investigation, as was the association between tooth size and Carabelli's trait. Results show that males were more likely to have Carabelli's trait expressed on teeth than females. The buccolingual diameter of Carabelli's trait teeth was larger than that of teeth without the trait. After controlling for sex, age, and tooth size, the existence of the shovel trait increased the likelihood of having Carabelli's trait by a factor of five and a half, which is a significant effect.

  20. Plasma surfactant protein D levels and the relation to body mass index in a chinese population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, X M; Wu, Y P; Wei, R

    2007-01-01

    in a Chinese population from the Tai An region comprising 268 individuals. We found that (i) plasma SP-D in the Chinese population was distributed with a median value of 380.2 ng/ml (324.9; 418.7) and a range from 79.4 to 3965.3 ng/ml, (ii) significantly higher plasma SP-D in men than in women...

  1. Strategies for piloting a breast health promotion program in the Chinese-Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Fung Kuen; Kwok, Cannas; White, Kate; D'Abrew, Natalie; Roydhouse, Jessica K

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, women from non-English-speaking backgrounds participate less frequently in breast cancer screening than English-speaking women, and Chinese immigrant women are 50% less likely to participate in breast examinations than Australian-born women. Chinese-born Australians comprise 10% of the overseas-born Australian population, and the immigrant Chinese population in Australia is rapidly increasing. We report on the strategies used in a pilot breast health promotion program, Living with Healthy Breasts, aimed at Cantonese-speaking adult immigrant women in Sydney, Australia. The program consisted of a 1-day education session and a 2-hour follow-up session. We used 5 types of strategies commonly used for cultural targeting (peripheral, evidential, sociocultural, linguistic, and constituent-involving) in a framework of traditional Chinese philosophies (Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism) to deliver breast health messages to Chinese-Australian immigrant women. Creating the program's content and materials required careful consideration of color (pink to indicate femininity and love), symbols (peach blossoms to imply longevity), word choice (avoidance of the word death), location and timing (held in a Chinese restaurant a few months after the Chinese New Year), communication patterns (the use of metaphors and cartoons for discussing health-related matters), and concern for modesty (emphasizing that all presenters and team members were female) to maximize cultural relevance. Using these strategies may be beneficial for designing and implementing breast cancer prevention programs in Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant communities.

  2. Population genetic data of the NGM SElect STR loci in Chinese Han population from Zhejiang region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anju; Wu, Weiwei; Liu, Qiuling; Wu, Yeda; Lu, Dejian

    2013-03-01

    Genetic variations of the 17 NGM SElect STR loci in Chinese Han samples from the Zhejiang region were analyzed. The results show that the NGM SElect is a highly genetic informative system in Zhejiang Han, and this population shows quite different genetic data from other major populations in the world with the exception of the Fujian Han.

  3. Systematic screening for CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms in a Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guo-Xin; Dai, Da-Peng; Wang, Hao; Huang, Xiang-Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Cai, Jie; Chen, Hao; Cai, Jian-Ping

    2017-03-01

    To systematically investigate the genetic polymorphisms of the CYP3A4 gene in a Han Chinese population. The promoter and exons of CYP3A4 gene in 1114 unrelated, healthy Han Chinese subjects were amplified and genotyped by direct sequencing. In total, five previously reported alleles (*1G, *4, *5, *18B and *23) were detected, of which one allele (*23) was reported for the first time in Han Chinese population. Additionally, seven novel exonic variants were also identified and designated as new alleles CYP3A4*28-*34. This study provides the most comprehensive data of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Han Chinese population and detects the largest number of novel CYP3A4 alleles in one ethnic group.

  4. Chinese herbal therapy and Western drug use, belief and adherence for hypertension management in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China.This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users. When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy.Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life.

  5. Chinese Gini Coefficient from 2005 to 2012, Based on 20 Grouped Income Data Sets of Urban and Rural Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data insufficiency has become the primary factor affecting research on income disparity in China. To resolve this issue, this paper explores Chinese income distribution and income inequality using distribution functions. First, it examines 20 sets of grouped data on family income between 2005 and 2012 by the China Yearbook of Household Surveys, 2013, and compares the fitting effects of eight distribution functions. The results show that the generalized beta distribution of the second kind has a high fitting to the income distribution of urban and rural residents in China. Next, these results are used to calculate the Chinese Gini ratio, which is then compared with the findings of relevant studies. Finally, this paper discusses the influence of urbanization on income inequality in China and suggests that accelerating urbanization can play an important role in narrowing the income gap of Chinese residents.

  6. Genetic variants at 20p11 confer risk to androgenetic alopecia in the Chinese Han population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is a well-characterized type of progressive hair loss commonly seen in men, with different prevalences in different ethnic populations. It is generally considered to be a polygenic heritable trait. Several susceptibility genes/loci, such as AR/EDA2R, HDAC9 and 20p11, have been identified as being involved in its development in European populations. In this study, we aim to validate whether these loci are also associated with AGA in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: We genotyped 16 previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with 445 AGA cases and 546 healthy controls using the Sequenom iPlex platform. The trend test was used to evaluate the association between these loci and AGA in the Chinese Han population. Conservatively accounting for multiple testing by the Bonferroni correction, the threshold for statistical significance was P ≤ 3.13 × 10(-3. RESULTS: We identified that 5 SNPs at 20p11 were significantly associated with AGA in the Chinese Han population (1.84 × 10(-11 ≤ P ≤ 2.10 × 10(-6. CONCLUSIONS: This study validated, for the first time, that 20p11 also confers risk for AGA in the Chinese Han population and implicated the potential common genetic factors for AGA shared by both Chinese and European populations.

  7. Parental encouragement of initiative-taking and adjustment in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan

    2012-12-01

    Due to the requirements of the competitive, market-oriented urban society, parents in urban and urbanized families are more likely than parents in rural families to encourage initiative-taking in child rearing in China. The socialization experiences of children from different types of families may be related to their adjustment. This study examined parental socialization attitudes, social and school adjustment, and their relations in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families. Participants were elementary school students (N = 1,033; M age = 11 years) and their parents in China. Data were obtained from parental reports, peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents in urban and urbanized families had higher scores than parents in rural families on encouragement of initiative-taking. Urban children, particularly girls, were more sociable, obtained higher social status, and had fewer school problems than their rural counterparts. Children from urbanized families were different from rural children and similar to urban children in social and school adjustment. Moreover, multigroup invariance tests showed that parental encouragement of initiative-taking was associated more strongly with children's sociable-assertive behavior and social standing in the urban and urbanized groups than in the rural group. The results indicate that particular socialization attitudes may vary in their adaptive value in child development as a function of specific social and cultural requirements in changing societies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. School-to-Work Transition in Arizona: Does Public Policy Ignore Social Equality for Rural Populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, Arnold; Vandegrift, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Public policy implications for Arizona of the School-to-Work Opportunities Act are explored, specifically with regard to rural areas. It is argued that should additional resources become available to the state, population-based allocations to rural areas are likely to be insufficient for meaningful educational and economic-development reform. (SLD)

  9. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend wealth index category had a significant, inverse association with mental disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study’s results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability. PMID:26492258

  10. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-10-19

    In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend disability (p for trend disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study's results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability.

  11. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in Rural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis. PMID:25295297

  12. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. in Rural Soils

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    Yao-Tsung Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.

  13. Community development: an important way for coordinating development of population and social economy in rural areas of China.

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    Li, J

    1995-01-01

    This article explains how community development is important to rural socioeconomic development in China. Almost all rural socioeconomic activities occur at the community level. Community development encourages voluntarism and self-development, which contribute to adoption of more modern ideas, morals, and values. Community development stimulates changes that favor decreased childbearing and a high quality of child rearing. The special features of Chinese rural communities are identified as underdevelopment, population pressure and resource degradation, collective entities, greater social cohesion, flexibility, affiliations as government units, and access to other useful community organizations. The development model for communities varied over time from an emphasis on family planning to a focus on women's development, poverty alleviation, or economic development. Well-developed communities focused on social security systems, service networks, or environmental protection. Community development is tied to economic development. The growth of collectives played an important role in community development. Women's active and extensive participation and leadership by other influential persons were important forces in community development. Women served as agents of change. Mass participation is now a key feature of community development. Former communes did not include the same level of voluntarism. Community development directly supports increased incomes for families, which decreases the emphasis on children as a source of income. The economic value of children is reduced when communities provide social security. The greater value placed on males is reduced when women's income is increased. Community development lowers the social value of children by improving people's quality of life and by creating a modern social environment.

  14. Quality of life and near vision impairment due to functional presbyopia among rural Chinese adults.

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    Lu, Qing; Congdon, Nathan; He, Xiangdong; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Yang, Amy; He, Wei

    2011-06-13

    To evaluate the impact of near-vision impairment on visual functioning and quality of life in a rural adult population in Shenyang, northern China. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged 40+ years, during which functional presbyopia (correctable presenting near vision vision-related quality of life and spectacle usage questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers to determine the degree of self-rated difficulty with near tasks. A total of 1008 respondents (91.5% of 1102 eligible persons) were examined, and 776 (78%) of completed the questionnaires (mean age, 57.0 ± 10.2 years; 63.3% women). Near-vision spectacle wearers obtained their spectacles primarily from markets (74.5%) and optical shops (21.7%), and only 1.14% from eye clinics. Among 538 (69.3%) persons with functional presbyopia, self-rated overall (distance and near) vision was worse (P vision. Compared to persons without presbyopia, presbyopic persons were more likely to report diminished accomplishment due to vision (P = 0.01, adjusted for age, sex, education, and distance vision.) Difficulties with activities of daily living and resulting social impediments are common due to presbyopia in this setting. Most spectacle wearers with presbyopia in rural China obtain near correction from sources that do not provide comprehensive vision care.

  15. Microgeographic differentiation in thermal performance curves between rural and urban populations of an aquatic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Nedim; Op de Beeck, Lin; Brans, Kristien I; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-12-01

    The rapidly increasing rate of urbanization has a major impact on the ecology and evolution of species. While increased temperatures are a key aspect of urbanization ("urban heat islands"), we have very limited knowledge whether this generates differentiation in thermal responses between rural and urban populations. In a common garden experiment, we compared the thermal performance curves (TPCs) for growth rate and mortality in larvae of the damselfly Coenagrion puella from three urban and three rural populations. TPCs for growth rate shifted vertically, consistent with the faster-slower theoretical model whereby the cold-adapted rural larvae grew faster than the warm-adapted urban larvae across temperatures. In line with costs of rapid growth, rural larvae showed lower survival than urban larvae across temperatures. The relatively lower temperatures hence expected shorter growing seasons in rural populations compared to the populations in the urban heat islands likely impose stronger time constraints to reach a certain developmental stage before winter, thereby selecting for faster growth rates. In addition, higher predation rates at higher temperature may have contributed to the growth rate differences between urban and rural ponds. A faster-slower differentiation in TPCs may be a widespread pattern along the urbanization gradient. The observed microgeographic differentiation in TPCs supports the view that urbanization may drive life-history evolution. Moreover, because of the urban heat island effect, urban environments have the potential to aid in developing predictions on the impact of climate change on rural populations.

  16. Myocardial infarction in Québec rural and urban populations between 1995 and 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loslier, Julie; Vanasse, Alain; Niyonsenga, Théophile; Courteau, Josiane; Orzanco, Gabriela; Hemiari, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of health inequities between urban and rural populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of Québec urban and rural populations and the relation between rurality and incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), care management and outcomes. Socioeconomic data by census subdivisions were available from the 1996 Canadian census, representing 7,137,245 individuals. Data on patients with MI were taken from the provincial administrative health database (MED-ECHO), which is managed by the Ministry of Health and contains clinical and demographic information collected when patients are released from acute care hospitals in Québec. We included a total of 37,678 cases compiled over the 3 years of follow-up in the analyses. Residents of rural areas with low urban influence have higher MI incidence rates than all of the other populations in the study. In comparison with urban populations, their observed rural counterparts are at a disadvantage with regard to education, employment and income. Although angioplasty and coronary artery bypass graft surgery rates were higher in more urban areas, the survival rate was lower than in rural areas. This study revealed geographic heterogeneity of MI incidence, revascularization rates and survival rates among urban and rural populations.

  17. The Rural-Urban Divide, Intergroup Relations, and Social Identity Formation of Rural Migrant Children in a Chinese Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donghui

    2018-01-01

    Through ethnographic fieldwork conducted at a Beijing public school, this study aims to investigate how rural migrant children in China negotiate and construct their identity vis-à-vis the school's local children. Building on social identity theory, this study reveals that rural migrant children develop a strong non-local group identity as a…

  18. Urban versus rural populations' views of health care in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Hinds, Kerstin; Richards, Helen; Godden, David

    2005-10-01

    To compare satisfaction with, and expectations of, health care of people in rural and urban areas of Scotland. Questions were included in the 2002 Scottish Social Attitudes Survey (SSAS). The Scottish House-hold Survey urban-rural classification was used to categorize locations. A random sample of 2707 people was contacted to participate in a face-to-face interview and a self-completion questionnaire survey. SPSS (v.10) was used to analyse the data. Relationships between location category and responses were explored using logistic regression analysis. In all, 1665 (61.5%) interviews were conducted and 1507 (56.0%) respondents returned self-completion questionnaires. Satisfaction with local doctors and hospital services was higher in rural locations. While around 40% of those living in remote areas thought A&E services too distant, this did not rank as a top priority for health service improvement. This could be due to expectations that general practitioners would assist in out-of-hours emergencies. Most Scots thought services should be good in rural areas even if this was costly, and that older people should not be discouraged from moving to rural areas because of their likely health care needs. In all, 79% of respondents thought that care should be as good in rural as urban areas. Responses to many questions were independently significantly affected by rural/urban location. Most Scots want rural health care to continue to be good, but the new UK National Health Service (NHS) general practitioner contract and service redesign will impact on provision. Current high satisfaction, likely to be due to access and expectations about local help, could be affected. This study provides baseline data on attitudes and expectations before potential service redesign, which should be monitored at intervals in future.

  19. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

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    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among women in Chinese rural areas.

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    Hui Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MS is prevalent in recent years but few data is reported in the rural areas in China. The aim of this study was to examine MS prevalence and its risk factors among women in rural China. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted during 2007-2008 in Nantong, China. In person interviews, blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 13,505 female participants aged 18-74 years. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF, the US Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and modified ATPIII for Asian population has determined three criteria of MS. These criteria for MS were used and compared in this study. The prevalence of MS was 22.0%, 16.9% and 23.3% according to IDF, ATPIII and ATPIII-modified criteria, respectively. Levels of agreement of these criteria for MS were above 0.75. We found that vigorous-intensity of occupational physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of MS with OR of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.63-0.91. Rice wine drinkers (alcohol >12.8 g/day had about 34% low risks of developing MS with OR of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48-0.91, compared with non-drinkers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.15-2.84 in women who smoked more than 20 pack-years, compared to non-smokers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.25-1.95 in women who had familial history of diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and stroke, compared to women without familial history of those diseases. CONCLUSION: MS is highly prevalent among women in rural China. Both physical activity and rice wine consumption play a protective role, while family history and smoking are risk factors in MS development. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyles and appropriate interventions in rural China.

  1. [Obesity, body morphology, and blood pressure in urban and rural population groups of Yucatan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Pedro; Fernández, Victoria; Loría, Alvar; Pardío, Jeannette; Laviada, Hugo; Vargas-Ancona, Lizardo; Ward, Ryk

    2007-01-01

    To characterize body morphology and blood pressure of adults of the Mexican state of Yucatan. Rural-urban differences in weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were analyzed in 313 urban and 271 rural subjects. No rural-urban differences in prevalence of obesity and overweight were found. Hypertension was marginally higher in urban subjects. Rural abnormal waist circumference was higher in young men and young women. Comparison with two national surveys and a survey in the aboriginal population (rural mixtecos) showed similar prevalence of obesity as ENSA-2000 and higher than mixtecos and ENEC-1993. Abnormal waist circumference was intermediate between ENSANUT-2006 and mixtecos and hypertension was intermediate between ENEC and mixtecos. The Maya and mestizo population of Yucatan showed a high prevalence of obesity and abnormal waist circumference not accompanied by a comparable higher hypertension frequency. This finding requires further confirmation.

  2. Social Change and its Potential Impacts on Chinese Population Health

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    Wang, Hong

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the past 25 years, China has experienced transformation of its economic system from a highly centralized planned economy toward a market oriented economic system. This process has led to massive and rapid changes in all aspects of society with profound effects on the population’s health in the large parts of the country. Along with the material prosperity, the living conditions of Chinese people, such as food, shelter, and sanitation status, have been improving steadily. People have more capability to purchase health related merchandise as well as health services. Overall the health status of most Chinese has improved but there are significant exceptions to this overall conclusion. These exceptions arise from increasing inequity of income, increases in unemployment rates, the decline of health insurance coverage, changes in demography, changes in social value, culture, health related behaviors, and the changes of health care systems.

  3. Statin Safety in Chinese: A Population-Based Study of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daniel Q; Kim, Richard B; McArthur, Eric; Fleet, Jamie L; Hegele, Robert A; Shah, Baiju R; Weir, Matthew A; Molnar, Amber O; Dixon, Stephanie; Tu, Jack V; Anand, Sonia; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    Compared to Caucasians, Chinese achieve a higher blood concentration of statin for a given dose. It remains unknown whether this translates to increased risk of serious statin-associated adverse events amongst Chinese patients. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age, 74 years) newly prescribed a statin in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2013, where 19,033 Chinese (assessed through a validated surname algorithm) were matched (1:3) by propensity score to 57,099 non-Chinese. This study used linked healthcare databases. The follow-up observation period (mean 1.1, maximum 10.8 years) was similar between groups, as were the reasons for censoring the observation period (end of follow-up, death, or statin discontinuation). Forty-seven percent (47%) of Chinese were initiated on a higher than recommended statin dose. Compared to non-Chinese, Chinese ethnicity did not associate with any of the four serious statin-associated adverse events assessed in this study [rhabdomyolysis hazard ratio (HR) 0.61 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.34), incident diabetes HR 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30), acute kidney injury HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.13), or all-cause mortality HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.05)]. Similar results were observed in subgroups defined by statin type and dose. We observed no higher risk of serious statin toxicity in Chinese than matched non-Chinese older adults with similar indicators of baseline health. Regulatory agencies should review available data, including findings from our study, to decide if a change in their statin dosing recommendations for people of Chinese ethnicity is warranted.

  4. Population-based assessment of visual impairment among ethnic Dai adults in a rural community in China.

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    Yang, Wen-Yan; Li, Jun; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Qian, Deng-Juan; Niu, Zhiqiang; Shen, Wei; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-03-02

    Dai ethnicity is one of the major Chinese ethnic minorities with a population of about 1.2 million. We aimed to determine the prevalence and potential causes of visual impairment (VI) among ethnic Dai adults aged 50 years or older in a rural community in China. A population-based survey including 2163 ethnic Dai people (80.5%) was undertaken using a random cluster sampling strategy. The detailed eye examination was performed after pupil dilation by trained study ophthalmologists and optometrists. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study logMAR chart and VI was defined as a VA of less than 20/63 in the better-seeing eye. The overall prevalence of presenting blindness and low vision was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.3-3.7) and 13.3% (95% CI, 11.9-14.8), respectively. The prevalence estimates were reduced to 2.1% (95% CI, 1.5-2.8) and 6.7% (95% CI, 5.7-7.8) when BCVA was considered. Men were more likely to be affected by low vision but less likely to be blind compared with women. Cataract accounted for 62.7% of presenting low vision and 68.8% of presenting blindness, respectively. In conclusion, VI was a significant health concern in Dai Chinese in China.

  5. Effects of Rural Mutual Health Care on outpatient service utilization in Chinese village medical institutions: evidence from panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Gao, Jianmin; Xue, Qinxiang; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e

    2009-07-01

    To solve the problem of 'Kan bing nan, kan bing gui' (medical treatment is difficult to access and expensive), a Harvard-led research team implemented a community-based health insurance scheme known as Rural Mutual Health Care (RMHC) in Chinese rural areas from 2004 to 2006. Two major policies adopted by RMHC included insurance coverage of outpatient services (demand-side policy) and drug policy (supply-side policy). This paper focuses on the effects of these two policies on outpatient service utilization in Chinese village clinics. The data used in this study are from 3-year household follow-up surveys. A generalized negative binomial regression model and a Heckman selection model were constructed using panel data from 2005 to 2007. The results indicate that the price elasticities of demand for outpatient visits and per-visit outpatient expenses were -1.5 and -0.553, respectively. After implementing the supply-side policy, outpatient visits and per-visit outpatient expenses decreased by 94.7 and 55.9%, respectively, controlling for insurance coverage. These findings can be used to make recommendations to the Chinese government on improving the health care system.

  6. Correlation of human papilloma virus with oral squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingping; Tao, Detao; Tang, Daofang; Gao, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) might be related to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. However, the relationship between OSCC in a Chinese population and oral HPV infection is still unclear. In this study, we evaluate the relationship of OSCC with HPV infection in a Chinese population via a meta-analysis. The reports on HPV and OSCC in a Chinese population published between January, 1994, and October, 2015 were retrieved via CNKI/WANFANG/pubmed databases. According to the inclusion criteria, we selected 26 eligible case-control studies. After testing the heterogeneity of the studies by the Cochran Q test, the meta-analyses for HPV and HPV16 were performed using the random effects model. Quantitative meta-analyses showed that, compared with normal oral mucosa the combined odds ratio of OSCC with HPV infection were 1.98 (95% CI: 1.34-2.92). The test for overall effect showed that the P value was less than 0.05 (Z = 3.46). Forest plot analyses were seen in Figures 2 and 3. Publication bias and bias risk analysis using RevMan 5.3 software were measured indicators of the graphics of the basic symmetry. High incidences of HPV infection were found in the samples of Chinese OSCC. For the Chinese population, HPV infection elevates the risk of OSCC tumorigenesis.

  7. Expansion of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of xeroderma pigmentosum in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Cheng, Ruhong; Yu, Xia; Sun, Zhonghui; Li, Ming; Yao, Zhirong

    2017-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by exaggerated sunburn reactions, freckle-like pigmentation, and a high possibility of developing cutaneous tumors. XP comprised seven complementation groups (from XP-A to XP-G) and a variant form XP-V. This study was based on five unrelated Chinese families with six patients clinically suspected to be XP. Mutation screening was performed by direct sequencing of the entire coding region of eight XP genes. All of the pathogenic mutations were identified by mutational analysis, including four novel mutations. Our study successfully identified the pathogenic mutations in six XP patients (three XP-A, one XP-G, one XP-V, and a rare XP-D group in Chinese population). We reviewed the reported XP cases with mutations in the Chinese population and concluded that four complementation groups (XP-A, XP-C, XP-G, and XP-V) that occupy the major proportion should be considered as a first step in genetic detection (especially, XPA is the most common group, and unlike in other populations, XP-G is not rare in the Chinese population). Moreover, XP-D and XP-F, two rare subgroups, should also be added for further mutational analysis. Further, we provide some information for Chinese dermatologists that, when an early diagnosis is made, XP-C and XP-V patients can have relatively good prognoses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Dynamics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence and Management Rates among Rural Population in Henan Province, China

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    Xiaotian Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM prevalence and management rates based on a rural cohort study in Henan Province of China. The rural prospective study was conducted for 20194 Chinese population ≥18 years in 2007-2008 and followed during 2013-2014. A total of 14009 individuals were recruited for the prospective analysis ultimately. Over 5.74 years of follow-up, the age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM increased from 6.18%, 44.41%, 34.39%, and 19.08% at baseline to 7.87%, 59.64%, 52.17%, and 26.52% at follow-up in total population, respectively. Similar changes were found in men and women except the age-standardized control in men. The four parameters of T2DM were higher among various factors at follow-up than those at baseline. There was no statistical difference in awareness (P=0.089 and treatment (P=0.257 in the newly diagnosed T2DM compared with the rates at baseline. The current study indicated that the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM displayed chronological increasing trends while the awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM were still disproportionally low in central China. More works are needed urgently to popularize public health education and improve the quality of medical care in T2DM.

  9. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease in Chinese population: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengying; Bian, Chen; Zhang, Jiqiang; Wen, Feng

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is relatively well established in Caucasians, but less established in other ethnicities. To examine the association between ApoE polymorphism and the onset of AD in Chinese population, we searched the commonly used electronic databases between January 2000 and November 2013 for relevant studies. Total 20 studies, including 1576 cases and 1741 controls, were retrieved. The results showed statistically significant positive association between risk factor ɛ4 allele carriers and AD in Chinese population (OR = 3.93, 95% CI = 3.37-4.58, P risk suffering from AD than controls in Chinese population. The results also provide a support for the protection effect of ApoE ɛ3 allele in developing AD.

  10. Determinants of the European Union rural population change in 2007-2010

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    Michał Dudek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural change and migration are important determinants of the economy and environment. In the EU strategic documents the socio-economic developmental priorities have a territorial aspect, referring to all the regions of the member states. Achievement of the Union’s sustainable growth policy objectives could be limited due to unfavourable demographic trends in rural areas. The paper, using the Eurostat data and selected measures of population reproduction, describes the changes in number of rural inhabitants in 2007-2010 and their main determinants. In the analysed period the rural population size increased. However, contrary to the urban and intermediate regions, since 2009 as a result of a surplus number of deaths over births, in the rural areas the negative values of population increase were observed.

  11. Genetic variants associated with myocardial infarction and the risk factors in Chinese population.

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    Yongqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent genome-wide association (GWA studies in Caucasians identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with coronary artery disease (CAD. The associations of those SNPs with myocardial infarction (MI have not been replicated in Asian populations. Among those previously identified SNPs, we selected nine (rs10953541, rs1122608, rs12190287, rs12413409, rs1412444, rs1746048, rs3798220, rs4977574, rs579459, in or near genes 7q22, LDLR, TCF21, CYP17A1, LIPA, CXCL12, LPA, CDKN2A, ABO, respectively because of the relatively high minor allele frequencies in Chinese individuals and tested the associations of the SNPs with MI and MI related risk factors in Chinese population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a case-control association study on a cohort of 2365 MI patients and 2678 unrelated controls from the Chinese population. Genotyping of 9 SNPs were performed by the TaqMan Real Time PCR method. After age, sex, and BMI adjustment, we observed the SNPs rs12190287, rs12413409, rs1412444, rs1746048 and rs4977574, were significantly associated with MI in additive models and rs12190287, rs12413409, rs4977574 were significantly associated with phenotypes of MI at the same time. We also found three SNPs rs1122608, rs3798220 and rs579459 were significantly associated with risk factors of MI, although they had no association with MI in Chinese population. CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicate that 5 SNPs were associated with MI and 3 SNPs were associated with associated with lipoprotein levels but not with MI in a Chinese population. The present study supports some CAD-related genes in Caucasian as important genes for MI in a Chinese population.

  12. Comparison of Genetic Variants in Cancer-Related Genes between Chinese Hui and Han Populations.

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    Chaoyong Tian

    Full Text Available The Chinese Hui population, as the second largest minority ethnic group in China, may have a different genetic background from Han people because of its unique demographic history. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic differences between Han and Hui Chinese from the Ningxia region of China by comparing eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms in cancer-related genes.DNA samples were collected from 99 Hui and 145 Han people from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China, and SNPs were detected using an improved multiplex ligase detection reaction method. Genotyping data from six 1000 Genomes Project population samples (99 Utah residents with northern and western European ancestry (CEU, 107 Toscani in Italy (TSI, 108 Yoruba in Ibadan (YRI, 61 of African ancestry in the southwestern US (ASW, 103 Han Chinese in Beijing (CHB, and 104 Japanese in Tokyo (JPT were also included in this study. Differences in the distribution of alleles among the populations were assessed using χ2 tests, and FST was used to measure the degree of population differentiation.We found that the genetic diversity of many SNPs in cancer-related genes in the Hui Chinese in Ningxia was different from that in the Han Chinese in Ningxia. For example, the allele frequencies of four SNPs (rs13361707, rs2274223, rs465498, and rs753955 showed different genetic distributions (p0.000 between the Hui and Han populations.These results suggest that some SNPs associated with cancer-related genes vary among different Chinese ethnic groups. We suggest that population differences should be carefully considered in evaluating cancer risk and prognosis as well as the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  13. The moderating effect of social support on the relationship between physical health and suicidal thoughts among Chinese rural elderly: A nursing home sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Yang, Yang; Wu, Menglian; Zhao, Xia; Sun, Yaoyao; Xie, Hui; Li, Hongkai; Li, Yuqin; Wang, Kefang; Zhang, Jie; Jia, Jihui; Su, Yonggang

    2018-01-23

    Suicide rate is relatively high among Chinese rural elderly. While there has been some exciting work on reporting and preventing suicide among community-dwelling elderly, only a few published studies have addressed the issues of rural nursing homes in China. This study aimed to investigate the relationship among perceived social support, physical health, and suicidal thoughts of the elderly living in Chinese rural nursing homes. It also examined the moderating effects of social support on the path from physical health to suicidal thoughts of the rural institutional elderly in China. This study investigated 205 participants aged 60 years and above in Chinese rural nursing homes. Participants' suicidal thoughts, perceived social support, and physical health were assessed. This study conducted descriptive analysis, Student's t-test, and Pearson's chi-square test to test how physical health and social support predicted suicidal thoughts, as well as the moderating effects of family's, friends', and others' social support on physical health and suicidal thoughts. Both physical health and perceived social support were significantly related to suicidal thoughts. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant others moderated the relationship between physical health and suicidal thoughts. Findings of this study suggested that increasing social support and improving physical health would be effective in both suicide prevention and intervention for the residents in Chinese rural nursing homes. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  14. The effect of shovel trait on Carabelli's trait in Taiwan Chinese and Aboriginal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J W; Tsai, P L; Hsiao, T H; Chang, H P; Lin, L M; Liu, K M; Yu, H S; Ferguson, D

    1997-09-01

    Chinese and other Mongoloid populations differ from Caucasoids by having a high prevalence of shovel trait and a low prevalence of Carabelli's trait. This study was conducted to compare the association between the shovel and the Carabelli's traits between Chinese and aboriginal Mongoloid populations. The research is designed to sample randomly a Chinese population and an aboriginal population having low admixture with neighboring populations. The Mongoloid aboriginal group was from the Bunun tribe who resides in an isolated alpine area in Taiwan. The effects of sex and age on Carabelli's trait were controlled in this study, as was the association between tooth size and Carabelli's trait. Our results show that males had more Carabelli's trait expressed on teeth than females in both of these two Mongoloid populations. The buccolingual diameter of Carabelli's trait teeth was larger than that of teeth without the trait. After controlling for sex, age, and tooth size, the existence of the shovel trait significantly increased the likelihood of having Carabelli's trait, especially in Chinese, which implies another significant ethnic feature for Mongoloid identification.

  15. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Timm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945–1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8% than subjects growing up in inner cities (11% (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57–0.91, and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02. An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population.

  16. Exceptional Brain Aging in a Rural Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jeffrey; Michael, Yvonne; Calvert, James; Leahy, Marjorie; Crawford, Debbie; Kramer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Context: The 2000 US Census identified 50,454 Americans over the age of 100. Increased longevity is only of benefit if accompanied by maintenance of independence and quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and other disabling conditions among rural centenarians although this information is important to clinicians caring…

  17. Prevalence of Substance Use in a Rural Teenage Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wade H.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed all secondary school students (n=1,175) in rural county school system to assess prevalence rates of substance use for teenagers and their parents. Age, sex, and race were related to frequency and type of substance abuse. Lifestyle variables such as music preferences, sexual activity, and choice of friends also related to substance use.…

  18. Comorbidity profile of poliomyelitis survivors in a Chinese population: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2011-06-01

    Previous reports of comorbid conditions in poliomyelitis survivors mainly focused on some disease categories, such as respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric diseases, neurological diseases and cancer. Data regarding a wide spectrum of medical comorbidities in patients with poliomyelitis is still sparse. This study aimed to investigate and profile the wide range of comorbidities among the survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in a Chinese population. In total, 2,032 paralytic poliomyelitis patients were selected as the study group and the comparison group consisted of 10,160 randomly selected enrollees. The comorbidities for analysis were based on a modified version of the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Conditional logistic regression analyses were computed to investigate the risk of comorbidities for these two groups. As compared to controls, patients with paralytic poliomyelitis had significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, peripheral vascular disorder, stroke, paralysis, migraines, Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, pulmonary circulation disorders, chronic pulmonary disease, liver disease, peptic ulcers, hepatitis B or C, deficiency anemias, depression, and lymphoma. Most of the differences are of clinical interest, ORs often being between 2 and 3. No significant difference between poliomyelitis patients and controls was observed in the prevalence of SLE, tuberculosis, alcohol abuse and drug abuse. Our findings demonstrate that survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in Taiwan are at higher risk of having multiple medical comorbidities although some potential confounding factors including educational level, marital status, obesity and physical activity are not available in our database. The pattern is generally consistent with previous observations from Western populations. Nevertheless, we found several novel associations

  19. Implication of World Health Organization growth standards on estimation of malnutrition in young Chinese children: Two examples from rural western China and the Tibet region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how malnutrition rates change in young Chinese children when 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards are used instead of 1978 WHO/National Center for Health Statistics reference. Cross-sectional survey data were used from rural western China and the Tibet region. The heights and weights of children of children was assessed by two references. Using 2006 reference instead of 1978 reference, the prevalence of stunting increased significantly (17.9% vs. 12.3% in rural western China and 37.5% vs. 28.1% in rural Tibet). The prevalence of underweight was lower in rural western China (7.7% vs. 11.7%) than rural Tibet (13.1% vs. 15.3%). For all ages, the prevalence of stunting increased and the greatest relative increase appeared in the first six months (102.9% in rural western China vs. 134.9% in rural Tibet). With respect to underweight, the relative increase occurred only during the first six months (314.3% in rural western China vs. 48.1% in rural Tibet); however, the reduction was observed in other age groups. For young Chinese Han and Tibetan children, the difference in estimation of malnutrition between two references differed in magnitude. The scale of change in the prevalence rates of stunting and underweight is much greater when 2006 reference was introduced. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. My Future, My Family, My Freedom: Meanings of Schooling for Poor, Rural Chinese Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    In this article, Xin Xiang investigates what dushu, or "schooling," means for rural senior secondary school students in a high-poverty county in southwestern China. With the persistence of China's rural-urban education inequality and alarming reports about secondary school dropout rates, rural students' and their families' attitudes…

  1. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Polymorphism analysis of 20 autosomal short-tandem repeat loci in southern Chinese Han population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Lu, Hui-Jie; DU, Wei-An; Qiu, Ping-Ming; Liu, Chao

    2016-02-20

    To evaluate the value of PowerPlex ® 21 System (Promega) and study the genetic polymorphism of its 20 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci in southern Chinese Han population. We conducted genotyping experiments using PowerPlex ® 21 System on 20 autosomal STR loci (D3S1358, D1S1656, D6S1043, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D2S1338, CSF1PO, Penta D, TH01, vWA, D21S11, D7S820, D5S818, TPOX, D8S1179, D12S391, D19S433 and FGA) in 2367 unrelated Chinese Han individuals living in South China. The allele frequencies and parameters commonly used in forensic science were statistically analyzed in these individuals and compared with the reported data of other populations. The PowerPlex ® 21 System had a power of discrimination (PD) ranging from 0.7839 to 0.9852 and a power of exclusion (PE) ranging from 0.2974 to 0.8099 for the 20 loci. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was found for all the loci except for D5S818. This southern Chinese Han population had significant differences in the allele frequencies from 8 ethnic groups reported in China, and showed significant differences at 8 to 20 STR foci from 5 foreign populations. The allele frequency at the locus D1S1656 in this southern Chinese Han population differed significantly from those in the 5 foreign populations and from 3 reported Han populations in Beijing, Zhejiang Province and Fujian Province of China. The neighbor-joining phylogenetictree showed clustering of all the Asian populations in one branch, while the northern Italian and Argentina populations clustered in a separate branch. This southern Chinese Han population had the nearest affinity with the Yi ethnic population in Yunnan Province of China. The 20 STR loci are highly polymorphic in this southern Chinese Han population, suggesting the value of this set of STR loci in forensic personal identification, paternity testing and anthropological study.

  3. Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kin-Yoke; Su, Jin; Knize, Mark G; Koh, Woon-Puay; Seow, Adeline

    2005-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed in meat during high-temperature cooking have been associated with risk of colorectal and breast cancer. Incidence of these cancers is increasing in Singapore, a country with 77% ethnic Chinese. The purpose of this study was to estimate HAA levels in the Chinese diet and individual levels of exposure to these compounds because little is known. Twenty-five samples (each pooled from three sources) of meat and fish, cooked as commonly consumed, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for concentrations (ng/g) of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3, 4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8- dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3, 4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2- amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino -1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, and 2- amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Dietary meat consumption data (g/day), including meat type and cooking method, were gathered from food-frequency questionnaires completed by 497 randomly sampled Chinese men and women aged 20-59 yr. PhIP, MeIQx, and 4,8-DiMeIQx were the most abundant HAAs detected. Total HAA concentrations ranged from roasted pork had the highest levels. The estimated mean daily exposure to HAA was 49.95 ng/day (P10 14.0 ng/day, P90 95.8 ng/day); this was 50% higher among younger (20-39 yr) compared with older individuals. Seven specific meat-cooking method combinations contributed 90.1% of this intake, namely, pan-fried fish, pork, and chicken, deep-fried chicken as well as fish, roasted/barbecued pork, and grilled minced beef.

  4. [Post-marketing re-evaluation about usage and dosage of Chinese medicine based on human population pharmacokinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junjie; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine are determined by rigorous evaluation which include four clinical trail stages: I, II, III. But the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine are lacked re-evaluation after marketing. And this lead to unchanging or fixed of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine instead of different quantity based on different situations in individual patients. The situation of Chinese patent medicine used in clinical application is far away from the idea of the "Treatment based on syndrome differentiation" in traditional Chinese medicine and personalized therapy. Human population pharmacokinetics provides data support to the personalized therapy in clinical application, and achieved the postmarking reevaluating of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine. This paper briefly introduced the present situation, significance and the application of human population pharmacokinetics about re-evaluation of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine after marketing.

  5. Trends in disability of instrumental activities of daily living among older Chinese adults, 1997-2006: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yajun; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Möller, Jette; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2017-08-28

    Data on trends for disability in instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) are sparse in older Chinese adults. To assess trends in prevalence and incidence of IADL disability among older Chinese adults and to explore contributing factors. Population based study. 15 provinces and municipalities in China. Participants (age ≥60) were from four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, conducted in 1997 (n=1533), 2000 (n=1581), 2004 (n=2028) and 2006 (n=2256), and from two cohorts constructed within the national survey: cohort 1997-2004 (n=712) and cohort 2000-2006 (n=823). IADL disability was defined as inability to perform one or more of the following: shopping, cooking, using transportation, financing and telephoning. Data were analysed with logistic regression and generalised estimating equation models. The prevalence of IADL disability significantly decreased from 1997 to 2006 in the total sample and in all of the subgroups by age, sex, living region and IADL items (all p trend 0.10). The recovery rate from IADL disability significantly increased over time in those aged 60-69 years (p=0.03). Living in a rural area or access to local clinics for healthcare was less disabling over time (p trend <0.02). The prevalence of IADL disability decreased among older Chinese adults during 1997-2006, whereas the incidence remained stable. The declining prevalence of IADL disability might be partly due to the decreased duration of IADL disability, and to improvements in living conditions and healthcare facilities over time. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua

    2018-01-01

    Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean, the three major ethnic groups of East Asia, share many similarities in appearance, language and culture etc., but their genetic relationships, divergence times and subsequent genetic exchanges have not been well studied. We conducted a genome-wide study and evaluated the population structure of 182 Han Chinese, 90 Japanese and 100 Korean individuals, together with the data of 630 individuals representing 8 populations wordwide. Our analyses revealed that Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations have distinct genetic makeup and can be well distinguished based on either the genome wide data or a panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Their genetic structure corresponds well to their geographical distributions, indicating geographical isolation played a critical role in driving population differentiation in East Asia. The most recent common ancestor of the three populations was dated back to 3000 ~ 3600 years ago. Our analyses also revealed substantial admixture within the three populations which occurred subsequent to initial splits, and distinct gene introgression from surrounding populations, of which northern ancestral component is dominant. These estimations and findings facilitate to understanding population history and mechanism of human genetic diversity in East Asia, and have implications for both evolutionary and medical studies.

  7. LRRK2 A419V is not associated with Parkinson's disease in different Chinese populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Ru Wu

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that a common LRRK2 polymorphic variant (A419V (rs34594498 C >T may be a risk factor among Asians (especially in Taiwan. In this study, we examined this variant in a larger and independent Taiwan cohort. We found the frequency of the variant (A419V to be very rare in our Taiwan PD and controls (?0.6%. Further studies were conducted in two other Chinese populations (Singapore and China, comprising of a total of 3004 subjects including 1517 PD patients and 1487 control subjects. However, our multi-center Chinese study revealed that the frequency of the variant was rare (?0.4% and was not associated with risk of PD, suggesting that the variant is not a major risk factor for PD among Chinese, at least in our study population.

  8. Assessing genome-wide copy number variation in the Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianqi; Lou, Haiyi; Fu, Ruiqing; Lu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Zhendong; Zhang, Xi; Li, Changhua; Fang, Baijun; Pu, Fangfang; Wei, Jingning; Wei, Qian; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Xiaoji; Lu, Yan; Yan, Shi; Yang, Yajun; Jin, Li; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-10-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is a valuable source of genetic diversity in the human genome and a well-recognised cause of various genetic diseases. However, CNVs have been considerably under-represented in population-based studies, particularly the Han Chinese which is the largest ethnic group in the world. To build a representative CNV map for the Han Chinese population. We conducted a genome-wide CNV study involving 451 male Han Chinese samples from 11 geographical regions encompassing 28 dialect groups, representing a less-biased panel compared with the currently available data. We detected CNVs by using 4.2M NimbleGen comparative genomic hybridisation array and whole-genome deep sequencing of 51 samples to optimise the filtering conditions in CNV discovery. A comprehensive Han Chinese CNV map was built based on a set of high-quality variants (positive predictive value >0.8, with sizes ranging from 369 bp to 4.16 Mb and a median of 5907 bp). The map consists of 4012 CNV regions (CNVRs), and more than half are novel to the 30 East Asian CNV Project and the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3. We further identified 81 CNVRs specific to regional groups, which was indicative of the subpopulation structure within the Han Chinese population. Our data are complementary to public data sources, and the CNV map may facilitate in the identification of pathogenic CNVs and further biomedical research studies involving the Han Chinese population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Forecasting electric demand of distribution system planing in rural and sparsely populated regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, H.L.; Buri, M.J. [ABB Automated Distribution Div., Raleigh, NC (United States); Finley, L.A. [Snohomish County PUD, Everett, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Modern computerized distribution load forecasting methods, although accurate when applied to urban areas, give somewhat less satisfactory results when forecasting load growth in sparsely populated rural areas. This paper examines the differences between rural and urban load growth histories, identifying a major difference in the observed behavior of load growth. This difference is exploited in a new simulation forecasting algorithm. Tests show the new method is as accurate in forecasting rural load growth and as useful for analyzing DSM impacts than past methods, while requiring considerably lower computer resources and data than other simulation methods of comparable accuracy.

  10. Urban and rural population growth in a spatial panel of municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa da Silva, Diego Firmino; Elhorst, J. Paul; Silveira Neto, Raul da Mota

    2017-01-01

    Urban and rural population growth in a spatial panel of municipalities. Regional Studies. Using Bayesian posterior model probabilities and data pertaining to 3659 Brazilian minimum comparable areas (MCAs) over the period 1970-2010, two theoretical settings of population growth dynamics resulting in

  11. Importance of education and training local population in process of development rural tourism in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Vuković, Predrag; Subić, Jonel; Cvijanović, Drago

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-nineties of the twentieth century begins a rapid expansion of rural tourism in Serbia. In the first initial phase, the development has taken place without a clear plan and program. The first achieved positive results, influenced that Serbian Government since 2008 started with appropriate funding with aim to improve rural tourism development. Also, until 2008 there was no system of education and training sessions of the local population. Farmers were not educated and trained t...

  12. [Urban and rural population of the state of Sao Paulo: results of the census of 1980].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, P M

    1981-01-01

    The accelerated urban growth of Sao Paulo between 1940-70 has continued during the period 1970-80, according to the 1980 censes. During 1970-80 the urban population increased 55.47%, while the rural population decreased 18.67%, bringing the percentage of the urban population to 88.6% of the total population of the state. This phenomenon has been common to all the 11 administrative regions of the state. The highest percentage of the urban population in 1980 was in the region of Greater Sao Paulo, followed by Litoral and Vale do Paraiba. The largest increases in urban population were in the regions of Sorocaba, Campinas, and Vale do Paraiba, while the highest decreases in rural population were in the regions of Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Aracatuba, Presidente Prudente, and Marilia. The document presents detailed data for each of the 11 administrative regions of the state, and for each municipality within a region.

  13. [The general survey for chondromalacia of 2,743 Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, K; Ye, Q; Zeng, X; Lin, J; Wu, Z

    1998-06-01

    To evaluate the distribution of chondromalacia patella in Chinese population. A random cluster sampling survey was performed covering 2,743 subjects varied in age, sex and occupation in 1995. The prevalence rate is 36.2%. The occurrence in women was higher than that in men (P chondromalacia patella in China.

  14. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  15. Chinese Tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small) Population expansion in Louisiana, East Texas, and Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt

    2010-01-01

    Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) is a nonnative invasive species with high fecundity rates that has naturalized from the coastal prairies of east Texas along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts as far north as North Carolina. Population differences were computed for two forest inventory periods (mid-1990s and late 2000s) in Louisiana, east Texas, and Mississippi using data...

  16. Physical Activity, Adiposity, and Diabetes Risk in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Li; Corpeleijn, Eva; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Thomas, G. Neil; Schooling, C. Mary; Zhang, Weisen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Lam, Tai Hing

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE- Physical activity may modify the association of adiposity with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the independent and joint association of adiposity and physical activity with fasting plasma glucose, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  17. [Association between ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease in Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Lin, Yingzhong; Liu, Hairun; Ji, Qingwei; Lu, Zhihong; Lu, Zhengde; Xu, Nengwen; Yuan, Jun; Liu, Ling

    2015-09-01

    To investigate this association between ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population. From August 2010 to April 2013, we performed a case-control study in a Chinese Zhuang population, which included 1 024 CHD cases and 1 024 age and gender-matched non-CHD controls. The ABO blood groups and biological variables were measured by standard laboratory procedures. The Gensini score was used to evaluate the severity of coronary artery stenosis. Compared to non-CHD control group, CHD group had higher levels of fasting blood glucose ((6.71 ± 6.72) mmol/L vs. (4.98 ± 1.55) mmol/L, P blood groups were associated with CHD risk in the Chinese Zhuang population. Compared with group O, the group B individuals had a higher risk of CHD (OR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.88-2.90, P group O subjects in the CHD group, and MACE at 1-year follow-up was similar between ABO blood groups of CHD individuals. ABO blood groups are associated with CHD risk in the Chinese Zhuang population.

  18. Genetic variability of CYP2B6 polymorphisms in four southern Chinese populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing-Ying; Guo, Li-Ping; Lee, Shui-Shan; Dong, Qing-Ming; Tan, Yi; Yao, Hong; Li, Li-Hua; Lin, Che-Kit; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; He, Ming-Liang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the genotype and allelic frequencies of Cytochrome P450 2B6 polymorphisms in four southern Chinese populations. METHODS: DNA was obtained from blood samples from Han Chinese from Hong Kong and three minority groups, the Wa, Bulang and Lahu from Yunnan in southern China. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR and confirmed by direct sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 507 subjects from southern China were studied. Results showed there is a high prevalence of 516G > T (34.5%) in ethnic Chinese compared to literature reports on other Asian populations and Caucasians. The frequency of the 516TT genotype is higher in the Han majority (23.1%) than in three other ethnic minority groups (i.e., 7.4%, 9.1% and 15.8%) in southern China. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to document the spectrum of CYP2B6 allelic variants and genotypes in a southern Chinese population. The 516G > T allele is associated with a defective metabolism of efavirenz (EFV), which therefore may predispose to drug toxicity. Treatment regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and heroin addiction may need to be optimized in different populations because of the marked variability of the key metabolizing enzyme. PMID:17465455

  19. Urban and rural populations and labour-force structures: current patterns and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, A

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of the changing structure in urban and rural areas due to changing migration patterns reflects the effect on crop designation and production, the connection to development and fertility issues, and the labor force structure. Different patterns of migration by sex occur between Ethiopia where female rural-to-urban migration is the dominant trend and Indonesia where males moving to urban areas occurs. When countries are identified as primarily male urban and female rural, the migration pattern is male rural-to-urban and is concentrated in African countries, whereas the reverse with female urban and male rural occurs in Latin America and developed countries. The tendency of the age structure in developed and developing countries is for the concentration of the 20 -49 year olds in urban areas and the under 20 and over 49 in rural areas. It is determined that those under 20 have 3 times greater importance in developing rather than developed countries. While in Tunisia and the Near East the over-age-49 rural population has increased, in Cameroon, Myanmar, and Bangladesh, the rural under-age-30 population has increased suggesting different migration patterns; however, there is insufficient computerized data for analysis of regional world trends. The migration pattern of child bearing age women affects the aging rural population in either of two ways. 1) Women stay and bear children and help with farm production while male migrate, thus increasing the youth and over 50 populations. 2) Whole families move with only the aging remaining. The determinants of migration are complex. When there is inequality in land distribution, the most mobile population are those without land or with very small holdings. If agricultural workers are dependent on a landlord, then migration is decreased. Technology and mechanization which have predominated in the last decades can both displace labor in rural areas when situated next to farms and increase labor when multiple

  20. Zinc Absorption from Representative Diet in a Chinese Elderly Population Using Stable Isotope Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya Jie; Li, Min; Liu, Xiao Bing; Ren, Tong Xiang; Li, Wei Dong; Yang, Chun; Wu, Meng; Yang, Lin Li; Ma, Yu Xia; Wang, Jun; Piao, Jian Hua; Yang, Li Chen; Yang, Xiao Guang

    2017-06-01

    To determine the dietary zinc absorption in a Chinese elderly population and provide the basic data for the setting of zinc (Zn) recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) for Chinese elderly people. A total of 24 elderly people were recruited for this study and were administered oral doses of 3 mg 67Zn and 1.2 mg dysprosium on the fourth day. The primary macronutrients, energy, and phytic acid in the representative diet were examined based on the Chinese National Standard Methods. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for zinc content, 67Zn isotope ratio, and dysprosium content. The mean (± SD) zinc intake from the representative Chinese diet was 10.6 ± 1.5 mg/d. The phytic acid-to-zinc molar ratio in the diet was 6.4. The absorption rate of 67Zn was 27.9% ± 9.2%. The RNI of zinc, which were calculated by the absorption rate in elderly men and women, were 10.4 and 9.2 mg/d, respectively. This study got the dietary Zn absorption in a Chinese elderly population. We found that Zn absorption was higher in elderly men than in elderly women. The current RNI in elderly female is lower than our finding, which indicates that more attention is needed regarding elderly females' zinc status and health. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults: the role of the grandparent-parent relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Vivian W Q; Lu, Nan; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris

    2013-07-01

    This study tested the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults and the mediating role of the grandparent-parent relationship in terms of grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health. Data were derived from a random sample of 1,027 adults aged 60 and older who were interviewed in the rural Chaohu region in 2009. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital in terms of relations with the first child's family on self-rated health among respondents, as well as the mediating effect of the grandparent-parent relationship. The results showed the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital on self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults. The grandparent-parent relationship had a partial mediation effect on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of respondents. Grandparent-grandchild family capital had a unique direct effect on the self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, enriching our theoretical understanding of sources of family capital and their impacts in a collectivist cultural context that emphasizes intergenerational interaction and exchange. The findings also highlighted the mediation effects of grandparent-parent relationships on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, supporting the "grandchild-as-linkage" hypothesis in understanding the social determination of self-rated health in China.

  2. Population growth and rural-urban migration, with special reference to Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graft-johnson, K T

    1974-01-01

    While the population of Ghana is expected to double in 25 years at the current rate of increase (approximately 2.5% per annum), the population of urban centers is increasing even faster. The 1970 census shows the urban population growing by 4.8% per annum. This is mainly the result of rural to urban migration and, to a smaller extent, the increase in the number of urban centers from 39 in 1948 to 98 in 1960 to 135 in 1970. In the 1970 census only 57.1% of the population were enumerated in their locality of birth and only 20.9% in a locality other than their place of birth but in the same region. 4.1% were born outside Ghana, mostly in another West African country. 1 striking difference between urban and rural areas is the differing sex ratio of the working population. In rural areas there are 91.0 males aged 15-64 years for every 100 females while in urban areas there are 107.1. Most migration in Africa is for employment and those most likely to migrate are working-age males. Because secondary schools are scarce in rural areas, urban dwellers generally have a higher education level. There are no significant differences between overall labor force participation rates for females. The nationwide participation rate was 38.9% for both males and females (males 43.8%, females 34.1%); in urban areas the total was 40.0% (males 46.3%, females 33.7%) and in rural areas 38.5% (males 42.7%, females 34.3%). Ghanaian women have traditionally occupied a prominent place in the labor force. The theory that urban migration is due to urban-rural income disparities is not confirmed by figures. Considering the high amount of unemployment in urban areas, a rural dweller can average as much as a city dweller. In fact, poorly educated migrants are the ones most affected by urban unemployment. A recent study by Kodwo Ewusi considered the impact of many variables on migration; he found depressed social conditions at the place of origin are more compelling motivations than economic factors

  3. Intensity and sulci landmark combined brain atlas construction for Chinese pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yishan; Shi, Lin; Weng, Jian; He, Hongjian; Chu, Winnie C W; Chen, Feiyan; Wang, Defeng

    2014-08-01

    Constructing an atlas from a population of brain images is of vital importance to medical image analysis. Especially in neuroscience study, creating a brain atlas is useful for intra- and inter-population comparison. Research on brain atlas construction has attracted great attention in recent years, but the research on pediatric population is still limited, mainly due to the limited availability and the relatively low quality of pediatric magnetic resonance brain images. This article is targeted at creating a high quality representative brain atlas for Chinese pediatric population. To achieve this goal, we have designed a set of preprocessing procedures to improve the image quality and developed an intensity and sulci landmark combined groupwise registration method to align the population of images for atlas construction. As demonstrated in experiments, the newly constructed atlas can better represent the size and shape of brains of Chinese pediatric population, and show better performance in Chinese pediatric brain image analysis compared with other standard atlases. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Reforms, agricultural risks and agro-industrial diversification in rural China: Evidence from Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Weiyong YANG

    2003-01-01

    Since the implementation of the economic reforms in 1978, there is a remarkable diversification trend in rural China characterized by an impressive development of rural enterprises. The main objective of this paper is to understand the forces driving this agro-industrial diversification which has important impact on the employment, incomes and welfare of rural residents. A particular attention has been paid to two categories of factors, agricultural income risks and institutional factors such...

  5. Gender-specific independent and combined dose-response association of napping and night sleep duration with type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural Chinese adults: the RuralDiab study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruihua; Li, Yuqian; Mao, Zhenxing; Liu, Xiaotian; Zhang, Haiqing; Yang, Kaili; Zhang, Honglei; Tu, Runqi; Qian, Xinling; Jiang, Jingjing; Bie, Ronghai; Wang, Chongjian

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the independent and combined dose-response association of napping and night sleep duration with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among different genders in the rural Chinese population. For this research, a total of 19,257 participants were enrolled in the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study. Napping and night sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Restricted cubic splines and logistic regression were used to estimate the relationship between napping and night sleep duration with T2DM. A linear dose-response relationship between napping duration and T2DM as well as a U-shaped relationship between night sleep duration and T2DM were found. Compared with those who reported no napping, participants who had a napping duration of ≥91 min were associated with a 19% increase in prevalence of T2DM. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for T2DM were 1.48 (1.03, 2.14) and 1.50 (1.22, 1.85) for shorter (≤5 h) and longer (>9 h) night sleep duration compared with the referential group. Additionally, the combination of longer napping duration (≥91 min) and night sleep duration (>9 h) increased 104% (95% CI: 45%, 128%) prevalence for T2DM. These associations were not found in males but were evident in females. Longer napping duration and extreme night sleep duration increased the prevalence of T2DM. Meanwhile, longer napping and night sleep duration might be jointly associated with a higher prevalence of T2DM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Soundscape expectations of rural tourism: A comparison between Chinese and English potential tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xinxin; Kang, Jian; Zhu, Peisheng; Wang, Shiyuan

    2018-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out for a comparative study between Chinese and English potential tourists to examine their soundscape expectation. The results show that while both groups prefer natural sounds most, compared to the English, the Chinese expect natural, livestock, melodic sounds more, and traffic and industrial sounds less. The sound categories related to the interactions between human activities and nature play a more dominant role for the English than the Chinese, in terms of preference of sound sources. On the expectation of a holistic soundscape, function is the most important aspect for the Chinese, while that for the English is sound characteristics; the expected psychological perception for the English is associated with emotional response rather than basic ecology consciousness, as for the Chinese.

  7. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid profiles and diabetes risk in Chinese populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianlu; Ni, Yan; Ma, Xiaojing; Bao, Yuqian; Liu, Jiajian; Huang, Fengjie; Hu, Cheng; Xie, Guoxiang; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Weiping; Jia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies revealed strong evidence that branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs) are closely associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in several Western countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of BCAAs and AAAs in predicting the diabetes development in Chinese populations. The serum levels of valine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine were measured in a longitudinal and a cross sectional studies with a total of 429 Chinese participants at different stages of diabetes development, using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple quadruple mass spectrometry platform. The alterations of the five AAs in Chinese populations are well in accordance with previous reports. Early elevation of the five AAs and their combined score was closely associated with future development of diabetes, suggesting an important role of these metabolites as early markers of diabetes. On the other hand, the five AAs were not as good as existing clinical markers in differentiating diabetic patients from their healthy counterparts. Our findings verified the close correlation of BCAAs and AAAs with insulin resistance and future development of diabetes in Chinese populations and highlighted the predictive value of these markers for future development of diabetes. PMID:26846565

  8. Novel LOVD databases for hereditary breast cancer and colorectal cancer genes in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Cong, Peikuan; Wang, Yue; Lin, Changsong; Yuan, Ying; Dong, Jian; Banerjee, Santasree; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Yanling; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Mingqing; Hu, Peter; Zheng, Shu; Zhang, Jin; Qi, Ming

    2011-12-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) is an international consortium of clinicians, geneticists, and researchers from over 30 countries, aiming to facilitate the establishment and maintenance of standards, systems, and infrastructure for the worldwide collection and sharing of all genetic variations effecting human disease. The HVP-China Node will build new and supplement existing databases of genetic diseases. As the first effort, we have created a novel variant database of BRCA1 and BRCA2, mismatch repair genes (MMR), and APC genes for breast cancer, Lynch syndrome, and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), respectively, in the Chinese population using the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD) format. We searched PubMed and some Chinese search engines to collect all the variants of these genes in the Chinese population that have already been detected and reported. There are some differences in the gene variants between the Chinese population and that of other ethnicities. The database is available online at http://www.genomed.org/LOVD/. Our database will appear to users who survey other LOVD databases (e.g., by Google search, or by NCBI GeneTests search). Remote submissions are accepted, and the information is updated monthly. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of candidate genes associated with hepatitis A and E virus infection in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Maolin; Qiu, Jing; Guo, Daoxia; Xu, Yunfang; Liu, Xingxiang; Shen, Chong; Dong, Chen

    2018-03-20

    Recent GWAS-associated studies reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1, TGFβ1, XRCC1 genes were associated with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, and variants of APOA4 and APOE genes were associated with and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in US population. However, the associations of these loci with HAV or HEV infection in Chinese Han population remain unclear. A total of 3082 Chinese Han persons were included in this study. Anti-HAV IgG and anti-HEV IgG were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Genotypes in ABCB1, TGFβ1, XRCC1, APOA4 and APOE SNPs were determined by TaqMan MGB technology. In Chinese Han population, rs1045642 C to T variation in ABCB1 was significantly associated with the decreased risk of HAV infection (P infection in our samples (P C to T variation in APOE was significantly associated with lower risk of HEV infection in males (adjusted OR infection. Additionally, Chinese Han males with rs7412 C to T variation in APOE gene are less prone to be infected by HEV.

  10. Perceived discrimination and antisocial behaviour among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents: Mediating effects of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia

    2017-08-01

    Using cross-sectional data from rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in urban areas of Beijing, China, we examined the mediating effects of social support (i.e. teacher support and classmate support) in the relationship between perceived discrimination (PD) and antisocial behaviour (ASB) among Chinese migrant adolescents. Participants were 897 adolescents (459 boys and 438 girls, mean age = 13.34 years) from four migrant schools (68.8%) and four public schools (31.2%). Participants completed self-report questionnaires concerning PD, ASB, teacher support and classmate support. Results indicated that Chinese migrant adolescents who perceived more discrimination were more likely to engage in ASB. Teacher support partially mediated the relationship between PD and ASB. Gender moderated this mediational relationship, such that teacher support exerted a mediating role among girls, but not boys. The findings suggest that reductions in teacher support may partially account for the effect of PD on ASB among Chinese migrant adolescents girls. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Delays in accessing electroconvulsive therapy: a comparison between two urban and two rural populations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    A comparison of the timing, rates and characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy use between urban and rural populations. The medical records of patients who received an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy at two rural and two urban psychiatric hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Main outcome measures were the time from symptom onset, diagnosis and admission to commencing electroconvulsive therapy. Rates of use of electroconvulsive therapy were also compared between rural and urban hospitals using NSW statewide data. There was a significant delay in the time it took for rural patients to receive electroconvulsive therapy compared with urban patients when measured both from the time of symptom onset and from when they received a diagnosis. There were corresponding delays in the time taken for rural patients to be admitted to hospital compared with urban patients. There was no difference in the time it took to commence electroconvulsive therapy once a patient was admitted to hospital. NSW statewide urban-rural comparisons showed rates of electroconvulsive therapy treatment were significantly higher in urban hospitals. Patients in rural areas receive electroconvulsive therapy later in their acute illness due to delays in being admitted to hospital. The rate of use of electroconvulsive therapy also differs geographically. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Screening mammography uptake within Australia and Scotland in rural and urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Macleod, Catriona; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Woods, Laura M; Henderson, Robert; Watson, Angus; Kyle, Richard G; Hubbard, Gill; Mullen, Russell; Atherton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that rural populations had lower uptake of screening mammography than urban populations in the Scottish and Australian setting. Scottish data are based upon information from the Scottish Breast Screening Programme Information System describing uptake among women residing within the NHS Highland Health Board area who were invited to attend for screening during the 2008 to 2010 round (N = 27,416). Australian data were drawn from the 2010 survey of the 1946-51 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (N = 9890 women). Contrary to our hypothesis, results indicated that women living in rural areas were not less likely to attend for screening mammography compared to women living in urban areas in both Scotland (OR for rural = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06-1.29) and Australia (OR for rural = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01-1.31). The absence of rural-urban differences in attendance at screening mammography demonstrates that rurality is not necessarily an insurmountable barrier to screening mammography.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of 10 Chinese indigenous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This program uses a Monte Carlo Markov chain. (MCMC) algorithm to ... tal population, measured as FST value, for the 29 loci var- ied from 0.002 (SMO11) to .... linked to loci affecting morphological, productive or adap- tive traits of selective ...

  14. Chronic disease management in rural and underserved populations: innovation and system improvement help lead to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Jane; Gamm, Larry; Kash, Bita; Peck, Mitchell

    2005-03-01

    Successful implementation of disease management (DM) is based on the ability of an organization to overcome a variety of barriers to deliver timely, appropriate care of chronic illnesses. Such programs initiate DM services to patient populations while initiating self-management education among medication-resistant patients who are chronically ill. Despite formidable challenges, rural health care providers have been successful in initiating DM programs and have discovered several ways in which these programs benefit their organizations. This research reports on six DM programs that serve large rural and underserved populations and have demonstrated that DM can be successfully implemented in such areas.

  15. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  16. Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients in the Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chunling

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE refers to the formation of a blood clot inside veins and has a high risk of inducing medical accidents. An effective risk assessment model will help screen high risk populations and prevent the occurrence of VTE. In this study, 287 VTE cases were collected and analyzed for risk factors in a Chinese population. The risks of VTE were evaluated using the Caprini and Padua models. Our results indicated that the Caprini model was more effective in evaluating VTE risk among hospitalized patients than the Padua model. As well, the Caprini model was more relevant in VTE risk assessment among surgery patients compared with internal medicine patients, while the Padua model showed no significant differences. In our studies, the most frequent risk factors included obesity, medical patients currently at bed rest, and severe lung disease. Our studies provide clinical support on selecting the suitable risk assessment model of VTE in the Chinese population.

  17. Polymorphisms in the CISH gene are associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in the Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lin-dan; Xu, Wei-nan; Chai, Peng-fei; Zheng, Wei; Qian, Hai-xia; Xu, Jin

    2014-12-01

    A recent multi-center case-control study identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 domain (CISH) gene that are associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) in both African and Asian populations. To acquire a more robust and well-powered estimate of the putative influence of these SNPs on TB susceptibility, we conducted a well-designed case-control study in the Chinese Han population. We genotyped 3 previously identified SNPs within CISH in 600 patients with pulmonary TB and 618 healthy controls, and we calculated the pooled P-values and ORs of several studies that have also been conducted in the Chinese populations. The results of the case-control study showed that the C allele of rs2239751 and the T allele of rs414171 are associated with TB susceptibility, and this association exists only in women and young adults. The pooled analysis indicated that both SNPs are significantly associated with TB in the global populations and Chinese populations. The current study confirms that variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to TB, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signaling may have a role in immunity against TB infection. We hypothesize that CISH and estrogen may interact in the cytokine-dependent regulation of the immune system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rural Students in a Chinese Top-Tier University: Family Background, School Effects, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.; Ailei, Xie; Jung, Jisun; Yanbi, Hong

    2017-01-01

    New preferential policies in China promise to increase the number of rural students entering top-tier universities, where there is a wider path to a higher social status. While a substantial body of literature has investigated rural students' trajectories to university, there is a dearth of systematic empirical studies on the academic success of…

  19. Analysis of Geographic and Pairwise Distances among Chinese Cashmere Goat Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bin Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the geographic and pairwise distances of nine Chinese local Cashmere goat populations through the analysis of 20 microsatellite DNA markers. Fluorescence PCR was used to identify the markers, which were selected based on their significance as identified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG. In total, 206 alleles were detected; the average allele number was 10.30; the polymorphism information content of loci ranged from 0.5213 to 0.7582; the number of effective alleles ranged from 4.0484 to 4.6178; the observed heterozygosity was from 0.5023 to 0.5602 for the practical sample; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.5783 to 0.6464; and Allelic richness ranged from 4.7551 to 8.0693. These results indicated that Chinese Cashmere goat populations exhibited rich genetic diversity. Further, the Wright’s F-statistics of subpopulation within total (FST was 0.1184; the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST was 0.0940; and the average gene flow (Nm was 2.0415. All pairwise FST values among the populations were highly significant (p<0.01 or p<0.001, suggesting that the populations studied should all be considered to be separate breeds. Finally, the clustering analysis divided the Chinese Cashmere goat populations into at least four clusters, with the Hexi and Yashan goat populations alone in one cluster. These results have provided useful, practical, and important information for the future of Chinese Cashmere goat breeding.

  20. ATTITUDES OF RURAL POPULATION WITH OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES TO MEDICAL SERVICE: EXPERTS VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Yurievna Yurova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of factors that may influence the attitudes of rural population with occupational diseases to medical service. The analysis is based on the results of the survey that has been conducted in Saratov region in 2013-2014. Ten experts, doctors involved in treating rural population with occupational diseases in Saratov region, formed the sample.It was revealed that refusal from pre-arranged treatment and hospitalization as well as execution of documents on disability is often determined by financial factor, i.e. unwillingness of rural population to lose their job, the only source of income. According to the experts the main factors that may influence the incidence of in- and out-patient visits in rural regions are low accessibility to medical institutions due to isolated location of many rural territories, insufficiency of professional staff able to cope with occupational pathologies in central regional hospitals, lack of medical equipment and facilities. The factors preventing health-saving behavior are as follows: life style and educational level.

  1. [Factors associated with insulin resistence in rural populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Larissa Loures; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo

    2009-04-01

    This study explores the relations of anthropometric, body composition assessments, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters with insulin resistance in two rural communities. Sample was composed by adults aged 18 or older, both sexes. Participants were excluded if pregnant and diabetic. Data collection included demographic lifestyle, hemodynamic, anthropometric and biochemical variables. From the 567 subjects, 50.4% were men and 49.6%, women. Most of the sample was non-white (75.7%), lived with partner (69.3%) and had low educational level. Overweight and obesity prevalences were 17.4% and 5.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis found risk factors associated to insulin resistance for non-diabetic adults with low income and educational level: overweight, obesity, elevated waist-to-hip ratio, C-reactive protein and skin color.

  2. [Culture and quality of life assessment in Chinese populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ping; Li, Ning-Xiu; Liu, Chao-Jie; Lü, Yu-Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Ou, Ai-Hua

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the impact of cultural factors on quality of life (QOL) and to identify appropriate ways of dividing sub-populations for population norm-based quality of life assessment. The WHOQOL-BREF was used as a QOL instrument. Another questionnaire was developed to assess cultural values. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 1090 Guangzhou residents, which included 635 respondents from communities and 455 patients who visited outpatient departments of hospitals. Cronbach's a coefficients and item-domain correlation coefficients were calculated to test the reliability and validity of the WHOQOL-BREF, respectively. Student t test, ANOVA and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were performed to identify the variables that might have an impact on the QOL. Two regression models with and without including cultural variables were constructed, and the extent of impact exerted by the cultural factors was assessed through a comparison of the change of adjusted R square values. A total of 1052 (96%) valid questionnaire were returned. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the WHOQOL-BREF ranged from 0.67 to 0.78. Age, education, occupation and family income were correlated with all of the domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Chronic condition was correlated with physical, psychological, and social relationship domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Gender was correlated with physical and psychological domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. The multiple regression analysis showed that social and demographic factors contributed to 6.3%, 13.6%, 10.4% and 8.7% of the predicted variances for the physical, psychological, social relationship, and environment domains, respectively. Social support, horizontal collectivism, vertical individualism, escape acceptance, fear of death, health value, supernatural belief had a significant impact on QOL. However, social support was the only one factor that had an impact on all of the four QOL domains. It is necessary to divide sub-cultural populations for

  3. Relationships between population and environment in rural areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, T I

    1991-01-01

    Studies that have assessed the impact of population change on the environment in rural areas of selected developing countries are reviewed. The implications are that both developed and developing countries might focus on single aspects of a much larger global problem. Rural areas were selected because the bulk of the world's population lives in rural areas. Population environment interactions are 1st discussed at the global level. Studies on changing import patterns of developing countries are usless in accounting for agricultural policy shifts or other factors that may be unrelated to population growth but may be related to food imports. When the magnitude of food production and population growth is examined, there is a balance established between the two. However, analysis of the spatial distribution of desertification and soil degradation shows greater local level effects. Population/environment relationships are examined in critical ecological zones: tropical deforestation, desertification, land degradation in resource poor zones, and responses to population pressures and resource degradation. The conclusions reached are that better statistics on degradation are needed and that the trends in the human ecology of rural populations have clear implications for government policies on the environment. Agricultural development has been uneven and inequitable such that many peasant populations have suffered a decline in standards of living, particularly in Africa. There has also been an accelerated increase in rates of land degradation in resource poor areas, which are densely populated. The population response has been migration shifts out of resource poor areas to ecologically marginal areas, which has resulted in extensive desertification and deforestation. Expansion of the areas under cultivation has not just increased agricultural production but agriculture and population have invaded ecologically marginal zones in deserts and rain forests. Measurement of the

  4. Rural Design Ethics Based on Four Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Zhu, Li

    2017-12-01

    China has a large rural area with a large population, whose architectural features, natural landscape, organizational structure and industrial structure are very different from that of cities. In the past, the contradictory between city and rural areas in China had negative effects on rural construction, resulting in a slow development. The excessive focus on city design has led to the neglect of rural design. Blindly using the concept and method of city design to renewed the countryside is a kind of destruction to the countryside, and also wastes a lot of construction resources. Design is influenced by ethical concepts, which needs to pay more attention to the culture tendency and society. Urban design makes theoretical investigation aiming at the ethical questions that emerged from city, then summarizes the design strategies of the city. While Chinese rural design has only begun to enter people’s horizon, and there is very little discussion about it. Due to the lack of ethical value guidance, Chinese rural design and construction has many problems at different levels of ecology, culture and industry. Therefore this paper primarily explores the domestic and foreign design ethics, attempting to provide a new perspective for Chinese rural design, aiming at finding a realistic and forward-looking solution for Chinese rural design concerning to the complex relation between city and rural areas.

  5. Environment and Subjective Well-Being of Rural Chinese Elderly: A Multilevel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dale E. Yeatts; Cynthia M. Cready; Xiaomei Pei; Yuying Shen; Hao Luo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environment on the subjective well-being (SWB) of older Chinese villagers after controlling for personal and social characteristics.

  6. Genetic variations of GAK in two Chinese Parkinson's disease populations: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-En Johnny Tseng

    Full Text Available Cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK modifies α-synuclein expression levels and affects the susceptibility of Parkinson's disease (PD. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1564282 of GAK gene has a significant association to the risk of PD among Caucasian populations. To date there is only one data with regards to ethnic Chinese from Mainland China. Here, we conducted a case-control study in two independent cohorts of Han Chinese populations from Taiwan and Singapore to validate this association. A total of 1,755 subjects (871 PD patients and 884 controls were recruited. The results showed that neither the CT, TT genotypes nor the minor allele T of SNP rs1564282 were associated with PD among the subjects from Taiwan and Singapore as well as in the pooled analysis. Differences in our study population with regards to published literature may be due to epigenetic factors and gene-gene or gene-environmental interactions. Further studies in other Chinese populations will be of interest to validate these findings.

  7. Psychometric analysis of an eating behaviour questionnaire for an overweight and obese Chinese population in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Ayob, M Na'im M; Chong, Kok Joon; Tai, E-Shyong; Khoo, Chin Meng; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Lee, Yung Seng; Tham, Kwang Wei; Venkataraman, Kavita; Meaney, Michael J; Wee, Hwee Lin; Khoo, Eric Yin-Hao

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies reveal that the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), which assesses eating behaviour, performs differently across population groups and cultures. We aimed to identify the factor structure that is most appropriate to capture eating behaviour in an overweight and obese Chinese population in Singapore. TFEQ-51 was administered to 444 Chinese subjects pooled from four separate studies and scored according to various alternative versions of the TFEQ. Confirmatory factor analyses and goodness of fit indices were used to determine the most appropriate factor structure. Known-group validity analyses were conducted. Niemeier's Disinhibition Factors and the TFEQ-R18 factor structures were found to be the most applicable in our population based on goodness of fit indices, with a x(2)/df ratio of 0.9 for both. Only two of three factors (Emotional Eating and Uncontrolled Eating) of the TFEQ-R18 showed good internal consistency, while none of Niemeier's Disinhibition Factors showed good internal consistency. Known-group validity showed that Emotional Eating and Internal Disinhibition were significantly associated with higher BMI. We found that the TFEQ-R18 factor structure is the most appropriate and practical for use in measuring eating behaviour in an overweight and obese Chinese population in Singapore. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of HLA-DPB1 with scleroderma and its clinical features in Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiucun Wang

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen DPB1 was reported to contain singly nucleotide polymorphisms conferring the strongest susceptibility to systemic sclerosis in Korean population. However, associations of specific DPB1 alleles with SSc vary in different ethnic populations. The aim of this study was to profile DPB1 alleles in Chinese population and to identify specific DPB1 alleles in association with SSc and clinical and serological features of SSc in Han Chinese. A cohort containing 338 patients with SSc and 480 gender-matched and unrelated controls were examined in the study. The HLA-DPB1 genotyping was performed with sequence-based typing method. Exact p-values were obtained (Fisher's test from 2×2 tables of allele counts or allele carriers and disease status. Thirty eight DPB1 alleles were found in the cohort. DPB1*05:01 was the most common allele in this cohort. DPB1*03:01 and *13:01 were significantly increased in SSc. DPB1*13:01 association had already been described in other ethnic populations, whereas DPB1*03:01 was specific to Han Chinese patients with SSc. In addition, comparisons between SSc subsets indicated that patients carrying DPB1*03:01 were more likely to develop pulmonary fibrosis, DPB1*04 carriers were increased in SSc patients with anti-centromere autoantibodies and in contrast, SSc patients with homozygous DPB1*05:01 showed an opposite association with marginal significance.

  9. Impact of classical risk factors of type 2 diabetes among Asian Indian, Chinese and Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Tuomilehto, J; Qiao, Q; Söderberg, S; Daimon, M; Chambers, J; Pitkäniemi, J

    2015-11-01

    This review investigated the population impact of major modifiable type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors, with special focus on native Asian Indians, to estimate population attributable risks (PARs) and compare them with estimates from Chinese and Japanese populations. Information was obtained on risk factors in 21,041 Asian Indian, 17,774 Chinese and 17,986 Japanese populations from multiple, large, cross-sectional studies (the DECODA project) of T2D. Crude and adjusted PARs were estimated for the major T2D risk factors. Age had the highest crude and adjusted PARs among Asian Indians and Chinese in contrast to waist-hip ratio among Japanese. After adjusting for age, the PAR for body mass index (BMI) in Asian Indians (41.4% [95% CI: 37.2%; 45.4%]) was second only to triglycerides (46.4% [95% CI: 39.5%; 52.8%]) compared with 35.8% [95% CI: 29.9%; 41.4%] in Japanese and 38.4% [95% CI: 33.5%; 43.2%] in Chinese people. The PAR for BMI adjusted for age, LDL and triglycerides (39.7% [95% CI: 31.6%; 47.2%]) was higher than for any other factor in Asian Indians, and was much higher than in the Chinese (16.8% [95% CI: 3.0%; 30.9%]) and Japanese (30.4% [95% CI: 17.5%; 42.2%]) populations. This review provides estimates of the association between major risk factors and prevalences of T2D among Asian populations by examining their PARs from large population-based samples. From a public-health point of view, the importance of BMI in Asian Indians is especially highlighted in comparison to the other Asian populations. Given these results and other recent findings on the causality link between BMI and T2D, it can be postulated that obesity may be involved in the aetiology of T2D through interaction with ethnic-specific genetic factors, although ethnicity itself is not a direct risk factor for T2D as people of all ethnic backgrounds develop diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. 1 2 POPULATION GROWTH AND THE DILEMMA OF RURAL LIFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    The high as well as the unrestrained population growth rate of the country has, to a ... that it stimulates business and general economic growth cycles and therefore .... The privilege and opportunity of acquiring functional education, for instance ...

  11. Multiple job holding in rural villages and the Chinese road to development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Jan Douwe; Jingzhong, Ye

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the interrelations that exist between rural China's peasant economy and the wider economy in which it is embedded. In doing so it focuses on the circular flows that link town and countryside. Multiple job holding is strategic in this respect. The paper draws on research undertaken in a peasant village in Hebei Province. The research highlights some remarkable differences that exist between development processes in China and in other developing countries and traces these back to a combination of an enlightened rural policy and the strong linkages that exist between rural China and its urban "global factory".

  12. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in 2 million men aged 21-49 years in rural China: a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jue; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Man; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic (7-8% prevalence) in rural China, causing high mortality and societal burden. Data from men of reproductive age is scarce and last reported in 2006. We assessed the seroepidemiology of men in rural China, aiming to provide updated baseline data for the prevalence of HBV infection. We established prevalence of HBV infection from data gathered through a nationwide population-based study of Chinese rural men aged 21-49 years. Data were obtained from a physical check-up programme for couples of reproductive age, the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project, that covered 31 provinces from 2010-12. We tested serological samples with ELISA and categorised participants' HBV status based on presence of HBsAg, anti-HBV core antibody (anti-HBc), and anti-HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs). 2 030 083 men were recruited into the database from Jan 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2012, and 1 966 013 men provided serum samples for analysis. 124 274 men (6%) tested positive for HBsAg, 178 559 (9%) tested positive for anti-HBc, and 583 923 (30%) tested positive for anti-HBs. Isolated anti-HBs (an indicator of vaccine-mediated immunity) were present in 527 566 men (27%). And 1 234 127 men (63%) were negative for all HBV makers (susceptible population). HBsAg prevalence was higher in men aged 25-39 years (6·35-6·47%) than in other age groups (5·54-5·78%; pChina than in the central or western regions (all pChina has changed from highly endemic into intermediate endemic in the past two decades. However, the absolute number of HBV-infected men and the susceptible population is still very large. Chinese Association of Maternal and Child Health Studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Association between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents' Economic Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here…

  14. [Ageing and chronic diseases in Senegal. A comparison between rural (Ferlo) and urban (Dakar) populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboz, P; Touré, M; Hane, F; Macia, E; Coumé, M; Bâ, A; Boëtsch, G; Guèye, L; Chapuis-Lucciani, N

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were: to compare the prevalence of hypertension, overweight and obesity in rural (Ferlo) and urban (Dakar) Senegalese populations aged 50 and over. The survey was conducted on individuals aged 50 and older living in the rural area (N=478) and in the urban area (N=220). We have collected data about age, gender, marital status, education level, and knowledge, treatment of hypertension, height, weight and blood pressure. We have observed that overweight and obesity were more prevalent in the urban area (Dakar) than in the rural one (Ferlo). The risk of overweight or obesity decreased when age increased, and women had weight problems more often than men. The prevalence of arterial hypertension was lower in rural area (55.86%) than in Dakar (66.36%), but increased at an older age. However, the logistic regression showed that these increased proportion of hypertension in Dakar is linked to the more important proportion of overweight and obese people in this area. Moreover, rates of knowledge, treatment and control of hypertension are particularly low in the rural area of Senegal. In conclusion, age-associated diseases should be better managed in Senegal, particularly in rural areas.

  15. Psidium guajava: A Single Plant for Multiple Health Problems of Rural Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daswani, Poonam G; Gholkar, Manasi S; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2017-01-01

    The rural population in India faces a number of health problems and often has to rely on local remedies. Psidium guajava Linn. (guava), a tropical plant which is used as food and medicine can be used by rural communities due to its several medicinal properties. A literature search was undertaken to gauge the rural health scenario in India and compile the available literature on guava so as to reflect its usage in the treatment of multiple health conditions prevalent in rural communities. Towards this, electronic databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, google scholar were scanned. Information on clinical trials on guava was obtained from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Clinicaltrial.gov. The literature survey revealed that guava possesses various medicinal properties which have been reported from across the globe in the form of ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological surveys, laboratory investigations and clinical trials. Besides documenting the safety of guava, the available literature shows that guava is efficacious against the following conditions which rural communities would encounter. (a) Gastrointestinal infections; (b) Malaria; (c)Respiratory infections; (d) Oral/dental infections; (e) Skin infections; (f) Diabetes; (g) Cardiovascular/hypertension; (h) Cancer; (i) Malnutrition; (j) Women problems; (k) Pain; (l) Fever; (m) Liver problems; (n) Kidney problems. In addition, guava can also be useful for treatment of animals and explored for its commercial applications. In conclusion, popularization of guava, can have multiple applications for rural communities.

  16. Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus, Typhus, and Spotted Fever Among Rural and Urban Populations of Northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, N.V.; Hoi, L.T.; Thuong, N.T.H.; Toan, T.K.; Huong, T.T.K.; Hoa, T.M.; Fox, A.; Kinh, N.V.; Doorn, H.R. van; Wertheim, H.F.L.; Bryant, J.E.; Nadjm, B.

    2017-01-01

    AbstractRickettsial infections are recognized as important causes of fever throughout southeast Asia. Herein, we determined the seroprevalence to rickettsioses within rural and urban populations of northern Vietnam. Prevalence of individuals with evidence of prior rickettsial infections (IgG

  17. Natural amenities and rural population migration: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Vahé Heboyan; Florence Santos; John C. Bergstrom

    2011-01-01

    Research has suggested that significant relationships exist between rural population change and natural amenities. Thus, understanding and predicting domestic migration trends as a function of changes in natural amenities is important for effective regional growth and development policies and strategies. In this study, we first estimated an econometric model which...

  18. Pedometer Readings and Self-Reported Walking Distances in a Rural Hutterite Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Haifa Abou; Beare, Tianna; Specker, Bonny

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the accuracy with which a rural population reported daily walking distances using a 7-day activity recall questionnaire obtained quarterly compared to pedometer readings. Methods: Study participants were 48 Hutterite men and women aged 11-66 years. Findings: Pedometer-miles quartiles were associated with self-reported…

  19. An epidemiological survey: Effect of predisposing factors for PCOS in Indian urban and rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vidya Bharathi

    2017-12-01

    Major conclusions: Family history was found to have a strong association in incidence and manifestation of the disorder. Stress was found to set off the symptoms pertaining to PCOS. We also noticed that the awareness, among the rural population especially, was very minimum and thus they were not oblivious of diagnosis.

  20. Health status of rural population in Ialomita county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-MARIA TALOS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Health is an issue that manages to provide many top ics in various fields (medicine, geography, sociology, psychology. This study aims to highlight the territorial disparities in health status of Ialomi ţ a county, to identify the health determinants and to make a preliminary analysis of the relationships between the lifestyle and the health status, using an objective assessment (statistics and a subjective evaluation (health surveys. There were analyzed elements such as mortality and morbidity, using health indic ators (mortality rate, infant mortality rate, specific mortality rate and specific morbidity rate and an aggregate index (health index. Combining statistic analysis and spatial analysis, t he study offers the possibility of comparing the rural areas with urban area, and it can be a base f or further studies. The health services, ageing and the characteristics of lifestyle could explain the territorial disparities in health status. A health study can reveal important details about eco nomic features, social behavior, mentality and social environment.

  1. Anemia and Helicobacter pylori seroreactivity in a rural Haitian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, Joshua R; Sodikoff, Jamie B; Speckman, Rebecca A; Rollin, Francois G; Chery, Marie P; Cole, Conrad R; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2011-11-01

    Anemia is a significant health concern worldwide and can be the result of nutritional, environmental, social, and infectious etiologies. We estimated the prevalence of anemia in 336 pre-school children and 132 adults in the rural Central Plateau of Haiti and assessed associations with age, sex, household size, water source, sanitation, and Helicobacter pylori seroreactivity using logistic regression analysis; 80.1% (269/336) of children and 63.6% (84/132) of adults were anemic. Among children, younger age was associated with increased prevalence of anemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-11.1 for children 6-11 months compared with children 48-59 months). Among adults, 50.8% were H. pylori-seropositive, and seropositivity was inversely associated with anemia (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9). Anemia prevalence in this region of Haiti is very high and not attributable to sanitary conditions or a high prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  2. Association between mitochondrial DNA variations and schizophrenia in the northern Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng-Ling; Ding, Mei; Yao, Jun; Shi, Zhang-Sen; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Pang, Hao; Xing, Jia-Xin; Xuan, Jin-Feng; Wang, Bao-Jie

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations are associated with schizophrenia, 313 patients with schizophrenia and 326 unaffected participants of the northern Chinese Han population were included in a prospective study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including C5178A, A10398G, G13708A, and C13928G were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Hypervariable regions I and II (HVSI and HVSII) were analyzed by sequencing. The results showed that the 4 SNPs and 11 haplotypes, composed of the 4 SNPs, did not differ significantly between patient and control groups. No significant association between haplogroups and the risk of schizophrenia was ascertained after Bonferroni correction. Drawing a conclusion, there was no evidence of an association between mtDNA (the 4 SNPs and the control region) and schizophrenia in the northern Chinese Han population.

  3. Culture Qualitatively but Not Quantitatively Influences Performance in the Boston Naming Test in a Chinese-Speaking Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Bin Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Boston Naming Test (BNT is the most frequently administered confrontational naming test, but the cultural background of the patients may influence their performance in the BNT. The aim of this study was to identify differences in performance in the BNT between a Chinese population in Taiwan, Chinese populations in other areas and a Caucasian population. Methods: A total of 264 native, Chinese-speaking, cognitively normal elders aged >60 years were enrolled in our study and conducted the 30-item Chinese version of the BNT. Another 10 BNT studies were categorized, analyzed and compared with the present study. Results: Higher education was associated with higher scores, whereas age and gender had no effect on performance in the BNT. The score of the Chinese-speaking population was equivalent to the English-speaking population. A disparity in difficulties with items was not only apparent between the Taiwanese and Caucasian populations, but also between the Chinese-speaking populations in the different geographic areas. Conclusion: For the most part, the impact of culture on performance in the BNT may not be quantitative but qualitative. Attention should be paid to a potential effect of culture on difficulties with items when administering the BNT to non-English-speaking populations. Understanding differences in performance in the BNT in distinct cultural settings improves the clinical application of the BNT.

  4. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  5. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid profiles and diabetes risk in Chinese populations

    OpenAIRE

    Tianlu Chen; Yan Ni; Xiaojing Ma; Yuqian Bao; Jiajian Liu; Fengjie Huang; Cheng Hu; Guoxiang Xie; Aihua Zhao; Weiping Jia; Wei Jia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies revealed strong evidence that branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs) are closely associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in several Western countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of BCAAs and AAAs in predicting the diabetes development in Chinese populations. The serum levels of valine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine were measured in a longitudinal and a cross sectional studies with a total of 429 C...

  6. Association of inflammatory gene polymorphisms with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Nan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yongqin; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Li, Jiana; Yu, Litian; Ma, Liyuan; Wang, Shuyu; Zhang, Hongye; Liu, Lisheng; Zhao, Jingbo; Wang, Xingyu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Inflammatory mechanisms are important in stroke risk, and genetic variations in components of the inflammatory response have been implicated as risk factors for stroke. We tested the inflammatory gene polymorphisms and their association with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population. Methods A total of 1,124 ischemic stroke cases and 1,163 controls were genotyped with inflammatory panel strips containing 51 selected inflammatory gene polymorphisms from 35 candidate genes...

  7. Analysis of Geographic and Pairwise Distances among Chinese Cashmere Goat Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jian-Bin; Wang, Fan; Lang, Xia; Zha, Xi; Sun, Xiao-Ping; Yue, Yao-Jing; Feng, Rui-Lin; Yang, Bo-Hui; Guo, Jian

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the geographic and pairwise distances of nine Chinese local Cashmere goat populations through the analysis of 20 microsatellite DNA markers. Fluorescence PCR was used to identify the markers, which were selected based on their significance as identified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). In total, 206 alleles were detected; the average allele number was 10.30; the polymorphism i...

  8. EVOLUTIONARY ASPECTS OF THE WELFARE OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND THEIR MOTIVATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica PRISACARU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of rural population incomes, their evolution, and changes in their structure that occurred in the period 2006-2012. It was performed a comparative analysis of the ratio between the available income per capita and subsistence minimum in rural and urban areas, and based on this, it was highlighted the gap between the welfare of urban and rural population. The result of the study proved that despite positive tendencies in reducing rural poverty, rural population income is still very low, without reaching the subsistence minimum. This fact, along with other negative aspects (reduced share of income from employment, increased share of social allowances and remittances leads to the decrease of the motivational effects of work payment and income from agricultural activity. Thus, it is obvious, that along with government social programs, to have more effective state actions targeted to business development in rural areas and hence creating new workplaces.

  9. [Analysis of genetico-demographic structure of rural populations living near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviatova, G S; Berezina, G M; Abil'dinova, G Zh

    2001-12-01

    Rural populations neighboring the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site were used as a model to develop and test an integrated population-genetic approach to analysis of the medical genetic situation and environmental conditions in the areas studied. The contributions of individual factors of population dynamics into the formation of the genetic load were also assessed. The informative values of some genetic markers were estimated. Based on these estimates, a mathematical model was constructed that makes it possible to calculate numerical scores for analysis of the genetic loads in populations differing in environmental exposure.

  10. Relationship of Sleep Duration with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Lifestyle, Mental Health, and Chronic Diseases in a Large Chinese Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Li, Bo; Wu, Yanhua; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-03-15

    Pattern of sleep duration and its correlates have rarely been reported in China. This study examined the sleep duration and its relationship with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, mental health, and chronic diseases in a large Chinese adult population. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster sampling. A total of 17,320 participants from Jilin province were selected and interviewed using standardized assessment tools. Basic socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Sleep duration was classified as short ( 9 h per day) and medium sleep (7-9 h per day). The mean age of the sample was 42.60 ± 10.60 y, with 51.4% being female. The mean sleep duration was 7.31 ± 1.44 h. Short and long sleepers accounted for 30.9% and 6.9% of the sample, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, current smoking, irregular meal pattern, lack of physical exercise, poor mental health, and chronic diseases or multimorbidity were positively associated with short sleep. Being married and living in rural areas were, however, negatively associated with short sleep. In addition, living in rural area, current smoking, current alcohol use and lack of physical exercise were positively associated with long sleep, while older age and lower education were negatively associated with long sleep. Given the high frequency of short sleep and its negative effect on health, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in general health care. Nationwide epidemiologic surveys in China are needed to further explore the relationship between sleep duration and health. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  11. Association of rs662799 in APOA5 with CAD in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Ding, Shifang; Zhou, Mi; Wu, Xiayin; Liu, Xi; Wu, Yun; Liu, Dechao

    2018-01-08

    CAD (Coronary Artery Disease) is a complex disease that influenced by various environmental and genetic factors. Previous studies have found many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of CAD occurrence. However, the results are inconsistent. In this study, we aim to investigate genetic etiology in Chinese Han population by analysis of 7 SNPs in lipid metabolism pathway that previously has been reported to be associated with CAD. A total of 631 samples were used in this study, including 435 CAD cases and 196 normal healthy controls. SNP genotyping were conducted via multiplex PCR amplifying followed by NGS (next-generation sequencing). Rs662799 in APOA5 (Apolipoprotein A5) gene was associated with CAD in Chinese Han population (Odds-ratio = 1.374, P-value = 0.03). No significant association was observed between the rest of SNPs and CAD. Stratified association analysis revealed rs5882 was associated with CAD in non-hypertension group (Odds-ratio = 1.593, P-value = 0.023). Rs1800588 was associated with CAD in smoking group (Odds-ratio = 1.603, P-value = 0.035). The minor allele of rs662799 was the risk factor of CAD occurrences in Chinese Han population.

  12. LILRA3 Is Associated with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Risk in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent prostate cancer (PCa genome-wide association study (GWAS identified rs103294, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP located on LILRA3, a key component in the regulation of inflammatory inhibition, to be significantly associated with PCa risk in a Chinese population. Because inflammation may be a common etiological risk factor between PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, the current study was conducted to investigate the association of rs103294 with BPH risk. rs103294 was genotyped in a Chinese population of 426 BPH cases and 1,008 controls from Xinhua Hospital in Shanghai, China. Association between rs103294, BPH risk and clinicopathological traits were tested with adjustment for age. rs103294 was significantly associated with BPH risk with a p-value of 0.0067. Individuals with risk allele “C” had increased risk for BPH (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.09–1.66. Stratified analysis revealed a stronger association risk for younger patients who are below 72 years old (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06–2.16. Our study represents the first effort to demonstrate that LILRA3 gene is significantly associated with BPH risk in a Chinese population. Our results support a common role of inflammation in the development of PCa and BPH. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate our results.

  13. Risk assessment of dietary exposure to aluminium in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Zhao-Ping; Yang, Da-Jin; Liang, Jiang; Zhu, Jiang-Hui; Xu, Hai-Bin; Li, Feng-Qin; Li, Ning

    2016-10-01

    In order to address the issue of excessive intake of aluminium (Al) from Al-containing food additives in the Chinese diet, this study conducted a dietary exposure assessment of Al in the general population based on the national surveillance data of Al content in foods and national food consumption data. It was found that the mean dietary exposure of the whole Chinese population to Al from Al-containing food additives was 1.795 mg kg ‒1 bw week ‒1 , not exceeding the PTWI, while high dietary exposures (e.g., 97.5 th percentile) to Al were 7.660 and 2.103-2.903 mg kg ‒1 bw week ‒1 for children, respectively, both exceeding the PTWI. It was found that the dietary exposure to Al for 32.5% of the total Chinese population and 42.6% of children aged 4-6 years exceeded the PTWI. Wheat flour and wheat-based products are the main source of dietary A l exposure (85% of the total intake); and puffed foods are the major source of Al intake for children. These findings suggested that consumption of Al-containing food additives could be a health concern for consumers with high food consumption (97.5 th percentile) and children under the age of 14 years.

  14. Combinations of bacterial species associated with symptomatic endodontic infections in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Z; Cao, H; Jiang, H; Zhao, J; Tang, Z

    2016-01-01

    To use microarrays to detect 11 selected bacteria in infected root canals, revealing bacterial combinations that are associated with clinical symptoms and signs of primary endodontic infections in a Chinese population. DNA was extracted from 90 samples collected from the root canals of teeth with primary endodontic infections in a Chinese population, and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were hybridized to microarrays containing specific oligonucleotide probes targeting 11 species, and the arrays were screened with a confocal laser scanner. Pearson's chi-squared test and cluster analysis were performed to investigate the associations between the bacterial combinations and clinical symptoms and signs using SAS 8.02. Seventy-seven samples (86%) yielded at least one of the 11 target species. Parvimonas micra (56%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (51%), Tannerella forsythia (48%), Prevotella intermedia (44%) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (37%) were the most prevalent taxa and were often concomitant. The following positive associations were found between the bacterial combinations and clinical features: P. endodontalis and T. forsythia with abscess; P. gingivalis and P. micra with sinus tract; P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis or P. micra and P. endodontalis with abscess and sinus tract; and the combination of P. endodontalis, P. micra, T. forsythia and P. gingivalis with sinus tract (P endodontalis, T. forsythia and P. gingivalis may contribute to abscesses or sinus tracts of endodontic origin with bacterial synergism in a Chinese population. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Replication of genome wide association studies on hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility loci in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangmei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified three loci (rs17401966 in KIF1B, rs7574865 in STAT4, rs9275319 in HLA-DQ as being associated with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-related HCC in a Chinese population, two loci (rs2596542 in MICA, rs9275572 located between HLA-DQA and HLA-DQB with hepatitis C virus-related HCC (HCV-related HCC in a Japanese population. In the present study, we sought to determine whether these SNPs are predictive for HBV-related HCC development in other Chinese population as well. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We genotyped 4 SNPs, rs2596542, rs9275572, rs17401966, rs7574865, in 506 HBV-related HCC patients and 772 chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients in Han Chinese by TaqMan methods. Odds ratio(ORand 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated by logistic regression. In our case-control study, significant association between rs9275572 and HCC were observed (P = 0.02, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56-0.95. In the further haplotype analysis between rs2596542 at 6p21.33 and rs9275572 at 6p21.3, G-A showed a protective effect on HBV-related HCC occurrence (P<0.001, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.52-0.84. CONCLUSION: These findings provided convincing evidence that rs9275572 significantly associated with HBV-related HCC.

  16. STAT4 is a genetic risk factor for systemic sclerosis in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, L; Wang, J C; Guo, X J; Gu, Y H; Tu, W Z; Guo, G; Yang, L; Xiao, R; Yu, L; Mayes, M D; Assassi, S; Jin, L; Zou, H J; Zhou, X D

    2013-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an immune-mediated and complex genetic disease. An association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the STAT4 gene with SSc has been reported in European Caucasians, North Americans and Japanese. We undertook the current study to examine whether the STAT4 SNPs are also associated with susceptibility to SSc and SSc subsets in a Han Chinese population. A total of 453 Han Chinese patients with SSc and 534 healthy controls were examined in the study. The SNPs rs7574865, rs10168266 and rs3821236 of the STAT4 gene were examined with SNP TaqMan assays. The T-allele carriers of rs7574865 and rs10168266 were strongly associated with the presence of anti-topoisomerase I (ATA) and pulmonary fibrosis in SSc patients, as well as with diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). The presence of anti-centromere (ACA) and limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) did not show significant association with any of the examined SNPs. The results were consistent with previous reports in other ethnic populations in supporting the notion that polymorphisms of STAT4 may play an important role in susceptibility to SSc. It also revealed different genetic aspects of SSc subsets in a Han Chinese population.

  17. Replication of genome wide association studies on hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility loci in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kangmei; Shi, Weimei; Xin, Zhenhui; Wang, Huifen; Zhu, Xilin; Wu, Xiaopan; Li, Zhuo; Li, Hui; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified three loci (rs17401966 in KIF1B, rs7574865 in STAT4, rs9275319 in HLA-DQ) as being associated with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-related HCC) in a Chinese population, two loci (rs2596542 in MICA, rs9275572 located between HLA-DQA and HLA-DQB) with hepatitis C virus-related HCC (HCV-related HCC) in a Japanese population. In the present study, we sought to determine whether these SNPs are predictive for HBV-related HCC development in other Chinese population as well. We genotyped 4 SNPs, rs2596542, rs9275572, rs17401966, rs7574865, in 506 HBV-related HCC patients and 772 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in Han Chinese by TaqMan methods. Odds ratio(OR)and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression. In our case-control study, significant association between rs9275572 and HCC were observed (P = 0.02, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56-0.95). In the further haplotype analysis between rs2596542 at 6p21.33 and rs9275572 at 6p21.3, G-A showed a protective effect on HBV-related HCC occurrence (P<0.001, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.52-0.84). These findings provided convincing evidence that rs9275572 significantly associated with HBV-related HCC.

  18. Attitudes of rural population in emergency exposure situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carini, Franca; Pellizzoni, Marco

    2011-01-01

    People growing crops in kitchen gardens eat locally self-produced food and are the subject of growing attention as the potential for a more sustainable development. A survey was carried out in two provinces in northern Italy to gather information on the consumption of local horticultural products, peoples' expectations of authorities in the case of a nuclear accident and peoples' behaviour in the absence of official information. Results show that up to 70% of the owners of kitchen gardens possess diets comprised of more than 60% of self-produced vegetables and can be regarded as particular groups of population. In the case of a dispersion of radioactive material, the local population would take advantage of official information on preventive measures to protect farms and local crops from contamination. Results of the survey show differences in the attitude of the population due to age, gender and past experience. - Highlights: → Growers of kitchen gardens are particular groups of population. → A survey in northern Italy reveals that they eat more than 60% of self-produced vegetables. → They lack of confidence in the ability of authorities to communicate hazards to the food supply. → Their age and gender is one of the main parameters affecting confidence in the authorities. → The lack of a tradition of public dialog and participation affects their trust in the authorities.

  19. Mobile technology for health care in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of mobile technologies in China, the Chinese mobile medical applications market is growing rapidly. This may be particularly useful for Chinese rural populations who have limited access to quality medical care where mobile technologies can reach across geographic and socioeconomic boundaries and potentially increase access to care and improve health outcomes.

  20. Applicability of western chemical dietary exposure models to the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shizhen; Price, Oliver; Liu, Zhengtao; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    A range of exposure models, which have been developed in Europe and North America, are playing an increasingly important role in priority setting and the risk assessment of chemicals. However, the applicability of these tools, which are based on Western dietary exposure pathways, to estimate chemical exposure to the Chinese population to support the development of a risk-based environment and exposure assessment, is unclear. Three frequently used modelling tools, EUSES, RAIDAR and ACC-HUMANsteady, have been evaluated in terms of human dietary exposure estimation by application to a range of chemicals with different physicochemical properties under both model default and Chinese dietary scenarios. Hence, the modelling approaches were assessed by considering dietary pattern differences only. The predicted dietary exposure pathways were compared under both scenarios using a range of hypothetical and current emerging contaminants. Although the differences across models are greater than those between dietary scenarios, model predictions indicated that dietary preference can have a significant impact on human exposure, with the relatively high consumption of vegetables and cereals resulting in higher exposure via plants-based foodstuffs under Chinese consumption patterns compared to Western diets. The selected models demonstrated a good ability to identify key dietary exposure pathways which can be used for screening purposes and an evaluative risk assessment. However, some model adaptations will be required to cover a number of important Chinese exposure pathways, such as freshwater farmed-fish, grains and pork. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A panel of ancestry informative markers to estimate and correct potential effects of population stratification in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Pengfei; Li, Zhiqiang; Jin, Wenfei; Lu, Dongsheng; Lou, Haiyi; Shen, Jiawei; Jin, Li; Shi, Yongyong; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-02-01

    Population stratification acts as a confounding factor in genetic association studies and may lead to false-positive or false-negative results. Previous studies have analyzed the genetic substructures in Han Chinese population, the largest ethnic group in the world comprising ∼20% of the global human population. In this study, we examined 5540 Han Chinese individuals with about 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and screened a panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to facilitate the discerning and controlling of population structure in future association studies on Han Chinese. Based on genome-wide data, we first confirmed our previous observation of the north-south differentiation in Han Chinese population. Second, we developed a panel of 150 validated SNP AIMs to determine the northern or southern origin of each Han Chinese individual. We further evaluated the performance of our AIMs panel in association studies in simulation analysis. Our results showed that this AIMs panel had sufficient power to discern and control population stratification in Han Chinese, which could significantly reduce false-positive rates in both genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene association studies (CGAS). We suggest this AIMs panel be genotyped and used to control and correct population stratification in the study design or data analysis of future association studies, especially in CGAS which is the most popular approach to validate previous reports on genetic associations of diseases in post-GWAS era.

  2. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Thi Thanh, Xuan; Rheinländer, Thilde; Luu Ngoc, Hoat

    2013-01-01

    -ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. Design: This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July-November 2008) and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September......-December 2010). Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction...

  3. Inner and inter population structure construction of Chinese Jiangsu Han population based on Y23 STR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Zhang, Jianqiu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 23 Y-STR loci from PowerPlex® Y23 system in 916 unrelated healthy male individuals from Chinese Jiangsu Han, and observed 912 different haplotypes including 908 unique haplotypes and 4 duplicate haplotypes. The haplotype diversity reached 0.99999 and the discrimination capacity and match probability were 0.9956 and 0.0011, respectively. The gene diversity values ranged from 0.3942 at DYS438 to 0.9607 at DYS385a/b. Population differentiation within 10 Jiangsu Han subpopulations were evaluated by RST values and visualized in Neighbor-Joining trees and Multi-Dimensional Scaling plots as well as population relationships between the Jiangsu Han population and other 18 Eastern Asian populations. Such results indicated that the 23 Y-STR loci were highly polymorphic in Jiangsu Han population and played crucial roles in forensic application as well as population genetics. For the first time, we reported the genetic diversity of male lineages in Jiangsu Han population at a high-resolution level of 23 Y-STR set and consequently contributed to familial searching, offender tracking, and anthropology analysis of Jiangsu Han population. PMID:28704439

  4. Inner and inter population structure construction of Chinese Jiangsu Han population based on Y23 STR system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipin Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 23 Y-STR loci from PowerPlex® Y23 system in 916 unrelated healthy male individuals from Chinese Jiangsu Han, and observed 912 different haplotypes including 908 unique haplotypes and 4 duplicate haplotypes. The haplotype diversity reached 0.99999 and the discrimination capacity and match probability were 0.9956 and 0.0011, respectively. The gene diversity values ranged from 0.3942 at DYS438 to 0.9607 at DYS385a/b. Population differentiation within 10 Jiangsu Han subpopulations were evaluated by RST values and visualized in Neighbor-Joining trees and Multi-Dimensional Scaling plots as well as population relationships between the Jiangsu Han population and other 18 Eastern Asian populations. Such results indicated that the 23 Y-STR loci were highly polymorphic in Jiangsu Han population and played crucial roles in forensic application as well as population genetics. For the first time, we reported the genetic diversity of male lineages in Jiangsu Han population at a high-resolution level of 23 Y-STR set and consequently contributed to familial searching, offender tracking, and anthropology analysis of Jiangsu Han population.

  5. Comparison of patterns of substance abuse disorders in urban and rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morad Rasouli-Azad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of the prevalence of substance abuse in rural and urban population in different countries revealed variable results regarding to the study method, study population, age group and measuring tools. The purpose of this research is to compare the patterns of substance abuse disorders in urban and rural population in Mashhad.Materials and Method: Two groups consecutively admitted patients who referred to substance treatment clinics of Mashhad, were selected (110 urban and 100 rural patients. Samples were evaluated with structured demographic questionnaire and Structured Clinical Interview (SCID for DSM-IV. Data were analyzed by χ2 and independent t-test.Results: This study showed statistically significant differences between two groups in marital status, education level, monthly income and job. Also the samples were differed in substance type, history of injection and quit, abuse of nicotine, cannabis and alcohol in long life. Conclusion: Rural and urban societies have differences in patterns of substance abuse that can be originated from social-context differences

  6. Infant feeding practices in the rural population of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed E Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    that maternity and newborn care variables had no significant association with exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions: Despite higher rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding, awareness of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding was low. This indicates the need to promote awareness of the correct method of infant feeding and care of the newborn. Creating an awareness of the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding will further strengthen and support this common practice in rural communities and avoid an early introduction to complementary foods for sociocultural reasons.

  7. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Elderly Population: 2001?2010

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Miao; Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bin; Sun, Dongling; Wu, Lei; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan; Li, Xiaoying; He, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Objective The information on the changes of prevalence of MetS in China is limited. Our objective was to assess a 10-year?s change of the prevalence of MetS in a Chinese elderly population between 2001 and 2010. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of elderly population aged 60 to 95 years in Beijing in 2001 and 2010 respectively. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. Results A total of 2,334 participants (943 male, 1,391 female)...

  8. Genotype-phenotype correlation of xeroderma pigmentosum in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z; Zhang, J; Guo, Y; Ni, C; Liang, J; Cheng, R; Li, M; Yao, Z

    2015-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by extreme sensitivity to sunlight, freckle-like pigmentation and a greatly increased incidence of skin cancers. Genetic mutation detection and genotype-phenotype analysis of XP are rarely reported in the Chinese Han population. To investigate the mutational spectrum of XP in a Chinese Han population, to discover any genotype-phenotype correlation and, consequently, to propose a simple and effective tool for the molecular diagnosis of XP. This study was carried out on 12 unrelated Chinese families that included 13 patients with clinically suspected XP. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples. Mutation screening was performed by direct sequencing of exons and flanking intron-exon boundaries for the entire coding region of eight XP genes. In 12 patients, direct sequencing of the whole coding region of eight XP genes revealed pathogenic mutations, including seven compound heterozygous mutations, three homozygous mutations and a Japanese founder mutation. Thirteen mutations have not been previously identified. This cohort was composed of four patients with XP-C (XPC), two with XP-G (ERCC5), three with XP-A (XPA) and three with XP-V (POLH). This study identified 13 novel mutations and extended the mutation spectrum of XP in the Chinese Han population. In this cohort, we found that patients with XP-G have no neurological symptoms, and patients with XP-A and XP-V have a high incidence of malignancy. Furthermore, lack of stringent protection against sunlight, late diagnosis and long duration of disease play an important role. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Curative efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine xuebijing injections combined with ulinastatin for treating sepsis in the Chinese population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi-Hui; Luo, Liang; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Zhou, Yu-Ming; Liu, Hong-Ming; Huang, Zhen-Fei

    2018-06-01

    Sepsis is a clinically critical disease. However, it is still controversial whether the combined use of traditional Chinese medicine Xuebijing injections (XBJI) and western medicine can enhance curative efficacy and ensure safety compared with western medicine alone. Thus, this research consisted of a systematic review of the curative efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine XBJI combined with ulinastatin for treating sepsis in the Chinese population. A total of 8 databases were retrieved: 4 foreign databases, namely, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science; and 4 Chinese databases, namely, Sino Med, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wangfang Data. The time span of retrieval began from the establishment of each database and ended on August 1, 2017. Published randomized controlled trials about the combined use of traditional Chinese medicine XBJI and western medicine were included, regardless of language. Stata12.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Finally, 16 papers involving 1335 cases were included. The result of meta-analysis showed that compared with the single use of ulinastatin, traditional Chinese medicine XBJI combined with ulinastatin could reduce the time of mechanical ventilation, shorten the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, improve the 28-day survival rate, and decrease the occurrence rate of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, case fatality rate, procalcitonin (PCT) content, APACKEII score, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level, and interleukin (IL)-6 level. On the basis of the common basic therapeutic regimen, the combined use of traditional Chinese medicine XBJI and ulinastatin was compared with the use of ulinastatin alone for treating sepsis in the Chinese population. It was found that the number of adverse events of combination therapy is not significantly increased, and its clinical safety is well within the permitted range. However, considering the limitations of this

  10. Assessment of periodontal health among the rural population of Moradabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Batra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an integral component of general health and is essential for well-being. India is one of the most populated countries in the world and majority of them resides in rural areas. Moradabad is one of the oldest cities of Uttar Pradesh with diverse culture and beliefs. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the periodontal health status of the rural Moradabad population. Materials and Methods: A representative transversal study on 550 adults aged 20-49 years of rural Moradabad was conducted from February 2011 to June 2011. The survey was carried out using a self-designed questionnaire. Periodontal health was assessed using WHO criteria (1997. Results: Overall the prevalence of periodontal diseases among study subjects was overall 91.6%. Males had a higher prevalence of periodontal disease (93.8% as compared to females (89.5%. Out of total subjects 37.8% had Community Periodontal Index (CPI score 4 and 32.5% had score 3. About 7.3% of subjects had loss of attachment (LOA with 20.2% of them having LOA score 1. Statistically, there was a significant difference (P 35 years, smoking, tobacco chewing (independent risk factors were significantly associated with CPI > 2 (dependent variable (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The current periodontal health status of rural adult population of Moradabad city can be attributed to low literacy along with socio economic status and oral habits. To improve the periodontal health status of the rural population of Moradabad, it is suggested that a community-based approach can be designed.

  11. Left behind or moving forward? Effects of possible selves and strategies to attain them among rural Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chongzeng; Oyserman, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Are possible selves and strategies to attain them universally helpful even among children with few resources? We test this question in rural China. Rural Chinese children are commonly "left behind" (LB) by parents seizing economic opportunities by migrating, hoping the family will "move forward" and their children will attain their predestined better future. Media, teachers, and peers negatively represent LB children as unruly and undisciplined, with negative fates, making LB a negative stereotype that includes the idea of destiny or fate. Indeed, making the idea of LB salient increases children's fatalism (Study 1 n = 144, Study 2 n = 124). However, having strategies to attain possible future selves predicts better in-class behavior, fewer depressive symptoms, and better exam performance even a year later and controlling for prior performance (Study 3 n = 176, Study 4 n = 145). Possible selves have mixed effects, not always predicting better grades and undermining LB children's self-control. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychiatric morbidity among rural and slum female population: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhunu Shamsun Nahar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among women than men worldwide. The lifetime risk of depres­sion and dysthymia are twice as common in women as men. Rural women usually undergoes more stressful situations and also scores more on stress scale than that of urban and slum population. Objectives: The research objectives of this study are: 1 To find out the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among the study population. 2 To compare the disorders among the rural and slum female population. 3 To find out the influence of existing socio-demographic factors on psychiatric disorders. Method: This is a community-based study, which is also cross sectional and descriptive in nature. The sample for the main study constituted 366 randomly selected respondents. A two-staged screening procedure was carried in the study. First, the total population was studied by screening test-Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ to divide the sample into 'screen positive' and 'screen negative' subjects. In the second stage, full assessment of a mixture of all 'screen positive' and 25% 'screen negative' was carried out by structured clinical interview for diagnosis (SCID-NP. Later SCID filled by the respondents was assessed by consultant psychiatrists by using DSMIV in order to put exact clinical diagnosis. Stress was scored according to Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLE. The total duration of the study was from July 2010 to June 2011. Results: Higher prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was found among rural sample (22.8% than slum (10.90% population. Regarding pattern of psychiatric disorders among rural sample (22.8% than slum (10.9% population.See the PDF for the rest of the abstract.

  13. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598 was lower (P<0.0001 than the proportion from urban areas (41.8%, 865/2071. Sexual behavior has become increasingly common among FCCSs, including high-risk sexual behavior such as unprotected commercial sex. However, knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  14. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Liao, Yong; Liu, Jia; Fang, Wenjie; Hong, Nan; Ye, Xiaofei; Li, Jianjun; Tang, Qinglong; Pan, Weihua; Liao, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs) is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598) was lower ( P knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  15. Urban-rural differences in a population-based breast cancer screening program in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenić, Valerija; Strnad, Marija

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate urban-rural differences in the distribution of risk factors for breast cancer. Methods We analyzed the data from the first round of the “Mamma” population based-screening program conducted in Croatia between 2007 and 2009 and self-reported questionnaire results for 924 patients with histologically verified breast cancer. Reproductive and anthropometric characteristics, family history of breast cancer, history of breast disease, and prior breast screening history were compared between participants from the city of Zagreb (n = 270) and participants from 13 counties with more than 50% of rural inhabitants (n = 654). Results The screen-detected breast cancer rate was 4.5 per 1000 mammographies in rural counties and 4.6 in the city of Zagreb, while the participation rate was 61% in rural counties and 59% in Zagreb. Women from Zagreb had significantly more characteristics associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (P < 0.001 in all cases): no pregnancies (15% vs 7%), late age of first pregnancy (≥30 years) (10% vs 4%), and the most recent mammogram conducted 2-3 years ago (32% vs 14%). Women from rural counties were more often obese (41% vs 28%) and had early age of first live birth (<20 years) (20% vs 7%, P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion Identification of rural-urban differences in mammography use and their causes at the population level can be useful in designing and implementing interventions targeted at the reduction of inequalities and modifiable risk factors. PMID:21328724

  16. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  17. Investigation of vitamin D status and its correlation with insulin resistance in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Wang, Xiaojin; Wang, Ningjian; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Zhu, Chunfang; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Pu, Xiaoqi; Cang, Zhen; Zhu, Chaoxia; Lu, Meng; Meng, Ying; Guo, Hui; Chen, Chi; Tu, Weiping; Li, Bin; Hu, Ling; Wang, Bingshun; Lu, Yingli

    2017-06-01

    Although many studies worldwide have focused on the relationship between vitamin D and insulin resistance, results remain controversial. Furthermore, concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the Chinese population are unclear. We aimed to investigate vitamin D status and its correlation with insulin resistance among a Chinese adult population. Serum 25(OH)D, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and other metabolic parameters were assessed. Neck circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, weight and height were also measured. Lifestyle factors including smoking and drinking status were obtained. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by HbA1c according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria. Eastern China. Of 7200 residents included, 6597 individuals were ultimately analysed. We enrolled 2813 males (mean age 52·7 (sd 13·5) years) and 3784 females (52·3 (sd 13·5) years); mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 43·1 (sd 11·6) and 39·6 (sd 9·8) nmol/l, respectively. Additionally, 83·3 % of participants were 25(OH)D deficient. A significant difference in 25(OH)D was observed between males and females in winter and spring (Pinsulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the overweight and pre-diabetic populations. After adjusting for several variables, 25(OH)D was significantly associated with HOMA-IR in winter. When 25(OH)D values were categorized into quartiles, HOMA-IR was significantly associated with decreasing 25(OH)D. The majority of the Chinese population was vitamin D deficient and this deficiency was negatively associated with insulin resistance, particularly in the overweight and pre-diabetic populations. Moreover, these associations might be more evident in the winter.

  18. Derivation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wu; Huimin Dai; Lei Qian; Qing Tian; Lei Xiao; Xiaojun Tan; Hui Li; Lingjun Rao; Lixiazi He; Lei Bao; Jing Liao; Chun Cui; Zhenyu Zuo; Qiao Li

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can self-renew indefinitely and differentiate into all cell types in the human body. Therefore, they are valuable in regenerative medicine, human developmental biology and drug discovery. A number of hESC lines have been derived from the Chinese population,but limited of them are available for research purposes. Here we report the derivation and characterization of two hESC lines derived from human blastocysts of Chinese origin. These hESCs express alkaline phosphatase and hESC-specific markers, including Oct4, Nanog, SSEA-3, SSEA-4,TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. They also have high levels of telomerase activity and normal karyotypes. These cells can form embryoid body in vitro and can be differentiated into all three germ layers in vivo by teratoma formation. The newly established hESCs will be distributed for research purposes.The availability of hESC lines from the Chinese population will facilitate studies on the differences in hESCs from different ethnic groups.

  19. Multiple genetic variants associated with primary biliary cirrhosis in a Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming; Li, Jinxin; Tang, Ruqi; Zhu, Ping; Qiu, Fang; Wang, Chan; Qiu, Jie; Wang, Lan; Dai, Yaping; Xu, Ping; Gao, Yueqiu; Han, Chongxu; Wang, Yongzhong; Wu, Jian; Wu, Xudong; Zhang, Kui; Dai, Na; Sun, Weihao; Zhou, Jianpo; Hu, Zhigang; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Yuzhang; Nie, Jinshan; Zhao, Yi; Gong, Yuhua; Tian, Ye; Ji, Hualiang; Jiao, Zhijun; Jiang, Po; Shi, Xingjuan; Jawed, Rohil; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Qinghai; Li, Enling; Wei, Yiran; Xie, Wei; Zhao, Weifeng; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Xiang; Qiu, Hong; He, Gengsheng; Chen, Weichang; Seldin, Michael F; Gershwin, M Eric; Liu, Xiangdong; Ma, Xiong

    2015-06-01

    Multiple genome-wide association studies of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) in both European and Japanese ancestries have shown significant associations of many genetic loci contributing to the susceptibility to PBC. Major differences in susceptibility loci between these two population groups were observed. In this study, we examined whether the most significant loci observed in either European and/or Japanese cohorts are associated with PBC in a Han Chinese population. In 1070 PBC patients and 1198 controls, we observed highly significant associations at CD80 (rs2293370, P = 2.67 × 10(-8)) and TNFSF15 (rs4979462, P = 3.86 × 10(-8)) and significant associations at 17q12-21 (rs9303277), PDGFB (rs715505), NF-κB1 (rs7665090), IL12RB2 (rs11209050), and STAT4 (rs7574865; all corrected P values rs7574865) was strongly associated after additional control samples were analyzed. Our study is the first large-scale genetic analysis in a Han Chinese PBC cohort. These results do not only reflect that Han Chinese PBC patients share common genetic susceptibility genes with both their Japanese and European counterparts but also suggest a distinctly different genetic susceptibility profile.

  20. Together we have fun: native-place networks and sexual risk behaviours among Chinese male rural-urban migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef; Kelly, Brian C; Yang, Tingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Some scholars argue that the maintenance of social networks contributes to the lower prevalence of deviant behaviours and fewer adverse health effects among migrants. But others suggest that if migrants are embedded in homogeneous networks, such networks may enable the formation of a deviant subculture that promotes risk taking. Facing this dilemma, the present study investigates how native-place networks influence sexual risk behaviours (SRBs), specifically the pursuit of commercial sex and condomless sex with sex workers, for male rural-urban migrants. Using a multi-stage sample of 1,591 male rural-urban migrants from two major migrant-influx cities within China, we assessed migrants' general friend network ties and native place networks (townsmen in migrants' local networks) and tested their associations with SRBs. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicate that native-place network ties are associated with paying for sex (OR = 1.33, p < 0.001) and condomless sex with sex workers (OR = 1.33, p < 0.001), while general friendship network ties reduce such risks (OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; OR = 0.84, p < 0.01) even after controlling for demographic background, housing conditions, length of stay, health beliefs and behaviours, and spousal companionship. Our findings suggest that native-place networks among Chinese male rural-urban migrants are associated with SRBs because homogenous networks may serve as a platform for the emergence of a deviant subculture that promotes risk behaviours. A Virtual Abstract of this paper is available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Wg20I6j8XQ. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  1. Social-cultural factors of HIV-related stigma among the Chinese general population in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Chu, Tsz Hang

    2017-10-01

    HIV-related stigma in the wider community compounds the suffering of people living with HIV (PLWH) and hampers effective HIV prevention and care. This study examines the level of public stigma toward PLWH in Hong Kong and associated social-cultural factors. A telephone survey was conducted in June-July 2016 with 1080 Chinese adults aged 18-94 randomly selected from the general population. The results indicate substantial degree of public stigma toward PLWH. Overall, 58.1% of the participants endorsed at least one statement indicating negative social judgment of PLWH. Over 40% attributed HIV infections to irresponsible behaviors and nearly 30% perceived most PLWH as promiscuous. About 20% considered HIV to be a punishment for bad behavior and believed that PLWH should feel ashamed of themselves. These statistics indicate that HIV-related stigma among the general Hong Kong population had no noticeable reduction in a decade but is lower than that among rural and urban populations in China. Our findings suggest that the lower stigma in Hong Kong may be linked to higher education levels rather than Hongkongers' more Westernized outlook. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed that education level (β = -.19), homophobia (β = .30), and conformity to norms (β = .14) were independent predictors of HIV-related stigma but not age, income, or cultural orientations. By differentiating between associated social-cultural factors, this study provides a more nuanced understanding of the layered nature of HIV-related stigma: not broadly grounded in religion or Chinese culture but stemming from more specific social-cultural beliefs - perceptions of norm violation and negative attitudes toward homosexuality, which were not mutually exclusive. These findings have implications for HIV-related stigma reduction by providing evidence for the importance of addressing homophobia. Existing HIV publicity activities should be re-examined for inadvertent contribution

  2. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population.

  3. Financial Literacy of Rural Population as a Determinant of Saving Behavior in Kazakhstan

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    Gaisina Sholpan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In rural Kazakhstan, the credit and insurance services are limited and the state support is weak. Therefore, households’ saving is crucial to provide an insurance against the economic and social shocks. The main goal of this study is to contribute to the literature on financial literacy in emerging economies, namely, the effect of financial literacy on saving rates of rural population. Being well educated not always means to be financial literate and make efficient decisions regarding one’s own finance. People with a lower formal education level but with better experience in consuming financial products could be better prepared for making financial decisions including those related to savings. In this paper other socio-economic determinants of saving rates were taken into account, such as an income level, family size and an employment status. This research was carried out in Pavlodar region of Kazakhstan, and the data collection took place in spring 2014. In total, 405 households were surveyed. Results of the analysis show that if a respondent gives at least one correct answer, it positively affects the saving rates as well as one can observe that the higher the financial literacy level, the higher are the saving rates. Availability of state supported financial education programs for rural people will significantly contribute to the financial literacy improvement. At the same time, providing various and appropriate financial products in rural areas will motivate rural people to search for new knowledge and require authorities to intensify activities in this field.

  4. Stress and alcohol use in rural Chinese residents: A moderated mediation model examining the roles of resilience and negative emotions.

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    Wang, Yan; Chen, Xinguang

    2015-10-01

    Little research has been done on alcohol use and dependence among rural residents in China, a sub-population that might be under increased stress due to the rapid modernization and urbanization processes. We aimed to assess rural residents' levels of stress, negative emotions, resilience, alcohol use/dependence and the complex relationships among them. Survey data from a large random sample (n=1145, mean age=35.9, SD=7.7, 50.7% male) of rural residents in Wuhan, China were collected using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview. The sample had high prevalence of frequently perceived stress (47%) and high prevalence of ever (54.4%), past 30-day (40.4%), and binge drinking (13.8%). Approximately 11% met the criterion for intermediate to severe alcohol dependence. Mediation analysis indicated that the association between perceived stress (predictor) and alcohol dependence (outcome) was fully mediated by anxiety (indirect effect=.203, pstress and two negative emotions (mediators) was significantly modified by resilience (moderator); an integrative moderated mediation analysis indicated that the indirect effect from stress to alcohol dependence through negative emotions was also moderated by resilience. Negative emotions play a key role in bridging stress and alcohol dependence, while resilience significantly buffers the impact of stress on depression, reducing the risk of alcohol dependence. Resilience training may be an effective component for alcohol intervention in rural China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a multi-ethnic population in rural China: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Yu, Min-Bin; Cun, Qing; Chen, Qin; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Xu, Jian-Gang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a rural community in China and to examine possible ethnic variations. The Yunnan Minority Eye Study was a multi-ethnic community-based eye survey using random cluster sampling strategies. 2133 Bai, 2205 Han and 2208 Yi Chinese aged 50 years or older participated in this study. Glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and secondary glaucoma was defined based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. The overall age-standardized prevalence of all glaucoma was 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-3.1%) in this population. It was 1.8% (95% CI: 1.1-1.9%) for POAG and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6%) for PACG, respectively. Among 29 people with secondary glaucoma, 27 (93%) were blind in at least one eye. The presence of primary open-angle glaucoma was associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.94; comparing men with women), Yi ethnicity (OR = 2.27; comparing Yi with Han people), higher IOP (OR = 1.09 per mmHg increase), and the presence of myopia (OR = 1.84). Of the 212 participants with glaucoma, only 38 (18%) were aware of the disease and had been diagnosed previously as having glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. Patients who were better educated tended to be aware of the disease. Significant ethnic difference in the prevalence of POAG was observed in this study. The low awareness of glaucoma highlights the pressing need to increase public awareness of this potentially blinding condition in rural China. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  6. PREVALENCE OF DIENTAMOEBA FRAGILIS AMONG AN ORANG ASLI POPULATION IN RURAL MALAYSIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Hasim, Liyana; Moktar, Norhayati; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M

    2015-09-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a trichomonad parasite that can infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans causing gastrointestinal disease. Little is known about its epidemiology. We evaluated the prevalence of D. fragilis by conducting a cross sectional study of an Orang Asli population in rural Malaysia. We examined stool samples from 150 participants for D. fragilis using Wheatley's trichrome stain and collected demographic data from each participant using a structured questionnaire. Five participants (3.3%) had D. fragilis in their stool; four of these were aged population. Further studies are needed to determine the virulence, pathogenicity and mode of transmission of D. fragilis in the study population.

  7. Genetic variants identified by GWAS was associated with colorectal cancer in the Han Chinese population

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    Hui-Ping Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: Colorectal cancer (CRC, now the third most common cancer across the world, is known to aggregate in families. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP associated with CRC in Caucasians. Materials and Methods: To validate whether the same variations conferred risk to CRC in the Han Chinese population, we genotyped 760 individuals (380 controls and 380 cases samples recruited from the Han Chinese origin. Results: We found rs11987193 in 8p12 (P = 0.0472 after correction, OR = 0.751 was significantly associated with CRC but rs12080929 in 1p33 (P = 0.0650 after correction, OR = 0.750 was not. Conclusion: Our findings supported that rs11987193 is a susceptibility locus for CRC, and gene DUSP4 was possible to play a role in the pathology of CRC.

  8. [Association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B in Chinese Han population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Sun, Xuehua; Zhou, Zhenhua; Li, Man; Gao, Yueqiu

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between rs414171 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of cytokine- inducible src homology 2 domain protein (CISH) and the susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B. A total of 233 Chinese Han patients with chronic hepatitis B and 148 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. The SNP rs414171 was genotyped by Sequenom MassArray-IPLEX to analyze the relationship between rs414171 and chronic hepatitis B. The distribution of SNP rs414171 allele and genotype frequencies showed no significant difference between the patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). CISH rs414171 is not significantly associated with the susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B in Chinese Han population.

  9. Effects of Body Mass Index on Lung Function Index of Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiao; Ye, Jun; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Changan; Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Yongliang

    2018-01-01

    To study the effect of body mass index (BMI) on lung function indexes in Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed on 10, 592 participants. The linear relationship between lung function and BMI was evaluated by multivariate linear regression analysis, and the correlation between BMI and lung function was assessed by Pearson correlation analysis. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was positively related with the decreasing of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC (P <0.05), the increasing of FVC% predicted value (FVC%pre) and FEV1% predicted value (FEV1%pre). These suggested that Chinese people can restrain the decline of lung function to prevent the occurrence and development of COPD by the control of BMI.

  10. Central corneal thickness and related factors in an elderly American Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Singh, Kuldev; Weinreb, Robert; Kempen, John; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan

    2011-07-01

    To assess central corneal thickness and related factors in an elderly American Chinese population residing in San Francisco. Cross-sectional community based study. American Chinese aged 40 years and older were enrolled using random cluster sampling and volunteer screening in the Chinatown district of San Francisco. The following data were obtained: central corneal thickness by ultrasound pachymetry, intraocular pressure by Goldmann applanation tonometry, axial length by A-scan biometry, refractive status and corneal curvature by autorefractor. History of systemic and ocular diseases was collected via standard questionnaire. Central corneal thickness. Of 311 eligible subjects, 274 consented to study participation, and 228 phakic eyes were analyzed. Mean corneal thickness was 524.1 ± 31.1 µm, 545.5 ± 30.9 µm and 538.9 ± 31.8 µm in the sampling cluster, volunteer group and all subjects, respectively. A multiple linear regression model showed corneal thickness to be negatively associated with age (standardized regression coefficient [SRC] = -0.21; P = 0.016) and corneal curvature (SRC = -0.19; P = 0.018) but positively correlated with intraocular pressure (SRC = 0.20; P = 0.023). The distribution of central corneal thickness among this American Chinese population is similar to that reported in studies from East Asia. The independent factors associated with thinner corneas included older age, lower intraocular pressure and greater corneal curvature. While descendents of Chinese immigrants in America have, on average, thicker corneas than their ancestors, this phenomenon is potentially impacted by the level of intraocular pressure. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. Genetic variations and haplotype diversity of the UGT1 gene cluster in the Chinese population.

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    Jing Yang

    Full Text Available Vertebrates require tremendous molecular diversity to defend against numerous small hydrophobic chemicals. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs are a large family of detoxification enzymes that glucuronidate xenobiotics and endobiotics, facilitating their excretion from the body. The UGT1 gene cluster contains a tandem array of variable first exons, each preceded by a specific promoter, and a common set of downstream constant exons, similar to the genomic organization of the protocadherin (Pcdh, immunoglobulin, and T-cell receptor gene clusters. To assist pharmacogenomics studies in Chinese, we sequenced nine first exons, promoter and intronic regions, and five common exons of the UGT1 gene cluster in a population sample of 253 unrelated Chinese individuals. We identified 101 polymorphisms and found 15 novel SNPs. We then computed allele frequencies for each polymorphism and reconstructed their linkage disequilibrium (LD map. The UGT1 cluster can be divided into five linkage blocks: Block 9 (UGT1A9, Block 9/7/6 (UGT1A9, UGT1A7, and UGT1A6, Block 5 (UGT1A5, Block 4/3 (UGT1A4 and UGT1A3, and Block 3' UTR. Furthermore, we inferred haplotypes and selected their tagSNPs. Finally, comparing our data with those of three other populations of the HapMap project revealed ethnic specificity of the UGT1 genetic diversity in Chinese. These findings have important implications for future molecular genetic studies of the UGT1 gene cluster as well as for personalized medical therapies in Chinese.

  12. Visual disability, visual function, and myopia among rural chinese secondary school children: the Xichang Pediatric Refractive Error Study (X-PRES)--report 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Nathan; Wang, Yunfei; Song, Yue; Choi, Kai; Zhang, Mingzhi; Zhou, Zhongxia; Xie, Zhenling; Li, Liping; Liu, Xueyu; Sharma, Abhishek; Wu, Bin; Lam, Dennis S C

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate visual acuity, visual function, and prevalence of refractive error among Chinese secondary-school children in a cross-sectional school-based study. Uncorrected, presenting, and best corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic autorefraction with refinement, and self-reported visual function were assessed in a random, cluster sample of rural secondary school students in Xichang, China. Among the 1892 subjects (97.3% of the consenting children, 84.7% of the total sample), mean age was 14.7 +/- 0.8 years, 51.2% were female, and 26.4% were wearing glasses. The proportion of children with uncorrected, presenting, and corrected visual disability (visual disability when tested without correction, 98.7% was due to refractive error, while only 53.8% (414/770) of these children had appropriate correction. The girls had significantly (P visual disability and myopia visual function (ANOVA trend test, P Visual disability in this population was common, highly correctable, and frequently uncorrected. The impact of refractive error on self-reported visual function was significant. Strategies and studies to understand and remove barriers to spectacle wear are needed.

  13. Cardiovascular Morbidity Profile Of Population Aged 60 Years And Above In Rural And Urban Areas Of Kanpur

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    Saurabh Goel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidity is a major contributor towards old age health problems which requires specialized care and if left unattended can deteriorate the quality of life and also lead to mortality. Therefore a study was planned to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity among geriatric population living in rural and urban areas ofKanpur.Objective: To find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity in geriatric population in rural and urban area of Kanpur and also to study the pattern of cardiovascular morbidity in two areas.Material and methods: a cross sectional study was carried out in a randomly selected rural and urban area of Kanpur. 443 geriatrics in rural and 401 in urban area were interviewed and physically examined.Results: Geriatrics constituted 8.2% and 7.7% of total population in rural and urban area respectively. Majority ofpopulation in both areas belonged to 60-70years age group i.e. 78.8% and 75.8% respectively. 12.2% of rural geriatric and 12.5% of urban geriatric were suffering from some or other kind of cardiovascular morbidity. In rural area 39.1%>of geriatric population is hypertensive while in urban area hypertension is prevalent in 41.6%> of geriatric population. 98. l%>of morbid in rural and 86.0% in urban area were not doing any kind of exercise. A majority of population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity were not smoking currently. Majority i.e. 72.2% of geriatric population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity in rural area were having BMJ between 18.5-24.99 while in urban area 57.4% of them were having BMl>-25. Hypertensives consitiuted 57.4% in rural and 66.0% in urban area towards those who are suffering from cardiovascular morbidity.

  14. Cardiovascular Morbidity Profile Of Population Aged 60 Years And Above In Rural And Urban Areas Of Kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Goel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidity is a major contributor towards old age health problems which requires specialized care and if left unattended can deteriorate the quality of life and also lead to mortality. Therefore a study was planned to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity among geriatric population living in rural and urban areas ofKanpur. Objective: To find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity in geriatric population in rural and urban area of Kanpur and also to study the pattern of cardiovascular morbidity in two areas. Material and methods: a cross sectional study was carried out in a randomly selected rural and urban area of Kanpur. 443 geriatrics in rural and 401 in urban area were interviewed and physically examined. Results: Geriatrics constituted 8.2% and 7.7% of total population in rural and urban area respectively. Majority ofpopulation in both areas belonged to 60-70years age group i.e. 78.8% and 75.8% respectively. 12.2% of rural geriatric and 12.5% of urban geriatric were suffering from some or other kind of cardiovascular morbidity. In rural area 39.1%>of geriatric population is hypertensive while in urban area hypertension is prevalent in 41.6%> of geriatric population. 98. l%>of morbid in rural and 86.0% in urban area were not doing any kind of exercise. A majority of population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity were not smoking currently. Majority i.e. 72.2% of geriatric population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity in rural area were having BMJ between 18.5-24.99 while in urban area 57.4% of them were having BMl>-25. Hypertensives consitiuted 57.4% in rural and 66.0% in urban area towards those who are suffering from cardiovascular morbidity.

  15. Defining normal liver stiffness range in a normal healthy Chinese population without liver disease.

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    James Fung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For patients with chronic liver disease, different optimal liver stiffness cut-off values correspond to different stages of fibrosis, which are specific for the underlying liver disease and population. AIMS: To establish the normal ranges of liver stiffness in the healthy Chinese population without underlying liver disease. METHODS: This is a prospective cross sectional study of 2,528 healthy volunteers recruited from the general population and the Red Cross Transfusion Center in Hong Kong. All participants underwent a comprehensive questionnaire survey, measurement of weight, height, and blood pressure. Fasting liver function tests, glucose and cholesterol was performed. Abdominal ultrasound and transient elastography were performed on all participants. RESULTS: Of the 2,528 subjects, 1,998 were excluded with either abnormal liver parenchyma on ultrasound, chronic medical condition, abnormal blood tests including liver enzymes, fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, high body mass index, high blood pressure, or invalid liver stiffness scan. The reference range for the 530 subjects without known liver disease was 2.3 to 5.9 kPa (mean 4.1, SD 0.89. The median liver stiffness was higher in males compared with females (4.3 vs 4.0 kPa respectively, p55 years (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The healthy reference range for liver stiffness in the Chinese population is 2.3 to 5.9 kPa. Female gender and older age group was associated with a lower median liver stiffness.

  16. Association study of STAT4 polymorphisms and type 1 diabetes in Northeastern Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, C; Li, B; Cheng, Z; Hu, Y; Fang, Z; Zhai, A

    2013-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific, T-cell-mediated disease resulting from the selective destruction of pancreatic β cells. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) gene is one of the most interesting genes for the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including T1D. In this study, a case-control study was conducted in a Han population in northeastern China comparing the genotypes of T1D patients to healthy controls for the presence of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the STAT4 gene. The study population comprised of 410 T1D patients and 407 healthy individuals. Two SNPs (rs7574865 and rs3024866) of STAT4 were genotyped with Multiplex SNaPShot method. Data were analyzed with spss 13.0 to determine if a statistical association existed between these genotypes and T1D. One of the two SNPs (rs7574865) was strongly associated with T1D in Northeastern Chinese population compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05), whereas the other tested SNP (rs3024866) demonstrated no significant relationship. In conclusion, the STAT4 gene may play an important role in facilitating susceptibility to T1D in this Han Chinese population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. LINE-1 Hypomethylation is Associated with the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Chinese Population

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    Wei, Li [Department of Cardiology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Liu, Shuchuan [Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Su, Zhendong; Cheng, Rongchao; Bai, Xiuping; Li, Xueqi, E-mail: xueqi-li@163.com [Department of Cardiology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China)

    2014-05-15

    Global methylation level in blood leukocyte DNA has been associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), with inconsistent results in various populations. Similar data are lacking in Chinese population where different genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors may affect DNA methylation and its risk relationship with CHD. To examine whether global methylation is associated with the risk of CHD in Chinese population. A total of 334 cases with CHD and 788 healthy controls were included. Global methylation in blood leukocyte DNA was estimated by analyzing LINE-1 repeats using bisulfite pyrosequencing. In an initial analysis restricted to control subjects, LINE-1 level reduced significantly with aging, elevated total cholesterol, and diagnosis of diabetes. In the case-control analysis, reduced LINE-1 methylation was associated with increased risk of CHD; analysis by quartile revealed odds ratios (95%CI) of 0.9 (0.6-1.4), 1.9 (1.3-2.9) and 2.3 (1.6-3.5) for the third, second and first (lowest) quartile (P{sub trend} < 0.001), respectively, compared to the fourth (highest) quartile. Lower (Chinese population. Potential CHD risk factors such as older age, elevated total cholesterol, and diagnosis of diabetes may have impact on global DNA methylation, whereby exerting their effect on CHD risk.

  18. LINE-1 Hypomethylation is Associated with the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Chinese Population

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    Wei, Li; Liu, Shuchuan; Su, Zhendong; Cheng, Rongchao; Bai, Xiuping; Li, Xueqi

    2014-01-01

    Global methylation level in blood leukocyte DNA has been associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), with inconsistent results in various populations. Similar data are lacking in Chinese population where different genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors may affect DNA methylation and its risk relationship with CHD. To examine whether global methylation is associated with the risk of CHD in Chinese population. A total of 334 cases with CHD and 788 healthy controls were included. Global methylation in blood leukocyte DNA was estimated by analyzing LINE-1 repeats using bisulfite pyrosequencing. In an initial analysis restricted to control subjects, LINE-1 level reduced significantly with aging, elevated total cholesterol, and diagnosis of diabetes. In the case-control analysis, reduced LINE-1 methylation was associated with increased risk of CHD; analysis by quartile revealed odds ratios (95%CI) of 0.9 (0.6-1.4), 1.9 (1.3-2.9) and 2.3 (1.6-3.5) for the third, second and first (lowest) quartile (P trend < 0.001), respectively, compared to the fourth (highest) quartile. Lower (Chinese population. Potential CHD risk factors such as older age, elevated total cholesterol, and diagnosis of diabetes may have impact on global DNA methylation, whereby exerting their effect on CHD risk

  19. Variation in STAT4 is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in Chinese Northern Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yin; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Xu; Guo, Jian-Ping; Jiang, Quan; Liu, Xiang-Yuan; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Zheng, Yi; Li, Xiao-Xia; Song, Hui; Huang, Ci-Bo; Huang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Tian; Pan, Si-Si; Li, Chun; Liu, Xia; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Chun-Fang; Li, Zhan-Guo

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies have identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) as a susceptibility gene for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in different populations. In order to examine whether the allele distribution of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in gene STAT4 rs7574865 in patients with SLE is different from those of healthy controls in Chinese Northern Han population, we investigated whether the variants of STAT4 rs7574865 were associated with any specific clinical features of SLE. We genotyped SNPs in STAT4 rs7574865 in 252 patients with SLE and 497 healthy controls. All subjects were from the Northern part of Chinese Han population. The genotypes in rs7574865 were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and consequence direct sequencing of PCR products in the DNA samples. There was a significant difference in distribution of the SNPs in rs7574865 between the SLE patients and healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, there was a significant correlation between TT genotypes in rs7574865 and the risk of SLE when GG genotype was used as a reference genotype after adjusting for gender and age. The frequency of T allele in the SLE patients was strongly significantly higher than that of healthy controls. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the distribution of SNP in rs7574865 between male and female SLE patients, when compared with healthy controls. The frequency of T allele in rs7574865 in male patients was significantly higher than that of male healthy controls or female patients. There was no significant correlation between the frequencies of T allele in STAT4 rs7574865 and the clinical features of SLE. The SNP rs7574865 in STAT4 is strongly associated with risk of SLE in the Chinese Northern Han population. The TT genotype and T allele in STAT4 rs7574869 are susceptibility factors for SLE, especially for male SLE patients.

  20. Population data and mutation rates of 20 autosomal STR loci in a Chinese Han population from Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Liu, Linlin; Xie, Runfang; Wang, Guiyi; Shi, Yuan; Gu, Tao; Hu, Liping; Nie, Shengjie

    2018-07-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex® 21 kit were evaluated from 2068 unrelated, healthy individuals from the Chinese Han population of Yunnan Province in southwest China. All of the loci reached Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The genetic relationships among the Yunnan Han and other Chinese populations were also estimated. The combined discrimination power and probability of excluding paternity of the 20 STR loci were 0.99999999999999999999999126 and 0.999999975, respectively. In addition, mutation rates from 4363 parentage cases (2215 trios and 2148 duos) were investigated in this study. A total of 164 mutations were observed in 6578 meioses from the 20 loci. The highest mutation rate was observed in D12S391 (0.30%), and the lowest mutation rates were observed in D13S317 (0.03%) and TPOX (0.03%). The average mutation rate for the 20 loci was estimated to be 1.246 × 10 -3 per meiosis. The mutations were primarily single-step and paternal mutations.

  1. Age, chronic non-communicable disease and choice of traditional Chinese and western medicine outpatient services in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoh Eng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 Hong Kong reunified with China and the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM started with this change in national identity. However, the two latest discussion papers on Hong Kong's healthcare reform have failed to mention the role of TCM in primary healthcare, despite TCM's public popularity and its potential in tackling the chronic non-communicable disease (NCD challenge in the ageing population. This study aims to describe the interrelationship between age, non-communicable disease (NCD status, and the choice of TCM and western medicine (WM services in the Hong Kong population. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the Thematic Household Survey (THS 2005 dataset. The THS is a Hong Kong population representative face to face survey was conducted by the Hong Kong Administrative Region Government of China. A random sample of respondents aged >15 years were invited to report their use of TCM and WM in the past year, together with other health and demographic information. A total of 33,263 persons were interviewed (response rate 79.2%. Results Amongst those who received outpatient services in the past year (n = 18,087, 80.23% only visited WM doctors, 3.17% consulted TCM practitioners solely, and 16.60% used both type of services (double consulters. Compared to those who only consulted WM doctor, multinomial logistic regression showed that double consulters were more likely to be older, female, NCD patients, and have higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Further analysis showed that the association between age and double consulting was curvilinear (inverted U shaped regardless of NCD status. Middle aged (45-60 years NCD patients, and the NCD free "young old" group (60-75 years were most likely to double consult. On the other hand, the relationship between age and use of TCM as an alternative to WM was linear regardless of NCD status. The NCD free segment of the population was more inclined to use TCM alone

  2. [Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the rural population of Gueoul (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiombiano, L P; Mbaye, A; Sarr, S A; Ngaide, A A; Kane, Ab; Diao, M; Kane, Ad; Ba, S A

    2016-04-01

    The cardiovascular risk factors are clearly increasing in developing countries. Among these factors, dyslipidemia is often found, this due to the change in behavioral and dietary habits (OMS, 2006). Dyslipidemia is a "primary or secondary pathological changes in serum lipids". It is a chronic and metabolic abnormality, characterized by persistently elevated TG, LDL-c, and a decrease in HDL (Attias et al., 2013-2014). The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia, and give the lipid profile of the population in Gueoul. We performed a comprehensive observational study, cross-sectional descriptive on Senegalese aged 35 or over, living in Gueoul for at least 6 months. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol) was systematically after 12hours of fasting. Dyslipidemia was found in 61.3 % of cases with 50 % pure hypercholesterolemia (n=705). Only 20 subjects (2.3 %) knew they had dyslipidemia. The detection rate was 59.8 % (n=844). The type most represented was hypoHDLemia (45.6 %) followed by hyperLDLemia (28.8 %). Triglycerides were increased in only 2.8 % of cases. The prevalence of dyslipidemia is very high in our regions. It is often associated with female gender, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Its main causes are physical inactivity, change in lifestyle and eating habits. It is often misunderstood and its management is limited in most cases to low-calorie diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlates of Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Rural Population: The Role of Fatalism.

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    Crosby, Richard A; Collins, Tom

    2017-09-01

    One largely unexplored barrier to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is fatalistic beliefs about cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of ever having endoscopy screenings for CRC and to determine whether fatalism plays a unique role. Because evidence suggests that cancer-associated fatalistic beliefs may be particularly common among rural Americans, the study was conducted in a medically underserved area of rural Appalachia.  METHODS: Rural residents (N = 260) between 51 and 75 years of age, from a medically underserved area of Appalachia, Kentucky, were recruited for a cross-sectional study. The outcome measure was assessed by a single item asking whether participants ever had a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy. Demographic and health-related correlates of this outcome were selected based on past studies of rural populations. A single item assessed perceptions of fatalism regarding CRC. Age-adjusted analyses of correlates testing significant at the bivariate level were conducted.  RESULTS: The analytic sample was limited to 135 rural residents indicating they had ever had CRC endoscopy and 107 indicating never having endoscopy. In age-adjusted analyses, only the measure of fatalism had a significant association with having endoscopy. Those endorsing the statement pertaining to fatalism were 2.3 times more likely (95% CI = 1.24-4.27, P = .008) than the remainder to indicate never having endoscopy.  CONCLUSIONS: A community-based approach to the promotion of endoscopy for CRC screening could focus on overcoming CRC-associated fatalism, thereby potentially bringing more unscreened people to endoscopy clinics. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  4. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; Sparks, Corey S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...

  5. Health inequalities among rural and urban population of Eastern Poland in the context of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantyley, Viktoriya

    2017-09-21

    The primary goals of the study were a critical analysis of the concepts associated with health from the perspective of sustainable development, and empirical analysis of health and health- related issues among the rural and urban residents of Eastern Poland in the context of the sustainable development of the region. The study was based on the following research methods: a systemic approach, selection and analysis of the literature and statistical data, developing a special questionnaire concerning socio-economic and health inequalities among the population in the studied area, field research with an interview questionnaire conducted on randomly-selected respondents (N=1,103) in randomly selected areas of the Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie and eastern part of Mazowieckie Provinces (with the division between provincial capital cities - county capital cities - other cities - rural areas). The results of statistical surveys in the studied area with the use of chi-square test and contingence quotients indicated a correlation between the state of health and the following independent variables: age, life quality, social position and financial situation (C-Pearson's coefficient over 0,300); a statistically significant yet weak correlation was recorded for gender, household size, place of residence and amount of free time. The conducted analysis proved the existence of a huge gap between state of health of the population in urban and rural areas. In order to eliminate unfavourable differences in the state iof health among the residents of Eastern Poland, and provide equal sustainable development in urban and rural areas of the examined areas, special preventive programmes aimed at the residents of peripheral, marginalized rural areas should be implemented. In these programmes, attention should be paid to preventive measures, early diagnosis of basic civilization and social diseases, and better accessibility to medical services for the residents.

  6. MRI correlates of interaction between gender and expressive suppression among the Chinese population.

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    Wang, Kangcheng; Huang, Hui; Chen, Li; Hou, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Junyi; Hao, Xin; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-04-07

    Expressive suppression is a kind of emotion regulation strategies by suppressing behaviors related to emotional responding. Despite the amount of behavioral research on expressive suppression, the structural and functional mechanisms underlying the interaction between gender and expressive suppression in Chinese healthy subjects have remained unknown. In the current study, we assessed the levels of expressive suppression and acquired the structural and functional imaging data from 273 Chinese individuals. A nearly automatic cortical processing technique was used to calculate cortical thickness for each subject. The results from cortical thickness analyses revealed a significant interaction between gender and expressive suppression in the superior frontal gyrus. Then, we conducted the whole-brain functional connectivity analysis with the seed of the superior frontal gyrus to explore the functionally related regions of brain. Subsequent analysis of the interaction between gender and expressive suppression indicated a significant functional connectivity between the superior frontal gyrus and default mode network (DMN) core regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus. Our results provided the robust empirical evidence illustrating the role of the superior frontal gyrus and DMN in gender difference of expressive suppression among the Chinese population. These findings might have implications for understanding gender difference in emotion processing and regulation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Application of Earlobe Augmentation with Hyaluronic Acid Filler in the Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Zhang, Yan-Kun; Cao, Qian; Hou, Ying; Lv, Wei; Fan, Ju-Feng

    2017-02-01

    Larger earlobes, which are a symbol of "richness" in traditional Chinese culture, are favored by Chinese patients. The objective of this paper is to investigate the application of earlobe augmentation with hyaluronic acid (HA) filler injection and its clinical effects in the Chinese population. A total of 19 patients (38 ears) who received earlobe augmentation with HA filler injections between March 2013 and March 2015 were included. The clinical effects, duration, and complications of these cases were investigated. All patients who received earlobe HA injections showed immediate postoperative effects with obvious morphological improvement of their earlobes. The volume of HA filler injected into each ear was 0.3-0.5 ml. The duration of the effect was 6-9 months. Two of the 19 cases (3 ears) demonstrated mild bruising at the injection site, but the bruising completely disappeared within 7 days after the injection. No vascular embolism, infection, nodule, or granuloma complications were observed in the studied group. The application of earlobe augmentation with HA filler injection is a safe, effective, simple procedure for earlobe shaping. It has an easy clinical application with good clinical prospects. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Social cognition and work performance of persons with schizophrenia in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Panmi; Siu, Andrew M H

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits have a significant impact on the community and vocational functioning of persons with schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the relationship between social-cognitive abilities and vocational functioning in a Chinese population. We recruited 30 outpatients with schizophrenia to participate. We administered the Chinese Social Cognition and Screening Questionnaire (C-SCSQ) to assess Theory of Mind (ToM), attributional bias, and neurocognition; the Facial Expression Identification Test (FEIT) to assess emotion perception (EP) ability, and the Chinese Work Personality Profile (CWPP) to assess work performance in a simulated work setting. ToM showed a significant negative correlation with attributional bias. The neurocognitive measure displayed a significant positive correlation with ToM and EP. The structural equation model was a good fit to the data (CFI=0.91, RMSEA=0.12), and showed that social-cognitive abilities had a significant impact (-0.41) on work performance. Of the four social-cognitive domains, ToM and paranoid attributional style (PAS) contributed significantly to variations in work performance. These results support the theory that social-cognitive abilities have an impact on work performance. ToM has a positive impact whereas PAS has an adverse effect. Persons with schizophrenia present specific deficits in their social-cognitive abilities, which have significant impact on their work performance and employability.

  9. How to conserve threatened Chinese plant species with extremely small populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Volis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese flora occupies a unique position in global plant diversity, but is severely threatened. Although biodiversity conservation in China has made significant progress over the past decades, many wild plant species have extremely small population sizes and therefore are in extreme danger of extinction. The concept of plant species with extremely small populations (PSESPs, recently adopted and widely accepted in China, lacks a detailed description of the methodology appropriate for conserving PSESPs. Strategies for seed sampling, reintroduction, protecting PSESP locations, managing interactions with the local human population, and other conservation aspects can substantially differ from those commonly applied to non-PSESPs. The present review is an attempt to provide a detailed conservation methodology with realistic and easy-to-follow guidelines for PSESPs in China.

  10. Gene-diet interaction effects on BMI levels in the Singapore Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xuling; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Sun, Ye; Han, Yi; Wang, Ling; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Sim, Xueling; Tai, E-Shyong; Liu, Jianjun; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; van Dam, Rob M; Friedlander, Yechiel; Heng, Chew-Kiat

    2018-02-24

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 97 body-mass index (BMI) associated loci. We aimed to evaluate if dietary intake modifies BMI associations at these loci in the Singapore Chinese population. We utilized GWAS information from six data subsets from two adult Chinese population (N = 7817). Seventy-eight genotyped or imputed index BMI single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that passed quality control procedures were available in all datasets. Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010 score and ten nutrient variables were evaluated. Linear regression analyses between z score transformed BMI (Z-BMI) and dietary factors were performed. Interaction analyses were performed by introducing the interaction term (diet x SNP) in the same regression model. Analysis was carried out in each cohort individually and subsequently meta-analyzed using the inverse-variance weighted method. Analyses were also evaluated with a weighted gene-risk score (wGRS) contructed by BMI index SNPs from recent large-scale GWAS studies. Nominal associations between Z-BMI and AHEI-2010 and some dietary factors were identified (P = 0.047-0.010). The BMI wGRS was robustly associated with Z-BMI (P = 1.55 × 10 - 15 ) but not with any dietary variables. Dietary variables did not significantly interact with the wGRS to modify BMI associations. When interaction analyses were repeated using individual SNPs, a significant association between cholesterol intake and rs4740619 (CCDC171) was identified (β = 0.077, adjP interaction  = 0.043). The CCDC171 gene locus may interact with cholesterol intake to increase BMI in the Singaporean Chinese population, however most known obesity risk loci were not associated with dietary intake and did not interact with diet to modify BMI levels.

  11. Celiac Disease Autoimmunity in Patients with Autoimmune Diabetes and Thyroid Disease among Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Zhao

    Full Text Available The prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity or tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (TGA amongst patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD in the Chinese population remains unknown. This study examined the rate of celiac disease autoimmunity amongst patients with T1D and AITD in the Chinese population. The study included 178 patients with type 1 diabetes and 119 with AITD where 36 had both T1D and AITD, classified as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 variant (APS3v. The study also included 145 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, 97 patients with non-autoimmune thyroid disease (NAITD, and 102 healthy controls. Serum islet autoantibodies, thyroid autoantibodies and TGA were measured by radioimmunoassay. TGA positivity was found in 22% of patients with either type 1 diabetes or AITD, much higher than that in patients with T2D (3.4%; p< 0.0001 or NAITD (3.1%; P < 0.0001 or healthy controls (1%; p<0.0001. The patients with APS3v having both T1D and AITD were 36% positive for TGA, significantly higher than patients with T1D alone (p = 0.040 or with AITD alone (p = 0.017. T1D and AITD were found to have a 20% and 30% frequency of overlap respectively at diagnosis. In conclusion, TGA positivity was high in the Chinese population having existing T1D and/or AITD, and even higher when both diseases were present. Routine TGA screening in patients with T1D or AITD will be important to early identify celiac disease autoimmunity for better clinical care of patients.

  12. FTO variants are associated with obesity in the Chinese and Malay populations in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jonathan T; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xue Ling; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Chia, Kee Seng; Wong, Tien Yin; Saw, Seang Mei; Chew, Suok Kai; Aung, Tin; Tai, E-Shyong

    2008-10-01

    Association between genetic variants at the FTO locus and obesity has been consistently observed in populations of European ancestry and inconsistently in non-Europeans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of FTO variants on obesity and type 2 diabetes in Southeast Asian populations. We examined associations between nine previously reported FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related traits in 4,298 participants (2,919 Chinese, 785 Malays, and 594 Asian Indians) from the 1998 Singapore National Health Survey (NHS98) and 2,996 Malays from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES). All nine SNPs exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.6-0.99), and minor alleles were associated with obesity in the same direction as previous studies with effect sizes ranging from 0.42 to 0.68 kg/m(2) (P Chinese, 0.65 to 0.91 kg/m(2) (P Malays, and 0.52 to 0.64 kg/m(2) (P Malays after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise. The variants were also associated with type 2 diabetes, though not after adjustment for BMI (with the exception of the SiMES Malays: odds ratio 1.17-1.22; P Chinese and Malays in Singapore. Our data do not support the hypothesis that differences in allele frequency or genetic architecture underlie the lack of association observed in some populations of Asian ancestry. Examination of gene-environment interactions involving variants at this locus may provide further insights into the role of FTO in the pathogenesis of human obesity and diabetes.

  13. Association of a miRNA-137 Polymorphism with Schizophrenia in a Southern Chinese Han Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoda Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both genome wide association study (GWAS and biochemical studies of Caucasian populations indicate a robust association between the miR-137 genetic variant rs1625579 and schizophrenia, but inconsistent results have been reported. To assay the association between this variant and schizophrenia, we genotyped 611 schizophrenic patients from Southern Chinese Han population for the risk single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1625579 using the SNaPshot technique and compared the clinical profiles of different genotypes. Additionally, a meta-analysis was performed using the combined sample groups from five case-control publications and the present study. Both the genotype and allele distributions of the rs1625579 SNP were significantly different between patients and controls (P=0.036 and 0.026, SNP. TT genotype carriers showed slightly lower Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia- (BACS- derived working memory performance than G carriers (15.58 ± 9.56 versus 19.71 ± 8.18, P=0.045. In the meta-analysis, we observed a significant association between rs1625579 and schizophrenia under different genetic models (all P<0.05. The results of our study and meta-analysis provide convincing evidence that rs1625579 is significantly associated with schizophrenia. Furthermore, the miR-137 polymorphism influences the working memory performance of schizophrenic patients in a Chinese Han population.

  14. The characteristics of impaired fasting glucose associated with obesity and dyslipidaemia in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yun; Lin, Yudi; Zhang, Tiemei; Bai, Jianling; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Yi; Luo, Senlin; Shen, Hongbing

    2010-03-17

    Different populations have diverse patterns of relationships between Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and obesity and lipid markers, it is important to investigate the characteristics of associations between IFG and other related risk factors including body mass index (BMI), waist circumstance (WC), serum lipids and blood pressure (BP) in a Chinese population. This was a case-control study of 648 IFG subjects and 1,296 controls derived from a large-scale, community-based, cross-sectional survey of 10,867 participants. Each subject received a face-to-face interview, physical examination, and blood tests, including fasting blood glucose and lipids. Student's t-test, Chi-square test, Spearman correlation and multiple logistic regressions were used for the statistical analyses. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was positively correlated with BMI, WC, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC), and was negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (all p or = 2.26 mmol/l), when comparing to subjects with TG < 1.70 mmol/l. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the number of abnormal variables and increased risk of IFG. In this Chinese population, both BMI and WC were important predictors of IFG. Abnormal TG as a lipid marker was more strongly associated with IFG than were TC and HDL-C. These factors should be taken into consideration simultaneously for prevention of IFG.

  15. The characteristics of impaired fasting glucose associated with obesity and dyslipidaemia in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different populations have diverse patterns of relationships between Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG and obesity and lipid markers, it is important to investigate the characteristics of associations between IFG and other related risk factors including body mass index (BMI, waist circumstance (WC, serum lipids and blood pressure (BP in a Chinese population. Methods This was a case-control study of 648 IFG subjects and 1,296 controls derived from a large-scale, community-based, cross-sectional survey of 10,867 participants. Each subject received a face-to-face interview, physical examination, and blood tests, including fasting blood glucose and lipids. Student's t-test, Chi-square test, Spearman correlation and multiple logistic regressions were used for the statistical analyses. Results Fasting plasma glucose (FPG was positively correlated with BMI, WC, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, triglyceride (TG, and total cholesterol (TC, and was negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C (all p Conclusions In this Chinese population, both BMI and WC were important predictors of IFG. Abnormal TG as a lipid marker was more strongly associated with IFG than were TC and HDL-C. These factors should be taken into consideration simultaneously for prevention of IFG.

  16. Sequence Variants of ADIPOQ and Association with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan Chinese Han Population

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Ming-Kai; Wang, Hui-Min David; Shiang, Jeng-Chuan; Chen, I-Hung; Wang, Chih-Chiang; Shiao, Ya-Fen; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Tai-Jung; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Ya-Huey

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious global health problem. Large-scale genome-wide association studies identified loci for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), but few studies clarified the effect of genetic polymorphisms of ADIPOQ and TCF7L2 on risk of T2DM. We attempted to elucidate association between T2DM and polymorphic variations of both in Taiwan's Chinese Han population, with our retrospective case-control study genotyping ...

  17. Validity and reliability of the Traditional Chinese version of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory in general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Ling; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Huang, Ying-Zu; Wong, Alice M. K.

    2018-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a common symptom in the general population and has a substantial effect on individuals’ quality of life. The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) has been widely used to quantify the impact of fatigue, but no Traditional Chinese translation has yet been validated. The goal of this study was to translate the MFI from English into Traditional Chinese (‘the MFI-TC’) and subsequently to examine its validity and reliability. Methods The study recruited a convenience sample of 123 people from various age groups in Taiwan. The MFI was examined using a two-step process: (1) translation and back-translation of the instrument; and (2) examination of construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and measurement error. The validity and reliability of the MFI-TC were assessed by factor analysis, Spearman rho correlation coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), minimal detectable change (MDC), and Bland-Altman analysis. All participants completed the Short-Form-36 Health Survey Taiwan Form (SF-36-T) and the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) concurrently to test the convergent validity of the MFI-TC. Test-retest reliability was assessed by readministration of the MFI-TC after a 1-week interval. Results Factor analysis confirmed the four dimensions of fatigue: general/physical fatigue, reduced activity, reduced motivation, and mental fatigue. A four-factor model was extracted, combining general fatigue and physical fatigue as one factor. The results demonstrated moderate convergent validity when correlating fatigue (MFI-TC) with quality of life (SF-36-T) and sleep disturbances (PSQI) (Spearman's rho = 0.68 and 0.47, respectively). Cronbach’s alpha for the MFI-TC total scale and subscales ranged from 0.73 (mental fatigue subscale) to 0.92 (MFI-TC total scale). ICCs ranged from 0.85 (reduced motivation) to 0.94 (MFI-TC total scale), and

  18. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sreejith S; Raghunath, Pooja; Nair, Sreekanth S

    2015-01-01

    Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India. This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software. We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196) as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170). The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%), and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of affected individuals in 80+ age group. Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly. A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for this purpose as part of our future efforts.

  19. Use of traditional Chinese medicine in patients with hyperlipidemia: A population-based study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shih-Meng; Shih, Wei-Tai; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chu, Yen-Hua

    2015-06-20

    Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are commonly used in patients with hyperlipidemia in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Because hyperlipidemia and related disease are common issues worldwide, this study analyzed the prescription patterns and frequencies of CHPs for treating patients with hyperlipidemia in Taiwan. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become popular as a therapy for controlling symptoms in patients with hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to analyze the prescription patterns of TCM for patients with hyperlipidemia in Taiwan. The study population was recruited from a random-sampled cohort of 1,000,000 people from the National Health Insurance Research Database between 2003 and 2009. We identified 30,784 outpatient visits related with hyperlipidemia diagnosis and collected these medical records. Association rules of data mining were conducted to explore the co-prescription patterns for Chinese herbal products (CHPs). The most commonly prescribed herbal formula for hyperlipidemia treatment was Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang (16.1%), and Shan Zha (Crataegi fructus; 25.0%) was the most commonly prescribed single herb. The most commonly prescribed combination of an herbal formula and a single herb was Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang and Dan Shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), and the most commonly prescribed combination of couplet herbs was Dan Shen and Shan Zha. Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang is the most frequently prescribed formula and is typically prescribed with Shan Zha, Dan Shen, and He Shou Wu for patients with hyperlipidemia. Clinical trials are warranted in future research to investigate the effects of the CHPs in terms of safety and efficacy and in particular to evaluate potential interactions with conventional treatments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Decomposing the causes of socioeconomic-related health inequality among urban and rural populations in China: a new decomposition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiaoli; Coyte, Peter C; Zhao, Hongzhong

    2017-07-18

    In recent decades, China has experienced tremendous economic growth and also witnessed growing socioeconomic-related health inequality. The study aims to explore the potential causes of socioeconomic-related health inequality in urban and rural areas of China over the past two decades. This study used six waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1991 to 2006. The recentered influence function (RIF) regression decomposition method was employed to decompose socioeconomic-related health inequality in China. Health status was derived from self-rated health (SRH) scores. The analyses were conducted on urban and rural samples separately. We found that the average level of health status declined from 1989 to 2006 for both urban and rural populations. Average health scores were greater for the rural population compared with those for the urban population. We also found that there exists pro-rich health inequality in China. While income and secondary education were the main factors to reduce health inequality, older people, unhealthy lifestyles and a poor home environment increased inequality. Health insurance had the opposite effects on health inequality for urban and rural populations, resulting in lower inequality for urban populations and higher inequality for their rural counterparts. These findings suggest that an effective way to reduce socioeconomic-related health inequality is not only to increase income and improve access to health care services, but also to focus on improvements in the lifestyles and the home environment. Specifically, for rural populations, it is particularly important to improve the design of health insurance and implement a more comprehensive insurance package that can effectively target the rural poor. Moreover, it is necessary to comprehensively promote the flush toilets and tap water in rural areas. For urban populations, in addition to promoting universal secondary education, healthy lifestyles should be promoted

  1. Social Networks and Health: Understanding the Nuances of Healthcare Access between Urban and Rural Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Padmore Adusei; Edusei, Joseph; Amuzu, David

    2018-05-13

    Communities and individuals in many sub-Saharan African countries often face limited access to healthcare. Hence, many rely on social networks to enhance their chances for adequate health care. While this knowledge is well-established, little is known about the nuances of how different population groups activate these networks to improve access to healthcare. This paper examines how rural and urban dwellers in the Ashanti Region in Ghana distinctively and systematically activate their social networks to enhance access to healthcare. It uses a qualitative cross-sectional design, with in-depth interviews of 79 primary participants (28 urban and 51 rural residents) in addition to the views of eight community leaders and eight health personnel. It was discovered that both intimate and distanced social networks for healthcare are activated at different periods by rural and urban residents. Four main stages of social networks activation, comprising different individuals and groups were observed among rural and urban dwellers. Among both groups, physical proximity, privacy, trust and sense of fairness, socio-cultural meaning attached to health problems, and perceived knowledge and other resources (mainly money) held in specific networks inherently influenced social network activation. The paper posits that a critical analysis of social networks may help to tailor policy contents to individuals and groups with limited access to healthcare.

  2. Prevalence of oral lichen planus in a rural population of south kerala - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vivek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral lichen planus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which continues to challenge the dental professional with its wide spectrum of clinical involvement. This pilot study attempts to evaluate the status of oral lichen planus in a rural population from South Kerala in order to obtain such data as prevalence, distribution according to age, gender, clinical types and site of lesion .A drop in the age group of male population presenting with lichen planus was a significant finding in our study. However, more elaborate epidemiologic studies are required to probe further into this finding.

  3. Dietary patterns and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A population-based case-control study in a rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Lao, Xiangqian; Zhao, Jin; Song, Qingkun; Su, Xuefen; Tak-Sun Yu, Ignatius

    2017-02-01

    Few studies were available in exploring the roles of dietary patterns in the development of esophageal cancer, especially in China. This study aimed to investigate the roles of dietary patterns in the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Chinese rural population. A population-based cases-control study was designed and conducted in Yanting County, Sichuan Province of China during two years (between June 2011 and May 2013). A total of 942 pairs of ESCC cases and controls were recruited. A food frequency questionnaire was adopted to collect information of dietary consumption. Dietary patterns were extracted by using principle component and factor analysis based on 24 dietary groups. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by using logistic regression model, with adjustment for possible confounding variables. Four major dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as "prudent", "vegetable and fruits", "processed food" and "alcohol drinking". In comparison of the highest with the lowest quartiles of pattern scores, the processed food pattern (OR: 2.84, 95% CI: 2.13-3.80) and alcohol drinking pattern (OR: 2.69, 95% CI: 1.95-3.71) were significantly associated with an increased risk of ESCC, while the vegetable and fruit pattern (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53-0.92) was associated with reduced risk by 30%. The prudent pattern was associated with a reduced risk by 33% (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50-0.88) in a multivariate logistic regression model, but no statistical significance was reached in a composite model. The results suggest an important role of dietary patterns in ESCC. Diets rich in vegetables and fruits may decrease the risk of ESCC, whereas diets rich in processed food and drinking alcohol may increase the risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. [Expert consensus post-marketing evaluation scheme to detect immunotoxicity of Chinese medicine in clinical populations (draft version for comments)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Bin; Jiang, Jun-Jie; Chang, Yan-Peng; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Hao; Lu, Peng-Fei

    2013-09-01

    Through consensus, establish a post-marketing scheme and the technical processes to evaluate Chinese medicine's immunotoxicity on a population, as well as its beneficial influences on the immune system. Provide regulations on the collection, storage and transportation of serum samples. This article applies to the post-marketing scientific evaluation of the immunotoxicity of parenterally administered, and for other ways of taking Chinese medicine.

  5. Detection of mismatch repair gene germline mutation carrier among Chinese population with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hei-Ying; Zhao, Ronghua; Liu, Xiufang; Li, Vicky Ka Ming; Ding, Yijiang; Yang, Bolin; Geng, Jianxiang; Lai, Rensheng; Ding, Shuqing; Ni, Min

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recommended the Revised Bethesda guidelines for screening HNPCC. There has been a great deal of research on the value of these tests in other countries. However, literature about the Chinese population is scarce. Our objective is to detect and study microsatellite instability (MSI) and mismatch repair (MMR) gene germline mutation carriers among a Chinese population with colorectal cancer. In 146 prospectively recruited consecutive patients with clinically proven colorectal cancer, MSI carriers were identified by analysis of tumor tissue using multiplex fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the NCI recommended panel and classified into microsatellite instability-low (MSI-L), microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) and microsatellite stable (MSS) groups. Immunohistochemical staining for MSH2, MSH6 and MLH1 on tissue microarrays (TMAs) was performed, and methylation of the MLH1 promoter was analyzed by quantitative methylation specific PCR (MSP). Germline mutation analysis of blood samples was performed for MSH2, MSH6 and MLH1 genes. Thirty-four out of the 146 colorectal cancers (CRCs, 23.2%) were MSI, including 19 MSI-H CRCs and 15 MSI-L CRCS. Negative staining for MSH2 was found in 8 CRCs, negative staining for MSH6 was found in 6 CRCs. One MSI-H CRC was negative for both MSH6 and MSH2. Seventeen CRCs stained negatively for MLH1. MLH1 promoter methylation was determined in 34 MSI CRCs. Hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter occurred in 14 (73.7%) out of 19 MSI-H CRCs and 5 (33.3%) out of 15 MSI-L CRCs. Among the 34 MSI carriers and one MSS CRC with MLH1 negative staining, 8 had a MMR gene germline mutation, which accounted for 23.5% of all MSI colorectal cancers and 5.5% of all the colorectal cancers. Five patients harbored MSH2 germline mutations, and three patients harbored MSH6 germline mutations. None of the patients had an MLH

  6. Level of colorectal cancer awareness: a cross sectional exploratory study among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Tin Tin; Goh, Jun Yan; Tan, Jackson; Muhaimah, Abdul Rahim; Pigeneswaren, Yoganathan; Khairun, Nasirin Sallamun; Normazidah, Abdul Wahab; Tharisini, Devi Kunasekaran; Majid, Hazreen Abd

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the level of colorectal cancer awareness among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia. Methods A rural-based cross sectional survey was carried out in Perak state in Peninsular Malaysia in March 2011. The survey recruited a population-representative sample using multistage sampling. Altogether 2379 participants were included in this study. Validated bowel/colorectal cancer awareness measure questionnaire was used to assess the level of colorectal cancer aware...

  7. Menstrual pad, a cervical cancer screening tool, a population-based study in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budukh, Atul; Palayekar, Vrushali; Maheshwari, Amita; Deodhar, Kedar; Purwar, Pallavi; Bagal, Sonali; Vadigoppula, Ashok; Lokhande, Manoj; Panse, Nandkumar; Dikshit, Rajesh; Badwe, Rajendra

    2017-07-12

    In the rural areas of India, women generally use a piece of old cloth as a menstrual device. The aim of this study was to detect human papilloma virus (HPV) from menstrual blood on the menstrual pad and assess whether this could be a useful screening tool for cervical cancer. In Jamkhed area of rural Maharashtra, (population A), we collected menstrual pads from women who provided consent in the 30-50 year age group. The women who had provided menstrual pads underwent HC2 testing. We standardized the method for extracting DNA by PCR from the menstrual pad. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of HC2/PCR testing, underwent colposcopy. In the rural population of Pune area of Maharashtra state (population B), menstrual pads were collected. HPV was tested using the PCR method. HPV-positive women and a few HPV-negative women, selected randomly, underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. In population A, 164 women provided their used menstrual pads and also underwent an HC2 screening test. Of these, six (3.2%) cases were reported as HPV positive. In population B, 365 women provided their used menstrual pads for HPV testing, of which 18 (4.9%) cases were diagnosed as HPV positive. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of PCR testing, and 10% randomly selected HPV-negative cases (37) and 18 women who voluntary requested testing underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. The sensitivity of menstrual pad HPV testing compared with gold standard HC2 testing was 83% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.97], 67% (95% CI: 0.30-0.91) and specificity was 99% (95% CI: 0.96-0.99), 88% (95% CI: 0.77-0.94) in population A and population B, respectively. The sensitivity of diagnosing CIN lesion was 83% (95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and specificity was 95% (95% CI: 0.91-0.97). On the basis of the sensitivity and specificity results, and the completely noninvasive, simple and convenient method of detecting HPV, menstrual pad might be considered a cervical cancer screening tool in rural

  8. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen in a Chinese Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Ye

    Full Text Available The existing screening batteries assessing multiple neuropsychological functions are not specific to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patients and are limited to their physical dysfunctions, whereas category cognitive tests are too time-consuming to assess all the domains. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS was recently developed as a fast and easy cognitive screening tool specifically designed for patients. The purpose of the study was to validate the effectiveness of the Chinese version in Chinese ALS populations.Eighty-four ALS patients and 84 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. All the participants took the ECAS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB. Primary caregivers of patients were interviewed for behavioural and psychiatric changes.Significant differences were noted in language (p = 0.01, fluency, executive function, ALS-specific functions, and ECAS total score (p<0.01 between ALS patients and controls. The cut-off value of the total ECAS score was 81.92. Cognitive impairment was observed in 35.71% of patients, and 27.38% exhibited behavioural abnormalities. The ECAS total score had a medium correlation with education year. Memory was more easily impaired in the lower education group, whereas verbal fluency and language function tended to be preserved in the higher education group. The average time of ECAS was only 18 minutes.The Chinese version of the ECAS is the first screening battery assessing multiple neuropsychological functions specially designed for the ALS population in China, which provides an effective and rapid tool to screen cognitive and behavioural impairments.

  9. Chilli consumption and the incidence of overweight and obesity in a Chinese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z; Riley, M; Taylor, A W; Page, A

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of spicy food intake has recently been associated with a reduced risk of mortality in the Chinese population. This study aimed to prospectively examine the association between chilli intake and the incidence of overweight/obesity in a Chinese adult population. Adults aged 20-75 years in the China Health and Nutrition Survey were followed between 1991 and 2011. Dietary data were collected during home visits using a 3-day food record in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011. Cox regression was used in the analysis. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index ⩾25 kg m - 2 . A total 12 970 adults were followed for a median of 9 years. During 126 884 person-years of follow-up, 3203 subjects developed overweight/obesity. The absolute incidence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.4, 22.3, 24.4 and 20.5 per 1000 person-years among those who consumed no chilli or 1-20, 20.1-50, ⩾50.1 g per day, respectively. Chilli consumption was therefore inversely associated with the incidence of overweight/obesity. After adjusting for age, gender, energy and fat intake, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity, those whose cumulative average chilli intake was 0, 1-20, 20.1-50 and ⩾50.1 g per day had a hazard ratio for overweight/obesity of 1.00, 0.81 (95% confidence interval=0.73-0.89), 0.77 (0.69-0.86) and 0.73 (0.63-0.84); P for trend overweight/obesity. Chilli intake is inversely associated with the risk of becoming overweight/obese in Chinese adults.

  10. Etiology, pathology, management and prognosis of chronic pancreatitis in Chinese population: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Ramdany, Sonam; Zhao, Gang; Gou, Shan-Miao; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Balde, Oumar Taibata; Barry, Ahmed Boubacar; Adji, Seid; Li, Xiang; Jin, Yan; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the etiology, pathological characteristics, management and prognosis of chronic pancreatitis in the Chinese population. The clinical data of 142 patients with chronic pancreatitis were retrospectively studied. All patients were of Chinese nationality and hospitalized from January 2008 to December 2011. Their ages ranged from 14 to 76 years, with a mean of 43 years. Of 142 patients, there were 72 cases of obstructive chronic pancreatitis (50.70%), 19 cases of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (13.38%), 14 cases of autoimmune pancreatitis (9.86%) and 37 cases of undetermined etiology (26.06%). Pathologically, the average inflammatory mass diameter was 3.8 ± 3.3 cm, biliary obstruction occurred in 36 cases, gall stones in 70 cases, calcification in 88 cases, ductal dilatation in 61 cases, side branch dilatation in 32 cases, ductal irregularity in 10 cases, lymphocytic inflammation in 23 cases, obliterative phlebitis in 14 cases, extra pancreatic lesion in 19 cases and fibrosis in 142 cases. Location of pancreatic lesion in the region of head (n=97), neck (n=16), body (n=12), tail (n=15) and whole pancreas (n=2) influenced the choice of surgical procedures. Ninety-four patients (66.20%) received surgical treatment and 33.80% received other treatments. After operation, 80.85% of 94 patients experienced decreased pain, and 8.51% of 94 showed recovery of endocrine function but with a complication rate of 12.77%. All the operations were performed successfully. According to the pain scale of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (QLQ-C30) a decrease from 76 ± 22 to 14 ± 18 was observed. Etiology, pathological characteristics, management and prognosis of chronic pancreatitis in the Chinese population vary from others.

  11. Investigation of insecticide-resistance status of Cydia pomonella in Chinese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-Q; Zhang, Y-L

    2015-06-01

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) is an economically important fruit pest and it has been directly targeted by insecticides worldwide. Serious resistance to insecticides has been reported in many countries. As one of the most serious invasive pest, the codling moth has populated several areas in China. However, resistance to insecticides has not been reported in China. We investigated the insecticide-resistance status of four field populations from Northwestern China by applying bioassays, enzyme activities, and mutation detections. Diagnostic concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid were determined and used in bioassays. Field populations were less susceptible to chlorpyrifos-ethyl and carbaryl than laboratory strain. Insensitive populations displayed an elevated glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) activity. Reduced carboxylesterase (CarE) activity was observed in some insecticide insensitive populations and reduced acetylcholinesterase activity was observed only in the Wuw population. The cytochrome P450 polysubstrate monooxygenases activities in four field populations were not found to be different from susceptible strains. Neither the known-resistance mutation F399V in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene, ace1, nor mutations in CarE gene CpCE-1 were found in adult individuals from our field populations. Native-PAGE revealed that various CarE isozymes and AChE insensitivity were occurring among Chinese populations. Our results indicate that codling moth populations from Northwestern China were insensitivity to chlorpyrifos-ethyl and carbaryl. Increased GST activity was responsible for insecticides insensitivity. Decreased CarE activity, as well as the presence of CarE and AChE polymorphisms might also be involved in insecticides insensitivity. New management strategies for managing this pest are discussed.

  12. Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus, Typhus, and Spotted Fever Among Rural and Urban Populations of Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Nguyen Vu; Hoi, Le Thi; Thuong, Nguyen Thi Hong; Toan, Tran Khanh; Huong, Tran Thi Kieu; Hoa, Tran Mai; Fox, Annette; Kinh, Nguyen van; van Doorn, H Rogier; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Bryant, Juliet E; Nadjm, Behzad

    2017-05-01

    AbstractRickettsial infections are recognized as important causes of fever throughout southeast Asia. Herein, we determined the seroprevalence to rickettsioses within rural and urban populations of northern Vietnam. Prevalence of individuals with evidence of prior rickettsial infections (IgG positive) was surprisingly low, with 9.14% (83/908) testing positive to the three major rickettsial serogroups thought to circulate in the region. Prevalence of typhus group rickettsiae (TG)-specific antibodies (6.5%, 58/908) was significantly greater than scrub typhus group orientiae (STG)- or spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFG)-specific antibodies ( P < 0.05). The majority of TG seropositives were observed among urban rather than rural residents ( P < 0.05). In contrast, overall antibody prevalence to STG and SFG were both very low (1.1%, 10/908 for STG; 1.7%, 15/908 for SFG), with no significant differences between rural and urban residents. These results provide data on baseline population characteristics that may help inform development of Rickettsia serological testing criteria in future clinical studies.

  13. 137Cs content in the ration of rural population of regions with increased nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Considered is the ration of rural population of arctic regions and Byelorussian-Ukrainian woodlands. The peculiarity of the nitrition structure of the population in the North is a relatively large contribution of deer meat in the ration. The main amount of 137 Cs contribution with other food stuffs and drinking water in the ration of population of this area does not exceed 10 %. The main supplier of 137 Cs in the ration of population of woodlands is milk which constitutes 70 %. The second place is taken by potatoes. The role and significance of separate food stuffs as 137 Cs suppliers in the ration in the zones with increased migration can be different; the leading role in this process is played by natural factors

  14. Genetic variations in MTHFR and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weifeng; Zhang, Sheng; Qiu, Hao; Wang, Lixin; Sun, Bin; Yin, Jun; Gu, Haiyong

    2014-05-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a fatal malignancy associated with low 5-year survival rate. The aim of this study was to assess the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1801133 C>T, rs3753584 A>G, rs4845882 G>A, rs4846048 A>G and rs9651118 T>C genotypes and ESCC susceptibility in a hospital-based case-control study. We conducted genotyping analyses for these five SNPs with 629 ESCC cases and 686 controls in a Chinese Han population. Ligation detection reaction method was used to identify genotypes of these MTHFR SNPs. Our results demonstrated that MTHFR rs1801133 C>T was associated with the risk of ESCC; however, MTHFR rs4845882 G>A and rs4846048 A>G SNPs were associated with the decreased risk of ESCC, and MTHFR rs3753584 A>G and rs9651118 T>C SNPs were not associated with ESCC risk. Our findings suggests that MTHFR rs1801133 C>T, rs4845882 G>A and rs4846048 A>G SNPs may be genetic modifiers for developing ESCC in Chinese Han population.

  15. [A Survey for Colton and Other 3 Rare Blood Group Systems in Chinese Nanjing Han Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Ma, Ling; Liu, Yan-Chun

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the distribution of Colton, Diego, Kell and Yt rare blood groups in Chinese Nanjing Han population, so as to improve the transfusion capability of patients with rare blood group and to further enrich the rare-blood-donor bank. A total of 2 015 blood samples from the blood donors were selected randomly to screen the presence of K⁺ and Kp(c+) (Kell), Yt(b+) (Yt), Co(b+) (Colton), Di(a+b+) and Di(a+b-) (Digeo) antigen allele by using PCR and multiplex PCR. Out of 2005 samples, 1 case with K⁺ gene, 8 cases with Yt(b+) gene and 100 cases with Di(a+b+) gene, 2 cases with Di(a+b-) were identified, while no Kp(c+) and Co(b+) were detected. The frequencies of K⁺, Yt(b+) and Di(a+), Di(b+) are 0.0003, 0.0013 and 0.0258, 0.9742, respectively. They are very rare blood groups in Chinese Nanjing Han population.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in ALDH2 are associated with drug addiction in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Ding, Heng; Cheng, Yujing; Chen, Wanlu; Li, Qi; Li, Qing; Dai, Run; Luo, Manlin

    2017-01-31

    We investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ALDH2, which has been associated with alcohol dependence and several types of diseases, and the risk of drug addiction in a Chinese Han population. In a case-control study that included 692 cases and 700 healthy controls, eight SNPs in ALDH2 were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for age and gender. We determined that rs671 is significantly associated with a 1.551-fold increased drug addiction risk (95% CI = 1.263-1.903; p drug addiction under additive, dominant and recessive models (p drug addiction risk under additive and recessive model, respectively (p drug addiction risk (OR = 1.668; 95% CI, 1.328-2.094, p drug addiction risk (OR = 0.444; 95% CI, 0.281-0.704, p drug addiction in the Chinese Han population.

  17. [Epidemiological study on disability caused by injury in the Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jin-fang; Wang, Sheng-yong; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Guo-xiang; Dong, Xiao-mei

    2010-10-01

    To describe and analyze the prevalence and epidemiological features of people with disability caused by injury in the Chinese population, and to provide scientific basis for developing the prevention and control programs on injuries. Statistics and intervention measures were used to analyze the data from the Second China National Sample Survey on injury-caused Disability. Cluster analysis was used to analyze the differences in regions. The overall prevalence of disability caused by injury was 99.68/10 000 which occupied 15.59% of all the disability, with multiple disability excluded. Physical disability and hearing disability accounted for 65.59% and 23.35% of all the injury-caused disability respectively, while those ranked Grade IV and III making up the majority (55.14% and 25.83%) of the disability, respectively. There were significant differences in the distribution of injury-caused disability among different age groups (χ(2) = 23 106.14, P Problems discovered by injury-caused disability in the Chinese population should not be ignored. Both physical and hearing disabilities appeared to be the two main types of disability while age, gender and region were related to injury-caused disability. Targeted strategies should be developed to decrease the injury-caused disability in China.

  18. Fraternal Birth Order, Handedness, and Sexual Orientation in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between handedness, fraternal birth order, and sexual orientation in a Chinese population, and analyzed the influence of the components assessing sexual orientation and criteria classifying individuals as homosexual on this relationship. A large sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men and women participated in a web-based survey. Our results showed that homosexual women are more likely to be non-right-handed than heterosexual women, regardless of how sexual orientation was defined, whereas bisexual women are more likely to be non-right-handed than heterosexual women when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction and sexual identity. Bisexual men are more likely to be non-right-handed than heterosexual men when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction. We found neither a fraternal birth-order effect nor an interaction between sibling sex ratio, handedness, and sexual orientation. The small number of siblings may be the reason why we could not replicate the fraternal birth-order effect in this Chinese population, which highlights the importance of cultural differences in the understanding of handedness, fraternal birth order, and sexual orientation.

  19. Platelet glycoprotein IaC807T polymorphisms and ischemic stroke in young Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Huang, D; Yang, J; An, H; Ojha, R; DU, C; Liu, R

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ia C807T polymorphisms and ischemic stroke in young Chinese Han Population. We conducted a case-control study in 92 consecutive young (ischemic stroke inpatients and outpatients, 86 elder ischemic stroke control (> 50 years), and 160 age- and sex-matched healthy control. Genotyping of platelet GP Ia C807Tpolymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing nucleic acid with dideoxy chain-termination method and an ABI PRISM3100 (Perkin-Elmer Co) genetic analyzer. Student's t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression modeling were used for data significance analyses. Hypertension and smoking were found to be the independent risk factors for ischemic stroke patients (aged ischemic stroke patients (aged > 50 years). There was no significant difference observed in the T allele frequency of GPIa C807T polymorphisms between young stroke patients and corresponding controls. These findings suggest that there is no role of GPIa C807T polymorphisms in the development of young first-ever ischemic stroke in Chinese Han Population.

  20. Association of ghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Jia; Tian, Li-min; Liu, Ju-xiang; Bing, Ya-jun; Zhang, Ji-ping; Wang, Yun-Fang; Zhang, Lu-yan

    2012-08-10

    Ghrelin, a novel endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is considered to implicate the development of the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Leu72Met (+408C>A) polymorphism of the preproghrelin, has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. To investigate the distribution of ghrelin gene Leu72Met polymorphism and its association with the type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study on 877 patients with T2DM and 864 controls, which were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and DNA sequence analysis. Laboratory analyses were carried out in the hospital laboratory. No significant difference in the Leu72Met genotype distributions and allele frequency was observed between type 2 diabetes mellitus and controls (both P>0.05). The polymorphism was not associated with T2DM. However, among the T2DM group, the patients carrying Leu72Leu genotype had significantly increased levels of FPG and serum creatinine compared with variant genotypes (Leu72Met and Met72Met) (Ppolymorphism of the preproghrelin gene was not associated with T2DM in Chinese population. However, it may have some roles in the etiology of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Rui; Xiao, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that the consumption of chilli-containing foods can influence iron absorption and affect serum insulin and glucose concentrations, which may help to alleviate diabetes or prediabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric data, and chilli food habit data collected from 8433 adults (aged 18 to 99), in 2009, as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a large-scale longitudinal, household-based survey in China. Chilli food habits were assessed using chilli food eating frequencies (no eating, sometimes eating, often eating, and usually eating) and chilli food types (a little bit hot, moderately hot, and very hot). Fasting serum ferritin, insulin, and fasting plasma glucose were also measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Compared with the chilli-eating group, the no eating group had higher HOMA-IR levels for both men and women (Pfood types. However, there was no significant difference in the ferritin level and HOMA-IR components for different chilli food eating frequencies in both sex groups. Chilli food habits, especially the different hotness levels of chilli food, were associated with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference.

  2. Utility of AD8 for Cognitive Impairment in a Chinese Physical Examination Population: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yue; Gao, Ya; Jia, Jianjun; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhenfu; Xie, Hengge

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the utility of AD8 for cognitive impairment in a Chinese physical examination population. Methods. Military cadres who took routine physical examination in Chinese PLA General Hospital from Jan 1, 2013, to Dec 31, 2013, were subjected to AD8 scale. Individual information such as age, gender, and education was also collected. All data were analyzed by SPSS 19.0. Results. 1544 subjects were enrolled in this study with mean age 75.4 ± 10.6 years. The subjects who scored 0 to 8 of AD8 scale were 1015, 269, 120, 60, 30, 14, 19, 8, and 9, respectively. Corresponding proportions were 65.7%, 17.4%, 7.8%, 3.9%, 2.0%, 0.9%, 1.2%, 0.5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of 8 questions was 5.6%, 9.2%, 6.6%, 9.2%, 4.8%, 4.5%, 8.9%, and 24.1%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of question 8 was significantly higher than others (P physical examination population. PMID:25436227

  3. Utility of AD8 for Cognitive Impairment in a Chinese Physical Examination Population: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the utility of AD8 for cognitive impairment in a Chinese physical examination population. Methods. Military cadres who took routine physical examination in Chinese PLA General Hospital from Jan 1, 2013, to Dec 31, 2013, were subjected to AD8 scale. Individual information such as age, gender, and education was also collected. All data were analyzed by SPSS 19.0. Results. 1544 subjects were enrolled in this study with mean age 75.4 ± 10.6 years. The subjects who scored 0 to 8 of AD8 scale were 1015, 269, 120, 60, 30, 14, 19, 8, and 9, respectively. Corresponding proportions were 65.7%, 17.4%, 7.8%, 3.9%, 2.0%, 0.9%, 1.2%, 0.5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of 8 questions was 5.6%, 9.2%, 6.6%, 9.2%, 4.8%, 4.5%, 8.9%, and 24.1%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of question 8 was significantly higher than others (P<0.05. 260 subjects were scored equal to or greater than 2. The abnormal rate was 16.9%. All the participants were stratified into 9 groups by age; the prevalence of dementia was highly correlated with age (P<0.01. Conclusion. AD8 scale is a convenient and effective tool for cognitive screening in routine physical examination population.

  4. The ZJU index is a powerful index for identifying NAFLD in the general Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linman; You, Wenyi; Ren, Wei

    2017-10-01

    The ZJU index is a novel model for detecting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that it is calculated based on combination of the body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and the serum alanine aminotransferase-to-aspartate transaminase ratio. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the ZJU index in detecting NAFLD in the Chinese population. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory data, and ultrasonography features were collected through a standard protocol. The ZJU index, fatty liver index, hepatic steatosis index, lipid accumulation product, and visceral adiposity index were calculated. Then the predictive values of the five indices were compared according to the area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values. A total of 19,804 participants were recruited, of whom 7324 participants were diagnosed with NFALD and 12,480 subjects were regarded as controls. The AUROC value for NAFLD identification by the ZJU index was 0.925 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.919-0.931), which was significantly higher than the values for the other four models (P 60 years, the AUROC for the ZJU increased from 87.1 to 95.4%, values which were also greater than those for the other four indices. Analysis by sex also showed that the performance of the ZJU index in males and females was better than that of the other four indices. The ZJU index is an accurate and easy to employ tool for identifying NAFLD in the general Chinese population.

  5. Population differences in brain morphology and microstructure among Chinese, Malay, and Indian neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jordan; Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad Farid; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Fortier, Marielle V; Meaney, Michael J; Qiu, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    We studied a sample of 75 Chinese, 73 Malay, and 29 Indian healthy neonates taking part in a cohort study to examine potential differences in neonatal brain morphology and white matter microstructure as a function of ethnicity using both structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We first examined the differences in global size and morphology of the brain among the three groups. We then constructed the T2-weighted MRI and DTI atlases and employed voxel-based analysis to investigate ethnic differences in morphological shape of the brain from the T2-weighted MRI, and white matter microstructure measured by fractional anisotropy derived from DTI. Compared with Malay neonates, the brains of Indian neonates' tended to be more elongated in anterior and posterior axis relative to the superior-inferior axis of the brain even though the total brain volume was similar among the three groups. Although most anatomical regions of the brain were similar among Chinese, Malay, and Indian neonates, there were anatomical variations in the spinal-cerebellar and cortical-striatal-thalamic neural circuits among the three populations. The population-related brain regions highlighted in our study are key anatomical substrates associated with sensorimotor functions.

  6. RTEL1 polymorphisms are associated with lung cancer risk in the Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shouchun; Xia, Ridong; Jin, Tianbo; Ren, Hui; Yang, Hua; Li, Jing; Yan, Mengdan; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-10-25

    RTEL1 (regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1; OMIM 608833) gene polymorphisms were linked to lung cancer (LC) susceptibility in a cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) Here, we assessed whether seven previously reported RTEL1 polymorphisms influenced LC risk in Han Chinese population. All study samples (554 LC cases and 696 cancer-free controls) were collected from the Affiliated Hospital of Xizang Minzu University in China. We assessed associations between SNPs and LC risk using various several genetic models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, and additive). Whereas rs2738780 showed a protective effect against LC (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.80 ;95% confidence interval (CI): 0.638 = 0.998; p = 0.048), rs7261546(OR = 4.16; 95% CI: 1.35-12.82; p = 0.007), rs6062299(OR=5.08; 95% CI: 1.43-18.10; p = 0.005) and rs3787098(OR = 5.10; 95% CI: 1.43-18.15; p = 0.004) were all associated with increased LC susceptibility (recessive model). Haplotype analysis suggested that ''CTC'' was associated with a 0.8-fold decrease in LC risk (OR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.63-1.00; Pearson's p = 0.05). These findings suggest a potential association between RTEL1 polymorphisms and LC risk in a Chinese Han population.

  7. Association between RTEL1 gene polymorphisms and COPD susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yipeng; Xu, Heping; Yao, Jinjian; Xu, Dongchuan; He, Ping; Yi, Shengyang; Li, Quanni; Liu, Yuanshui; Wu, Cibing; Tian, Zhongjie

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulation of telomere elongation helicase 1 ( RTEL1 ), which has been associated with telomere length in several brain cancers and age-related diseases, and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a Chinese Han population. In a case-control study that included 279 COPD cases and 290 healthy controls, five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in RTEL1 were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for age and gender. In the genotype model analysis, we determined that rs4809324 polymorphism had a decreased effect on the risk of COPD (CC versus TT: OR =0.28; 95% CI =0.10-0.82; P =0.02). In the genetic model analysis, we found that the "C/C" genotype of rs4809324 was associated with a decreased risk of COPD based on the codominant model (OR =0.33; 95% CI =0.13-0.86; P =0.022) and recessive model (OR =0.32; 95% CI =0.12-0.80; P =0.009). Our data shed new light on the association between genetic polymorphisms of RTEL1 and COPD susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.

  8. [Disease burden caused by suicide in the Chinese population, in 1990 and 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Wang, L H; Jin, Y; Ye, P P; Yang, L; Er, Y L; Deng, X; Wang, Y; Duan, L L

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To provide basic suicide prevention strategy through analyzing the disease burden of suicide in the Chinese population, in 1990 and 2013. Methods: Indicators including mortality rate, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD), and disability-adjusted of life years (DALY) on suicide, were from the results of Global Burden of Disease 2013 and used to describe the burden of disease caused by suicide in Chinese population. Data described the disease burden of suicide in China by comparing the corresponding parameters in 1990 and 2013. Results: In 2013, the standard mortality on suicide was 9.08 per 100 000, and 73.39 per 100 000 in the 80 and above year-old, with the highest rates on DALY and YLL seen in the 75-79-year-old. Each parameter related to suicide burden in males appeared higher than that in females. Compare to data in the 1990s, these parameters declined in 2013, especially seen in females. The rate of YLLs/YLDs on suicide was 90.03 in 2013, 89.83 in males and 89.00 in females. Conclusion: The disease burden of suicide decreased sharply between 1990 and 2013 but was still a serious issue in the elderly that called for more attention.

  9. Association of STAT4 polymorphisms with hepatitis B virus infection and clearance in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xianzhong; Su, Kunkai; Tao, Jingjing; Fan, Rongli; Xu, Yi; Han, Haijun; Li, Lanjuan; Li, Ming D

    2016-11-01

    Genome-wide association study indicates that STAT4 is a plausible candidate for an association study with HBV-related liver diseases. We aimed to examine the roles of STAT4 polymorphisms on HBV-related liver diseases in a Chinese Han population. We selected 13 SNPs in STAT4 based on the HapMap database to investigate their associations in 3,033 participants. SNP rs7574865 was significantly associated with HBV infection [odds ratio (OR) 1.15; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00, 1.31; P = 0.046] and clearance (OR 1.17; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.33; P = 0.028). Further, haplotype-based association analysis indicated that the haplotype CTCTT, formed by SNPs rs8179673, rs7574865, rs4274624, rs11889341, and rs10168266, was significantly associated with HBV infection (OR 0.87; 95 % CI 0.76, 0.99; P = 0.022) and clearance (OR 0.86; 95 % CI 0.75, 0.99; P = 0.018). Bioinformatics analysis of these SNPs predicted that they participate in transcriptional regulation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that variants in STAT4 play a critical role in HBV infection and clearance in the Chinese Han population.

  10. Association of Interleukin-1 Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Keratoconus in Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yani; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Changning; Zhang, XueHui; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Xiuping; Xu, Kun

    2016-05-01

    To investigate whether interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) and interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) polymorphisms are associated with keratoconus (KC) in unrelated Chinese Han patients. The IL1A (rs2071376) and IL1B (rs1143627, rs16944) polymorphisms were genotyped in 115 unrelated Chinese Han KC patients and 101 healthy Chinese Han volunteers with the Sequenom MassARRAY RS1000. Sequenom Typer 4.0 software, PLINK 1.07, Haploview 4.0 software platform were used to analyze the allelic variants of IL1A and IL1B genes, and their association with KC risk factors were assessed. Among the variants, the three SNPs (rs2071376 in IL1A, rs1143627 and rs16944 in the promoter region of IL1B) were different between the two groups. The A allele of rs2071376 (A > C, p = 0.017, OR = 1.968, 95% C.I. 1.313-3.425), the C allele of rs1143627 (C > T, p rs16944 (A > G, p = 0.002, OR = 2.401, 95% C.I. 1.396-4.161) were associated with a increased risk of KC in Chinese Han patients. This study showed that rs2071376, rs1143627 and rs16944 had significant differences in associations between KC patients and the control group when different genotypes were analyzed in three models (dominant, recessive, and additive). In the haplotype analysis, the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1143627 and rs16944 showed strong linkage disequilibrium. In addition, Haplotype "ACA" was found to be associated with a higher risk of developing KC (OR = 12.91, p < 0.001). Keratocyte apoptosis is an initiating event in the pathogenesis of KC which could be induced by the altered levels of IL1 gene. These findings confirmed that polymorphisms in IL1 genes were associated with risk of KC in the Chinese Han population, which help us to gain insight into the pathogenesis of KC.

  11. [Polymorphism of PentaD and PentaE STR locus in five Chinese Han population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-ling; Lu, Hui-ling; Lü, De-jian

    2003-01-01

    To obtain the genetic polymorphism data of Guangxi, Hunan, Henan, Sichuan, Taiwang Chinese Han population and compare the polymorphism of PentaD and PentaE STR locus. The two loci was analyzed by using the PowerPlex 16 System. 10 alleles of PentaD and 19 alleles of PentaE were found in the five Han population. PentaD and PentaE have the expected heterozygosity values of 0.7746-0.8047 and 0.9005-0.9219, the polymorphism information content values of 0.7710-0.8025 and 0.8969-0.9176, the discrimination power values of 0.9223-0.9341 and 0.9471-0.9782, the power of exclusion values of 0.5435-0.6325 and 0.6785-0.8465, respectively. The result showed that these two loci were highly informative and suitable for forensic application.

  12. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Elderly Population: 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bin; Sun, Dongling; Wu, Lei; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan; Li, Xiaoying; He, Yao

    2013-01-01

    The information on the changes of prevalence of MetS in China is limited. Our objective was to assess a 10-year's change of the prevalence of MetS in a Chinese elderly population between 2001 and 2010. We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of elderly population aged 60 to 95 years in Beijing in 2001 and 2010 respectively. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. A total of 2,334 participants (943 male, 1,391 female) in 2001 and 2,102 participants (848 male, 1,254 female) in 2010 completed the survey. The prevalence of MetS was 50.4% (95%CI: 48.4%-52.4%) in 2001 and 58.1% (95%CI: 56.0%-60.2%) in 2010. The absolute change of prevalence of MetS was 7.7% over the 10-year's period (pdislipidemia.

  13. Endogenous knowledge of four leafy vegetables used by rural populations in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihotogbe-Sossa, Carole N A; Akissoe, Noël H; Anihouvi, Victor B; Ahohuendo, Bonaventure C; Ahanchede, Adam; Sanni, Ambaliou; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are sources of diet diversification and could contribute to food and nutritional security in African rural areas. However, in some places, little is known about if, how, and why leafy vegetables are consumed. Processing and preservation methods, food forms, and consumption determinants of four leafy vegetables (Sesamum radiatum, Ceratotheca sesamoïdes, Acmella uliginosa and Justicia tenella), known to contribute to the diet of rural populations in the Center and Northern parts of Benin, were investigated. Three hundred randomly selected households were investigated, using rapid appraisal and quantitative survey methods, descriptive statistics and correspondence analysis. Processing methods to prepare sauces varied depending on sociocultural groups. Cooking of fresh leaves predominated, while sun drying was the usual practice of preserving these leafy vegetables. Consumption frequencies were associated with sociocultural groups, food habits, and availability in living areas.

  14. Geospatial Technology in Disease Mapping, E- Surveillance and Health Care for Rural Population in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveenkumar, B. A.; Suresh, K.; Nikhil, A.; Rohan, M.; Nikhila, B. S.; Rohit, C. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2014-11-01

    Providing Healthcare to rural population has been a challenge to the medical service providers especially in developing countries. For this to be effective, scalable and sustainable, certain strategic decisions have to be taken during the planning phase. Also, there is a big gap between the services available and the availability of doctors and medical resources in rural areas. Use of Information Technology can aid this deficiency to a good extent. In this paper, a mobile application has been developed to gather data from the field. A cloud based interface has been developed to store the data in the cloud for effective usage and management of the data. A decision tree based solution developed in this paper helps in diagnosing a patient based on his health parameters. Interactive geospatial maps have been developed to provide effective data visualization facility. This will help both the user community as well as decision makers to carry out long term strategy planning.

  15. Interpretive Structural Analysis of Interrelationships among the Elements of Characteristic Agriculture Development in Chinese Rural Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Eradicating poverty is a strategic priority in the pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals. This study intends to identify and quantify the elements affecting the Characteristic Agriculture Development (CAD project implemented in area of Chinese poverty and reveals the interrelationships between those elements. First-hand data for the structural modeling were collected through semi-structured interviews with a group of selected experts. As a result, this study has identified seventeen representative elements, and the interrelationships between them have been examined based on the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM method. Furthermore, these elements were further categorized into four categories depending on their driving power and dependence power by using the cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC analysis. The combination result of the elements identification, ISM modeling and MICMAC analysis provide a conceptual framework for designing, implementing, and managing CAD projects conducted in rural China. Finally, we suggest that an appropriate approach should be applied to empower the poor, promote target group participation, optimize the regional agriculture structure, and increase the agro value chain competiveness in CAD project implementation.

  16. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, D'Arcy

    2011-12-15

    Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93). For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83) and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74) for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61) and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47) for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94) and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82) for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63) and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79) for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  17. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  18. Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J; Shaver, John; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have noted significant health disadvantages experienced by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) populations in the US. While several studies have identified that fears or experiences of stigma and disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity to health care providers are significant barriers to health care utilization for LGBT people, these studies have concentrated almost exclusively on urban samples. Little is known about the impact of stigma specifically for rural LGBT populations, who may have less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive care than LGBT people in urban centers. LBGT individuals residing in rural areas of the United States were recruited online to participate in a survey examining the relationship between stigma, disclosure and "outness," and utilization of primary care services. Data were collected and analyzed regarding LGBT individuals' demographics, health care access, health risk factors, health status, outness to social contacts and primary care provider, and anticipated, internalized, and enacted stigmas. Higher scores on stigma scales were associated with lower utilization of health services for the transgender & non-binary group, while higher levels of disclosure of sexual orientation were associated with greater utilization of health services for cisgender men. The results demonstrate the role of stigma in shaping access to primary health care among rural LGBT people and point to the need for interventions focused towards decreasing stigma in health care settings or increasing patients' disclosure of orientation or gender identity to providers. Such interventions have the potential to increase utilization of primary and preventive health care services by LGBT people in rural areas.

  19. Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Whitehead

    Full Text Available Prior studies have noted significant health disadvantages experienced by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations in the US. While several studies have identified that fears or experiences of stigma and disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity to health care providers are significant barriers to health care utilization for LGBT people, these studies have concentrated almost exclusively on urban samples. Little is known about the impact of stigma specifically for rural LGBT populations, who may have less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive care than LGBT people in urban centers.LBGT individuals residing in rural areas of the United States were recruited online to participate in a survey examining the relationship between stigma, disclosure and "outness," and utilization of primary care services. Data were collected and analyzed regarding LGBT individuals' demographics, health care access, health risk factors, health status, outness to social contacts and primary care provider, and anticipated, internalized, and enacted stigmas.Higher scores on stigma scales were associated with lower utilization of health services for the transgender & non-binary group, while higher levels of disclosure of sexual orientation were associated with greater utilization of health services for cisgender men.The results demonstrate the role of stigma in shaping access to primary health care among rural LGBT people and point to the need for interventions focused towards decreasing stigma in health care settings or increasing patients' disclosure of orientation or gender identity to providers. Such interventions have the potential to increase utilization of primary and preventive health care services by LGBT people in rural areas.

  20. Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J.; Shaver, John; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have noted significant health disadvantages experienced by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) populations in the US. While several studies have identified that fears or experiences of stigma and disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity to health care providers are significant barriers to health care utilization for LGBT people, these studies have concentrated almost exclusively on urban samples. Little is known about the impact of stigma specifically for rural LGBT populations, who may have less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive care than LGBT people in urban centers. Methodology LBGT individuals residing in rural areas of the United States were recruited online to participate in a survey examining the relationship between stigma, disclosure and “outness,” and utilization of primary care services. Data were collected and analyzed regarding LGBT individuals’ demographics, health care access, health risk factors, health status, outness to social contacts and primary care provider, and anticipated, internalized, and enacted stigmas. Results Higher scores on stigma scales were associated with lower utilization of health services for the transgender & non-binary group, while higher levels of disclosure of sexual orientation were associated with greater utilization of health services for cisgender men. Conclusions The results demonstrate the role of stigma in shaping access to primary health care among rural LGBT people and point to the need for interventions focused towards decreasing stigma in health care settings or increasing patients’ disclosure of orientation or gender identity to providers. Such interventions have the potential to increase utilization of primary and preventive health care services by LGBT people in rural areas. PMID:26731405

  1. Association of socioeconomic status with hearing loss in Chinese working-aged adults: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Luo, Yanan; Hu, Xiangyang; Gong, Rui; Wen, Xu; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2018-01-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory impairment, but limited studies focused on the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with hearing loss among adults of working age. This paper aimed to fill this gap among Chinese adults. We obtained data from Ear and Hearing Disorder Survey conducted in four provinces of China in 2014-2015. The survey was based on WHO Ear and Hearing Disorders Survey Protocol and 25,860 adults aged 25 to 59 years were selected in this study. Trained local examiners performed pure tone audiometry to screen people with hearing loss, and those who were screened positively for hearing loss were referred to audiologists to make final diagnosis. SES was measured by occupation, education and income. Results show after adjusting for SES measures and covariates, in urban areas, compared with white-collar workers, blue-collar workers and the unemployed were more likely to have hearing loss, with an odds ratio of 1.2 (95%CI: 1.0, 1.3) and 1.2 (95%CI: 1.0, 1.4), respectively. Compared with people with education of senior high school or above, those with junior high school, primary school and illiteracy had 1.6 (95%CI: 1.4, 1.8), 2.1(95%CI: 1.7, 2.5) and 2.6 (95%CI: 1.9, 3.7) times as likely to have hearing loss, respectively. In rural areas, the unemployed had 1.5 (95%CI: 1.0, 2.3) times the risk of hearing loss compared with white-collar workers, and illiterates had 1.6 (95%CI: 1.6, 2.1) times the risk of hearing loss compared with people with education of senior high school or above, after SES variables and covariates were taken into considerations. Income was not significantly associated with hearing loss in urban and rural areas. In conclusion, SES, in the form of occupation and education, was associated with hearing loss among working-aged population, and further studies are needed to explore the mechanism of such association.

  2. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnighausen Till

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. Methods HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005. Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Results Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2% and pregnant women (23.7% were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%. A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. Conclusion It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over

  3. A novel prescription pedometer-assisted walking intervention and weight management for Chinese occupational population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Yu

    Full Text Available Information technology has been previously used for the research and practice of health promotion. Appropriate and effective health promotion methods used by professional groups remain to be investigated. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a weight management program among the Chinese occupational population using and a novel information technology exercise prescription.A 3-month open, self-monitored intervention trial, involving individualized pedometer-assisted exercise prescription and a one-time targeted dietary guidance prior to exercise was conducted on the Chinese occupational population aged 18-65 years in China from 2015 to 2016. Data were collected from March 2015 to May 2016 and analyzed from June 2016 to August 2016. Participants were also asked to synchronize exercise data of the pedometer to the Internet-based Health System Center daily (at least weekly, by connecting to the personal computer (PC using a USB cable or via Bluetooth.Eligible participants included 802 Chinese occupational persons, and 718 of them followed exercise interventions with 89.5% (718/802 adherence to the exercise programs. Of them, 688 participants completed the program with 85.8% (688/802 adherence to the exercise program and their data were analyzed. Weight decreased by 2.2% among all overweight/obese participants, with 1.8% reduction in waist circumference and 3.3% reduction in body fat percentage (p< 0.001. Weight and body fat percentage in normal-weight individuals decreased by 0.7% and 2.5%, respectively (p < 0.01. A weight gain of 1.0% was observed in all underweight participants (p< 0.05, and 68.2% (208/305 of overweight/obese participants experienced weight loss, with an average reduction of 3.5%, with 20.2% (42/208 of them achieving weight loss ≥5%. Blood pressure and fasting serum glucose decreased significantly in both the overweight/obese and the normal-weight individuals (p < 0.05. The incidence of hypertension

  4. Spatiotemporal dataset on Chinese population distribution and its driving factors from 1949 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhe; Chen, Lajiao

    2016-07-01

    Spatio-temporal data on human population and its driving factors is critical to understanding and responding to population problems. Unfortunately, such spatio-temporal data on a large scale and over the long term are often difficult to obtain. Here, we present a dataset on Chinese population distribution and its driving factors over a remarkably long period, from 1949 to 2013. Driving factors of population distribution were selected according to the push-pull migration laws, which were summarized into four categories: natural environment, natural resources, economic factors and social factors. Natural environment and natural resources indicators were calculated using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques, whereas economic and social factors from 1949 to 2013 were collected from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Compendium of Statistics from 1949 to 2008. All of the data were quality controlled and unified into an identical dataset with the same spatial scope and time period. The dataset is expected to be useful for understanding how population responds to and impacts environmental change.

  5. Genetic diversity and population demography of the Chinese crocodile lizard (Shinisaurus crocodilurus in China.

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    Huayuan Huang

    Full Text Available The Chinese crocodile lizard Shinisaurus crocodilurus is a critically endangered species, listed in Appendix II of CITES. Its populations and habitat in China have undergone significant changes in recent years. Understanding the genetic variability and phylogeography of this species is very important for successful conservation. In this study, samples were taken from 11 wild ponds and two captive populations in China. We sequenced mitochondrial CYTB, partial ND6, and partial tRNA-Glu and genotyped 10 microsatellite loci. Our analyses of these data showed low genetic variability, no strong isolation caused by distance, and a lack of a phylogeographic structure in this species. Based on our results, the basal divergence between two clades of S. crocodilurus in China may have been caused by the formation of the Pearl River system. We found a population expansion in one of these clades. Microsatellite analysis indicated the presence of three clusters, separated by significant genetic differences. We found that most individuals in the two captive populations were from the Luokeng (Guangdong and Guangxi wild source populations, respectively.

  6. A descriptive study of the canine population in a rural town in southern Africa.

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    Rautenbach, G H; Boomker, J; de Villiers, I L

    1991-12-01

    The health status of a population of dogs (n = 220) from a rural southern African town is described. A cross sectional survey was done to collect the necessary information. All animals examined were mongrels with a mean condition score of 1.93. The oldest dog found in the population was 8 years old. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the dominant tick species encountered on the dogs, Echidnophaga gallinacea the dominant flea species, while Cordylobia anthropophaga and Demodex canis also affected the health status of the population. Fourty five per cent of the population were found to have nematode eggs in the faeces. On clinical examination, 5% of the population were judged to be acutely ill and 27% to be chronically ill. Based on the clinical examination, bloodsmears and laboratory results, 51% of the population had one or more serious clinical conditions at the time of examination. The conditions with the highest point prevalence rate in the community were canine ehrlichiosis (17.2%), transmissible veneral tumour (6.8%), canine distemper (5%), Cordylobia infestation (5.5%), trauma (4.1%), and severe malnutrition (4.1%). It was concluded that a significant section of this population was in a chronic state of starvation and malnutrition. There was also a heavy infestation of internal and external parasites and the prevalence of serious diseases in this population was high.

  7. Outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural and urban south Indian population

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    Vijaya Lingam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the visual outcome after cataract surgery in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study of subjects aged 40 years or more. Three thousand nine hundred and twenty-four rural subjects from 27 contiguous villages and 3850 urban subjects from five randomly selected divisions were studied. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and dilated retinal examination. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test, t test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Five hundred and twenty-eight (216 males, 312 females, 781 eyes rural subjects (13.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI 12.4% to 14.6% and 406 (197 males, 209 females, 604 eyes urban subjects (10.5%, 95% CI 9.6-11.5% had undergone cataract surgery. Outcome of cataract surgery was defined based on visual acuity. Using best-corrected visual acuity for classification, the single most important cause for visual impairment was cystoid macular edema in the aphakic group and posterior capsule opacification in the pseudophakic group. Aphakia (visual acuity of < 20/60 to ≤ 20/400 - odds ratio (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.6%, visual acuity of < 20/400 - OR 6.2; 95% 4.0 to 9.8%, rural residence (visual acuity of < 20/60 to ≤ 20/400 - OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.2 to 4.5% and visual acuity of < 20/400 - OR OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.5% were associated with visual impairment. The urban cataract-operated population had significantly more pseudophakics ( P < 0.001, men ( P = 0.02 and literates ( P < 0.001. In the rural group the prevalence of cataract surgery (13.5% vs. 10.5%, P < 0.001 and number of people that had undergone cataract surgery within three years prior to examination ( P < 0.001 were significantly greater. In 30% of rural and 16% of urban subjects uncorrected refraction was the cause of visual impairment. Conclusions: Surgery

  8. Association of Neck Circumference and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Adolescents in Urban and Rural Population in North Tamil Nadu.

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    Rajagopalan, Archana; Balaji, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Since a few studies exist on the association of neck circumference (NC) and obesity with blood pressure (BP) among adolescents in India, we found it highly relevant to measure the NC and body mass index (BMI) using them as indicators of upper body subcutaneous fat and obesity and relate them to BP in a rural and urban adolescent population in North Tamil Nadu. This is a community-based cross-sectional study of descriptive design where 500 students from urban and rural areas were selected, and their BMI, NC, and BP were measured using standardized instruments. Among urban and rural population high and normal NC positively correlated with BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), indicating that the data clearly reflects increase in BMI, SBP, and DBP values with increase in NC or vice versa. The correlation was statistically significant ( P < 0.001) significantly higher BMI ( P < 0.01), SBP ( P < 0.05), and NC ( P < 0.001) was observed in urban population than rural. DBP was not significantly different in rural and urban population. 95 th percentile values are significantly higher than rest in both urban and rural population. Only the 95 th percentile values correlate and reflect similar changes in BMI, SBP, and DBP. Our studies indicate a strong association of elevation in BP with high NC and increase in BMI. Overweight and obesity were positively correlated with increase in SBP and DBP.

  9. K+ and Na+ fluxes in roots of two Chinese Iris populations

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    Pinfang LI,Biao ZHANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of ion homeostasis, particularly the regulation of K+ and Na+ uptake, is important for all plants to adapt to salinity. Observations on ionic response to salinity and net fluxes of K+, Na+ in the root exhibited by plants during salt stress have highlighted the need for further investigation. The objectives of this study were to compare salt adaptation of two Chinese Iris (Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis (Fisch. Koidz. populations, and to improve understanding of adaptation to salinity exhibited by plants. Plants used in this study were grown from seeds collected in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xj and Beijing Municipality (Bj, China. Hydroponically-grown seedlings of the two populations were supplied with nutrient solutions containing 0.1 (control and 140 mmol·L-1 NaCl. After 12 days, plants were harvested for determination of relative growth rate and K+, Na+ concentrations. Net fluxes of K+, Na+ from the apex and along the root axis to 10.8 mm were measured using non-invasive micro-test technique. With 140 mmol·L-1 NaCl treatment, shoots for population Xj had larger relative growth rate and higher K+ concentration than shoots for population Bj. However, the Na+ concentrations in both shoots and roots were lower for Xj than those for Bj. There was a lower net efflux of K+ found in population Xj than by Bj in the mature zone (approximately 2.4-10.8 mm from root tip. However, no difference in the efflux of Na+ between the populations was obtained. Population Xj of I. lactea continued to grow normally under NaCl stress, and maintained a higher K+/Na+ ratio in the shoots. These traits, which were associated with lower K+ leakage, help population Xj adapt to saline environments.

  10. Rural versus nonrural differences in BMC, volumetric BMD, and bone size: a population-based cross-sectional study.

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    Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa; Fahrenwald, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    Despite reports of lower fracture risk among rural versus urban populations, few studies have investigated rural versus urban differences in bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Population differences in cross-sectional bone geometry and understanding lifestyle factors responsible for these differences may reveal insights into the reason for differences in fracture risk. We hypothesized that if lifestyle differences in bone mass, size, and geometry are a result of muscle strength, activity, or dietary differences, Hutterite and rural populations should have greater bone mass compared to nonrural populations. The study population consisted of 1189 individuals: 504 rural Hutterites (188 men), 349 rural individuals (>75% life farming, 184 men), and 336 nonrural individuals (never lived on farm, 134 men) aged 20 to 66 years. BMC, bone area, and areal BMD (aBMD) of the total body (TB), hip, femoral neck (FN), and spine by DXA; volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone geometry at the 4% and 20% radius; polar stress strain index (pSSI), a measure of bone strength, at the 20% pQCT site; and strength, 7-day activity recall, and 24-h diet recall were collected and compared among groups. Hutterite women and men had greater grip strength compared to rural and nonrural populations (both, P BMC and areal size than the nonrural population, while Hutterites had greater BMC and areal size than rural population at some (TB, FN for females only), but not all (proximal hip), sites. Cortical vBMD was inversely associated with periosteal circumference at the 20% radius in women (r=-0.25, P BMC, aBMD, vBMD, or bone size.

  11. Application of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) in a rural, Zulu speaking, adolescent population in South Africa

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    Szabo, Christopher P; Allwood, Clifford W

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken as part of an exploration of the potential risk for future eating disorders in the black female population of South Africa. Previous research has documented eating attitudes suggesting that such a risk exists in urban populations. A translated version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied in a Zulu speaking, rural population (n=361). A prevalence of 3% for abnormal eating attitudes was established. In keeping with the hypothesis, the findings suggest that the risk for developing an eating disorder in a rural population is somewhat lower. In this regard, there does appear to be an urban-rural divide, which may have implications for the prevention of the emergence of eating disorders in black, South African adolescents. However, the validity of the EAT-26 in this population is a consideration in interpreting the data. PMID:16633489

  12. Human papillomavirus type-18 prevalence in oesophageal cancer in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

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    Guo, L W; Zhang, S K; Liu, S Z; Chen, Q; Zhang, M; Quan, P L; Lu, J B; Sun, X B

    2016-02-01

    Globally, the prevalence of oesophageal cancer cases is particularly high in China. Since 1982, oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) has been hypothesized as a risk factor for oesophageal cancer, but no firm evidence of HPV infection in oesophageal cancer has been established to date. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the high-risk HPV-18 prevalence of oesophageal cancer in the Chinese population. Eligible studies published from 1 January 2005 to 12 July 2014 were retrieved via computer searches of English and Chinese literature databases (including Medline, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform). A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 2556 oesophageal cancer cases from 19 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled HPV-18 prevalence in oesophageal cancer cases was 4·1% (95% CI 2·7-5·5) in China, 6·1% (95% CI 2·9-9·3) in fresh or frozen biopsies and 4·0% (95% CI 2·3-5·8) in paraffin-embedded fixed biopsies, 8·2% (95% CI 4·6-11·7) by the E6/E7 region and 2·2% (95% CI 0·9-3·6) by the L1 region of the HPV gene. This meta-analysis indicated that China has a moderate HPV-18 prevalence of oesophageal cancer compared to cervical cancer, although there is variation between different variables. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of HPV in oesophagus carcinogenesis with careful consideration of study design and laboratory detection method, providing more accurate assessment of HPV status in oesophageal cancer.

  13. FCRL3 gene polymorphisms confer autoimmunity risk for allergic rhinitis in a Chinese Han population.

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    Zheng Gu

    Full Text Available Heredity and environmental exposures may contribute to a predisposition to allergic rhinitis (AR. Autoimmunity may also involve into this pathologic process. FCRL3 (Fc receptor-like 3 gene, a novel immunoregulatory gene, has recently been reported to play a role in autoimmune diseases.This study was performed to evaluate the potential association of FCRL3 polymorphisms with AR in a Chinese Han population.Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms of FCRL3, rs945635, rs3761959, rs7522061, rs10489678 and rs7528684 were genotyped in 540 AR patients and 600 healthy controls using a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were compared between patients and controls using the χ2 test. The online software platform SHEsis was used to analyze their haplotypes.This study identified three strong risk SNPs rs7528684, rs10489678, rs7522061 and one weak risk SNP rs945635 of FCRL3 in Chinese Han AR patients. For rs7528684, a significantly increased prevalence of the AA genotype and A allele in AR patients was recorded. The frequency of the GG genotype and G allele of rs10489678 was markedly higher in AR patients than those in controls. For rs7522061, a higher frequency of the TT genotype, and a lower frequency of the CT genotype were found in AR patients. Concerning rs945635, a lower frequency of the CC genotype, and a higher frequency of G allele were observed in AR patients. According to the analysis of the three strong positive SNPs, the haplotype of AGT increased significantly in AR cases (AR = 38.8%, Controls = 24.3%, P = 8.29 × 10(-14, OR [95% CI] 1.978 [1.652~2.368].This study found a significant association between the SNPs in FCRL3 gene and AR in Chinese Han patients. The results suggest these gene polymorphisms might be the autoimmunity risk for AR.

  14. The G to C polymorphism at -174 of the interleukin-6 gene is rare in a Southern Chinese population

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    Zhai, R.H.; Liu, G.; Yang, C.M.; Huang, C.H.; Wu, C.R.; Christiani, D.C. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States). School of Public Health, Occupational Health Programme, Dept. of Environmental Health

    2001-11-01

    Interleukin-6 is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Recently, a functional G to C polymorphism at position -174 of the promoter of the IL-6 gene has been described. The -174 polymorphisms in 259 retired Chinese men from Guangxi province (all retired coal miners) were examined. Only one GC heterozygous and no CC homozygous variants were found. Our results suggest that the frequency of the C allele in this Chinese population is lower than in Caucasian and east Indian populations.

  15. Association of inflammatory gene polymorphisms with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population

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    Zhao Nan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory mechanisms are important in stroke risk, and genetic variations in components of the inflammatory response have been implicated as risk factors for stroke. We tested the inflammatory gene polymorphisms and their association with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population. Methods A total of 1,124 ischemic stroke cases and 1,163 controls were genotyped with inflammatory panel strips containing 51 selected inflammatory gene polymorphisms from 35 candidate genes. We tested the genotype-stroke association with logistic regression model. Results We found two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CCL11 were associated with ischemic stroke. After adjusting for multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR with a 0.20 cut-off point, CCL11 rs4795895 remained statistically significant. We further stratified the study population by their hypertension status. In the hypertensive group, CCR2 rs1799864, CCR5 rs1799987 and CCL11 rs4795895 were nominally associated with increased risk of stroke. In the non-hypertensive group, CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 and CCL11 rs4795895 were associated with ischemic stroke. After correction for multiple testing, CCR2 rs1799864 and CCR5 rs1799987 remained significant in the hypertensive group, and CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 remained significant in the non-hypertensive group. Conclusions Our results indicate that inflammatory genetic variants are associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population, particularly in non-hypertensive individuals.

  16. Association of inflammatory gene polymorphisms with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population.

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    Zhao, Nan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yongqin; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Li, Jiana; Yu, Litian; Ma, Liyuan; Wang, Shuyu; Zhang, Hongye; Liu, Lisheng; Zhao, Jingbo; Wang, Xingyu

    2012-07-06

    Inflammatory mechanisms are important in stroke risk, and genetic variations in components of the inflammatory response have been implicated as risk factors for stroke. We tested the inflammatory gene polymorphisms and their association with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population. A total of 1,124 ischemic stroke cases and 1,163 controls were genotyped with inflammatory panel strips containing 51 selected inflammatory gene polymorphisms from 35 candidate genes. We tested the genotype-stroke association with logistic regression model. We found two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CCL11 were associated with ischemic stroke. After adjusting for multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR) with a 0.20 cut-off point, CCL11 rs4795895 remained statistically significant. We further stratified the study population by their hypertension status. In the hypertensive group, CCR2 rs1799864, CCR5 rs1799987 and CCL11 rs4795895 were nominally associated with increased risk of stroke. In the non-hypertensive group, CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 and CCL11 rs4795895 were associated with ischemic stroke. After correction for multiple testing, CCR2 rs1799864 and CCR5 rs1799987 remained significant in the hypertensive group, and CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 remained significant in the non-hypertensive group. Our results indicate that inflammatory genetic variants are associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population, particularly in non-hypertensive individuals.

  17. Association Study between Ghrelin Gene Polymorphism and Metabolic Syndrome in a Han Chinese Population.

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    You, Yueyue; Yu, Yaqin; Wu, Yanhua; Rao, Wenwang; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yingyu; Yang, Guang; Fu, Yingli; Shi, Jieping; Kou, Changgui

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin, in humans, is a hormone secreted from the stomach with an orexigenic effect, which is good for digestion and absorption, as well as regulating physical growth, metabolism, and energy balance. It is also involved in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study assessed the association between single nucleotide variants of the GHRL gene and the risk of metabolic syndrome in a Han Chinese population. A case-control study was performed on 3780 Han Chinese comprising 1813 MetS cases and 1967 controls. Three missense polymorphisms in GHRL (rs26802, rs10490816, and rs696217) were selected, and the association between these polymorphisms and the risk of MetS was investigated. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Using Pearson's 2 test, we found that there were no significant differences in genotype distributions and allele frequencies between cases and controls (all p > 0.05). There were also no significant differences in haplotype distributions between MetS cases and healthy controls. Furthermore, we confirmed that rs26802 of the GHRL gene is associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and fasting glucose; rs10490816 is associated with triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC); while rs696217 is associated with hip circumference and fasting glucose. We concluded that mutations in the GHRL gene did not confer risk for MetS in our study population. Therefore, functional analysis and replication studies in other populations are needed to further investigate the exact role of the GHRL gene in MetS.

  18. Genetic association between NRG1 and schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder in Han Chinese population.

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    Wen, Zujia; Chen, Jianhua; Khan, Raja Amjad Waheed; Song, Zhijian; Wang, Meng; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Li, Wenjin; Shi, Yongyong

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder are three major psychiatric disorders affecting around 0.66%, 3.3%, and 1.5% of the Han Chinese population respectively. Several genetic linkage analyses and genome wide association studies identified NRG1 as a susceptibility gene of schizophrenia, which was validated by its role in neurodevelopment, glutamate, and other neurotransmitter receptor expression regulation. To further investigate whether NRG1 is a shared risk gene for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder as well as schizophrenia, we performed an association study among 1,248 schizophrenia cases, 1,056 major depression cases, 1,344 bipolar disorder cases, and 1,248 controls. Totally 15 tag SNPs were genotyped and analyzed, and no population stratification was found in our sample set. Among the sites, rs4236710 (corrected Pgenotye  = 0.015) and rs4512342 (Pallele  = 0.03, Pgenotye  = 0.045 after correction) were associated with schizophrenia, and rs2919375 (corrected Pgenotye  = 0.004) was associated with major depressive disorder. The haplotype rs4512342-rs6982890 showed association with schizophrenia (P = 0.03 for haplotype "TC" after correction), and haplotype rs4531002-rs11989919 proved to be a shared risk factor for both major depressive disorder ("CC": corrected P = 0.009) and bipolar disorder ("CT": corrected P = 0.003). Our results confirmed that NRG1 was a shared common susceptibility gene for major mental disorders in Han Chinese population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a contemporary Chinese Han population.

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    Dong, Hongmei; Deng, Mohong; Wang, WenPeng; Zhang, Ji; Mu, Jiao; Zhu, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    A present limitation of forensic anthropology practice in China is the lack of population-specific criteria on contemporary human skeletons. In this study, a sample of 203 maxillofacial Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, including 96 male and 107 female cases (20-65 years old), was analyzed to explore mandible sexual dimorphism in a population of contemporary adult Han Chinese to investigate the potential use of the mandible as sex indicator. A three-dimensional image from mandible CBCT scans was reconstructed using the SimPlant Pro 11.40 software. Nine linear and two angular parameters were measured. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) and logistic regression analysis (LRA) were used to develop the mathematics models for sex determination. All of the linear measurements studied and one angular measurement were found to be sexually dimorphic, with the maximum mandibular length and bi-condylar breadth being the most dimorphic by univariate DFA and LRA respectively. The cross-validated sex allocation accuracies on multivariate were ranged from 84.2% (direct DFA), 83.5% (direct LRA), 83.3% (stepwise DFA) to 80.5% (stepwise LRA). In general, multivariate DFA yielded a higher accuracy and LRA obtained a lower sex bias, and therefore both DFA and LRA had their own advantages for sex determination by the mandible in this sample. These results suggest that the mandible expresses sexual dimorphism in the contemporary adult Han Chinese population, indicating an excellent sexual discriminatory ability. Cone beam computed tomography scanning can be used as alternative source for contemporary osteometric techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Disease burden caused by violence in the Chinese population, in 1990 and 2013].

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    Yang, L; Gao, X; Jin, Y; Ye, P P; Er, Y L; Deng, X; Wang, Y; Duan, L L

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To analyze the disease burden of violence in the Chinese population, in 1990 and 2013. Methods: Indicators including mortality rate, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD), and disability-adjusted of life years (DALY) related to violence, were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 and used to describe the burden of disease caused by violence in the Chinese population. Data related to corresponding parameters on disease burden of violence in 1990 and 2013 were described. Results: In 2013, a total of 20 500 people died of violent events, with the death rate as 1.44 per 100 000, in China. DALY caused by violence was 1.08 million person years in 2013. DALY caused by sharp violence was 0.47 million person years, with 0.09 million person years lost due to firearm violence. Disease burden caused by violence appeared higher in males than in females. When comparing with data from the 1990s, reductions were seen by 67.35 % on the standardized death rate of violence, by 68.07 % on the DALY attributable to violence, and by 70.47 % on the standardized DALY rate attributable to violence, respectively, in 2013. Disease burden of violence among young adults and elderly was among the highest. When comparing with data from the 1990, DALY in 2013 decreased among all the age groups except for the 70-year-old showed an increase of 9.36 % . The standardized DALY rate in 2013 showed a declining trend in all the age groups, mostly in the 0-4-year-old group. The standardized DALY rates caused by sharp violence or firearm decreased by75.11 % and 83.20 % in the 0-4-year-old group. Conclusion: In recent years, the disease burden caused by violence showed a decreasing trend but appeared higher in males however with the increase of DALY in the elder population.

  1. [Disease burden on drowning in the Chinese population, in 1990 and 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, X; Jin, Y; Ye, P P; Wang, L H; Duan, L L

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To comprehensively analyze the disease burden of drowning in the Chinese population both at the national and provincial levels in 1990 and 2013, to provide reference for the development of strategies regarding drowning prevention. Methods: Both methods related to unified measurement framework and standardized estimation on Global Burden of Disease in 2013, were used. Data on deaths caused by injuries were from the following sources which include: Disease Surveillance Points, the National Maternal and Child Health Surveillance Network, the Death Registration Reporting System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Death Registration System and death information from Macau and Hong Kong areas of China. Injury-related incidence data was from the National Injury Surveillance System and literature review. Parameters as death/death rate, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL)/standardized YLL rate, years living with disability (YLD)/standardized YLD rate and disability-adjusted of life years (DALY)/standardized DALY were used to analyze the disease burden and changing trend on drowning at both the national and all the provincial levels. Results: In 2013, the number of deaths due to drowning was63 619 in China, with the standardized mortality rate as 5.29 per 100 000, accounting for 8.0 % of the total injury deaths. Drowning was the fourth leading cause of injury death in the whole population and the first leading cause of injury death among children aged standardized mortality, standardized YLL, standardized YLD and standardized DALY of drowning all declined in 2013. The five provinces/districts/cities with the highest rates of drowning were Xinjiang (10.08 per 100 000), Jiangxi (8.44 per 100 000), Anhui (7.92 per 100 000), Guizhou (7.77 per 100 000) and Sichuan (7.68 per 100 000). Standardized mortality of drowning reduced in all provinces in 2013. Conclusions: Disease burden of drowning in the Chinese population, especially in

  2. Prediction consistency and clinical presentations of breast cancer molecular subtypes for Han Chinese population

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    Huang Chi-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease in terms of transcriptional aberrations; moreover, microarray gene expression profiles had defined 5 molecular subtypes based on certain intrinsic genes. This study aimed to evaluate the prediction consistency of breast cancer molecular subtypes from 3 distinct intrinsic gene sets (Sørlie 500, Hu 306 and PAM50 as well as clinical presentations of each molecualr subtype in Han Chinese population. Methods In all, 169 breast cancer samples (44 from Taiwan and 125 from China of Han Chinese population were gathered, and the gene expression features corresponding to 3 distinct intrinsic gene sets (Sørlie 500, Hu 306 and PAM50 were retrieved for molecular subtype prediction. Results For Sørlie 500 and Hu 306 intrinsic gene set, mean-centring of genes and distance-weighted discrimination (DWD remarkably reduced the number of unclassified cases. Regarding pairwise agreement, the highest predictive consistency was found between Hu 306 and PAM50. In all, 150 and 126 samples were assigned into identical subtypes by both Hu 306 and PAM50 genes, under mean-centring and DWD. Luminal B tended to show a higher nuclear grade and have more HER2 over-expression status than luminal A did. No basal-like breast tumours were ER positive, and most HER2-enriched breast tumours showed HER2 over-expression, whereas, only two-thirds of ER negativity/HER2 over-expression tumros were predicted as HER2-enriched molecular subtype. For 44 Taiwanese breast cancers with survival data, a better prognosis of luminal A than luminal B subtype in ER-postive breast cancers and a better prognosis of basal-like than HER2-enriched subtype in ER-negative breast cancers was observed. Conclusions We suggest that the intrinsic signature Hu 306 or PAM50 be used for breast cancers in the Han Chinese population during molecular subtyping. For the prognostic value and decision making based on intrinsic subtypes, further prospective

  3. Influence of Cigarette Smoking on Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk in the Han Chinese Population

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    Jian Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesCigarette smoking has been shown in European populations to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA susceptibility. This study aims to examine the association of smoking with RA in the Han Chinese population.Methods718 Han Chinese RA patients and 404 healthy controls were studied. The associations of cigarette smoking (current, former or ever vs. never smokers, and pack-years of exposure with RA, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA positive RA, IgM rheumatoid factor (RF positive RA, and baseline radiographic erosions (modified van der Heijde–Sharp scores were assessed. The interaction between smoking and the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE in RA was also examined.ResultsIn this study, 11 (1.53% cases and 6 (1.49% controls were former smokers (p = 0.95, while 95 (13.23% cases and 48 (11.88% controls were current smokers (p = 0.52. Trends toward associations between smoking status (ever vs. never with RA-overall (p = 0.15, OR = 1.44, ACPA-positive RA (p = 0.24, OR = 1.37, RF-positive RA (p = 0.14, OR = 1.46, or the presence of radiographic erosions (p = 0.66, OR = 1.28 were observed although individually here were not statistically significant. There was no evidence of statistical interaction between smoking status (ever vs. never and SE for all RA, ACPA-positive RA, ACPA-negative RA, RF-positive RA, RF-negative RA (p = 0.37, 0.50, 0.24, 0.26, and 0.81 respectively, and the 95% CI for the attributable proportion for all interactions included 0.ConclusionThis is the first study to examine the association of cigarette smoking with RA in the Han Chinese population. This study shows a trend toward an interaction between smoking and SE carriage influencing the risk of RA, though findings were not statistically significant. It is possible that in the presence of universal exposure to heavy air pollution the effect of smoking on RA risk may be obscured.

  4. Coronary artery disease in a rural population of Bangladesh: is dyslipidemia or adiposity a significant risk?

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    Sajal Krishna Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD are on the increase worldwide and more in the developing countries. Coronary artery disease (CAD constitutes the major brunt of CVD. Despite the increasing morbidity and mortality, Bangladesh has a few published data on CAD in rural population. This study addressed the prevalence of CAD and its risk factors in rural population of Bangladesh. Study methods: Sixteen villages were purposively selected in a rural area. A population census was conducted in the selected area. The census yielded eligible participants, who reached at least eighteen years of age. Those who willingly consented to participate were enlisted. Each participant was interviewed regarding CAD risk (age, sex, social class, occupation, illness, family history. Anthropometry (height, weight, waist- and hip-girth was recorded. Resting blood pressure (BP was measured. Blood sample was collected for fasting blood glucose (FBG, total cholesterol (Chol, triglycerides (Tg, low density lipoproteins (LDL, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL and high density (HDL. All participants having FBG>5.5mmol/l or systolic (SBP ³135 or diastolic BP (DBP ³85mmHg underwent electrocardiography (ECG. A team of cardiologists selected and accomplished exercise tolerance test (ETT and echocardiography (Echo. Results: The prevalence of CAD was 4.5% (95% CI: 3.85 – 5.15. Compared with the female (3.5%, CI, 2.76 – 4.24 the male participants had significantly higher prevalence of CAD (6.0%, CI, 4.83 – 7.13. Comparison of characteristics between participants with and without CAD showed that age, SBP, DBP and FBG were significantly higher in CAD group. Bivariate analysis showed that age, sex, social class, glycemic status, metabolic syndrome (MetS and smoking were significantly related to CAD. Stepwise logistic regression proved only male sex, rich social class, hypertension and diabetes had independent risk of CAD; whereas, age, obesity

  5. Prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus among a rural population in China: results from Liaoning Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Guan, H; Zheng, L; Li, Z; Guo, X; Yang, H; Yu, S; Sun, G; Li, W; Hu, W; Guo, L; Pan, G; Xing, L; Zhang, Y; Sun, Y

    2015-03-01

    To clarify the diabetes prevalence trends among the rural population in northern China. All eligible permanent residents aged ≥ 35 years in selected rural villages of Liaoning province were invited to participate in the study. A total of 11 600 people completed all questionnaires and were included in the study. The response rate was 85.3%. Fasting plasma glucose levels were measured after at least 12 h of fasting and diabetes was diagnosed according to WHO criteria, i.e. fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7 mmol/l and/or being on treatment for diabetes. Impaired fasting glucose was defined according to the 1997 and the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria (6.1-6.9 and 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, respectively). Previous diagnoses of diabetes were assessed on the basis of self-reports. The prevalence of diabetes among adults in the rural population was 10.6% (10.0% in men and 11.1% in women). The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 13.0 and 36.1% according to the 1997 and the 2010 ADA criteria, respectively. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was 4.3% among the whole population (3.3% in men and 5.1% in women). The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was 34.8% in men and 50.2% in women. Only 29.6% of men and 42% of women with diabetes had taken oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin to lower their blood sugar. In multivariate analysis, age, drinking habits, BMI, dyslipidaemia and family history of diabetes were identified as independent risk factors for diabetes, and occupational physical activity, smoking and lean meat intake were identified as independent protective factors for diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose were found to be high in this rural population. Although the rate of treatment of people with diabetes has increased, the glycaemic control rate was still at a low level. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  6. Benefit packages for chronic disease outpatients in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme in 32 Chinese counties [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/z2

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    Chuangzhou Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic disease has become a major problem affecting the health of the Chinese population. In response to this situation, the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS has begun to provide health cover for outpatients with chronic disease expenses, made possible by the increased risk pool of previous years. We compare the differences between Benefit Packages for Chronic Diseases Outpatients (BPCDO in order to produce a reference for policy makers. Methods: Information on the various BPCDO was located by searching the official NRCMS website in Chinese, using certain criteria to select the ideal BPCDO. Population coverage, service coverage and cost of coverage were chosen to form the analytical framework for this paper. The diseases were classified according to the World Health Organisation's (WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Results: To avoid “moral hazard”, complex processes have been created. This has resulted in chronic disease patients finding it very difficult to become beneficiaries. Forty-one types of chronic diseases were listed in 32 different BPCDO. We found that different counties have different co-payment rates, deductible lines, ceilings, coverage of drugs and tests, appointed hospitals and reimbursement frequencies. Conclusion: High mortality diseases and diseases with a heavier cost burden should be the priority on the list of reimbursement. The BPCDO scheme should be introduced urgently at the national level. It should include twenty-one types of disease and eight essential factors.

  7. Genetic Association of Interleukin-31 Gene Polymorphisms with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Chinese Population

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    Chenlu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Roles of interleukin-31 (IL-31 in the development and progression of human epithelial ovarian cancer are largely unknown. Studies report that the polymorphisms, rs7977932 C>G and rs4758680 C>A in IL-31, affect the expression level of IL-31. In the present study, we examined 412 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and 428 healthy individuals to explore whether these polymorphisms are associated with the epithelial ovarian cancer in Chinese women. The genotype of the polymorphisms in each individual was identified. The associations of the polymorphisms with patients’ clinical characteristics and outcomes were evaluated. For rs7977932, the frequency of the CG/GG was significantly decreased in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the frequency of the rs4758680 CA/AA was significantly increased in those patients. Moreover, the frequency of rs7977932 CG/GG genotype was significantly higher in patients with less advanced FIGO stages. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that patients with CG/GG genotypes of rs7977932 had a decreased risk for recurrence compared to those with CC genotype. Our findings suggested that rs7977932 and rs4758680 of IL-31 may be associated with the development and progression of the epithelial ovarian cancer in the Chinese population. IL-31, therefore, may be a potential therapeutic target for the development of drugs to treat the disease.

  8. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

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    Cassandra W. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P=0.026 after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P=0.02. Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in Chinese women: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi; Lu, Yongxian

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the current prevalence rate of urinary incontinence (UI) and to identify risk factors in Chinese women, we conducted a population-based survey in 3058 women in Beijing, China, in 2009. The prevalence rate of UI was estimated to be 22.1%, with stress UI (12.9%) being more prevalent than urgency UI (1.7%) and mixed UI (7.5%). The prevalence rates of UI, urgency UI, and mixed UI increased with age, with the highest recorded in participants aged ≥70 years. However, stress UI was most commonly seen in participants aged 50 to 69 years. Risk factors for UI included aging, lower education background, older age of menarche, menstrual disorder, pregnancy history, episiotomy, chronic pelvic pain, gynecological disease, other chronic diseases, constipation, fecal incontinence, lower daily water intake, and frequency of high protein intake. UI is a common disorder in Chinese women, and many risk factors are able to affect the development of UI. © 2011 APJPH.

  10. Variants in multiple genes polymorphism association analysis of COPD in the Chinese Li population

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    Ding Y

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yipeng Ding,1,* Danlei Yang,2,3,* Long Zhou,4 Junxu Xu,5 Yu Chen,5 Ping He,1 Jinjian Yao,1 Jiannan Chen,1 Huan Niu,1 Pei Sun,1 Tianbo Jin4 1Department of Emergency, People’s Hospital of Hainan Province, Haikou, Hainan, 2Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Key Laboratory of Pulmonary Diseases of Health Ministry, Tongji Medical College, 3Department of Science and Technology, Huazhong University, Wuhan, 4School of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi’an, 5Department of Respiration Emergency, The Third People’s Hospital of Haikou, Haikou, Hainan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: It is known that the contribution of risk alleles to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD may vary between populations. Further, previous studies involving various ethnic groups have revealed associations between COPD and genetic polymorphisms in families with sequence similarity 13, member A (FAM13A, micro-RNA 2054 (MIR2054, SET domain containing protein 7 (SETD7, ring finger protein 150 (RNF150, hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA. Our objective was to explore the association between these gene polymorphism and COPD in members of Chinese Li minority population.Materials and methods: The Chinese Li population case–control study was conducted to assess genetic associations with COPD risk. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located on chromosome 4, including FAM13A, MIR2054, SETD7, RNF150, and HHIP, and nine SNPs in the VEGFA gene were genotyped among 234 cases and 240 controls using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY® platform. Linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis was performed using Haploview software and the associations of the SNP frequencies with COPD were analyzed using chi-square (χ2 tests, genetic models analysis, and haplotype analysis.Results: By χ2 we found the minor allele “G” of rs17050782 was with increased

  11. [Distribution of rubidium, cesium, beryllium, strontium, and barium in blood and urine in general Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunguang; Pan, Yajuan; Zhang, Aihua; Zhu, Chun; Liu, Deye; Xu, Guang; Zheng, Yuxin; Yan, Huifang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), beryllium (Be), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba) in blood and urine in general Chinese population. A total of 18 120 subjects aged 6~60 years were enrolled from 24 regions in 8 provinces in Eastern, Central, and Western China from 2009 to 2010 based on the method of cluster random sampling. Questionnaire survey was conducted to collect the data on living environment and health status. Blood and urine samples were collected from these subjects, and the levels of Rb, Cs, Be, Sr, and Ba in these samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distribution of these elements in blood and urine in male or female subjects living in different regions was analyzed statistically. In the general Chinese population, the concentration of Be in the whole blood was below the detection limit (0.06 μg/L); the geometric mean (GM) of Ba in the whole blood was below the detection limit (0.45 μg/L), with the 95th percentile (P95)of 1.37 μg/L; the GMs (95% CI)of Rb, Cs, and Sr in the whole blood were 2 374(2 357~2 392) μg/L, 2.01 (1.98~2.05) μg/L, and 23.5 (23.3~23.7) μg/L, respectively; in males and females, the GMs (95%CI)of blood Rb, Cs, and Sr were 2 506 (2 478~2 533) μg/L and 2 248 (2 227~2 270) μg/L, 1.88 (1.83~1.94) μg/L and 2.16 (2.11~2.20) μg/L, and 23.4 (23.1~23.7) μg/L and 23.6 (23.3~23.9) μg/L, respectively(P0.05, and P>0.05). In the general Chinese population, the GM of urine Be was below the detection limit (0.06 μg/L), while the GMs (95%CI)of urine Rb, Cs, Sr, and Ba were 854 (836~873) μg/L, 3.65 (3.56~3.74) μg/L, 39.5 (38.4~40.6) μg/L, and 1.10 (1.07~1.12) μg/L, respectively; in males and females, the GMs (95%CI)of urine Rb, Cs, Sr, and Ba were 876 (849~904) μg/L and 832 (807~858) μg/L, 3.83 (3.70~3.96) μg/L and 3.47 (3.35~3.60) μg/L, 42.5 (40.9~44.2) μg/L and 36.6 (35.1~38.0) μg/L, and 1.15 (1.12~1.19) μg/L and 1.04 (1.01~1.07) μg/L, respectively (all P< 0

  12. Influence of human population movements on urban climate of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-03-01

    The population movements for the Chinese New Year (CNY) celebrations, known as the world’s largest yearly migration of human beings, have grown rapidly in the past several decades. The massive population outflows from urban areas largely reduce anthropogenic heat release and modify some other processes, and may thus have noticeable impacts on urban climate of large cities in China. Here, we use Beijing as an example to present observational evidence for such impacts over the period of 1990-2014. Our results show a significant cooling trend of up to 0.55 °C per decade, particularly at the nighttime during the CNY holiday relative to the background period. The average nighttime cooling effect during 2005-2014 reaches 0.94 °C relative to the 1990s, significant at the 99% confidence level. The further analysis supports that the cooling during the CNY holiday is attributable primarily to the population outflow of Beijing. These findings illustrate the importance of population movements in influencing urban climate despite certain limitations. As the world is becoming more mobile and increasingly urban, more efforts are called for to understand the role of human mobility at various spatial and temporal scales.

  13. Marginalization and health service coverage among indigenous, rural, and urban populations: a public health problem in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, José; Álvarez, Marsela; Carrasco, María; Guarneros, Noé; Ledesma, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Chávez, Adolfo

    2017-12-01

      Marginalization is a significant issue in Mexico, involving a lack of access to health services with differential impacts on Indigenous, rural and urban populations. The objective of this study was to understand Mexico’s public health problem across three population areas, Indigenous, rural and urban, in relation to degree of marginalization and health service coverage.   The sampling universe of the study consisted of 107 458 geographic locations in the country. The study was retrospective, comparative and confirmatory. The study applied analysis of variance, parametric and non-parametric, correlation and correspondence analyses.   Significant differences were identified between the Indigenous, rural and urban populations with respect to their level of marginalization and access to health services. The most affected area was Indigenous, followed by rural areas. The sector that was least affected was urban.   Although health coverage is highly concentrated in urban areas in Mexico, shortages are mostly concentrated in rural areas where Indigenous groups represent the extreme end of marginalization and access to medical coverage. Inadequate access to health services in the Indigenous and rural populations throws the gravity of the public health problem into relief.

  14. Wintertime pollution level, size distribution and personal daily exposure to particulate matters in the northern and southern rural Chinese homes and variation in different household fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Zhuo, Shaojie; Xu, Yang; Li, Xinyue; Pan, Xuelian; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated and compared wintertime air pollution and personal exposure in the rural northern and southern Chinese homes. Daily indoor and outdoor particle samples were simultaneously collected by using stationary samplers, and personal exposure was directly measured using portable carried samplers. The daily average concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 were 521 ± 234 and 365 ± 185 μg/m 3 in the northern village, that were about 2.3-2.7 times of 188 ± 104 and 150 ± 29 μg/m 3 in indoor and outdoor air in the southern villages. Particle size distribution was similar between indoor and outdoor air, and had relatively smaller difference between the two sites, relative to the particle mass concentration difference. PM 2.5 contributed to ∼80% of the TSP mass, and in PM 2.5 , near 90% were PM 1.0 . In homes using electricity in the southern villages, outdoor air pollution could explain 70-80% of the variation in indoor air pollution. The daily exposure to PM 2.5 measured using personal carried samplers were 451 ± 301 μg/m 3 in the northern villages with traditional solid fuels used for daily cooking and heating, and in the southern villages without heating, the exposure to PM 2.5 were 184 ± 83 and 166 ± 45 μg/m 3 , respectively, for the population using wood and electricity for daily cooking. Time-weighted daily average exposure estimated from area concentration and time spent indoor and outdoor was generally correlated the directly measured exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The distribution of maternity services across rural and remote Australia: does it reflect population need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Margaret I; Donoghue, Deborah Anne; Longman, Jo M; Pilcher, Jennifer; Kildea, Sue; Kruske, Sue; Kornelsen, Jude; Grzybowski, Stefan; Barclay, Lesley; Morgan, Geoffrey Gerard

    2017-02-23

    Australia has a universal health care system and a comprehensive safety net. Despite this, outcomes for Australians living in rural and remote areas are worse than those living in cities. This study will examine the current state of equity of access to birthing services for women living in small communities in rural and remote Australia from a population perspective and investigates whether services are distributed according to need. Health facilities in Australia were identified and a service catchment was determined around each using a one-hour road travel time from that facility. Catchment exclusions: metropolitan areas, populations above 25,000 or below 1,000, and a non-birthing facility within the catchment of one with birthing. Catchments were attributed with population-based characteristics representing need: population size, births, demographic factors, socio-economic status, and a proxy for isolation - the time to the nearest facility providing a caesarean section (C-section). Facilities were dichotomised by service level - those providing birthing services (birthing) or not (no birthing). Birthing services were then divided by C-section provision (C-section vs no C-section birthing). Analysis used two-stage univariable and multivariable logistic regression. There were 259 health facilities identified after exclusions. Comparing services with birthing to no birthing, a population is more likely to have a birthing service if they have more births, (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 1.50 for every 10 births, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.33-1.69]), and a service offering C-sections 1 to 2 h drive away (aOR: 28.7, 95% CI [5.59-148]). Comparing the birthing services categorised by C-section vs no C-section, the likelihood of a facility having a C-section was again positively associated with increasing catchment births and with travel time to another service offering C-sections. Both models demonstrated significant associations with jurisdiction but not socio

  16. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India

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    Sreejith S. Nair

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196 as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170. The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%, and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of  affected individuals in 80+ age group.Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly.  A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for

  17. Chronic morbidity and health care seeking behaviour amongst elderly population in rural areas of Uttarakhand

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    Surekha Kishore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ageing is a natural process, always associated with physiological and biological decline. Global population is ageing; the proportion of older persons has been rising steadily, from 7% in 1950 to 11% in 2007, with an expected rise to reach 22 % in 2050. With improving knowledge and awareness the health care seeking behavior has shown an increasingly positive trend. With increasing age, morbidity,   especially those arising from chronic diseases also increases. On the contrary, health care delivered at household level has definitely   gone down due to financial constraints and increasing cost of living, thus posing a problem for the elderly.  Aims & Objective: To find out the prevalence of chronic morbidity and health care seeking behaviour amongst the elderly in rural areas of Uttarakhand. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in rural areas of Uttarakhand to assess the chronic morbidity amongst elderly population. All the persons above the age group of 60 years of the eight villages were interviewed using a pre-defined, pre-tested, semi-structured and indigenously developed questionnaire. Results: The study group suffered from various chronic morbidities like hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases. Men were greater in number (158, 62.2%. Participants belonging mostly to nuclear families (156, 61.9%. Below the poverty line were (98, 38.9%. Half of the study population had one or the other chronic morbid condition. Majority of the elderly men contacted the health care facility whereas majority of the elderly women chose to use remedies. Conclusion: There is definitely a need of   provision of health care services for poor geriatric population. In addition to this government should take up some program for social security of this population along with creating an awareness about the same.

  18. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations.

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    Shi Ying

    Full Text Available Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random.

  19. Development, reliability and validity of the psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson's disease in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Yin, Anchun; Sun, Xiaohong; Liu, Qigui; Song, Guirong; Li, Lianhong

    2015-01-01

    To develop psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson's disease (PD) in Chinese population and evaluate its reliability and validity. The items were designed by literature review, expert consultation and semi-structured interview. The methods of corrected item-total correlation, discrimination analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used for items selection. 427 valid scales from PD patients were collected in the study to test the reliability and validity. The scale incorporated six dimensions: anxiety, self-esteem, attitude, self-acceptance, self-efficacy and social support, a total of 32 items. The scale possessed good internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.99 and average content validation rate was 0.97. The Hoehn and Yahr stage were correlated with total score of the scale. The psychosocial adaptation scale in this study showed good reliability and validity, it can be used as a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the psychosocial adaptation of PD objectively and effectively.

  20. Visuospatial characteristics of an elderly Chinese population: results from the WAIS-R block design test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shufei; Zhu, Xinyi; Huang, Xin; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Visuospatial deficits have long been recognized as a potential predictor of dementia, with visuospatial ability decline having been found to accelerate in later stages of dementia. We, therefore, believe that the visuospatial performance of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia (Dem) might change with varying visuospatial task difficulties. This study administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Block Design Test (BDT) to determine whether visuospatial ability can help discriminate between MCI patients from Dem patients and normal controls (NC). Results showed that the BDT could contribute to the discrimination between MCI and Dem. Specifically, simple BDT task scores could best distinguish MCI from Dem patients, while difficult BDT task scores could contribute to discriminating between MCI and NC. Given the potential clinical value of the BDT in the diagnosis of Dem and MCI, normative data stratified by age and education for the Chinese elderly population are presented for use in research and clinical settings.

  1. Enhanced natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activity: the largest contributor to the Chinese population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Liu Yanyang

    2011-01-01

    For the radiation exposure caused by human activities, the enhanced natural radiation exposure is the largest contributor to Chinese population dose. This problem has attracted social attention in recent years. Efforts have been made in several fields, such as radon indoors and in workplace, environmental problems associated with NORMs, occupational radiation hazards of non-uranium mine, and radiation dose evaluation for energy chain, but there are still many problems to be solved. In order to protect the health of workers and the public, while ensuring industrial production and economic development, it is also necessary to continue to strengthen research in all aspects above mentioned, and gradually promote the control of natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activities. (authors)

  2. Association between social support and health-related quality of life among Chinese rural elders in nursing homes: the mediating role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Menglian; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Xia; Sun, Yaoyao; Xie, Hui; Jia, Jihui; Su, Yonggang; Li, Yuqin

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to confirm the relationship between social support and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among rural Chinese elders in nursing homes, and to examine the mediating role of resilience in the impact of social support on HRQOL. A cross-sectional survey of 205 elders aged 60 and above was conducted in five rural public nursing homes. Sociodemographic characteristics, the SF-36 questionnaire, and information about social support and resilience were collected. The researchers administered the questionnaires to the participants in a face-to-face setting. Descriptive analysis and a correlation matrix were used to indicate characteristics of the participants and bivariate correlations, respectively. The mediation analyses, composed of regression analysis and PROCESS analysis, were preformed to test both direct and indirect effects of social support on HRQOL, namely the mediating role of resilience. Social support was positively related to HRQOL (β = 0.303, p social support and HRQOL was confirmed (a*b bootstrapped 95% confidence interval = [0.098, 0.257]), which revealed that social support had an indirect effect on HRQOL through resilience. Resilience partially mediates the relationship between social support and HRQOL. The mediation model provides a better understanding of how social support and resilience work together to affect HRQOL, and it could guide the interventions in health care for promoting HRQOL among Chinese rural elders in nursing homes.

  3. The effect of exposure to biomass smoke on respiratory symptoms in adult rural and urban Nepalese populations

    OpenAIRE

    Kurmi, Om P; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham S; Gaihre, Santosh; Lam, Kin Bong Hubert; Sadhra, Steven; Steiner, Markus FC; Simkhada, Padam; Smith, William CS; Ayres, Jon G

    2014-01-01

    Background Half of the world’s population is exposed to household air pollution from biomass burning. This study aimed to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms and biomass smoke exposure in rural and urban Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study of adults (16+ years) in a rural population (n = 846) exposed to biomass smoke and a non-exposed urban population (n = 802) in Nepal. A validated questionnaire was used along with measures of indoor air quality (PM2.5 and CO) and outdoor...

  4. Genetic variants in MARCO are associated with the susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Chinese Han population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai-Juan Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to tuberculosis is not only determined by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but also by the genetic component of the host. Macrophage receptor with a collagenous structure (MARCO is essential components required for toll like receptor-signaling in macrophage response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which may contribute to tuberculosis risk. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To specifically investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in MARCO gene are associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in Chinese Han population. By selecting tagging SNPs in MARCO gene, 17 tag SNPs were identified and genotyped in 923 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 1033 healthy control subjects using a hospital based case-control association study. Single-point and haplotype analysis revealed an association in intron and exon region of MARCO gene. One SNP (rs17009726 was associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis, where the carriers of the G allele had a 1.65 fold (95% CI = 1.32-2.05, p(corrected = 9.27E-5 increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. Haplotype analysis revealed that haplotype GC containing G allele of 17009726 and haplotype TGCC (rs17795618T/A, rs1371562G/T, rs6761637T/C, rs2011839C/T were also associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (p(corrected = 0.0001 and 0.029, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that genetic variants in MARCO gene were associated with pulmonary tuberculosis susceptibility in Chinese Han population, and the findings emphasize the importance of MARCO mediated immune responses in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.

  5. CHRNA5 polymorphism and susceptibility to lung cancer in a Chinese population

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    Shen, Bo [Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhu, Qun [Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Zheng, Ma-Qing [College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Chen, Jia; Shi, Mei-Qi; Feng, Ji-Feng [Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2013-01-11

    Polymorphisms in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit CHRNA5 gene have been associated with lung cancer positive susceptibility in European and American populations. In the present hospital-based, case-control study, we determined whether polymorphism in rs503464 of CHRNA5 is associated with lung cancer risk in Chinese individuals. A single nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5 rs503464, c.-166T>A (hereafter T>A), was identified using TaqMan-MGB probes with sequencing via PCR in 600 lung cancer cases and 600 healthy individuals. Genotype frequencies for rs503464 (T>A) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the control population. However, genotype frequencies were significantly different between cases and controls (P < 0.05), while allele frequencies were not significantly different between groups. Compared to homozygous genotypes (TT or AA), the risk of lung cancer in those with the heterozygous genotype (TA) was significantly lower (OR = 0.611, 95%CI = 0.486-0.768, P = 0.001). Using genotype AA as a reference, the risk of lung cancer for those with genotype TA was increased 1.5 times (OR = 1.496, 95%CI = 1.120-1.997, P = 0.006). However, no difference in risk was observed between T allele carriers and A allele carriers (OR = 0.914, 95%CI = 0.779-1.073, P = 0.270). Stratification analysis showed that the protective effect of TA was more pronounced in those younger than 60 years, nonsmokers, or those without a family history of cancer, as well as in patients with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma in clinical stages III or IV (P < 0.05). Therefore, the heterozygous genotype c.-166T>A at rs503464 of CHRNA5 may be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer, thus representing a susceptibility allele in Chinese individuals.

  6. TCF7L2 polymorphisms and the risk of schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijun; Li, Jingjie; Yan, Mengdan; Li, Jing; Chen, Junyu; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Xikai; Wang, Li; Kang, Longli; Yuan, Dongya; Jin, Tianbo

    2017-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TCF7L2 (Transcription Factor 7-Like 2) reportedly affect susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ). We examined the association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms and SCZ susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. Six SNPs were genotyped in 499 SCZ patients and 500 healthy individuals, after which their associations with SCZ were evaluated using the Chi-squared test and genetic model analyses. We observed that the allele A of rs12573128 is associated with an increased SCZ risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.63, P = 0.006, adjusted P = 0.030). The AA genotype of rs12573128 was associated with a higher SCZ risk than the GG genotype, before and after adjustment for sex and age (adjusted OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.49-5.92, P = 0.002). In addition, SNP rs12573128 was associated with 1.47-fold, 2.64-fold and 1.50-fold increases in SCZ risk of in dominant, recessive and additive model, respectively (adjusted OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09-1.99, P = 0.012; Bonferroni adjusted P = 0.030). adjusted OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.34-5.18, P = 0.005 and adjusted OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.17-1.93, P = 0.002, respectively). These results suggest rs12573128 is significantly associated with an increased risk of SCZ in the Chinese Han population. PMID:28404897

  7. Aetiological bases of 46,XY disorders of sex development in the Hong Kong Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel O K; But, W M; Lee, C Y; Lam, Y Y; Ng, K L; Loung, P Y; Lam, Aimen; Cheng, C W; Shek, C C; Wong, W S; Wong, K F; Wong, M Y; Tse, W Y

    2015-12-01

    Disorders of sex development are due to congenital defects in chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex development. The objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of this group of disorders in the Hong Kong Chinese population. Five public hospitals in Hong Kong. Patients with 46,XY disorders of sex development under the care of paediatric endocrinologists between July 2009 and June 2011. Measurement of serum gonadotropins, adrenal and testicular hormones, and urinary steroid profiling. Mutational analysis of genes involved in sexual differentiation by direct DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Overall, 64 patients were recruited for the study. Their age at presentation ranged from birth to 17 years. The majority presented with ambiguous external genitalia including micropenis and severe hypospadias. A few presented with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea. Baseline and post-human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels were not discriminatory in patients with or without AR gene mutations. Of the patients, 22 had a confirmed genetic disease, with 11 having 5α-reductase 2 deficiency, seven with androgen insensitivity syndrome, one each with cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme deficiency, Frasier syndrome, NR5A1-related sex reversal, and persistent Müllerian duct syndrome. Our findings suggest that 5α-reductase 2 deficiency and androgen insensitivity syndrome are possibly the two most common causes of 46,XY disorders of sex development in the Hong Kong Chinese population. Since hormonal findings can be unreliable, mutational analysis of the SRD5A2 and AR genes should be considered the first-line tests for these patients.

  8. Polymorphisms in CISH gene are associated with persistent hepatitis B virus infection in Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhangyong; Yang, Jinliang; Wu, Yangping; Xiong, Guolian; Wang, Yali; Yang, Jun; Deng, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 domain protein (CISH) is the first member of the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) protein family. An association between multiple CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to infectious diseases has been reported. This study aimed to investigate the possible association of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CISH gene with different outcomes of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. 1019 unrelated Chinese Han subjects, including 240 persistent asymptomatic HBV carriers, 217 chronic hepatitis B patients, 137 HBV-related liver cirrhosis patients, and 425 cases of spontaneously recovered HBV as controls, were studied. Four SNPs (rs622502, rs2239751, rs414171 and rs6768300) in CISH gene were genotyped with the snapshot technique. Transcriptional activity of the CISH promoter was assayed in vitro using the dual-luciferase reporter assay system. At position rs414171, A allele and AA genotype frequencies were significantly higher in the HBV-resolved group as compared to the persistent HBV infection group. At position rs2239751, TT genotype was further observed in the HBV-resolved group. Using asymptomatic HBV carriers as controls, our results indicated that the rs414171 and rs2239751 polymorphisms were unrelated to HBV progression. The other two SNPs (rs622502 and rs6768300) showed no association with persistent HBV infection. Haplotype analysis revealed that the GGCA haplotype was associated with spontaneous clearance of HBV in this population. Moreover, luciferase activity was significantly higher in the PGL3-Basic-rs414171T construct as compared to the PGL3-Basic-rs414171A construct (pCISH gene were associated with persistent HBV infection in Han Chinese population, but not with HBV progression.

  9. Polymorphisms in CISH gene are associated with persistent hepatitis B virus infection in Han Chinese population.

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    Zhangyong Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 domain protein (CISH is the first member of the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS protein family. An association between multiple CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to infectious diseases has been reported. This study aimed to investigate the possible association of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CISH gene with different outcomes of Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. METHODS: 1019 unrelated Chinese Han subjects, including 240 persistent asymptomatic HBV carriers, 217 chronic hepatitis B patients, 137 HBV-related liver cirrhosis patients, and 425 cases of spontaneously recovered HBV as controls, were studied. Four SNPs (rs622502, rs2239751, rs414171 and rs6768300 in CISH gene were genotyped with the snapshot technique. Transcriptional activity of the CISH promoter was assayed in vitro using the dual-luciferase reporter assay system. RESULTS: At position rs414171, A allele and AA genotype frequencies were significantly higher in the HBV-resolved group as compared to the persistent HBV infection group. At position rs2239751, TT genotype was further observed in the HBV-resolved group. Using asymptomatic HBV carriers as controls, our results indicated that the rs414171 and rs2239751 polymorphisms were unrelated to HBV progression. The other two SNPs (rs622502 and rs6768300 showed no association with persistent HBV infection. Haplotype analysis revealed that the GGCA haplotype was associated with spontaneous clearance of HBV in this population. Moreover, luciferase activity was significantly higher in the PGL3-Basic-rs414171T construct as compared to the PGL3-Basic-rs414171A construct (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Two SNPs (rs414171 and rs2239751 in the CISH gene were associated with persistent HBV infection in Han Chinese population, but not with HBV progression.

  10. CHRNA5 polymorphism and susceptibility to lung cancer in a Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Bo; Zhu, Qun; Zheng, Ma-Qing; Chen, Jia; Shi, Mei-Qi; Feng, Ji-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit CHRNA5 gene have been associated with lung cancer positive susceptibility in European and American populations. In the present hospital-based, case-control study, we determined whether polymorphism in rs503464 of CHRNA5 is associated with lung cancer risk in Chinese individuals. A single nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5 rs503464, c.-166T>A (hereafter T>A), was identified using TaqMan-MGB probes with sequencing via PCR in 600 lung cancer cases and 600 healthy individuals. Genotype frequencies for rs503464 (T>A) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the control population. However, genotype frequencies were significantly different between cases and controls (P < 0.05), while allele frequencies were not significantly different between groups. Compared to homozygous genotypes (TT or AA), the risk of lung cancer in those with the heterozygous genotype (TA) was significantly lower (OR = 0.611, 95%CI = 0.486-0.768, P = 0.001). Using genotype AA as a reference, the risk of lung cancer for those with genotype TA was increased 1.5 times (OR = 1.496, 95%CI = 1.120-1.997, P = 0.006). However, no difference in risk was observed between T allele carriers and A allele carriers (OR = 0.914, 95%CI = 0.779-1.073, P = 0.270). Stratification analysis showed that the protective effect of TA was more pronounced in those younger than 60 years, nonsmokers, or those without a family history of cancer, as well as in patients with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma in clinical stages III or IV (P < 0.05). Therefore, the heterozygous genotype c.-166T>A at rs503464 of CHRNA5 may be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer, thus representing a susceptibility allele in Chinese individuals

  11. A reappraisal of adult thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy via CT scan in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin-Hua; Su, Bai-Yan; Liu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Gu-Muyang; Xue, Hua-Dan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Mirjalili, S Ali; Ma, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. There are numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings among and within contemporary anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy landmarks in living Chinese adults using computed tomography (CT). A total of 100 thoracic and 100 abdominal CT scans were examined. Our results indicated that the following key surface landmarks differed from current commonly-accepted descriptions: the positions of the tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein termination, and pulmonary trunk bifurcation (all below the plane of the sternal angle at vertebral level T5-T6 in most individuals); the superior vena cava formation and junction with the right atrium (most often behind the 1st and 4th intercostal spaces, respectively); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T10 and T11, respectively). The renal arteries were most commonly at L1; the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2; the 11th rib was posterior to the left kidney in only 29% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs. A number of significant sex- and age-related differences were noted. The Chinese population was also compared with western populations on the basis of published reports. Reappraisal of surface anatomy using modern imaging tools in vivo will provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence to facilitate the clinical application of these key surface landmarks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Replication of 13 obesity loci among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Asian-Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorajoo, R; Blakemore, A I F; Sim, X; Ong, R T-H; Ng, D P K; Seielstad, M; Wong, T-Y; Saw, S-M; Froguel, P; Liu, J; Tai, E-S

    2012-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 38 obesity-associated loci among European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities is largely unknown. We utilised five GWAS (N=10 482) from Chinese (three cohorts, including one with type 2 diabetes and another one of children), Malay and Indian ethnic groups from Singapore. Data sets were analysed individually and subsequently in combined meta-analysis for Z-score body-mass index (BMI) associations. Variants at the FTO locus showed the strongest associations with BMI Z-score after meta-analysis (P-values 1.16 × 10(-7)-7.95 × 10(-7)). We further detected associations with nine other index obesity variants close to the MC4R, GNPDA2, TMEM18, QPCTL/GIPR, BDNF, ETV5, MAP2K5/SKOR1, SEC16B and TNKS/MSRA loci (meta-analysis P-values ranging from 3.58 × 10(-4)-1.44 × 10(-2)). Three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CADM2, PTBP2 and FAIM2 were associated with BMI (P-value ≤ 0.0418) in at least one dataset. The neurotrophin/TRK pathway (P-value=0.029) was highlighted by pathway-based analysis of loci that had statistically significant associations among Singaporean populations. Our data confirm the role of FTO in obesity predisposition among Chinese, Malays and Indians, the three major Asian ethnic groups. We additionally detected associations for 12 obesity-associated SNPs among Singaporeans. Thus, it is likely that Europeans and Asians share some of the genetic predisposition to obesity. Furthermore, the neurotrophin/TRK signalling may have a central role for common obesity among Asians.

  13. Association of RTEL1 gene polymorphisms with stroke risk in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Zeng, Chaosheng; Su, Qingjie; Zhou, Jingxia; Li, Pengxiang; Dai, Mingming; Wang, Desheng; Long, Faqing

    2017-12-29

    We investigated the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 ( RTEL1 ) gene and stroke in the Chinese population. A total of 400 stroke patients and 395 healthy participants were included in this study. Five SNPs in RTEL1 were genotyped and the association with stroke risk was analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify SNPs that correlated with stroke. Rs2297441 was associated with an increased risk of stroke in an allele model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.01-1.52, p = 0.043). Rs6089953 was associated with an increased risk of stroke under the genotype model ([OR] = 1.862, [CI] = 1.123-3.085, p = 0.016). Rs2297441 was associated with an increased risk of stroke in an additive model (OR = 1.234, 95% CI = 1.005, p = 0.045, Rs6089953, Rs6010620 and Rs6010621 were associated with an increased risk of stroke in the recessive model (Rs6089953:OR = 1.825, 95% CI = 1.121-2.969, p =0.01546; Rs6010620: OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.008-2.669, p =0.04656;Rs6010621:OR = 1.661, 95% CI = 1.014-2.722, p =0.04389). Our findings reveal a possible association between SNPs in the RTEL1 gene and stroke risk in Chinese population.

  14. Association between RTEL1 gene polymorphisms and COPD susceptibility in a Chinese Han population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding YP

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yipeng Ding,* Heping Xu,* Jinjian Yao, Dongchuan Xu, Ping He, Shengyang Yi, Quanni Li, Yuanshui Liu, Cibing Wu, Zhongjie Tian Department of Emergency, People’s Hospital of Hainan Province, Haikou, Hainan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: We investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulation of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1, which has been associated with telom­ere length in several brain cancers and age-related diseases, and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in a Chinese Han population.Methods: In a case–control study that included 279 COPD cases and 290 healthy controls, five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in RTEL1 were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for age and gender.Results: In the genotype model analysis, we determined that rs4809324 polymorphism had a decreased effect on the risk of COPD (CC versus TT: OR =0.28; 95% CI =0.10–0.82; P=0.02. In the genetic model analysis, we found that the “C/C” genotype of rs4809324 was associated with a decreased risk of COPD based on the codominant model (OR =0.33; 95% CI =0.13–0.86; P=0.022 and recessive model (OR =0.32; 95% CI =0.12–0.80; P=0.009.Conclusion: Our data shed new light on the association between genetic polymorphisms of RTEL1 and COPD susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. Keywords: RTEL1, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, gene polymorphisms, association study, case-control study

  15. Hepatic steatosis is associated with cardiometabolic risk in a rural Indian population: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Shah, Ravi V; Spahillari, Aferdita; Murthy, Venkatesh L; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Das, Kaushik; Santra, Amal; Hembram, Jaba Ranjan; Bhattacharya, Dilip; Freedman, Jane E; Lima, Joao; Das, Ranendra; Bhattacharyya, Pinakpani; Das, Saumya; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2016-12-15

    While adiposity and hepatic steatosis are linked to cardiovascular risk in developed countries, their prevalence and impact in low-income countries are poorly understood. We investigated the association of anthropomorphic variables and hepatic steatosis with cardiometabolic risk profiles and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large rural Indian cohort. In 4691 individuals in the Birbhum Population Project in West Bengal, India, we performed liver ultrasonography, carotid ultrasound and biochemical and clinical profiling. We assessed the association of hepatic steatosis and anthropomorphic indices (BMI, waist circumference) with CVD risk factors (dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension) and subclinical CVD (by carotid intimal-medial thickness). Rural Indians exhibited a higher visceral adiposity index and pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia at a lower BMI than Americans. Individuals with any degree of hepatic steatosis by ultrasound had a greater probability of dysglycemia (adjusted odds ratio, OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.31-2.12, P<0.0001) and pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.07-1.63, P=0.009). We observed a positive association between liver fat, adiposity and carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) in an unadjusted model (β=0.02, P=0.0001); the former was extinguished after adjustment for cardiometabolic risk factors. In a large population of rural Indians, hepatic steatosis and waist circumference were associated with prevalent cardiometabolic risk and subclinical CVD at lower BMI relative to multi-ethnic Americans, though the association of the former with subclinical CVD was extinguished after adjustment. These results underscore the emerging relevance of hepatic steatosis and adiposity in the developing world, and suggest efforts to target these accessible phenotypes for cardiometabolic risk prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of Life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey

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    Retel-Rude Nathalie

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring health status in a population is important for the evaluation of interventions and the prediction of health and social care needs. Quality of life (QoL studies are an essential complement to medical evaluation but most of the tools available in this area are in English. In order to evaluated QoL in rural and urban areas in Lebanon, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36 was adapted into Arabic. Methods SF-36 was administered in a cross-sectional study, to collect sociodemographic and environmental variables as well as self reported morbidity. We analysed a representative sample containing 1632 subjects, from whom we randomly picked 524 subjects aged 14 years and over. The translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the SF-36 followed the International Quality of Life Assessment methodology. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear model was performed to test the effect of habitat (rural on urban areas on all domains of the SF-36. Results The rate of missing data is very low (0.23% of items. Item level validation supported the assumptions underlying Likert scoring. SF-36 scale scores showed wide variability and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70, factor analysis yielded patterns of factor correlation comparable to that found in the U.S.A and France. Patients resident in rural areas had higher vitality scores than those in urban areas. Older people reported more satisfaction with some domains of life than younger people, except for physical functioning. The QoL of women is poorer than men; certain symptoms and morbidity independently influence the domains of SF-36 in this population. Conclusion The results support the validity of the SF-36 Arabic version. Habitat has a minor influence on QoL, women had a poor QoL, and health problems had differential impact on QoL.

  17. Quality of Life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Ibtissam; Drouby, Nabil; Sabbah, Sanaa; Retel-Rude, Nathalie; Mercier, Mariette

    2003-01-01

    Background Measuring health status in a population is important for the evaluation of interventions and the prediction of health and social care needs. Quality of life (QoL) studies are an essential complement to medical evaluation but most of the tools available in this area are in English. In order to evaluated QoL in rural and urban areas in Lebanon, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36) was adapted into Arabic. Methods SF-36 was administered in a cross-sectional study, to collect sociodemographic and environmental variables as well as self reported morbidity. We analysed a representative sample containing 1632 subjects, from whom we randomly picked 524 subjects aged 14 years and over. The translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the SF-36 followed the International Quality of Life Assessment methodology. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear model) was performed to test the effect of habitat (rural on urban areas) on all domains of the SF-36. Results The rate of missing data is very low (0.23% of items). Item level validation supported the assumptions underlying Likert scoring. SF-36 scale scores showed wide variability and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70), factor analysis yielded patterns of factor correlation comparable to that found in the U.S.A and France. Patients resident in rural areas had higher vitality scores than those in urban areas. Older people reported more satisfaction with some domains of life than younger people, except for physical functioning. The QoL of women is poorer than men; certain symptoms and morbidity independently influence the domains of SF-36 in this population. Conclusion The results support the validity of the SF-36 Arabic version. Habitat has a minor influence on QoL, women had a poor QoL, and health problems had differential impact on QoL. PMID:12952543

  18. Self-medication with antibiotics in rural population in Greece: a cross-sectional multicenter study

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    Skliros Eystathios

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-medication is an important driver of antimicrobial overuse as well as a worldwide problem. The aim of the present study was to estimate the use of antibiotics, without medical prescription, in a sample of rural population presenting in primary care in southern Greece. Methods The study included data from 1,139 randomly selected adults (545 men/594 women, mean age ± SD: 56.2 ± 19.8 years, who visited the 6 rural Health Centres of southern Greece, between November 2009 and January 2010. The eligible participants were sought out on a one-to-one basis and asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire. Results Use of antibiotics within the past 12 months was reported by 888 participants (77.9%. 508 individuals (44.6% reported that they had received antibiotics without medical prescription at least one time. The major source of self-medication was the pharmacy without prescription (76.2%. The antibiotics most frequently used for self-medication were amoxicillin (18.3%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (15.4%, cefaclor (9.7%, cefuroxim (7.9%, cefprozil (4.7% and ciprofloxacin (2.3%. Fever (41.2%, common cold (32.0% and sore throat (20.6% were the most frequent indications for the use of self-medicated antibiotics. Conclusion In Greece, despite the open and rapid access to primary care services, it appears that a high proportion of rural adult population use antibiotics without medical prescription preferably for fever and common cold.

  19. Self-medication with antibiotics in rural population in Greece: a cross-sectional multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-medication is an important driver of antimicrobial overuse as well as a worldwide problem. The aim of the present study was to estimate the use of antibiotics, without medical prescription, in a sample of rural population presenting in primary care in southern Greece. Methods The study included data from 1,139 randomly selected adults (545 men/594 women, mean age ± SD: 56.2 ± 19.8 years), who visited the 6 rural Health Centres of southern Greece, between November 2009 and January 2010. The eligible participants were sought out on a one-to-one basis and asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire. Results Use of antibiotics within the past 12 months was reported by 888 participants (77.9%). 508 individuals (44.6%) reported that they had received antibiotics without medical prescription at least one time. The major source of self-medication was the pharmacy without prescription (76.2%). The antibiotics most frequently used for self-medication were amoxicillin (18.3%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (15.4%), cefaclor (9.7%), cefuroxim (7.9%), cefprozil (4.7%) and ciprofloxacin (2.3%). Fever (41.2%), common cold (32.0%) and sore throat (20.6%) were the most frequent indications for the use of self-medicated antibiotics. Conclusion In Greece, despite the open and rapid access to primary care services, it appears that a high proportion of rural adult population use antibiotics without medical prescription preferably for fever and common cold. PMID:20691111

  20. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and associated factors among the hypertensive population from rural Northeast China.

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    Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Guo, Xiaofan; Zhang, Xingang; Zheng, Liqiang; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-11-21

    Our latest study reported the grim status of hypertension in rural China with the prevalence of hypertension reached 51.1%. However, we lack the latest data about the prevalence and epidemiological features of dyslipidemia among hypertensive residents in rural China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2012 to August 2013 through a cluster multistage sampling to a resident group of 4048 individuals (2152 men, 2896 women) with hypertension, age ≥ 35 years, in the rural Northeast China. Serum lipids level were proposed by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Of the hypertension residents without antihypertension treatment, 34.5% had borderline high total cholesterol, 19.2% had high total cholesterol, 11.4% had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and 37.4% had high non HDL-C. The population with borderline high, high, and very high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 20.9, 6.7 and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, 14.3% had borderline high triglycerides, 17.4% had high TG and 2.4% had very high TG. The awareness rate of dyslipidemia among the study population was 5.9%. After adjusting for independent variables, fasting plasma glucose, body mass index, Han nationality, current drinking and smoking, higher annual income and classification of blood pressure were risk factors for dyslipidemia while moderate physical activity was protective factor for dyslipidemia. On the contrary, gender and current drinking decrease the risk of HDL-C. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was dramatically high and dyslipidemia screening was in-need in all diagnosed hypertensive individuals.

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Behaviors in a Population-Based Sample of Older, Foreign-Born, Chinese American Adults Living in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S.; Kwon, Simona C.

    2014-01-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged =65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged =65 years and…

  2. High Homocysteine and Blood Pressure Related to Poor Outcome of Acute Ischemia Stroke in Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Methods Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Results Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR = 1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend  = 0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.19–1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85–1.53), 1.37 (1.03–1.84) and 1.70 (1.29–2.34), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility

  3. Anatomic study on mental canal and incisive nerve canal in interforaminal region in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Suo, Ning; Tian, Xiufen; Li, Fei; Zhong, Guangxin; Liu, Xiaoran; Bao, Yongxing; Song, Tao; Tian, Hua

    2015-08-01

    This study was aimed to detect the positions of mental canal and incisive nerve canal as well as the prolongation of mandibular canal in interforaminal region in Chinese population to supply the reference data of the surgical safe zone in chin for clinicians. A total of 80 formalin-fixed semi-mandibles of Chinese adult cadavers were dissected, the positions and courses of mental canal and incisive nerve canal as well as the prolongation of mandibular canal in interforaminal region were measured. The mental foramina were present in all cases (100 %), and most of them were located below 2nd premolar (58.75 %). Accessory mental foramina were observed in 5 %. The anterior end of mandibular canal, extending along the course of 7.37 ± 1.10 mm above the lower border of mandible to interforaminal region about 3.54 ± 0.70 mm medial to the mental foramen, most often ended below between the two premolars (73.75 %), where it continued as the incisive nerve canal (100 %) and the mental canal (96.25 %). Mental canal, with the wall formed by compact bone, being 2.60 ± 0.60 mm in diameter and 4.01 ± 1.20 mm in length, opened into mental foramen. Incisive nerve canal, with the wall formed by thin compact bone and/or partly or completely by spongy bone, being 1.76 ± 0.27 mm in diameter and 24.87 ± 2.23 mm in length, extended to the incisor region along the course of 9.53 ± 1.43 mm above the lower border of mandible, and most often ended below the lateral incisor (70.00 %). This research recommended for chin operations in Chinese population: the surgical safe zone could be set in the region about over 4 mm anterior to the mental foramen, and over 12 mm above inferior border of mandible for anterior alveolar surgery, or within 9 mm above inferior border of mandible for genioplasty.

  4. Prevalence of Coronary Risk Factors among Population Aged 35 Years and Above From Rural Maharashtra, India

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    Abhishek Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is predicted that cardiovascular diseases will be the most important cause of mortality in India by the year 2015. Since the key to combating the increased incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD is the control of known risk factors by a population based strategy aimed at comprehensive risk reduction, it is pertinent to study the magnitude of the risk. Aim: The present study was therefore conducted to assess the prevalence of certain coronary risk factors among rural population aged 35 years and above in Maharashtra. Methods: The present community based cross sectional survey was carried out in the rural area of Pune district on 272 subjects using a structured questionnaire, clinical examination followed by lab investigations. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Results: Tobacco consumption was found to be prevalent in 51.83% of the study subjects followed by physical inactivity which was prevalent among 31.61% whereas high diastolic blood pressure was found to be prevalent in 29.41% of the study subjects. Obesity and alcohol consumption were found to be prevalent among 13.97% of the study subjects. Among the biochemical parameters studied, hypertriglyceridemia was found to be prevalent in 22.05% followed by raised fasting blood sugar in 15.44% of the study subjects. Conclusion: Behaviour change communication strategies targeting these modifiable known high risk factors need to be emphasized to lower coronary heart disease (CHD related morbidity burden in the community.

  5. Snakebite and its socio-economic impact on the rural population of Tamil Nadu, India.

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    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families.

  6. Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

  7. Prevalence of asthma in a rural population exposed to wastewater in agriculture, Settat, Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kettani, S.; Aichane, A.; Azzouzi, M.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to value the risk of occurrence of asthma in connection with the use of raw wastewater in agriculture and the presence of the intestinal parasitosis. A survey was conducted on 216 persons, aged 28.6±19.4 years, belonging to two rural clusters, using wastewater in agriculture, and 120 persons aged 32.3±19.5 years belonging to a reference rural cluster not using wastewater. Every participant benefited from a complete clinical exam with compilation of anamnestic information. The presence of asthma was based on the ISAAC questionnaire. The participants also profited from anthropometric, parasitological examination of the saddles and a numeration of the eosinophiles. The prevalence of asthma is significantly higher in the population exposed to wastewater. No studied factor influenced the prevalence significantly. But it is higher in the hypereosinophilic ones, thin persons, active smokers and young children less than 10 years old. In accordance with the hygienic hypothesis, it is weaker among the promiscuous subjects and those carrying intestinal parasitosis. The use of raw wastewater in agriculture is responsible for an exacerbation of asthma in the population concerned. This study is in agreement with the hygienic hypothesis. Preventive measures are essential while stressing on medical education and adequate wastewater treatment. (author)

  8. First 100 laparoscopic surgeries in a predominantly rural Nigerian population: a template for future growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwunife, Christopher N; Nwobe, Ogechukwu

    2014-11-01

    Minimal access surgery has revolutionized surgery practice. Its proven advantages, such as reduced postoperative pain, early return to unrestricted activities, and better cosmesis, have become important drivers for its rapid development. In sub-Saharan Africa this development has been slow. The aim of the current study was to describe the challenges and outcomes of laparoscopic procedures in a public hospital that caters to a predominantly rural population. The first 100 patients who underwent laparoscopic procedure in the Department of Surgery at Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria were retrospectively analyzed. Data were retrieved from the medical records department as well as the surgical theater procedure register. The focus of the study was on patient demographics, indication for surgery, procedure performed, length of hospital stay, and morbidity and mortality data. Staff training was done locally and abroad. Altogether, 100 patients had laparoscopic surgery in our general surgery unit from September 2007 through July 2013. The ages of the patients was 5-75 years (median 36.5 years). The three main procedures were cholecystectomy (36 %), diagnostic laparoscopy (29 %), and appendectomy (21 %). The other operations performed included liver abscess drainage (7 %), adhesiolysis (3 %), hernia repair (1 %), and Heller's myotomy (1 %). Four cases were converted to open surgery. There were no deaths. There were 14 grades I and II postoperative complications in nine patients. Our study suggests that basic laparoscopic procedures could be offered safely to our resource-poor rural population. It is a platform on which we can hopefully introduce advanced laparoscopic surgical operations.

  9. The prevalence of angina symptoms and association with cardiovascular risk factors, among rural, urban and rural to urban migrant populations in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilman Robert H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration in low- and middle-income countries causes an increase in individual cardiovascular risk. Cost-effective interventions at early stages of the natural history of coronary disease such as angina may stem an epidemic of premature coronary deaths in these countries. However, there are few data on the prevalence of angina in developing countries, whilst the understanding the aetiology of angina is complicated by the difficulty in measuring it across differing populations. Methods The PERU MIGRANT study was designed to investigate differences between rural-to-urban migrant and non-migrant groups in specific cardiovascular disease risk factors. Mass-migration seen in Peru from 1980s onwards was largely driven by politically motivated violence resulting in less 'healthy migrant' selection bias. The Rose angina questionnaire was used to record chest pain, which was classified definite, possible and non-exertional. Mental health was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (adjusted for age, sex, cardiovascular disease risk factors and mental health were used to assess the risk of chest pain in the migrant and urban groups compared to the rural group, and further to assess the relationship (age and sex-adjusted between risk factors, mental health and chest pain. Results Compared to the urban group, rural dwellers had a greatly increased likelihood of possible/definite angina (multi-adjusted OR 2.82 (1.68- 4.73. Urban and migrant groups had higher levels of risk factors (e.g. smoking - 20.1% urban, 5.5% rural. No diabetes was seen in the rural dwellers who complained of possible/definite angina. Rural dwellers had a higher prevalence of mood disorder and the presence of a mood disorder was associated with possible/definite angina in all three groups, but not consistently with non-exertional chest pain. Conclusion Rural groups had a higher prevalence of angina as

  10. Human Health Risk Assessment Applied to Rural Populations Dependent on Unregulated Drinking Water Sources: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lorelei; Bharadwaj, Lalita; McLeod, Lianne; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-07-28

    Safe drinking water is a global challenge for rural populations dependent on unregulated water. A scoping review of research on human health risk assessments (HHRA) applied to this vulnerable population may be used to improve assessments applied by government and researchers. This review aims to summarize and describe the characteristics of HHRA methods, publications, and current literature gaps of HHRA studies on rural populations dependent on unregulated or unspecified drinking water. Peer-reviewed literature was systematically searched (January 2000 to May 2014) and identified at least one drinking water source as unregulated (21%) or unspecified (79%) in 100 studies. Only 7% of reviewed studies identified a rural community dependent on unregulated drinking water. Source water and hazards most frequently cited included groundwater (67%) and chemical water hazards (82%). Most HHRAs (86%) applied deterministic methods with 14% reporting probabilistic and stochastic methods. Publications increased over time with 57% set in Asia, and 47% of studies identified at least one literature gap in the areas of research, risk management, and community exposure. HHRAs applied to rural populations dependent on unregulated water are poorly represented in the literature even though almost half of the global population is rural.

  11. [Detection of respiratory tract diseases among rural population during the team-work mass screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, E Z; Galkin, V B; Stepanova, G Ia

    1990-01-01

    A screening complex for the examination of the rural population has been worked out to detect bronchopulmonary pathology and form groups of risk for respiratory diseases. The complex of methods included compulsory questionnaires and ++fluoro-functional examination, spirometry if indicated and bacterial tests. Out of 1, 131 persons examined, 328 were found to have respiratory diseases. Chronic non-specific respiratory diseases were detected in 103 subjects, including 62 of them having obstructive bronchitis. A risk group developing chronic non-specific respiratory diseases, including 202 persons with disturbed ventilation activity of the lungs, post-tuberculous inadequate changes and other pathology. Pulmonary tuberculosis was registered in 7 subjects. The given data indicate the necessity of a complex examination of the population.

  12. Does where you live matter to your health? Investigating factors that influence the self-rated health of urban and rural Chinese residents: evidence drawn from Chinese General Social Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Zhu, Zhenjun; Li, Zhigang

    2017-04-21

    China's rapid urbanization over the past decades has exacerbated the problems of environmental degradation and health disparities. However, few studies have analysed the differences between urban and rural residents in relation to how environmental quality impacts health outcomes. This study examines the associations between Chinese people's perceptions of environmental quality and their self-rated health, particularly focusing on differences between rural and urban residents in environment-health relationships. Using a logistic regression model and data from the 2013 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), a representative sample of data for 3,402 urban residents (46 ± 16 years) and 2,439 rural residents (48 ± 15 years) was analysed. The dependent variable used for the logistic regressions was whether or not respondents reported being healthy. Independent variables included respondents' evaluations of the living environment, and how frequently they participated in physical activities. Interaction terms were employed to measure the moderating effects of physical exercise on the relationship between perceived environmental quality and health. The percentage of healthy urban residents was significantly larger than that of healthy rural respondents (70.87% versus 62.87%). Urban respondents living in areas with sufficient green space were more likely to report good health (OR = 0.749, CI = [0.628, 0.895]), while rural respondents without reliable access to fresh water were more likely to report poor health (OR = 0.762, CI = [0.612, 0.949]). Urban respondents who were exposed to green spaces and exercised frequently were 21.6 per cent more likely to report good health than those who exercised infrequently (OR = 1.216, CI = [1.047, 1.413]). Those who lived in areas with insufficient green space and exercised frequently were 19.1 per cent less likely to report good health than those who exercised infrequently (OR = 0.805, CI = [0

  13. Variants of Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 are Associated with Neither Neuromyelitis Optica Nor Multiple Sclerosis in the Southeastern Han Chinese Population

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    Qi-Bing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our preliminary study indicates that genetic variants in IRF5 may affect neither NMO nor MS in the Southeastern Han Chinese population. Further studies with a large sample size and diverse ancestry populations are needed to clarify this issue.

  14. Association between High Fat-low Carbohydrate Diet Score and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Na, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Li, Y.P.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Ma, G.S.; Yang, X.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Methods Data about 20 717 subjects aged 45-59 years from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analyzed. High fat-low

  15. A Prospective Study of Venous Thromboembolic Prophylaxis Using Foot Pumps Following Total Knee Replacement in a Chinese Population

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    Yiu-Chung Wong

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: The rate of proximal DVT after TKR was low (4.5% without pharmacological prophylaxis. We advise against the use of pharmacological prophylaxis in Chinese population for TKRs because of the low risk of proximal DVT and its possible bleeding complications. Foot pump did not lower the rate of DVTfurther, and its use for DVT prophylaxis in TKR is not necessary.

  16. Prediction of a new body shape index and body adiposity estimator for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengyi; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Luo, Xinping; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Bingyuan; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhou, Junmei; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Dongdong; Liu, Xuejiao; Zhang, Ming; Hu, Dongsheng

    2017-11-01

    To compare the ability of a body shape index (ABSI) and body adiposity estimator (BAE) to BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist:height ratio (WHtR) for predicting development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rural adult Chinese. The prospective cohort study included 11 687 eligible participants who were free of T2DM at baseline. The risk of new-onset T2DM for ABSI, BAE, BMI, WC and WHtR quintiles was estimated by Cox proportional-hazards regression at follow-up. We also compared the power of ABSI and BAE to BMI, WC and WHtR for predicting the development of T2DM. With increasing ABSI, BAE, BMI, WC and WHtR, T2DM incidence was substantially increased (P trend<0·0001). After adjustment for multi-covariates, risk of T2DM was increased from the second to fifth quintile as compared with first quintile for ABSI (1·27; 95 % CI 0·95, 1·69; 1·35; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·82; 1·75; 95 % CI 1·33, 2·32 and 1·87; 95 % CI 1·40, 2·49; P trend<0·0001); BAE (1·82; 95 % CI 1·38, 2·41; 1·93; 95 % CI 1·38, 2·68; 2·73; 95 % CI 1·94, 3·84 and 4·18; 95 % CI 2·98, 5·87; P trend<0·0001); BMI (1·42; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·97; 1·62; 95 % CI 1·18, 2·23; 2·59; 95 % CI 1·92, 3·50 and 3·90; 95 % CI 2·90, 5·26; P trend<0·0001); WC (1·53; 95 % CI 1·08, 2·17; 1·66; 95 % CI 1·18, 2·33; 2·72; 1·97, 3·76 and 4·09; 95 % CI 2·97, 5·62; P trend<0·0001); and WHtR (1·40; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·99; 2·06; 95 % CI 1·47, 2·88; 2·90; 95 % CI 2·10, 4·01 and 4·22; 95 % CI 3·05, 5·85; P trend<0·0001). ABSI, BAE, BMI, WC and WHR were effective and comparable in discriminating cases from non-cases of T2DM. Risk of T2DM was increased with elevated ABSI and BAE, but the predictive ability for T2DM did not differ than that of BMI, WC and WHtR in a rural Chinese population.

  17. High-Resolution Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping Identifies Susceptibility Loci for BMI in the Chinese Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Li, Shuxia

    2012-01-01

    The genetic loci affecting the commonly used BMI have been intensively investigated using linkage approaches in multiple populations. This study aims at performing the first genome-wide linkage scan on BMI in the Chinese population in mainland China with hypothesis that heterogeneity in genetic...... linkage could exist in different ethnic populations. BMI was measured from 126 dizygotic twins in Qingdao municipality who were genotyped using high-resolution Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP arrays containing about 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Nonparametric linkage analysis...... in western countries. Multiple loci showing suggestive linkage were found on chromosome 1 (lod score 2.38 at 242 cM), chromosome 8 (2.48 at 95 cM), and chromosome 14 (2.2 at 89.4 cM). The strong linkage identified in the Chinese subjects that is consistent with that found in populations of European origin...

  18. [Vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis in a rural population of Cordoba province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, C; Salica, D; Pepe, G; Dotto, G; Petenian, E; Martínez, F

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is defined when blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) is less than ng / mmol/L. The status of Vitamin D level is associated with clinical, pathological and physiological changes as increased of parathyroid hormone, bone remodeling, osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures. Moreover,vitamin D and its metabolites are known to be associated with multiple chronic diseases as diabetes mellitus, autoimmune, cardiovascular and neoplasia diseases. To assess the vitamin D status in a rural population of Córdoba Province in Argentina and its relation with bone mineral density. We prospectively studied 31 patients over 50 years old who live in a rural population of Pampa de Achala in Córdoba Province, Argentina. This city is located in Córdoba High mountains. Blood vitamin D levels were tested in 24 patients and Bone mineral density in 31 patients. Vitamin D level was determined by HPLC. The vitamin D level were considered normal between 20-50 ng/ml in the winter season and 20-80 ng/ml in the summer season. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured by DXA GE LUNAR DPX-L, according to World Health organization classification (37). The data were analyzed by Spearman coefficient and Chi cuadrado. The vitamin D levels samples were available in 24 patients. Mean blood Vitamin D level was 24.54 ng /ml. 8 of them (33%) had vitamin D level less than 20ng/ ml. 83% (20) of the analysed patients had vitamin D level less than 30 ng/ml and only 4 patients has vitamin D level more than 30 ng/ml. Low bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femoral neck was found in 66 % of the patients. 19 % of the patients were diagnosed of lumbar spine and femoral neck osteoporosis and 29 % of them had lumbar spine meanwhile 25 % had femoral neck. There was not statistically significant association between vitamin D level and bone mineral density analysed by Chi Cuadrado (p<0.07). A significant association was found between blood vitamin D

  19. Correlation between leptin receptor gene polymorphism and type 2 diabetes in Chinese population: a meta-analysis

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    Miao HE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the correlation between leptin receptor gene (LEPR polymorphism and type 2 diabetes (T2DM in Chinese population. Methods The literature concerning the correlation between LEPR polymorphism and T2DM in Chinese population were searched from Chinese databases (CNKI, VIP, WanFang, CBM with "leptin receptor gene" and "type 2 diabetes" as keywords, and from English databases (PubMed, Web of Knowledge, EBSCO with "leptin receptor gene", "LEPR", "OBR", "OB-R", "type 2 diabetes" and "T2DM" as keywords. The relevant articles were searched up to September 20, 2014. Then, meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1 and Stata 11.0 software. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was applied to assess methodological quality of included articles from 3 aspects, namely, selection of participants, comparability and outcome assessment. Results Seventeen case-control studies involving 12 533 cases of T2DM and 3348 controls were included in Meta-analysis. A significant correlation was found between rs1137100 polymorphism in LEPR gene and T2DM (for recessive genetic model: OR=0.67, 95%CI 0.52-0.88, P=0.00; for allele contrast genetic model: OR=1.46, 95%CI 1.15-1.85, P=0.00. A strong correlation was also found between rs1137101 polymorphism and T2DM (for additive genetic model: OR=1.54, 95%CI 1.20-1.98, P=0.00; for allele contrast genetic model: OR=1.15, 95%CI 1.01-1.30, P=0.00. In addition, rs1805096 polymorphism was closely correlated with T2DM (for dominant genetic model: OR=1.32, 95%CI 1.07-1.62, P=0.00; for recessive genetic model: OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.09-1.54, P=0.00; for allele contrast genetic model: OR=0.67, 95%CI 0.59-0.75, P=0.00. Conclusions There is a significant correlation between rs1137100, rs1805096 of LEPR gene and T2DM in Chinese population under allele contrast genetic model as well as in recessive genetic model. Rs1137101 of LEPR gene is closely correlated with T2DM in Chinese population under additive genetic model. For dominant

  20. Identification of Two Additional Susceptibility Loci for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Chinese Population

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    Xiucai Lan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the associations between the rs1250569 (zinc finger MIZ-type containing 1, ZMIZ1, rs1042522 (tumour protein p53, TP53, and rs10114470 (tumour necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A, TL1A polymorphisms and the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in a Chinese (Han population. We analysed the expression of genes that predispose patients to Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. Methods: A total of 381 IBD patients and 517 healthy controls were recruited into our study. Polymorphisms at the three loci were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reactions (PCR-LDR. Genotype-phenotype correlations were analysed. Blood and gut samples were obtained and analysed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry to investigate the mRNA and protein levels and in situ expression of genes found to predispose patients to IBD. Furthermore, the expression of susceptible genes was further verified using a mouse dextran sulphate sodium (DSS-induced acute colitis model. Results: No significant association was detected between rs1250569 and rs1042522 genotypes and CD or UC susceptibility. However, the frequency of allele A of rs1250569 was much higher in CD patients than that in healthy controls (55.03% vs. 48.48%, respectively; p = 0.044. The mutation rates at rs10114470 were dramatically lower at both the genotype and allele level in patients than those in healthy controls (p = 0.002 at both the genotype and allele level. Additionally, increased ZMIZ1 and TL1A levels were detected in intestinal samples obtained from both IBD patients and DSS-treated mice. Conclusion: rs1250569 (ZMIZ1 and rs10114470 (TL1A are two novel loci that indicate susceptibility to IBD in Han-Chinese patients. Consistent with previous studies, TL1A expression levels were higher in Chinese Han IBD patients and DSS-treated mice. Most importantly, we found that ZMIZ1 expression was

  1. Gender and urban-rural difference in anthropometric indices predicting dyslipidemia in Chinese primary school children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Ai; Xue, Yong; Zheng, Yingdong; Chen, Yun; Mu, Zhishen; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2016-04-30

    Childhood dyslipidemia is a critical factor of lifelong health. Therefore, screening and controlling dyslipidemia from childhood is a practical healthy strategy. However, few studies have examined the performance of anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia in Chinese children, let alone the potential gender and urban-rural disparity. Thus, we evaluated anthropometric indices predicting dyslipidemia by genders and living areas in Chinese children. Data were from a health and nutrition survey conducted in seven urban areas and two rural areas in China between 2011 and 2012. The serum lipid levels of the participants were compared between genders and living areas. The body mass index z-score (BMI z-score), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and mid-upper arm height ratio (MaHtR) were used as predictors. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to investigate the ability of anthropometric indices predicting dyslipidemia. A total of 773 participants (average age = 9.3 ± 1.7 y) were included. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 10.9%. Anthropometric indices were all significantly related to blood lipid profiles in boys after adjustment for age. The areas under the ROC curves (ACUs) were significantly larger than 0.5 in boys (ranged between 0.66-0.73), and were larger in rural boys (ranged between 0.68 and 0.94). MaHtR and WHR were associated with the highest specificity (93.8%) and highest sensitivity (100%), respectively. Using anthropometric indices, screening for dyslipidemia may be more appropriate in boys than in girls in China, especially in rural boys. The BMI z-score, WHR, WHtR, and MaHtR were all significantly associated with dyslipidemia in boys; using WHR and MaHtR as indicators achieved the highest sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  2. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

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    Yafei Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  3. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-16

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  4. Meal-specific food patterns and the incidence of hyperglycemia in a Chinese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Riley, Malcolm; Taylor, Anne; Noakes, Manny

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between meal-specific food patterns and incident hyperglycaemia in a Chinese adult population. Adults aged 20 years and older (n 1056) were followed from 2002 to 2007. Dietary data were collected using a 3-d food record and meal-specific (breakfast, lunch and dinner) food patterns were independently described by factor analysis based on the consumption of thirty-five food groups at each eating occasion. Each food pattern score was recoded as quartiles. Hyperglycaemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose >5·6 mmol/l at baseline and follow-up. The associated between food patterns and incident hyperglycaemia was assessed by logistic regression. During the follow-up, 125 new cases of hyperglycaemia were identified. Traditional (wheat) breakfast was inversely associated with incident hyperglycaemia, whereas traditional (rice, vegetable and pork) lunch and dinner were positively associated with the risk of incident hyperglycaemia, even after adjustment for a number of covariates including glycaemic load, carbohydrate intake and BMI. Incident hyperglycaemia occurred in 15·9, 13·6, 11·7, 6·1 % across quartiles of traditional breakfast; and 5·3, 9·1, 15·9, 17·1 % of the quartiles of traditional lunch pattern. The adjusted OR for hyperglycaemia was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·92), 1·83 (95 % CI 1·32, 2·53) and 1·39 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·86) for 1 sd increase of traditional breakfast, lunch and dinner pattern factor score, respectively. A traditional wheat-based breakfast is associated with a decreased risk of hyperglycaemia. A rice-based traditional lunch and dinner is associated with an increased risk of hyperglycaemia in Chinese adults.

  5. Prescription pattern of Chinese herbal products for heart failure in Taiwan: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Yen; Hu, Wen-Long; Lin, Che-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chiao; Chen, Shih-Yu; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Chen, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-02-01

    Certain Chinese herbal products (CHPs) may protect against the progression of heart failure (HF). However, there is a lack of research regarding the use of CHPs in patients with HF. The aims of this study were to analyze CHPs usage patterns in patients with HF and to identify the frequency and combination of CHPs most commonly used for HF. This retrospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study was conducted using a randomly sampled cohort of one million patients selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for the years 2000-2010 in Taiwan. CHP use and the top ten most frequently prescribed formulae and single herbs for treating HF were assessed, including total formulae number and average and frequency of prescriptions. Demographic characteristics, including sex and age at diagnosis of HF, were examined, together with existing comorbidities. The cohort included 19,988 newly diagnosed AD patients, who were given CHP treatment for HF between 2000 and 2010. Among them, female patients (53.3%) and those over 65years old (63.9%) were more likely to use CM. After adjusting for demographic factors, HF patients suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) were more likely to seek traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment than those with non-TCM users (57.6% vs. 52.6%). Zhi-Gan-Cao-Tang (4.07%) and Danshen (5.13%) were the most frequent formula CHP and single CHP prescribed by TCM practitioners for treating HF, respectively. Most people with HF who consumed CHPs used CHPs to supplement Yang-Qi, nourish the Ying-blood, and strengthen the heart spirit as complementary medicines to relieve HF-related symptoms, in addition to using standard anti-HF treatments. Further large-scale, randomized clinical trials are warranted in order to determine the effectiveness and safety of these herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep Patterns in Chinese Preschool Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ran; Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Chun-Lei

    2018-04-15

    This study aimed to (1) provide data on normal sleep patterns in Chinese preschool children, (2) identify cross-cultural differences of sleep patterns among children from China and other countries, (3) estimate the prevalence of sleep duration not meeting the optimal amount, and (4) characterize delayed weekend sleep pattern. A population-based sample of 1,610 children aged 3-6 years was recruited from 10 cities across China. Parents completed questions about their child's sleep patterns adapted from the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). The mean bedtime was 9:31 PM, wake time was 7:27 AM, nighttime sleep duration was 9 hours 30 minutes, daytime sleep duration was 1 hour 31 minutes, and total sleep duration was 11 hours 2 minutes. The children had a shorter nighttime sleep duration but longer daytime naps, resulting in no differences in total sleep duration compared with counterparts predominantly in the west. Of the children, 85.3% met the recommended amount of sleep of 10 to 13 hours, and 10.8% slept fewer than 10 hours. The prevalence of sleep less than 10 hours was higher in older children and children from eastern China. Children went to bed and woke up more than 30 minutes later on weekends than weekdays, accounting for 40.1% and 50%, respectively. Children in western China showed longer delay than children in eastern China ( P < .05). Age- and region-specific variability of sleep patterns are reported as well as insufficient sleep and delayed weekend sleep pattern in Chinese preschool children. The cross-cultural difference of sleep patterns was in temporal placement rather than sleep duration. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  7. Genetic association between selected cytokine genes and glioblastoma in the Han Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Tianbo; Li, Xiaolan; Zhang, Jiayi; Wang, Hong; Geng, Tingting; Li, Gang; Gao, Guodong; Chen, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor. Many abnormal secretion and expression of cytokines have been found in GBM, initially speculated that the occurrence of GBM may be involved in these abnormal secretion of cytokines. This study aims to detect the association of cytokine genes with GBM. We selected seven tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in six cytokine genes, which previously reported to be associated with brain tumors, and analyzed their association with GBM in a Han Chinese population using χ 2 test and genetic model analysis. We found two risk tSNPs and one protective tSNP. By χ 2 test, the rs1801275 in IL-4R showed an increased risk of GBM. In the genetic model analysis, the genotype “TC” of rs20541 in IL-13 gene showed an increased risk of GBM in over-dominant model (OR = 2.00; 95% CI, 1.13-3.54, p = 0.015); the genotype “CT” of rs1800871 in the IL-10 gene showed a decrease risk in the over-dominant model (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.33 – 0.97; p = 0.037). The genotype “AG” of rs1801275 in the IL-4R gene showed an increase risk in over-dominant model (OR = 2.29; 95% CI, 1.20 - 4.35; p = 0.0081) We further analyzed whether the six cytokine genes have a different effect on the disease in gender specific population, and found that the allele “G” of rs2243248 in the IL-4 gene showed a decrease risk of GBM in female (OR = 0.35, 95% CI, 0.13 - 0.94, p = 0.0032), but the allele “T” showed a decrease risk in male (OR = 0.30, 95% CI, 0.17 - 0.53, p = 0.0032). Our findings, combined with previously reported results, suggest that cytokine genes have potential role in GBM development, which may be useful to early prognostics for GBM in the Han Chinese population

  8. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Elderly Population: 2001-2010.

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    Miao Liu

    Full Text Available The information on the changes of prevalence of MetS in China is limited. Our objective was to assess a 10-year's change of the prevalence of MetS in a Chinese elderly population between 2001 and 2010.We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of elderly population aged 60 to 95 years in Beijing in 2001 and 2010 respectively. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition.A total of 2,334 participants (943 male, 1,391 female in 2001 and 2,102 participants (848 male, 1,254 female in 2010 completed the survey. The prevalence of MetS was 50.4% (95%CI: 48.4%-52.4% in 2001 and 58.1% (95%CI: 56.0%-60.2% in 2010. The absolute change of prevalence of MetS was 7.7% over the 10-year's period (p<0.001. The syndrome was more common in female than male in both survey years. Among the five components, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C had increased most, with an increase of 14.8% (from 29.4% to 44.2% and 9.9% (from 28.3% to 38.2% respectively. The adjusted ORs of MetS for CHD, stroke and CVD were 1.67(95%CI: 1.39-1.99, 1.50(95%CI: 1.19-1.88 and 1.70(95%CI: 1.43-2.01 respectively in 2001, and were 1.74(95%CI: 1.40-2.17, 1.25(95%CI: 0.95-1.63 and 1.52(95%CI: 1.25-1.86 respectively in 2010.The prevalence of MetS is high and increasing rapidly in this Chinese elderly population. Participants with Mets and its individual components are at significantly elevated ORs for CVD. Urgent public health actions are needed to control MetS and its components, especially for dislipidemia.

  9. THE STUDY OF CARDIAC ABNORMALITY IN GERIATRIC POPULATION OF RURAL CENTRAL INDIA

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    Aman Chaturvedi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Health care of elderly in the society has emerged as an increasingly important issue in the recent years. As the elderly proportion of our population expands, maintaining health and wellness of the aged will continue to be an important research priority in the near future. This study was undertaken to determine cardiac abnormalities in geriatric population by echocardiography in rural central India. The aim of this study is to map the spectrum of cardiac abnormality in geriatric population of rural central India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out on subjects from September 2014 – August 2016. All geriatric subjects i.e. above the age of 60 years who were admitted in medicine ward or who attended medicine OPD were considered for the study. All the preliminary biodata was collected, history taking and physical examination were done, ECG was recorded and finally 2D echo was performed in MMode, 2D echo, Doppler (CW and PW and TDI. All observations were recorded on a standard proforma sheet, statistical analysis was performed and results and conclusions drawn. RESULTS In present study, there was higher prevalence of major diseases. On M-Mode echocardiography, left atrial enlargement, LV hypertrophy/dilatation was found in significant number of subjects. On 2D echo, Myocardial Scarring/Thinning, valvular Degeneration was found significantly higher in elderly males, mitral and aortic calcification was found most frequently with prevalence higher in males. On Doppler echocardiography, diastolic dysfunction was common in elderly with very few subjects having normal diastolic function, most of the subjects having grade II diastolic dysfunction. Aortic, mitral and tricuspid regurgitation was common in elderly, and stenotic lesions of aortic and mitral valve were common. CONCLUSION We recommend that echocardiography should become an investigative norm in the elderly, this will aid in early detection of cardiovascular abnormalities

  10. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Bao-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391) to 0.9617 (DYS385). Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338) to 0.8177 (TPOX), with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51) to 0.2988 (TH01). A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure.

  11. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China.

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    Jun Yao

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391 to 0.9617 (DYS385. Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338 to 0.8177 (TPOX, with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51 to 0.2988 (TH01. A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure.

  12. Population aging and migrant workers: bottlenecks in tuberculosis control in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Sumedh; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Hui; You, Hua; Fan, Hong; Huang, Lifang; Wang, Qungang; Shen, Hongbing; Wang, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem. Its paradigms are shifting through time, especially in rapidly developing countries such as China. Health providers in China are at the forefront of the battle against tuberculosis; however, there are few empirical studies on health providers' perspectives on the challenges they face in tuberculosis control at the county level in China. This study was conducted among health providers to explore their experiences with tuberculosis control in order to identify bottlenecks and emerging challenges in controlling tuberculosis in rural China. A qualitative approach was used. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 health providers working in various positions within the health system of one rural county (ZJG) of China. Data were analyzed based on thematic content analysis using MAXQDA 10 qualitative data analysis software. Health providers reported several problems in tuberculosis control in ZJG county. Migrant workers and the elderly were repeatedly documented as the main obstacles in effective tuberculosis control in the county. At a personal level, doctors showed their frustration with the lack of new drugs for treating tuberculosis patients, and their opinions varied regarding incentives for referring patients. The results suggest that several problems still remain for controlling tuberculosis in rural China. Tuberculosis control efforts need to make reaching the most vulnerable populations a priority and encourage local health providers to adopt innovative practices in the local context based on national guidelines to achieve the best results. Considerable changes in China's National Tuberculosis Control Program are needed to tackle these emerging challenges faced by health workers at the county level.

  13. Population aging and migrant workers: bottlenecks in tuberculosis control in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedh Bele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem. Its paradigms are shifting through time, especially in rapidly developing countries such as China. Health providers in China are at the forefront of the battle against tuberculosis; however, there are few empirical studies on health providers' perspectives on the challenges they face in tuberculosis control at the county level in China. This study was conducted among health providers to explore their experiences with tuberculosis control in order to identify bottlenecks and emerging challenges in controlling tuberculosis in rural China. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 health providers working in various positions within the health system of one rural county (ZJG of China. Data were analyzed based on thematic content analysis using MAXQDA 10 qualitative data analysis software. RESULTS: Health providers reported several problems in tuberculosis control in ZJG county. Migrant workers and the elderly were repeatedly documented as the main obstacles in effective tuberculosis control in the county. At a personal level, doctors showed their frustration with the lack of new drugs for treating tuberculosis patients, and their opinions varied regarding incentives for referring patients. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that several problems still remain for controlling tuberculosis in rural China. Tuberculosis control efforts need to make reaching the most vulnerable populations a priority and encourage local health providers to adopt innovative practices in the local context based on national guidelines to achieve the best results. Considerable changes in China's National Tuberculosis Control Program are needed to tackle these emerging challenges faced by health workers at the county level.

  14. Population uptake of antiretroviral treatment through primary care in rural South Africa

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    Bärnighausen Till W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KwaZulu-Natal is the South African province worst affected by HIV and the focus of early modeling studies investigating strategies of antiretroviral treatment (ART delivery. The reality of antiretroviral roll-out through primary care has differed from that anticipated and real world data are needed to inform the planning of further scaling up of services. We investigated the factors associated with uptake of antiretroviral treatment through a primary healthcare system in rural South Africa. Methods Detailed demographic, HIV surveillance and geographic information system (GIS data were used to estimate the proportion of HIV positive adults accessing antiretroviral treatment within northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in the period from initiation of antiretroviral roll-out until the end of 2008. Demographic, spatial and socioeconomic factors influencing the likelihood of individuals accessing antiretroviral treatment were explored using multivariable analysis. Results Mean uptake of ART among HIV positive resident adults was 21.0% (95%CI 20.1-21.9. Uptake among HIV positive men (19.2% was slightly lower than women (21.8%, P = 0.011. An individual's likelihood of accessing ART was not associated with level of education, household assets or urban/rural locale. ART uptake was strongly negatively associated with distance from the nearest primary healthcare facility (aOR = 0.728 per square-root transformed km, 95%CI 0.658-0.963, P = 0.002. Conclusions Despite concerns about the equitable nature of antiretroviral treatment rollout, we find very few differences in ART uptake across a range of socio-demographic variables in a rural South African population. However, even when socio-demographic factors were taken into account, individuals living further away from primary healthcare clinics were still significantly less likely to be accessing ART

  15. SLC2A9 and ZNF518B polymorphisms correlate with gout-related metabolic indices in Chinese Tibetan populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Geng, T T; Liu, L J; Yuan, D Y; Feng, T; Kang, L L; Jin, T B; Chen, C

    2015-08-19

    Current evidence suggests that heredity and metabolic syndrome contribute to gout progression. SLC2A9 and ZNF518B may play a role in gout progression in different populations, but no studies have focused on the Tibetan Chinese population. In this study, we determined whether variations in these 2 genes were correlated with gout-related indices in Chinese-Tibetan gout patients. We detected 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in SLC2A9 and ZNF518B in 319 Chinese Tibetan gout patients. One-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the polymorphisms' effects on gout based on mean serum levels of metabolism indicators. Polymorphisms in SLC2A9 and ZNF518B affected multiple risk factors related to gout development. Significant differences in serum triglyceride levels and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level were detected between different genotypic groups with SLC2A9 polymorphisms rs13129697 (P = 0.022), rs4447863 (P = 0.018), and rs1014290 (P = 0.045). Similarly in ZNF518B, rs3217 (P = 0.016) and rs10016022 (P = 0.046) were associated with high creatinine and glucose levels, respectively. This study is the first to investigate and identify positive correlations between SLC2A9 and ZNF518B gene polymorphisms and metabolic indices in Tibetan gout patients. We found significant evidence indicating that genetic polymorphisms affect gout-related factors in Chinese Tibetan populations.

  16. Association between the interleukin-1β C-511T polymorphism and periodontitis: a meta-analysis in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H F; He, F Q; Xu, C J; Li, D M; Sun, X J; Chi, Y T; Guo, W

    2017-02-23

    The association between the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) C-511T (or rs16944) polymorphism and periodontitis remains inconclusive, even though there have been previous studies on this association. To assess the effects of IL-1β C-511T variants on the risk of development of periodontitis, a meta-analysis was performed in a single ethnic population. Studies, published up to December 2015, were selected for the meta-analysis from PubMed and Chinese databases. The associations were assessed with pooled OR and 95%CI. This meta-analysis identified 8 studies, including 1276 periodontitis cases and 1558 controls. Overall, a significant association between the IL-1β C-511T polymorphism and periodontitis was found in the Chinese population (TT vs CC: OR = 1.48, 95%CI = 1.19-1.85; TT + CT vs CC: OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.25-1.81; T vs C: OR = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.06-1.68). In the subgroup analyses based on geographical area(s), source of controls, and type of periodontitis, significant results were obtained for the association between IL-1β C-511T variants and periodontitis. Our meta-analysis indicated that the IL-1β C-511T polymorphism may be a genetic susceptibility factor for periodontitis in the Chinese population. This marker could be used to identify Chinese individuals at a high risk for periodontitis.

  17. Sequence Variants of ADIPOQ and Association with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan Chinese Han Population

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    Ming-Kai Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a serious global health problem. Large-scale genome-wide association studies identified loci for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, including adiponectin (ADIPOQ gene and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2, but few studies clarified the effect of genetic polymorphisms of ADIPOQ and TCF7L2 on risk of T2DM. We attempted to elucidate association between T2DM and polymorphic variations of both in Taiwan’s Chinese Han population, with our retrospective case-control study genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ADIPOQ and TCF7L2 genes both in 149 T2DM patients and in 139 healthy controls from Taiwan. Statistical analysis gauged association of these polymorphisms with risk of T2DM to show ADIPOQ rs1501299 polymorphism variations strongly correlated with T2DM risk (P=0.042, with rs2241766 polymorphism being not associated with T2DM (P=0.967. However, both polymorphisms rs7903146 and rs12255372 of TCF7L2 were rarely detected in Taiwanese people. This study avers that ADIPOQ rs1501299 polymorphism contributes to risk of T2DM in the Taiwanese population.

  18. Interleukin-2 and Interleukin-8 Gene Polymorphisms and Acquired Aplastic Anemia Risk in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Lin, Shengyun; Yang, Yan; Rong, Liucheng; He, Guangsheng; He, Hailong; Xue, Yao; Fang, Yongjun; Wang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Cytokines IL-2 and IL-8 both participate in immune regulation. However, the relationship between polymorphisms in these two cytokines and the risk of acquired aplastic anemia (acquired AA) has not been explored. We selected five SNPs including rs11575812, rs2069772 and rs2069762 of IL-2, rs2227306 and rs2227543 of IL-8. SNaPshot genotyping was used to test the genotypes of IL-2 and IL-8 polymorphisms in a population of 101 acquired AA patients and 165 healthy controls. The rs2069762 G allele appeared to be a protective mutation, but no significant differences were found in other four SNPs. We also found that rs2069762 had an impact on the transcriptional regulation. It could be assumed that the rs2069762 polymorphism might reduce the risk of acquired aplastic anemia, while the remaining four SNPs might not contribute to susceptibility to acquired AA in a Chinese population. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Association between SNPs in microRNA-machinery genes and tuberculosis susceptibility in Chinese Tibetan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingbo; Li, Siyue; QuCuo, MeiLang; Zhou, MeiLang; Zhou, Yi; Hu, Xin; Zhou, Juan; Lu, Xiaojun; Wang, Jun; Hua, Wei; Ye, Yuanxin; Ying, Binwu; Wang, Lanlan

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality caused by infectious agents worldwide. Although our current understanding of the pathogenesis of TB is far from clear, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting a genetic contribution to the etiology of TB. By analyzing 294 TB cases and 287 healthy controls in a Chinese Tibetan population, we used a candidate gene approach to evaluate the association between six single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10719, rs3757, rs3742330, rs636832, rs7813, and rs3744741) in microRNA machinery genes and TB susceptibility. The genotypic distributions of rs3757 and rs3744741 in controls were not in accordance with the Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium (P microRNA-632 (miR-632) and that the G allele alters the affinity of microRNA-mRNA binding by disrupting the local structure of dicer 1, ribonuclease type III (DICER) mRNA, presumably allowing for upregulated DICER expression. Taken together, our data suggest that common genetic variations DICER may influence TB risk, possibly through miR-632-mediated regulation. Replication of our studies in other populations will strengthen our understanding of this association.

  20. The progression of hallux valgus in the oriental Chinese population in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kenneth Kin-Hoo; Tse, Lung Fung; Cheng, Hi Shan; Ho, Kevin Ki Wai

    2017-08-01

    Hallux valgus is the lateral deviation of the great toe at the MTPJ that has many attributing aetiologies. This study will aim to identify whether hallux valgus progresses over time in the oriental Chinese population in Hong Kong. Patients with acquired symptomatic hallux valgus who presented to clinic between 2008 and 2013 were included. The deformities were analysed radiologically at presentation and pre-operative and angles were measured. These angles were analysed in relation to the waiting time from presentation to surgery. A sample of 43 cases from 38 patients (Mean age 63 years, range 48-80 years) were included. Forty-one cases had a hallux valgus angle (HVA) >24° at presentation (Mean 40.4°) and all had an intermetatarsal angle (IMA) >9°. A significant difference is seen with HVA (p=0.040, t=-2.128) at presentation and pre-op but not IMA (p=0.281, t=-1.095). The average wait for surgery was 705.7days which had shown significant correlation with progression in HVA (p=0.031). No significant difference was seen between IMA and waiting time to surgery (p=0.195). The findings suggests severe hallux valgus deformity does progress over time in Hong Kong. Shorter waiting times for surgery could be beneficial to this population. Level III, retrospective comparative series. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Elderly Population: 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Sun, Dongling; Wu, Lei; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan; Li, Xiaoying; He, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Objective The information on the changes of prevalence of MetS in China is limited. Our objective was to assess a 10-year’s change of the prevalence of MetS in a Chinese elderly population between 2001 and 2010. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of elderly population aged 60 to 95 years in Beijing in 2001 and 2010 respectively. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. Results A total of 2,334 participants (943 male, 1,391 female) in 2001 and 2,102 participants (848 male, 1,254 female) in 2010 completed the survey. The prevalence of MetS was 50.4% (95%CI: 48.4%–52.4%) in 2001 and 58.1% (95%CI: 56.0%–60.2%) in 2010. The absolute change of prevalence of MetS was 7.7% over the 10-year’s period (pdislipidemia. PMID:23824753

  2. Locomotor problems among rural elderly population in a District of Aligarh, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroof, Mohd; Ahmad, Anees; Khalique, Najam; Ansari, M Athar

    2017-01-01

    Locomotor functions decline with the age along with other physiological changes. This results in deterioration of the quality of life with decreased social and economic role in the society, as well as increased dependency, for the health care and other basic services. The demographic transition resulting in increased proportion of elderly may pose a burden to the health system. To find the prevalence of locomotor problems among the elderly population, and related sociodemographic factors. The study was a community-based cross-sectional study done at field practice area of Rural Health Training Centre, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. A sample of 225 was drawn from 1018 elderly population aged 60 years and above using systematic random sampling with probability proportionate to size. Sociodemographic characteristics were obtained using pretested and predesigned questionnaire. Locomotor problems were assessed using the criteria used by National Sample Survey Organization. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was used to test relationship of locomotor problems with sociodemographic factors. P locomotor problems among the elderly population was 25.8%. Locomotor problems were significantly associated with age, gender, and working status whereas no significant association with literacy status and marital status was observed. The study concluded that approximately one-fourth of the elderly population suffered from locomotor problems. The sociodemographic factors related to locomotor problems needs to be addressed properly to help them lead an independent and economically productive life.

  3. Determinants of birth interval in a rural Mediterranean population (La Alpujarra, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, V; Luna, F; Fuster, V

    2000-10-01

    The fertility pattern, in terms of birth intervals, in a rural population not practicing contraception belonging to La Alta Alpujarra Oriental (southeast Spain) is analyzed. During the first half of the 20th century, this population experienced a considerable degree of geographical and cultural isolation. Because of this population's high variability in fertility and therefore in birth intervals, the analysis was limited to a homogenous subsample of 154 families, each with at least five pregnancies. This limitation allowed us to analyze, among and within families, effects of a set of variables on the interbirth pattern, and to avoid possible problems of pseudoreplication. Information on birth date of the mother, age at marriage, children's birth date and death date, birth order, and frequency of miscarriages was collected. Our results indicate that interbirth intervals depend on an exponential effect of maternal age, especially significant after the age of 35. This effect is probably related to the biological degenerative processes of female fertility with age. A linear increase of birth intervals with birth order within families was found as well as a reduction of intervals among families experiencing an infant death. Our sample size was insufficient to detect a possible replacement behavior in the case of infant death. High natality and mortality rates, a secular decrease of natality rates, a log-normal birth interval, and family-size distributions suggest that La Alpujarra has been a natural fertility population following a demographic transition process.

  4. Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Severity: A Population-Based Study of Chinese and South Asian Patients in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Newman, Alice M; Zaheer, Juveria; Kurdyak, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the sociocultural determinants of mental illness at hospital presentation. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in illness severity at hospital admission among Chinese, South Asian, and the general population living in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a large, population-based, cross-sectional study of psychiatric inpatients aged from 19 to 105 years who were discharged between 2006 and 2014. A total of 133,588 patients were classified as Chinese (n = 2,582), South Asian (n = 2,452), or the reference group (n = 128,554) using a validated surnames algorithm (specificity: 99.7%). Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria. We examined the association between ethnicity and 4 measures of disease severity: involuntary admissions, aggressive behaviors, and the number and frequency of positive symptoms (ie, hallucinations, command hallucinations, delusions, and abnormal thought process) (Positive Symptoms Scale, Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health [RAI-MH]). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, immigration status, and discharge diagnosis, Chinese patients had greater odds of involuntary admissions (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.64-1.95) and exhibiting severe aggressive behaviors (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.23-1.51) and ≥ 3 positive symptoms (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.24-1.56) compared to the general population. South Asian ethnicity was also an independent predictor of most illness severity measures. The association between Chinese ethnicity and illness severity was consistent across sex, diagnostic and immigrant categories, and first-episode hospitalization. Chinese and South Asian ethnicities are independent predictors of illness severity at hospital presentation. Understanding the role of patient, family, and health system factors in determining the threshold for hospitalization is an important future step in informing culturally specific care for these large and growing populations worldwide. © Copyright 2016 Physicians

  5. Phytoestrogens levels determination in the cord blood from Malaysia rural and urban populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, A.M.; Malintan, N.T.; Seelan, S.; Zhan, Z.; Mohamed, Z.; Hassan, J.; Pendek, R.; Hussain, R.; Ito, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study is a result of an analysis of free and conjugated phytoestrogens daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin and coumesterol in human cord blood plasma using LCMS. Cord blood was collected from urban and rural populations of Malaysia (n = 300) to establish a simple preliminary database on the levels of the analyzed compounds in the collected samples. The study also aimed to look at the levels of phytoestrogens in babies during birth as this may have a profound effect on the developmental process. The sample clean up was carried out by solid-phase extraction using C18 column and passed through DEAE sephadex gel before analysis by LCMS. The mean concentrations of total phytoestrogens were daidzein (1.4 ± 2.9 ng/ml), genistein (3.7 ± 2.8 ng/ml), daidzin (3.5 ± 3.1 ng/ml), genistin (19.5 ± 4.2 ng/ml) and coumesterol (3.3 ± 3.3 ng/ml). Distribution of phytoestrogen was found to be higher in samples collected from rural areas compared to that of urban areas

  6. Morbidity Pattern Among Elderly Population In A Rural Area Of Dehradun In Uttaranchal

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    K S Negi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : What is the morbidity pattern among elderly people in rural area of Dehradun?Objectives :(1     To assess the morbidity pattern among elderly population.(2     To assess the psycho-social problems among elderly people.(3     To assess the relationship between addiction and hypertension among them.Study design : Cross-Sectional.Setting : Atturwala - a rural area of district Dehradun in Uttaranchal.Participants : 332 elderly people aged 60 years and above.Statistical Analysis : Proportions, Chi-Square test.Results ; It was observed that 78.3% elderly had ophthalmic problem, 69.3% elderly had psycho-social problems followed by hypertension (49.1%, Chronic bronchitis (22% and asthma (12%. A significant relation was found between hypertention and addiction i. e. smoking and / or alcohol (p<.001. Respiratory diseases were found in 47.3% elderly persons. Depression was highly dominating problem among elderly (59.6%.

  7. Environmental implications of the use of wood in domestic activities by the rural population of Usme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra Vargas, Fabio Emiro; Mejia Barragan, Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    Usme is the fifth locality of Bogota; it is located at the south of the city and has an estimated population of 294,580 inhabitants, approximately 6500 are located in rural areas. Most rural dwellers of Usme have not access to electricity, so for cooking they use firewood obtained from the surroundings or by direct purchase. Through field work, conducted surveys and information collected by direct experimentation in some kitchens in the area, were identified and collected samples of the woody species most used for cooking, to characterize its energy potential and were determined the efficiency of the stoves. Was identified that many families are buying the wood, either because they have no time to collect it or because of the distances they must travel. In general, the stoves technology generates low efficiency (less than 15%) because the combustion process is incomplete, leading additionally high production of CO. The most used woods are Eucalyptus, Pine and remnant of carpentry including Formica with MDF, a material that has not been reported in Colombia, it raises the need to study the impacts of its combustion. (author)

  8. Prevalence of ocular morbidity in rural population of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Anupama Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ocular morbidity is a significant problem in rural areas of India as it remains undiagnosed and neglected. Aims & Objectives:  To determine the prevalence of ocular morbidity in the rural population of Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in the villages around RHTC Satrikh of HIMS Barabanki. Ocular examination and vision testing was done among 812 people using ophthalmoscopic instruments. Information was collected using pre-tested questionnaire. Analysis was done using SPSS and appropriate Statistical tests. Results: Of the total 812 individuals interviewed, the prevalence of ocular morbidity was 41.3% (335 subjects had one or more ocular morbidity; with 88.8% elderly affected (age >65 years.   Myopia was the most common ocular morbidity 14.8%, followed by cataract (14.3% and hypermetropia (12.8%.  Allergic and infective conjunctivitis affected 5.8% and 3.9%, respectively.  The prevalence of Vitamin A deficiency disorder (including night blindness and bitot spots was 1.3%.  Higher ocular morbidity was present in houses with higher SES. Environmental conditions had no significant relation to ocular morbidity.  Conclusion: The prevalence of ocular diseases among the elderly was highest and requires prompt attention.  Myopia was the most common ocular morbidity having a prevalence of 14.8%, followed by cataract (14.3% and hypermetropia (12.8%.

  9. Chinese herbal medicine use in Taiwan during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chao-Hua; Chang, Pei-Jen; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Tsai, Yih-Jian; Lin, Shio-Jean; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2009-06-01

    Using Chinese herbal medicines during pregnancy and postpartum is common in the Chinese community. The purpose of this current study is to explore the use of Chinese herbal medicines by women during pregnancy and postpartum in Taiwan. It is an on-going prospective longitudinal study design. We used multistage stratified systematic sampling to recruit 24,200 pairs, postpartum women and newborns, from the Taiwan national birth register in 2005. Subjects underwent a home interview 6 months after their deliveries between June 2005 and July 2006. A structured questionnaire was successfully administered to 87.8% of the sampled population. At least one Chinese herbal medicine was used by 33.6% and 87.7% of the interviewed subjects during pregnancy and the postpartum period, respectively. An-Tai-Yin, Pearl powder, and Huanglian were the most commonly used during pregnancy, while Shen-Hua-Tang and Suz-Wu-Tang were the most commonly used by postpartum women. Pregnant women aged 20-34, with high education, threatened abortion, chronic disease, and primipara appeared to use more Chinese herbal medicines than others in the sample. Postpartum women with high education, primipara, normal spontaneous delivery, and breastfeeding were found to use more Chinese herbal medicines; but women with pregnancy-related illness used less. Chinese herbal medicines are frequently used by women during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Taiwan and those with high education and primipara used more such herbs. Due to limited safety information on these herbs, we would advise caution regarding their use either during pregnancy or postpartum breastfeeding period. Moreover, it is important for nurses/midwifes enquiring about such habits, and providing the adequate education to women during prenatal and postpartum care to prevent potential side effects.

  10. Metal mixtures in urban and rural populations in the US: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Strong Heart Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Yuanjie; Peng, Roger D.; Jones, Miranda R.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Best, Lyle G.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Natural and anthropogenic sources of metal exposure differ for urban and rural residents. We searched to identify patterns of metal mixtures which could suggest common environmental sources and/or metabolic pathways of different urinary metals, and compared metal-mixtures in two population-based studies from urban/sub-urban and rural/town areas in the US: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Methods: We studied a random sample of 308 White, Black, Chinese-American, and Hispanic participants in MESA (2000–2002) and 277 American Indian participants in SHS (1998–2003). We used principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to evaluate nine urinary metals (antimony [Sb], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb], molybdenum [Mo], selenium [Se], tungsten [W], uranium [U] and zinc [Zn]). For arsenic, we used the sum of inorganic and methylated species (∑As). Results: All nine urinary metals were higher in SHS compared to MESA participants. PCA and CA revealed the same patterns in SHS, suggesting 4 distinct principal components (PC) or clusters (∑As-U-W, Pb-Sb, Cd-Zn, Mo-Se). In MESA, CA showed 2 large clusters (∑As-Mo-Sb-U-W, Cd-Pb-Se-Zn), while PCA showed 4 PCs (Sb-U-W, Pb-Se-Zn, Cd-Mo, ∑As). LDA indicated that ∑As, U, W, and Zn were the most discriminant variables distinguishing MESA and SHS participants. Conclusions: In SHS, the ∑As-U-W cluster and PC might reflect groundwater contamination in rural areas, and the Cd-Zn cluster and PC could reflect common sources from meat products or metabolic interactions. Among the metals assayed, ∑As, U, W and Zn differed the most between MESA and SHS, possibly reflecting disproportionate exposure from drinking water and perhaps food in rural Native communities compared to urban communities around the US. - Highlights: • We identified and compared environmental sources of urinary metals in MESA and SHS.

  11. Metal mixtures in urban and rural populations in the US: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Strong Heart Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yuanjie, E-mail: yuanjie.p@gmail.com [Departments of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Peng, Roger D., E-mail: rdpeng@jhu.edu [Departments of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Jones, Miranda R., E-mail: mjone132@jhu.edu [Departments of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Francesconi, Kevin A., E-mail: kevin.francesconi@uni-graz.at [Institute of Chemistry -Analytical Chemistry, University of Graz, Graz 8010 (Austria); Goessler, Walter, E-mail: walter.goessler@uni-graz.at [Institute of Chemistry -Analytical Chemistry, University of Graz, Graz 8010 (Austria); Howard, Barbara V., E-mail: Barbara.V.Howard@Medstar.net [MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Georgetown-Howard Universities Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Umans, Jason G., E-mail: jason.umans@gmail.com [MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Georgetown-Howard Universities Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Best, Lyle G., E-mail: lbest@restel.com [Missouri Breaks Industries Research, Inc., Timber Lake, SD 57656 (United States); Guallar, Eliseo, E-mail: eguallar@jhu.edu [Departments of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    Background: Natural and anthropogenic sources of metal exposure differ for urban and rural residents. We searched to identify patterns of metal mixtures which could suggest common environmental sources and/or metabolic pathways of different urinary metals, and compared metal-mixtures in two population-based studies from urban/sub-urban and rural/town areas in the US: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Methods: We studied a random sample of 308 White, Black, Chinese-American, and Hispanic participants in MESA (2000–2002) and 277 American Indian participants in SHS (1998–2003). We used principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to evaluate nine urinary metals (antimony [Sb], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb], molybdenum [Mo], selenium [Se], tungsten [W], uranium [U] and zinc [Zn]). For arsenic, we used the sum of inorganic and methylated species (∑As). Results: All nine urinary metals were higher in SHS compared to MESA participants. PCA and CA revealed the same patterns in SHS, suggesting 4 distinct principal components (PC) or clusters (∑As-U-W, Pb-Sb, Cd-Zn, Mo-Se). In MESA, CA showed 2 large clusters (∑As-Mo-Sb-U-W, Cd-Pb-Se-Zn), while PCA showed 4 PCs (Sb-U-W, Pb-Se-Zn, Cd-Mo, ∑As). LDA indicated that ∑As, U, W, and Zn were the most discriminant variables distinguishing MESA and SHS participants. Conclusions: In SHS, the ∑As-U-W cluster and PC might reflect groundwater contamination in rural areas, and the Cd-Zn cluster and PC could reflect common sources from meat products or metabolic interactions. Among the metals assayed, ∑As, U, W and Zn differed the most between MESA and SHS, possibly reflecting disproportionate exposure from drinking water and perhaps food in rural Native communities compared to urban communities around the US. - Highlights: • We identified and compared environmental sources of urinary metals in MESA and SHS.

  12. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzheng; Bian, Qian; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xu; Wang, Wenwen; Du, Jiang; Zhang, Guofang; Zhou, Qing; Zhao, Min

    2014-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental illnesses. The reliability and the validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9, a depression screening tool, have not been examined in the general population in China. Thus, this study evaluated the reliability and the validity of the Chinese version of the PHQ-9 in detecting major depression in residents of a Chinese community. A total of 1045 participants from a Shanghai community were enrolled in our study. Participants completed the Chinese versions of the PHQ-9, the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. One hundred participants were randomly selected to complete the PHQ-9 again 2 weeks after the initial assessment. The reliability, the validity and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the PHQ-9 were analyzed. Cronbach's alpha for the internal consistency reliability of the Chinese version of the PHQ-9 was 0.86 for the entire scale. The correlation coefficient for the 2-week test-retest of the total score was 0.86. The PHQ-9 scale correlated positively with the SDS (r=0.29, p<0.001) and correlated negatively with all subscale scores of the SF-36 (correlation coefficients ranged from -0.11 to -0.47, p<0.001). The area under the curve of the ROC was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.86-0.97). A cutoff score of 7 or higher on the PHQ-9 had a sensitivity of 0.86 and a specificity of 0.86. In the general Chinese population, the Chinese version of the PHQ-9 is a valid and efficient tool for screening depression, with a recommended cutoff score of 7 or more. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Training for Rural Radiology and Imaging in Sub-Saharan Africa: Addressing the Mismatch Between Services and Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Kawooya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review are to outline the needs, challenges, and training interventions for rural radiology (RR training in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Rural radiology may be defined as imaging requirements of the rural communities. In SSA, over 80% of the population is rural. The literature was reviewed to determine the need for imaging in rural Africa, the challenges, and training interventions. Up to 50% of the patients in the rural health facilities in Uganda may require imaging, largely ultrasound and plain radiography. In Uganda, imaging is performed, on an average, in 50% of the deserving patients in the urban areas, compared to 10-13 % in the rural areas. Imaging has been shown to increase the utilization of facility-based rural health services and to impact management decisions. The challenges in the rural areas are different from those in the urban areas. These are related to disease spectrum, human resource, and socio-economic, socio-cultural, infrastructural, and academic disparities. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, for which information on training intervention was available, included: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zambia, Ghana, Malawi, and Sudan. Favorable national policies had been instrumental in implementing these interventions. The interventions had been made by public, private-for-profit (PFP, private-not-for profit (PNFP, local, and international academic institutions, personal initiatives, and professional societies. Ultrasound and plain radiography were the main focus. Despite these efforts, there were still gross disparities in the RR services for SSA. In conclusion, there have been training interventions targeted toward RR in Africa. However, gross disparities in RR provision persist, requiring an effective policy, plus a more organized, focused, and sustainable approach, by the stakeholders.

  14. An epidemiological study of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and Rural areas of kanpur

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    Nadeem Ahmad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : - What is the magnitude of Diabetes mellitus in the urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Objectives:To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To compare the magnitude of problem of diabetes mellitus between urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To study the possible associates and socio-demographic variables related to diabetes mellitus.Study Design : Cross sectional study.Setting : The study was performed on three thousand population each in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Participants : High risk age group population i.e. 45 years and above.Study variables : Age, Sex. impaired glucose tolerance. Body mass index, Education, Working status. Social class, family history of diabetes.Statistical analysis : Chi-square lest, percentagesResults From a total of 676 persons of high risk age group i.e. 45 years and above, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the study areas was observed lobe 7. l%with 9.94% in urban and 3.61% in rural areas, the maximum percetage of diabetes cases (41.66% was in the age group of 56-60 years. Higher prevalence of diabetes was observed in the obese (56.25% and sedentary (87.5% persons. The family history' of diabetes mellitus was present in (35.41% of diabetes mellitus cases.

  15. Neck circumference as an independent indicator of visceral obesity in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Huang, Guolan; Xia, Fangzhen; Li, Qin; Han, Bing; Chen, Yi; Chen, Chi; Lin, Dongping; Wang, Ningjian; Lu, Yingli

    2018-04-17

    Neck circumference (NC) was reported to be associated with visceral obesity in some specific subjects. However, no studies have reported whether NC could identify visceral obesity in the general population. Here, we mainly aimed to explore whether NC is suitable to identify visceral obesity in the general population. Our data were from a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of metabolic diseases and risk factors in East China from 2014 to 2015. A total of 9366 participants aged 18-93 were identified for analysis. Anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and clinical characteristics were measured. The NC values were quartered according to sex. Spearman's correlation coefficient was employed to test the correlations between different variables. Linear regression and logistic regression were conducted to explore the relationship of NC with visceral adiposity indices and visceral obesity. Among the 9366 participants, 3938 (42.05%) were male and 5428 (57.95%) were female. NC had a positive correlation with the visceral adiposity indices, regardless of sex. In all quartiles of NC, in both men and women, as NC values increased, the values of all the fatness indices showed a tendency to increase (all P < 0.001). After full adjustment for demographic variables and metabolic factors, linear regression showed that NC was still associated with the fatness indices for visceral obesity (all P < 0.001). In addition, logistic analysis showed that a larger NC was associated with a higher risk of visceral obesity in both males (OR 32.34, 95% CI 24.02-43.53; P < 0.001) and females (OR 21.43, 95% CI 17.30-26.55; P < 0.001) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. NC can be a supplemental indicator for identifying visceral obesity in the general Chinese population.

  16. Ataxia Telangiectasia-Mutated (ATMPolymorphisms and Risk of Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay A. Myneni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM gene has a key role in DNA repair including activation and stabilization of p53, which implicates the importance of ATM polymorphisms in the development of cancer. This study aims to investigate the association of two ATM single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with lung cancer, as well as their potential interaction with p53 gene and other known risk factors of lung cancer.MethodsA population-based case–control study was conducted in Taiyuan city, China with 399 cases and 466 controls matched on the distribution of age and sex of cases. The two ATM gene SNPs, ATMrs227060 and ATMrs228589 as well as p53 gene SNP, p53rs1042522 were genotyped using Sequenom platform. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, and smoking status.ResultsThe study showed that TT genotype of ATMrs227060 (aOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.06–2.35 and AA genotype of ATMrs228589 were significantly associated with lung cancer (aOR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.08–2.08 in a recessive model. Additionally, carrying variant genotypes of ATMrs227060 (TT, ATMrs228589 (AA, and p53rs1042522 (CC concomitantly was associated with much higher risk (aOR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.43–9.45 of lung cancer than carrying variant genotypes of any one of the above three SNPs. We also found multiplicative and additive interaction between tea drinking and ATMrs227060 in association with lung cancer.ConclusionThis study indicates that ATM gene variants might be associated with development of lung cancer in Chinese population. These results need to be validated in larger and different population samples.

  17. Heterogeneity within populations of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human interferon-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppen, S R; Newsam, R; Bull, A T; Baines, A J

    1995-04-20

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line has great commercial importance in the production of recombinant human proteins, especially those for therapeutic use. Much attention has been paid to CHO cell population physiology in order to define factors affecting product fidelity and yield. Such studies have revealed that recombinant proteins, including human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), can be heterogeneous both in glycosylation and in proteolytic processing. The type of heterogeneity observed depends on the growth physiology of the cell population, although the relationship between them is complex. In this article we report results of a cytological study of the CHO320 line which expresses recombinant human IFN-gamma. When grown in suspension culture, this cell line exhibited three types of heterogeneity: (1) heterogeneity of the production of IFN-gamma within the cell population, (2) heterogeneity of the number of nuclei and mitotic spindles in dividing cells, and (3) heterogeneity of cellular environment. The last of these arises from cell aggregates which form in suspension culture: Some cells are exposed to the culture medium; others are fully enclosed within the mass with little or no direct access to the medium. Thus, live cells producing IFN-gamma are heterogeneous in their environment, with variable access to O(2) and nutrients. Within the aggregates, it appears that live cells proliferate on a dead cell mass. The layer of live cells can be several cells deep. Specific cell-cell attachments are observed between the living cells in these aggregates. Two proteins, known to be required for the formation of certain types of intercellular junctions, spectrin and vinculin, have been localized to the regions of cell-cell contact. The aggregation of the cells appears to be an active process requiring protein synthesis. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Population.

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    Jiqiang Yue

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and glycemic control of diabetes mellitus (DM in a Chinese population. The findings from this study are expected to offer scientific evidence to better prevent and control the growing number of reported and untreated cases.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jiangsu, China. We recruited permanent residents over 18 years of age from eight towns in Jintan (JT and six towns in Yangzhong (YZ using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling method. The rates of DM prevalence, awareness, treatment and control as well as their related factors were analyzed.A total number of 15,404 people were entered into the analysis. The DM prevalence, awareness, treatment and control rates were 7.31%, 58.35%, 51.87% and 14.12%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that being female was positively related to prevalence (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.07-1.37, awareness (OR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.19-1.93, treatment (OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.17-1.88 and control (OR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.30-2.67 of DM. Having a family history of diabetes was significantly correlated with DM risk (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.37-2.54 and increased awareness (OR=3.12, 95% CI: 2.19-4.47, treatment (OR=3.47, 95% CI: 2.45-4.90 and control (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.22-2.68 of DM. Former smoking status (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 1.23-2.71, overweight (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.72-2.60 and obesity (OR=3.46, 95% CI: 2.67-4.50 were related to the risk of DM. Additionally, we found current drinking status to be positively correlated with DM risk (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.01-1.66 and negatively correlated with DM awareness (OR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.29-0.59 and treatment (OR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.29-0.59. Our study highlights the high prevalence and inadequate awareness, treatment and control of DM in the Chinese population.Management and prevention of DM-related complications should be considered an essential strategy by governments and society. This study assessed the

  19. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jiqiang; Mao, Xuhua; Xu, Kun; Lü, Lingshuang; Liu, Sijun; Chen, Feng; Wang, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and glycemic control of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a Chinese population. The findings from this study are expected to offer scientific evidence to better prevent and control the growing number of reported and untreated cases. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jiangsu, China. We recruited permanent residents over 18 years of age from eight towns in Jintan (JT) and six towns in Yangzhong (YZ) using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling method. The rates of DM prevalence, awareness, treatment and control as well as their related factors were analyzed. A total number of 15,404 people were entered into the analysis. The DM prevalence, awareness, treatment and control rates were 7.31%, 58.35%, 51.87% and 14.12%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that being female was positively related to prevalence (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.07-1.37), awareness (OR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.19-1.93), treatment (OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.17-1.88) and control (OR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.30-2.67) of DM. Having a family history of diabetes was significantly correlated with DM risk (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.37-2.54) and increased awareness (OR=3.12, 95% CI: 2.19-4.47), treatment (OR=3.47, 95% CI: 2.45-4.90) and control (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.22-2.68) of DM. Former smoking status (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 1.23-2.71), overweight (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.72-2.60) and obesity (OR=3.46, 95% CI: 2.67-4.50) were related to the risk of DM. Additionally, we found current drinking status to be positively correlated with DM risk (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.01-1.66) and negatively correlated with DM awareness (OR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.29-0.59) and treatment (OR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.29-0.59). Our study highlights the high prevalence and inadequate awareness, treatment and control of DM in the Chinese population. Management and prevention of DM-related complications should be considered an essential strategy by governments and society. This study assessed the

  20. Association study of sepiapterin reductase gene promoter polymorphisms with schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu JW

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jiawu Fu,1,* Guoda Ma,1,* Hui Mai,