WorldWideScience

Sample records for rural bangladeshi women

  1. Association of age at menarche with metabolic syndrome and its components in rural Bangladeshi women

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    Akter Shamima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early age at menarche is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in both China and the West. However, little is known about the impact of age at menarche and metabolic syndrome in South Asian women, including those from low-income country, where age at menarche is also falling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age at menarche is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Bangladeshi women, who are mostly poor and have limited access to and or poor health care facilities. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was performed using 1423 women aged between 15–75 years from rural Bangladesh in 2009 and 2010. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between age at menarche and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables, including age, education, marital status, tobacco users, use of contraceptives and number of pregnancies. Results Early onset of menarche (13 years was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=1.55; 95 % confidence interval =1.05-2.30. Age at onset of menarche was also inversely associated with prevalence of high triglycerides (P for trend P for trend = 0.01, but positively associated with prevalence of high fasting blood glucose (P for trend =0.02. However, no significant association was found between age at menarche, high blood pressure and elevated waist circumference. Conclusion Early onset of menarche might promote or trigger development of metabolic syndrome. Thus, knowledge of the history of age at onset of menarche may be critical in identifying women at risk of developing metabolic syndrome and those likely to benefit the most from early interventions.

  2. Development of bioelectrical impedance analysis-based equations for estimation of body composition in postpartum rural Bangladeshi women.

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    Shaikh, Saijuddin; Schulze, Kerry J; Kurpad, Anura; Ali, Hasmot; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Wu, Lee S-F; Rashid, Mahbubar; Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2013-02-28

    Equations for predicting body composition from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) parameters are age-, sex- and population-specific. Currently there are no equations applicable to women of reproductive age in rural South Asia. Hence, we developed equations for estimating total body water (TBW), fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass in rural Bangladeshi women using BIA, with ²H₂O dilution as the criterion method. Women of reproductive age, participating in a community-based placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation, were enrolled at 19·7 (SD 9·3) weeks postpartum in a study to measure body composition by ²H₂O dilution and impedance at 50 kHz using multi-frequency BIA (n 147), and resistance at 50 kHz using single-frequency BIA (n 82). TBW (kg) by ²H2O dilution was used to derive prediction equations for body composition from BIA measures. The prediction equation was applied to resistance measures obtained at 13 weeks postpartum in a larger population of postpartum women (n 1020). TBW, FFM and fat were 22·6 (SD 2·7), 30·9 (SD 3·7) and 10·2 (SD 3·8) kg by ²H₂O dilution. Height²/impedance or height²/resistance and weight provided the best estimate of TBW, with adjusted R² 0·78 and 0·76, and with paired absolute differences in TBW of 0·02 (SD 1·33) and 0·00 (SD 1·28) kg, respectively, between BIA and ²H₂O. In the larger sample, values for TBW, FFM and fat were 23·8, 32·5 and 10·3 kg, respectively. BIA can be an important tool for assessing body composition in women of reproductive age in rural South Asia where poor maternal nutrition is common.

  3. "I can't stop worrying about everything"—experiences of rural Bangladeshi women during the first postpartum months.

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    Edhborg, Maigun; Nasreen, Hashima E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, researchers have found evidence which indicates that the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms crosses cultural boundaries and is reported to be at least as high in non-Western countries as in Western countries. However, qualitative studies about new mothers' experiences from non-Western countries, such as Bangladesh, are rare, particularly in rural areas. This study aims to describe the experiences and concerns of rural Bangladeshi mothers with postpartum depressive symptoms. Open narrative interviews were conducted with 21 mothers with depressive symptoms 2-3 months postpartum, consecutively selected from a longitudinal study about prevalence and risk factors of perinatal depressive symptoms. Inductive content analysis was used to analyse data and three themes emerged: family dynamics, living at the limits of survival, and role of the cultural context after childbirth. These themes were based on six categories and 15 subcategories. The findings show that troublesome family relationships, including intimate partner violence and violence in the family, influenced the mothers' mental well-being. They and their families lived at the limit of survival and the mothers expressed fear and worries about their insecure situation regarding economic difficulties and health problems. They felt sorry for being unable to give their infants a good start in life and sad because they could not always follow the traditional norms related to childbirth. Thus, it is important to focus on the depressive symptoms among new mothers and offer counselling to those showing depressive symptoms, as the cultural traditions do not always alleviate these symptoms in the changing Bangladeshi society today.

  4. Validity and reproducibility of resting metabolic rate measurements in rural Bangladeshi women: comparison of measurements obtained by Medgem and by Deltatrac device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Roordink, D.; Meltzer, M.; Yunus, M.; Salam, M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To assess reproducibility and validity of resting metabolic rate (RMR) of Bangladeshi women as measured with the MedGem device and using the Deltatrac metabolic monitor as a reference; and (2) to evaluate the FAO/WHO/UNU basal metabolic rate (BMR)-prediction equations. Design:In each of

  5. Women entrepreneurs in the Bangladeshi restaurant business.

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    Khan, M R

    1995-08-01

    The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) is a nongovernmental organization involved with multisectoral programs and income generation schemes for rural poor women. The program objective is the search for effective income generation activities to be owned, operated, and managed by BRAC's landless members. The evaluation was conducted among five restaurants in the Restaurant Program, which was initiated in 1991. Entrepreneurs started with a loan of Taka 6500 and sold tea, snacks, and meals. 273 such establishments were started by January 1993. In practice, selection of entrepreneurs was different from the designated formal selection process. Preference was given to women whose husbands or brothers already had some involvement in the marketplace. The women tended to handle the cooking, washing, cleaning, and maybe some shopping and serving, but men controlled handling of cash and keeping accounts. Restaurants make modest profits in general, but a detailed accounting of employee wages and meals for owner-operators indicated lower profits. Loans were being repaid. The analysis shows that women's position did not change, women were just as or more dependent on men, and women's respect in the community did not increase. The restaurants were run in ways reinforcing the traditional purdah and definition of space. The goal should be women's independence, access to markets, and acquisition of business skills. The recommendations are made for strictly following the selection criteria, providing training before starting the business, operating of the business in a building separate from family, assuring a uniform system of accounting, maintaining BRAC files on individual women, and testing whether a fixed amount of loan would stimulate business capability.

  6. Bibliography and Selected References regarding Rural Women in Bangladesh.

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    McCarthy, Florence E.; And Others

    The bibliography attempts to lift the darkness regarding Bangladeshi women by presenting 207 citations (books, reports, journal articles, and speeches) that review what is known regarding rural women and their involvement in agricultural production and indicate possible trends in employment as represented by literature available on other groups of…

  7. Knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine in Bangladeshi women: a population based, cross-sectional study.

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    Islam, Jessica Yasmine; Khatun, Fatema; Alam, Anadil; Sultana, Farhana; Bhuiyan, Afsana; Alam, Nazmul; Reichenbach, Laura; Marions, Lena; Rahman, Mustafizur; Nahar, Quamrun

    2018-01-11

    The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge of cervical cancer among Bangladeshi women and to assess their willingness to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted from July to December 2011 in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 2037 ever-married women, aged 14 to 64 years, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer were collected. Willingness to receive the HPV vaccine was assessed. Univariate analyses were completed using quantitative data collected. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to identify factors associated with having heard of cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine. The majority of study participants reported to have heard of cervical cancer (urban: 89.7%, rural 93.4%; P = 0.003). The odds of having heard of cervical cancer were significantly higher in urban women aged 35-44 years (aOR: 2.92 (1.34-6.33) and rural women aged 25-34 years (aOR: 2.90 (1.24-6.73) compared to those aged less than 24 years. Very few women reported to have detailed knowledge on risk factors (urban:9.1%, rural: 8.8%) and prevention (urban: 6.4%, rural: 4.4%) of cervical cancer. In our sample, one in five urban women and one in twenty rural women heard about a vaccine that can prevent cervical cancer. Among urban women, secondary education or higher (aOR: 3.48, 95% CI: 1.67-7.25), age of 20 years and above at marriage (aOR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.61-5.00), and high socioeconomic status (aOR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.28-3.95) were factors associated with having heard of the HPV vaccine. Willingness to receive the HPV vaccine among study participants either for themselves (urban: 93.9%, rural: 99.4%) or for their daughters (urban: 91.8%, rural: 99.2%) was high. Detailed knowledge of cervical cancer among Bangladeshi women was found to be poor. Education on cervical cancer must include

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of contraceptive discontinuation and switching among Bangladeshi married women of reproductive age

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    Mahumud RA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashidul Alam Mahumud,1 Md Golam Hossain,2 Abdur Razzaque Sarkar,1 Md Nurul Islam,2 Md Ripter Hossain,2 Aik Saw,3 Jahangir AM Khan1,4 1Health Economics and Financing Research Group, Center for Equity and Health Systems, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence for Research and Learning, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4Adjunct Faculty, Health Economics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: Contraceptive discontinuation is a worldwide incident that may be connected with low incentive to avoid pregnancy. Contraceptive discontinuation highly contributes to unplanned pregnancy and unwanted births.Objectives: The objective of this study was to observe the prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive methods among Bangladeshi married women. In addition, the sociodemographic factors associated with contraceptive discontinuation and switching were assessed.Methods: Secondary cross-sectional data was used in this study. A total of 16,273 married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age (15–49 years were considered in the present study, from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. Logistic regression models were used to determine the relationships between key sociodemographic factors and user status.Results: The prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive method among women were 38.4% and 15.4%, respectively. The logistic regression model demonstrated that women in early reproductive years (25–29 years and 30–34 years significantly more often (odds ratio [OR] =0.84 and 0.71, respectively discontinued use of contraceptives. Significantly higher rates of discontinuation were pronounced among women who

  9. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women.

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    Sayem, Amir M; Nury, Abu Taher Ms

    2011-05-20

    so that women's desired number of children is limited to within two children, and that rural women get increased working and other related opportunities that may contribute in delaying teenage pregnancy.

  10. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women

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    Nury Abu Taher MS

    2011-05-01

    be given on women's desired number of children and birth place so that women's desired number of children is limited to within two children, and that rural women get increased working and other related opportunities that may contribute in delaying teenage pregnancy.

  11. Betel nut use among first and second generation Bangladeshi women in London, UK.

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    Núñez-de la Mora, Alejandra; Jesmin, Fahmida; Bentley, Gillian R

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of socio-economic variables and migration history on the prevalence of betel nut and smokeless tobacco use in both UK- and Bangladeshi born migrant women resident in London. No significant difference in betel nut use prevalence was found among women of different generations. However, in all groups betel nut users were significantly older and less educated than non-users. Among first generation women there was no effect of either length of time living in the UK or age at migration on use of betel nut, even after controlling for current age. No significant differences in prevalence use due to language spoken, occupation, marital status or borough of residence in London were found. We conclude that, although there are some indications of a change in behavior among younger individuals, betel nut chewing is a practice very much present among Bangladeshi women born and brought up in a bicultural context.

  12. ‘Liminal learners’ in a global city: the aspirations of young British Bangladeshi women at an east London secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Katharine

    2013-01-01

    Young British Bangladeshi women are often perceived as a marginalised, vulnerable group unlikely to succeed within the UK education system. Although achievement at GCSE level has improved significantly in recent years, female British Bangladeshis continue to be identified as an under-performing group at A-level and in higher education (Dale, 2002; Hussain, 2005). This article examines the educational experiences of a group of young British Bangladeshi women at one east London secondary school...

  13. Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old

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    Laura H. Kwong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3–18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor. Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children’s exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries.

  14. A comparison of antenatal classifications of 'overweight' and 'obesity' prevalence between white British, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi pregnant women in England; analysis of retrospective data.

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    Garcia, Rebecca; Ali, Nasreen; Guppy, Andy; Griffiths, Malcolm; Randhawa, Gurch

    2017-04-11

    Maternal obesity increases women's risk of poor birth outcomes, and statistics show that Pakistani and Bangladeshi women (who are born or settled) in the UK experience higher rates of perinatal mortality and congenital anomalies than white British or white Other women. This study compares the prevalence of maternal obesity in Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British women using standard and Asian-specific BMI metrics. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis using routinely recorded secondary data in Ciconia Maternity information System (CMiS), between 2008 and 2013. Mothers (n = 15,205) whose ethnicity was recorded as white British, Bangladeshi, Pakistani or Indian. Adjusted standardised residuals and Pearson Chi-square. Percentage of mothers stratified by ethnicity (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British) who are classified as overweight or obese using standard and revised World Health Organisation BMI thresholds. Compared to standard BMI thresholds, using the revised BMI threshold resulted in a higher prevalence of obesity: 22.8% of Indian and 24.3% of Bangladeshi and 32.3% of Pakistani women. Pearson Chi-square confirmed that significantly more Pakistani women were classified as 'obese' compared with white British, Indian or Bangladeshi women (χ 2  = 499,88 df = 9, p women stratified by maternal ethnicity of white British, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi. Using revised anthropometric measures in Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi women has clinical implications for identifying risks associated with obesity and increased complications in pregnancy.

  15. Human papillomavirus infection among Bangladeshi women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and chronic cervicitis

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    Elisha Khandker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Human papillomavirus (HPV is known to be associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cancer. The objective of the present study was to determine the rate of HPV infection among the Bangladeshi women with different grades of CIN and cancer. Methods: Women aged 20 to 55 years, diagnosed as a case of chronic cervicits, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN or invasive cancer by Papanicolaou (Pap smear and colposcopy directed biopsy were enrolled in the study. High and intermediate risk oncogenic HPV were detected in cervical samples by real time PCR (rt-PCR. Results: Seventy two women with chronic cervicitis and different grades of CIN were included in the study. Out of 72 cases, 28 (38.9% and 44 (61.1% had chronic cervicitis and CIN respectively. Overall, the HPV infection rate was 43.1% (95% CI= 32%-54% among the study population. CIN cases had significantly high (p<0.01 HPV infection (78.6%; 95% CI=60%-89% compared to cases with chronic cervicitis (18.2%; 95% CI=11.1%-34.5%. Women between the age of 20-30 years had the highest positive rate (50.0% followed by 31-40 years age group (43.6%. All CIN grade 2 and 3 had HPV infection. Conclusion: The study showed that HPV was strongly associated with different grades of CIN. Specific HPV types should be determined to find out the most prevalent HPV types among the Bangladeshi women with CIN and cervical cancers. IMC J Med Sci 2016; 10(1: 29-32

  16. Influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in Bangladeshi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Ekstroem, Eva-Charlotte; Loennerdal, Bo; Goessler, Walter; Akesson, Agneta; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental contaminant present in food. The absorption in the intestine increases in individuals with low iron stores, but the effect of zinc deficiency is not clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in pregnant Bangladeshi women. We measured cadmium in urine from 890 women using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Further, we also measured ferritin and zinc in plasma. The median cadmium concentration in urine was 0.59 μg/L (adjusted to mean specific gravity of 1.012 g/mL). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that urinary cadmium was associated with plasma ferritin and plasma zinc via a significant interaction between dichotomized plasma ferritin and plasma zinc. The analysis was adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women with low iron stores and adequate zinc status had significantly higher urinary cadmium compared to women with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. There was no difference in urinary cadmium between women with both low iron stores and zinc status compared to those with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. In conclusion, low iron stores were associated with increased cadmium accumulation, but only at adequate zinc status

  17. Prevalence of obesity among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their first trimester of pregnancy

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    Shatabdi Goon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paradoxically, the escalating global epidemic of maternal obesity coexists with malnutrion in many areas of Bangladesh. This proves a major challenge to obstetric practice from preconception to postpartum due to related comorbid conditions including: maternal death or severe morbidity, gestational diabetes and hypertension, increased risk of early and recurrent miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, thromboembolism, post-caesarean wound infection, postpartum haemorrhage, and low breastfeeding rates. A dramatic increase in birth defects and other pregnancy-induced disorders related to maternal obesity has added millions of dollars to health care costs leading great economical loss to the country. OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of obesity among Bangladeshi pregnant women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: 426 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care until of Azimpur maternity hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh were randomly selected for this cross sectional study to determine their weight status using body mass index (BMI, kg/m2. RESULT: 90 (21.2% pregnant women were reported as obese with pregnancy BMI of >30 kg/m2. 171 (40.1% and 140 (32.8% pregnant women were reported as overweight and healthy with pregnancy BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 and 18.5-24.9 kg/ m2, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed obesity and overweight status were found to be significantly associated with age; women aged 31 or above were more likely to be obese (OR=2.5; 95% CI 1.53–3.96 and overweight (OR=3.3; 95% CI 2.15–4.99. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of increasing trends in obesity among Bangladeshi pregnant women, which poses possible health risks both for mother and child. The findings of this study may act as baseline data for monitoring the effectiveness of national programs for the prevention and control of maternal obesity. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  18. Women's household decision-making autonomy and contraceptive behavior among Bangladeshi women.

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    Rahman, Md Mosfequr; Mostofa, Md Golam; Hoque, Md Aminul

    2014-03-01

    Women's autonomy is a potentially important but less studied indicator of using contraception among women as well as ability to control their fertility. This study explores women's decision-making autonomy as a potential indicator of the use of contraception in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study utilizes data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) 2007. Information of 8456 currently married and non-pregnant women aged 15-40 years are analyzed to meet up the objective of this study. The mean age of the respondents is 27.19 years and majority of the respondents are from rural areas (62.7%) and also Muslim (90.2%). A large number of women (26.1%) and their husbands (29.0%) have no education and 27.2% respondents were working at the time of interview. The mean number of living children is 2.14. 48.9% of the respondents are currently using a modern method of contraception. More than one-third women are not involved in their household decision-making. Results of this study indicate that household decision-making autonomy is significantly associated with current use of modern contraception, future intention to use contraception and discuss contraception with husband. This measure of women's autonomy provides additional independent explanatory power of contraceptive behavior net of some other socio-demographic variables. This study argues in favor of increasing women's autonomy to increase contraception using rate in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rural women's health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thurston, Wilfreda E; Leach, Belinda; Leipert, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    ... about reduction of government funding and access to health care, and about the shortage of new volunteers to replace them when they burn out. These are a few of the stories told in the chapters of this book. This ground-breaking collection of essays identifies priority issues that must be addressed to ensure rural women's well-being, and offers innovative ideas for improvement and further research. Rural women play a critical role within their families and communities, and the health of these wome...

  20. Safe delivery practices: experience from cross-sectional data of Bangladeshi women.

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    Kabir, M A; Goh, Kim-Leng; Khan, M M H; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Azam, Mohammad Nurul

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the safe delivery practices of Bangladeshi women using data on 4905 ever-married women aged 15 to 49 years from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Variables that included age, region of origin, education level of respondent and spouse, residence, working status, religion, involvement in NGOs, mass media exposure, and wealth index were analyzed to find correlates of safe delivery practices. More than 80% of the deliveries took place at home, and only 18% were under safe and hygienic conditions. The likelihood of safe deliveries was significantly lower among younger and older mothers than middle-aged mothers and higher among educated mothers and those living in urban areas. Economically better-off mothers and those with greater exposure to mass media had a significantly higher incidence of safe delivery practices. A significant association with religion and safe delivery practices was revealed. Demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and programmatic factors that are strongly associated with safe delivery practices should be considered in the formulation of reproductive health policy. © 2012 APJPH.

  1. Women in rural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, I

    1980-01-01

    The integration of women in rural development means something more than mere labor involvement, but there has never been a clear definition of what it means. 4 principal concerns of policy-makers are briefly described as they affect women: unemployment and inadequate employment; 2) the satisfaction of basic needs and women's participation in decision-making; 3) population issues; and 4) rural-to-urban migration. The actual inter-household and inter-personal distribution of more work and higher productivity work could result in some hard-working people working even longer hours because of additional tasks with others losing their intermittent employment opportunities due to mechanization. These contradictions can be particularly acute for women. The non-material basic need of decision-making powers is more important in the case of women than of men, yet the personal status of women is being threatened by the institution-building that accompanies peasant-based agricultural intensification plans and anti-poverty programs. The education of females has been seen as a possible factor favoring family planning. In addition, education for women can mean access to public information and new expectations from life for themselves. At this time more women than men seem to be migrating to towns and cities in a number of countries with varied economic structures. 3 cases studies of agricultural development in Kenya, Bangladesh and Java, Indonesia are presented.

  2. Rural women caregivers in Canada.

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    Crosato, Kay E; Leipert, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    Informal caregiving within rural contexts in Canada is increasing. This is due in part to a number of factors related to the restructuring of the Canadian health care system, the regionalization of services to urban locations, the increased population of people 65 years and older, and the desire of this population to age within their rural homes. Most often, the informal caregiving role is assumed by rural women. Women tend to fall into the role of informal caregiver to elders because of the many societal and gender expectations and values that are present within the rural culture. The purpose of this literature review is to identify the context in which women provide care for an elder in rural Canada. Illustrating these issues will help to uncover challenges and barriers rural women face when providing care and highlight recommendations and implications for rural women caregivers and nurses employed within rural settings. Many rural women share similar caregiving experiences as urban informal caregivers, but rural women are faced with additional challenges in providing quality care for an elder. Rural women caregivers are faced with such issues as limited access to adequate and appropriate healthcare services, culturally incongruent health care, geographical distance from regionalized centers and health services, transportation challenges, and social/geographical isolation. In addition to these issues, many rural women are faced with the multiple role demands that attend being a wife, mother, caregiver and employee. The pile up of these factors leaves rural women caregivers susceptible to additional stresses and burn out, with limited resources on which to depend. Through reviewing pertinent literature, appropriate implications and recommendations can be made that may assist rural women caregivers and rural nurses. Nurses working within rural communities are in ideal settings to work collaboratively in building supportive relationships with rural women in order to

  3. Rural African women and development.

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    Kabadaki, K

    1994-01-01

    70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of

  4. Application of Participatory Learning and Action Methods in Educational Technology Research A Rural Bangladeshi Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research ...

  5. Does cultural context make a difference to women?s experiences of maternity care? A qualitative study comparing the perspectives of breast?feeding women of Bangladeshi origin and health practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Alison; Renfrew, Mary J; Atkin, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background? Maternity services struggle to provide culturally appropriate care that meets the needs of women from diverse populations. Problems include simplistic understandings of ethnicity and the role of culture in women?s lives, and stereotypes held by health practitioners. Objective? To explore the extent to which cultural context makes a difference to experiences of breast?feeding support for women of Bangladeshi origin and to consider the implications for the provision of cult...

  6. A comparison of antenatal classifications of ‘overweight’ and ‘obesity’ prevalence between white British, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi pregnant women in England; analysis of retrospective data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal obesity increases women’s risk of poor birth outcomes, and statistics show that Pakistani and Bangladeshi women (who are born or settled in the UK experience higher rates of perinatal mortality and congenital anomalies than white British or white Other women. This study compares the prevalence of maternal obesity in Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British women using standard and Asian-specific BMI metrics. Method Retrospective cross-sectional analysis using routinely recorded secondary data in Ciconia Maternity information System (CMiS, between 2008 and 2013. Mothers (n = 15,205 whose ethnicity was recorded as white British, Bangladeshi, Pakistani or Indian. Adjusted standardised residuals and Pearson Chi-square. Main outcome measures: Percentage of mothers stratified by ethnicity (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British who are classified as overweight or obese using standard and revised World Health Organisation BMI thresholds. Results Compared to standard BMI thresholds, using the revised BMI threshold resulted in a higher prevalence of obesity: 22.8% of Indian and 24.3% of Bangladeshi and 32.3% of Pakistani women. Pearson Chi-square confirmed that significantly more Pakistani women were classified as ‘obese’ compared with white British, Indian or Bangladeshi women (χ 2  = 499,88 df = 9, p < 0.001. Conclusions There are differences in the prevalence of obese and overweight women stratified by maternal ethnicity of white British, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi. Using revised anthropometric measures in Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi women has clinical implications for identifying risks associated with obesity and increased complications in pregnancy.

  7. Does cultural context make a difference to women's experiences of maternity care? A qualitative study comparing the perspectives of breast-feeding women of Bangladeshi origin and health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Alison; Renfrew, Mary J; Atkin, Karl

    2013-12-01

    Maternity services struggle to provide culturally appropriate care that meets the needs of women from diverse populations. Problems include simplistic understandings of ethnicity and the role of culture in women's lives, and stereotypes held by health practitioners. To explore the extent to which cultural context makes a difference to experiences of breast-feeding support for women of Bangladeshi origin and to consider the implications for the provision of culturally appropriate care. The study comprised individual interviews with 23 women of Bangladeshi origin and four health service managers, and focus group discussions with 28 health practitioners between February and December 2008. Participants were recruited from four localities in northern England. Women's rich descriptions of various facets of their identities were in contrast to practitioners' representations of women of Bangladeshi origin as homogenous. Practitioners did not recognize when the needs of women of Bangladeshi origin were similar to those of the majority white population, or where cultural context made a difference to their experiences of breast-feeding and breast-feeding support. Some practitioners used cultural stereotypes which, combined with organizational constraints, resulted in services not meeting many of the women's needs. Implications for education, policy and practice include the need for training of health practitioners to work with diverse populations, implementing evidence-based practice and providing an organizational context which supports practitioners to respond to diversity without using cultural stereotypes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Does gender inequity increase the risk of intimate partner violence among women? Evidence from a national Bangladeshi sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from developing countries regarding the association between gender inequity and intimate partner violence (IPV victimization in women has been suggestive but inconclusive. Using nationally representative population-based data from Bangladesh, we examined the association between multidimensional aspects of gender inequity and the risk of IPV. METHODS: We used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 4,467 married women. The main explanatory variable was gender inequity, which reflects the multidimensional aspects of women's autonomy and the relationship inequality between women and their partner. The experience of physical and/or sexual IPV was the main outcome variable of interest. RESULTS: Over 53% of married Bangladeshi women experienced physical and/or sexual violence from their husbands. In the adjusted models, women who had a higher level of autonomy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.48; 99% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.61, a particularly high level of economic-decision-making autonomy (AOR 0.12; 99% CI 0.08-0.17, and a higher level of non-supportive attitudes towards wife beating or raping (AOR 0.61; 99% CI 0.47-0.83 were less likely to report having experienced IPV. Education level, age at marriage, and occupational discrepancy between spouses were also found to be significant predictors of IPV. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, dimensions of gender inequities were significant predictors of IPV among married women in Bangladesh. An investigation of the causal link between multidimensional aspects of gender inequity and IPV will be critical to developing interventions to reduce the risk of IPV and should be considered a public health research priority.

  9. Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women-A prospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippler, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Goessler, W. [Institut fuer Chemie-Analytische Chemie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria); Nermell, B. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstroem, E.C. [Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Loennerdal, B. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); El Arifeen, S. [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), GPO Box 128, Dhaka 100 (Bangladesh); Vahter, M., E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Experimental studies indicate that zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) status, in addition to iron (Fe) status, affect gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant that is toxic to kidneys, bone and endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various nutritional factors influence the uptake of Cd in women, particularly during pregnancy. The study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh, where malnutrition is prevalent and exposure to Cd via food appears elevated. The uptake of Cd was evaluated by associations between erythrocyte Cd concentrations (Ery-Cd), a marker of ongoing Cd exposure, and concentrations of nutritional markers. Blood samples, collected in early pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Ery-Cd varied considerably (range: 0.31-5.4 {mu}g/kg) with a median of 1.1 {mu}g/kg (approximately 0.5 {mu}g/L in whole blood) in early pregnancy. Ery-Cd was associated with erythrocyte manganese (Ery-Mn; positively), plasma ferritin (p-Ft; negatively), and erythrocyte Ca (Ery-Ca; negatively) in decreasing order, indicating common transporters for Cd, Fe and Mn. There was no evidence of Cd uptake via Zn transporters, but the association between Ery-Cd and p-Ft seemed to be dependent on adequate Zn status. On average, Ery-Cd increased significantly by 0.2 {mu}g/kg from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, apparently due to up-regulated divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). In conclusion, intestinal uptake of Cd appears to be influenced either directly or indirectly by several micronutrients, in particular Fe, Mn and Zn. The negative association with Ca may suggest that Cd inhibits the transport of Ca to blood.

  10. Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women-A prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, M.; Goessler, W.; Nermell, B.; Ekstroem, E.C.; Loennerdal, B.; El Arifeen, S.; Vahter, M.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental studies indicate that zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) status, in addition to iron (Fe) status, affect gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant that is toxic to kidneys, bone and endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various nutritional factors influence the uptake of Cd in women, particularly during pregnancy. The study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh, where malnutrition is prevalent and exposure to Cd via food appears elevated. The uptake of Cd was evaluated by associations between erythrocyte Cd concentrations (Ery-Cd), a marker of ongoing Cd exposure, and concentrations of nutritional markers. Blood samples, collected in early pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Ery-Cd varied considerably (range: 0.31-5.4 μg/kg) with a median of 1.1 μg/kg (approximately 0.5 μg/L in whole blood) in early pregnancy. Ery-Cd was associated with erythrocyte manganese (Ery-Mn; positively), plasma ferritin (p-Ft; negatively), and erythrocyte Ca (Ery-Ca; negatively) in decreasing order, indicating common transporters for Cd, Fe and Mn. There was no evidence of Cd uptake via Zn transporters, but the association between Ery-Cd and p-Ft seemed to be dependent on adequate Zn status. On average, Ery-Cd increased significantly by 0.2 μg/kg from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, apparently due to up-regulated divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). In conclusion, intestinal uptake of Cd appears to be influenced either directly or indirectly by several micronutrients, in particular Fe, Mn and Zn. The negative association with Ca may suggest that Cd inhibits the transport of Ca to blood.

  11. A cross sectional study of anemia and iron deficiency as risk factors for arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly L. Kile

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Ganges Delta, chronic arsenic poisoning is a health concern affecting millions of people who rely on groundwater as their potable water source. The prevalence of anemia is also high in this region, particularly among women. Moreover, arsenic is known to affect heme synthesis and erythrocytes and the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions appears to differ by sex. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 147 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi women to assess the association between anemia and arsenic-induced skin lesions. Results We observed that the odds of arsenic-related skin lesions were approximately three times higher among women who were anemic (hemoglobin < 120 g/L compared to women with normal hemoglobin levels [Odds Ratio (OR = 3.32, 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI: 1.29, 8.52] after adjusting for arsenic levels in drinking water and other covariates. Furthermore, 75 % of the women with anemia had adequate iron stores (serum ferritin ≥12 μg/L, suggesting that the majority of anemia detected in this population was unrelated to iron depletion. Conclusions Considering the magnitude of arsenic exposure and prevalence of anemia in Bangladeshi women, additional research is warranted that identifies the causes of anemia so that effective interventions can be implemented while arsenic remediation efforts continue.

  12. Health is a spiritual thing: perspectives of health care professionals and female Somali and Bangladeshi women on the health impacts of fasting during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathy, Rubini; Mills, Kelsey E; Gazeley, Sharon; Ridgley, Andrea; Kiran, Tara

    2011-02-01

    To explore perspectives of health care professionals and female Somali and Bangladeshi Muslim women on practices related to fasting during Ramadan, the impact of fasting on health and the role of health professionals during Ramadan. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted. Two culturally specific focus groups were conducted with six Somali and seven Bangladeshi Muslim women who observed Ramadan and lived in an inner-city neighbourhood of Toronto, Canada. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 health care professionals practicing in this inner-city area (three of whom were Muslim). Data were analysed using thematic qualitative analysis. Both Muslim women and health care professionals recognised the spiritual significance of the Ramadan fast. Muslim participants considered the fast to be beneficial to health overall, whereas health care professionals tended to reflect on health concerns from fasting. Many health care professionals were not fully aware of fasting practices during Ramadan and some found it challenging to counsel patients about the health effects of fasting. Muslim women expressed disagreement regarding which medical interventions were permitted during fasting. They generally agreed that health care professionals should not specifically advise against fasting, but instead provide guidance on health maintenance while fasting. Both groups agreed that guidelines developed by the health care and faith communities together would be useful. There are a variety of health beliefs and observances among female Muslim Somali and Bangladeshi women and a range of knowledge, experience and opinions among health care professionals related to fasting during Ramadan and health. Overall, there is a need for improved communication between members of the Muslim community and health professionals in Canada about health issues related to fasting during Ramadan. Strategies could include published practice guidelines endorsed by the Muslim

  13. Associations between Methylated Metabolites of Arsenic and Selenium in Urine of Pregnant Bangladeshi Women and Interactions between the Main Genes Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skröder, Helena; Engström, Karin; Kuehnelt, Doris; Kippler, Maria; Francesconi, Kevin; Nermell, Barbro; Tofail, Fahmida; Broberg, Karin; Vahter, Marie

    2018-02-01

    It has been proposed that interactions between selenium and arsenic in the body may affect their kinetics and toxicity. However, it is unknown how the elements influence each other in humans. We aimed to investigate potential interactions in the methylation of selenium and arsenic. Urinary selenium (U-Se) and arsenic (U-As) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) in samples collected from pregnant women ( n =226) in rural Bangladesh at gestational weeks (GW) 8, 14, 19, and 30. Urinary concentrations of trimethyl selenonium ion (TMSe) were measured by HPLC-vapor generation-ICPMS, as were inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Methylation efficiency was assessed based on relative amounts (%) of arsenic and selenium metabolites in urine. Genotyping for the main arsenite and selenium methyltransferases, AS3MT and INMT, was performed using TaqMan probes or Sequenom. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses indicated that %TMSe (at GW8) was positively associated with %MMA (β=1.3, 95% CI: 0.56, 2.0) and U-As, and inversely associated with %DMA and U-Se in producers of TMSe ( INMT rs6970396 AG+AA, n =74), who had a wide range of urinary TMSe (12-42%). Also, %TMSe decreased in parallel to %MMA during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester (-0.58 %TMSe per gestational week). We found a gene-gene interaction for %MMA ( p -interaction=0.076 for haplotype 1). In analysis stratified by INMT genotype, the association between %MMA and both AS3MT haplotypes 1 and 3 was stronger in women with the INMT GG (TMSe nonproducers, 5th-95th percentile: 0.2-2%TMSe) vs. AG+AA genotype. Our findings for Bangladeshi women suggest a positive association between urinary %MMA and %TMSe. Genes involved in the methylation of selenium and arsenic may interact on associations with urinary %MMA. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1912.

  14. Sub-Clinical Iodine Deficiency Still Prevalent in Bangladeshi Adolescent Girls and Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ara, G.; Boonstra, A.; Roy, S.; Alam, N.; Ahmed, S.; Khatun, Uh.F.; Ahmed, T.

    2010-01-01

    The major aim was to determine iodine status of adolescent girls and pregnant women in Bangladesh. Secondary objectives were to assess knowledge and practice on iodized salt use and to determine predictors of iodine status. A total number of 354 adolescent girls and 256 pregnant women were randomly

  15. Negotiating Middle-class Respectable Femininity: Bangladeshi Women and their Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Nazia

    2017-01-01

    Using qualitative data, this article explains how affluent urban and new middle-class women in Bangladesh reconstruct the notion of respectable femininity within the family. The normative conception of middle-class women’s respectability is measured against women prioritizing family above work by performing their domestic, care, and socializing roles and by maintaining moral propriety. Using Bourdieu’s theory of capitals and Lamont’s formulation of boundary work, I demonstrate that by reinsta...

  16. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years.Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054 was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2 at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50% decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001 and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06-4.20, mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.81 or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37-2.77.Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth.

  17. Inculcating home economics based life skills in rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inculcating home economics based life skills in rural women in Anambra state ... Poverty among rural women in Nigeria hinders the economic and social ... could be inculcated among the rural women using a range of networking approaches.

  18. Does cultural context make a difference to women’s experiences of maternity care? A qualitative study comparing the perspectives of breast‐feeding women of Bangladeshi origin and health practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Alison; Renfrew, Mary J; Atkin, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background  Maternity services struggle to provide culturally appropriate care that meets the needs of women from diverse populations. Problems include simplistic understandings of ethnicity and the role of culture in women’s lives, and stereotypes held by health practitioners. Objective  To explore the extent to which cultural context makes a difference to experiences of breast‐feeding support for women of Bangladeshi origin and to consider the implications for the provision of culturally appropriate care. Methods  The study comprised individual interviews with 23 women of Bangladeshi origin and four health service managers, and focus group discussions with 28 health practitioners between February and December 2008. Participants were recruited from four localities in northern England. Results  Women’s rich descriptions of various facets of their identities were in contrast to practitioners’ representations of women of Bangladeshi origin as homogenous. Practitioners did not recognize when the needs of women of Bangladeshi origin were similar to those of the majority white population, or where cultural context made a difference to their experiences of breast‐feeding and breast‐feeding support. Some practitioners used cultural stereotypes which, combined with organizational constraints, resulted in services not meeting many of the women’s needs. Conclusions  Implications for education, policy and practice include the need for training of health practitioners to work with diverse populations, implementing evidence‐based practice and providing an organizational context which supports practitioners to respond to diversity without using cultural stereotypes. PMID:22429489

  19. Toys and toilets: cross-sectional study using children's toys to evaluate environmental faecal contamination in rural Bangladeshi households with different sanitation facilities and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcic, Jelena; Ram, Pavani K; Hussain, Faruqe; Unicomb, Leanne; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Abedin, Jaynal; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Islam, M Sirajul; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate household faecal contamination using children's toys among 100 rural Bangladeshi households categorised as 'cleaner' (toilet that reliably separates faeces from the environment and no human faeces in/around living space) or 'less clean' (no toilet or toilet that does not reliably separate faeces from the environment and human faeces in/around living space). We distributed toy balls to each household and rinsed each study toy and a toy already owned by the household in 200 ml of Ringer's solution. We enumerated faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci from each rinse using membrane filtration methods. Study toys from 39 cleaner households had lower mean faecal coliform contamination than toys from 61 less clean households (2.4 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/200 ml vs. 3.2 log10 CFU/200 ml, P = 0.03). However, wealth measures explained a portion of this relationship. Repeat measures were moderately variable [coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.5 between two toys in the household at the same time, CV = 37.6 between toys in the household at two different times 3-4 days apart]. Too few households owned a non-porous toy to compare groups without risk of bias. In rural Bangladesh, improved sanitation facilities and practices were associated with less environmental contamination. Whether this association is independent of household wealth and whether the difference in contamination improves child health merit further study. The variation found was typical for measures of environmental contamination, and requires large sample sizes to ascertain differences between groups with statistical significance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Rural Women\\'s Response To Selected Crop Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study centered on rural women's response to selected crop production technologies in Imo State with a view to making policy recommendations. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were administered through the assistance of extension agents to 258 randomly sampled rural women farmers from the three ...

  1. Rural Working Women And Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal S

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on workload and pattern of 300 rural women of different economic strata was undertaken. The women had a heavy workload from 14-17 hours a day. This sapped their energies and led to poor nutritional status and also affected the nutritional status and care of young children. Women busy in work were seldom available for organized activities and were thus not reached by health and welfare programmes. This calls for better intersectoral co-ordination and well-organized women groups in rural areas.

  2. Rural Women, Money and Financial Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiggins, Janice

    1985-01-01

    The author points out the multifaceted aspects of the problems associated with rural women's need for money and financial services and outlines innovative schemes in this area such as the bank for the landless in Bangladesh, a savings and loan cooperative for market women in Nicaragua, and a savings development movement in Zimbabwe. (CT)

  3. A 24-hour dietary recall for assessing the intake pattern of choline among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatabdi Goon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal choline intake during the third trimester of human pregnancy can modify systemic and local epigenetic marks in fetal-derived tissues, promoting better pregnancy outcomes, increased immunity, as well as improved mental and physical work capacity with proper memory and cognitive development. 103 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care of Azimpur Maternity Hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh in their third trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected for this cross sectional study exploring dietary intake patterns of choline. A dietary recall form was administered to estimate frequency and amount of food consumption of foods for the previous 24 hours. Most women reported diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SD; 189.5 ± 98.2 providing only 42.72% of total RDA value. The results of this study may indicate that dietary choline among pregnant, Bangladeshi women may not be adequate to meet the needs of both, the mother and fetus. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  4. Rural Women\\'s Preference For Selected Programmes Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the rural women's preference for selected programmes of the National Special Programme for Food Security (NSPFS) in Imo State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of structured interview from 150 randomly selected women in the study area. Results from the study showed that respondents ...

  5. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  6. Women Making Politics in Rural Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Ebbe

    Since the Senegalese local elections in 1996, women have increasingly entered the local political arena in rural councils and municipalities. This book addresses the question of how women act politically, what interests they defend and how they influence resource allocation. The author argues...... that structural changes have opened space for resourceful women to enter local politics. However women's mobilisation does not radically break with the clientelist and factional dynamics of Senegalese politics. Women leaders often start their career in party politics as result of co-optation by male political...... leaders, but they do not continue as passive objects of male manipulation. Senegalese female politicians demonstrate that they are capable of taking up political positions using the local women's groups and the Women's Federation as political backyard and support. They create networks that can...

  7. Women and rural water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandara, Christina Geoffrey; Niehof, Anke; Horst, van der Hilje

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses how informal structures intersect with women's participation in formally created decision-making spaces for managing domestic water at the village level in Tanzania. The results reveal the influence of the informal context on women's access to and performance in the formal

  8. RURAL WOMEN PERCEPTION ON BUSHMEAT TRADE AROUND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-01-30

    Jan 30, 2012 ... The study examines the perception of rural women on bushmeat trade around Kainji Lake National Park ... eating the meat as a way of linking up with their ..... Religion. Christianity. 68. 56.7. Islam. 51. 42.5. Traditional. 1. 0.8.

  9. Access to Productive Resources: The Catalyst to Rural Women's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, rural women in post-apartheid South Africa are experiencing hardships in laying hold of such resources. The pertinent questions the article seeks to interrogate are: who should determine the resource needs of rural women? Are the one size fit all programmes ideal for alleviating rural women's poverty. This article ...

  10. How poor are women in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajuladevi, A K

    1992-07-01

    The assessment of poor women in India as dependent and exploited regardless of poverty focused strategies is reflected in this review of relevant literature. The scholarly approaches to the problems of poor women involve redirection and expansion of resources to women (increase bank credit) through policy and institutional changes, and involve improving women's welfare through changes in class and gender hierarchies; both pertain to restructuring power groups. A little ascribed to belief is that the organization of women's numbers will empower women; the constraints are stated. There is also some argument over whether to design women-specific programs or integrate women into existing programs; some examples are given of successes and difficulties. The regionalization of poverty in eastern and central India is discussed. The growth of the poor has been among the landless, wage-dependent households. 9.6% of households (7.5 million) are headed by women. Women work fewer hours and at lower wage scales and have fewer employment opportunities. Lower earnings are coupled with differentials in demand for female and male labor in agriculture and a crowded labor market. There is a concentration of women in less visible, nonmonetary subsistence production and domestic work. Women are undercounted in employment studies. Women predominate in agricultural activity. Women's status is influenced by economic status, caste, and ethnic background. Domestic work increases status for women and households. The poorer households have greater labor force participation, particularly as wage laborers rather than unpaid family workers. Regional factors affecting rural household strategies are factors affecting the economy (topography, rainfall, climate) and the degree of development, plus sociocultural variables (kinship and religious beliefs which affect the social domain of women), and the degree of dependence on hired vs. family labor. There are sharp contrasts in the value and survival

  11. Disabled women's attendance at community women's groups in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J; Colbourn, T; Budhathoki, B; Sen, A; Adhikari, D; Bamjan, J; Pathak, S; Basnet, A; Trani, J F; Costello, A; Manandhar, D; Groce, N

    2017-06-01

    There is strong evidence that participatory approaches to health and participatory women's groups hold great potential to improve the health of women and children in resource poor settings. It is important to consider if interventions are reaching the most marginalized, and therefore we examined disabled women's participation in women's groups and other community groups in rural Nepal. People with disabilities constitute 15% of the world's population and face high levels of poverty, stigma, social marginalization and unequal access to health resources, and therefore their access to women's groups is particularly important. We used a mixed methods approach to describe attendance in groups among disabled and non-disabled women, considering different types and severities of disability. We found no significant differences in the percentage of women that had ever attended at least one of our women's groups, between non-disabled and disabled women. This was true for women with all severities and types of disability, except physically disabled women who were slightly less likely to have attended. Barriers such as poverty, lack of family support, lack of self-confidence and attendance in many groups prevented women from attending groups. Our findings are particularly significant because disabled people's participation in broader community groups, not focused on disability, has been little studied. We conclude that women's groups are an important way to reach disabled women in resource poor communities. We recommend that disabled persons organizations help to increase awareness of disability issues among organizations running community groups to further increase their effectiveness in reaching disabled women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Comparative Analysis Of Agricultural Productivity Of Rural Women In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From each of the 12 villages, 10 rural women were randomly selected from list of registered rural women farmers provided by Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) using simple random sampling ... Results indicate that most of the women are young adult of less than or thirty years of age with high literacy level.

  13. Rural women in the wired world | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... Other times, it refers to the disparity between people in rural and urban settings. ... down those barriers separating rural women from the benefits of ICTs. ... to become increasingly useful to other women, and our whole community.” ... women living on Tonga's outer islands, and also by their lack of access to ...

  14. Nutritional status and cognitive function in community-living rural Bangladeshi older adults: data from the poverty and health in ageing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Tamanna; Cederholm, Tommy; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Hamadani, Jena Derakhshani; Wahlin, Ake

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the association between nutritional status and general and specific (fluid and crystallized) cognitive functioning in a group of older people living in a rural area in Bangladesh. Cross-sectional study. Matlab, Bangladesh. Four hundred fifty-seven randomly selected persons aged 60 and older (mean age 69.5 +/- 6.8), 55% female. Nutritional status was evaluated using a modified form of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). General cognitive function was assessed using the Bangla Adaptation of the Mini-Mental State Examination, and a word synonym test was used to test semantic memory function (a crystallized ability). To assess cognitive processing speed (a fluid ability), "cross balls" and "complete boxes" tests (scores/time unit) were used. Clinical diagnoses were registered. Structured questionnaires were used to assess demographic and socioeconomic status of the participants. Twenty-six percent of the participants were undernourished, and 62% were at risk of malnutrition according to the MNA. The MNA scores were significantly lower in women than in men (P=.01). Women performed worse than men in all three cognitive tasks (Pperformance was independently associated with older age, female sex, illiteracy, visual impairment, severity of disease, and depressive symptoms. There were significant associations between better nutritional status and better cognitive performance tests of general ability and processing speed, whereas semantic memory appeared to be less affected. The association between nutritional status and cognitive function involves general and specific cognitive abilities, with fluid ability seeming to be affected but crystalized functions being relatively spared.

  15. Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas are shaped by the lack of business ideas and economic capital, which, in addition to financial resources, includes cultural capital in the form of knowledge and skills. The paper presents a part of a broader study on the social position of women from the rural areas of northern Kosovo and Metohija, conducted in 2013. The research was predominantly focused on entrepreneurial inclinations of rural women, and the findings suggest that private enterprise in the studied population is undeveloped as a result of two dominant reasons. The first reason is the situation which is unfavorable in terms of politics and security, and therefore, not conducive to investment security, together with the specificity in the form of complex administrative business conditions requiring compliance to parallel and mutually incompatible standards (of the Republic of Serbia and of the UNMIK administration. The second important reason for the lack of entrepreneurial initiatives is the lack of ownership of property and the means of production, since banks do not give loans without guarantees in the form of ownership of the mortgage, while other forms of financial incentives are unavailable. The respondents attended programs for acquiring new knowledge and skills only in a small number of cases, while showing the greatest susceptibility to education in traditional skills, such as training in agriculture and handicrafts, which are not the skills in line with the needs of the labor market. As the most important reasons that -prevent them from having their own business, the respondents -mentioned: the lack of ideas and the lack of financial resources. In this regard, they would find incentives in the form of grants most helpful to start their own business. The absence of funds and gender inequality form the basis for the lack of ownership of property and means of production. In addition to the shortage of financial

  16. Livelihood Strategies of Rural Women with Emphasis on Income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores some of the livelihood strategies of rural women with emphasis ... per annum, which leads to limited access to the scarce land and other resources. ... livelihood tragedy, about 27% of the rural women respondents began to limit the ... used to move away from home to look for employment opportunities.

  17. Enhancing rural economies: women in groundnut marketing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incomes for rural women are generally low and continue to dwindle. For women living in rural Northern Ghana, a major source of income and therefore economic sustenance is groundnut production. The empirical findings of this study conducted in Kalbeo, a peri-urban Community Institutional Mapping (CIM) and ...

  18. Menstrual Disorders in Rural Igbo Women of Ebonyi State, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rural Igbo women frequently perceive disorders of menstruation in the context of their inability to achieve pregnancy, and may otherwise not volunteer information on such abnormalities in the gynaecological clinic. This study determined the prevalence and pattern of menstrual disorders in rural Igbo women of ...

  19. Rural Women's Attitude Towards Adoption Of Improved Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Women's Attitude Towards Adoption Of Improved Crop Production Practices In Aguata Agricultural Zone, Anambra State, Nigeria. ... Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Rural women agreed that improved crops normally lose their taste after harvest (mean = 3.02).

  20. Experiencing Lifetime Domestic Violence: Associations with Mental Health and Stress among Pregnant Women in Rural Bangladesh: The MINIMat Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Frith, Amy Lynn; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Experience of domestic violence has negative mental health consequences for women. The association of cumulative and specific forms of domestic violence, particularly emotional violence and controlling behavior, with common mental disorders and stress has rarely been studied in pregnant women. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations of specific and multiple forms of lifetime domestic violence and controlling behavior with distress and cortisol level during pregnancy in rural Bangladeshi women. In this observational sub-study of larger MINIMat trial, 3504 pregnant women were interviewed using a shortened Conflict Tactic Scale about their lifetime experience of domestic violence including physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior. Women's levels of emotional distress were assessed using the self-reported questionnaire (SRQ-20) developed by WHO, and levels of morning salivary cortisol were measured in a subsample (n = 1300) of women during week 28-32 of pregnancy. Regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of lifetime physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior with levels of distress and cortisol during pregnancy. The prevalence of lifetime domestic violence was 57% and emotional distress was 35% in these pregnant women. All forms of domestic violence were associated with higher levels of emotional distress. Women who experienced either emotional violence or controlling behavior had the highest levels of emotional distress. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative number of the different forms of domestic violence and women's levels of emotional distress. There was no association between women's experience of domestic violence and level of morning salivary cortisol. Including emotional violence and controlling behavior as major types of violence in future research and health interventions is warranted. Furthermore, the extent of the negative impacts of domestic violence

  1. Perception of Labour Pain among Rural Women Presenting to A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childbirth results in severe pain for many women. In many hospitals in Resource-Limited Countries (RLCs), women endure the pain of labour with little or no pain relief. There have not been any studies done within 36 hours of a recent delivery to determine how rural Kenyan women perceive the pain of labour, ...

  2. Rural black women's agency within intimate partnerships amid the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The HIV pandemic reveals the contradictions between women's legal rights and the persistence of women's cultural and sexual subordination. It reflects the impact of poverty, gender roles, culture and religion. Although HIV and AIDS cuts across class, South African rural black women's infection risk seems particularly high ...

  3. Challenges and Prospects of Rural Women in Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women plays significant role in agricultural production, their contribution is as high as between 60 to 90 percent of the total task performed. This study focused on the prospects and challenges of rural women in agricultural production. It highlights the efforts of women in crop, livestock, fishery production, food ...

  4. Empowering Rural Women through Mobile Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, P.; Jiji, G. Wiselin

    2010-01-01

    This paper is intended as a gender issue to the rural finance practitioners. It highlights the questions that need to be asked and addressed to the gender mainstream. It will also be useful to gender experts to wish to increase their understanding on specific gender issues in rural finance through mobile services. It focuses on rural microfinance…

  5. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  6. Improving Rural Women Income through Cocoyam Value Addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    empowered rural women to become entrepreneurs at various levels. ... have showed that value added agriculture can be one way to preserve small farmers .... The results in Table 2 show the level of utilization of cocoyam value addition.

  7. Menstruation in Rural Igbo Women of South East Nigeria: Attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstruation in Rural Igbo Women of South East Nigeria: Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... Some respondents observed self-imposed restrictions on exercises, food items, visits and sex in order to ...

  8. Supporting business opportunities for rural women in east and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research will identify factors and policy instruments influencing rural women's ... more rewarding, and determine the types of entrepreneurship that are likely to ... Using quantitative and qualitative methods, this research project will provide ...

  9. What are Pregnant Women in a Rural Niger Delta Community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Buchanan House, Glasgow Caledonian University Email: Caroline. ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... sometimes you stay for the whole day.

  10. Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania: A Case of Onion ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Therefore the government, nongovernmental organisations and development programmes espousing to ...

  11. The Position and Empowerment of & Women in Rural Nigeria: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Position and Empowerment of & Women in Rural Nigeria: The Gender ... base on the continued entrenchment and perpetuation of traditional cultures as ... have manifested itself in gender inequality and discrimination that has far reaching ...

  12. Enhancing rural economies: women in groundnut marketing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing rural economies: women in groundnut marketing in the Bolgatanga area. ... The findings were that lack of credit support, transport limitations, inefficient groundnut marketing channels and systems, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. Knowledge and awareness of breast cancer among rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thus early diagnosis and increased survival rate of breast cancer cases. ... Thus, there was a positive relationship between educational attainment and the ... Keywords: Awareness, breast cancer, screening, rural women, health education ...

  14. Understanding Contexts of Family Violence in Rural, Farming Communities: Implications for Rural Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…

  15. Approaches to Economic Empowerment of Rural Women for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are several ways of promoting women's economic participation while also counteracting climate change. One approach in the field of climate mitigation is the promotion of renewable energies that help avoid greenhouse gas emissions. The potential of rural women as agents of change for climate mitigation and ...

  16. Constraints to the economic activities of women in rural areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite decades of gender research and public action by civil society, policy makers continue to neglect the rich indigenous knowledge (IK) and the role of women as breadwinners in rural areas. These women have little or no access to economic assets as they are located in poverty-stricken areas lacking in basic ...

  17. Postmenopausal symptoms in a group of rural Xhosa women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To describe the incidence and understanding of early postmenopausal symptoms in rural Xhosa women. Methods: After written informed consent, 137 women were interviewed within five years after natural menopause using the Greene Climacteric Scale. Body mass indices were calculated, and blood levels of ...

  18. Factors associated with access of rural women to technology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive, correlational study was conducted to: describe the channels through which rural women obtain information regarding technology, and factors promoting access of women to technology; determine the contribution of technology to socio-economic development; and describe the relationships among factors ...

  19. Cadmium interacts with the transport of essential micronutrients in the mammary gland-A study in rural Bangladeshi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Loennerdal, Bo; Goessler, Walter; Ekstroem, Eva-Charlotte; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although the concentrations of the toxic metal cadmium in breast milk are generally low ( s = 0.56; p s = 0.55; p s = -0.17; p = 0.05), indicating that cadmium inhibits the transport of calcium to breast milk. In conclusion, the present study may indicate that cadmium shares common transporters with iron and manganese for transfer to breast milk, but inhibits secretion of calcium to breast milk

  20. Some Critical Issues of Women Entrepreneurship in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    VIJAY KUMBHAR

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the issues regarding women entrepreneurship in rural India. This paper is mostly based on secondary data and some observations; for the identification of these issues the author has reviewed different research articles and reports. Findings of this study reveal that absence of definite agenda of life, absence of balance between family and career obligations of women, poor degree of financial freedom for women, absence of direct ownership of the property, th...

  1. Remote rural women's choice of birthplace and transfer experiences in rural Otago and Southland New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jean; Foureur, Maralyn; Skinner, Joan

    2017-09-01

    Birth in primary midwife-led maternity units has been demonstrated to be a safe choice for well women anticipating a normal birth. The incidence of serious perinatal outcomes for these women is comparable to similarly low risk women, who choose to birth in hospital. New Zealand women have a choice of Lead Maternity Carer (LMC) and birthplace; home, primary birthing unit, or a base hospital, though not all women may have all these choices available locally. Women in rural and rural remote areas can also choose to birth in their rural primary maternity unit. A percentage of these women (approx. 15-17%) will require transfer during labour, an event which can cause distress and often loss of midwifery continuity of care. To explore retrospectively the choice of birth place decisions and the labour and birth experiences of a sample of women resident in remotely zoned, rural areas of the lower South Island of New Zealand. A purposive sample of women living in remote rural areas, recruited by advertising in local newspapers and flyers. Individual semi-structured interviews were digitally recorded using a pragmatic interpretive approach. The data (transcripts and field notes) were analysed using thematic and content analysis. Ethical approval was obtained from the Health and Disability Ethics Committee (HEDC) MEC/06/05/045. Thirteen women consented to participate. Each was resident in a remote rural area having given birth in the previous 18 months. The women had been well during their pregnancies and at the onset of labour had anticipated a spontaneous vaginal birth. Rural remote zoned areas in Otago and Southland in the South Island of New Zealand FINDINGS: Five women planned to birth in a regional hospital and eight chose their nearest rural primary maternity unit. All of the women were aware of the possibility of transfer and had made their decision about their birthplace based on their perception of their personal safety, and in consideration of their distance from

  2. Institutional Capacity Building for Rural Women's Empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de S.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Basically, women¿s empowerment is the process (and its outcomes) in which women ¿ individually and collectively- become active, knowledgeable and goal-oriented actors who take and/ or support initiatives to overcoming gender inequalities. Hence, women¿s empowerment refers to a strategy to achieve

  3. Easing the burden of rural women: a 16-hour workday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagley, R M

    1976-01-01

    Women are the 2nd-class citizens of the developing countries, especially in the rural areas. Not until the status of women is upgraded in these areas will the struggle for better nutrition, for smaller families, and for general social development be successful. The reasons why women have been neglected so far are discussed. Women in developing countries suffer from a lack of power. They can be helped by women in affluent societies. Information on the status of women in various Asian, African, and Latin American countries was solicited and is presented. Obstacles to improvement in the condition of women include: 1) continual childbearing 2) traditional values, 3) social pressures, and 4) the machismo philosophy. Recommendations are made for ways in which to aid the situation of women in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Some beginning efforts in this direction are mentioned.

  4. No comfort in the rural South: women living depressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, Emily J

    2003-02-01

    Despite the widespread notion of the bucolic life in the country, major depressive disorder (MDD) is common among impoverished women in the rural South. Women with MDD seldom get treated because of the paucity of treatment available, the inability to pay for services because of no insurance, and the distance they must travel to reach care. Even if treatment was available, impoverished rural Southern women are unlikely to seek services because of cultural and social prohibitions. These include incongruence between the biomedical model of MDD and sociocultural explanations for its causes and manifestations, stigma, and traditional viewpoints of women that keep them isolated and invisible. Innovative treatment strategies must be devised for these women that are based on local views of MDD and its treatment, and people and monetary resources available in poor rural economies. Needed research with this population include ethnographic studies to gain understanding of the cultural factors associated with MDD and its treatment and evaluation of outreach, and other novel paradigms of rural service delivery including the use of nonprofessional personnel. Although the problems of treatment and research with this population are daunting, there is an opportunity for imagination, innovation, and creativity in devising local solutions to local problems. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  5. Leadership Enhancement of Rural Women. | Patwardhan | Gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at developing a training program for enhancement of women leadership and executing and evaluating its effect. The Enhancement of Women Leadership Program (EWLP) was developed, which consists of five broad dimensions as Nurturing Intelligence, Self Development, Developing Leadership Skills, ...

  6. The perceptions of rural women doctors about their work

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recruitment and retention of medical staff are important issues in rural ... was to describe and understand the perceptions of women doctors working in ... the environment and security, and that the proximity of home and work gives a .... Black. White. Indian. White. White. White. White. Black. Indian. White. White.

  7. Cervical Cancer in Women with Unhealthy Cervix in a Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    women with grossly unhealthy cervix in a rural population and to get an overview of ... to be implemented with immediate effect to early diagnose cases to decrease the ... hygiene and early marriage are closely related to the ... and incidence of cervicitis is high. .... other factors such as smoking, diet, oral contraceptives,.

  8. Menopausal challenges as perceived by women in rural villages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the challenges of menopause as perceived by participants in rural villages of Vhembe District. A cross-sectional study involved a sample of 500 women between the ages of 40 years and above. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and was analysed descriptively. The results indicated that ...

  9. Challenges of extension workers in reaching rural women farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenges of extension workers in reaching rural women farmers in Enugu State Nigeria. Questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample size of 52 extension workers. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean statistic, chart and factor analysis. Results revealed that training and visit ...

  10. What are pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, studies have sought cause and effect and have neglected the opinion of the people about what they perceive to be problematic and what they believe constitutes satisfactory maternity service provision. An exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...

  11. Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community of ... ours, it is a common cause of anaemia in pregnancy in both immune and non-immune ... Apart from the use of nets, drugs and vector control, the prevention of malaria in ...

  12. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  13. EFFECTS OF CHILDBEARING ON RURAL WOMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    socio-economic characteristics of childbearing women involved in ... an individual is an important factor in determining performance in any situation. ..... for agricultural research institutions; CIMMTT Economics program paper No 99-2 Mexico.

  14. Contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practice among rural women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, R.; Hashmi, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among rural women. One-hundred women between the ages 15-45, living with their husbands and coming from rural area (villages) were interviewed. Women who were pregnant, had a child younger than 2 years, or had any medical disorder were excluded. Their knowledge, attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. The other variables used were the age of women, parity and educational status. Descriptive analysis was conducted to obtain percentages. Out of 100 interviewed women with mean age of 29.7 years, 81(81%) had some knowledge about family planning methods. The media provided information of contraceptives in 52 out of 81 (64%) women. Regarding the usage of contraceptive methods, only 53 (53%) of the respondents were using some sort of contraception. Barrier method (condoms) was in practice by 18 (33.9%) and 12 (22.6%) of women had already undergone tubal ligation. The women using injectables and intrauterine contraceptive devices were 10 (18.8%) and 7 (13.2%) respectively. Six were using oral contraceptive pills (11.3%). Positive attitude towards contraception was shown by 76 (76%) of them, while 41(41%) stated their husbands positive attitude towards contraception. In the present study, there was a low contraceptive use among women of rural origin despite good knowledge. Motivation of couples through media and health personnel can help to achieve positive attitude of husbands for effective use of contraceptives. (author)

  15. Rural Women Veterans' Use and Perception of Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelse, Kathy; Messecar, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    While the total number of veterans in the U.S. is decreasing overall, the number of women veterans is significantly increasing. There are numerous barriers which keep women veterans from accessing mental health care. One barrier which can impact receiving care is living in a rural area. Veterans in rural areas have access to fewer mental health services than do urban residing veterans, and women veterans in general have less access to mental health care than do their male colleagues. Little is known about rural women veterans and their mental health service needs. Women, who have served in the military, have unique problems related to their service compared to their male colleagues including higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and military sexual trauma (MST). This qualitative study investigated use of and barriers to receiving mental health care for rural women veterans. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women veterans who have reported experiencing problems with either MST, PTSD, or combat trauma. All ten women had utilized mental health services during active-duty military service, and post service, in Veterans Administration (VA) community based-outpatient clinics. Several recurring themes in the women's experience were identified. For all of the women interviewed, a sentinel precipitating event led to seeking mental health services. These precipitating events included episodes of chronic sexual harassment and ridicule, traumatic sexual assaults, and difficult combat experiences. Efforts to report mistreatment were unsuccessful or met with punishment. All the women interviewed reported that they would not have sought services without the help of a supportive peer who encouraged seeking care. Barriers to seeking care included feeling like they were not really a combat veteran (in spite of serving in a combat unit in Iraq); feeling stigmatized by providers and other military personnel, being treated as crazy; and a lack of interest

  16. Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. Women in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Paula

    As the traditional water carriers and water managers, third world women are crucial to the success of rural water supply projects whose short term goal is increased water quality and quantity and whose long term goal is improved family health. Change depends on the utilization of local learning systems of the society and women are most often the…

  17. THE INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT OF RURAL GBAGYI WOMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    13.6%. looking for contracts amounted to 9.0% advertising services came to ... of women in small scale business in Botswana, and the identified information .... from ward and councilors and 224 (95.31%) said no, (4.26%) use social network.

  18. EFFECTS OF CHILDBEARING ON RURAL WOMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    , 63.8 % of the ... women contribute from 50-90% of the labour for rice cultivation. And in .... farming activities before marriage.14.4% had primary education,18.6% had ... Higher National Diploma while 10.2% had Bachelor of Science certificate.

  19. Policy Priorities In Rural Women Empowerment Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The female gender can not be sidelined while discussing issues of poverty and food security. In like manner, equitability can not be divorced from sustainability as it is one major issue in sustainability. History has revealed that Nigerian women are not always allowed by men to exert themselves fully. Some encumbrances ...

  20. Cultural perceptions and the productive roles of rural Pakistani women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraz, T S

    1992-01-01

    The roles of rural Pakistani women in agricultural production are described with numerous examples from a village study by Anwar and Bilquees, and the author's research in a Punjabi village (Rajpur) to show cultural perceptions of women and their work, and the nature of productive activities inside the house and outside on the farm. The cultural perceptions are related to the image of women as dependent/private wives and mothers. A broad definition of production is used to include activities, such as churning milk which generates income and saves expenditures and making butter which fulfills household needs and is sold in the market for cash. Rajpur is a village engaged in social change. Men seek work outside the villages, and women take on work previously assumed by men. Women contribute considerably to the year-round production and processing of major crops. The productive labor of women by major crop type and activity type are described and charted. Tending livestock is performed exclusively by men. Handicraft activity at home reduces expenditure for buying these items in the local markets. Most women were unaware of the savings and "indirect" income their work contributed to the household. Work for wages is viewed as men's work. Women's mobility beyond the fields and home is still limited; market activity must be conducted with a male present and women do not earn cash. The division of labor is conceived by men for women because of women's cultural identity. Women are perceived as "chase daughters/sisters, fertile wives, and nurturing mothers." There are punishments or social rewards for proper behavior. Women in their private domain are expected to "look good within the house," which is viewed as a feminine world. The outside world is masculine. Women are also seen as lacking reasoning ability and their motherhood roles limit their capability to cope with external affairs. There is great value attached to the invisibility of women physically, socially, and

  1. Medical abortion: understanding perspectives of rural and marginalized women from rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri, B Subha; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2012-09-01

    To understand how rural and other groups of marginalized women define safe abortion; their perspectives and concerns regarding medical abortion (MA); and what factors affect their access to safe abortion. Focus group discussions were held with various groups of rural and marginalized women in Tamil Nadu to understand their perspectives and concerns on abortion, especially MA. Nearly a decade after mifepristone was approved for abortion in India, most study participants had never heard of MA. When they learned of the method, most preferred it over other methods of abortion. The women also had questions and concerns about the method and recommendations on how services should be provided. Their definition of a "safe abortion" included criteria beyond medical safety. They placed a high priority on "social safety," including confidentiality and privacy. In their view, factors affecting access to safe abortion and choice of provider included cost, assurance of secrecy, promptness of service provision, and absence of provider gatekeeping and provider-imposed conditions for receiving services. Women's preference for MA shows the potential of this technology to address the problem of unsafe abortion in India. Women need better access to information and services to realize this potential, however. Women's preferences regarding information dissemination and service provision need to be taken into account if policies and programs are to be truly responsive to the needs of marginalized women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Women's access needs in maternity care in rural Tasmania, Australia: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ha; Le, Quynh; Terry, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates (i) maternity care access issues in rural Tasmania, (ii) rural women's challenges in accessing maternity services and (iii) rural women's access needs in maternity services. A mixed-method approach using a survey and semi-structured interviews was conducted. The survey explored women's views of rural maternity services from antenatal to postnatal care, while interviews reinforced the survey results and provided insights into the access issues and needs of women in maternity care. The survey was completed by n=210 women, with a response rate of 35%, with n=22 follow-up interviews being conducted. The survey indicated the majority of rural women believed antenatal education and check-ups and postnatal check-ups should be provided locally. The majority of women surveyed also believed in the importance of having a maternity unit in the local hospital, which was further iterated and clarified within the interviews. Three main themes emerged from the interview data, namely (i) lack of access to maternity services, (ii) difficulties in accessing maternity services, and (iii) rural women's access needs. The study suggested that women's access needs are not fully met in some rural areas of Tasmania. Rural women face many challenges when accessing maternity services, including financial burden and risk of labouring en route. The study supports the claim that the closure of rural maternity units shifts cost and risk from the health care system to rural women and their families. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role Of Rural Women In Crop And Poultry Production In Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the roles of rural women in crops and poultry production in rural areas in Cross River State, and their contribution to food production and preservation. The paper also revealed that rural women participate in food production and bearing responsibility for food marketing and distribution, family health, ...

  4. Property Rights in Women's Empowerment in Rural India: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Kartik C.; Tisdell, Clement A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of property rights in women’s empowerment in rural India. Arguments justifying the need for granting property rights to women are presented and the distinction is made between legal (formal) and customary (informal) rights. The ineffectiveness of legal right in absence of customary rights has been discussed. Customary rights also become ineffective due to other institutional impediments. These impediments have been discussed. The results of extensive field w...

  5. Rural Women organized around the Cultivation of Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Paola Oyola Carvajal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural women have always participated in the reproductive and productive spheres of family systems. Today they are continuously participating in organizational spaces beyond the household, where they play a determinant role in the welfare of their family members by generating income that increases the possibility of the household’s economic sustainability. The article illustrates this phenomenon through the experience of a group of women from the municipality of Soracá (Boyacá, Colombia, who have started to cultivate quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

  6. kNOw Fear: Making rural public spaces safer for women and girls ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... kNOw Fear: Making rural public spaces safer for women and girls ... The International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW) conducts research ... Poonam Kathuria's 17 years of experience as a women's rights advocate is ...

  7. FOETAL ULTRASOUND - NEUROECTODERMAL ANOMALIES IN RURAL PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Venkata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies

  8. “Rejecting the inevitability of poverty”: Empower women for sustainable rural livelihoods through community-based employment intensive rural infrastructure maintenance projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the extent to which employment-intensive rural infrastructure maintenance projects can be used as a tool to empower women to achieve sustainable rural livelihoods using Siyatentela rural road maintenance program in Mpumalanga...

  9. Physical attractiveness and women's HIV risk in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Margaret; Chae, Sophia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, where a generalized AIDS epidemic exists, suggests that attractiveness may play a role in shaping individual-level HIV risk. Attractive women, who are often blamed for the epidemic and stigmatized, are believed to pose a higher HIV risk because they are viewed as having more and riskier partners. We examine the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk in rural Malawi in the midst of the country's severe AIDS epidemic. We use interviewers' ratings of respondents' attractiveness, along with HIV test results and women's assessments of their own likelihood of infection, to estimate the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk for a random sample of 961 women aged 15-35. Results show that women who are rated by interviewers as 'much less' or 'less' attractive than other women their age are 9% more likely to test positive for HIV. We also find that attractiveness is associated with women's own assessments of their HIV risk: Among women who tested negative, those perceived as 'much less' or 'less' attractive than average report themselves to be at greater risk of HIV infection. These results suggest that attractiveness is negatively associated with HIV risk in Malawi, countering local beliefs that hold attractive women responsible for perpetuating the epidemic. This study highlights the need to consider perceived physical attractiveness, and sexual desirability more broadly, as an under-examined axis of inequality in HIV risk in high-prevalence settings.

  10. Issues of poor rural self-employed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumani, U

    1994-01-01

    Most Indian women are low income and self-employed, but women's studies have not focused on this large population. In order to fill in the gap in the literature on women's employment in India, a study was conducted in 1985 among 800 women from 5 "talukas" in Ahmedabad district. This article describes the common social and economic issues faced by poor, rural, self-employed women. Most of the sample belong to lower caste groups. The caste system contributed largely to their poverty, exploitation, and lack of access to facilities. The Harijans are treated the worst and many villages consider them untouchables. The Vaghris and the Dehgam are considered low caste but not untouchables. These groups are not treated much better than the Harijans. Relations between various castes are often strained. In many villages access to information about government programs is controlled by the Sarpanch and Talati and denied to the lower castes. Women's division of labor is determined by caste. The response to the demands of survival among low-income women is to adopt a "contingency" approach to life. These women are mobile, travel with few belongings, and seek shelter anywhere. Children are not sent to school. Many are untrained even in a caste-based occupation. The poor are generally landless and without assets. Work skills are acquired from family or neighbors. Women and poor people lack access to loans and lack awareness of detailed procedures. Cash payment does not usually go to women. Women work in caste-based occupations in addition to two or three seasonal agricultural labor jobs. Development programs do not address the current situation of the poor.

  11. Change comes slowly for women in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, D

    1997-04-01

    Survey results from two disparate rural areas of Bangladesh, Sirajgong and Gopalpur subdistricts in the north-central part of the country and Abhoynagar and Fultala subdistricts in the southwest, offer the opportunity to assess the changing status of women in rural Bangladesh. The survey, conducted by the Mother and Child Health/Family Planning Extension Project of the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Control during 1982-89, collected data on 7433 ever-married women 15-56 years old. The analysis focused on two indicators: women's freedom to move outside their homes (mobility) and women's authority in household decision making. Although most respondents moved freely between households, they rarely traveled outside their village alone. In addition, respondents had little input in household decisions regarding health or expenditures. 65% felt they should be able to decide whether to see a doctor when they were ill or to buy medicine for a sick child, but only 7% actually made such decisions on their own. The majority approved of women working outside their homes, but only 11% did so. Both mobility and authority tended to increase with a woman's age. Women who lived in households headed by their in-laws had less mobility and much less authority. Women from poor homes had greater mobility, but wealth had little effect on household decision making. Education tended to increase decision-making authority but decrease mobility. Finally, the greater economic development, ecological stability, cultural diversity, and social progressiveness in the southwestern region tended to increase both mobility and authority.

  12. Trend differences in men and women in rural and urban U.S. settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Benito, A; Doogan, N J; Redner, R; Roberts, M E; Kurti, A N; Villanti, A C; Lopez, A A; Quisenberry, A J; Stanton, C A; Gaalema, D E; Keith, D R; Parker, M A; Higgins, S T

    2018-04-05

    Smoking prevalence is declining at a slower rate in rural than urban settings in the United States (U.S.), and known predictors of smoking do not readily account for this trend difference. Given that socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of health disparities accumulate in rural settings and that life-course disadvantages are often greater in women than men, we examined whether smoking trends are different for rural and urban men and women. We used yearly cross-sectional data (n = 303,311) from the U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2007 through 2014 to compare cigarette smoking trends in men and women across rural and urban areas. Current smoking status was modelled using logistic regression controlling for confounding risk factors. Regression derived graphs predicting unadjusted prevalence estimates and 95% confidence bands revealed that whereas the smoking trends of rural men, urban men, and urban women significantly declined from 2007 to 2014, the trend for rural women was flat. Controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial predictors of smoking did not explain rural women's significantly different trend from those of the other three groups. Rural women lag behind rural men, urban men and urban women in decreasing smoking, a health disparity finding that supports the need for tobacco control and regulatory policies and interventions that are more effective in reducing smoking among rural women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. kNOw Fear: Making Rural Public Spaces Safe for Women and Girls ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Acute violence against women and girls in rural areas has remained ... freedom from violence and safety for women and girls in rural public spaces in India. ... where both young women and men will come together to change attitudes, ... who are constitutionally mandated to ensure social justice and equitable development.

  14. Women Managing/Managing Women: The Marginalization of Female Leadership in Rural School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines 21 female administrators' accounts of their experience in a rural Nova Scotia school district. Presents preliminary findings of these women's own responses, resistances, and initiatives while attempting to legitimize and implement their preferred leadership styles, which stressed relationships, instructional leadership, communication, and…

  15. Rural women's perspectives of maternity services in the Midland Region of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Veronique; Lancaster, Gytha; Gosman, Kim; Lawrenson, Ross

    2016-09-01

    INTRODUCTION Rural women face many challenges with regards to maternity services. Many rural primary birthing facilities in New Zealand have closed. The Lead Maternity Carer (LMC) model of maternity care, introduced in 1990, has moved provision of rural maternity care from doctors to independent midwifery services. Shortages of rural midwives in the Midland region led to rural maternity care being seen as a vulnerable service. AIM To understand the views and experiences of rural women concerning maternity care, to inform the future design and provision of rural maternity services. METHODS Participants were drawn from areas purposively selected to represent the five District Health Boards comprising the Midland health region. A demographic questionnaire, focus groups and individual interviews explored rural women's perspectives of antenatal care provision. These were analysed thematically. RESULTS Sixty-two women were recruited. Key themes emerging from focus groups and interviews included: access to services, the importance of safety and quality of care, the need for appropriate information at different stages, and the role of partners, family and friends in the birthing journey. While most women were happy with access to services, quality of care, provision of information, and the role of family in their care, for some women, this experience could be enhanced. CONCLUSION Midwives are the frontline service for women seeking antenatal services. Support for rural midwives and for local birthing units is needed to ensure rural women receive services equal to that of their urban counterparts.

  16. Rural women's aspirations through art work. Responses to ICPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Members of Women, Population and Development groups, which aim to improve women's status in rural areas of China, will use their embroidery and tapestries to tell their stories at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995. Contests were held at the county and provincial levels to decide whose artwork, from over a 1000 groups, would go to the conference. 35 pieces (one group tapestry or embroidery from each county) were judged at the provincial level based on how the artwork and the stories of the women who made it demonstrated the achievements of the women as a result of their group involvement. The criteria included: 1) higher self image, confidence, and desire for personal growth; 2) increased social mobility and creativity; 3) more independence and self-reliance in income generation and other activities; 4) increased ability to make decisions for self; 5) increased respect within family and community; 6) more consciousness of maternal and child health and family planning needs; and 7) more awareness of the need for literacy. The Women, Population and Development Project is funded by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), executed by FAO, and implemented by MOFTEC¿DIR.

  17. Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie C; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Lombard, Catherine B; Harrison, Cheryce L

    2017-06-08

    Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban ( n = 149) and rural ( n = 394) women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD), 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264). Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD) 80,000 vs. urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality.

  18. Women in rural family medicine: a qualitative exploration of practice attributes that promote physician satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedde, Carol; Paladine, Heather; Wendling, Andrea; Prasad, Rupa; Sola, Orlando; Bjorkman, Sarah; Phillips, Julie

    2018-04-01

    The USA needs more rural physicians. Although women represent half of all US trained medical students, the rural physician workforce has remained predominantly male. Insight is needed into what makes rural practice attractive for women and which practice characteristics allow women physicians to practice successfully in rural areas. This study's purpose was to examine aspects of the practice environment that impact women physicians' professional satisfaction and commitment to rural medicine. Twenty-five women family physicians practicing in rural areas of the USA were interviewed by phone using a semi-structured format. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using an immersion and crystallization approach. Emergent themes were identified, coded, and discussed until team consensus was attained. Interviews continued until saturation of themes was reached. Three themes emerged from the data, in relationship to practice and employment attributes that contribute to US women physicians' professional satisfaction and willingness to remain in a rural setting: professional relationships, practice characteristics, and support during times of transition. Participants placed high importance on professional relationships, both within and outside of their rural practice. Rural women physicians enjoyed practicing an expanded scope of care, valued loan repayment opportunities, and appreciated supportive practice partners. Importantly, women physicians who found themselves struggling to maintain rural careers often had experienced difficulty during times of practice transition, including maternity leaves. Understanding practice attributes valued by successful rural women family physicians in the USA will help rural health systems, practices, and physicians-in-training to develop and evaluate opportunities that will best contribute to successful rural practice. Supporting women physicians during periods of practice transition may improve retention.

  19. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: A rural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal R Tandon

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed alarmingly high prevalence of most of the conventional CVRFs, especially diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and other risk factors in postmenopausal women from rural areas.

  20. Introduction: rural women in Europe: the impact of place and culture on gender mainstreaming the European Rural Development Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shortall, S.; Bock, B.B.

    2015-01-01

    Gender relations are socially constructed. Space and culture are key factors in this process. We consider how women's identity is constructed in rural areas of Europe. In particular, we examine the ability of gender mainstreaming to advance gender equality through the EU Rural Development Programme

  1. Microfinance and Violence Against Women in Rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Isabel; Lacalle-Calderon, Maricruz; Torralba, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Violence against Women (VaW) has come to be recognized as a serious human rights abuse with important consequences not only for women but for whole societies. Since VaW has several manifestations, it is possible to differentiate among different types of violence. In this article, a broad theoretical framework with different dimensions of gender violence was adapted to a Latin American social and cultural context to measure three out of the five main types of violence: economic violence, emotional psychological violence, and coercive control. The goal of this article is to provide empirical evidence to determine whether access to microfinance services plays a role in reducing VaW. To this end, we designed and performed a cross-sectional study with a treatment and a control group in rural Guatemala. A sample of 883 rural women in the "Altiplano" area of Guatemala (448 women with microfinance services and 435 without) was surveyed from May to November 2012. The results of the bivariate logistic regression showed evidence of association between access to microfinance services and reduction of VaW. After adjusting for covariates, global, economic, and emotional psychological violence maintained a negative and statistically significant association with microfinance, while only coercive control showed no statistical association with microfinance services. Access to microcredits showed a very clear relationship to reducing economic and emotional violence but not coercive control, a factor that may be determined by social and cultural norms. In contrast to Status Inconsistency Theory, which has been tested primarily in Asia, our study of Guatemala showed that increased status and economic independence of women due to their participation in microfinance services reduced VaW.

  2. Social issues around advanced unwanted pregnancies in rural single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S; Palaparthy, S; Mishra, S

    2009-05-01

    This study covers issues on advanced unwanted pregnancies in rural single women in South-east Asia, with reference to age, education, occupation, person responsible (i.e. baby's father) and reasons for delay in seeking assistance. It describes single women with pregnancy beyond the time for abortion, as set by the Indian abortion law. The study involved 314 girls/women and was set in the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, India. The girls/women were admitted, provided with free facilities and had their babies looked after by hospital staff until given up for adoption, or otherwise. The outcomes of the study showed that most individuals (71.01%) were rural, less-literate, working girls. In 94.26% of cases, the baby's father was known; 24 (7.64%) reported rape (13 by a known person). A total of 66 individuals (21.02%) did not inform their parents about the pregnancy for up to 5 months. Five (1.59%) went to unqualified medical practitioners and 16.56% to private practitioners who did not give their services. A total of 47 (14.96%) had waited for the person responsible for their pregnancy before seeking assistance. There was a total of 315 babies born to 310 mothers (five twins); four absconded undelivered; 13 absconded after delivery (two with their babies, 11 leaving babies). The study found that pregnancies were often caused by rape and girls/women with no knowledge of abortion laws, shyness, fear, lack of desired privacy, lack of resources, misleading management at periphery all went beyond 20 weeks. Mostly, the babies were not accepted--the girls married the babies' fathers, but left their babies. Emergency contraception for unprotected sexual intercourse is essential.

  3. A reproductive health survey of rural women in Hebei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J

    1998-12-01

    This article presents the findings of a 1995 family planning survey conducted among 657 women aged 18-49 years in rural areas of Tangshan City, Zhoushou City, and Xingtai City in Hebei province, Northern China. 620 were married, 37 were single, and 6 were widowed. 85.8% of married rural women used a contraceptive method (female sterilization or IUD). There were 1219 pregnancies, 230 abortions, 31 miscarriages, and 3 stillbirths. 68.1% received prenatal check-ups at hospitals and health centers. 47.4% received prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. 76.1% received check-ups at township health centers. Women were aware of the need for sound personal hygiene, sanitary napkins, and avoidance of heavy manual work during menstruation. 45.1% had less than 5 years of education; 51.8% had 6-10 years of education; and 3.1% had over 10 years of education. About 54% delivered at home. Home deliveries were due to lack of transportation, high expenses, and other reasons. Deliveries were attended by a doctor or midwife. Postpartum home visits were not assured. 32.4% had routine gynecological check-ups. 48.1% had never received gynecological services. 51.6% of married women had 2 children; 16.9% had more. The author recommended improved socioeconomic and cultural conditions, a women-centered reproductive health security system integrated with education, and legislative change. Reproductive health education should be integrated into family planning programs and include health awareness and more education. Men should participate in programs and share more responsibility for reproduction. Services should improve in quality.

  4. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

  5. Physical attractiveness and women's HIV risk in rural Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Frye

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Qualitative evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, where a generalized AIDS epidemic exists, suggests that attractiveness may play a role in shaping individual-level HIV risk. Attractive women, who are often blamed for the epidemic and stigmatized, are believed to pose a higher HIV risk because they are viewed as having more and riskier partners. Objective: We examine the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk in rural Malawi in the midst of the country's severe AIDS epidemic. Methods: We use interviewers' ratings of respondents' attractiveness, along with HIV test results and women's assessments of their own likelihood of infection, to estimate the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk for a random sample of 961 women aged 15‒35. Results: Results show that women who are rated by interviewers as 'much less' or 'less' attractive than other women their age are 9Š more likely to test positive for HIV. We also find that attractiveness is associated with women's own assessments of their HIV risk: Among women who tested negative, those perceived as 'much less' or 'less' attractive than average report themselves to be at greater risk of HIV infection. Conclusions: These results suggest that attractiveness is negatively associated with HIV risk in Malawi, countering local beliefs that hold attractive women responsible for perpetuating the epidemic. Contribution: This study highlights the need to consider perceived physical attractiveness, and sexual desirability more broadly, as an under-examined axis of inequality in HIV risk in high-prevalence settings.

  6. Rural Tanzanian women's awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindmark Gunilla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness of the danger signs of obstetric complications is the essential first step in accepting appropriate and timely referral to obstetric and newborn care. The objectives of this study were to assess women's awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications and to identify associated factors in a rural district in Tanzania. Methods A total of 1118 women who had been pregnant in the past two years were interviewed. A list of medically recognized potentially life threatening obstetric signs was obtained from the responses given. Chi- square test was used to determine associations between categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with awareness of obstetric danger signs. Results More than 98% of the women attended antenatal care at least once. Half of the women knew at least one obstetric danger sign. The percentage of women who knew at least one danger sign during pregnancy was 26%, during delivery 23% and after delivery 40%. Few women knew three or more danger signs. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis having secondary education or more increased the likelihood of awareness of obstetric danger signs six-fold (OR = 5.8; 95% CI: 1.8–19 in comparison with no education at all. The likelihood to have more awareness increased significantly by increasing age of the mother, number of deliveries, number of antenatal visits, whether the delivery took place at a health institution and whether the mother was informed of having a risks/complications during antenatal care. Conclusion Women had low awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications. We recommend the following in order to increase awareness of danger signs of obstetrical complications: to improve quality of counseling and involving other family members in antenatal and postnatal care, to use radio messages and educational sessions targeting the whole community and to intensify

  7. The Impact of Education on Rural Women's Participation in Political and Economic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishaw, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…

  8. Dietary intake of cadmium from Bangladeshi foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, S W; Jenkins, R O; Haris, P I

    2012-01-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) is associated with various diseases and high levels of Cd have been detected in Bangladeshi population warranting further research to identify the source of this exposure. In this study, Cd levels in 327 and 94 samples of Bangladeshi food and non-food samples, respectively, were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This is the largest number of Bangladeshi food and nonfood samples investigated for their Cd content. High Cd levels were detected in leafy vegetables (mean 31 [SD 29]μg/kg). Of these vegetables, lal shak (Amaranthus tricolor) contained the highest Cd level (303 μg/kg [wet weight]; mean 100.5 [SD 95]μg/kg). Bangladeshi rice also showed significant concentration of Cd (mean 37.2 [SD 30]μg/kg). Of particular concern is the very high level of Cd detected in some puffed rice, which we attribute to the illegal practice of using urea for whitening the puffed rice. Tobacco leaves, which are commonly consumed during betel quid chewing by Bangladeshis, contain significant levels of Cd (mean 95 [SD 87]μg/kg). The total daily intake (TDI) of Cd from foods for Bangladeshis was estimated to be 34.55 μg/d. This is rather high when compared to the TDI of Cd for other populations. Our analysis reveals that this is mainly due to the very high intake of rice and vegetables, and lower consumption of animal products (which are low in Cd), by the Bangladeshis. We also determined the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake and target hazard quotients values for Cd. Clearly a more balanced diet is necessary to reduce the Cd intake in the Bangladeshi population, especially by reducing the very high intake of rice and certain leafy vegetables. Food manufacturing and agricultural practices needs to be altered to reduce the entry of Cd into the food chain. Exposure to high levels of Cd can be harmful to human health and this study provides a comprehensive analysis of Cd levels in a variety of food items from

  9. Determinants of health and nutritional status of rural Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Obong, H N; Enugu, G I; Uwaegbute, A C

    2001-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of socioeconomic and cultural factors on the health and nutritional status of 300 women of childbearing age in two rural farming communities in Enugu State, Nigeria. The women were engaged in farming, trading, and teaching. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative data-collection methods. The study involved focus-group discussions (FGDs), interviews using a questionnaire, measurement of food/nutrient intake, assessment of activity patterns, anthropometry, and observations of clinical signs of malnutrition. The better-educated women had higher incomes than those with little or no education. Poor education was mainly attributed to lack of monetary support by parents (34%), marriage while in school (27%), and sex discrimination (21%). The teachers had significantly (p nutrition knowledge, food habits, nutrient intake, and self-concept, and adhered less to detrimental cultural practices. However, none of the women met their iron, riboflavin and niacin requirements. More cases of chronic energy deficiency were observed among the farmers (16%) and traders (13%) than among the teachers (5%). Generally, the women worked long hours with reported working hours (6-7 hours) being lower than the observed working hours (11 hours) for the traders and teachers. Income had a significant (p nutritional variables, except vitamin C, age-at-marriage (r = 0.719), and nutrition knowledge (r = 0.601). Age-at-marriage had a positive correlation with body mass index (BMI) and all nutritional variables but was significant (p teachers were dependent on the availability of food in the household. Food taboos had no effect on their nutrient intake, since only 5-11% of women adhered to taboos. Although most women gave their children and husbands preference in food distribution, not much difference was found in the amount of food consumed by these women. The ratio of wife's portion to husband's was 1:1.4 for

  10. Comparing the Pattern of Menopausal Symptoms, Concern and Attitudes in Urban and Rural Postmenopausal Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Sevil; Haggi, Hurieh Badali; Shojai, Shayan Kamali; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Farhan, Faranak

    2018-04-01

    Although hormonal changes during menopause are inevitable in this period, the severity of the menopausal symptoms can be controlled. Accepting menopause and having a positive attitude toward it can also help. Given the results of previous studies, and since environmental factors affect the pattern of menopausal symptoms the present study was conducted to compare the pattern of menopausal symptoms, concern and attitudes in urban and rural postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted on urban and rural postmenopausal women residing in and around Tabriz, Iran. Cluster sampling was used to select the subjects. The data collection tools used included a demographic questionnaire to assess women's experiences during menopause. This study examined 544 urban and rural postmenopausal women between March and September 2015. The women had a mean age of 51.8 ± 3.1. After adjusting the basic variables, the mean scores of menopausal symptoms and their subscales showed significantly higher scores in the physical and psychological subscales in the urban women, while the rural women had significantly higher scores in the concern subscale. Rural women were significantly different from urban women in terms of menopausal symptoms, concern and attitudes. Hot flushes, a common menopausal symptom, and decreased sexual desire were more common in the urban women; in contrast, the rural women experienced more concern about menopause and its consequences.

  11. Men's perspectives on women's empowerment and intimate partner violence in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Lenzi, Rachel; Badal, Shamsul Huda; Nazneen, Sohela

    2018-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) may increase as women in patriarchal societies become empowered, implicitly or explicitly challenging prevailing gender norms. Prior evidence suggests an inverse U-shaped relationship between women's empowerment and IPV, in which violence against women first increases and then decreases as more egalitarian gender norms gradually gain acceptance. By means of focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews with men in 10 Bangladeshi villages, this study explored men's evolving views of women, gender norms and the legitimacy of men's perpetration of IPV in the context of a gender transition. It examines men's often-contradictory narratives about women's empowerment and concomitant changes in norms of masculinity, and identifies aspects of women's empowerment that are most likely to provoke a male backlash. Findings suggest that men's growing acceptance of egalitarian gender norms and their self-reported decreased engagement in IPV are driven largely by pragmatic self-interest: their desire to improve their economic status and fear of negative consequences of IPV.

  12. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorean Nabukalu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods: Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo were determined for females (aged 15–49 years resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown. Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95%CI was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results: A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1, peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1 and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.410.9. Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.211.1, accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR, 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05, self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15, and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82; external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62 CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, CI: 1.79–3.75. Conclusion: HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV treatment

  13. Menstrual socialization, beliefs, and attitudes concerning menstruation in rural and urban Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvan, Maria Luisa; Trujillo, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    Women living in rural and urban areas of Mexico answered a questionnaire about what they were told at home about menstruation before their menarche (first menstruation), and answered the Beliefs About and Attitudes Toward Menstruation Questionnaire. Around half of both urban and rural women were told that they were going to experience negative perimenstrual changes. There were fewer urban than rural women who were advised to do or not to do certain activities while menstruating. Menstrual socialization affected the beliefs and attitudes concerning menstruation held by women as adults. These findings are discussed in light of the sociocultural background of the participants.

  14. Induced abortions among adolescent women in rural Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Bela; Hirve, Siddhi

    2002-05-01

    In a study in rural Maharashtra, India, adolescents constituted 13.1% of the 1717 married women who had an induced abortion during an 18-month period in 1996-1998. The 197 adolescents who were subsequently interviewed had a lesser role in the decision-making process on abortion than women older than them. Most abortions were obtained in the private sector. Though spacing was the main reason for adolescents seeking abortion, prior contraceptive use among them was low. Additionally, they were less likely to receive post-abortion contraceptive counselling or to adopt contraception. Sex selection accounted for more than a fifth of abortions among adolescents. Additional qualitative data from 43 never-married and separated adolescents seeking abortion showed that non-consensual sex made many pregnancies unwanted, and cost, limited mobility, lack of family and partner support and the need for privacy to prevent stigma led many to go to traditional providers, even though safer options existed. Family planning programmes need to address the contraceptive needs of newly married adolescent women as well as unmarried adolescents. Informing adolescents of their legal rights, sensitising providers to adopt an empathetic attitude, and exploring innovative ways of increasing access to safe services for unmarried adolescents are all recommended.

  15. Transformative learning theory: facilitating mammography screening in rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtzer, Mary Anne; Overstreet, Lindsey

    2014-03-01

    To use transformative learning to investigate what experiences serve as catalysts for mammography screening, the cognitive and affective responses that result from the catalyst, and how screening behavior is impacted. A descriptive qualitative study. Southeastern Wyoming. 25 low-income, rural women aged 40 years and older. Four focus group interviews. Cancer experiences triggered universal responses of fear by screeners and nonscreeners. The manner in which that fear response was interpreted was a critical factor in the facilitation of, or impedance to, screening. Dichotomous interpretations of fear responses provided the context for screening behavior. Immobilizing and isolating experiences were associated with nonscreening behavior, whereas motivation and self-efficacy were associated with screening behavior. Transformative learning theory is a useful framework from which to explain differences in mammography screening behavior. Creating opportunities that facilitate dialogue and critical reflection hold the potential to change immobilizing and isolating frames of reference in nonscreening women. To help women transcend their fear and become self-efficacious, nurses can assess how cancer and the screening experience is viewed and, if indicated, move beyond standard education and offer opportunities for dialogue and critical reflection.

  16. Women and family poultry production in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, E H

    2000-02-01

    Poultry production has existed for many generations in Africa, and almost every village household keeps chickens. The rural family poultry (RFP) are generally raised in free-range and/or backyard systems, which are traditional extensive husbandry systems. The development of an intensive poultry production has been the goal of the African government over the years. Despite efforts aiming for such goal, RFP is still very important in African countries that are both poor and net importers of food. It is a valuable asset because it can contribute significantly in alleviating poverty, securing food supply, and promoting gender equality. In view of this, interventions to improve RFP production systems should take into account the sociocultural issues, specifically gender-based aspects. It is noted that such interventions might, in addition to food security and poverty alleviation, also serve to promote gender equality. RFP development programs should be more women-friendly in order to facilitate women's participation, as RFP production in the region is generally a woman's business. Moreover, efforts to empower village women has to be envisaged cautiously as there is a serious risk of men taking over once the poultry sector becomes more profitable.

  17. Life course effects on age at menopause among Bangladeshi sedentees and migrants to the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lorna; Sievert, Lynnette; Begum, Khurshida; Sharmeen, Taniya; Puleo, Elaine; Chowdhury, Osul; Muttukrishna, Shanthi; Bentley, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    To assess how different variables experienced across the life course, but particularly during early life, might affect age at menopause among 174 Bangladeshi migrants to London by comparing them to 157 nonmigrant sedentees and 154 women of European descent in London. Participants were aged 35-59 years, with no exogenous hormone use in the past three months, not pregnant or lactating, with no history of hysterectomy or oophorectomy. Face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measures were carried out. In addition to mean recalled age at natural menopause, median age was computed by probit analysis. Ages at menopause were examined by bivariate and Cox regression analyses in relation to demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle variables, and in relation to potential exposure to cyclones in early childhood. Ages at menopause were significantly earlier among Bangladeshi sedentees and immigrants compared to Londoners of European origin. Ages at menopause were earlier among sedentees compared to immigrants. Urban birthplace, more infectious diseases during childhood, and lower levels of education increased the risk of an earlier menopause. Changes in environmental conditions during adulthood appeared to modify age at menopause among Bangladeshi immigrants in London compared to women living in Bangladesh; however, Bangladeshi immigrants still experienced an earlier age at menopause compared with their London neighbors of European descent. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Factors Associated with Contraceptive Use among Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Districts of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulifan, Joseph K; Mazalale, Jacob; Jahn, Albrecht; Hien, Hervé; Ilboudo, Patrick Christian; Meda, Nicolas; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Hamadou, Saidou; Haidara, Ousmane; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Given the current low contraceptive use and corresponding high levels of unwanted pregnancies leading to induced abortions and poor maternal health outcomes among rural populations, a detailed understanding of the factors that limit contraceptive use is essential. Our study investigated household and health facility factors that influence contraceptive use decisions among rural women in rural Burkina Faso. We collected data on fertile non-pregnant women in 24 rural districts in 2014. Of 8,657 women, 1,098 used a modern contraceptive. Women having a living son, a child younger than one year, and household wealth were more likely to use modern contraceptives. Women in polygamous marriages and women living at least 5 kilometers from a health facility were less likely to use contraception. We conclude that modern contraceptive use remains weak, hence, programs aiming to encourage contraceptive use must address barriers at both the health facility and the household level.

  19. Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C. Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban (n = 149 and rural (n = 394 women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD, 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264. Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD 80,000 vs. <$AUD80,000 p = 0.013 and working status (working fulltime/part-time vs. unemployed p = 0.043. Total diet quality did not differ in urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality.

  20. Teaching rural women in Nicaragua the principles of breast health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Rosemary B; Bhushan, Devika

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer has emerged as an important health condition worldwide, including developing countries. Screening is limited or non-existent in resource-poor areas. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of self (SBE) and clinical (CBE) breast examinations among 198 rural Nicaraguan women. Ten (5.1%) had performed a SBE, and 16 (8.1%) had a CBE. CBE was significantly associated with a pre-instruction total score of 70% or greater (OR = 13.7, 95% CI = 1.26, 149.70, p = 0.03). Family history of breast cancer was significantly associated with performing a SBE (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 1.10, 27.81, p = 0.037) and a CBE (OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 1.40, 35.94, p = 0.018). A CBE is a significant determinant of pre-existing breast health knowledge. Physicians or physician extenders should be encouraged to perform a CBE as a routine component of health care delivery and cancer screening for women.

  1. Preference in place of delivery among rural Indian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashoke Gorain

    Full Text Available India accounts for the highest number of maternal and child deaths globally. A large body of empirical research suggests that improvement in the coverage of institutional delivery is essential to reduce the burden of maternal and child death. However the dynamics of choice of place of delivery is poorly understood. Using qualitative survey data consisting of twelve focus group discussions, conducted in a rural setting of West Bengal, India, this study aims to understand the reasons behind preferring home or institution for delivery. Findings reveal that some women who underwent an institutional delivery preferred to deliver their baby at home. On the other hand, of women who delivered their baby at home, 60% wanted to deliver their babies in institutions but could not do so, primarily due to the unwillingness of family members and misreporting of the onset of true labour pain. With the help of Accredited Social Health Activists, the village level health workers, there is need for an intervention that focuses on educating household members (essentially targeting husbands and mother-in-laws about birth preparedness, and identification of true labour pain.

  2. Peace, justice and disabled women's advocacy: Tamil women with disabilities in rural post-conflict Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Niro; Soldatic, Karen; Samararatne, Dinesha

    2017-03-01

    This article draws on grounded qualitative research with rural Tamil women who acquired a disability during the civil war in Sri Lanka and conceptualizes an intersectionality-peace framework. Three main themes were developed from the interviews: narratives of conflict, survival outcomes of social assistance and mobilization of cross-ethnic relationships. With the support of a local women's disability advocacy organization, Tamil women with disabilities were enabled to overcome social stigma and claim a positive identity as women with disabilities. The organization's focus on realizing disability rights created new opportunities for these highly marginalized rural women. The women were also supported to form cross-ethnic relationships with women who similarly faced multiple oppressions. These relationships transformed the women into 'agents of peace', using their newfound disability identity to foster cross-ethnic dialogue and create safe spaces in the post-conflict context.

  3. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in rural South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H; Coetzee, D J; Fehler, H G; Bellingan, A; Dangor, Y; Radebe, F; Ballard, R C

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports on a study undertaken in a rural area of South Africa, to develop a non-laboratory tool to screen for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among family planning clients. A cross sectional study was performed of 249 consecutive women attending a family planning service between November and December 1994. A questionnaire was administered, and a clinical examination and laboratory tests conducted. Sociodemographic, clinical, and other non-laboratory variables that were significantly associated with laboratory evidence of infection were combined to produce non-hierarchical scoring systems for three "syndromes": gonococcal and/or chlamydial cervical infection, trichomoniasis, and cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis combined. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the scoring systems as a screening tool were assessed against the gold standard of laboratory tests. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections among the study participants was as follows: Chlamydia trachomatis 12%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 3%, Trichomonas vaginalis 18%, and bacterial vaginosis 29%. Although vaginal discharge and other symptoms were frequently reported, symptoms bore no relation to the presence of infection. The following independent associations with gonococcal/chlamydial cervical infection were found: age less than 25 years and cervical mucopus and/or friability. Abnormal discharge on examination, visible inflammatory changes of the cervix (increased redness), no recent travel, and unemployment were associated with trichomoniasis. The combination of trichomonas and/or cervical infection ("STD syndrome") was associated with cervical mucopus/friability, unemployment, lack of financial support, and increased redness of the cervix. Of the three scoring systems developed on the basis of these associations, that of the "STD syndrome" achieved the best performance characteristics as a screening tool, with a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 74%, and

  4. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Boniface Nwakoby,3 Paul Ezeonu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001. In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05. In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03. Conclusion: The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural

  5. Burden of anaemia in rural and urban jat women in haryana state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maninder, Kaur; Kochar, G K

    2009-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 600 Jat women (rural=300, urban=300), aged 40 to 70 years from Haryana state in North India. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the dietary intake of rural and urban middle-aged (40-59 years) and older (60 and above) Jat women. The findings indicated that all the subjects exhibited a decline in the mean values of haemoglobin (Hb) concentration with advancement in age. The mean blood Hb concentration of urban middle-aged and older women was 10.1±1.3g/dl and 9.91.4g/dl respectively, which was higher than their rural counterparts at all age groups, although the differences were statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The overall prevalence of anaemia reached 88.7% (rural women= 91.3%, urban women =86%). Daily dietary intake of rural and urban subjects was below the recommended dietary allowances. Physical performance of both groups of the women showed a decline with a decrease in Hb concentration. A significant and positive correlation of Hb status was observed with grip strength and vital capacity while a negative association was witnessed with blood pressure and pulse rate in both the rural and urban women. Anaemia among these women may be attributed to inadequate dietary intake, illiteracy, and poor access to health services.

  6. Empowerment, intimate partner violence and skilled birth attendance among women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwagala, Betty; Nankinga, Olivia; Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen

    2016-05-04

    There is limited research on how the empowerment of women and intimate partner violence (IPV) are associated with skilled birth attendance (SBA) among rural women in Uganda. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the association between women's empowerment, their experience of IPV and SBA in rural Uganda. Using data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), we selected 857 rural women who were in union, had given birth in the last 5 years preceding the survey and were selected for the domestic violence (DV) module. Frequency distributions were used to describe the background characteristics of the women and their partners. Pearson's chi-squared (χ (2)) tests were used to investigate the associations between SBA and women's empowerment; and partners' and women's socio-demographic factors including sexual violence. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between SBA and explanatory variables. More than half (55 %) of the women delivered under the supervision of skilled birth attendant. Women's empowerment with respect to participation in household decision-making, property (land and house) (co)ownership, IPV, and sexual empowerment did not positively predict SBA among rural women in Uganda. Key predictors of SBA were household wealth status, partners' education, ANC attendance and parity. For enhancement of SBA in rural areas, there is a need to encourage a more comprehensive ANC attendance irrespective of number of children a woman has; and design interventions to enhance household wealth and promote men's education.

  7. Married women's decision making power on modern contraceptive use in urban and rural southern Ethiopia

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    Tilahun Tizta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in developing countries are either under collective decision making with their partners or completely rely on the male partner's decision on issues that affect their reproductive live. Identifying the major barriers of married women's decision making power on contraceptive use has significant relevance for planning contextually appropriate family planning interventions. The objective of this study was to determine current modern contraceptive practices and decision making power among married women in Tercha Town and surrounding rural areas of Dawro zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based comparative cross-sectional design with both quantitative and Qualitative study has been employed in March and April 2010. The respondents were 699 married women of child bearing age from urban and rural parts of Dawro zone. After conducting census, we took the sample using simple random sampling technique. Results Current modern contraceptive use among married women in the urban was 293 (87.5% and 243 (72.8% in rural. Married women who reside in urban area were more likely to decide on the use of modern contraceptive method than rural women. Having better knowledge about modern contraceptive methods, gender equitable attitude, better involvement in decisions related to children, socio-cultural and family relations were statistically significant factors for decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the urban setting. Better knowledge, fear of partner's opposition or negligence, involvement in decisions about child and economic affairs were statistically significant factors for better decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the rural part. Conclusions High level of current modern contraceptive practice with reduced urban-rural difference was found as compared to regional and national figures. Urban women had better power to make decisions on modern

  8. Bangladeshis madistab kaks naist / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Sisepoliitilised pinged Bangladeshis, kus kehtib maailmas küllaltki ainulaadne süsteem, mis näeb ette mõni kuu enne üldvalimisi valitud valitsuse lahkumist ning võimu üleandmist ajutisele üleminekukabinetile

  9. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  10. Understanding Australian rural women's ways of achieving health and wellbeing - a metasynthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Desley J

    2007-01-01

    Although Australian rural women appear to be coping well despite a lack of services, harsh environmental conditions and overall rural health disadvantage, there is little research into the factors which promote good health among them. The aim of this article is to document and analyse current understandings about how rural Australian women maintain health and wellbeing, by conducting a metasynthesis of peer reviewed empirical qualitative research. Searches were conducted of CINAHL, MEDLINE, Proquest, Blackwell Synergy, Informit, Infotrac, National Rural Health Alliance and Indigenous Health Infonet data bases. A definition of health and wellbeing as a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources as well as physical capacities, provided a framework for the review. Six studies published in rural health, nursing and sociology journals between 2001 and 2006 were selected. Common and recurring themes from the original studies were identified. Reciprocal translation was used to synthesise the findings among the studies, leading to interpretations beyond those identified in the original studies. Four themes emerged from the metasynthesis: isolation, belonging, coping with adversity, and rural identity. The findings of this study exhibit a tension between a sense of belonging and the experience of social and geographical isolation. The study findings also reveal tension between adherence to a strong gendered rural identity which fosters a culture of stoicism and self reliance and feelings of resistance to societal expectations of coping with adversity. Metasynthesis enabled a deeper understanding of the health and wellbeing of rural women in Australia. The social experiences of rural women influence the way they construe their health and wellbeing. Understanding how women maintain health and wellbeing is critical in ensuring that policies and services meet the needs of rural women and do not entrench existing inequalities.

  11. The fate in of women who deliver at home in rural Kwazulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community survey was carried out to establish the fate of rural Zulu women and their infants after home delivery. The results of a pilot project fortraining traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the area are described. The authors conclude that potentially there is an important place for TBAs in the obstetric .services of rural ...

  12. Contributions of Rural Women Entrepreneurs in Non–Farm and Off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The study assessed the contributions of rural women entrepreneurs in non–farm and off–farm enterprises to household poverty reduction in. Abia State .... It has been asserted that about 70 % of Nigerian's poor live in rural areas and are .... Percentage (%) n = 120. Age in Years. 20 - 30. 11.11. 31 - 40. 22.22. 41 - 50. 27.77.

  13. Pregnancy experiences of women in rural Romania: understanding ethnic and socioeconomic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMasters, Katherine; Baber Wallis, Anne; Chereches, Razvan; Gichane, Margaret; Tehei, Ciprian; Varga, Andreea; Tumlinson, Katherine

    2018-05-15

    Women in rural Romania face significant health disadvantages. This qualitative pilot study describes the structural disadvantage experienced during pregnancy by women in rural Romania, focusing on the lived experiences of Roma women. We explore how women in rural communities experience pregnancy, their interactions with the healthcare system, and the role that ethnic and social factors play in pregnancy and childbearing. We conducted 42 semi-structured interviews with health and other professionals, seven narrative interviews with Roma and non-Roma women and a focus group with Roma women. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. We identified intersectional factors associated with women's pregnancy experiences: women perceiving pregnancy as both unplanned and wanted, joyful, and normal; women's and professionals' differing prenatal care perceptions; transport and cost related barriers to care; socioeconomic and ethnic discrimination; and facilitators to care such as social support, having a health mediator and having a doctor. Talking directly with professionals and Roma and non-Roma women helped us understand these many factors, how they are interconnected, and how we can work towards improving the pregnancy experiences of Roma women in rural Romania.

  14. The perceptions of rural women doctors about their work | De Vries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to describe and understand the perceptions of women doctors working ... Results: The main theme was balance. ... that the proximity of home and work gives a rural woman doctor far more connection with her family.

  15. Contributions of rural women entrepreneurs in non–farm and off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the contributions of rural women entrepreneurs in non–farm ... extended family responsibility and investment into agriculture respectively. ... loans from financial firms, this will increase their investment abilities into non- farm ...

  16. Impact of floriculture development enhances livelihood of India’s rural women

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    Govindasamy Agoramoorthy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available India’s rural women are involved in various types of work and contribute considerably to the economy. However much of their work is not systematically accounted in the official statistics. India’s governmental and non-governmental data collection agencies admit that there is an under-estimation of tribal women’s contribution as rural workers. This study describes in detail a research project that focuses on the indicators for socioeconomic development in the least developed rural villages by examining the impact of floriculture on the lives of impoverished tribal women who inhabit the harsh drylands of western India.

  17. Cephalometric profile of Bangladeshis: Tweed's analysis

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    Hasan Md Rizvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tweed's diagnostic triangle is simple yet provides a definite guideline in treatment planning. The aim of the present study was to establish the Tweed's norms for Bangladeshi people. Methods: The study was conducted for 89 Bangladeshi young adults (45 males and 44 females, aged 19–27 years, having balanced and harmonious facial profiles. Lateral cephalograms taken of these subjects were used for a series of morphometric analyses. Results: All three angular parameters Frankfort-mandibular plane angle (FMA, Frankfort-mandibular incisal angle (FMIA, incise mandibular plane angle (IMPAwere measured and found to be 24.52°, 54.60°, and 100.88°, respectively. The mean FMA has been found to be 24.52° (with a range of 14°–36° which is quite close to Tweed's norm and found to be statistically insignificant. However, IMPA and FMIA values of Bangladeshis found to be statistically significantly different from that of the Caucasians. The linear regression equation of IMPA on FMA was fitted, and the estimated value of IMPA was computed for a given FMA. Conclusion: The results support the idea that treatment objectives of IMPA should be considered according to the facial pattern, i.e., FMA. Ethnic variations of norms cannot be overlooked while outlining goals and planning the treatment.

  18. Gender, households and reintegration: everyday lives of returned migrant women in rural northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufuor, Theresa; Sato, Chizu; Niehof, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, migration of single women from the rural north to the urban south in Ghana has been making up a growing share of migrant streams. While the livelihood strategies of these migrant women in their southern destinations have been recently examined, the experience of

  19. Vocational Training for Liushou Women in Rural China: Development by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongxia; Liu, Zhiwen; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    As industrialisation and urbanisation aggressively take hold in China, all possible labour pools are being tapped to meet the market demands. Liushou women, or women who stay behind in rural areas as their spouses join the massive migrant workforce, are one such labour pool. Vocational training has been adopted by the Chinese state as a…

  20. Human Rights as Practice: Dalit Women's Collective Action to Secure Livelihood Entitlements in rural South India

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    Mangubhai, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate how Dalit women in rural South India secure livelihood entitlements by analysing processes of social exclusion as well as collective action by these women through their perspectives. This problematic requires focus on how caste, class and gender mutually construct

  1. Attempted Suicide among Young Rural Women in the People's Republic of China: Possibilities for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Veronica; Phillips, Michael R.; He, Fengsheng; Ji, Huiyu

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a sample of 147 young women living in rural areas in China who had attempted suicide. The women's suicidal behavior was characterized by high levels of impulsivity and low rates of mental illness, including depression. Detailed suggestions are made about ways to implement suicide prevention strategies within the particular social and…

  2. Using Mobile Phones to Promote Lifelong Learning among Rural Women in Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, K.; Thamizoli, P.; Umar, Abdurrahman; Kanwar, Asha

    2010-01-01

    This article is an attempt to study the role of mobile phones in the non-formal and informal context among rural women from resource poor communities. In particular, it focuses on the women's control over the mobile phone as a learning tool through the domestication of technologies. The distance learning, gender dimensions, and use of technologies…

  3. Clinical and hormonal features of women with polycystic ovary syndrome living in rural and urban areas

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    Krzysztof Katulski

    2017-09-01

    The clinical and biochemical indices differed significantly between women diagnosed with PCOS living in cities and villages. In general in Poland, the PCOS phenotype is more severe in women living in rural areas. This study shows that different living conditions significantly affect the PCOS phenotype.

  4. Analysis of income sources of women farmers in rural areas of Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from goat production. The paper suggests that agricultural policy and programmes should focus more on cassava and goat production in order to increase income of the women farmers in the study area. Keywords: Income Sources, Women Farmers, Rural Area Global Approaches to Extension Practice Vol. 3 (1) 2007: pp.

  5. A Tangled Weave: Tracing Outcomes of Education in Rural Women's Lives in North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for…

  6. Responsiveness to HIV education and VCT services among Kenyan rural women: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karau, Paul Bundi; Winnie, Mueni Saumu; Geoffrey, Muriira; Mwenda, Mukuthuria

    2010-09-01

    Uptake of VCT and other HIV prevention strategies among rural African women is affected by various socio-cultural and economic factors which need elucidation. Our aim was to establish the responsiveness to HIV education among rural women attending three dispensaries in Kenya. This study was designed to assess gender and psycho-social factors that influence HIV dynamics in rural Kenya. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire based study of 1347 women, conducted in October 2009. Socio-economic status as well as knowledge on methods of HIV transmission was assessed. Testing status, knowledge on existing VCT services and willingness to share HIV information with their children was assessed. Majority of the women have heard about VCT services, but significantly few of them have been tested. Those with secondary school education and above are more knowledgeable on methods of HIV transmission, while those with inadequate education are more likely to cite shaking hands, sharing utensils, mosquito bites and hugging as means of transmission (p = 0.001). 90% of educated women are willing to share HIV information with their children, compared to 40% of uneducated women. Marital status is seen to positively influence testing status, but has no significant effect on dissemination of information to children. We conclude that despite the aggressive HIV education and proliferation of VCT services in Kenya, women are not heeding the call to get tested. Education has a positive impact on dissemination of HIV information. Focus needs to shift into increasing acceptability of testing by women in rural Kenya.

  7. Physical and Social Barriers to Social Relationships: Voices of Rural Disabled Women in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Diane E.; McLorg, Penelope A.; Bartnick, April K.

    2009-01-01

    Through exploring the lived experiences of disabled women, this study investigates how physical and social barriers affect their social relationships. In-depth tape-recorded interviews investigating a variety of social and interpersonal issues were conducted with 24 women with physical or visual impairments who lived in a rural region of the…

  8. Safety and community: the maternity care needs of rural parturient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelsen, Jude; Grzybowski, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    To investigate rural parturient women's experiences of obstetric care in the context of the social and economic realities of life in rural, remote, and small urban communities. Data collection for this exploratory qualitative study was carried out in 7 rural communities chosen to represent diversity of size, distance to hospital with Caesarean section capability and distance to secondary hospital, usual conditions for transport and access, and cultural and ethnic subpopulations. We interviewed 44 women who had given birth up to 24 months before the study began. When asked about their experiences of giving birth in rural communities, many participants spoke of unmet needs and their associated anxieties. Self-identified needs were largely congruent with the deficit categories of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which recognizes the contingency and interdependence of physiological needs, the need for safety and security, the need for community and belonging, self-esteem needs, and the need for self-actualization. For many women, community was critical to meeting psychosocial needs, and women from communities that currently have (or have recently had) access to local maternity care said that being able to give birth in their own community or in a nearby community was necessary if their obstetric needs were to be met. Removing maternity care from a community creates significant psychosocial consequences that are imperfectly understood but that probably have physiological implications for women, babies, and families. Further research into rural women's maternity care that considers the loss of local maternity care from multiple perspectives is needed.

  9. In Cameroon, a female-centred organization works to conquer the poverty of rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkem, R N

    1999-01-01

    This is a discussion of the work of the Rural Women Development Council for poor rural women in Cameroon. The concept of absolute poverty involves the measurement of the quantity and quality of necessities required to maintain the average well-being of an individual or group of individuals. The standards are considered to be relative to a particular time and place. Subjective poverty is a state of acceptance by the person who is poor that he or she is poor; it is independent of the perspective of onlookers. Income levels vary resulting, and as a result, poverty exists. Under those premises, the Rural Women Development Council (RWDC) is helping to alleviate poverty in rural women through microcredit schemes. Over 200 women have engaged in farming and small trades. Increased equity, enhanced opportunity, peace and security, participation and sustainable future, in addition to increased income, help to defeat poverty. Strategies for eradicating poverty include enhancing the ability of local communities to adapt to stress, overcome emergencies and improve long-term productivity. The RWDC have observed that loanees are today economically above other rural women.

  10. Prevalence of osteoporosis, vertebral fractures and hypovitaminosis D in postmenopausal women living in a rural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-Tejada Romero, María-Jesús; Navarro Rodríguez, María-del-Carmen; Saavedra Santana, Pedro; Quesada Gómez, José-Manuel; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Sosa Henríquez, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    First, to study the difference between two groups of postmenopausal women living in different population centres (rural vs urban) in the prevalence of osteoporosis, fragility fractures and factors which may influence them: hypovitaminosis D, bone mineral density, coexistence of other diseases which predispose to their appearance; secondly, to observe the influence of low socioeconomic status, categorised as poverty. 1229 postmenopausal women were studied, of whom 390 (31.7%), were living in rural areas and 839 (68.3%), in urban areas. Data regarding risk factors related to osteoporosis were obtained, and, among other biochemical measures, 25 hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were determined. Bone densitometry was carried out in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, as well as lateral X-rays of the dorsal and lumbar spine. The women who lived in rural areas were older, shorter, heavier and had a higher body mass index than those from urban areas. Among the women from rural areas there was a higher prevalence of poverty, and higher levels of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were observed, as well as a higher prevalence of densitometric osteoporosis. The rural women had lower values of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures and hypovitaminosis D. The variables which were associated independently with living in rural areas were poverty, obesity, vertebral fractures, BMD in the lumbar spine and levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D. In our study, postmenopausal women who live in rural populations have more poverty, lower values of vitamin D, lower BMD in the lumbar spine and a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures and of osteoporosis. The higher prevalence of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus observed in these women may be adjuvant factors, all fostered by their socioeconomic state of poverty. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Place of menstruation in the reproductive lives of women of rural North India

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    Singh A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To ascertain the perceptions and experiences of women regarding menstruation. Methods : An integrated qualitative and quantitative study on reproductive health of Indian women was conducted in two primary health centre areas of rural north India. Present article reports on the perceptions of 1205 women regarding various aspects of menstruation. Results : Major source of information about menarche/menstruation was friends/relatives (72%. Mean age at menarche was ~ 15 years. Very few women (0.4% used sanitary napkins. Majority of women had strong beliefs about effect of diet on menstruation. Most of them considered menstruation a dirty act and indulged in various taboo behaviours. Initial reaction was of fear/apprehension at menarche in majority of girls. Conclusion: Women in rural north India still hold tranditional beliefs regarding menstruation. Provision of a balanced and healthy family health education package to all girls is recommended.

  12. Rural Women Family Physicians: Strategies for Successful Work-Life Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie; Hustedde, Carol; Bjorkman, Sarah; Prasad, Rupa; Sola, Orlando; Wendling, Andrea; Bjorkman, Kurt; Paladine, Heather

    2016-05-01

    Women family physicians experience challenges in maintaining work-life balance while practicing in rural communities. We sought to better understand the personal and professional strategies that enable women in rural family medicine to balance work and personal demands and achieve long-term career satisfaction. Women family physicians practicing in rural communities in the United States were interviewed using a semistructured format. Interviews were recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using an immersion and crystallization approach, followed by detailed coding of emergent themes. The 25 participants described a set of strategies that facilitated successful work-life balance. First, they used reduced or flexible work hours to help achieve balance with personal roles. Second, many had supportive relationships with spouses and partners, parents, or other members of the community, which facilitated their ability to be readily available to their patients. Third, participants maintained clear boundaries around their work lives, which helped them to have adequate time for parenting, recreation, and rest. Women family physicians can build successful careers in rural communities, but supportive employers, relationships, and patient approaches provide a foundation for this success. Educators, employers, communities, and policymakers can adapt their practices to help women family physicians thrive in rural communities. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  13. What Influences Where They Give Birth? Determinants of Place of Delivery among Women in Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwamena Sekyi Dickson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a paucity of empirical literature in Ghana on rural areas and their utilisation of health facilities. The study examined the effects of the sociodemographics of rural women on place of delivery in the country. Methods. The paper made use of data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Women from rural areas who had given birth within five years prior to the survey were included in the analysis. Descriptive analyses and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Results. Wealth, maternal education, ecological zone, getting money for treatment, ethnicity, partner’s education, parity, and distance to a health facility were found as the determinants of place of delivery among women in rural Ghana. Women in the richest wealth quintile were three times (OR = 3.04, 95% CI = 0.35–26.4 more likely to deliver at a health facility than the poorest women. Conclusions. It behoves the relevant stakeholders including the Ghana Health Service and the Ministry of Health to pay attention to the wealth status, maternal education, ecological zone, ethnicity, partner’s education, parity, and distance in their planning regarding delivery care in rural Ghana.

  14. Attitude of Women towards Family Planning in Selected Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the desired attitudinal and behavioral changes towards family planning is yet to be ... from selected rural areas in Ibadan towards family planning using the Health ... The study revealed that the socio-economic status of mothers significantly ...

  15. Empowering rural women's groups for strengthening economic linkages: some Indian experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal

    1999-05-01

    Through organizing informal self-help groups (SHGs), rural women in India are provided credit and extension support for various production-oriented income-generating activities. These activities usually include garment-making, embroidery, food processing, bee-keeping, basketry, gem cutting, weaving, and knitting. SHGs are self-governed, with decisions about production and marketing taken collectively, although the group leader is responsible for identifying potential marketing centers and consumers. These groups represent a new culture in rural development, breaking with traditional bureaucracy and top-down management. Informal groups empower rural women to manage rural industries and make decisions collectively for their common economic interests. Experience with SHGs in Orissa, lessons from nongovernmental organization intervention, and a model for empowering poor people in a small town in Kerala are discussed.

  16. Ties that bind: implications of social support for rural, partnered African American women's health functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Angela R; Cook, Jennifer L; Murry, Velma McBride; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2005-01-01

    Ecological theory was used to explore the pathways through which intimate relationship quality influenced health functioning among rural, partnered African American women. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from 349 women in Georgia and Iowa. Women's intimate relationship quality was positively associated with their psychological and physical health functioning. Support from community residents moderated this link, which was strongest for women who felt most connected with their neighbors and for women who believed their neighborhood to have a sense of communal responsibility. Future research should identify other factors salient to health functioning among members of this population.

  17. Why do women not adhere to advice on maternal referral in rural Tanzania? Narratives of women and their family members

    OpenAIRE

    Pembe, Andrea B.; Mbekenga, Columba K.; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In most low-income countries, many women with high-risk pregnancies and complications do not reach the referral hospitals despite the provision of referral advice. Objective: To explore how antenatal maternal referral advice is understood and handled in a rural Tanzanian community. Methods: Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with six women who did not go to hospital and 13 people who were involved in the referral advice. Narrative analysis was used to describe ...

  18. Awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among married women in rural Bangladesh and exposure to media: a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Higuchi, Michiyo; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to describe awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Bangladeshi married women in rural areas and to examine associations between exposure to mass media and their awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS where mass media has been suggested to be vital sources of information. From the original dataset of the sixth Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey in 2011, the data of 11,570 rural married women aged 15-49 years old were extracted. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that approximately two-thirds of women (63.0%) aged 15-49 years had heard about HIV/AIDS. Exposure to each type of media was significantly associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS. Comparing to those who were not exposed to each of the investigated media, the adjusted ORs of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS were significantly high for those exposed to newspapers/magazines less than once a week (1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.65), newspapers/ magazines at least once a week (1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94), television at least once a week (1.41, 95% CI 1.18-1.68). It was suggested that television can be utilized to increase awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS through effective programs. Although the level of exposure was still low, significant associations between exposure to newspapers/magazines and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS suggested potential of written messages to promote knowledge of HIV/AIDS.

  19. Factors Related to Intention to Undergo Female Sterilization Among Married Women in Rural Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhungana, Adhish; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Pitikultang, Supachai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sterilization is most widely used fertility regulation method in Nepal. However, prevalence of uptake of female sterilization in central hilly region is less than the national average. The objective of the study was to explore the number and factors related to intention of married women to undergo female sterilization in rural Kathmandu which lies within central hilly region. Materials and Methods: This is a community based cross-sectional survey research conducted in rural area o...

  20. Intimate relationship status variations in violence against women: urban, suburban, and rural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennison, Callie Marie; DeKeseredy, Walter S; Dragiewicz, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Woman abuse varies across intimate relationship categories (e.g., marriage, divorce, separation). However, it is unclear whether relationship status variations in violence against women differ across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We test the hypothesis that rural females, regardless of their intimate partner relationship status, are at higher risk of intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. Results indicate that marital status is an important aspect of the relationship between intimate victimization and geographic area and that rural divorced and separated females are victimized at rates exceeding their urban counterparts.

  1. Rural and indigenous women speak out on the impact of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article describes approach papers, proposed strategies, and closing agreements among those attending the May 1998 Asian Pacific Forum on Women, Law, and Development (APWLD) among rural, indigenous women (IW). IW spoke of their experiences with globalization. The aim was to examine the effects of deregulation and privatization, liberalization, and global market and foreign monopoly capital on rural, IW in Asia. The expected outcome was an advocacy directive for APWLD in the forthcoming APEC and People's Summit in November 1998. Approach papers included F. N. Burnad's paper on the "Impact of Globalization on Rural Women" and V. Tauli-Corpuz's paper on "Globalization and its Impacts on Indigenous Women: The Philippine Experience." These papers emphasized the multiple roles of women, their increasing resourcefulness which leads to their enslavement, links between globalization and continuing colonization by transnationals and international institutions, access to ancestral resources, and promotion of export led production that threatens food security. Suggested strategies were to mobilize opposition to globalization and greater control over traditional resources and knowledge by IW. Several important questions were raised about nation states, dominant cultures, human rights violations, technology, and the close link between militarization and globalization. Participants agreed to mobilize for effectively resisting and eliminating unjust and unequal systems that exploit and oppress rural, poor, and indigenous people, especially women.

  2. An examination of the health information seeking experiences of women in rural Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Wathen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Women are active information seekers, particularly in the context of managing health for themselves and their families. Rural living may present particular challenges and opportunities for women in their health information seeking. Method. Forty women living in a rural part of Ontario, Canada were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. They were asked about their health information seeking for both chronic and acute concerns. Analysis. Interview transcripts were organized using NVivo software (version 6 and analysed using a coding scheme iteratively developed by both authors. Results. Emerging themes included: the context of rural living, information and health literacy, the role of unanticipated information intermediaries in the search process, and the mis-match between assumptions made by 'the system' about sources of information, and women's lived realities. Conclusion. . There are unique challenges and enablers to health information seeking for women living in rural areas, including the role of formal, informal and ICT-based information intermediaries, the availability to women of required literacies for health information seeking and uptake. Research findings such as those presented in this paper can assist in better understanding both the contexts of information seeking, as well as the preferences and behaviour of those with information needs.

  3. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Rural Women of Kawar-Fars

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    Masoumeh Tohidi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem. This study designed to assess peak bone mineral density (BMD, its onset in rural women in Kawar-Fars as well as prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis according to WHO and local reference values. Methods: In this cross sectional study , 266 healthy women aged 20-85 years from Kawar-Fars participated and they underwent Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scanning including two lumbar and femur regions. Results: Peak bone mass of lumbar spine occurred during 29±2 years. Also peak bone mass of total femur occurred around the age of 34±2 years. Prevalence of osteoporosis in lumbar spine according to WHO reference data was 29.7% but using Iranian normative data was 10.5%. Also using WHO reference data, prevalence of osteoporosis in total femur in rural women was 15.4% whereas according to the Iranian normative data was 16.2%. Conclusion: This study provided a baseline normative data of BMD for rural Iranian women. Also it showed prevalence of osteoporosis in rural women is more than urban women.

  4. Environmental, Behavioral, and Cultural Factors That Influence Healthy Eating in Rural Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mabry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the role nutrition plays in the health of current and future generations, many women struggle to eat healthy. We used the PhotoVoice method to engage 10 rural women in identifying perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in their homes and community. They took 354 photographs, selected and wrote captions for 62 images, and explored influential factors through group conversation. Using field notes and participant-generated captions, the research team categorized images into factors at the individual, relational, community/organizational, and societal levels of a socioecological model. Barriers included limited time, exposure to marketing, and the high cost of food. Facilitators included preparing food in advance and support from non-partners; opportunities to hunt, forage, and garden were also facilitators, which may be amplified in this rural environment. Nutritional interventions for rural women of childbearing age should be multi-component and focus on removing barriers at multiple socioecological levels.

  5. Rural women and violence situation: access and accessibility limits to the healthcare network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marta Cocco da; Silva, Ethel Bastos da; Soares, Joannie Dos Santos Fachinelli; Borth, Luana Cristina; Honnef, Fernanda

    2017-07-13

    To analyze the access and accessibility to the healthcare network of women dwelling in rural contexts undergoing violence situation, as seen from the professionals' speeches. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study with professionals from the healthcare network services about coping with violence in four municipalities in the northern region of Rio Grande do Sul. The information derived from interviews, which have been analyzed by thematic modality. (Lack of) information of women, distance, restricted access to transportation, dependence on the partner and (lack of) attention by professionals to welcome women undergoing violence situation and (non)-articulation of the network are factors that limit the access and, as a consequence, they result in the lack of confrontation of this problem. To bring closer the services which integrate the confrontation network of violence against women and to qualify professionals to welcome these situations are factors that can facilitate the access and adhesion of rural women to the services.

  6. The community-level effects of women's education on reproductive behaviour in rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi D. Benefo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Using survey and census data for rural Ghana collected in the 1980s, this study examines the ability of women's education to increase interest in fertility regulation and contraception among all women, regardless of their individual and household features. The study finds that, net of her own characteristics, a woman's interest in limiting fertility and using modern contraception increase with the percent of educated women in her community. These results suggest that female education has a greater capacity to introduce novel reproductive ideas and behaviors into rural areas of Africa and thereby transform the demographic landscape in the region than is currently believed. There is also evidence that female education may undermine existing methods of regulating fertility. Other community characteristics that increase women's interest in regulating fertility and contraceptive use in this setting include access to transportation and proximity to urban areas. However, these are not as powerful as women's education in transforming reproductive behavior.

  7. "Women's autonomy and pregnancy care in rural India: a contextual analysis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Ritesh; Galal, Osman; Lu, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Studies in low-income countries have shown that women's autonomy (i.e. the freedom of women to exercise their judgment in order to act for their own interests) influences a number of reproductive and child health outcomes, including the use of pregnancy care services. However, studies have not examined the full spectrum of pregnancy care services needed for safe motherhood and have not accounted for community context. This study analyzed data on women and their villages from the cross-sectional population-based National Family Health Survey-2 (1998-1999) of rural India to investigate whether women's autonomy (measured in the 3 dimensions of decision-making autonomy, permission to go out, and financial autonomy) was associated with the use of adequate prenatal, delivery and postnatal care. The findings indicate women's autonomy was associated with greater use of pregnancy care services, particularly prenatal and postnatal care. The effect of women's autonomy on pregnancy care use varied according to the region of India examined (North, East and South) such that it was most consistently associated with pregnancy care use in south India, which also had the highest level of self-reported women's autonomy. The results regarding village level factors suggest that public investment in rural economic development, primary health care access, social cohesion and basic infrastructure such as electrification and paved roads were associated with pregnancy care use. Improvements in women's autonomy and these village factors may improve healthier child bearing in rural India.

  8. Smoking among Young Rural to Urban Migrant Women in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H. Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. Methods/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW) and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW) was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18–24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18–30 years). Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = brands” had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41) among participants who had ever tried smoking. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation. PMID:21829683

  9. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wan

    Full Text Available Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years. Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = <0.01. Adjusting for other factors, "tried female cigarette brands" had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41 among participants who had ever tried smoking.Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  10. ELEMENTS FOR A MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF ROMANIA

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    Tarcza Teodora Mihaela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian mentality, especially in rural areas is deeply influenced by culture, literature and history of the Romanian people. This proves to be both adaptable and rooted in the old Romanian traditions and customs. In the last two decades, the transition from socialism to capitalism, modern society, the socio-economic development of the country has left strong impressions on the way of thought, expression and action of the Romanian people. Women in rural areas are no exception. As some groups of people interested in their development of social-economic scale, rural women are trying to adapt, to evolve, to overcome the barriers imposed at psychologically, socially and financially. The paper highlights the results of a survey on a sample of 979 women students in the project "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. An inter-regional model for women entrepreneurial school "(AntrES acronym, which certified mediators intention to initiate their own business.The results of questionnaires have provided important information about the character, ambition, motivation, courage, and moral support and financial support to women entrepreneurs based in Romania, including those in rural areas. The information obtained inetrmediul "I shattered" 7 myths about starting a business in our country. Romanian entrepreneur spirit, women in rural areas in Romania is not only a manifestation of strong desire to improve living standards in financial terms, but rather an "effort" to improve and "beauty" of the individual, family, environment and society we belong! In developed countries, at its home, female entrepreneurship is trying to reform, to seek new solutions to rethink the principles, to exercise imagination, to learn. Here, in Romania standard behavior still predominates. Female entrepreneurs are doing what everyone else in the same category does. The future however belongs to those who will opt diversity, surprise, excitement, personalization. How could this

  11. Attitudes to Child Spacing Amongst Rural Malawian Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women using services. The lack of association between women's desire for no ... of the extended family) that restrict the use of services by women who would otherwise use ... benefits.of child spacing and family planning. Ac1mow1edgement.

  12. Women fishing activities in rural communities of Epe Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women are not aware of fishery extension activities in the area and the fisherwomen faced different types of problems in their fishery activities. However, to improve fishery activities by women in the area, extension agents should organize training workshops for the women on how to construct and mend fishing nets and ...

  13. The influences of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on women's choice of prenatal care facility: Investigation of differences between rural and non-rural areas

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    Chen Chi-Liang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI, implemented in 1995, substantially increased the number of health care facilities that can deliver free prenatal care. Because of the increase in such facilities, it is usually assumed that women would have more choices regarding prenatal care facilities and thus experience reduction in travel cost. Nevertheless, there has been no research exploring these issues in the literature. This study compares how Taiwan's NHI program may have influenced choice of prenatal care facility and perception regarding convenience in transportation for obtaining such care for women in rural and non-rural areas in Taiwan. Methods Based on data collected by a national survey conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes (NHRI in 2000, we tried to compare how women chose prenatal care facility before and after Taiwan's National Health Insurance program was implemented. Basing our analysis on how women answered questionnaire items regarding "the type of major health care facility used and convenience of transportation to and from prenatal care facility," we investigated whether there were disparities in how women in rural and non-rural areas chose prenatal care facilities and felt about the transportation, and whether the NHI had different influences for the two groups of women. Results After NHI, women in rural areas were more likely than before to choose large hospitals for prenatal care services. For women in rural areas, the relative probability of choosing large hospitals to choosing non-hospital settings in 1998–1999 was about 6.54 times of that in 1990–1992. In contrast, no such change was found in women in non-rural areas. For a woman in a non-rural area, she was significantly more likely to perceive the transportation to and from prenatal care facilities to be very convenient between 1998 and 1999 than in the period between 1990 and 1992. No such improvement was found for women in

  14. Does delivery mode affect women's postpartum quality of life in rural China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao; Liu, Liu; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2012-06-01

    To explore the impact of delivery mode on women's postpartum quality of life in rural China and probe factors influencing postnatal quality of life. Childbirth significantly affects puerpera's physical, psychological and social domains of quality of life. Under the circumstance of increasing high caesarean section rate in rural China, the impact of delivery mode on postnatal quality of life remains unclear. Cross-sectional study design. Women residing in rural areas and in their 0-12 months after childbirth from 30 rural townships participated in a household survey. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate women's socio-demographic characteristics, previous pregnant experiences, foetal characteristics and use of maternal health services. The scale for rural postnatal quality of life was adopted to assess postnatal quality of life from six dimensions: physical complaints and pain, sleep and energy, sex satisfaction, interpersonal communication, self-evaluated living stress and perceived life satisfaction. The overall caeserean section rate was 70·0% (962/1375), and most of them (59·7%) were selected by maternal request. None of six dimensions and total score of quality of life displayed significant difference between women with normal delivery and cesaerean section. It was found that postnatal home visit related to good postnatal quality of life and lower husband education level, male gender of infant were associated with poor quality of life. Delivery mode did not affect postpartum quality of life in rural China. Socio-cultural determinants may contribute more in influencing postnatal quality of life. Null findings in impact of delivery mode on postpartum quality of life may cause more difficulties in maternal decision-making for vaginal delivery in rural China. The importance of postnatal home visit could justify available and quality postnatal care in improving postpartum quality of life. Further research needs to explore the effective prevention

  15. Aboriginal women in rural Australia; a small study of infant feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Catherine; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-06-01

    Aboriginal women in rural areas have lower rates of breastfeeding than Australian averages. The reasons for this are poorly understood. Aboriginal people experience higher morbidity and increased rates of chronic disease throughout the life cycle. The protective effects of sustained breastfeeding could benefit rural Aboriginal communities. To explore the factors impacting upon infant feeding choices in a rural Aboriginal Community. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Aboriginal rural dwelling first time mothers. These women received a continuity of midwife and Aboriginal Health Worker model of care. Interviews were also undertaken with five Aboriginal Health Workers and two Aboriginal community breastfeeding champions. The analysis was integrated with a conventional literature review and was further developed and illustrated with historical literature. Indigenist methodology guided the study design, analysis and the dissemination of results. Three key themes were identified. These were "I'm doing the best thing for..." which encompasses the motivations underpinning infant feeding decisions; "this is what I know..." which explores individual and community knowledge regarding infant feeding; and "a safe place to feed" identifying the barriers that negative societal messages pose for women as they make infant feeding decisions. It appears loss of family and community breastfeeding knowledge resulting from colonisation still influences the Aboriginal women of today. Aboriginal women value and trust knowledge which is passed to them from extended family members and women within their Community. Cultural, historical and socioeconomic factors all strongly influence the infant feeding decisions of individuals in this study. Efforts to normalise breastfeeding in the culture of rural dwelling Aboriginal women and their supporting community appear to be necessary and may promote breastfeeding more effectively than optimal professional care of individuals can

  16. Context and the Gendered Status of Teachers: Women's Empowerment through Leadership of Non-Formal Schooling in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Empowering women to control and change their lives continues to be an important goal for many nations. This article examines the empowering effects of being selected and trained to lead rural schools in Bangladesh, using survey and interview data from 152 village women working with the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee education programme.…

  17. Bangladesh women report postpartum health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodburn, L

    1994-02-01

    The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee conducted operational research in Bangladesh to examine postpartum health problems. Researchers conducted focus groups, indepth interviews, and observation. More than 40% of the postpartum women had a delivery-related health problem by 2 weeks after delivery. 52% had signs or symptoms of anemia. Body needs after pregnancy, lactation, and blood loss during delivery exacerbate the nutritional anemia common to Bangladeshi women. 17% of the postpartum women had signs of infections. More than 50% had severe malnutrition, worsened by food taboos during the postpartum period. 60% of infant deaths occur in the neonatal period. The mortality risk is elevated in low birth weight (LBW) infants. In this study, more than 50% of the newborns were LBW infants. Many Bangladeshi mothers discard the colostrum and begin breast feeding several days after delivery. 11% of the postpartum women had breast problem (e.g., cracked nipples). Women believed that susceptibility to evil spirits accounted for their being more vulnerable to health problems during the postpartum. They feared leaving the household. These findings show a need for home visits to provide valuable postpartum care.

  18. Intervention in the tobacco habits of rural Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghi, M B; Grupta, P; Mehta, F

    1984-01-01

    This report of the Smoking Intervention Project pertains to women in Kerala and Andhra, India. The typical woman in Kerala is a fulltime housewife who also works in the fields, growing, tending, and harvesting a paddy. The rural woman is somewhat literate, and she is alert, independent, and individualistic. She chews tobacco with betel leaf and areca nut, has her own private supply of chewing material, and uses it whenever she wants. Her counterpart in Andhra is less literate, probably has more children, seems poorer, and may chew tobacco but smokes a locally made cigar/cheroot called a chutta. She lights it and when well lit puts the glowing end inside her mouth. The Kerala woman typically suffers from precancerous lesions in right or left buccal mucosa, buccal groove, on or under the tongue. The Andhra woman also has lesions on the palate. Both are totally unaware of the ill effects of tobacco. Oral cancer may be called the national cancer of India. More suffer from it than from any other cancer. The Smoking Intervention Project is divided into 3 phases: phase 1 -- a cross sectional field survey, determined the prevalence rates of oral precancerous lesions and their association with tobacco habits in a population of 50,915; phase 2 -- a 10 year follow-up study of 3/5 of the original study population, which indicated that oral cancer and precancerous lesions occurred almost solely among those who smoked or chewed tobacco and oral cancer was almost always preceded by some type of precancerous lesions; and phase 3 -- the intervention part of the project is to make people give up tobacco and to investigate any effect this might have on incidence and regression rate of precancerous lesions. The intervention program outlined a timetable for employing different communication media and regulating the information flow so as not to overwhelm the target population and to make the message more easily understandable, if necessary. Intervention strategies have been continually

  19. SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL STATUS OF WOMEN IN THE PROCESS OF TRANSFORMATIONS IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sikora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a characterisation of socio-professional status and socio-political activity of women in rural areas in Poland. Traditional, stereotypical approach was compared to the contemporary perception of the social roles performed by women in the countryside, and the results of recent empirical studies concerning the problems discussed were presented. The causes of the lack of socio-professional and political activity were discussed. The opportunities for the support that helps improve social activity of women from rural areas were also presented. The analysis carried out in the study revealed that the status of women in contemporary rural areas is close to traditional stereotypes used in this social category. The need for inclusion of the analysis of socio-professional situation of women in socio-economic strategies of development of rural areas was emphasized. The basis for writing the paper was analysis of the related literature and the results obtained in a national-level empirical research.

  20. Engaging rural women in healthy lifestyle programs: insights from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozica, Samantha L; Harrison, Cheryce L; Teede, Helena J; Ng, Sze; Moran, Lisa J; Lombard, Catherine B

    2015-09-16

    The obesity epidemic is well established, particularly in rural settings. Programs promoting healthy lifestyles for rural women are urgently needed; however, participant engagement is challenging. In the context of a large randomized controlled trial targeting the prevention of weight gain in rural women, we explored successful recruitment strategies and aimed to understand participants' barriers, enablers and reasons for program participation. We recruited women (aged 18-55 years) from the general rural Australian population. A mixed-methods approach was applied to explore factors that influenced program participation, including quantitative questionnaires for all participants (n = 649) and qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted for a subgroup of participants (n = 45). Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 6 and 12 months post program commencement. We recruited 649 rural women through a community communication and partnering strategy, a program marketing campaign and mobilization of social networks. Program participants were diverse across education and income levels and were representative of the wider Australian regional population. Factors that influenced program engagement were divided into personal (perceived program benefits and program accessibility) and social (peer persuasion and support). Identified enablers included convenience of the program location, perceived program utility, such as weight management and optimization of lifestyle choices, as well as attending the program with peer support. Barriers to engagement, which are likely exacerbated in rural communities included lack of anonymity, self-consciousness and segregated social networks in rural settings. Participants reported that eliciting local support and maximizing publicity is fundamental to improving future program engagement. Multiple program promotion strategies including communication, marketing and partnering, as well as mobilization of social networks and peer

  1. Benefits of family planning: an assessment of women's knowledge in rural Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutombo, Namuunda; Bakibinga, Pauline; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva

    2014-03-18

    The last two decades have seen an increase in literature reporting an increase in knowledge and use of contraceptives among individuals and couples in Kenya, as in the rest of Africa, but there is a dearth of information regarding knowledge about benefits of family planning (FP) in Kenya. To assess the factors associated with knowledge about the benefits of FP for women and children, among women in rural Western Kenya. Data are drawn from the Packard Western Kenya Project Baseline Survey, which collected data from rural women (aged 15-49 years). Ordinal regression was used on 923 women to determine levels of knowledge and associated factors regarding benefits of FP. Women in rural Western Kenya have low levels of knowledge about benefits of FP and are more knowledgeable about benefits for the mother rather than for the child. Only age, spousal communication and type of contraceptive method used are significant. Women's level of knowledge about benefits of FP is quite low and may be one of the reasons why fertility is still high in Western Kenya. Therefore, FP programmes need to focus on increasing women's knowledge about the benefits of FP in this region.

  2. Women at work - experiences and identity in rural East Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoven, B

    The economic restructuring since German unification has produced gender-differentiated patterns in the rural workplace. Most studies of East German labour market changes have illustrated the nature of such patterns in quantitative terms whilst neglecting their impact on everyday life. The

  3. Beliefs About Children’s Illness Among Rural Guatemalan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    REFERENCES Adams, Richard N. 1952. Un anälisis de las creencias y practicas medicas en un pueblo indigeno de Guatemala Publicaciones Especiales de...Sanford, and George Davey Smith (1995) "Diarrea infantil en la Nicaragua rural: creencia y practicas de salud tradicionales." Boletin de la Oficina

  4. Constraints to Occupational Diversification among Rural Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean of farm income was .31,022.8 while the mean of non-farm income was .125,364 (t= 12.136; p=0.05). The study recommends the inclusion of non-farm occupations in rural extension services especially value chain of cash crops as a means of improving income generation. Key words: Occupation, diversification, ...

  5. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  6. Pragmatic prevention, permanent solution: Women's experiences with hysterectomy in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sapna

    2016-02-01

    Hysterectomy appears to be on the rise amongst low-income, rural women in India as routine treatment for gynaecological ailments. This paper explores the individual, household, socio-economic and health system factors that influenced women's decisions to undergo hysterectomy in rural Gujarat, with a focus on women's perspectives. Interviews were conducted with 35 rural, low-income women who had undergone hysterectomy, local gynaecologists and other key informants, alongside observation of daily life and health-related activities. Inductive, open coding was conducted within a framework analysis to identify thematic influences on the decision to undergo hysterectomy. Women underwent hysterectomy at an average age of 36, as treatment for typically severe gynaecological ailments. I argue that women, faced with embedded social inequality in the form of gender biases, lack of labour security and a maternal-centric health system, demonstrated pragmatic agency in their decision to remove the uterus. When they experienced gynaecological ailments, most sought two to three opinions and negotiated financial and logistical concerns. The health system offered few non-invasive services for non-maternal health issues. Moreover, women and health care providers believed there is limited utility of the uterus beyond childbearing. Women's responsibilities as caretakers, workers and producers drove them to seek permanent solutions that would secure their long-term work and health security. Thus, hysterectomy emerged as a normalised treatment for gynaecological ailments, particularly for low-income women with limited resources or awareness of potential side effects. In this setting, hysterectomy reflects the power structures and social inequalities in which women negotiated medical treatment--and the need to reverse a culture of permanent solutions for low-income women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rural Women's Perceptions About Cancer Disparities and Contributing Factors: a Call to Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Zimmermann, Kristine; Carnahan, Leslie R; Paulsey, Ellen; Bigman, Cabral A; Khare, Manorama M; Zahnd, Whitney; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2017-02-27

    Rural cancer disparities are increasingly documented in the USA. Research has identified and begun to address rural residents' cancer knowledge and behaviors, especially among women. Little, however, is known about rural female residents' awareness of cancer inequities and perceived contributing factors affecting them and their families. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature via a secondary analysis of qualitative needs assessment in Illinois' rural southernmost seven counties, a geographic region with relatively high rates of cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality. A convenience sample of 202 rural adult female residents was recruited and participated in 26 focus groups, with 3-13 women per group. Inductive content analysis, guided by the principle of constant comparison, was used to analyze the qualitative data. Most respondents indicated their awareness of disproportionate cancer burden in their communities. Individual-level behaviors and environmental toxins were identified as contributing factors. Interestingly, however, environmental toxins were more often discussed as factors contributing to geographic differences, whereas individual-level behaviors were noted as important for overall cancer prevention and control. This study provides important insight into female rural residents' perspectives and offers novel venues for educational programs and research in the context of communication to eliminate disparities.

  8. Measures of Implicit Gender Attitudes May Exaggerate Differences in Underlying Associations among Chinese Urban and Rural Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oppression of women in rural China is more severe than in urban China, not only because the two areas differ in terms of social hierarchy, but also because urban women are more likely to fight against their subordination, which is endorsed by conventional social views on gender. To independently assess these relationships, we applied the Quadruple Process model to measure the processes underlying implicit gender attitudes in a sample of urban and rural females. The results indicated that the urban women had higher in-group favoritism than did the rural women. Application of the Quad model, however, showed that pro-women associations were similarly activated among urban and rural women, but that women in rural settings more effectively inhibited activated associations. Differences in inhibition, rather than in activated associations, appear to account for the less favorable attitudes among rural women. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses among urban and rural women exaggerate the differences in underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and conceal differences in self-regulating the expression of those associations.

  9. Women in natural resource collection: Experience from rural Jharkhand in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bhola Nath; De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Women living in rural areas are closely associated with the natural environment. Poor families are mostly dependent on natural resources for their survival activities viz. grazing of cattle, collection of water for drinking and cooking purposes and collection of fuel wood. In the poor families due to the compulsion of earning, adult males mostly go for outside activities and sometimes female members of the family also join them. The aforementioned natural resource collection activities are considered to be inferior, less remunerative and hence suitable for the women or young kids to perform. Thus, they are found to be more close to the nature than men and this very close relationship makes them perfect managers of the eco-system in their vicinity. The life of rural women is so much intertwined with the environment that they can't even think of her survival without it. However, there might be significant inter-household differences in the distribution of such activities between male and female members of the families, depending upon their socio-economic characteristics, cultural and religious beliefs and attitude towards women and children. The involvement of women in such activities is also found to be more in the tribal dominated societies. This paper tried to examine the extent to which women in rural Jharkhand are involved in such natural resource collection and management activities. Also, we tried to unearth various economic and cultural reasons and their impact on the involvement of women in such activities across various social and economic groups. The analysis of primary data collected from the rural areas of tribal dominated Jharkhand reveals that income, occupation and status of the families have significant inverse link with the involvement of women and also of girl children at the cost of their educational prospects. Religious and cultural beliefs also enter in the determination of extent of involvement of women and children in the rural society. It is

  10. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh J. Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3 and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1. Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1 against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1 against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1 against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

  11. Lack of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections among women in North rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Pham

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serious long-term complications of sexually transmitted infections (STI in women and newborns are well-documented. Particularly, STI imply considerable social consequences for women. Low STI knowledge has been shown to be associated with unsafe sex. In Vietnam, misconceptions regarding STI exist, and rural women delay seeking care for STI. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge of STI among women aged 15 to 49 years in a rural district of Vietnam and to evaluate possible associations between socioeconomic factors and STI knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study using face-to-face interviews was carried out between March and May 2006 in a demographic surveillance site in rural Vietnam. In total, 1805 women aged 15–49 years were randomly selected to participate in the study. The interviews were based on a structured questionnaire including questions on sociodemographic characteristics of the women and their knowledge about STI. Each correct answer was scored 1, incorrect or do not know answer was scored 0. Multivariate analyses were applied to examine associations between socio-economic conditions and STI knowledge. Intra-cluster correlation was calculated to examine similarities of STI knowledge within clusters. Results Of the 1,805 respondents, 78% (73% married vs. 93% unmarried, p Conclusion The low levels of STI knowledge found among women of reproductive age in a rural district of Vietnam indicate an urgent need of health education interventions, of which, young and unmarried women should be specifically targeted.

  12. Education Mitigates the Relationship of Stress and Mental Disorders Among Rural Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Nisha; Soni, Apurv; Allison, Jeroan; Vankar, Jagdish; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Byatt, Nancy; Phatak, Ajay; O'Keefe, Eileen; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    Common mental disorders (CMD) are a constellation of mental health conditions that include depression, anxiety, and other related nonpsychotic affective disorders. Qualitative explanatory models of mental health among reproductive-aged women in India reveal that distress is strongly associated with CMD. The relationship of perceived stress and CMD might be attenuated or exacerbated based on an individual's sociodemographic characteristics. To screen for Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among reproductive-aged women from rural western India and explore how the relationship between perceived stress and CMD screening status varies by sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional survey of 700 women from rural Gujarat, India. CMD screening status was assessed using Self-Reported Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20). Factors associated with CMD screening status were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Effect modification for the relationship of perceived stress and CMD screening status was assessed using interaction terms and interpreted in terms of predicted probabilities. The analytic cohort included 663 women, with roughly 1 in 4 screening positive for CMD (157, 23.7%). Poor income, low education, food insecurity, and recurrent thoughts after traumatic events were associated with increased risk of positive CMD screen. Perceived stress was closely associated with CMD screening status. Higher education attenuated the relationship between high levels of stress and CMD screening status (82.3%, 88.8%, 32.9%; P value for trend: 0.03). Increasing income and age attenuated the link between moderate stress and CMD. Our findings suggest a high burden of possible CMD among reproductive-aged women from rural western India. Higher education might mitigate the association between elevated stress and CMD. Future efforts to improve mental health in rural India should focus on preventing CMD by enhancing rural women's self-efficacy and problem-solving capabilities to overcome

  13. Women's decision-making autonomy and children's schooling in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Luciana; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-03-24

    Women's decision-making autonomy in developing settings has been shown to improve child survival and health outcomes. However, little research has addressed possible connections between women's autonomy and children's schooling. To examine the relationship between rural women's decision-making autonomy and enrollment status of primary school-age children living in their households and how this relationship differs by child's gender. The analysis uses data from a 2009 survey of rural households in four districts of Gaza province in southern Mozambique. Multilevel logistic models predict the probability of being in school for children between 6 and 14 years old. The results show a positive association of women's decision-making autonomy with the probability of being enrolled in primary school for daughters, but not for sons. The effect of women's autonomy is net of other women's characteristics typically associated with enrollment and does not mediate the effects of those characteristics. Based on the results, we argue that women with higher levels of decision-making autonomy may have a stronger preference for daughters' schooling and may have a greater say in making and implementing decisions regarding daughters' education, compared to women with lower autonomy levels. Results also illustrate a need for considering a broader set of autonomy-related characteristics when examining the effects of women's status on children's educational outcomes.

  14. The Changing Role of Women in the Rural Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Jeanne M.

    Labor force participation of nonmetropolitan women rose in the 1970's but not in a consistent pattern. Their labor force participation rose 4.5% between 1973 and 1978, when they comprised 41% of the total nonmetropolitan labor force. Although women accounted for 89% of nonmetropolitan employment growth in the 1960's and 58% in the 1970's, their…

  15. Personal View: Empowering rural women's health: What's going ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women work two thirds of the world working hours and produce half of ... skirted gender issues, which discourages or puts them off pursuing ... or balance equal opportunities, rights and obligations in alignment ... For example, the critical roles of women in ... activity and how their social life is organised in reality. It is about ...

  16. The lived experiences of rural women diagnosed with the human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Women diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy are ultimately concerned with the well-being of their unborn children, and this concern motivates their adherence to ART. Women's lived experiences are situated in their unique sociocultural context, and although some known challenges remain, counselling and ...

  17. Addressing the double burden of work for rural women | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-27

    Mar 27, 2017 ... These are the millions of women engaged in agricultural work in small ... theater to change norms and practices around fishing and domestic work. ... where the best opportunities are to reduce the burden of care work. In 2013, USAID's Feed the Future program developed the Women's Empowerment in ...

  18. Young, single and not depressed: prevalence of depressive disorder among young women in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atif; Ahmed, Mansoor; Sikander, Siham; Malik, Abid; Tomenson, Barbara; Creed, Francis

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of depression is very high among adult women in Pakistan but it is not known whether such a high prevalence occurs in younger women. We aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of depression in 16 to 18-year old unmarried women in Pakistan. Population-based survey of all 16 to 18-year old unmarried women in one rural community in Rawalpindi District, Punjab, Pakistan. Depressive disorder and psychological distress were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID) and Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) respectively. 337 eligible women were identified of whom 321 (95%) were interviewed. Fourteen (4.4%) had depressive disorder; one third scored 9 or more on SRQ. On multivariate analysis a high SRQ score was associated with childhood experience of poverty, father's education, stressful life events, disturbed family relationships and mother's depression. The sample was derived from one rural community only and the results should be generalised with caution. Depressive disorder is not common in young women in rural Pakistan though distress appears common and is associated with early and recent adversity and family difficulties. These results suggest future work might aim to understand onset and prevent chronic depression.

  19. Current status of contraceptive use among rural married women in Anhui Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-J; Wang, G-Y; Shen, Q; Yu, Y-L; Sun, Y-H; Yu, G-B; Zhao, D; Ye, D-Q

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to explore the current status of married women in regard of their use of contraceptive methods (permanent methods versus non-permanent methods) and to find out factors that affect the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Anhui Province of China. Survey. Anhui, China. A total of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. All women were asked to provide detailed information by completing detailed questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence and influence factors. The total birth control rate of the sample was 95.2%. Samples choosing the permanent and nonpermanent contraceptive methods have taken up 46.7 and 48.5% respectively. Female sterilisation was the first choice with a usage rate of 43.6%, followed by intrauterine device (IUD), which was used by 41.1% of samples. Single-variable analysis showed that the choice of contraceptive methods was associated with age, education level, parity, frequency of sex intercourses in a month, contraceptive knowledge, RTI symptom and the gender of the last child of rural married women. A significant increase in contraceptive use of rural married women in Anhui Province of China. Female sterilisation and IUD still play the dominant role. Effective family planning methods should be advocated through adequate counselling on the correct use and proper management, with consideration of the background of custom and belief.

  20. A Facebook Follow-Up Strategy for Rural Drug-Using Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Megan F; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Smith, Kirsten E; Leukefeld, Carl; Webster, J Matthew; Oser, Carrie B

    2017-06-01

    Facebook (FB) use has grown exponentially over the past decade, including in rural areas. Despite its popularity, FB has been underutilized as a research follow-up approach to maintain contact with research participants and may have advantages in less densely populated areas and among more hard-to-reach, at-risk groups. The overall goal of this study was to examine FB as a supplemental follow-up approach to other follow-up strategies with rural drug-using women. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with randomly selected women who completed baseline interviews in 3 rural jails in 1 state. Analyses focus on participants who were released from jail and were eligible for 3-month follow-up (n = 284). Bivariate analyses were used to examine differences between FB users and nonusers, and multivariate logistic regression models examined predictors of 3-month follow-up participation and being located for follow-up using FB. About two-thirds (64.4%) of participants were regular FB users. Bivariate analyses indicated that FB users were younger, more educated, and more likely to have used alcohol in the 30 days before incarceration but less likely to have a chronic health problem. Regression analyses indicated that rural FB users had more than 5 times the odds of being located for the 3-month follow-up interview, even after controlling for other variables. There were no significant predictors of being followed up using FB. Findings suggest that FB is widely used and well accepted among rural drug-using women. Among hard-to-reach populations, including those in rural, geographically isolated regions, FB serves as a method to improve participant follow-up. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Effect of Poverty on Risk Attitude of Rural Women Investors in Osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In investments, profit is the main reward for risk bearing. A riskless business may promote poverty. Poverty influences the capacities and willingness to acquire new knowledge and apply new technologies. This study sought mainly to determine the effect of poverty on risk attitude of rural women investors. The study area was ...

  2. Unilever's Shakti Project: Empowering Rural Indian Women: Bottom of the Pyramid in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loman, B.

    2010-01-01

    This research is on the positive and negative aspects of Unilever's Shakti-project, a prime example of marketing to the ‘Bottom of the Pyramid’ as put forward by C.K. Prahalad (2006). Poor rural Indian women are recruited to become small-scale entrepreneurs by Hindustan Lever, the Indian subsidiary

  3. HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

  4. Marital disruption : Determinants and consequences on the lives of women in a rural area of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhuiya, A; Mushtaque, A; Chowdhury, R; Momen, M; Khatun, M

    This study, carried out during the second half of 1995, investigated the predisposing factors leading to marital disruption and its consequences on the lives of women in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Data were generated from detailed case

  5. Why Diversity Matters in Rural America: Women Faculty of Color Challenging Whiteness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Keonghee Tao; Leonard, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Using critical race theory as an analytical framework to examine White privilege and institutional racism, two teacher educators, in a rural predominantly White university tell counterstories about teaching for social justice in literacy and mathematics education courses. In sharing our counterstories in this paper, we, women faculty of color,…

  6. The Learning Projects of Rural Third Age Women: Enriching a Valuable Community Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    As a third age PhD candidate with a passion for learning, I wanted to explore the learning of other rural third age women who live on the Lower Eyre Peninsula (LEP) of South Australia. This reflects the methodological stance of heuristic inquiry, which requires the researcher to have a passionate interest in the phenomena under investigation, and…

  7. Utilisation of maternity services by black women in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the. Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (fanns) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...

  8. Utilisation of maternity services by black women in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (farms) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...

  9. Post-Primary Education and Capabilities: Insights from Young Women in Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shelley K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the third stage of a longitudinal, qualitative study involving nine female participants from a class cohort in a secondary school in rural Uganda. Since 2004-05, this study has tracked the progress of these young women's lives, and the present aspect of the study explores the ways in which they have found that…

  10. Rural community birth: Maternal and neonatal outcomes for planned community births among rural women in the United States, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethery, Elizabeth; Gordon, Wendy; Bovbjerg, Marit L; Cheyney, Melissa

    2017-11-13

    Approximately 22% of women in the United States live in rural areas with limited access to obstetric care. Despite declines in hospital-based obstetric services in many rural communities, midwifery care at home and in free standing birth centers is available in many rural communities. This study examines maternal and neonatal outcomes among planned home and birth center births attended by midwives, comparing outcomes for rural and nonrural women. Using the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project 2.0 dataset of 18 723 low-risk, planned home, and birth center births, rural women (n = 3737) were compared to nonrural women. Maternal outcomes included mode of delivery (cesarean and instrumental delivery), blood transfusions, severe events, perineal lacerations, or transfer to hospital and a composite (any of the above). The primary neonatal outcome was a composite of early neonatal intensive care unit or hospital admissions (longer than 1 day), and intrapartum or neonatal deaths. Analysis involved multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, antepartum, and intrapartum risk factors. Rural women had different risk profiles relative to nonrural women and reduced risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in bivariable analyses. However, after adjusting for risk factors and confounders, there were no significant differences for a composite of maternal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.05 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.93-1.19]) or neonatal (aOR 1.13 [95% CI 0.87-1.46]) outcomes between rural and nonrural pregnancies. Among this sample of low-risk women who planned midwife-led community births, no increased risk was detected by rural vs nonrural status. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  12. Discovering the Barriers to Rural Women in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft Pearce, Jennifer; McCaslin, Sara; Morgan, Leann

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the attitudes women and girls from the East Texas region have towards engineering and physics. We use an online survey and interviews to determine what influences women to choose their career paths. Surprisingly, we find that women have more positive attitudes about physics and engineering than their male counterparts. For the group of students interviewed, self assessment of ability, lack of role models, and confusion about work/life balance issues were some of the determining factors in their choice not to pursue a career in a STEM field.

  13. Helping rural women in Pakistan to prevent postpartum hemorrhage: A quasi experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey from 2006–2007, the maternal mortality ratio in rural areas is 319 per 100,000 live births. Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal deaths in Pakistan. The objectives of the study were to document the feasibility of distribution of misoprostol tablets by community-based providers mainly traditional birth attendants and acceptability and use of misoprostol by women who gave birth at home. Methods A quasi-experimental design, comprising intervention and comparison areas, was used to document the acceptability of providing misoprostol tablets to pregnant women to prevent postpartum hemorrhage in the rural community setting in Pakistan. Data were collected using structured questionnaires administered to women before and after delivery at home and their birth attendants. Results Out of 770 women who delivered at home, 678 (88% ingested misoprostol tablets and 647 (84% ingested the tablets after the birth of the neonate but prior to the delivery of the placenta. The remaining women took misoprostol tablets after delivery of the placenta. Side effects were experienced by 40% of women and were transitory in nature. Among women who delivered at home, 80% said that they would use misoprostol tablets in the future and 74% were willing to purchase them in the future. Conclusions Self-administration of misoprostol in the home setting is feasible. Community-based providers, such as traditional birth attendants and community midwives with proper training and counseling, play an important role in reducing postpartum hemorrhage. Proper counseling and information exchange are helpful for introducing new practices in resource-constrained rural communities. Until such a time that skilled birth attendance is made more universally available in the rural setting, alternative strategies, such as training and using the services of traditional birth attendants to provide safe

  14. Barriers to cervical cancer screening uptake among rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [5] Among Asian-American women, psychosocial ... poorly-trained personnel were health system-related barriers. In sub-Saharan ... explored the religious and cultural barriers to cervical screening ... perceived barriers to screening uptake.

  15. Supporting business opportunities for rural women in east and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women in Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Uganda experience disadvantages and ... through the development of business enterprises and decent job creation. ... partnerships with the private sector, especially around marketing and quality control.

  16. The situation of rural women in Spain: the case of small-scale artisan food producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Escurriol Martinez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural women's discrimination and the lack of effective implementation of the legislation on gender equality is a phenomenon found around the world. Women have been traditionally the responsible of family care and feeding, thus they have developed productive tasks that allow combining productive and reproductive activities in the farm. Food processing is one of these activities and it allows women to have a paid work or to complement agrarian rents in a context where most of agricultural works are vetoed to them. Nevertheless, women are usually linked to small-scale agricultural projects which prioritize quality and local food production, and the expansion of industrial food systems has worsened the situation of artisan women. In the present research we aimed, through the use of qualitative methodologies, at conducting a diagnosis of the situation of women leading small-scale food transformation projects in Spain while eliciting their main difficulties, needs and claims.

  17. Lack of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections among women in North rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Pham Thi; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Mogren, Ingrid; Phuc, Ho Dang; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2009-06-06

    The serious long-term complications of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in women and newborns are well-documented. Particularly, STI imply considerable social consequences for women. Low STI knowledge has been shown to be associated with unsafe sex. In Vietnam, misconceptions regarding STI exist, and rural women delay seeking care for STI. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge of STI among women aged 15 to 49 years in a rural district of Vietnam and to evaluate possible associations between socioeconomic factors and STI knowledge. A cross-sectional population-based study using face-to-face interviews was carried out between March and May 2006 in a demographic surveillance site in rural Vietnam. In total, 1805 women aged 15-49 years were randomly selected to participate in the study. The interviews were based on a structured questionnaire including questions on sociodemographic characteristics of the women and their knowledge about STI. Each correct answer was scored 1, incorrect or do not know answer was scored 0. Multivariate analyses were applied to examine associations between socio-economic conditions and STI knowledge. Intra-cluster correlation was calculated to examine similarities of STI knowledge within clusters. Of the 1,805 respondents, 78% (73% married vs. 93% unmarried, p married vs. 76% unmarried, p married vs. 14% unmarried, p unmarried women and women who lived in the highlands or mountainous areas demonstrated very low levels of STI knowledge (regression coefficients -1.3 and -2.5, respectively, p unmarried women should be specifically targeted.

  18. ‘Elastic band strategy’: women's lived experiences of coping with domestic violence in rural Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Högberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms. PMID:23336615

  19. A cross-sectional study of contraceptive use among married women living in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Ning; Zhou, You; Mao, Qunxia; Cheng, Yimin

    2012-08-01

    To examine the prevalence of contraceptive use in rural China and to determine factors that influence choice of contraceptive method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage cluster sampling to identify married women aged 20-49 years residing in Shaanxi Province, China. Data on demographics and contraceptive use were collected via detailed questionnaire. The prevalence of contraceptive use in the study population was 93.9% (19 599/20 878 eligible women). Among the women using contraceptives, 10 408 (53.1%) used sterilization (female and male) and 6947 (35.4%) chose an intrauterine device. In total, 2244 (11.4%) women used short-acting contraceptive (SAC) methods: condoms and pills accounted for 8.7% (n=1712) and 1.0% (n=216), respectively. Young age; high level of education; low parity; increased number of abortions; low frequency of sexual intercourse; long duration between marriage and delivery; and marriage after 1994 were all associated with SAC usage. Although contraceptive use was high in rural China, the participants' awareness of free selection of contraceptive method and the rate of SAC use were both low. Appropriate and diverse family-planning services should be provided to meet the needs of women living in rural areas. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of gender equity awareness on women's reproductive healthcare in rural areas of midwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cui, Ying; Zhang, Li; Wang, Chao; Jiang, Yan; Shi, Wei

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the impact of married women's gender equity awareness on use of reproductive healthcare services in rural China. The questionnaire-based study recruited 1500 married women who were aged 15-49years, had at least 1 pregnancy, and were living in rural Gansu, Qinghai, Shanxi, or Xinjiang, China, between October and December 2010. "Gender equity awareness" was quantified by responses to 7 statements, graded in accordance with a system scoring the strength of overall belief (≥19, strong; 15-18, moderate; and ≤14, weak). Only 383 women (26.3%) demonstrated high gender equity awareness. The percentage of women who received consistent prenatal care was highest in the group scoring 15 points or more (Pgender equity awareness is not strong in rural midwest China. There was a positive correlation between gender equity awareness and use of reproductive healthcare services. There should be an emphasis on various activities to educate women so that they can fully access reproductive healthcare. © 2013.

  1. Sociodemographic and economic characteristics of susceptibility to rubella among women preparing for pregnancy in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchao; Zhang, Shikun; Liu, Jue; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Min

    2017-09-01

    Infection with rubella virus during pregnancy can result in congenital defects and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The risk of rubella infection is greatly determined by the level of rubella antibodies in the serum. A survey of rubella antibody seronegativity rates was conducted in 780 000 women in rural China who were planning a pregnancy, in order to evaluate the herd susceptibility in different age groups and by high, middle, and low GDP per capita regions. In order to evaluate the herd susceptibility to rubella, a nationwide population-based study of rural Chinese women who were planning to have a baby and who were aged 21-49 years was instigated. As a part of the National Free Pre-conception Health Examination Project covering 29 provinces in 2012, a physical check-up program was provided to women who planned to become pregnant within the next 6 months. All medical data were from serological samples tested by ELISA, and the participants' immunity status was categorized based on levels of rubella antibodies. Economic data were also collected to explore the association between herd susceptibility and socioeconomic characteristics in the women of childbearing age. A total 264 306 of 782 293 recruited women preparing for pregnancy tested susceptible to rubella (33.79%). The seronegativity rate in women with a history of vaccination was significantly lower than that in women who had not received the vaccination or did not know their vaccination history (23.76%, 33.70%, and 35.68%, respectively). The seronegativity rates were 26.89%, 37.86%, and 32.61% in high, middle, and low GDP per capita areas, respectively. After stratified analysis and adjusting for other factors by multiple logistic regression, the lower seronegativity rates in women in high GDP per capita regions compared to women in middle and low GDP per capita regions remained in the different age groups and subgroups of immunization history. There is a clear difference in rubella-specific susceptibility

  2. A study on rural women entrepreneurship in Vempalli Mandal, Kadapa District, A.P. India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Bharathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to show that in order to improve the status of women entrepreneurship in all spheres of Indian life, the government will need to take an initiative in providing an increased pace of awareness and become meaningful providers of needed training programs especially aimed at strengthening rural women entrepreneurs. It also aims at exploring the present status of women entrepreneurs regarding their socio economic backgrounds, problems faced by them in seeking to create new ventures, motivational factors and the availability of finance for them in Vempalli Mandal, YSR District.

  3. Growing older: a qualitative inquiry into the textured narratives of older, rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Lauren; Gullifer, Judith

    2010-07-01

    This study explored experiences of eight rural, Anglo-Australian women aged between 65 and 75 using semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis revealed three prominent themes: (a) the free and busy me highlights the increased freedom in later life enabling choices regarding activities the women would like to engage in; (b) the secret is being positive and pragmatic emphasizes the importance of adopting a pragmatic acceptance of growing older; and (c) narratives of growth and stagnation highlights the pursuit of growth among older women in order to enhance the current self. Findings emphasize the construction of later life as one of liberation, resilience and growth.

  4. Status, Caste, and the Time Allocation of Women in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Eswaran; Bharat Ramaswami; Wilima Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    We argue that women may be disinclined to participate in market work in the rural areas of India because of family status concerns in a culture that stigmatizes market work by married women. We set out a theoretical framework that offers predictions regarding the effects of caste-based status concerns on the time allocation of women. We then use the all-India National Sample Survey data for the year 2004-5 and the Time Use Survey for six states of India for the year 1998-99 to empirically tes...

  5. "Como Si Nada": Enduring Violence and Diabetes among Rural Women in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, Laura

    2018-04-01

    Rural women in Southern Mexico link their diabetes to distressful life experiences rooted in ordinary violence. While much has been written on the use that diabetes sufferers make of their morbid condition as an idiom of distress, I investigate the personal and social effects that such an idiom has on women. As I illustrate, diabetes reflects an ambivalence that helps women to speak about the unspeakable and, at the same time, reinforces their ideas of culpability, namely that they are to blame for both the gendered violence that they endure and the diabetes from which they suffer.

  6. Rural Women, Social Movement and Political Participation: reflections from the March of the Daisies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilenia Venancio Porto Aguiar

    2016-10-01

    object of reflection in March of the Daisies, collective action carried out by women in the field and forest, which occurse very four years, in Brasilia. Considering it as part of the historical process of organization of rural women workers, try to rescue here the emergence of movements of rural women, situated in the context of the democratic opening of the 1980s, and its performance in recent years, in the course of which I position the march of the Daisies. The article shows that, with a transformation both in its structure and organizational dynamics, and in their public appearance, the March of the Daisies, working in network, has produced visibility to women’s field and forest, has created impact in the public sphere and obtained achievements for citizenship, proving capable of dialogue with the state and focus on public policies.

  7. Inequality of the use of skilled birth assistance among rural women in Bangladesh: facts and factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Kabir, M A

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the inequality of the use of skilled delivery assistance by the rural women of Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Simple cross-tabulation and univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed in the study. Overall, 56.1% of the women received at least one antenatal care visit, whereas only 13.2% births were assisted by skilled personnel. Findings revealed apparent inequality in using skilled delivery assistance by socioeconomic strata. Birth order, women's education, religion, wealth index, region and antenatal care are important determinants of seeking skilled assistance. To ensure safe motherhood initiative, government should pay special attention to reduce inequality in seeking skilled delivery assistance. A strong focus on community-based and regional interventions is important in order to increase the utilization of safe maternal health care services in rural Bangladesh. © 2013 APJPH.

  8. Working men : Bangladeshi migrants in the global labour force

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I illustrate that Bangladeshi male migrants are now part of a vast pool of inexpensive and mobile workers that are maintained as such because of powerful structures of inequality that require the extraction of their labour at both the global and local scale. These low-waged migrants’ occupy particular positions in Singapore’s segmented labour market – a point which remains the backdrop of my argument. Drawing upon migrants’ own narratives, I examine how Bangladeshi men make sen...

  9. Biosocial correlates of anemia in rural women of Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Seth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia results from nutrition related causes and from inflammatory or infectious diseases, worm infestations and from blood loss. Iron deficiency anaemia resulting from inadequate intake and low absorption of dietary iron is the most common form of anaemia in India. Objective: To find out the prevalence of maternal anemia and its correlates. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 435 women of reproductive age. The women of reproductive aged 15-45 years old were included in the study. The purposive sampling method was adopted for the selection of women. Results: The prevalence of anemia was found to be 49%. The percentage of mild anemia was observed among 55.4% of the women.  However, 34.3% and 10.3% of the women were moderately and severely anemic. The prevalence was higher among the women having no education. Conclusion: It is evident from the current study that the burden of nutritional anemia is high among women in the rural areas and hence, sincere efforts must be initiated adopting specific interventional measures with regard to nutritional education and anemia prophylaxis to reduce the morbidity due to anemia in the rural areas.

  10. Sexual behaviour of women in rural South Africa: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Henk Dubbink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual behaviour is a core determinant of the HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI epidemics in women living in rural South Africa. Knowledge of sexual behaviour in these areas is limited, but constitutes essential information for a combination prevention approach of behavioural change and biomedical interventions. Methods This descriptive study was conducted in rural Mopani District, South Africa, as part of a larger study on STI. Women of reproductive age (18–49 years who reported sexual activity were included regardless of the reason for visiting the facility. Questionnaires were administered to 570 women. We report sexual behaviour by age group, ethnic group and self-reported HIV status. Results Young women (34 years; there was no difference for condom use during last sex act (36 % overall. Sotho women were more likely to report concurrent sexual partners whereas Shangaan women reported more frequent intravaginal cleansing and vaginal scarring practice in our analysis. HIV-infected women were older, had a higher number of lifetime sexual partners, reported more frequent condom use during the last sex act and were more likely to have a known HIV-infected partner than women without HIV infection; hormonal contraceptive use, fellatio, and a circumcised partner were less often reported. Conclusions This study provides insight into women’s sexual behaviour in a rural South African region. There are important differences in sexual behaviour by age group and ethnicity and HIV status; these should be taken into account when designing tailor-made prevention packages.

  11. Abortion. Is RU 486/PG in its current form likely to be appropriate for women in Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, S; Germain, A

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 in Bangladesh, women's health advocates presented a paper at the International Symposium on Antiprogestins on the pros and cons of a clinical trial of RU-486 and a prostaglandin (RU-486/PG) in Bangladesh where women now depend on menstrual regulation (MR). Even though RU-486/PG does not depend on a transcervical procedure as does MR, it requires a pelvic examination to determine gestation and completeness of abortion. Bangladeshi women consider it an invasive procedure. Thus, the often proclaimed benefit of noninvasiveness does not apply. Further, pelvic exams carry the risk of infection. Other sources of infection with RU-486/PG are insertion of PG vaginal suppository, retained conceptus, and management of blood loss. There is a sizable risk of infection in a not tightly controlled trial because women may not recognize incomplete abortion. MR also has similar risk of infection, especially the more serious risk of upper genital tract infection. RU-486/PG is most effective within 7-8 weeks after the last menstrual period. Yet, most women in rural Bangladesh present for MR at or after 8 weeks, and clinics countrywide have turned away 20-40% of women because they present no earlier than 10 weeks. Like MR, RU-486/PG does not allow Bangladeshi women any privacy because they must go to the clinic 3 times and both family and community know when they are bleeding. A clinical trial would determine whether Bangladeshi women would have the sense of control as expressed by French women. RU-486/PG would not necessarily lower costs for the health system or women. Further, it would not prevent deaths from septic abortions. The advocates recommended a trail in Bangladesh, if certain conditions were met such as involvement of women's health advocates in every stage of the trial and use of only the highest possible quality service providers. It should only occur in carefully controlled clinical situations.

  12. The lived experiences of rural women diagnosed with the human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-26

    Sep 26, 2017 ... during antenatal and postnatal care for HIV-positive pregnant women in South Africa .... The professional nurse who provided antenatal care at the clinic identified and approached the ..... cure HIV. Firstly I have to accept and ...

  13. Status Attainment Through Marriage: The Experience of Rural Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Philip N.

    The literature suggested that marriage provides alternative occupational achievement for women who opt by choice or by circumstance to attain socioeconomic position through their husbands' occupations, and that an advantageous social contact setting is crucial for access to promising mates so that a woman's personal attributes can be beneficial…

  14. Rural Women's Experience in the Latin American Agrarian Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Deere, Carmen Diana

    1985-01-01

    A partir d'une analyse comparative de 13 réformes agraires latino-américaines, cette communication indique qu'une condition nécessaire mais non suffisante pour que les femmes rurales ne soient pas lésées par rapport aux hommes consiste à les désigner, à égalité avec les hommes, comme les bénéficiaires de ces politiques. Il convient de donner aux femmes autant qu'aux hommes l'accès à la terre, ou la possibilité de participer aux coopératives agricoles ou aux fermes d'Etat. Mais tel n'a pas été...

  15. A socially excluded space: restrictions on access to health care for older women in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Abul; Westhues, Anne

    2010-09-01

    This study was an exploration of the experiences of 17 women, age 60 or more years, from Bangladesh. The women were asked about decision-making processes with respect to their access to health care and whether they perceived that there were differences based on age and sex in the way a household responds to an illness episode. The overall theme that characterized their experiences was "being in a socially excluded space." The themes that explained this perception of social exclusion included gender- and age-based social practices, gender- and class-based economic practices, religious beliefs that restricted the mobility of women, and social constructions of health and illness that led the women to avoid seeking health care. We conclude that the Bangladesh constitutional guarantee that disparities will be eliminated in access to health care between rich and poor, men and women, rural and urban residents, and younger and older citizens has not yet been realized.

  16. Wife beating refusal among women of reproductive age in urban and rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmu, Eshetu; Endale, Senait

    2017-03-16

    Wife beating is the most common and widespread form of intimate partner violence in Ethiopia. It results in countless severe health, socio-economic and psychological problems and has contributed to the violation of human rights including the liberty of women to enjoy conjugal life. The main purpose of this study is to assess the levels and patterns of wife beating refusal and its associated socio-cultural and demographic factors in rural and urban Ethiopia. The 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data based on 11,097 and 5287 women in the reproductive age group (i.e. 15-49 years) living in rural and urban areas, respectively,were used in this study. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency of the measure of women's attitudes towards wife beating. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was applied to analyze the data. A binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify variables that significantly predict respondents' refusal of wife beating. Separate analysis by a place of residence was undertaken as attitude towards wife beating vary between rural and urban areas. The likelihood of refusing wife beating in Ethiopia was significantly higher among urban women (54.2%) than rural women (24.5%). Although there was a significant variations in attitude towards refusing wife beating among different regions in Ethiopia, increasing educational level, high access to media, age of respondents were associated with high level of refusal of wife beating. In contrast, rural residence, being in marital union, high number of living children, being followers of some religions (Muslim followers in urban and Protestants in rural) were associated with low level of refusal of wife beating. The findings of this study reveal that wife beating in Ethiopia is a function of demographic and socio-cultural factors among which age and educational attainment of respondents, number of living children, religious affiliation, marital commitment and

  17. Prevalence of anemia and correlated factors in the reproductive age women in rural areas of tabas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sadeghian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide.A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis.The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35 and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31 were associated with higher prevalence of anemia.Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women groups.

  18. Socio Demographic Determinants of Delivery Practice in Rural Women of Bangladesh

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    Meherunnessa Begum

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every year, world wide, 200 million women become pregnant. The development of urban areas allowed women to receive more care and treatment. However, in rural areas such measures are not available to every woman. Data on delivery practice of rural woman may help the social and public health planners and decision makers to minimize and prevent maternal mortality and morbidity ensuring safe motherhood.Objective: The aim of the study was to observe the delivery practice of rural women of Bangladesh.Materials and method: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected from Dhamrai upazila, Dhaka, Bangladesh in April 2008. Total 159 women of reproductive age group at least having one child were selected purposively to elicit information on various demographic, socioeconomic, cultural and selected programmatic variables including maternal health care and delivery practices.Results: Among the respondents about 55% were literate. Majority (80% of the respondents delivered at home and most of the them (71% felt that home delivery was comfortable where as about 29% of the respondents were compelled to deliver at home due to family decision and financial constraint. Among the deliveries about 82% occurred normally and 18.2% were by cesarean section. A considerable percentage of deliveries (49% were attended by traditional birth attendants. Blade was used for cutting umbilical cord in majority of the cases (74% who delivered at home. Most of the respondents (90% took ante natal check up and about 74% were vaccinated by tetanus toxoid.Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that a lot of work is still to do for the policy makers and health planners to target, plan, develop and deliver maternal health services to the rural women of Bangladesh.

  19. Rural black women's agency within intimate partnerships amid the South African HIV epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thege, Britta

    2009-12-01

    In a particular way, the HIV pandemic exposes the prevailing gender relations and the definitions of male and female gender roles, both in intimate relationships and in the wider society. The HIV pandemic reveals the contradictions between women's legal rights and the persistence of women's cultural and sexual subordination. It reflects the impact of poverty, gender roles, culture and religion. Although HIV and AIDS cuts across class, South African rural black women's infection risk seems particularly high since they suffer notably from subordination and socio-economic hardships. Negotiating safer sex in marriage or intimate partnerships is very difficult for them in view of the traditional spaces in which they find themselves, where patriarchal structures are pervasive. Based on data obtained from a case study, this paper examines socio-cultural constraints to rural women's sexual agency in a patriarchal social order. These rules are based on a patriarchal code of respect, which is still pervasive in many aspects of the community under investigation. In terms of gender relations, the patriarchal code of respect is founded on an assumed 'naturalisation' of the two genders and the natural superiority of the male over the female. In terms of sexuality it is translated into male sex-right. The fear of HIV infection is omnipresent and results in unmarried women engaging in the negotiation of their wants and needs. Owing to the patriarchal code of respect, married women are perceived as having no choice in negotiating safer sex and are forced to put their lives at risk in contracting HIV. Unmarried women have greater although not endless choices in this regard. Although the study participants unexpectedly displayed a rather negative perception of other women, in order to strengthen women in their proximal environment the HIV epidemic may be seen as a vehicle for building solidarity among women in the community.

  20. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Gale, Jennifer T; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W

    2011-12-09

    Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women. It is critical to acknowledge

  1. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passey Megan E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation

  2. Toward smoke-free homes: A community-based study on initiatives of rural Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Srabani; Das, Samiran

    2011-05-01

    Since the home is the primary source of exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS), measures to restrict smoking at home should be introduced to protect children from its adverse health consequences. Objectives of the study were to assess the level of awareness of rural Indian women on the health impacts of SHS on children and to look into the strategies they used to reduce children's exposure to SHS at home. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 438 rural women using a survey questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on specific health effects of SHS on children, and attitude toward having a smoke-free home were collected. The perceived reasons that made it difficult to have smoke-free homes were also explored. A total of 75.8% of women agreed that SHS was a serious health risk for children. Knowledge on health impacts of SHS on children identified asthma as the most common problem. Smoking by husbands (89.7%) was the major source of exposure to SHS at home. While 67.6% of women reported having taken measures to limit SHS exposure in their homes, only 12.8% of them had tried to introduce a complete ban on smoking at home. On a five-point evaluation scale, 73.3% of the women indicated a failure of their initiatives to have smoke-free homes. Women's initiatives to introduce restrictions on smoking at home had very limited success and did not produce an appreciable change in smoking behavior at home. Lack of empowerment of women in rural India probably rendered the interventional measures ineffective.

  3. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Melonie M; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kwena, Zachary; Turan, Janet M

    2013-12-02

    Women's ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and implementation of programs geared at promoting HIV

  4. Computer Intervention: Illness Self-Management/Quality of Life of Rural Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Clarann; Cudney, Shirley; Comstock, Bryan; Bansal, Aasthaa

    2014-03-01

    The Women To Women project, a computer-based support and educational research intervention, was designed to help rural women better understand and manage their chronic illnesses. Its impact on psychosocial adaptation has been reported elsewhere. This article reports on the effect of a computer intervention on chronic illness self-management skills and quality of life. Using a parallel 2-group study design, the researchers randomized 309 middle-aged rural women with chronic conditions to either a computer-based intervention or a control group. They collected data on self-management of chronic illness and quality of life indicators at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Women in the intervention group reported significantly more self-efficacy in managing their chronic disease than those in the control group and the observed effect was of moderate size. Women in the intervention group also reported statistically significant gains in quality of life; effect sizes were small but consistent. Select chronic illness self-management skills and quality of life can be positively influenced by a well-designed computer intervention. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.

  5. Correlates of Adherence among Rural Indian Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa; Ernst, E J; Keenan, Colleen; Suresh, P; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Liu, Yihang

    2012-01-01

    In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, correlates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) were assessed using a baseline questionnaire among 68 rural women living with AIDS (WLA) in India. Unadjusted analyses revealed positive relationships of ART adherence with Hindu religion, and support from spouses and parents, whereas negative associations were found with depression, poor quality of life, and having ten or more HIV symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis also revealed that WLA who were Hindu, not depressed, had ART support from spouses and parents, and perceived some benefit from ART were more adherent to ART than their respective counterparts. This study reveals the unique challenges which rural WLA experience and the need to mitigate these challenges early in ART treatment. Further, the findings enable the refinement of an intervention program which will focus on strengthening ART adherence among rural WLA.

  6. Drug use behaviour of pregnant women in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, A.; Biswas, S.; Chattopadhyay, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the drug use habit of pregnant women in villages of central India. Methods: An observational, cross sectional study was conducted among six hundred fifty pregnant women from different randomly selected villages of Wardha district of central India through interviews on medicine use behaviour and evaluation of prescriptions. Results: Pregnant women of younger age group from lower socio economic status constituted the majority of the study population. Major portion (97.7) of this socio economically backward population followed the doctor's advice as far as dose, frequency and duration of the drug was concerned. The antenatal mothers were of the opinion that, if the instructions on the drug envelop or foil was in written in the local language, it could be more helpful for them. Conclusion: Majority of the study population used drugs or medicines regularly but some mothers were reluctant. This indicated that even in this age of advancement of scientific knowledge, all antenatal mothers were not conversant with the advantages of drug use. (author)

  7. Sex differences in obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Juliann; Saquib, Nazmus; Stefanick, Marcia L; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Anand, Shuchi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Chertow, Glenn M; Barry, Michele; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    The sustained economic growth in Bangladesh during the previous decade has created a substantial middle-class population, who have adequate income to spend on food, clothing, and lifestyle management. Along with the improvements in living standards, has also come negative impact on health for the middle class. The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we randomly selected 402 adults from Mohammedpur, Dhaka. The sampling technique was multi-stage random sampling. We used standardized questionnaires for data collection and measured height, weight, and waist circumference. Mean age (standard deviation) was 49.4 (12.7) years. The prevalence of both generalized (79% vs. 53%) and central obesity (85% vs. 42%) were significantly higher in women than men. Women reported spending more time watching TV and spending less time walking than men (pmiddle-class Bangladeshis than previous urban estimates, and the burden of obesity disproportionately affects women. Future research and public health efforts are needed to address this severe obesity problem and to promote active lifestyles.

  8. Domestic violence against women: a qualitative study in a rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravneet; Garg, Suneela

    2010-04-01

    Domestic violence is a major contributor to physical and mental ill health of women and is evident, to some degree, in every society in the world. The World Health Organization reports that globally 29% to 62% of women have experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner. Ending gender discrimination and all forms of violence against women requires an understanding of the prevailing culture of bias and violence. The present study was conducted in a rural area in India. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among married women in the age group of 18 to 35 years. Physical violence was a major cause of concern among these women. Some women had to suffer even during pregnancy. An alcoholic husband emerged as the main cause for domestic violence. Husbands' relatives instigating wife beating was also common. Majority of the women preferred to remain silent despite being victimized. The women feared to resort to law because of implications such as social isolation. To address this, all sectors including education, health, legal, and judicial must work in liaison. Gender inequality must be eliminated and equal participation of women in the decision-making and development processes must be ensured.

  9. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia

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    Antić Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

  10. Analysis of Food Poverty of Rural Women in Villages of Central district of Boyer-Ahmad County

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    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The findings revealed that about 31 percent of women were below and 69% were above the food poverty line. Comparison of averages of some variables including education status, employment (head of household, income, banking facilities such as credit and loans, property and assets, savings, economic skills, economic participation, government supports, husband's attitude, self-confidence, self-esteem, physical and mental healths showed that there are significant differences between poor and non-poor rural women. The discriminant analysis indicated that variables like husband attitude, self-confidence, and self-essteem correctly classified about 87.7 percent of rural women as poor or non-poor. Due to the husband's attitude had a significant role in differentiation of the two groups, the social and cultural education of rural men are recommended. Furthermore, the supporting sterategies that includes the distribution of food commodities, unemployment insurance and pensions, medical insurance and development of educational services for rural women is suggested.

  11. Risky health seeking practice among pregnant women in rural Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørby, Laila

    2007-01-01

    the clinics at M’shi., and to analyze the practice and logic of the untrained helpers, in the villages and the professional staff at M’shi. To do that I have done a fieldwork study in the area around M’shi., using qualitative methods such as Interviews, Focus Group Discussions and observations. I have used...... they are part of the tradition and the culture. The women make a perfectly normal choice when they choose the TBAs for care as they are part of the folk sector. The TBA’s are there, culturally sensitive, trusted and respected. They have certain knowledge and skills. The professional, medical system may as well...

  12. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

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    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  13. Toward smoke-free homes: A community-based study on initiatives of rural Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srabani Mittal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Since the home is the primary source of exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS, measures to restrict smoking at home should be introduced to protect children from its adverse health consequences. Aims: Objectives of the study were to assess the level of awareness of rural Indian women on the health impacts of SHS on children and to look into the strategies they used to reduce children′s exposure to SHS at home. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 438 rural women using a survey questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on specific health effects of SHS on children, and attitude toward having a smoke-free home were collected. The perceived reasons that made it difficult to have smoke-free homes were also explored. Results: A total of 75.8% of women agreed that SHS was a serious health risk for children. Knowledge on health impacts of SHS on children identified asthma as the most common problem. Smoking by husbands (89.7% was the major source of exposure to SHS at home. While 67.6% of women reported having taken measures to limit SHS exposure in their homes, only 12.8% of them had tried to introduce a complete ban on smoking at home. On a five-point evaluation scale, 73.3% of the women indicated a failure of their initiatives to have smoke-free homes. Conclusions: Women′s initiatives to introduce restrictions on smoking at home had very limited success and did not produce an appreciable change in smoking behavior at home. Lack of empowerment of women in rural India probably rendered the interventional measures ineffective.

  14. Scaling up postabortion contraceptive service--results from a study conducted among women having unwanted pregnancies in urban and rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose

    2005-01-01

    Tanzania and 42% in rural Tanzania stated that their pregnancy was unwanted. Contraceptive acceptance among women with unwanted pregnancies was high; 93% in urban Tanzania and 71% in rural Tanzania left with a contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of women with unwanted pregnancies in urban...... and rural Tanzania underlines the need of scaling up postabortion contraceptive service....

  15. Forging partnerships between rural women with chronic conditions and their health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudney, Shirley; Weinert, Clarann; Kinion, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    Successful adaptation to chronic illness is enhanced by active client-health care provider partnerships. The purposes of this article are to (a) examine the health care partnership needs of western rural women with chronic illness who participated in a computer-based support and education project, (b) describe how the role of the women in the partnership can be maximized by the use of a personal health record and improving health literacy, and (c) discuss ways health care providers can enhance their role in the partnership by careful listening and creating environments conducive to forging productive client-provider partnerships.

  16. The paradox of screening: Rural women's views on screening for postnatal depression

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    Small Rhonda E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal screening for postnatal depression is currently being promoted in Australia to assist detection and treatment of affected women, yet debate continues internationally about the effectiveness of screening. One rural shire in Victoria has been screening all women for postnatal depression at maternal and child health checks for many years. This paper explores the views of women affected by this intervention. Methods A postal survey was sent to an entire one year cohort of women resident in the shire and eligible for this program [n = 230]. Women were asked whether they recalled having been screened for postnatal depression and what their experience had been, including any referrals made as a result of screening. Women interested in providing additional information were invited to give a phone number for further contact. Twenty women were interviewed in-depth about their experiences. The interview sample was selected to include both depressed and non-depressed women living in town and on rural properties, who represented the range of circumstances of women living in the shire. Results The return rate for the postal survey was 62% [n = 147/230]. Eighty-seven women indicated that they were interested in further contact, 80 of whom were able to be reached by telephone and 20 were interviewed in-depth. Women had diverse views and experiences of screening. The EPDS proved to be a barrier for some women, and a facilitator for others, in accessing support and referrals. The mediating factor appeared to be a trusting relationship with the nurse able to communicate her concern for the woman and offer support and referrals if required. Conclusions Detection of maternal depression requires more than administration of a screening tool at a single time point. While this approach did work for some women, for others it actually made appropriate care and support more difficult. Rather, trained and empathic healthcare providers working

  17. Rural and urban women entrepreneurs: A comparison of service needs and delivery methods priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurs face a wide variety of barriers and challenges throughout the life and growth of their entrepreneurial venture. This study expands the knowledge base on women entrepreneurs’ needs, specifically their needs in terms of service areas and service delivery method preferences. Twenty three “needed” service areas were identified by 95 Manitoba based women entrepreneurs. The first five included: finding new customers, growth benefits and tools, market expansion, general marketing, and networking skills. This study also examined the differences between urban and rural based entrepreneurs. Two service need areas “how to find mentors and role models” and “legal issues” exhibited statistically significant priority differences. Service delivery methods did not produce any statistically significant differences. Overall, this study concludes that regardless of location, women entrepreneurs’ training and support needs are not significantly that different. The effects of entrepreneurial stage and years in business on entrepreneurial support needs are also examined.

  18. Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mubita-Ngoma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.

  19. [Healthy habits and osteoporosis prevention in perimenopausal women from rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, M Reyes; Almazán Ortega, Raquel; Martínez Portela, José M; Alves Pérez, M Teresa; Segura-Iglesias, M Carmen; Pérez-Fernández, Román

    2014-01-01

    The probability of developing osteoporosis decreases with an adequate supply of vitamin D, a balanced diet, and increased physical activity. In this study, we evaluated whether an educational intervention improves osteoporosis-related behavior in perimenopausal women from rural areas. A randomized experimental evaluation was performed of an educational intervention. The variables were physical activity, calcium intake and sun exposure in women from rural areas aged 45-54 years (n=216) at time 0 and 12 months after the educational intervention. In the control group (n=106), the information was sent by surface mail (month 0). In the intervention group (n=110), two interactive workshops were given (month 0). The topic of the workshops and the information sent by surface mail was healthy habits for osteoporosis prevention. After 12 months, the intervention group, but not the control group, had increased their physical activity (p=0.006), sun exposure (p=0.029), and calcium intake (53% to 64%). A simple educational intervention in perimenopausal women from rural areas improved healthy habits for osteoporosis prevention. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Health belief dualism in the postnatal practices of rural Swazi women: an ethnographic account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwala, Siphiwe B P; Holroyd, Eleanor; Jones, Linda K

    2012-12-01

    This study explores and describes the values, beliefs, and practices of rural Swazi women regarding childbearing in the postpartum period. A retrospective ethnographic research design was used. A snowballing sampling method was used to recruit fifteen participants. Face-to-face unstructured audio-taped interviews and field notes were utilised to gather data. Results showed that rural Swazi women held a dual health belief system of modern and traditional medicinal use; practiced lengthy periods of postpartum confinement; customarily gave regular enemas and traditional medicines to their babies; undertook the specific cultural practice of taking the baby to enyonini [a tree struck by lightening] to perform specific rituals; used self-prescribed pharmacy medicines; used both traditional and modern contraception; as well as practiced breastfeeding. Rural Swazi women observe modern health practices alongside traditional customary practices that are inherent to their health belief and value systems in the postnatal period. These customary beliefs and values underpin their birth practices postpartum. Recommendations include the need to consider including formal knowledge on cultural aspects of childbirth and postpartum care into midwifery education; a review of maternal care practices and policies to incorporate widely practised traditional elements including redressing the use of self-prescribed pharmacy medicines to ensure a higher level of safety. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Women's empowerment in agriculture and child nutritional status in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kenda; Ploubidis, George B; Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie; Kadiyala, Suneetha; Uauy, Ricardo; Ferguson, Elaine

    2015-12-01

    To examine the association between women's empowerment in agriculture and nutritional status among children under 2 years of age in rural Nepal. Cross-sectional survey of 4080 households conducted in 2012. Data collected included: child and maternal anthropometric measurements; child age and sex; maternal age, education, occupation and empowerment in agriculture; and household size, number of children, religion, caste and agro-ecological zone. Associations between the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)'s Five Domains of Empowerment (5DE) sub-index and its ten component indicators and child length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) were estimated, using ordinary least-squares regression models, with and without adjustments for key child, maternal and household level covariates. Two hundred and forty rural communities across sixteen districts of Nepal. Children under 24 months of age and their mothers (n 1787). The overall WEAI 5DE was positively associated with LAZ (β=0·20, P=0·04). Three component indicators were also positively associated with LAZ: satisfaction with leisure time (β=0·27, Pempowerment in agriculture was associated with WLZ. Women's empowerment in agriculture, as measured by the WEAI 5DE and three of its ten component indicators, was significantly associated with LAZ, highlighting the potential role of women's empowerment in improving child nutrition in Nepal. Additional studies are needed to determine whether interventions to improve women's empowerment will improve child nutrition.

  2. Religion, condom use acceptability and use within marriage among rural women in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, Adamson S; Thomas, James C; Pettifor, Audrey E; Strauss, Ronald P; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Meshnick, Steve R

    2011-01-01

    Correct and consistent condom use within an HIV-discordant partnership could prevent sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Data on ever-married women from rural Malawi were obtained from the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project (MDICP) of 2006. We assessed the strength of association between religion and acceptability of condom use within marriage in general and also when one of the partners is suspected or known to be HIV infected. A total of 1,664 ever-married women participated in the MDICP 2006. Of these, 66.7% believed condom use was acceptable within marriage when one partner suspects or knows that the other was HIV infected; 38.2% believed condoms were acceptable within marriage generally. Only 13.8% reported ever having used condoms within the current or most recent marriage. Multivariate analysis found no difference in acceptability of condoms within marriage between Christians and Muslims, or between Catholics and all but one of the individual denominations assessed. Christian women in rural Malawi were no more or no less likely to accept condom use than Muslim women; there was also no difference in attitude toward condom use within marriage among Malawian women.

  3. The use of facilities for labor and delivery: the views of women in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Newell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explore factors associated with home or hospital delivery in rural Uganda. Qualitative interviews with recently-delivered women in rural Uganda and statistical analysis of data from the 2011 Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to assess the association between socio-demographic and cultural factors and delivery location in multivariable regression models. In the DHS, 61.7% (of 4907 women had a facility-based delivery (FBD; in adjusted analyses, FBD was associated with an urban setting [adjusted odds ratio (aOR 3.38, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.66 to 4.28], the upper wealth quintile (aOR: 3.69, 95%CI 2.79 to 3.87 and with secondary education (aOR: 3.07, 95%CI 2.37 to 3.96. In interviews women quoted costs and distance as barriers to FBD. Other factors reported in interviews to be associated with FBD included family influence, perceived necessity of care (weak women needed FBD, and the reputation of the facility (women bypassed local facilities to deliver at better hospitals. Choosing a FBD is a complex decision and education around the benefits of FBD should be combined with interventions designed to remove barriers to FBD.

  4. Community-based mental health intervention for underprivileged women in rural India: an experiential report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran; Vanguri, Prameela; Premchander, Smita

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To share experiences from a project that integrates a mental health intervention within a developmental framework of microcredit activity for economically underprivileged women in rural India. Method. The mental health intervention had two components: group counseling and stress management. The former comprised of ventilation and reassurance and the latter strengthening of coping skills and a relaxation technique. Focus group discussions were used to understand women's perception of how microcredit economic activity and the mental health intervention had affected their lives. Results. Women in the mental health intervention group reported reduction in psychological distress and bodily aches and pains. Majority (86%) reported that the quality of their sleep had improved with regular practice of relaxation and that sharing their problems in the group had helped them to unburden. The social support extended by the members to each other, made them feel that they were not alone and could face any life situation. Conclusion. The study provided qualitative evidence that adding the mental health intervention to the ongoing economic activity had made a positive difference in the lives of the women. Addressing mental health concerns along with livelihood initiatives can help to enhance both economic and social capital in rural poor women.

  5. NGO-promoted microcredit programs and women's empowerment in rural Bangladesh: quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, R; Becker, S; Bayes, A

    1998-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in rural Bangladesh are reaching out to poor women with collateral-free credit programs aimed at both alleviating poverty and increasing women's status. The present study investigated the hypothesis that participation in credit-related activities by NGO credit members leads to greater empowerment of credit members compared to nonmembers. The sample was comprised of 1164 loanees and 1200 nonloanees from the five NGO areas in Bangladesh and of 1200 nonloanees from non-program areas of rural Bangladesh with no significant NGO presence. NGO credit members had significantly higher scores on all three indices of female empowerment: inter-spouse consultation, autonomy, and authority. Moreover, nonmembers within NGO program areas had higher autonomy and authority scores than nonmembers within the comparison areas. Even after background variables were controlled in the multivariate analysis, NGO credit membership and residence in an NGO program area remained significantly and positively associated with both the autonomy and authority indices. Other variables that exerted a significant positive effect on women's empowerment were concrete or corrugated buildings, area of residence outside the southern or eastern regions, nonagricultural occupation, respondent's education, and age. In focus group discussions, NGO credit loanees reported that the program made them more confident, assertive, intelligent, self-reliant, and aware of their rights. NGO credit programs that target poor women are likely to produce substantial improvements in women's social and economic status, without the long delays associated with education or employment opportunities in the formal sector.

  6. Factors that promote success in women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural North Carolina community colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Shannon D.

    Women have historically been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM fields). The underrepresentation of women in STEM may be attributable to a variety of factors. These may include different choices men and women typically make in response to incentives in STEM education. For example, STEM career paths may be less accommodating to people who are less resilient. Another factor may be that there are relatively few female STEM role models. Perhaps strong gender stereotypes discourage women from pursuing STEM education and STEM jobs. The factors that contribute to success and the barriers that impeded success must be identified before any steps can be taken to improve the educational outcomes for women in STEM disciplines. Consequently, relatively little is known about the role of resilience in academically successful adult women in rural community colleges enrolled in STEM disciplines and the mechanisms that underlie the performance deficits that occur as a result of stereotype threat effect. This mixed method study addressed those knowledge gaps by determining: (1) if high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and (2) if stereotype threat effect is a risk factor for these women. Quantitative data were collected by using "The Resilience Scale" (Wagnild & Young, 1987) and through examination of grade point average of students from Datatel data management software. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Findings from this study indicate high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and stereotype threat effect was a risk factor for low-scoring women (i.e. those women who reported resilience scores less than 121 and grade point averages lower than 2.70) and was not a

  7. Tobacco cessation counselling for women in rural Sindh: is it being offered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Naqvi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is the single leading and most preventable cause of death in today's worlds and responsible for six of the eight leading mortality causes in the world. Diseases related to tobacco use are known to cause about 5.4 million deaths every year, 80% of which are contributed by the developing world, and this toll is estimated to increase up to 8 million deaths per year by 2030. This study was conducted to determine the number of women who were offered counselling regarding cessation of tobacco use by all health care providers (medical and alternate), in rural Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted during January to March, 2008 in District Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan. A validated, pre-tested, translated questionnaire was used to collect the data from 502, adult women (aged between 18-60 years). These women were asked about the type of health provider they visited in the past 12 months and practices of provider regarding tobacco control including cessation and advice. Results: A large majority of women (nearly 71%) were illiterate, and 44% of women were in the age group 18-24 years. High prevalence (10%) of adult women were smokers. Only 12% of the total women who visited physicians during this time period were asked about their smoking status as compared to 7% who visited hakims and 13% who were approached by lady health visitors. Conclusion: A very small segment of the women users of health care system is enquired and counselled about tobacco use in any form by the health providers in Rural Sindh. Revisiting practices for health care professionals is urgently needed to address inevitable tobacco use in the region. (author)

  8. Women's role in sanitation decision making in rural coastal Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimita Routray

    Full Text Available While women and girls face special risks from lack of access to sanitation facilities, their ability to participate and influence household-level sanitation is not well understood. This paper examines the association between women's decision-making autonomy and latrine construction in rural areas of Odisha, India.We conducted a mixed-method study among rural households in Puri district. This included a cross sectional survey among 475 randomly selected households. These were classified as either having a functional latrine, a non-functional latrine or no latrine at all. We also conducted 17 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions among household members of these three categories of households.Decisions on the construction of household level sanitation facilities were made exclusively by the male head in 80% of households; in 11% the decision was made by men who consulted or otherwise involved women. In only 9% of households the decision was made by women. Households where women were more involved in general decision making processes were no more likely to build a latrine, compared to households where they were excluded from decisions. Qualitative research revealed that women's non-involvement in sanitation decision making is attributed to their low socio-economic status and inability to influence the household's financial decisions. Female heads lacked confidence to take decisions independently, and were dependent on their spouse or other male family members for most decisions. The study revealed the existence of power hierarchies and dynamics within households, which constrained female's participation in decision-making processes regarding sanitation.Though governments and implementers emphasize women's involvement in sanitation programmes, socio-cultural factors and community and household level dynamics often prevent women from participating in sanitation-related decisions. Measures are needed for strengthening sanitation policies

  9. Women's role in sanitation decision making in rural coastal Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2017-01-01

    While women and girls face special risks from lack of access to sanitation facilities, their ability to participate and influence household-level sanitation is not well understood. This paper examines the association between women's decision-making autonomy and latrine construction in rural areas of Odisha, India. We conducted a mixed-method study among rural households in Puri district. This included a cross sectional survey among 475 randomly selected households. These were classified as either having a functional latrine, a non-functional latrine or no latrine at all. We also conducted 17 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions among household members of these three categories of households. Decisions on the construction of household level sanitation facilities were made exclusively by the male head in 80% of households; in 11% the decision was made by men who consulted or otherwise involved women. In only 9% of households the decision was made by women. Households where women were more involved in general decision making processes were no more likely to build a latrine, compared to households where they were excluded from decisions. Qualitative research revealed that women's non-involvement in sanitation decision making is attributed to their low socio-economic status and inability to influence the household's financial decisions. Female heads lacked confidence to take decisions independently, and were dependent on their spouse or other male family members for most decisions. The study revealed the existence of power hierarchies and dynamics within households, which constrained female's participation in decision-making processes regarding sanitation. Though governments and implementers emphasize women's involvement in sanitation programmes, socio-cultural factors and community and household level dynamics often prevent women from participating in sanitation-related decisions. Measures are needed for strengthening sanitation policies and effective

  10. Accessing new understandings of trauma-informed care with queer birthing women in a rural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Jennifer; Goldberg, Lisa; Aston, Megan; Burrow, Sylvia

    2017-11-01

    Participant narratives from a feminist and queer phenomenological study aim to broaden current understandings of trauma. Examining structural marginalisation within perinatal care relationships provides insights into the impact of dominant models of care on queer birthing women. More specifically, validation of queer experience as a key finding from the study offers trauma-informed strategies that reconstruct formerly disempowering perinatal relationships. Heteronormativity governs birthing spaces and presents considerable challenges for queer birthing women who may also have an increased risk of trauma due to structurally marginalising processes that create and maintain socially constructed differences. Analysis of the qualitative data was guided by feminist and queer phenomenology. This was well suited to understanding queer women's storied narratives of trauma, including disempowering processes of structural marginalisation. Semistructured and conversational interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of thirteen queer-identified women who had experiences of birthing in rural Nova Scotia, Canada. Validation was identified as meaningful for queer women in the context of perinatal care in rural Nova Scotia. Offering new perspectives on traditional models of assessment provide strategies to create a context of care that reconstructs the birthing space insofar as women at risk do not have to come out as queer in opposition to the expectation of heterosexuality. Normative practices were found to further the effects of structural marginalisation suggesting that perinatal care providers, including nurses, can challenge dominant models of care and reconstruct the relationality between queer women and formerly disempowering expectations of heteronormativity that govern birthing spaces. New trauma-informed assessment strategies reconstruct the relationality within historically disempowering perinatal relationships through potentiating difference which avoids

  11. Skilled care at birth among rural women in Nepal: practice and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sulochana; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Raja, Edwin Amalraj; Dhakal, Keshar Bahadur

    2011-08-01

    In Nepal, most births take place at home, and many, particularly in rural areas, are not attended by a skilled birth attendant. The main objectives of the study were to assess the use of skilled delivery care and barriers to access such care in a rural community and to assess health problems during delivery and seeking care. This cross-sectional study was carried out in two Village Development Committees in Nepal in 2006. In total, 150 women who had a live birth in the 24 months preceding the survey were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The sample population included married women aged 15-49 years. Forty-six (31%) women delivered their babies at hospital, and 104 (69%) delivered at home. The cost of delivery at hospital was significantly (p home. Results of univariate analysis showed that women from Brahmin-Chhetri ethnicity, women with higher education or who were more skilled, whose husbands had higher education and more skilled jobs, had first or second childbirth, and having adverse previous obstetric history were associated with institutional delivery while women with higher education and having an adverse history of pregnancy outcome predicted the uptake of skilled delivery care in Nepal. The main perceived problems to access skilled delivery care were: distance to hospital, lack of transportation, lack of awareness on delivery care, and cost. The main reasons for seeking intrapartum care were long labour, retained placenta, and excessive bleeding. Only a quarter of women sought care immediately after problems occurred. The main reasons seeking care late were: the woman or her family not perceiving that there was a serious problem, distance to health facility, and lack of transport. The use of skilled birth attendants at delivery among rural women in Nepal is very poor. Home delivery by unskilled birth attendants is still a common practice among them. Many associated factors relating to the use of skilled delivery care that were identified

  12. Educational Status of the Married Women and Their Participation at Household Decision Making in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sanjoy Kumar; Howlader, Hasan; Nahar, Nasrin

    2012-11-01

    The key focus of this study is to explain the level of education of married women and their participation in decision making process at different arena of rural household. To find out the nature of the reality, survey research design was used for this study. The study was conducted at Maharajpur, one of the unions of Jhenidah district in Bangladesh in 2011. The respondents of the study consisted of 120 married women who were purposively selected from the study area. Data were collected through direct interview method using an interview schedule. Data were shown on univariate, as well as bivariate statistical tables and then analyzed. The study reveals that a significant percent (93.3) of higher level of education completed women had their consent of getting married whereas no consent was made by illiterate women. In the same way 46.7 percent higher level of education completed women had high level of purchasing power in compare to illiterate (.0%) and primary (14.6%) level completed women for the same level of purchasing. In the political decision making 86.7 percent higher level of education completed women had own consent to vote for election in contrast to 77.8 percent illiterate and 70.7 percent primary level completed women were influenced by their husband to decide voting.

  13. Impact of a Video Intervention for Rural Peruvian Women With Cervical Neoplasia Before Loop Excisional Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G; Condorhuaman, Wendy Shulay Guevara; Waller, Jennifer; Lilienthal, Anneliese

    2015-07-01

    Indigenous Peruvian women have very high rates of cervical cancer. This study assessed the impact of an educational video on impoverished rural Peruvian women seeking loop excision surgery. Women completed baseline, postvideo and postsurgery questionnaires that assessed knowledge and attitudes about the procedure. Differences between groups were examined using repeated measures analysis of variance. Women who watched the video were significantly more calm (2.6, 2.6, and 2.3, respectively; P = 0.04), relaxed (2.5, 2.5, and 2.1, respectively; P = 0.02), and content (3.4, 3.4, and 2.4, respectively, P < 0.01) at postvideo and postsurgery assessments compared with mean results at the baseline assessment. The same women were also significantly more tense (2.5, 2.0, and 2.0, respectively; P = 0.01), upset (1.6, 1.1, and 1.1, respectively; P = 0.01), and worried (3.0, 2.0, and 2.0, respectively; P = 0.01) at baseline compared with postvideo and postsurgery results. Approximately 93% of women believed that other women scheduled to have loop excision surgery should also watch the video. Dissemination of culturally sensitive video information minimizes adverse emotional responses associated with loop excision procedures before surgery. Such an intervention quickly improves the psychological well-being of women eventually subjected to surgical management of cervical neoplasia.

  14. The associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyema, M; Norris, S A; Said-Mohamed, R; Tollman, S T; Twine, R; Kahn, K; Richter, L M

    2018-03-23

    Approximately 25% of the world's population consists of young people. The experience of violence peaks during adolescence and the early adult years. A link between personal experience of violence and mental health among young people has been demonstrated but rural-urban differences in these associations are less well known in low to middle income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women. Data on experiences of violence and psychological distress were collected from a total of 926 non-pregnant young women aged between 18 and 22 years of age in rural and urban sites in South Africa. The General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to assess psychological distress as an indicator of mental health. Generalised structural equation models were employed to assess potential pathways of association between interpersonal violence and psychological distress. Thirty-four percent of the urban young women (n = 161) reported psychological distress compared to 18% of rural young women (n = 81). In unadjusted analysis, exposure to interpersonal violence doubled the odds of psychological distress in the urban adolescents and increased the odds 1.6 times in the rural adolescents. In adjusted models, the relationship remained significant in the urban area only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.00). Rural residence seemed protective against psychological distress (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.69). Structural equation modelling did not reveal any direct association between exposure to interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural young women. Stressful household events were indirectly associated with psychological distress, mediated by violence among young women in the urban area. The relationship between violence and psychological distress differs between urban and rural-residing young women in South Africa, and is influenced by individual, household and community

  15. An exploratory study of mental health and HIV risk behavior among drug-using rural women in jail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi L H; Minieri, Alexandra; Oser, Carrie; Webster, J Matthew; Havens, Jennifer; Leukefeld, Carl

    2015-03-01

    Rural women, particularly those in the criminal justice system, are at risk for HIV related to the increasing prevalence of injection drug use as well as limited services. Research on HIV risk correlates, including drug use and mental health, has primarily focused on urban women incarcerated in prisons. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine dual HIV risk by 3 different mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) among drug-using women in rural jails. This study involved random selection, screening, and face-to-face interviews with 136 women in 1 Appalachian state. Analyses focused on the relationship between mental health and HIV risk. Nearly 80% of women self-reported symptoms of depression, and more than 60% endorsed symptoms consistent with anxiety and PTSD symptoms. Mental health significantly correlated with severity of certain types of drug use, as well as risky sexual activity. In addition, for women experiencing anxiety and PTSD, injection drug use moderated the relationship between mental health and risky sexual activity. Based on these rates of drug use, mental health problems, and the emergence of injection drug use in rural Appalachia, the need to explore the relationships between these issues among vulnerable and understudied populations, such as rural women, is critical. Because of service limitations in rural communities, criminal justice venues such as jails provide opportune settings for screening, assessment, and intervention for drug use, mental health, and HIV education and prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Low utilization of HIV testing during pregnancy: What are the barriers to HIV testing for women in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gita; Dyalchand, Ashok; Khale, Manisha; Kulkarni, Gopal; Vasudevan, Shubha; Bollinger, Robert C

    2008-02-01

    Sixty percent of India's HIV cases occur in rural residents. Despite government policy to expand antenatal HIV screening and prevention of maternal-to-child transmission (PMTCT), little is known about HIV testing among rural women during pregnancy. Between January and March 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 400 recently pregnant women from rural Maharashtra was administered a questionnaire regarding HIV awareness, risk, and history of antenatal HIV testing. Thirteen women (3.3%) reported receiving antenatal HIV testing. Neither antenatal care utilization nor history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms influenced odds of receiving HIV testing. Women who did not receive HIV testing, compared with women who did, were 95% less likely to have received antenatal HIV counseling (odds ratio = 0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.02 to 0.17) and 80% less aware of an existing HIV testing facility (odds ratio = 0.19, 95% confidence interval: 0.04 to 0.75). Despite measurable HIV prevalence, high antenatal care utilization, and STI symptom history, recently pregnant rural Indian women report low HIV testing. Barriers to HIV testing during pregnancy include lack of discussion by antenatal care providers and lack of awareness of existing testing services. Provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing during pregnancy would optimize HIV prevention for women throughout rural India.

  17. Women's health care: the experiences and behaviors of rural and urban lesbians in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barefoot, K Nikki; Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated that, in comparison to their cisgender heterosexual counterparts, lesbians face a multitude of women's healthcare-related disparities. However, very little research has been conducted that takes an intersectionality approach to examining the potential influences of rural-urban location on the health-related needs and experiences of lesbians. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare rural and urban lesbians' access to women's health care, experiences with women's healthcare providers (WHCPs), and preventive behavior using a large, diverse sample of lesbians from across the USA. A total of 895 (31.1% rural and 68.9% urban) lesbian-identified cisgender women (ie not transgender) from the USA participated in the current online study. As part of a larger parent study, participants were recruited from across the USA through email communication to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-focused organizations and online advertisements. Participants were asked to complete a series of questions related to their women's healthcare-related experiences and behaviors (ie access to care, experiences with WHCPs, and preventive behavior). A series of χ2 analyses were utilized in order to examine rural-urban differences across dependent variables. An examination of sexual risks revealed that relatively more rural lesbians reported at least one previous male sexual partner in comparison to the urban sample of lesbians (78.1% vs 69.1%, χ2(1, N=890)=7.56, p=0.006). A similarly low percentage of rural (42.4%) and urban (42.9%) lesbians reported that they have a WHCP that they see on a regular basis for preventive care. In terms of experiences with WHCP providers, relatively fewer rural lesbians indicated that their current WHCP had discussed/recommended the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in comparison to urban lesbians (27.5% vs. 37.2%; χ2 (1, N=796)=7.24, p=0.007). No other rural-urban differences in

  18. Cytotoxicity potentials of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Amina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Tania; Rahman, Md Mahfizur; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  19. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khatun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50=2.93 µg/mL and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50=114.71 µg/mL in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50=2.04 µg/mL. Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  20. Transgressive women don't deserve protection: young men's narratives of sexual violence against women in rural Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A

    2016-11-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.

  1. Rural Zulu women's knowledge of and attitudes towards medical male circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikwegbue, Joseph N; Ross, Andrew; Ogbonnaya, Harbor

    2015-03-31

    Medical male circumcision (MMC) is a key strategy in the South African HIV infection prevention package. Women may have a potentially powerful role in supporting such a strategy. Circumcision is not a traditional part of Zulu society, and Zulu women may have limited knowledge and ambivalent or negative attitudes towards MMC. This study employs quantitative data to expand insight into rural Zulu women's knowledge of and attitudes towards MMC, and is important as women could potentially yield a powerful positive or negative influence over the decisions of their partners and sons. A hospital-based antenatal clinic in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Participants were 590 pregnant, mostly isiZulu-speaking women. Data on their knowledge of and attitude towards MMC were collected using a questionnaire and were analysed descriptively. The majority of the women supported MMC; however, knowledge of the potential benefits was generally poor. Most would encourage their partners and sons to undergo MMC. The preferred place for the procedure was a hospital. Zulu participants supported MMC and would support their partners and children being circumcised. Knowledge around potential benefits was worryingly poor, and further research into disseminating information is essential. The findings highlight the need for an expanded campaign of health education for women, and innovative means are suggested to enhance information accessibility. Reasons for preferring that MMC be carried out in hospital need to be explored further.

  2. Family Planning Practice Among Rural Reproductive-Age Married Women in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. © 2016 APJPH.

  3. Home is best: Why women in rural Zimbabwe deliver in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodzo, Munyaradzi Kenneth; Mhloyi, Marvellous

    2017-01-01

    Maternal mortality in Zimbabwe has unprecedentedly risen over the last two and half decades although a decline has been noted recently. Many reasons have been advanced for the rising trend, including deliveries without skilled care, in places without appropriate or adequate facilities to handle complications. The recent decline has been attributed to health systems strengthening through a multi-donor pooled funding mechanism. On the other hand, the proportion of community deliveries has also been growing steadily over the years and in this study we investigate why. We used twelve (12) focus group discussions with child-bearing women and eight (8) key informant interviews (KIIs). Four (4) were traditional birth attendants and four (4) were spiritual birth attendants. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data in Ethnography software. The study shows that women prefer community deliveries due to perceived low economic, social and opportunity costs involved; pliant and flexible services offered; and diminishing quality and appeal of institutional maternity services. We conclude that rural women are very economic, logical and rational in making choices on place of delivery. Delivering in the community offers financial, social and opportunity advantages to disenfranchised women, particularly in remote rural areas. We recommend for increased awareness of the dangers of community deliveries; establishment of basic obstetric care facilities in the community and more efficient emergency referral systems. In the long-term, there should be a sustainable improvement of the public health delivery system to make it accessible, affordable and usable by the public.

  4. Computer intervention impact on psychosocial adaptation of rural women with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Clarann; Cudney, Shirley; Comstock, Bryan; Bansal, Aasthaa

    2011-01-01

    Adapting to living with chronic conditions is a life-long psychosocial challenge. The purpose of this study was to report the effect of a computer intervention on the psychosocial adaptation of rural women with chronic conditions. A two-group study design was used with 309 middle-aged, rural women who had chronic conditions, randomized into either a computer-based intervention or a control group. Data were collected at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and 6 months later on the psychosocial indicators of social support, self-esteem, acceptance of illness, stress, depression, and loneliness. The impact of the computer-based intervention was statistically significant for five of six of the psychosocial outcomes measured, with a modest impact on social support. The largest benefits were seen in depression, stress, and acceptance. The women-to-women intervention resulted in positive psychosocial responses that have the potential to contribute to successful management of illness and adaptation. Other components of adaptation to be examined are the impact of the intervention on illness management and quality of life and the interrelationships among environmental stimuli, psychosocial response, and illness management.

  5. American rural women's exercise self-efficacy and awareness of exercise benefits and safety during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Bridget; Marshall, Elaine; Bland, Helen; Schmidt, Michael; Guion, W Kent

    2013-12-01

    Though the positive link between physical activity and maternal health is well documented, physical activity declines during pregnancy and, internationally, rural mothers are less likely than urban mothers to engage in physical activity. Some evidence suggests that self-efficacy is related to sustained engagement in physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and knowledge of safe exercise among 88 rural pregnant women in a southeastern region of the United States. Exercise self-efficacy was significantly related to maternal age and gestation. Women over age 26 years, and those in the second and third trimesters, scored significantly higher than younger women or those in the first trimester. Fifty-two percent (n = 46) of participants perceived that activity would decrease energy levels, 37.5% (n = 33) did not know that exercise can decrease the risk of gestational diabetes, and 47.6% (n = 41) were unaware that a mother who is overweight is more likely to have an overweight child. Results confirm a need for education to improve women's knowledge about health benefits and safety information related to physical activity during pregnancy. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Factors affecting access to healthcare services by intermarried Filipino women in rural Tasmania: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Chona T; Lê, Quynh

    2012-10-01

    Access to health care services is vital for every migrant's health and wellbeing. However, migrants' cultural health beliefs and views can hinder their ability to access available services. This study examined factors affecting access to healthcare services for intermarried Filipino women in rural Tasmania, Australia. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was employed to investigate the factors affecting access to healthcare services for 30 intermarried Filipino women in rural Tasmania. The study used grounded theory and thematic analysis for its data analysis. Nvivo v8 (www.qsrinternational.com) was also used to assist the data coding process and analysis. Five influencing factors were identified: (1) language or communication barriers; (2) area of origin in the Philippines; (3) cultural barriers; (4) length of stay in Tasmania; and (5) expectations of healthcare services before and after migration. Factors affecting intermarried Filipino women in accessing healthcare services are shaped by their socio-demographic and cultural background. The insights gained from this study are useful to health policy-makers, healthcare professionals and to intermarried female migrants. The factors identified can serve as a guide to improve healthcare access for Filipino women and other migrants.

  7. Gender and Women Development Initiatives in Bangladesh: A Study of Rural Mother Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Lindberg, Lene; Wamala, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Women-focused development initiatives have become a controversial issue connected with women's health and welfare. Previous studies indicated that development initiatives might increase women's workload, family conflict, and marital violence. This study explored the gendered characteristics of a development initiative Rural Mother Center in Bangladesh. Data incorporated policy document and interviews of social workers working with the mother centers in two northwest subdistricts. The qualitative content analysis of data emerged a general theme of expanding women's responsibility while maintaining male privilege explaining gendered design and practice of the development initiative. The theme was supported by two gendered categories related to the design: (a) essentializing women's participation; (b) maintaining traditional gender, and four categories related to the practice; (c) inadequate gender knowledge and skills; (d) reinforcing traditional gender; (e) using women for improving office performance; and (f) upholding male privilege. The study suggests that though women-focused development initiatives need to be embraced with gender-redistributive policies, the social workers should be trained for attaining gender-transformative motivation and competencies.

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practice of modern contraception among single women in a rural and urban community in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozumba, B C; Obi, S N; Ijioma, N N

    2005-04-01

    The contraceptive information and services offered to single women in most developing countries is compromised by stigma attached to premarital sex. This study was to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among single women in a rural and urban community in southeast Nigeria, using a cross-sectional survey of 279 and 295 single women in Ngwo (rural) and Enugu (urban) community. The mean age of the population was 21.3 years. Contraceptive awareness was more among the urban than rural respondents (90.2% vs 34.1%). The major sources of contraceptive knowledge were mass media (68%) and peer groups (86.3%) for the urban and rural respondents, respectively. Most respondents in both groups had positive attitude towards contraception. More urban than rural respondents (68.3% vs 12.5%) began sexual activity during adolescence and the level of contraceptive use during first coitus were 48.4% and 13.7%, respectively. Of the currently sexually active respondents, 32.5% (rural) and 59.7% (urban) were using a form of modern contraception. Condoms, followed by oral pills were the most popular contraceptive method because they can easily procure them over the counter. Poor contraceptive information, highly critical behavior of family planning providers towards unmarried women seeking contraception and attitude of male partners militate against contraceptive practice. There is need to promote information and education on contraception among single women, their male partners and family planning providers.

  9. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  10. Can E- Commerce Enable Marketing in an African Rural Women's Community Based Development Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Rhodes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested by various sources (Worldbank, 2000; Cypher, 1997 that investment in infrastructure and modern technologies such as ITC's may break down some of the barriers of access such as physical remoteness for poor rural communities. However there is little existing research that examines this sce-nario at the micro level. This paper uses a case study- the Rural Women's Association (RWA of Sek-huhkuneland, Northern Province, South Africa to examine if E- commerce can enable access to markets in an impoverished, under resourced rural location. This paper has five parts: Part 1 consists of the background and rationale for this study, Part 2 focuses on the education, business acumen and gender issues. Part 3 discusses the current market environment. Part 4 discusses possible business models that can integrate e-commerce in its implementation. Part 5 provides the research questions and the method-ology for this study. The final discussion in this study provides us with a viable e-commerce model that could be used in a rural setting and could provide greater economic development for this community.

  11. Diet and iron status of nonpregnant women in rural Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrand, Jeffrey R; Allen, Lindsay H; Black, Anne K; de Mata, Margarita; Pelto, Gretel H

    2002-07-01

    Few studies have examined the relation of iron status to diet in populations from developing countries with high levels of iron deficiency and diets of poor quality. The objective was to identify nutrients, dietary constituents, and foods that are associated with better iron status in a rural Mexican population. A prospective cohort study was conducted in rural central Mexico. The subjects were 125 nonpregnant women aged 16-44 y. During the 12 mo before blood collection, food intakes were assessed repeatedly by a combination of dietary recalls, food weighing, and food diaries [mean (+/-SD) days of food intake data: 18.8 +/- 5.9 d]. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma ferritin were measured at the end of the study. Higher plasma ferritin concentrations were associated with greater intakes of nonheme iron and ascorbic acid after control for age, BMI, breast-feeding, season, and the time since the birth of the last child. Higher ascorbic acid intakes, but not higher intakes of heme and nonheme iron, predicted a lower risk of low hemoglobin and hematocrit values after control for the background variables. Consumption of the alcoholic beverage pulque predicted a lower risk of low ferritin and low hemoglobin values. Seasonal variation in ferritin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values was observed. Better iron status was associated with greater intakes of foods containing nonheme iron and ascorbic acid. PULQUE:a beverage containing iron, ascorbic acid, and alcohol-may influence the iron status of women in rural central Mexico.

  12. Living in the epilepsy treatment gap in rural South India: A focused ethnography of women and problems associated with stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gaudecker, Jane R; Taylor, Ann Gill; Keeling, Arlene W; Buelow, Janice M; Benjamin, Sailas

    2017-07-01

    In India, women with epilepsy face unique challenges. A focused ethnography of six women within the epilepsy treatment gap was conducted in rural South India. Women were asked to describe their day-to-day lives. Data were collected through open-ended, semistructured interview questions, participant observation, and field notes. Thematic analysis was done. The disease-related stigma contributed to the women's physical, psychological, and emotional struggles; the women and their family members made every effort to conceal the disease. Educational interventions to create awareness could help women seek effective treatments for their seizures, thereby reducing the stigma and improving the quality of their lives.

  13. Parkia biglobosa as an economic resource for rural women in south-western Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette-Helene Kronborg; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ilboudo, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    An approach for commercialising a product from Parkia biglobosa in order to improve the economic situation of rural women in south-western Burkina Faso was explored. Income is generated from sales of a derivative from the fermented seeds called soumbala. About one fifth of the women (18%) were...... involved in the sale of soumbala, and 34% of those not participating in soumbala sales were interested in getting involved, suggesting that there is a basis for expanding the soumbala trade. Possible factors that could motivate more women to participate in soumbala sales were sustainability, sowing...... of seeds and amount of seeds harvested per year. In addition, 90% of the informants managed Parkia sustainably, suggesting that enhanced exploitation of Parkia for commercial purposes can be ecologically sustainable if present management techniques are maintained. The results suggest that Parkia have...

  14. Factors influencing women's decision to have a home birth in rural Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulu, Kamile; Oncel, Selma

    2009-02-01

    to ascertain the reasons why mothers choose to have a home birth and the factors that influence these reasons. this cross-sectional study involved 392 women and was conducted between June and September 2003 in a rural setting in Turkey. The data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the authors. The questionnaire included demographic information, obstetric background, the reasons for deciding to give birth at home as well as questions on who encouraged the decision to give birth at home and who assisted in the home births. the decision to have a home birth is related to economic difficulties and the desire to benefit from the assistance of neighbours. Women who had experienced both planned and unplanned home births reported that home birth was unsafe. preliminary information is provided about women having home births that may inform practitioners' educational efforts and future research.

  15. Long-Term Effects of Stressors on Relationship Well-Being and Parenting among Rural African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women's relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning,…

  16. Poverty and Gender Perspective in Productive Projects for Rural Women in Mexico: Impact Evaluation of a Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta-Salomon, Jose E.; Tepichin-Valle, Ana Maria; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot study that promoted productive and capacity-building activities among deprived rural women of Mexico. The evaluation design is observational; 1,278 women are interviewed, and the comparison group is estimated by propensity score matching. The results show a positive impact on the…

  17. Association between Education and Domestic Violence among Women Being Offered an HIV Test in Urban and Rural Areas in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…

  18. Identifying Structural Changes from Within: Emancipatory Narratives Exploring Community Constraints to Women's Education and Empowerment in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Using a critical theory framework, the article explores emancipatory narratives obtained through a case study of women in rural India. In-depth interviews, focus group conversations, observations, and document analysis highlight the complexity of the subsequent set of challenges facing women as it relates to both the education and empowerment for…

  19. Bangladeshi immigrants in Italy: from geopolitics to micropolitics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, M

    1996-01-01

    "Bangladeshis are one of a wide variety of recently established immigrant groups in Italy, analysed here as an example of the interaction of geopolitics, employment and survival strategies, and the micropolitics of the community's organization in Italy. The geopolitics involves events in Bangladesh (change of government), Italy (the Martelli Law and other legislation), Europe (EU and other European policies, and the opening of eastern Europe as a routeway) and the Gulf. The micropolitics concerns mechanisms of immigration, migration sponsorship, connections to Italian political groups and clientelistic relationships within the community. Micropolitics also governs to a large extent the types of mostly informal work done by Bangladeshis in Rome." excerpt

  20. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among women in Chinese rural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MS is prevalent in recent years but few data is reported in the rural areas in China. The aim of this study was to examine MS prevalence and its risk factors among women in rural China. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted during 2007-2008 in Nantong, China. In person interviews, blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 13,505 female participants aged 18-74 years. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF, the US Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and modified ATPIII for Asian population has determined three criteria of MS. These criteria for MS were used and compared in this study. The prevalence of MS was 22.0%, 16.9% and 23.3% according to IDF, ATPIII and ATPIII-modified criteria, respectively. Levels of agreement of these criteria for MS were above 0.75. We found that vigorous-intensity of occupational physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of MS with OR of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.63-0.91. Rice wine drinkers (alcohol >12.8 g/day had about 34% low risks of developing MS with OR of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48-0.91, compared with non-drinkers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.15-2.84 in women who smoked more than 20 pack-years, compared to non-smokers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.25-1.95 in women who had familial history of diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and stroke, compared to women without familial history of those diseases. CONCLUSION: MS is highly prevalent among women in rural China. Both physical activity and rice wine consumption play a protective role, while family history and smoking are risk factors in MS development. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyles and appropriate interventions in rural China.

  1. Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Carolette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are.

  2. Characteristics of Women with Unwanted Pregnancies and Reasons for Contraceptive Methods Discontination: Sample of Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Ay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence and characteristics of women with unwanted pregnancy in rural area and to examine pregnant women’s contraceptive method preferences, satisfaction with the methods and reason the methods discontinuation. METHOD: This study was carried out in Manisa city rural area between the dates of January and June 2011 in women who agreed to participate in the study. The sample of the research is composed of 239 pregnant women. The research was a descriptive, cross-sectional and field study and the data was collected by using questionnaire which was prepared by researcher. Data was gathered through the face to face interview with the women at their home. Statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS version 11.5. Descriptive analysis, Pearson’s Chi-square (χ² test, fisher exact test, and t-test were used statistical evaluation. RESULTS: Of the 239 pregnancies, 64 (26.8% were unwanted pregnancies. The mean age of women was respectively 25.0±5.0, and 29.0±5.4 years, for wanted, and unwanted pregnancies. Women with unwanted pregnancies were older, less educated, they had less educated husbands, had low income level, had more pregnancies, deliveries, had less than two years interval between their births. Unwanted pregnancies were observed in women using the coitus interrupts method (%53.1, effective contraceptive methods (%54.3 and not using any method (%16.3 (p<0.05. The most reasons for discontinuation were reported pregnant women as follows: side effects of methods, disapproval for husband, pregnancy occurs using the method, believe for ineffective contraceptive methods. CONCLUSION: In order to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and wanted abortions which reversely affect the women healthy; an appropriate contraception method must be employed. Health care providers should identify women with unwanted pregnancy to understand women's concerns and experiences using contraception. This

  3. Transactional sex among young women in rural South Africa: prevalence, mediators and association with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Meghna; Heise, Lori; Pettifor, Audrey; Silverwood, Richard J; Selin, Amanda; MacPhail, Catherine; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Hughes, James P; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young adolescent women in sub-Saharan Africa are three to four times more likely to be HIV-positive than boys or men. One of the relationship dynamics that is likely to be associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV is transactional sex. There are a range of HIV-related risk behaviours that may drive this vulnerability. However, to date, limited epidemiological data exist on the role of transactional sex in increasing HIV acquisition, especially among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Our paper presents data on the prevalence of self-reported engagement in transactional sex and explores whether transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV infection among a cohort of young, rural, sexually active South African women. We also explore whether this relationship is mediated through certain HIV-related risk behaviours. Methods We analyzed baseline data from a phase III trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention of 693 sexually active, school-going young women aged 13–20 years in rural South Africa. We examined the association between young women's engagement in transactional sex and HIV infection. Transactional sex is defined as a non-commercial, non-marital sexual relationship whereby sex is exchanged for money and/or gifts. We explored whether this relationship is mediated by certain HIV-related risk behaviours. We used logistic and multinomial regression and report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. Results Overall, 14% (n=97) of sexually active young women reported engaging in transactional sex. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with an increased risk of being HIV-positive (aOR: 2.5, CI: 95% 1.19–5.25, p=0.01). The effect size of this association remained nearly unchanged when adjusted for certain other dimensions of HIV risk that might help explain the underlying pathways for this relationship. Conclusions This study provides quantitative support demonstrating that transactional

  4. Why do women not adhere to advice on maternal referral in rural Tanzania? Narratives of women and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembe, Andrea B; Mbekenga, Columba K; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In most low-income countries, many women with high-risk pregnancies and complications do not reach the referral hospitals despite the provision of referral advice. To explore how antenatal maternal referral advice is understood and handled in a rural Tanzanian community. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with six women who did not go to hospital and 13 people who were involved in the referral advice. Narrative analysis was used to describe and create meanings out of the decision-making process. In all interviews, not following the referral advice was greatly influenced by close family members. Three main traits of how referral advice was understood emerged: convinced referral is not necessary, accepting referral advice but delayed by others, and passive and moving with the wind. The main reasons given for declining the referral advice included discrediting midwives' advice, citing previous successful deliveries despite referral advice; being afraid of undergoing surgery; lack of support for care of siblings at home; and high costs incurred during referral. Declining maternal referral advice centred around the pregnant women's position and their dependence on the family members around them, with a decreased ability to show autonomy. If they were socially and economically empowered, women could positively influence decision making during maternal referrals.

  5. Women Living with HIV in Rural Areas. Implementing a Response using the HIV and AIDS Risk Assessment and Reduction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bandali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in rural areas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in rural areas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in rural areas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced women to engage in HIV risk-reduction practices. The findings from this study led to the emergence of an HIV and AIDS risk assessment and reduction (HARAR model, which is described in detail. The model helps in understanding gender-related factors influencing men and women to engage in risk-reduction practices, which can be used as a framework in other settings to design more nuanced and contextual policies and programs.

  6. Between affiliation and autonomy: navigating pathways of women's empowerment and gender justice in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeer, Naila

    2011-01-01

    Inasmuch as women's subordinate status is a product of the patriarchal structures of constraint that prevail in specific contexts, pathways of women's empowerment are likely to be "path dependent." They will be shaped by women's struggles to act on the constraints that prevail in their societies, as much by what they seek to defend as by what they seek to change. The universal value that many feminists claim for individual autonomy may not therefore have the same purchase in all contexts. This article examines processes of empowerment as they play out in the lives of women associated with social mobilization organizations in the specific context of rural Bangladesh. It draws on their narratives to explore the collective strategies through which these organizations sought to empower the women and how they in turn drew on their newly established "communities of practice" to navigate their own pathways to wider social change. It concludes that while the value attached to social affiliations by the women in the study is clearly a product of the societies in which they have grown up, it may be no more context-specific than the apparently universal value attached to individual autonomy by many feminists.

  7. Tibetan women's perspectives and satisfaction with delivery care in a rural birth center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Jessica D; Gyaltsen, Kunchok; Gyal, Lhusham; Kyi, Tsering; Hicks, Andrew L; Pebley, Anne R

    2015-06-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and factors involved in Tibetan women's decisions to deliver at the Tibetan Birth and Training Center (TBTC) in rural western China. In the present mixed-methods study, a random sample of married women who delivered at the TBTC between June 2011 and June 2012 were surveyed. Additionally, four focus group discussions were conducted among married women living in the TBTC catchment area. Descriptive analyses were conducted, and dominant themes were identified. In focus group discussions, women (n=33) reported that improved roads and transportation meant that access to health facilities was easier than in the past. Although some of the 114 survey participants voiced negative perceptions of healthcare facilities and providers, 99 (86.8%) indicated that they chose to deliver at the TBTC because they preferred to have a doctor present. Most women (75 [65.8%]) said their mother/mother-in-law made the final decision about delivery location. Women valued logistic and cultural aspects of the TBTC, and 108 (94.7%) said that they would recommend the TBTC to a friend. Study participants preferred delivery care that combines safety and comfort. The findings highlight avenues for further promotion of facility delivery among populations with lower rates of skilled deliveries. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Men's Perceptions of Women's Participation in Development Initiatives in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rabiul; Lindberg, Lene; Wamala, Sarah; Emmelin, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Without taking masculine issues into account, women's participation in development initiatives does not always guarantee their empowerment, health, and welfare in a male-dominated society. This study aimed to explore men's perceptions of women's participation in development (WPD) in rural Bangladesh. In adopting a qualitative approach, the study examined 48 purposively selected married and unmarried men aged 20-76 years in three northwest villages. Data collection was accomplished through four focus group discussions (FGDs) with 43 men clustered into four groups and through individual interviews with five other men. A qualitative content analysis of the data revealed an overall theme of "feeling challenged by fears and hopes," indicating variations in men's views on women's participation in development initiatives as represented by three main categories: (a) fearing the loss of male authority, (b) recognizing women's roles in enhancing family welfare, and (c) valuing women's independence. In the context of dominant patriarchal traditions in Bangladesh, these findings provide new insight into dynamics and variations of men's views, suggesting a need to better engage men during different stages of women-focused development initiatives.

  9. Women and Land Ownership Rights in Kilimanjaro: A Tension between Women Land Ownership Rights and Culture: A case of Moshi Rural District Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Asantemungu, Raphael Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Despite the efforts and strategies geared towards women in realizing property rights in terms of empowerment, participation and decision making in the global context today many African societies are still characterized by social economic and political inequalities between men and women. This situation is worse in Tanzania rural areas where women land rights are violated as result of culture being regarded as a daily routine that provide the basis and ways in which land is owned and distribute...

  10. Satisfaction and sustainability: a realist review of decentralized models of perinatal surgery for rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelsen, Jude; McCartney, Kevin; Williams, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This article was developed as part of a larger realist review investigating the viability and efficacy of decentralized models of perinatal surgical services for rural women in the context of recent and ongoing service centralization witnessed in many developed nations. The larger realist review was commissioned by the British Columbia Ministry of Health and Perinatal Services of British Columbia, Canada. Findings from that review are addressed in this article specific to the sustainability of rural perinatal surgical sites and the satisfaction of providers that underpins their recruitment to and retention at such sites. A realist method was used in the selection and analysis of literature with the intention to iteratively develop a sophisticated understanding of how perinatal surgical services can best meet the needs of women who live in rural and remote environments. The goal of a realist review is to examine what works for whom under what circumstances and why. The high sensitivity search used language (English) and year (since 1990) limiters in keeping with both a realist and rapid review tradition of using reasoned contextual boundaries. No exclusions were made based on methodology or methodological approach in keeping with a realist review. Databases searched included MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and PAIS International for literature in December 2013. Database searching produced 103 included academic articles. A further 59 resources were added through pearling and 13 grey literature reports were added on recommendation from the commissioner. A total of 42 of these 175 articles were included in this article as specific to provider satisfaction and service sustainability. Operative perinatal practice was found to be a lynchpin of sustainable primary and surgical services in rural communities. Rural shortages of providers, including challenges with recruitment and retention, were found to be a complex issue, with

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of induced abortion among rural married women: a cross-sectional survey in Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guo-Peng; Zhang, Ren-Jie; Zhang, Xiu-Jun; Jia, Xiao-Min; Li, Xiu-De; Li, Xiang; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Tong, Fei; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among married women in rural areas of Anhui Province, China. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years in rural areas of Anhui Province, China. All women were interviewed in the form of a standardized questionnaire. We found that 32.0% (16,800) of these women had had at least one induced abortion: 21.1% (11,090) of women had had one; 7.6% (3976) of women had had two; and 4.1% (1734) of women had had at least three. The number of induced abortions per 100 pregnancies was found to be 22.0. Multivariate analysis showed that education, the age of a woman at her first marriage, number of total births, number of total pregnancies, and contraceptive methods were significant predictors for induced abortion after controlling for women's current age, employment and family yearly income. The study shows that the prevalence of induced abortion is still very high among married women in rural China, and highly effective methods of contraception (sterilization, intrauterine device) decrease women's recourse to induced abortion. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. A Mirage or a Rural Life Line? Analysing the impact of Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act on Women Beneficiaries of Assam

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    Rituparna Bhattacharyya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA, launched in February 2006 was renamed in October 02, 2009 as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (henceforth, MGNREGA. It is an anti-poverty flagship programme of the Government of India. The key purpose of MGNREGA is to enhance wage employment in the rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed employment to every household in a financial year.  The MGNREGA implementation status report for the financial year 2012-2013 unfolds that the programme has already provided employment to 44.9 million households across 28 districts and five union territories. Hence, it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of MGNREGA on women beneficiaries. A plethora of research argues that MGNREGA, which promotes inclusive growth, is a vehicle of change, a lifeline for rural women. So far, however, there has been very little discussion about the impact of MGNREGA on women beneficiaries of Assam. This research is an attempt to examine the participation of women in MGNREGA, Assam. It critically looks at the issues, problems and challenges confronted by the women while working at MGNREGA. Written from a feminist perspective on gender, poverty and women’s empowerment, the research seeks to address the problems of the women beneficiaries through their lived experiences. For this, we conducted in-depth interviews with the women beneficiaries in the months of August and September, 2009 in four remote areas namely, Burka, Chandrapur, Barbhang and Muguriya, the first two situated in Kamrup, while the third and the fourth in Barpeta districts of Assam, where the programme of MGNREGA is on-going. The findings of the research suggest measures so that the programme can be made more effective in the long run.

  13. Determinants of family planning service uptake and use of contraceptives among postpartum women in rural Uganda.

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    Sileo, Katelyn M; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Lule, Haruna; Kiene, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Uganda has one of the highest unmet needs for family planning globally, which is associated with negative health outcomes for women and population-level public health implications. The present cross-sectional study identified factors influencing family planning service uptake and contraceptive use among postpartum women in rural Uganda. Participants were 258 women who attended antenatal care at a rural Ugandan hospital. We used logistic regression models in SPSS to identify determinants of family planning service uptake and contraceptive use postpartum. Statistically significant predictors of uptake of family planning services included: education (AOR = 3.03, 95 % CI 1.57-5.83), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 7.15, 95 % CI 1.58-32.37), partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.36-2.37), and perceived need of contraceptives (AOR = 2.57, 95 % CI 1.09-6.08). Statistically significant predictors of contraceptive use since delivery included: education (AOR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.05-3.95), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 10.79, 95 % CI 1.40-83.06), and partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.34-2.44). Education, partner communication, and perceived need of family planning are key determinants of postpartum family planning service uptake and contraceptive use, and should be considered in antenatal and postnatal family planning counseling.

  14. Urinary Concentrations of Insecticide and Herbicide Metabolites among Pregnant Women in Rural Ghana: A Pilot Study

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    Blair J. Wylie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of pesticides by households in rural Ghana is common for residential pest control, agricultural use, and for the reduction of vectors carrying disease. However, few data are available about exposure to pesticides among this population. Our objective was to quantify urinary concentrations of metabolites of organophosphate (OP, pyrethroid, and select herbicides during pregnancy, and to explore exposure determinants. In 2014, 17 pregnant women from rural Ghana were surveyed about household pesticide use and provided weekly first morning urine voids during three visits (n = 51 samples. A total of 90.1% (46/51 of samples had detectable OP metabolites [geometric mean, GM (95% CI: 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol 0.54 µg/L (0.36–0.81, para-nitrophenol 0.71 µg/L (0.51–1.00], 75.5% (37/49 had detectable pyrethroid metabolites [GM: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid 0.23 µg/L (0.17, 0.32], and 70.5% (36/51 had detectable 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid levels, a herbicide [GM: 0.46 µg/L (0.29–0.73]. Concentrations of para-nitrophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in Ghanaian pregnant women appear higher when compared to nonpregnant reproductive-aged women in a reference U.S. population. Larger studies are necessary to more fully explore predictors of exposure in this population.

  15. Social dimensions related to anaemia among women of childbearing age from rural India.

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    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Smita; Bhide, Pradnya; Puranik, Bhairavi; Kanade, Asawari

    2011-02-01

    To examine various sociodemographic aspects related to consumption of micronutrient-rich foods like green leafy vegetables (GLV), which will be helpful in modifying dietary habits, a strategy that merits consideration for prevention of anaemia. Cross-sectional study for collecting data on socio-economic and anthropometric (weight, height) variables, Hb, dietary pattern (FFQ) and peripheral smear examination for classifying nutritional and iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA). Three villages near Pune city, Maharashtra, India. Rural women (n 418) of childbearing age (15-35 years). Mean Hb was 11·07 g/dl. Seventy-seven per cent of the women were anaemic (Hb women had nutritional anaemia. Higher prevalence of IDA was associated with several sociodemographic and maternal parameters, but multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant (P lack of awareness about different recipes for GLV. Our findings highlight that low consumption of GLV, which are treasures of micronutrients including Fe, is associated with genuine social reasons. This indicates a need for developing action programmes to improve nutritional knowledge and awareness leading to enhanced consumption of Fe-rich foods for preventing anaemia in rural India.

  16. Predictors of women's utilization of primary health care for skilled pregnancy care in rural Nigeria.

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    Okonofua, Friday; Ntoimo, Lorretta; Ogungbangbe, Julius; Anjorin, Seun; Imongan, Wilson; Yaya, Sanni

    2018-04-18

    Although Primary Health Care (PHC) was designed to provide universal access to skilled pregnancy care for the prevention of maternal deaths, very little is known of the factors that predict the use of PHC for skilled maternity care in rural parts of Nigeria - where its use is likely to have a greater positive impact on maternal health care. The objective of this study was to identify the factors that lead pregnant women to use or not use existing primary health care facilities for antenatal and delivery care. The study was a cross-sectional community-based study conducted in Esan South East and Etsako East LGAs of Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 1408 randomly selected women of reproductive age were interviewed in their households using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed with descriptive and multivariate statistical methods. The results showed antenatal care attendance rate by currently pregnant women of 62.1%, and a skilled delivery of 46.6% by recently delivered women at PHCs, while 25% of women delivered at home or with traditional birth attendants. Reasons for use and non-use of PHCs for antenatal and delivery care given by women were related to perceptions about long distances to PHCs, high costs of services and poor quality of PHC service delivery. Chi-square test of association revealed that level of education and marital status were significantly related to use of PHCs for antenatal care. The results of logistic regression for delivery care showed that women with primary (OR 3.10, CI 1.16-8.28) and secondary (OR 2.37, CI 1.19-4.71) levels education were more likely to receive delivery care in PHCs than the highly educated. Being a Muslim (OR 1.56, CI 1.00-2.42), having a partner who is employed in Estako East (OR 2.78, CI 1.04-7.44) and having more than five children in Esan South East (OR 2.00, CI 1.19-3.35) significantly increased the odds of delivery in PHCs. The likelihood of using a PHC facility was less for women who had more

  17. Scaling up community mobilisation through women's groups for maternal and neonatal health: experiences from rural Bangladesh

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    Nahar Tasmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Program coverage is likely to be an important determinant of the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. Rigorous examination and documentation of methods to scale-up interventions and measure coverage are scarce, however. To address this knowledge gap, this paper describes the process and measurement of scaling-up coverage of a community mobilisation intervention for maternal, child and neonatal health in rural Bangladesh and critiques this real-life experience in relation to available literature on scaling-up. Methods Scale-up activities took place in nine unions in rural Bangladesh. Recruitment and training of those who deliver the intervention, communication and engagement with the community and other stakeholders and active dissemination of intervention activities are described. Process evaluation and population survey data are presented and used to measure coverage and the success of scale-up. Results The intervention was scaled-up from 162 women's groups to 810, representing a five-fold increase in population coverage. The proportion of women of reproductive age and pregnant women who were engaged in the intervention increased from 9% and 3%, respectively, to 23% and 29%. Conclusions Examination and documentation of how scaling-up was successfully initiated, led, managed and monitored in rural Bangladesh provide a deeper knowledge base and valuable lessons. Strong operational capabilities and institutional knowledge of the implementing organisation were critical to the success of scale-up. It was possible to increase community engagement with the intervention without financial incentives and without an increase in managerial staff. Monitoring and feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to successful scale-up and require programmatic and operational flexibility.

  18. Reproductive tract infections in rural women from the highlands, jungle, and coastal regions of Peru.

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    García, Patricia J; Chavez, Susana; Feringa, Barbara; Chiappe, Marina; Li, Weili; Jansen, Kathrin U; Cárcamo, César; Holmes, King K

    2004-07-01

    To define the prevalences and manifestations of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Peruvian women. During 1997-98, we visited 18 rural districts in coastal, highlands, and jungle regions of Peru. We administered standardized questionnaires and pelvic examinations to members of women's community-based organizations; and collected vaginal fluid for pH, amine odour, Gram stain, microscopy, and culture for Trichomonas vaginalis; cervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; human papilloma virus (HPV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and blood for syphilis serology. The 754 participants averaged 36.9 years of age and 1.7 sex partners ever; 77% reported symptoms indicative of RTIs; 51% and 26% reported their symptoms spontaneously or only with specific questioning, respectively. Symptoms reported spontaneously included abnormal vaginal discharge (29.3% and 22.9%, respectively). One or more RTIs, found in 70.4% of participants, included bacterial vaginosis (43.7%), trichomoniasis (16.5%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (4.5%), chlamydial infection (6.8%), gonorrhoea (1.2%), syphilis seropositivity (1.7%), cervical HPV infection (4.9%), and genital warts or ulcers (2.8%). Of 715 adequate Pap smears, 7 revealed cancer, 4 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and 15 low-grade SIL. Clinical algorithms had very low sensitivity and predictive values for cervical infection, but over half the women with symptoms of malodorous vaginal discharge, signs of abnormal vaginal discharge, or both, had bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Overall, 77% of women had symptoms indicative of RTIs, and 70% had objective evidence of one or more RTIs. Women with selected symptoms and signs of vaginal infection could benefit from standard metronidazole therapy.

  19. Seroprevalence study of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women referred to Aleshtar rural and urban health centers in 2008

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    korosh Cheraghi pour

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is one of the a parasitic infectious caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Congenital toxoplasmosis can cause abortion or fetus damage in pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis (IgG & IgM among the pregnant women referred to Aleshtar rural and urban health centers in 2008. Materials and Methods: Total 331 blood samples were collected from 204 urban and 127 rural pregnant wemon referred to rural and urban health centers of Aleshtar. After recording their information in the questionnaire and preparation of sample, all samples were evaluated with IgG- and IgM-ELISA to detect anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: In this study seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in urban and rural pregnant women were 36/2% and 44%, respectively. And 11. 2% of the urban and 9. 4% of the rural women suffered from acute Toxoplasma infection while 25% and 34. 6% of the urban and the rural cases had chronic infection, respectively. The results of analysis showed that there were significant relationships between seropositivity (IgG and IgM and education level, age, contact with raw meat, contact with cat, kind of food, washing vegetables, consumption of vegetables and milk in both urban and rural pregnant women (p<0. 05. There was no significant difference between seropositivity and other variables. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the high level of education and preferment health awareness can reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis. Nevertheless, %60. 8 of the pregnant women in this study didn’t have previous history of toxoplasma infection and are exposed to primary infectin and acute disease. Therefore, preventive measures and controlled programs are necessary.

  20. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study

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    2013-01-01

    Background Women’s ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. Methods This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. Results We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Conclusion Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and

  1. Factors associated with nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy.

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    Mridha, Malay K; Matias, Susana L; Arnold, Charles D; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-02-18

    Bangladesh has a high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy, but little is known about the nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy or associated factors. We used the baseline data of 1552 pregnant adolescents from a longitudinal, cluster-randomized effectiveness trial conducted in northwest Bangladesh. Forty-four percent of the adolescents were short for their age, 36% had low body mass index, 28% were anemic, 10% had iron deficiency, and 32% had vitamin A deficiency. The mean consumption of animal-source foods was 10.3 times/week. In multivariate analysis, socioeconomic status, education, and food security were generally positively associated with anthropometric indicators and dietary practices but not with iron or vitamin A status. Our findings confirm that there is a high burden of undernutrition among these Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy. Understanding factors related to undernutrition can help to identify adolescent pregnant women at higher risk and provide appropriate counseling and care. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Rural women's access to health care in Bangladesh: swimming against the tide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md Abul; Westhues, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Large segments of the population in developing countries are deprived of a fundamental right: access to basic health care. The problem of access to health care is particularly acute in Bangladesh. One crucial determinant of health seeking among rural women is the accessibility of medical care and barriers to care that may develop because of location, financial requirements, bureaucratic responses to the patient, social distance between client and provider, and the sex of providers. This article argues that to increase accessibility fundamental changes are required not only in resource allocation but also in the very structure of health services delivery.

  3. Premenstrual symptoms and remedies practiced by Malaysian women attending a rural primary care clinic

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    Khairani Omar

    2009-06-01

    Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a rural primary care clinic situated in Hulu Langat, Malaysia. All women of reproductive age (18 to 44 years old attending the clinic during the study period and who fit the selection criteria were included. Premenstrual symptoms and severity were assessed using a self-report questionnaire, the Shortened Premenstrual Assessment Form (SPAF. It consists of 10 items that measure changes in mood, behaviour and physical symptoms. The respondents were also asked if they had used any remedy to relieve their symptoms. Results: A total of 158 women were included in the study. The majority of the respondents were Malay (70.3%, followed by Indian (16.5% and Chinese (10.8% women. About 75% of the women experienced at least one of the premenstrual symptoms. Approximately 7% of them reported experiencing severe symptoms in all three subscales of the SPAF. The frequently reported symptoms were body ache (75.3%, abdominal pain (75.3%, irritable feeling (63.9% and breast discomfort (61.4%. The symptom score was higher among Malay women (p = 0.034, and those with a higher household income (p = 0.037 and higher educational level (p = 0.01. There was no significant association between premenstrual symptoms and age, marital status, menstrual cycle and age of menarche. The common remedies used were vitamins (19%, a healthy diet (15.8% and analgesics (13.3%. Approximately 60% of the women did not use any remedy to reduce their premenstrual symptoms. Conclusion: Premenstrual symptoms were common among women attending the clinic. The symptoms affect them significantly both physically and emotionally. Thus, it is essential for primary care providers to take an active role in identifying, educating and managing premenstrual symptoms among women.

  4. Factors associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls and women in rural Kenya.

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    Gust, Deborah A; Pan, Yi; Otieno, Fred; Hayes, Tameka; Omoro, Tereza; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Odongo, Fred; Otieno, George O

    2017-12-01

    Intimate partner physical violence increases women's risk for negative health outcomes and is an important public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to determine 1) the proportion of girls (≤18 years) and women (>18 years) who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner, and 2) factors (including self-reported HIV infection) associated with girls and women who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner. Cross-sectional surveys conducted in the Gem Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in Siaya County, western Kenya in 2011-2012 (Round 1) and 2013-2014 (Round 2). Among 8003 unique participants (582 girls and 7421 women), 11.6% reported physical violence by a sexual partner in the last 12 months (girls: 8.4%, women: 11.8%). Three factors were associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls: being married or cohabiting (nearly 5-fold higher risk), low education, and reporting forced sex in the last 12 months (both with an approximate 2-fold higher risk). Predictive factors were similar for women, with the addition of partner alcohol/drug use and deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Self-reported HIV status was not associated with recent physical violence by a sexual partner among girls or women. Gender-based physical violence is prevalent in this rural setting and has a strong relationship with marital status, low education level, and forced sex among girls and women. Concerted efforts to prevent child marriage and retain girls in school as well as implementation of school and community-based anti-violence programs may help mitigate this risk.

  5. [Rural women. Public health workshop of the Centro de Investigaciones en Psicologia Social].

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    Juarez Bartola, M; Garcia Ventura, H; De Jesus Leon, M J

    1993-04-01

    Mexico's peasant sector is undergoing great change as a result of the insertion of capitalist relations into areas that were previously remote. The traditional peasant subsistence economy has been displaced, and peasants have been forced to adopt a series of new strategies for survival, entailing proletarianization or selling of labor. Women in the community of San Nicolas Zoyapetlayoca, in the municipio of Tepeaca, have lived in a situation of poverty and precariousness for some time. Most of the population historically depended on the neighboring haciendas for their livelihood. Women and children also worked there, mistreated and without social protection. The lands that were distributed after the Revolution are insufficient to support the community, and most families must look elsewhere for employment. Incomes are insufficient to cover all the necessities of education, health, nutrition, and other aspects of life. Most women are educated no farther than the primary level. They spend most of their time preparing food, carrying water, washing clothes, caring for their children, and in other domestic chores. Some women work for wages as laborers, factory workers, or domestics. Rural women are disadvantaged by poor working conditions, insufficient education, low levels of health and nutrition, limited participation in social and political life, poor housing and lack of services, and frequently by their own attitudes of traditionalism or fatalism.

  6. Men's violence against women in rural Bangladesh: undermined or exacerbated by microcredit programmes?

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    Schuler, S R; Hashemi, S M; Badal, S H

    1998-05-01

    This ethnographic study examined the sociocultural context of domestic violence in 6 rural villages in Bangladesh, and the prevalence of wife-beating and its association with women's empowerment in income generation programs (IGPs). Data were obtained from interviews conducted during 1990-96. Four villages had IGPs, and 2 villages did not have credit programs. Over 66% of women reported having been beaten at one time or another. In one village 87% reported beatings. 38% reported beatings in the preceding year (a range of 14-60%). Men beat their wives over trivial matters or frustrations over problems for which wives were not responsible. Beatings were attributed to mens' desire to control behavior and reassert their authority when challenged or to exploit their wives for financial gain. Some of the most severe beatings were linked with dowry. Both husbands and wives considered the beatings legitimate. The highest level of violence was in villages that were experiencing the most changes in gender roles and that had the most women contributing to family support. The lowest levels of violence were in villages with the fewest contributing to family support. Interviews, case studies, and observations yielded ambivalent evidence about the influence of credit programs on domestic violence. Credit programs have the potential to increase women's status and to disseminate anti-violence messages among both men and women.

  7. The lived experiences of rural women diagnosed with the human immunodeficiency virus in the antenatal period.

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    Fords, Genevieve Marion; Crowley, Talitha; van der Merwe, Anita S

    2017-12-01

    In South Africa, pregnant women are diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at antenatal clinics and simultaneously initiated on antiretroviral treatment (ART). An HIV diagnosis together with the initiation of ART has an emotional impact that may influence how pregnant women cope with pregnancy and their adherence to a treatment plan. The aim of the study was to explore the lived experiences of women diagnosed with HIV in the antenatal period in a rural area in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. A qualitative approach with a descriptive phenomenological design was utilised. The study applied purposive sampling to select participants from a local community clinic in the Eastern Cape. Ten semistructured interviews were conducted, transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi's framework. Four themes formed the essential structure of the phenomenon being investigated: a reality that hits raw, a loneliness that hurts, hope for a fractured tomorrow and support of a few. Although the participants had to accept the harsh reality of being diagnosed with HIV and experienced loneliness and the support of only a few people, they had hope to live and see the future of their children. Women diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy are ultimately concerned with the well-being of their unborn children, and this concern motivates their adherence to ART. Women's lived experiences are situated in their unique sociocultural context, and although some known challenges remain, counselling and support strategies need to be informed by exploring context-specific issues and involving the local community.

  8. Women's Nutribusiness cooperatives in Kenya: an integrated strategy for sustaining rural livelihoods.

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    Maretzki, Audrey N

    2007-01-01

    With funding provided by the Center for Higher Education of the United States Agency for International Development, The Pennsylvania State University and Tuskegee University collaborated with the University of Nairobi in establishing women's NutriBusiness Cooperatives in the Rift Valley and Central Provinces of Kenya. Between 1992 and 1999, the cooperatives were established, facilities and equipment were supplied and extensive participatory training was provided by university-affiliated investigators and project staff. This initiative enabled approximately 2500 rural Kenyan women farmers to add value to their crops by processing and locally marketing nutritious, convenient, culturally-appropriate weaning food mixes. Implementation of the NutriBusiness model is described and challenges of cultural engagement are highlighted.

  9. Women's perceptions of homebirths in two rural medical districts in Burkina Faso: a qualitative study

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    Sombie Issiaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. The situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal complications. The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of homebirths in the medical districts of Ouargaye and Diapaga. Methods A qualitative approach was used to gather information. This information was collected by using focus group discussions and individual interviews with 30 women. All the interviews were tape recorded and managed by using QSR NVIVO 2.0, qualitative data management software. Results The findings show that homebirths are frequent because of prohibitive distance to health facilities, fast labour and easy labour, financial constraints, lack of decision making power to reach health facilities. Conclusion The study echoes the need for policy makers to make health facilities easily available to rural inhabitants to forestall maternal and child deaths in the two districts.

  10. Social Representations Of Violence Against Rural Women: Unveiling Senses In Multiple Views

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    Marta Cocco Costa

    Full Text Available We analyze the social representations of violence against women from the perspective of city managers, professionals and health workers in rural settings of the southern half of Rio Grande do Sul. The study has a qualitative approach and adds a theoretical/methodological perspective of social representations. The data were generated by means of the associative method, question-stimulus of words and expressions emergence. The analysis of word association was performed with EVOC software, considering frequency and order of association with inducing terms. Participants recognize violence against women as gender destination that induces consent, resignation, guilt and fear, and results in naturalization and trivialization of this social phenomenon. We highlight the need to produce ruptures in established and traditional forms of health care, in the conservative and stereotypical views of violence, favoring access to friendly service and avoiding the reproduction of gender inequalities.

  11. Social Representations Of Violence Against Rural Women: Unveiling Senses In Multiple Views

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    Marta Cocco Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the social representations of violence against women from the perspective of city managers, professionals and health workers in rural settings of the southern half of Rio Grande do Sul. The study has a qualitative approach and adds a theoretical/methodological perspective of social representations. The data were generated by means of the associative method, question-stimulus of words and expressions emergence. The analysis of word association was performed with EVOC software, considering frequency and order of association with inducing terms. Participants recognize violence against women as gender destination that induces consent, resignation, guilt and fear, and results in naturalization and trivialization of this social phenomenon. We highlight the need to produce ruptures in established and traditional forms of health care, in the conservative and stereotypical views of violence, favoring access to friendly service and avoiding the reproduction of gender inequalities.

  12. Women's participation in rural credit programmes in Bangladesh and their demand for formal health care: is there a positive impact?

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    Nanda, P

    1999-08-01

    Within the overall aim of poverty alleviation, development efforts have included credit and self-employment programmes. In Bangladesh, the major beneficiaries of such group-based credit programmes are rural women who use the loans to initiate small informal income-generating activities. This paper explores the benefits of women's participation in credit programmes on their own health seeking. Using data from a sample of 1798 households from rural Bangladesh, conducted in 1991-1992 through repeated random sampling of 87 districts covered by Grameen Bank, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB), this paper addresses the question: does women's participation in credit programmes significantly affect their use of formal health care? A non-unitary household preference model is suggested to test the hypothesis that women's empowerment through participation in these programmes results in greater control of resources for their own demand for formal health care. The analysis controls for endogeneity due to self-selection and other unobserved village level factors through the use of a weighted two stage instrumental variable approach with village level fixed effects. The findings indicate a positive impact of women's participation in credit programmes on their demand for formal health care. The policy simulations on the results of this study highlight the importance of credit programmes as a health intervention in addition to being a mechanism for women's economic empowerment.

  13. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

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    Elizabeth Hormann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  14. Inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal sessions in rural India.

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    Singh, Abhishek; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ram, Faujdar; Ogollah, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India. The District Level Household Survey (2007-08) was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%-72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice. A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver appropriate and recommended advice to all clients, irrespective of

  15. Inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal sessions in rural India.

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    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India.The District Level Household Survey (2007-08 was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%-72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice.A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver appropriate and recommended advice to all clients

  16. Prevalence and correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among married women in rural Bangladesh.

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    Mohammad Shakhawat Hossain

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among married rural women with a history of at least one pregnancy in Madaripur, Bangladesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using an interviewer administered, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. All women living in the study area, aged 18 years and above with at least one pregnancy in their lifetime, who were on the electoral roll and agreed to participate were included in the study. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and smokeless tobacco consumption was collected. Smokeless tobacco consumption was categorized as 'Current', 'Ever but not current' and 'Never'. Associations between smokeless tobacco consumption and the explanatory variables were estimated using simple and multiple binary logistic regression. RESULTS: 8074 women participated (response rate 99.9%. The prevalence of 'Current consumption', 'Ever consumption but not current', and 'Never consumption' was 25%, 44% and 31%, respectively. The mean age at first use was 31.5 years. 87% of current consumers reported using either Shadapata or Hakimpuree Jarda. Current consumption was associated with age, level of education, religion, occupation, being an income earner, marital status, and age at first use of smokeless tobacco. After adjustment for demographic variables, current consumption was associated with being over 25 years of age, a lower level of education, being an income earner, being Muslim, and being divorced, separated or widowed. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption is high among rural women in Bangladesh and the age of onset is considerably older than that for smoking. Smokeless tobacco consumption is likely to be producing a considerable burden of non-communicable disease in Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco control strategies should be implemented.

  17. Are work demands associated with mental distress? Evidence from women in rural India.

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    Richardson, Robin A; Nandi, Arijit; Jaswal, Surinder; Harper, Sam

    2017-12-01

    High work demands might be a determinant of poor mental health among women in low- and middle-income countries, especially in rural settings where women experience greater amounts of labor-intensive unpaid work. Research originating from such settings is lacking. We estimated the cross-sectional association between work demands and mental distress among 3177 women living in 160 predominantly tribal communities in southern Rajasthan, India. A structured questionnaire captured the number of minutes women spent on various activities in the last 24 h, and we used this information to measure women's work demands, including the total work amount, nature of work (e.g., housework), and type of work (e.g., cooking). Mental distress was measured with the Hindi version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. We used negative binomial regression models to estimate the association between work demands (amount, nature, and type) and mental distress. On average, women spent more than 9.5 h a day on work activities. The most time, intensive work activity was caring for children, the elderly, or disabled (149 min). In adjusted models, we found a U-shaped association between work amount and mental distress. High amounts of housework were associated with higher distress, whereas paid work and farmwork amount were not. Certain types of housework, including collecting water and cleaning, were associated with increased distress scores. We found an association between aspects of work demands and mental distress. Research in other contexts where women perform high amounts of unpaid work, particularly within the home or farm, is warranted.

  18. Psychosocial and perceived environmental correlates of physical activity in rural and older african american and white women.

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    Wilcox, Sara; Bopp, Melissa; Oberrecht, Larissa; Kammermann, Sandra K; McElmurray, Charles T

    2003-11-01

    African American and rural older women are among the least active segments of the population. This study, guided by social cognitive theory, examined the correlates of physical activity (PA) in 102 rural older women (41% African American; 70.6 +/- 9.2 years). In bivariate associations, education, marital status, self-efficacy, greater pros than cons, perceived stress, social support, and perceived neighborhood safety were positively associated with PA; age, depressive symptoms, perceived sidewalks, health care provider discussion of PA, and perceived traffic were negatively associated with PA. In a hierarchical regression analysis, the sociodemographic (R(2) = 23%), psychological (IR(2) = 9%), social (IR(2) = 6%), and perceived physical environmental (IR(2) = 9%) sets of variables were significant (p motivators; falls, injuries, and heart attacks were identified most often as risks. These findings support the importance of multilevel influences on PA in older rural women and are useful for informing PA interventions.

  19. Cold-induced vasodilation comparison between Bangladeshi and Japanese natives.

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    Khatun, Aklima; Ashikaga, Sakura; Nagano, Hisaho; Hasib, Md Abdul; Taimura, Akihiro

    2016-05-03

    The human thermoregulation system responds to changes in environmental temperature, so humans can self-adapt to a wide range of climates. People from tropical and temperate areas have different cold tolerance. This study compared the tolerance of Bangladeshi (tropical) and Japanese (temperate) people to local cold exposure on cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD). Eight Bangladeshi males (now residing in Japan) and 14 Japanese males (residing in Japan) participated in this study. All are sedentary, regular university students. The Bangladeshi subject's duration of stay in Japan was 2.50 ± 2.52 years. The subject's left hand middle finger was immersed in 5 °C water for 20 min to assess their CIVD response (the experiment was conducted in an artificial climate chamber controlled at 25 °C with 50% RH). Compared with the Bangladeshi (BD) group, the Japanese (JP) group displayed some differences. There were significant differences between the BD and JP groups in temperature before immersion (TBI), which were 33.04 ± 1.98 and 34.62 ± 0.94 °C, and time of temperature rise (TTR), which were 5.35 ± 0.82 and 3.72 ± 0.68 min, respectively. There was also a significant difference in the time of sensation rise (TSR) of 8.69 ± 6.49 and 3.26 ± 0.97 min between the BD and JP groups, respectively (P cold exposure than the Bangladeshi group (tropical) evaluated by the CIVD test.

  20. The impact of micro financing on poverty levels of rural women farm households in Abia state, Nigeria; implication for policy intervention

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    EZEH Innocent

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the impact of micro-finance on poverty level of rural women farm households in Abia State, Nigeria: Implication for policy intervention. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to +select the local government areas, communities and respondents in the three (Aba, Ohafia and Umuahia agricultural zones of the State. The sample size was 240 (120 a piece for rural women farmer borrowers and non borrowers. Instrument of data collection was a set of structured and pre-tested questionnaire administered on both groups of rural women farmers. The result indicated that incidence of poverty or head count ratio was 0.558 for the rural women farmers borrowers and 0.933 for the rural women farmer non borrowers; poverty gap otherwise known as income short fall was 0.4547 for the rural women farmer borrowers and 0.6995 for the rural women farmer non borrowers. The result of the paired t-test showed that micro-finance impacted significantly on annual farm income, farm size and fertilizer use level of rural women farmer borrowers at given levels of significance. It was however, recommended that increased subsidy policy on agro-inputs and increased funding by the micro-finance will significantly aim at reducing the poverty levels of these women.

  1. Factors Related to Intention to Undergo Female Sterilization Among Married Women in Rural Kathmandu, Nepal.

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    Dhungana, Adhish; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Pitikultang, Supachai

    2016-03-01

    Sterilization is most widely used fertility regulation method in Nepal. However, prevalence of uptake of female sterilization in central hilly region is less than the national average. The objective of the study was to explore the number and factors related to intention of married women to undergo female sterilization in rural Kathmandu which lies within central hilly region. This is a community based cross-sectional survey research conducted in rural area of Kathmandu valley. Two hundred and forty currently married women with at least one child of any age were interviewed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. More than four-fifth of the respondents intended to undergo sterilization. Almost two-third of them wanted to limit their family size by taking this option. More than one-third of women not-intending to undergo sterilization feared weakness after sterilization. Age of the respondents, duration of marriage, and number of living children were significantly associated with intention to undergo sterilization. 15-24 years age group were six times more likely to have the intention for sterilization (OR 6.79, CI 2.28-20.19) compared to age 35 years and above group. Mothers with less than 3 living children are about three times more likely to have the intention to undergo sterilization (OR 2.87, CI 1.3-6.33) compared to women with more than 2 living children. Women married for 6 to 10 years were three times more likely to have the intention (OR 3.0, CI 1.09-8.27). However, gender of the living children was not associated with intention to undergo sterilization. There were significant numbers of women intending to undergo sterilization. Age of the mother, number of living children and the duration of marriage were found to be significantly influencing the intention to undergo sterilization. However, as intention refers to future plan, the respondents' intention may change over time. The national family planning program also needs to identify the key factors in

  2. Comparison of breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among rural and urban Hispanic and American Indian women in the Southwestern United States.

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    Nuño, Tomas; Gerald, Joe K; Harris, Robin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Estrada, Antonio; García, Francisco

    2012-08-01

    Rural Hispanic and American Indian (AI) women are at risk of non-participation in cancer screening programs. The objective of this study was to compare breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States to their urban counterparts and to assess characteristics that influence cancer screening. This study utilizes Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2006 to 2008 for Arizona and New Mexico. The BRFSS is a federally funded telephone survey to collect data on risk factors contributing to the leading causes of death and chronic diseases. Rural Hispanic and AI populations reported some differences in screening rates compared with their urban counterparts. Among Hispanic women, 58 % of rural residents reported having had a mammogram within the past year, compared with 66 % of urban residents. Among AI women, 81 % of rural residents had ever had a mammogram, compared with 89 % of urban residents. Rural AI women were less likely to have ever had a mammogram (OR = 0.5; 95 % CI = 0.3-0.9) compared with urban AI women. Rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a mammogram within 1 year (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.5-0.9) compared with urban Hispanic women. Results suggest that rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a Pap smear within 3 years (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.4-1.3) compared with urban Hispanic women. Our results provide some evidence that Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States have lower rates of breast and cervical cancer screening use compared with their urban counterparts. Special efforts are needed to identify ways to overcome barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for rural Hispanic and AI women.

  3. Work Relations and Helping in the Lives of Amazon Rural Women Workers

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    Cláudia Regina Brandão Sampaio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in methods of agricultural production have impacted on the lives of those involved in this sector. New social relations, technologies, values and landscapes have been introduced as well as potential risks to health. Female workers have a specific experience that requires a closer analysis to understand their situation. The research addresses the interrelationship of health, work, and the environment of women agriculturalists in a rural Amazonian community. This focus allows the identification and understanding of relations between the women and the actors with whom they share daily activities and the implications for health, work, and self-image. Using qualitative methods the experiences of 47 women were captured through collective interviews, which were analysed by Nucleus of Meaning Analysis (NMA, adapted from Categorical Content Analysis. Work is central to the lives of the women workers but is attributed with different meanings depending on the context and the relationship. It was found that the relationship with employers increases the risk of workplace exploitation; with male partners work is characterised as ‘helping’. Work with female co-workers increases a sense of identity, strengthens social bonds and an ability to solve problems. In conclusion, in addition to issues related to production methods, the subjective relational universe of these workers is marked by a complexity that impacts on their lives and health. The authors suggest that research on the impact of daily life and workplace on health considers the different and complex relations and subjective demands, especially in contexts endowed with uniqueness.

  4. The prevalence and determinants of sexual violence against young married women by husbands in rural Nepal

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    Puri Mahesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence within marriage is a public health and human rights issue; yet it remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the extent of sexual violence and its determinants among young married women in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,296 married women aged 15–24 years in four major ethnic groups in rural Nepal. The survey data were used to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of sexual violence. The relative importance of different correlates of sexual violence in the past 12 months at the individual, household and community levels were examined by using a multi-level multivariate statistical approach. Results Of the young women surveyed 46% had experienced sexual violence at some point and 31% had experienced sexual violence in the past 12 months. Women’s autonomy was found to be particularly protective against sexual violence both at the individual and community level. Women’s educational level was not found to be protective, while the educational level of the husband was found to be highly protective. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual violence against young women by husbands found in this study is a matter for serious concern and underscores the need for a comprehensive response by policymakers.

  5. Perceptions of rural women about contraceptive usage in district Khushab, Punjab.

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    Tabassum, Aqeela; Manj, Yasir Nawaz; Gunjial, Tahira Rehman; Nazir, Salma

    2016-12-01

    To identify the perceptions of rural women about modern contraceptive methods and to ascertain the psycho-social and economic attitude of women about family planning methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan, from December 2014 to March 2015, and comprised married women. The sample was selected using multistage sampling technique through Fitzgibbon table. They were interviewed regarding use of family planning methods. . SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Of the 500 women, 358(71.6%) were never-users and 142(28.4%) were past-users of family planning methods. Moreover, 52(14.5%) of never-users did not know about a single modern contraceptive method. Of the past-users, 43(30.3%) knew about 1-3 methods and 99(69.7%) about 4 or more methods. Furthermore, 153(30.6%) respondents graded condoms as good, 261(55.2%) agreed that family planning helped in improving one's standard of living to a great extent while 453(90.6%) indicated that family planning methods were not expensive. Besides, 366(71.2%) respondents believed that using contraceptive method caused infertility. Dissatisfaction with methods, method failure, bad experiences with side effects, privacy concerns and different myths associated to the methods were strongly related to the non-usage of modern contraceptive methods.

  6. Sexual function in women in rural Tamil Nadu: disease, dysfunction, distress and norms.

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    Viswanathan, Shonima; Prasad, Jasmine; Jacob, K S; Kuruvilla, Anju

    2014-01-01

    We examined the nature, prevalence and explanatory models of sexual concerns and dysfunction among women in rural Tamil Nadu. Married women between 18 and 65 years of age, from randomly selected villages in Kaniyambadi block, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, were chosen by stratified sampling technique. Sexual functioning was assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The modified Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI) was used to assess beliefs about sexual concerns and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was used to screen for common mental disorders. Sociodemographic variables and other risk factors were also assessed. Most of the women (277; 98.2%) contacted agreed to participate in the study. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction, based on the cut-off score on the FSFI, was 64.3%. However, only a minority of women considered it a problem (4.7%), expressed dissatisfaction (5.8%) or sought medical help (2.5%). The most common explanatory models offered for sexual problems included an unhappy marriage,stress and physical problems. Factors associated with lower FSFI included older age, illiteracy, as well as medical illness and sexual and marital factors such as menopause, poor quality of marital relationship, history of physical abuse and lack of privacy. The diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction needs to be nuanced and based on the broader personal and social context. Our findings argue that there is a need to use models that employ personal, local and contextual standards in assessing complex behaviours such as sexual function. Copyright 2014, NMJI.

  7. Early postpartum maternal morbidity among rural women of Rajasthan, India: a community-based study.

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    Iyengar, Kirti

    2012-06-01

    The first postpartum week is a high-risk period for mothers and newborns. Very few community-based studies have been conducted on patterns of maternal morbidity in resource-poor countries in that first week. An intervention on postpartum care for women within the first week after delivery was initiated in a rural area of Rajasthan, India. The intervention included a rigorous system of receiving reports of all deliveries in a defined population and providing home-level postpartum care to all women, irrespective of the place of delivery. Trained nurse-midwives used a structured checklist for detecting and managing maternal and neonatal conditions during postpartum-care visits. A total of 4,975 women, representing 87.1% of all expected deliveries in a population of 58,000, were examined in their first postpartum week during January 2007-December 2010. Haemoglobin was tested for 77.1% of women (n=3,836) who had a postnatal visit. The most common morbidity was postpartum anaemia--7.4% of women suffered from severe anaemia and 46% from moderate anaemia. Other common morbidities were fever (4%), breast conditions (4.9%), and perineal conditions (4.5%). Life-threatening postpartum morbidities were detected in 7.6% of women--9.7% among those who had deliveries at home and 6.6% among those who had institutional deliveries. None had a fistula. Severe anaemia had a strong correlation with perinatal death [pcaste or tribe [p<0.000, AOR=2.47 (95% CI 1.83-3.33)], and parity of three or more [p<0.000, AOR=1.52 (95% CI 1.18-1.97)]. The correlation with antenatal care was not significant. Perineal conditions were more frequent among women who had institutional deliveries while breast conditions were more common among those who had a perinatal death. This study adds valuable knowledge on postpartum morbidity affecting women in the first few days after delivery in a low-resource setting. Health programmes should invest to ensure that all women receive early postpartum visits after

  8. Women's perceptions of antenatal, delivery, and postpartum services in rural Tanzania

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    Gladys Reuben Mahiti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal health care provision remains a major challenge in developing countries. There is agreement that the provision of quality clinical services is essential if high rates of maternal death are to be reduced. However, despite efforts to improve access to these services, a high number of women in Tanzania do not access them. The aim of this study is to explore women's views about the maternal health services (pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period that they received at health facilities in order to identify gaps in service provision that may lead to low-quality maternal care and increased risks associated with maternal morbidity and mortality in rural Tanzania. Design: We gathered qualitative data from 15 focus group discussions with women attending a health facility after child birth and transcribed it verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis. Results: ‘Three categories emerged that reflected women's perceptions of maternal health care services: “mothers perceive that maternal health services are beneficial,” “barriers to accessing maternal health services” such as availability and use of traditional birth attendants (TBAs and the long distances between some villages, and “ambivalence regarding the quality of maternal health services” reflecting that women had both positive and negative perceptions in relation to quality of health care services offered’. Conclusions: Mothers perceived that maternal health care services are beneficial during pregnancy and delivery, but their awareness of postpartum complications and the role of medical services during that stage were poor. The study revealed an ambivalence regarding the perceived quality of health care services offered, partly due to shortages of material resources. Barriers to accessing maternal health care services, such as the cost of transport and the use of TBAs, were also shown. These findings call for improvement on the services

  9. A longitudinal study of the aftermath of rape among rural South African women.

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    Wyatt, Gail E; Davhana-Maselesele, Mashudu; Zhang, Muyu; Wong, Lauren H; Nicholson, Fiona; Sarkissian, Alissa Der; Makhado, Lufuno; Myers, Hector F

    2017-05-01

    Sexual assaults against women are a global health crisis, with alarmingly high rates in South Africa. However, we know very little about the circumstances and the aftermath of these experiences. Further, there is limited information about how factors specific to the rape (e.g., fighting back) versus those that are specific to the individual-and potentially modifiable-influence mental health outcomes. This study examined how situational characteristics of rape as well as individual and situational factors confer risk for symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dysfunctional sexual behavior at 12-month follow-up. Two hundred nine (N = 209) South African women were recruited from rural rape clinics in the Limpopo Province (LP) and North West Province (NWP) of South Africa. Interviews were conducted at baseline (within 6 months of the rape incident) and at 6 and 12 months by trained staff at the clinics in English or the women's native languages. Women were interviewed after services were provided in a private room. One hundred thirty-two (n = 132) women were lost to follow-up at 12 months, resulting in 77 women with interview data for all time points. Undermining by the survivor's social support system and an increased belief in myths about rape were associated with increased dysfunctional sexual practices and symptoms of depression. These findings demonstrate the need for interventions that address the most pervasive effects of rape over time. These behaviors can increase risks for revictimization and reduce psychological well-being in the aftermath of rape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Utility of microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural women of reproductive age group.

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    Masand, Deepa Lokwani; Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-03-01

    Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae.

  11. Social status of rural women in the focus of a developmental project

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    Stjepanović-Zaharijevski Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of the project called "The milky river", which deals with the integral development of the dairy production, is to initiate the development of the sustainable and profitable production of milk and dairy products through grouping producers and supporting their position in the society they live in. Women are more than men engaged in the dairy production chain and they have a direct view of the whole dairy production process. So it was necessary to adapt the grouping to their needs, as well as to make some practical mechanisms of their involvement in the project activities. In this way, the strategy of the project helped with offering equal chances to women and men, and by reducing the gender inequality, it also helped with making a chance for a new life perspective for women. Through interviews and by focus-grouping the data were collected which represented the first picture of the dairy production in the region of Niš, including its gender characteristics, among other things. Two years later, the qualitative analysis of the indicators of the rural women’s social status in this region in the context of the realization of the project activities, has shown that there has been an important movement forward towards the gender equality which can be attributed to the successful project implementation. Women, as an important factor in the dairy production chain, seem to be joined and encouraged. They seem to be empowered at the level of their knowledge decision making and autonomous activity taking through various forms of education, joint farmer group work, as well as through various forms of cooperation with supporting institutions and other partners within the project activity framework. The overwhelming impression seems to be that joint work and cooperation are necessary conditions for the development of any individual farmers’ production, as well as for the referent rural development which requires the support of all the

  12. Syphilis screening among 27,150 pregnant women in South Chinese rural areas using point-of-care tests.

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    Li-Gang Yang

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and correlates of syphilis among pregnant women in rural areas of South China.Point-of-care syphilis testing was provided at 71 health facilities in less developed, rural areas of Guangdong Province. Positive samples were confirmed at a local referral center by toluidine red unheated serum tests (TRUST and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA tests.Altogether 27,150 pregnant women in rural Guangdong were screened for syphilis. 106 (0.39% syphilis cases were diagnosed, of which 78 (73.6% received treatment for syphilis. Multivariate analysis revealed that older pregnant women (31-35 years old, aOR 2.7, 95% CI 0.99-7.32; older than 35 years old, aOR 5.9, 95% CI 2.13-16.34 and those with a history of adverse pregnant outcomes (aOR 3.64, 95% CI 2.30-5.76 were more likely to be infected with syphilis.A high prevalence of syphilis exists among pregnant women living in rural areas of South China. Enhanced integration of syphilis screening with other routine women's health services (OB GYN, family planning may be useful for controlling China's syphilis epidemic.

  13. Listening to the Patient: Women Veterans' Insights About Health Care Needs, Access, and Quality in Rural Areas.

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    Brooks, Elizabeth; Dailey, Nancy K; Bair, Byron D; Shore, Jay H

    2016-09-01

    Many work to ensure that women veterans receive appropriate and timely health care, yet the needs of those living in rural areas are often ignored. This is a critical oversight given the multitude of reports documenting rural access problems and health disparities. Lacking this, we are unable to plan for and evaluate appropriate care for this specific group. In this project, we spoke with rural women veterans to document service needs and quality of care from their perspective. Rural women veterans' views about health care access and quality were ascertained in a series of five, semistructured focus groups (n = 35) and completion of a demographic questionnaire. Content analysis documented focus-group themes. Participants said that local dental, mental health, and gender-specific care options were needed, as well as alternative healing options. Community-based support for women veterans and interaction with female peers were absent. Participants' support for telehealth was mixed, as were requests for gender-specific care. Personal experiences in the military impacted participants' current service utilization. Action by both Veterans Affairs and the local community is vital to improving the health of women veterans. Service planning should consider additional Veterans Affairs contracts, mobile health vans, peer support, and enhanced outreach. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Healthcare Seeking Behaviour for Symptoms of Reproductive Tract Infections among Rural Married Women in Tamil Nadu - A Community Based Study

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    Geetha Mani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reproductive tract infections including sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STIs are problems of public health priority compromising the reproductive health of women especially in developing countries. The problem is compounded by the poor health care seeking behaviour among women due to lack of awareness and sociocultural factors. Objectives: This study is an attempt to assess the health care seeking behaviour of women reporting RTI symptoms in a rural area of Tamil Nadu state of India and to examine the association of background sociodemographic characteristics with Health care seeking behaviour. Methodology: This was a cross sectional, descriptive study conducted between March to November 2011, among married women aged 18-45 years in a rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu in India. The required sample size was chosen by simple random sampling. The participants were administered a standardized, semi-structured schedule. Results: 520 women participated in the study. 173 women (33.3% of women reported experiencing symptoms of RTI/STI in the past 12 months. Only 51.45% of those who had RTI/STI symptoms sought health care. Private health care facility was preferred by nearly two-thirds. The health care seeking behaviour showed significant association with age group of women, religion, occupational status, type of family and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: There is a need for increasing awareness among women regarding RTI/STIs and their sequelae. Targeted health education programmes should be necessary to improve health care seeking among women.

  15. Association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A; Onsomu, Elijah O; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the association between education and domestic violence with further analysis stratified by urban and rural residence. The main outcome of interest was a three-factor (physical, sexual, and emotional) measure for violence with the main predictor being education. Nearly half of all domestic violence, physical (46%), sexual (45%), and emotional (45%) occurred among women aged 15 to 29. After adjusting for confounding variables, women who resided in urban areas and had a postprimary/vocational/secondary and college/university education were 26% (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: [0.64, 0.86]), p education respectively. This was 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: [0.73, 0.94]), p women who resided in rural areas. A surprising finding was that women residing in rural areas with less than a primary education were 35% less likely to have experienced sexual violence (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: [0.43, 0.99]), p education. These findings suggest that physical, sexual, and emotional violence were prevalent in Kenya among married and formerly married women. This study indicates that more research is needed to understand factors for HIV/AIDS among Kenyan women who have specifically tested positive for HIV or identified as AIDS-positive and the implications for women's health.

  16. [Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argote-Espinosa, R M; Flores-Huerta, S; Hernández-Montes, H; Villalpando-Hernández, S

    1992-01-01

    Women from rural areas of the central plateau of Mexico drink during pregnancy and lactation a mild alcoholic beverage called pulque as a galactogogue. Ethanol present in milk could have a harmful effect on growth and development of breast-fed children. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ethanol consumed as pulque by eleven lactating rural women as well as its clearance rate in blood and milk. Mothers were separated in two groups depending upon the ethanol ingested in a single dose of pulque 0.21 +/- 0.08 g/kg of body weight (group A) and 0.44 +/- 0.11 g/kg (group B). Maximal concentration of ethanol was reached in milk at 60 minutes and almost equaled that in plasma. Both groups showed a similar clearance pattern regardless of the volume of pulque ingested. Clearance rates between groups were different: ethanol concentration in milk at 60 min were 8.4 +/- 3.0 mg/dL for group A and 26.2 +/- 7.0 mg/dL for group B. Two hours later ethanol levels were 3.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL and 23.3 +/- 9.4 mg/dL respectively. Clearance rates were slower in mothers showing the highest concentration of ethanol in milk. The present data demonstrate that there is no differential elimination of ethanol in maternal blood and milk following ingestion of a moderate amount of pulque during lactation. The amount of ethanol received by infants through milk is relatively low and therefore it is unlikely to have harmful effects on them. Pulque consumption adds about 350 kcal/day to the customary dietary intake of these lactating women.

  17. Religious, Cultural, and Social Beliefs of Iranian Rural Women about Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study

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    Iman Ghaderi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to examine religious, cultural, and social beliefs of healthy women about breast cancer in rural settings in Iran.Methods: In the present study, 16 in-depth interviews with health care leaders, social and religious experts and 11 focus group discussions were conducted with 79 women in the rural areas near the capital city of Tehran, Iran. Grounded theory model was used to analyze the data.Results: Some women believed that religious customs and rituals, such as praying, taking a vow, or going on a pilgrimage to a holy place, might have healing effects if performed in addition to seeking medical care medical care. Many believed that God intervenes in the entire course of any illness, from occurrence to cure. Although few had fatalistic views toward cancer, the majority believed that patients could try to change their destiny. With respect to the relationship between moral behavior and disease,  4  types  of  opinions  were  identified; good  people  suffer,  evil  people  get punished,  evil  people  do  not  suffer,  and  everything has  a  scientific  explanation. Participants believed that self-perception, their husbands, deficiencies in the health care system, and financial concerns influence breast cancer outcome.Conclusions: Our study showed that many participants were not aware of any available support in the healthcare system. They generally believed in the healing effect of prayers, only when it is sought in parallel with medical care.

  18. Common mental disorders and associated factors: a study of women from a rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Bibiane Dias Miranda; Goulart, Bethania Ferreira; Haas, Vanderlei José; Silva, Sueli Riul da; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina Dos Santos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia Azevedo; Parreira, Bibiane Dias Miranda; Goulart, Bethania Ferreira; Haas, Vanderlei José; Silva, Sueli Riul da; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina Dos Santos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia Azevedo

    2017-05-25

    Identifying the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders and analyzing the influence of sociodemographic, economic, behavioral and reproductive health variables on Common Mental Disorders in women of childbearing age living in the rural area of Uberaba-MG, Brazil. An observational and cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, economic, behavioral and reproductive health instruments were used, along with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) to identify common mental disorders. Multiple logistic regression was used for multivariate data analysis. 280 women participated in the study. The prevalence of Common Mental Disorders was 35.7%. In the logistic regression analysis, the variables of living with a partner and education level were associated with Common Mental Disorders, even after adjusting for the other variables. Our findings evidenced an association of social and behavioral factors with Common Mental Disorders among rural women. Identification and individualized care in primary health care are essential for the quality of life of these women. Identificar a prevalência do transtorno mental comum e analisar a influência de variáveis sociodemográficas, econômicas, comportamentais e de saúde reprodutiva sobre o transtorno mental comum em mulheres em idade fértil, residentes na zona rural do município de Uberaba-MG, Brasil. Estudo observacional e transversal. Foram utilizados instrumentos de caracterização sociodemográfica, econômica, comportamental e de saúde reprodutiva, e o Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) para identificar os transtornos mentais comuns. Na análise multivariada dos dados, foi utilizada a regressão logística múltipla. Participaram do estudo 280 mulheres. A prevalência do transtorno mental comum foi de 35,7%. Na análise de regressão logística, as variáveis convivência com o companheiro e escolaridade, associaram-se ao transtorno mental comum, mesmo após o ajuste para as demais variáveis. Os achados evidenciaram a

  19. Depression among women in rural Ethiopia as related to socioeconomic factors: a community-based study on women in reproductive age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyessa, N; Berhane, Y; Alem, A; Hogberg, U; Kullgren, G

    2008-08-01

    Several previous studies have reported on socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors associated with depression among women, but knowledge in this area remains scarce regarding women living in extreme poverty in developing countries. The study was aimed at examining the 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes as related to socioeconomic and sociocultural conditions of women in the reproductive age group in rural Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 3016 randomly selected women in the age group 15-49 years. Cases of depression were identified using the Amharic version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A standardized World Health Organization questionnaire was used to measure the socioeconomic status of the women and their spouses. Data were analysed among all women and then separately among currently married women. The 12-month prevalence of depression among all women was 4.4%. After adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, only marital status showed a significant association with depressive episode in terms of higher odds ratios (ORs) for divorced/separated women and widowed women than for not-married women (4.05 and 4.24, respectively). Among currently married women, after adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, living in rural villages (OR=3.78), a frequent khat-chewing habit (OR=1.61), having a seasonal job (OR=2.94) and being relatively better off in terms of poverty (OR=0.48) were independently associated with depression. The prevalence of depression among women was in the lower range as compared to studies from high-income countries, but very poor economic conditions were associated with a higher prevalence of depression in this overall very poor setting. This further supports the notion that the relative level of poverty rather than the absolute level of poverty contributes to depression among women. Whether the association with khat chewing and depression is a causative

  20. Reproductive Health of Women in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan – Iran, before and after Implementation of rural Family Physician Program: an Ecologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mahasti; Jabbari Birami, Hossein; Moradi, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of rural family physician program in Iran in 2005 has been evaluated and shown that this program has been led to some improvements in health indicators. In this study, some reproductive health (RH) indicators were compared before and after implementation of this program in rural areas of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: In this ecologic- time trend study, the data of 191075 births of rural women of East Azerbaijan from 2001 to 2010 was extracted from vital horoscope (ZIJ) and used for calculation of 20 important RH indicators. The paired t-test and correlation analysis wear used for data analysis. Results: Some indicators such as adolescent marriage rate, adolescent birth and over 35 year olds birth rate were increased after rural family physician program implementation in 2005. Also stillbirth rate and unsafe delivery were decreased during this period. There was a significant correlation between increasing adolescent birth rate and increasing low birth weight deliveries (r= 0.911, P= 0.031) and also between increasing over 35 year olds birth rate and increasing neonatal mortality rate in term of prematurity and congenital malformations (r= 0.912, P= 0.031) after program implementation. Conclusion: Perinatal care and safe delivery even for pregnancies outside the typical child-bearing ages are promoting after implementation of rural family physician program in East Azerbaijan. Also decreasing unsafe delivery and stillbirth rate can be considered as achievements of running this program in this province. PMID:26744731

  1. Reproductive Health of Women in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan – Iran, before and after Implementation of rural Family Physician Program: an Ecologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasti Alizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implementation of rural family physician program in Iran in 2005 has been evaluated and shown that this program has been led to some improvements in health indicators. In this study, some reproductive health (RH indicators were compared before and after implementation of this program in rural areas of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: In this ecologic- time trend study, the data of 191075 births of rural women of East Azerbaijan from 2001 to 2010 was extracted from vital horoscope (ZIJ and used for calculation of 20 important RH indicators. The paired t-test and correlation analysis wear used for data analysis. Results: Some indicators such as adolescent marriage rate, adolescent birth and over 35 year olds birth rate were increased after rural family physician program implementation in 2005. Also stillbirth rate and unsafe delivery were decreased during this period. There was a significant correlation between increasing adolescent birth rate and increasing low birth weight deliveries (r= 0.911, P= 0.031 and also between increasing over 35 year olds birth rate and increasing neonatal mortality rate in term of prematurity and congenital malformations (r= 0.912, P= 0.031 after program implementation. Conclusion: Perinatal care and safe delivery even for pregnancies outside the typical child-bearing ages are promoting after implementation of rural family physician program in East Azerbaijan. Also decreasing unsafe delivery and stillbirth rate can be considered as achievements of running this program in this province.

  2. Contraceptive use by the rural women of Uttar Pradesh - A socio-demographic study

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    Ambesh Chandra Rajpurohit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The single most important problem that developing countries like India are facing today is uncontrolled growth of population. It is important to study the dynamics of contraceptive use, to understand current contraceptive use, preference and problems of different methods as well as their intention to use contraceptive methods in the future. Objective: To assess the knowledge and perception about contraceptive methods as well as use of the different methods among ever married women in the rural area of north India. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The married women residing for at least six months in the area was considered as a resident and included in the study.  The data was collected by using structured questionnaire. A total of 520 ever married women were included in this study. The chi-square and logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis of the data. Results: All the women were aware at least one of the method of contraceptives.  The contraceptive use was observed to be 26.2%. The contraceptive use was higher among the women of age 41-50 years (34.4% (p=0.0001.  The percentage of contraceptive use was higher among literate women than illiterates. There was significant (p<0.05 association between education of women and husband with use of contraceptive methods. The contraceptive use was higher among OBC (33.5% compared with upper class (28.7% and SC (16.3% and this was statistically significant (p=0.01.  A significant (p<0.01 association was observed between contraceptive use with living number of children. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age of women, education of women & husband and number of living children were found to be significant factors associated with the use of contraceptive use. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that although the knowledge about contraceptive methods was universal, however its use over the years has not increased much.

  3. Prácticas alimentarias de mujeres rurales: ¿una nueva percepción del cuerpo? Alimentary practices of rural women: a new body perception?

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    Sara Elena Pérez Gil-Romo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar cómo perciben su cuerpo las mujeres de una zona rural, a partir de los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario (sobrepeso, obesidad y "delgadez" y modifican sus prácticas. MATERIAL Y M[ÉTODOS: El estudio fue de tipo cualitativo. Se entrevistaron 37 mujeres, de las cuales se seleccionaron seis madres para ser entrevistadas a profundidad, en Huatecalco, Morelos, México. RESULTADOS: Se detectó una preocupación en algunas mujeres sobre el cuerpo: la obesidad es rechazada; ser delgada es sinónimo de "belleza" y la publicidad del "adelgazamiento" (vgr. dietas, alimentos y bebidas light y ejercicio, está modificando algunas prácticas alimentarias entre las mujeres. CONCLUSIONES: Se plantea la necesidad de investigar a mayor profundidad el origen de este fenómeno que puede convertirse en un problema de salud pública en las zonas rurales del país.OBJECTIVE: To determine how women in a rural area perceive their bodies and modify their practices, considering alimentary behavior disorders (overweight, obesity, and thinness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The approach was qualitative. An initial survey of 37 women in Huatecalco, Morelos, Mexico was conducted, from which six mothers were selected for extensive interviews. RESULTS: Concern about their bodies was detected in some of these women. Obesity is rejected and thinness is equated with "beauty", and the publicity around losing weight (diets, "light" foods and drinks, exercise, etc. is modifying some of the alimentary practices among the women. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that the cause of this phenomenon needs to be more extensively investigated, since it could become a public health problem in rural areas of the country.

  4. An approach to the socio-labour situation of disabled women in rural communities in a Spanish region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondéjar-Jiménez, José; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Mondéjar-Jiménez, Juan-Antonio; Bayot-Mestre, Agustín

    2009-01-01

    Disabled women suffer socio-labour discrimination because of both their gender and their disability. The situation is gradually improving, thanks to the national and supranational organisations, which in the past few decades have made considerable progress in improving the legislation, providing financial resources and encouraging social awareness. Despite this, few studies quantify this double discrimination in order to permit the evaluation of the socio-labour situation of this group of people. This scarcity is even more pronounced for rural areas, where many other factors hinder the integration of disabled women into the labour market and generate some specific problems that the specialist literature seldom addresses. The current work presents the results of a survey on the socio-economic situation of disabled women in a strongly rural area: the Spanish region of Castilla-La Mancha. It stresses the fundamental difficulties of these women in integrating into the labour market and the most urgent political measures needed to help this group.

  5. Ethnic differences in breast cancer prevention information-seeking among rural women: will provider mobile messages work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Although growing research supports cancer survivor information-seeking, little is known about breast cancer prevention information-seeking among women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in breast cancer risk factor knowledge, information sources, and desired mobile messages among Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural women. Women were recruited to complete a survey at an imaging center during a mammography screening visit. A total of 156 women (mean age = 61, SD = 12.07) completed the survey. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge was significantly higher for non-Hispanic women compared to Hispanic women (p = .035). Television, magazines, and Internet were the most frequent information sources. Providers were the most frequent interpersonal information source. Nearly 87 % used cell phones and 47 % used texting. Hispanic women were more likely to desire breast cancer prevention cell voice messages (p breast cancer prevention education, and best practices to manage screening appointments.

  6. THE LEVEL OF BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCER AWARENESS AMONG WOMEN IN A RURAL AREA OF SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, O; Shemesh, N

    2017-06-01

    In South Africa breast and cervical cancer are the most predominant cancers amongst women, with mortality rates reaching surprising proportions. As a result of the continued rise of these conditions it is vital to determine these women's awareness of both, so as to determine the exact factors contributing to this rise. Whilst both urban and rural areas are afflicted, this study focused primarily on women in a rural area. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in a shopping mall located in the rural area of Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga, South Africa. A total of 300 women of reproductive age were randomly identified and requested to fill out a study questionnaire assessing their level of breast and cervical cancer awareness. A total of 300 women participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 35.66 with a range of 13.53. Overall levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer in rural Bushbuckridge were found to be reduced with 66.89% and 74.49% of women who rated themselves with a poor understanding of breast and cervical cancer knowledge respectively. Among the participating women, those over the age of 40, with higher level of education were found to be more cognizant in terms of breast and cervical cancer awareness with a 30% (p = 0.0923) and 52% (p < 0.001) respectively. Their younger and less educated counterparts had a 21% (p = 0.078) and 32% (p = 0.034) awareness of breast and cervical cancer, respectively. The leading source of information for both breast and cervical cancer was healthcare facilities with a 67.11% and 63.5% respectively. This study highlights the lack of awareness and knowledge of breast and cervical cancer in women living in the rural area of Bushbuckridge, South Africa. There is also evidence showing that the older and more educated women have better knowledge than their younger and less educated counterparts, therefore there is a need for increased breast and cervical cancer education and awareness campaigns

  7. No gynecologist in town: the gynecological care of women in rural Taiwan

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    Lai LJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Li-Jung Lai,1 Chia-Lin Chou,2 H Irene Su,3 Tzeng-Ji Chen,1,4 Li-Fang Chou,5 Yueh-Ching Chou,2,6,7 Shinn-Jang Hwang,1,8 Hann-Chin Yu9,10 1Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Institute of Hospital and Health Care Administration, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 5Department of Public Finance, National Chengchi University, 6Department and Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, 7College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, 8Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 9Taipei Veterans General Hospital Hsinchu Branch, Hsinchu County, Taiwan; 10Department of Healthcare Management, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Background: A shortage of gynecologists exists in many countries. Even within an affluent country, gynecological clinics might not be evenly distributed. The purpose of the study was to investigate the disparity in gynecological care between adult women living in towns with and without gynecologists in Taiwan.Methods: Data sources were the cohort datasets of the National Health Insurance Research Database, with claims data of 1 million beneficiaries in 2010. A woman’s residency was operationally inferred from the locations where she had most frequently visited physicians’ clinics or local community hospitals within the year.Results: In Taiwan, 145 (39.4% of 368 towns had no practicing gynecologist. Of 382,167 women with health care use in the datasets, 21,794 (5.7% lived in towns without a gynecologist. The overwhelming majority of these towns lay in sparsely populated, rural areas. During the year, 132,702 women (34.7% had sought medical help for gynecological diseases and 113,698 (29.8% had visited gynecologists for gynecological diseases. Women in towns without a gynecologist were less

  8. Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Bangladeshi Immigrants in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Mihir; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2014-01-01

    The US has increasingly growing Bangladeshi population, a South Asian sub-ethnic group with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We conducted a qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews to explore attitudes towards and difficulties with modifying CVD related behaviors among a Bangladeshi cohort. We interviewed 55 patients before reaching data saturation. Bangladeshis discussed the meaning of health and heart disease in the context of how disease can potentially impa...

  9. Nutritional status, hypertension, proteinuria and glycosuria amongst the women of rural Bangladesh

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    Shaila Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods and materials – A rural community was purposively selected in Sreepur thana of which four villages were selected randomly. The total population of all age groups was 14,165 and the eligible reproductive aged females were 3,820 based on age between 15 and 45 years. Sample size was estimated at 573 (15% of the eligible participants depending on the availability of time and logistic support. The study design was to use a questionnaire related to age, education, family income, housing and sanitation. Height (ht, weight (wt and blood pressure (BP were measured. Urine protein was estimated. Clinical examinations noted the presence of anemia, jaundice, edema, ring-worm, scabies, goiter, xerophthalmia and gum bleeding. Body mass index (BMI was calculated to determine their obesity or wasting. Results – Overall, 501 volunteered and the response rate was 87.4%. Of these participants, 30.3% were illiterate. Almost all of them had supply of tube-well water and 68% had sanitary latrines. Their mean (±SD age was 30.2 (±2.9y, wt was 46 (±8.5kg, ht was 149 (±5cm and BMI was 20.5 (±3.5. The poor women had significantly lower BMI than the rich [20.0 (2.93 vs. 21.2 (4.1, (p<0.05]. Their mean (±SD systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 116 (±17 and 73 (±12 mmHg, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, proteinuria and glycosuria were 16.6, 10.4 and 2.6%, respectively. The frequencies of proteinuria and ring-worm were significantly higher among the poor than among the rich social class (both cases p<0.05. Regarding nutritional deficiency, about half of the rural women (52% had some form of signs relating to Vit-A deficiency and 65% had signs of Vit-B complex deficiency either in the form of glossitis or of angular stomatitis or both. Conclusions – Despite time and logistic constraint, the study revealed that most of the rural women had a poor nutritional status (80% had BMI<23.0. The prevalence of hypertension and glycosuria were also

  10. Reproductive decision-making among postpartum HIV-infected women in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Babayigit, Suat; Chahine, Antonio; Weiss, Stephen M; Peltzer, Karl

    2018-01-01

    Despite pregnancy spacing recommendations to optimize health outcomes among mothers and neonates, unplanned pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is common among women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WLHIV). This study examined factors associated with reproductive decision-making among WLHIV to inform pregnancy-planning interventions. WLHIV in rural South Africa (n = 165) were assessed at 12 months postpartum. The relative importance of factors associated with reproductive decision-making was estimated. Women were a mean of 28 years old (SD = 5.71). Risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV (Mean = 0.43; SD = 0.33) had the greatest impact on decision-making, followed by partners' desires (M = 0.22; SD = 0.18), family preferences (M = 0.18; SD = 0.13), and community opinion (M = 0.17; SD = 0.13). MTCT was most important to women with greater HIV knowledge. However, WLHIV who had been diagnosed with HIV for a longer time placed more emphasis on partner preference and community opinion, and less importance on MTCT risk. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) was less important to women experiencing intimate partner violence and those with depression. Findings highlight the need for tailored, focused interventions to support the unique circumstances of WLHIV and support the inclusion of families and/or partners in the counseling process. Results underscore the need for perinatal preconception counseling for women during routine HIV care.

  11. Diet intake trends among pregnant women in rural area of rawalpindi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quresshi, Z; Khan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Adequate and healthy diet during pregnancy is essential for the health of both mother and new-born. This study was designed to know the health status of pregnant women and new-born by determining food taking habits of pregnant women. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on pregnant women of 2nd and 3rd trimester in a rural area of district Rawalpindi. Food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary recall methods were used to identify their food consumption practices. Analysis was done by SPSS, while Nutrisurvey software was used to check the presence of Vitamin A, C, and Iron in specific fruits or vegetables. Results: A total of 110 pregnant women participated in the study. Most of them were illiterate, had low household income, and unemployed. Intake of meal frequency was according to the standards of Institute of Medicine (IOM), but food group consumption was not according to the recommendations of the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA). Most participants 102 (93.2%) knew that food is important during pregnancy. However a increase in frequency intake was observed in 63 (57.3%); while, 19 (17.3%) reported no change in food intake practices. About 67 (61%) were taking some sort of dietary supplements. Avoidance of any food 24 (22%), intake of additional food 51 (46%), craving 86 (78%), and aversion to any sort of food 42 (38%) was also identified in the study sample. No significant association was found between food group consumption, food availability and accessibility. Dietary diversity score, calculated according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) guidelines, indicated that about half study participants were not consuming adequate food. Conclusion: Study results show that food intake practices of pregnant women in the study area were not satisfactory. (author)

  12. Childhood vaccination in rural southwestern Ethiopia: the nexus with demographic factors and women's autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wado, Yohannes Dibaba; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Hindin, Michelle J

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination can reduce child mortality significantly and is a cost effective way to improve child health.Worldwide, more than 22 million children do not receive the basic recommended vaccinations.Vaccination coverage in Ethiopia remains low. Research on child health has focused on socio-economic factors such as maternal education and access to health care, but little attention has been given to demographic factors and women's autonomy within the household. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of demographic factors and women's autonomy on the completion of childhood vaccination in rural Ethiopia. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a Health and Demographic Survelliance System (HDSS) in southwestern Ethiopia. Data were drawn from a random sample of women with children aged 12-24 months (n = 889). Information on maternal socio-demographic characteristics and household variables were collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards or mother's recall. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of independent variables with completion of childhood vaccination. Of 889 children aged 12-24 months, 690 (78%) had received at least one vaccination. Only 37% (95% CI, 33.5-39.9) were fully vaccinated. Women's decision making autonomy, number of under-five children in the household, mother's education, use of antenatal care services and proximity to health facility were the main factors associated with full vaccination status. Completion of basic vaccination series is very low in the study area. Initiatives that enhance women's autonomy within the household and that promote healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies may help in improving child health through vaccination.

  13. "Yes" to abortion but "no" to sexual rights: the paradoxical reality of married women in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, T K Sundari; Balasubramanian, P

    2004-05-01

    This study in rural Tamil Nadu, India, explored the reasons why many married women in India undergo induced abortions rather than use reversible contraception to space or limit births in terms of women's sexual and reproductive rights within marriage, and in the context of gender relations between couples more generally. It is based on in-depth interviews with two generations of ever-married women, some of whom had had abortions and others who had not, from 98 rural hamlets. The respondents were 66 women and 44 of their husbands. Non-consensual sex, sexual violence and women's inability to refuse their husband's sexual demands appeared to underlie the need for abortion in both younger and older women. Many men seemed to believe that sex within marriage was their right, and that women had no say in the matter. The findings raise questions about the presumed association between legal abortion and the enjoyment of reproductive and sexual rights. A large number of women who had abortions in this study were denied their sexual rights but were permitted, even forced, to terminate their pregnancies for reasons unrelated to their right to choose abortion. The study brings home the need for activism to promote women's sexual rights and a campaign against sexual violence in marriage.

  14. AGE AT MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY PATTERN OF ADOLESCENT MARRIED WOMEN IN RURAL BANGLADESH

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    Shaila Ahmed

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in two purposively selected rural areas of Faridpur district - Alfadanga and Boalmari. The objectives were to find out the age at marriage and fertility pattern amongst the adolescent married women residing in the study areas. A total of 426 women were selected purposively and interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Most (97.2% were in the age group of 15-19 years, being married by 15.5 ± 1.5 years. Although 57.5% had a secondary level education, almost all (97% were found to be housewives. Monthly income was between Taka 2001-4000 in 41.3% of the households. Regarding fertility pattern, 19% of the adolescent women were found to be pregnant at the time of survey. The total fertility rate (TFR among this age group was estimated to be 2.6 per woman. To help improve the situation, awareness on the negative consequences of early marriage and consequent childbearing needs to be created not only among the young adolescent girls but should be targeted towards their parents too. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2007; 1(2: 9-12

  15. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women from Rural Area of Latur District of Maharashtra, India

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    Jyoti Jojan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteriuria is a significant cause of morbidity in pregnant women affecting both mother and fetus. Institution of rational antibiotic treatment on the basis of screening helps to reduce further morbidity. Aim and Objectives: To find out the prevalence of urinary tract infections in asymptomatic pregnant women and to study the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolated bacteria to guide the treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 mid-stream urine samples from Asymptomatic Antenatal Care (ANC cases were screened for significant bacteriuria by using standard procedures. The bacterial isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility studies. Results: Significant bacteriuria was found positive in 23% cases. It was more common in the age group 18 to 25 years (91.30%, and during 2nd trimester (47.82%. S. aureus (82.60% was found to be themost common uropathogen. Imipenem and meropenem (82.60% each were found to be most effective antimicrobial agents. Conclusion: The results indicate that there is a notable increase in the prevalence of uropathogens resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents in rural areas also. The results also emphasize the importance of screening for significant bacteriuria in asymptomatic pregnant women.

  16. Desire for female sterilization among women wishing to limit births in rural Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutalo, Tom; Gray, Ron; Mathur, Sanyukta; Wawer, Maria; Guwatudde, David; Santelli, John; Nalugoda, Fred; Makumbi, Fredrick

    2015-11-01

    Uganda has an unmet need for family planning of 34% and a total fertility rate of 6.2. We assessed the desire for female sterilization among sexually active women who wanted to stop childbearing in rural Rakai district, Uganda. 7192 sexually active women enrolled in a community cohort between 2002 and 2008 were asked about fertility intentions. Those stating that they did not want another child (limiters) were asked whether they would be willing to accept female sterilization, if available. Trends in desire for sterilization were determined by chi-square test for trend, and Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the associations between desire for sterilization and socio-demographic characteristics and HIV status. From 2002 to 2008, the proportion of limiters dropped (from 47.2% to 43.7%; psterilization significantly increased from 54.2% to 63.1% (psterilization included higher number of living children (>=3), being HIV-infected and having received HIV counseling and testing. There is latent and growing desire for sterilization in this population. Our findings suggest a need to increase permanent contraception services for women who want to limit childbearing in this setting. A large unmet need for permanent female contraception services exists in Uganda. Efforts to increase the method mix by increasing permanent contraception services could reduce fertility rates and undesired births. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors influencing the intention of women in rural Ghana to adopt postpartum family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Sebastian; Baiden, Frank; Quansah-Asare, Gloria; Graham-Hayfron, Yvonne; Bonsu, Derek; Phillips, James; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi

    2013-07-22

    Uptake of postpartum family planning (PPFP) remains low in sub-Saharan Africa and very little is known about how pregnant women arrive at their decisions to adopt PPFP. This information is needed to guide the development of interventions to promote PPFP. We conducted a survey among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural district in Ghana. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore how knowledge of various family planning (FP) methods, past experience with their use and the acceptability of PPFP to male partners and close relations influenced the intention of pregnant women to adopt PPFP. We interviewed 1914 pregnant women in four health facilities. About 84% considered PPFP acceptable, and 70% intended to adopt a method. The most preferred methods were injectables (31.5%), exclusive breastfeeding (16.7%), and oral contraceptive pills (14.8%). Women whose first choice of PPFP method were injectables were more likely to be women who had had past experience with its use (O.R = 2.07, 95% C.I. 1.50-2.87). Acceptability of PPFP by the pregnant woman (O.R. = 3.21, 1.64-6.26), perception of partner acceptability (O.R. = 3.20, 1.94-5.48), having had prior experience with the use of injectables (O.R. = 3.72, 2.61-5.30) were the strongest predictors of the intention to adopt PPFP. Conversely women who knew about the diaphragm (O.R. = 0.59, 0.38-0.93) and those who had past experience with IUD use (O.R. = 0.13, 0.05-0.38) were less likely to want to adopt PPFP. Acceptability of PPFP to the pregnant woman, male partner approval, and past experience with the use of injectables are important factors in the PPFP decisions of women in this population. Antenatal and early postnatal care need to be adapted to take these factors into consideration.

  18. Factors contributing to the use of complementary and alternative medicine in rural older women with chronic pain in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Saunjoo L; Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) use for managing pain and to investigate the factors predictive of current CAM use among rural older women in South Korea. Access to medical care among older adults in rural areas is poorer than in urban areas. A cross-sectional descriptive study with a stratified sample of 139 women aged over 65 with chronic pain residing in rural areas of Jeju Island, South Korea. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data. Most subjects reported using at least one type of CAM for relieving pain within the past 12 months. Almost half of them reported currently using CAM. Herbs were the most commonly used CAM. Only 'severity of pain' was presently associated with an increased use of CAM. It is imperative to take socio-geographic-cultural factors into consideration when planning health promotion programs and caring for clients. © 2013.

  19. Knowledge of obstetric fistula prevention amongst young women in urban and rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study.

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    Aduragbemi O Banke-Thomas

    Full Text Available Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000 and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006. The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%. Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16-0.79]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18-0.93] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09-0.79]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%. Most rural young women became 'aware' through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%. All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine

  20. Effect of married women's beliefs about gender equity on their use of prenatal and delivery care in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Zhang, Qiaoli; Yang, Li; Ye, Jianli; Lv, Mentao

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of married women's beliefs regarding gender equity on their use of prenatal and delivery care in China's rural Xinjiang and Anhui provinces. In this survey, 1029 women aged from 15 to 69 years, living in rural Xinjiang and Anhui provinces, and married, answered a questionnaire designed to collect information on their demographic characteristics, reproductive history (number of pregnancies, level of prenatal care, and mode and place of delivery), and beliefs regarding gender equity. We quantified "belief in gender equity" based on responses to 7 specific statements and graded the responses according to a system scoring the strength of the overall belief (a total score ≥19, strong; 15-18, moderate; and ≤14, weak). Only 34.3% of the women demonstrated strong convictions about gender equity. Even after adjusting for education and ethnicity, the percentage of women who received consistent prenatal care and were delivered at a maternity facility was highest among those scoring 19 or higher, and the reverse was true for women scoring 14 or less. Overall, women in China's rural Xinjiang and Anhui provinces do not hold strong convictions about gender equity. There was a positive correlation between belief in gender equity and use of prenatal and delivery care. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The harmony of family and the silence of women: sexual attitudes and practices among rural married women in northern Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vu Song

    2008-06-01

    Women in Viet Nam have long had to face various sexual and reproductive health problems, ranging from abortion to reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and sexual coercion. These issues have increasingly been addressed by scholars in the fields of public health and social sciences through sexual and reproductive health research and in other ways. Despite this, there remains a lack of in-depth information on attitudes and practices regarding sex and sexuality of Vietnamese women today. This paper in part responds to the knowledge gap by reporting on findings from qualitative research on sexual attitudes and practices among rural married women in a Northern rural community, measured against the broader social and cultural context. Twenty-five women in total were interviewed; and two focus group discussions were conducted. The findings show that women generally believe that men are (or should be) the initiators in sexual relations. Many women feel reluctant to refuse sex to their husbands or communicate openly about sex and sexuality. However, this paper also demonstrates that women are not totally passive in sexual relations. Women in this study used a range of strategies to negotiate their sexual life, and sometimes 'silence' is used as a form of agency in order to maintain harmony and happiness within the family.

  2. Health impact on women using solid cooking fuels in rural area of Cuttack district, Odisha

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    Ipsa Mohapatra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Around 3 billion people use solid fuels (biomass and coal for cooking and heating, and this number is expected to grow until at least 2030. Around 73.7% of households in rural Odisha use wood for cooking. This current study is an attempt to evaluate the impact of solid cooking fuels on health of rural women in age group of 20–40 years and to study the relationship between the duration of exposure to cooking fuels and various health problems. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a village which is under the field practice area of the rural health and training centre, under Department of Community Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences. Universal sampling technique was adopted for sample selection. Chi-square test was used to find the association between cooking fuel usage and self-reported symptoms. Results: Dry cough was the most common presenting symptom (15.03%, followed by eye and nose irritation present in nearly 12% each among the study participants. Headache, dry cough, and hypertension (HT was found to associated with number of cooking years and was also found to be statistically significant (P = 0.03, 0.02 and 0.0065, respectively. Discussion: Our study clearly indicated that the exposure to biomass fuel smoke is significantly associated with the prevalence of symptoms of headache, dry cough, and HT. Further research is required for improving information on dose-response relationships between indoor air pollution and various health effects. Conclusion: The morbidities were increased with increase in duration of cooking . Knowledge related to health effects of cooking fuels seems to be poor among the participants.

  3. Focus groups as a tool to collect data in a community informatics project involving elderly rural women

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the extended project is to identify and investigate the aspects that will encourage elderly women in rural areas to use the ICT platform, and to determine what the physical design, content and applications should look like...

  4. Calming the Spirit and Ensuring Super-Vivencia: Rural Mexican Women-Centred Teaching and Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Ruth Trinidad

    2010-01-01

    The changing social, cultural and economic conditions of transmigrant communities in rural Mexico require that women who stay behind, while their loved ones travel back and forth to the USA, create social relations that ensure their survival. From over five years of ethnographic research, this article explores the healing potential of…

  5. Identify the Role of Rural Women in Agriculture with Emphasis on Passive Defense Environment of Bavi Township

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    Zeynab Mohmedi Karbalaii

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving agriculture, the environment and other sectors in need of passive defense that can effectively help to complete the chain of defense is in the improvement of the agricultural sector. This study is applied for the purpose of gathering data descriptive population study of rural women in two villages in the central city of Bavi Khuzestan Tlbovmeh Salieh and the sample size of 736 persons was estimated by using Morgan 250. The data in this study was obtained using a questionnaire designed for the faculty members of the University of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Ramin Khuzestan and the quotas were distributed randomly. Data were analyzed using the software described. Descriptive statistics and coefficient of variation in the average rate in the inferential statistical correlation test, Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the average F. The results of descriptive statistics showed that more rural women with primary education and familiar with the environment are very young and have a lot of faith, but their participation in solving environmental problems is very low. Based on the results of the correlation, age and education level of rural women in their understanding of the importance of agricultural activities passive defense is effective. The results of the test showed that in the comparison between age and level of education, rural women who are young and highly educated with a broad vision have a variety of agricultural activities in the context of agriculture that are passive

  6. Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…

  7. Care-seeking patterns for fatal non-communicable diseases among women of reproductive age in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shegufta S; Labrique, Alain B; Ullah, Barkat; Mehra, Sucheta; Rashid, Mahbubur; Ali, Hasmot; Jahan, Nusrat; Shamim, Abu A; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2012-08-15

    Though non-communicable diseases contribute to an increasing share of the disease burden in South Asia, health systems in most rural communities are ill-equipped to deal with chronic illness. This analysis seeks to describe care-seeking behavior among women of reproductive age who died from fatal non-communicable diseases as recorded in northwest rural Bangladesh between 2001 and 2007. This analysis utilized data from a large population-based cohort trial in northwest rural Bangladesh. To conduct verbal autopsies of women who died while under study surveillance, physicians interviewed family members to elicit the biomedical symptoms that the women experienced as well as a narrative of the events leading to deaths. We performed qualitative textual analysis of verbal autopsy narratives for 250 women of reproductive age who died from non-communicable diseases between 2001 and 2007. The majority of women (94%) sought at least one provider for their illnesses. Approximately 71% of women first visited non-certified providers such as village doctors and traditional healers, while 23% first sought care from medically certified providers. After the first point of care, women appeared to switch to medically certified practitioners when treatment from non-certified providers failed to resolve their illness. This study suggests that treatment seeking patterns for non-communicable diseases are affected by many of the sociocultural factors that influence care seeking for pregnancy-related illnesses. Families in northwest rural Bangladesh typically delayed seeking treatment from medically certified providers for NCDs due to the cost of services, distance to facilities, established relationships with non-certified providers, and lack of recognition of the severity of illnesses. Most women did not realize initially that they were suffering from a chronic illness. Since women typically reached medically certified providers in advanced stages of disease, they were usually told that

  8. Care-seeking patterns for fatal non-communicable diseases among women of reproductive age in rural northwest Bangladesh

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    Sikder Shegufta S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though non-communicable diseases contribute to an increasing share of the disease burden in South Asia, health systems in most rural communities are ill-equipped to deal with chronic illness. This analysis seeks to describe care-seeking behavior among women of reproductive age who died from fatal non-communicable diseases as recorded in northwest rural Bangladesh between 2001 and 2007. Methods This analysis utilized data from a large population-based cohort trial in northwest rural Bangladesh. To conduct verbal autopsies of women who died while under study surveillance, physicians interviewed family members to elicit the biomedical symptoms that the women experienced as well as a narrative of the events leading to deaths. We performed qualitative textual analysis of verbal autopsy narratives for 250 women of reproductive age who died from non-communicable diseases between 2001 and 2007. Results The majority of women (94% sought at least one provider for their illnesses. Approximately 71% of women first visited non-certified providers such as village doctors and traditional healers, while 23% first sought care from medically certified providers. After the first point of care, women appeared to switch to medically certified practitioners when treatment from non-certified providers failed to resolve their illness. Conclusions This study suggests that treatment seeking patterns for non-communicable diseases are affected by many of the sociocultural factors that influence care seeking for pregnancy-related illnesses. Families in northwest rural Bangladesh typically delayed seeking treatment from medically certified providers for NCDs due to the cost of services, distance to facilities, established relationships with non-certified providers, and lack of recognition of the severity of illnesses. Most women did not realize initially that they were suffering from a chronic illness. Since women typically reached medically certified

  9. Does proximity of women to facilities with better choice of contraceptives affect their contraceptive utilization in rural Ethiopia?

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    Solomon Shiferaw

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence of the linkage between contraceptive use, the range of methods available and level of contraceptive stocks at health facilities and distance to facility in developing countries. The present analysis aims at examining the influence of contraceptive method availability and distance to the nearby facilities on modern contraceptive utilization among married women in rural areas in Ethiopia using geo-referenced data.We used data from the first round of surveys of the Performance Monitoring & Accountability 2020 project in Ethiopia (PMA2020/Ethiopia-2014. The survey was conducted in a sample of 200 enumeration areas (EAs where for each EA, 35 households and up to 3 public or private health service delivery points (SDPs were selected. The main outcome variable was individual use of a contraceptive method for married women in rural Ethiopia. Correlates of interest include distance to nearby health facilities, range of contraceptives available in facilities, household wealth index, and the woman's educational status, age, and parity and whether she recently visited a health facility. This analysis primarily focuses on stock provision at public SDPs.Overall complete information was collected from 1763 married rural women ages 15-49 years and 198 SDPs in rural areas (97.1% public. Most rural women (93.9% live within 5 kilometers of their nearest health post while a much lower proportion (52.2% live within the same distance to the nearest health centers and hospital (0.8%, respectively. The main sources of modern contraceptive methods for married rural women were health posts (48.8% and health centers (39.0%. The mean number of the types of contraceptive methods offered by hospitals, health centers and health posts was 6.2, 5.4 and 3.7 respectively. Modern contraceptive use (mCPR among rural married women was 27.3% (95% CI: 25.3, 29.5. The percentage of rural married women who use modern contraceptives decreased as distance from

  10. Utilization of maternal health services among adolescent women in Bangladesh: A scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, A S M; Delvaux, Thérèse; Abouchadi, Saloua; Sarker, Malabika; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    To understand the health-seeking behaviour of adolescent women in Bangladesh with respect to the use of maternal health services. Literature review of seven electronic databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, POPLINE and Global Health. Studies published in English between 1990 and 2013 which describe Bangladeshi adolescent women's healthcare-seeking behaviour during pregnancy, delivery and post-partum were included. Twelve studies were included in this review. 11 used quantitative methods and one used a mixed-methods approach. All studies included married adolescent women only. Women with lower educational levels are less likely to seek skilled maternal health services than those with higher levels of education. Use of maternal health services is also less common among rural married adolescent women than women in urban areas. Being part of the richest bands of wealth, having had previous experiences of childbirth and higher women's autonomy positively influence the use of skilled maternal health services among married adolescent women in Bangladesh. Antenatal care is a key predictor of the use of skilled birth attendants for delivery and post-natal care. Maternal health-related programmes should be designed targeting rural and uneducated married adolescent women in Bangladesh. More qualitative investigations are required to broaden our understanding on maternal health-seeking behaviour of both married and unmarried adolescent women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives.

  12. Strong Hearts, Healthy Communities: A Community-Based Randomized Trial for Rural Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Paul, Lynn; Folta, Sara C; Nelson, Miriam E; Strogatz, David; Graham, Meredith L; Diffenderfer, Anna; Eldridge, Galen; Parry, Stephen A

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a multilevel cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention program for rural women. This 6-month, community-based, randomized trial enrolled 194 sedentary rural women aged 40 or older with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . Intervention participants attended 6 months of twice-weekly exercise, nutrition, and heart health classes (48 total) that included individual-, social-, and environment-level components. An education-only control program included didactic healthy lifestyle classes once a month (six total). The primary outcome measures were change in BMI and weight. Within-group and between-group multivariate analyses revealed that only intervention participants decreased BMI (-0.85 units; 95% CI: -1.32 to -0.39; P = 0.001) and weight (-2.24 kg; 95% CI: -3.49 to -0.99; P = 0.002). Compared with controls, intervention participants decreased BMI (difference: -0.71 units; 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.08; P = 0.03) and weight (1.85 kg; 95% CI: -3.55 to -0.16; P = 0.03) and improved C-reactive protein (difference: -1.15 mg/L; 95% CI: -2.16 to -0.15; P = 0.03) and Simple 7, a composite CVD risk score (difference: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.14 to 1.21; P = 0.01). Cholesterol decreased among controls but increased in the intervention group (-7.85 vs. 3.92 mg/dL; difference: 11.77; 95% CI: 0.57 to 22.96; P = 0.04). The multilevel intervention demonstrated modest but superior and meaningful improvements in BMI and other CVD risk factors compared with the control program. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  13. Relationship between Pesticide Metabolites, Cytokine Patterns, and Asthma-Related Outcomes in Rural Women Workers

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    Hussein H. Mwanga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to organophosphate (OP and pyrethroid (PYR pesticides with serum cytokine patterns and asthma-related outcomes among rural women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among rural women (n = 211, including those working and living on farms and nearby town dwellers. Pesticide exposure was assessed using urinary metabolite concentrations of OP and PYR pesticides. Health outcome assessment was ascertained through the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS questionnaire, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, and serum cytokines associated with asthma. The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was 11%, adult-onset asthma 9%, and current asthma 6%. In this population, the proportion of T helper type 2 (Th2 cytokines (interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 detectable in subjects was between 18% and 40%, while the proportion of non-Th2 cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and interferon gamma was between 35% and 71%. Most Th2 and non-Th2 cytokines were positively associated with either OP or PYR metabolites. Non-Th2 cytokines showed much stronger associations with OP metabolites (Dimethyl phosphate OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.54–11.65 than Th2 cytokines (Dimethyl phosphate OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 0.83–3.46. This study suggests that exposure to most OP and some PYR pesticides may be associated with asthma-related cytokines, with non-Th2 cytokines demonstrating consistently stronger relationships.

  14. Efficacy of micro-financing women's activities in Côte d'Ivoire : evidence from rural areas and HIV/AIDS-affected women

    OpenAIRE

    Binaté Fofana, N.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effectiveness and the capability of microfinance institutions in enhancing women’s livelihood and empowerment, and mitigating the effects of HIV and AIDS on affected women and their households in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was carried out within the framework of the AWLAE (African Women Leaders in Agriculture and Environment) Project. The AWLAE project addresses the theme of the role of women in food systems and effects of HIV and AIDS on rural livelihoods. Microfi...

  15. A Lactobacillus-Deficient Vaginal Microbiota Dominates Postpartum Women in Rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bacterial community found in the vagina is an important determinant of a woman's health and disease status. A healthy vaginal microbiota is associated with low species richness and a high proportion of one of a number of different Lactobacillus spp. When disrupted, the resulting abnormal vaginal microbiota is associated with a number of disease states and poor pregnancy outcomes. Studies up until now have concentrated on relatively small numbers of American and European populations that may not capture the full complexity of the community or adequately predict what constitutes a healthy microbiota in all populations. In this study, we sampled and characterized the vaginal microbiota found on vaginal swabs taken postpartum from a cohort of 1,107 women in rural Malawi. We found a population dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and devoid of the most common vaginal Lactobacillus species, even if the vagina was sampled over a year postpartum. This Lactobacillus-deficient anaerobic community, commonly labeled community state type (CST) 4, could be subdivided into four further communities. A Lactobacillus iners-dominated vaginal microbiota became more common the longer after delivery the vagina was sampled, but G. vaginalis remained the dominant organism. These results outline the difficulty in all-encompassing definitions of what a healthy or abnormal postpartum vaginal microbiota is. Previous identification of community state types and associations among bacterial species, bacterial vaginosis, and adverse birth outcomes may not represent the complex heterogeneity of the microbiota present. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01239693.) IMPORTANCE A bacterial community in the vaginal tract is dominated by a small number of Lactobacillus species, and when not present there is an increased incidence of inflammatory conditions and adverse birth outcomes. A switch to a vaginal bacterial community lacking in Lactobacillus species is common

  16. Lactobacillus-deficient vaginal microbiota dominate post-partum women in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ronan; Gondwe, Austridia; Fan, Yue-Mei; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Klein, Nigel; Harris, Kathryn

    2018-01-05

    The bacterial community found in the vagina is an important determinant of a woman's health and disease. A healthy vaginal microbiota is associated with a lower species richness and high proportions of one of a number of different Lactobacillus spp.. When disrupted the resulting abnormal vaginal microbiota is associated with a number of disease states and poor pregnancy outcomes. Studies up until now have concentrated on relatively small numbers of American and European populations which may not capture the full complexity of the community, nor adequately predict what constitutes a healthy microbiota in all populations. In this study we sampled and characterised the vaginal microbiota from a cohort of 1107 women in rural Malawi found on vaginal swabs taken post-partum. We found a population dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and devoid of the most common vaginal Lactobacillus species, even if the vagina was sampled over a year post-partum. The Lactobacillus -deficient anaerobic community commonly labelled community state type (CST) 4 could be sub-divided into four further communities. A Lactobacillus iners dominated vaginal microbiota became more common the longer after delivery the vagina was sampled, but G. vaginalis remained the dominant organism. These results outline the difficulty in all-encompassing definitions of what a healthy or abnormal vaginal microbiota is post-partum. Previous identification of community state types and associations between bacterial species, bacterial vaginosis and adverse birth outcomes may not represent the complex heterogeneity of the microbiota present. Importance A bacterial community in the vaginal tract that is dominated by small number of bacterial Lactobacillus species and when they are not present, there is a greater incidence of inflammatory conditions and adverse birth outcomes. A switch to a vaginal bacterial community lacking in Lactobacillus species is common after pregnancy. In this study we characterised the vaginal

  17. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  18. Multivitamin and iron supplementation to prevent periconceptional anemia in rural tanzanian women: a randomized, controlled trial.

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    Nilupa S Gunaratna

    Full Text Available Women's nutritional status during conception and early pregnancy can influence maternal and infant outcomes. This study examined the efficacy of pre-pregnancy supplementation with iron and multivitamins to reduce the prevalence of anemia during the periconceptional period among rural Tanzanian women and adolescent girls.A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in which participants were individually randomized to receive daily oral supplements of folic acid alone, folic acid and iron, or folic acid, iron, and vitamins A, B-complex, C, and E at approximately single recommended dietary allowance (RDA doses for six months.Rural Rufiji District, Tanzania.Non-pregnant women and adolescent girls aged 15-29 years (n = 802.The study arms were comparable in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, food security, nutritional status, pregnancy history, and compliance with the regimen (p>0.05. In total, 561 participants (70% completed the study and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels were not different across treatments (median: 11.1 g/dL, Q1-Q3: 10.0-12.4 g/dL, p = 0.65. However, compared with the folic acid arm (28%, there was a significant reduction in the risk of hypochromic microcytic anemia in the folic acid and iron arm (17%, RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.90, p = 0.01 and the folic acid, iron, and multivitamin arm (19%, RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45-0.96, p = 0.03. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW to adjust for potential selection bias due to loss to follow-up did not materially change these results. The effect of the regimens was not modified by frequency of household meat consumption, baseline underweight status, parity, breastfeeding status, or level of compliance (in all cases, p for interaction>0.2.Daily oral supplementation with iron and folic acid among women and adolescents prior to pregnancy reduces risk of anemia. The potential benefits of supplementation on the risk of

  19. Sexual relationship power and depression among HIV-infected women in Rural Uganda.

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    Abigail M Hatcher

    Full Text Available Depression is associated with increased HIV transmission risk, increased morbidity, and higher risk of HIV-related death among HIV-infected women. Low sexual relationship power also contributes to HIV risk, but there is limited understanding of how it relates to mental health among HIV-infected women.Participants were 270 HIV-infected women from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study, a prospective cohort of individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART in Mbarara, Uganda. Our primary predictor was baseline sexual relationship power as measured by the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS. The primary outcome was depression severity, measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL, and a secondary outcome was a functional scale for mental health status (MHS. Adjusted models controlled for socio-demographic factors, CD4 count, alcohol and tobacco use, baseline WHO stage 4 disease, social support, and duration of ART.The mean HSCL score was 1.34 and 23.7% of participants had HSCL scores consistent with probable depression (HSCL>1.75. Compared to participants with low SRPS scores, individuals with both moderate (coefficient b = -0.21; 95%CI, -0.36 to -0.07 and high power (b = -0.21; 95%CI, -0.36 to -0.06 reported decreased depressive symptomology. High SRPS scores halved the likelihood of women meeting criteria for probable depression (adjusted odds ratio = 0.44; 95%CI, 0.20 to 0.93. In lagged models, low SRPS predicted subsequent depression severity, but depression did not predict subsequent changes in SPRS. Results were similar for MHS, with lagged models showing SRPS predicts subsequent mental health, but not visa versa. Both Decision-Making Dominance and Relationship Control subscales of SRPS were associated with depression symptom severity.HIV-infected women with high sexual relationship power had lower depression and higher mental health status than women with low power. Interventions to improve equity in decision

  20. Lack of association between drought and mental health in a cohort of 45-61 year old rural Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jennifer R; Dobson, Annette J; Berry, Helen L; Graves, Anna M; Hanigan, Ivan C; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of drought on the mental health of rural Australian women and those in vulnerable sub-populations: women who were more isolated, poorer and less educated; and women who had histories of chronic disease or poor mental health. Surveys were mailed in 1996, 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2008 to 6,664 women born between 1946 and1951 who were participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The surveys included the Mental Health Index of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (MHI). Drought was assessed by linking the latitude and longitude of women's place of residence at each survey to the Hutchinson Drought Index. Associations between MHI and drought were assessed using linear mixed-models. While 31% of the women experienced drought in 1998 and 50% experienced drought in 2007; experience of droughts was less common in the other years. Although drought varied from survey year to survey year, mental health did not vary with drought conditions for rural women or vulnerable sub-populations. These findings are contrary to the long-held assumption that droughts increase mental health problems in Australia. While similar results may not be true for men, empirical evidence (rather than assumptions) is required on associations between drought and mental health. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Symptoms In Bangladeshi Patients with Incurable Cancers: Implications for Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Richard R; Tanimul Ahsan, G M; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Nahar, Shamsun; Ahamed, Sheikh Iqbal

    2018-01-01

    The poor state of palliative care in low- and middle-income countries has been termed a global crisis by the Lancet Commission on Palliative Care. The investigators previously reported on a cross-sectional study of symptoms in 640 Bangladeshi adults with incurable cancers. Usual levels of pain were high. The not-reported details of pain and other symptoms offered an opportunity to consider explanations and implications for interventions to lessen these symptoms. At one visit, 640 Bangladeshi patients completed a symptom questionnaire. The distributions of 12 symptom level scores and the correlations between pain and different symptom scores were determined. The population had significantly high and functionally compromising average usual pain scores, but low percentages of patients with very high and low pain scores. The distributions of scores for multiple symptoms were all skewed to higher mid-scale levels and modestly high (≥0.6) correlations of pain with nausea, anxiety, lack of appetite, constipation, and sleep quality were seen. While the types and direct effects of the cancers, the young age distribution, and the true symptomatic status of this Bangladeshi population studied may explain the described characteristics, the observations deserve exploration of other causes with specific therapeutic implications. These patients appear to have been partially treated for pain, and in particular, environmental factors such as extreme heat and its consequences appear more likely causes of moderate levels of multiple symptoms, which collectively magnified patients' suffering. Greater attention to gastrointestinal symptoms and sleep disturbance, in particular, seems indicated.

  2. Disparities in Prevalence of Cardiometablic Risk Factors in Rural, Urban-Poor, and Urban-Middle Class Women in India.

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    Indu Mohan

    Full Text Available Urbanization is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. To determine location-based differences in CVD risk factors in India we performed studies among women in rural, urban-poor and urban middle-class locations.Population-based cross-sectional studies in rural, urban-poor, and urban-middle class women (35-70 y were performed at multiple sites. We evaluated 6853 women (rural 2616, 5 sites; urban-poor 2008, 4 sites; urban middle-class 2229, 11 sites for socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors. Descriptive statistics are reported.Mean levels of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR, systolic BP, fasting glucose and cholesterol in rural, urban-poor and urban-middle class women showed significantly increasing trends (ANOVAtrend, p 80 cm (28.3, 63.4, 61.9%, waist >90 cm (8.4, 31.4, 38.2%, waist hip ratio (WHR >0.8 (60.4, 90.7, 88.5, WHR>0.9 (13.0, 44.3, 56.1%, hypertension (31.6, 48.2, 59.0% and hypercholesterolemia (13.5, 27.7, 37.4% (Mantel Haenszel X2 ptrend <0.01. Inverse trend was observed for tobacco use (41.6, 19.6, 9.4%. There was significant association of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes with overweight and obesity (adjusted R2 0.89-0.99.There are significant location based differences in cardiometabolic risk factors in India. The urban-middle class women have the highest risk compared to urban-poor and rural.

  3. Does proximity of women to facilities with better choice of contraceptives affect their contraceptive utilization in rural Ethiopia?

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    Shiferaw, Solomon; Spigt, Mark; Seme, Assefa; Amogne, Ayanaw; Skrøvseth, Stein; Desta, Selamawit; Radloff, Scott; Tsui, Amy; GeertJan, Dinant

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence of the linkage between contraceptive use, the range of methods available and level of contraceptive stocks at health facilities and distance to facility in developing countries. The present analysis aims at examining the influence of contraceptive method availability and distance to the nearby facilities on modern contraceptive utilization among married women in rural areas in Ethiopia using geo-referenced data. We used data from the first round of surveys of the Performance Monitoring & Accountability 2020 project in Ethiopia (PMA2020/Ethiopia-2014). The survey was conducted in a sample of 200 enumeration areas (EAs) where for each EA, 35 households and up to 3 public or private health service delivery points (SDPs) were selected. The main outcome variable was individual use of a contraceptive method for married women in rural Ethiopia. Correlates of interest include distance to nearby health facilities, range of contraceptives available in facilities, household wealth index, and the woman's educational status, age, and parity and whether she recently visited a health facility. This analysis primarily focuses on stock provision at public SDPs. Overall complete information was collected from 1763 married rural women ages 15-49 years and 198 SDPs in rural areas (97.1% public). Most rural women (93.9%) live within 5 kilometers of their nearest health post while a much lower proportion (52.2%) live within the same distance to the nearest health centers and hospital (0.8%), respectively. The main sources of modern contraceptive methods for married rural women were health posts (48.8%) and health centers (39.0%). The mean number of the types of contraceptive methods offered by hospitals, health centers and health posts was 6.2, 5.4 and 3.7 respectively. Modern contraceptive use (mCPR) among rural married women was 27.3% (95% CI: 25.3, 29.5). The percentage of rural married women who use modern contraceptives decreased as distance from the

  4. Simultaneous determination of household and market-oriented activities of women in rural Pakistan.

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    Alderman, H; Chishti, S

    1991-01-01

    Researchers applied data from the 1985-1986 Labour Force Survey in Pakistan to a model which focused on household composition variables and human assets such as education to examine determinants of female labor force participation in the framework of their labor on other productive tasks in the household in rural areas. Monthly household labor decreased by 1.8 days for each additional adult woman in the household and by 1.4 days for each 10-15 year old girl. On the other hand, an extra teenage boy added as much to each woman's workload as did an additional 5-9 year old child (.37 days). Each additional 6 year old child increased the workload 1.3 days/month and this did not include child care activities. Women who had attended primary school worked in the household 1.4 days less than those who did not attend any school. Moreover those who attended school beyond primary school worked in the household 3.7 days less than those who did not attend any school. both of these differences were statistically significant. Yet educated women worked more outside the house than uneducated women (1.2 days for those with primary education and 2.4 days for those with post primary education). The government should promote increased female school participation by increasing its investment in schooling to lower the costs to households. Further it could provide opportunities for educated women to be employed in their own communities. Thus they can envision education in their private interest (both in social and financial terms). If these efforts are not done, however, demand and supply considerations may continue to restrain schooling for females.

  5. An investigation of the relationship between autonomy, childbirth practices, and obstetric fistula among women in rural Lilongwe District, Malawi.

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    Kaplan, Julika Ayla; Kandodo, Jonathan; Sclafani, Joseph; Raine, Susan; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; Norris, Alison; Norris-Turner, Abigail; Chemey, Elly; Beckham, John Michael; Khan, Zara; Chunda, Reginald

    2017-06-19

    Obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury caused by prolonged obstructed labor that results in destruction of the tissue wall between the vagina and bladder. Although obstetric fistula is directly caused by prolonged obstructed labor, many other factors indirectly increase fistula risk. Some research suggests that many women in rural Malawi have limited autonomy and decision-making power in their households. We hypothesize that women's limited autonomy may play a role in reinforcing childbirth practices that increase the risk of obstetric fistula in this setting by hindering access to emergency care and further prolonging obstructed labor. A medical student at Baylor College of Medicine partnered with a Malawian research assistant in July 2015 to conduct in-depth qualitative interviews in Chichewa with 25 women living within the McGuire Wellness Centre's catchment area (rural Central Lilongwe District) who had received obstetric fistula repair surgery. This study assessed whether women's limited autonomy in rural Malawi reinforces childbearing practices that increase risk of obstetric fistula. We considered four dimensions of autonomy: sexual and reproductive decision-making, decision-making related to healthcare utilization, freedom of movement, and discretion over earned income. We found that participants had limited autonomy in these domains. For example, many women felt pressured by their husbands, families, and communities to become pregnant within three months of marriage; women often needed to seek permission from their husbands before leaving their homes to visit the clinic; and women were frequently prevented from delivering at the hospital by older women in the community. Many of the obstetric fistula patients in our sample had limited autonomy in several or all of the aforementioned domains, and their limited autonomy often led both directly and indirectly to an increased risk of prolonged labor and fistula. Reducing the prevalence of fistula in Malawi

  6. Infant Development and Pre- and Post-partum Depression in Rural South African HIV-Infected Women.

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    Rodriguez, Violeta J; Matseke, Gladys; Cook, Ryan; Bellinger, Seanna; Weiss, Stephen M; Alcaide, Maria L; Peltzer, Karl; Patton, Doyle; Lopez, Maria; Jones, Deborah L

    2017-10-06

    HIV-exposed infants born to depressed women may be at risk for adverse developmental outcomes. Half of HIV-infected women in rural South Africa (SA) may suffer from pregnancy-related depression. This pilot study examined the impact of depression in HIV-infected women in rural SA on infant development. Mother-infant dyads (N = 69) were recruited in rural SA. Demographics, HIV disclosure, depression, male involvement, and alcohol use at baseline (18.35 ± 5.47 weeks gestation) were assessed. Male involvement, depression, infant HIV serostatus and development were assessed 12 months postnatally. Half of the women (age = 29 ± 5) reported depression prenatally and one-third reported depression postnatally. In multivariable logistic regression, not cohabiting with their male partner, nondisclosure of HIV status, and postnatal depression predicted cognitive delay; decreased prenatal male involvement predicted delayed gross motor development (ps depression among HIV-infected women and infant development and increasing male involvement may reduce negative developmental outcomes among HIV-exposed or infected infants.

  7. Poor thiamin and riboflavin status is common among women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Liu, Yazheng; McCann, Adrian; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Kroeun, Hou; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene; Lynd, Larry D; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Thiamin deficiency in infancy is the underlying cause of beriberi, which can be fatal without rapid treatment. Reports of thiamin deficiency are common in Cambodia; however, population representative data are unavailable. Because B-complex vitamin deficiencies commonly occur in combination, riboflavin was also investigated. We determined the biomarker status of thiamin and riboflavin in women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia. We measured thiamin (erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate; TDP) and riboflavin (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient; EGRac) status in a representative sample of Cambodian women (aged 20-45 y) in urban Phnom Penh (n = 146) and rural Prey Veng (n = 156), Cambodia, and, for comparison purposes, in a convenience sample of women in urban Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (n = 49). Thiamin insufficiency (TDP ≤ 90 nmol/L) was common among both urban (39%) and rural (59%) Cambodian women (P Cambodia. The unexpected finding of high riboflavin inadequacy status in Vancouver women warrants further investigation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya

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    Janet M. Turan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV. We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by community volunteers, and community mobilization. To evaluate the program, we analyzed data from risk assessment forms and conducted focus groups (n=2 groups and in-depth interviews (n=25 with healthcare workers and community members. Results. A total of 134 pregnant women were assessed during a 5-month period: 49 (37% reported violence and of those 53% accepted referrals to local support resources. Qualitative findings suggested that the program was acceptable and feasible, as it aided pregnant women in accessing GBV services and raised awareness of GBV. Community collaboration was crucial in this low-resource setting. Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa.

  9. [Evaluation of pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain among urban and rural women from southwestern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhengyan; Li, Ming; Rui, Li; Sun, Xiaohong; Pang, Xuehong; Zhou, Lan; Zeng, Guo

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the situation of pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) of women in the urban and rural areas of southwest of China. Total 3391 women whose infants and young children aged 6 - 24 months were selected from urban and rural areas of Kunming, Guiyang and Chengdu cities by stratified cluster random sampling. Data of pre-pregnancy height and weight, prenatal weight and pregnancy age for subjects was obtained using a questionnaire. Pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were calculated. According to the BMI standard for adults from WHO and GWG Guidelines from IOM (2009), the status of pre-pregnancy weight and GWG were assessed. Average BMI of pre-pregnancy for them is (20.3 +/- 2.4). Percentage of normal weight, underweight, and overweight/obesity of pre-pregnancy were 72.7%, 24.1% and 3.2% respectively. The average GWG was (14.9 +/- 6.0) kg, and there was a significant difference between urban and rural group (P lower (P women aged below 23 years old (P women aged 24 - 34 years old (P pay more attention to improve the underweight of pre-pregnancy and abnormal GWG among women in the southwest of China.

  10. The prevalence of domestic violence and its associated factors among married women in a rural area of Puducherry, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jismary; Nair, Divya; Premkumar, Nancy R; Saravanan, Nirmala; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Roy, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Violence against women is an emerging problem worldwide and more so in India. Considering its adverse effects on women's health, assessing the burden of violence in the community will help in planning services for the victims. To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and to identify factors associated with domestic violence among married women in reproductive age group in rural Puducherry. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural area of Puducherry, South India. Married women in reproductive age group were interviewed using structured pretested questionnaire. Domestic violence was assessed using 12 questions that were used in National Family Health Survey-3. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with violence. Of 310 study participants, 56.7% of them reported some form of domestic violence, 51.3% reported psychological violence, 40% reported physical violence, and 13.5% reported sexual violence. A statistically significant association was found between illiteracy of women and domestic violence (AOR: 4.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-15.7 P: 0.03). The other factors such as love marriage and nonregistration of marriage were significantly associated with violence. The prevalence of domestic violence was found to be high in this rural setting. Multisectoral response such as improving literacy, creating awareness regarding legal aid and screening the victims of violence at primary health centers, should be initiated to mitigate this public health issue.

  11. [Migration from a rural zone to an urban one is associated with android distribution of body fat in obese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barranco, J; López-Alvarenga, J C; Roiz-Simancas, M; Bravo-García, A L; Fanghänel-Salmón, G; Laviada Arrigunaga, E; Castaño, L R; García Tapia, M P

    2001-01-01

    Studies about migration to industrialized countries have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemias, all of them related to android body fat distribution. Migration status might be influence body fat distribution but it has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and migration from rural to urban areas in Mexico. This sequential sample of 433 women were seen in the outpatient obesity clinic of four federal states: Tabasco (n = 81), Mexico City (n = 166), Coahuila (n = 80), and Yucatan (n = 106). Migration history from rural to urban area, familial history of diabetes, ages of onset of obesity, height and weight circumferences were obtained. A regression logistic model was used and maintained as dependent variable body fat distribution. Age and federal state were considered as confounders and they adjusted the model. Migrating women from rural to urban area were 121 (27.9%). The waist circumference was higher in Tabasco (102.2 +/- 12 cm), and lesser in Yucatan (93.6 +/- 15 cm, p < 0.001); no differences were found for hip circumference. The logistic regression model showed that body fat distribution is associated to migration from rural to urban area, and also to diabetes of mother and age of onset of obesity. Migrating from rural to urban area is a risk factor for android body fat distribution and this risk increases with age, history of diabetes in mother and adulthood onset o obesity.

  12. Healthcare worker and family caregiver hand hygiene in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities: results from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, L M; Unicomb, L; Alam, M-U; Halder, A K; Shoab, A K; Ghosh, P K; Opel, A; Islam, M K; Luby, S P

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities. More than 96% of facilities had 'improved' water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78-92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4-30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%). Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Mesiodistal Crown Dimensions of Permanent Teeth in Bangladeshi Population

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    Saeed Hossain Khan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variation in tooth size is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Several studies have reported tooth size variation between and within different racial groups. In order to improve the quality of dental care available, there is a great need for data on the mesiodistal crown dimensions of the individual teeth of Bangladeshi population. Objectives: To find nominative data on the mesiodistal crown dimensions of permanent teeth in Bangladeshi population and to compare the findings with those reported in other populations. Methods: This observational study was done from January, 2008 to June, 2010 in the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. A total of 244 Bangladeshi subjects (77 males and 167 females, aged 7 – 36 years (mean 18.3 years with no age limit who attended at the above mentioned place for treatment were included in the study. Main outcome measure was mesiodistal crown dimension of each tooth class of permanent dentition. Mesiodistal crown dimensions were measured from dental casts of the permanent teeth. Results: Males had significantly larger teeth than females for maxillary central incisors (p < 0.05 and for the mandibular second premolars (p < 0.001. In both sexes, the maxillary lateral incisors showed the greatest variability [coefficient of variation (CV 10.7%] and the maxillary canines the least (CV 6.9% in mesiodistal crown dimension. Mandibular canines displayed greater sexual dimorphism in mesiodistal crown size than in any other tooth classes. Comparisons of the mesiodistal crown dimensions between population groups showed that Bangladeshis have tooth sizes close to those of North Indians, Icelanders and Jordanians but larger than those of North American Whites. Conclusions: From this study, a standard for the mesiodistal crown dimensions of permanent dentition of Bangladeshi males and females are obtained. Key Words: Crown dimension; Mesio

  14. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence in US white women by county-level urban/rural and poverty status

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    Keegan Theresa HM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status. Methods We obtained invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence data for the years 1997 to 2004 from 29 population-based cancer registries participating in the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries resource. Annual age-adjusted rates were examined overall and by rural/urban and poverty of patients' counties of residence at diagnosis. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Results Between 2001 and 2004, overall invasive breast cancer incidence fell 13.2%, with greater reductions among women living in urban (-13.8% versus rural (-7.5% and low- (-13.0% or middle- (-13.8% versus high- (-9.6% poverty counties. Most incidence rates peaked around 1999 then declined after second quarter 2002, although in rural counties, rates decreased monotonically after 1999. Similar but more attenuated patterns were seen for in situ cancers. Conclusion Breast cancer rates fell more substantially in urban and low-poverty, affluent counties than in rural or high-poverty counties. These patterns likely reflect a major influence of reductions in hormone therapy use after July 2002 but cannot exclude possible effects due to screening patterns, particularly among rural populations where hormone therapy use was probably less prevalent.

  15. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence in US white women by county-level urban/rural and poverty status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausauer, Amelia K; Keegan, Theresa H M; Chang, Ellen T; Glaser, Sally L; Howe, Holly; Clarke, Christina A

    2009-06-26

    Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status. We obtained invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence data for the years 1997 to 2004 from 29 population-based cancer registries participating in the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries resource. Annual age-adjusted rates were examined overall and by rural/urban and poverty of patients' counties of residence at diagnosis. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Between 2001 and 2004, overall invasive breast cancer incidence fell 13.2%, with greater reductions among women living in urban (-13.8%) versus rural (-7.5%) and low- (-13.0%) or middle- (-13.8%) versus high- (-9.6%) poverty counties. Most incidence rates peaked around 1999 then declined after second quarter 2002, although in rural counties, rates decreased monotonically after 1999. Similar but more attenuated patterns were seen for in situ cancers. Breast cancer rates fell more substantially in urban and low-poverty, affluent counties than in rural or high-poverty counties. These patterns likely reflect a major influence of reductions in hormone therapy use after July 2002 but cannot exclude possible effects due to screening patterns, particularly among rural populations where hormone therapy use was probably less prevalent.

  16. Migration and rural women in China: a look at the gendered impact of large-scale migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, D

    1996-01-01

    This preliminary study explored the impact on women of economic migration from rural to urban areas in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census. The study focused on economic migration, which accounted for 29% of the reasons for moving. In some provinces such as Guangdong, economic reasons account for almost 60% of in-migrants. Interprovincial migration is primarily economic, followed by marriage, which varies widely by province. Migrants tend to assume occupations that are assigned by gender. Male migrants tend to outnumber female migrants, and women are left to farm. Where migration is gender balanced, the sex ratio in the sending area may be stable, but gender division within individual households is upset. Children may be tended by grandparents in rural areas, when their parents find work in cities. Migrants in urban areas do not have the same rights as permanent urban household registrants and cannot send their children to school or use free or low cost health care. Migrants keep in close contact with home villages. Urban migrants without permanent household registration status face the loss of welfare benefits in urban areas as well as the high cost of purchase of a permanent residence permit, social discrimination, stigma from mass media portrayals, and poor housing. Most rural-urban migration is circular. Female return migrants bring back cash remittances and new family roles and status. Rural migrants are exposed to new urban experiences that are retold in rural areas and that may pose difficulties in readjustment to the hardships of rural life. Urban fertility is delayed and lower than that of rural fertility.

  17. International migration of partner, autonomy and depressive symptoms among women from a mexican rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Salgado de Snyder, Nelly; Casique, Irene

    2009-07-01

    The emigration of Mexicans to the USA has increased in the last decades, and little is known about the effect of this on the mental health of those who stay behind. To evaluate the association of emigration of husband and depressive symptoms (DS) among women who stay in Mexico. We also tested the hypothesis that the husband's migration would increase the woman's autonomy, which in turn would decrease DS. A survey was conducted in a rural area in Mexico. Participants (n = 418) were selected through probabilistic sampling in three stages: localities, households and individuals. DS were evaluated using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Having a partner in the USA was associated with higher odds of scoring above the cut-off point in CES-D (OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.92-7.43). Economic autonomy was also associated with DS (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04-2.02). Migration of husband was associated with DS among women. The construct of autonomy and its operational definition should be further explored.

  18. Trends in HIV Prevalence in Pregnant Women in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharsany, Ayesha B M; Frohlich, Janet A; Yende-Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Mahlase, Gethwana; Samsunder, Natasha; Dellar, Rachael C; Zuma-Mkhonza, May; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2015-11-01

    Despite substantial progress in the delivery of HIV prevention programs, some communities continue to experience high rates of HIV infection. We report on temporal trends in HIV prevalence in pregnant women in a community in rural KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Annual, anonymous cross-sectional HIV sero-prevalence surveys were conducted between 2001 and 2013 among first visit prenatal clinic attendees. The time periods 2001 to 2003 were defined as pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART), 2004 to 2008 as early ART, and 2009 to 2013 as contemporary ART roll-out, to correspond with the substantial scale-up of ART program. Overall, HIV prevalence rose from 35.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3 to 38.3] pre-ART (2001-2003) to 39.0% (95% CI: 36.8 to 41.1) in the early ART (2004-2008) to 39.3% (95% CI: 37.2 to 41.4) in the contemporary ART (2009-2013) roll-out periods. In teenage women (age 20-24 and ≥ 25 years had a 1.7-fold (95% CI: 1.3-2.4; P = 0.001) and 3-fold (95% CI: 2.1 to 4.3; P age-disparate relationships, are needed to impact this HIV epidemic trajectory.

  19. Earning their keep: the productivity of older women and men in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Lisa J H; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Wahlin, Ake; Streatfield, Peter K

    2010-03-01

    In Bangladesh, being active and able to participate in productive activities is often essential to ensure ongoing health and survival. This study aims to describe and explore the patterns of participation in productive activities by older people in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. Data from a cross sectional survey of people over 60 years of age was utilised. Six hundred and twenty five men and women participated in home based interviews providing information about their participation in productive activities including work, domestic activities and community groups. Overall, 94.4% of subjects reported participation in at least one productive activity. Men were the main participants in paid work and community groups, with 62% reporting engagement in paid work and 44% contributing to community groups. Both men (95.4%) and women (91.9%) reported performing at least one domestic activity. Performance of higher numbers of domestic tasks was associated with being younger, female, not requiring any assistance with self care, not married, not living with any children and earning between 100-999 Bangladesh Taka in the past month. Participation in community groups was low with only 26% of the sample reporting any involvement. This study indicates a high level of productivity in the older population in Matlab which benefits the individual, the family and the wider community. The safety and suitability of typical productive activities needs further investigation, in order to inform strategies protecting the older population from the effects of over work and harmful activities.

  20. Women's autonomy and experience of physical violence within marriage in rural India: evidence from a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarwal, Shagun; Santhya, K G; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence regarding the relationship between married women's autonomy and risk of marital violence remains mixed. Moreover, studies examining the contribution of specific aspects of women's autonomy in influencing the risk of marital violence using measures of autonomy that incorporate its dynamic nature are rare. We investigated the relationship between women's autonomy and their experience of marital violence in rural India using prospective data. We used data on 4,904 rural women drawn from two linked studies: the NFHS-2, conducted during 1998-1999 and a follow-up study for a subgroup of women carried out during 2002-2003. Three dimensions of autonomy were used: financial autonomy, freedom of movement, and household decision-making. Marital violence was measured as experience of physical violence in the year prior to the follow-up survey. Findings indicate the protective effects of financial autonomy and freedom of movement in reducing the risk of marital violence in the overall model. Furthermore, region-wise analysis revealed that in the more gender equitable settings of south India, financial autonomy exerted a protective influence on risk of marital violence. However, in the more gender-stratified settings of north India, none of the dimensions of autonomy were found to have any protective effect on women's risk of marital violence. Results argue for an increased focus on strategies aimed at improving women's financial status through livelihood skill-building opportunities, development of a strong savings orientation, and asset-building options.

  1. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Human Papilloma Virus Infection and its Health Effects among Rural Women, Karnataka, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeena, Sasidharanpillai; Bhat, Parvati V; Kamath, Veena; Aswathyraj, Sushama; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers among women all over the world. The association of cervical cancer with human papilloma virus (HPV) is well established. Knowledge about the causal relationship between HPV and cervical cancer is important to make appropriate, evidence-based health care choices. In this context we conducted a community based study among women about the knowledge, attitude and practice about HPV infections and their health effects. A cross sectional interview based house to house survey was conducted with a validated data collection tool covering sociodemographic factors, knowledge, attitude and practice about HPV and its health effects, among 1020 women from a rural village, Perdoor, in Udupi district, Karnataka, India in 2013-14. The mean age of participants was 38.9 years (SD=12.6). Study participants showed a high literacy rate (85.7%). Only 2.4% of sexually exposed women had undergone Pap smear testing. Partners of 4.4%women had undergone circumcision and they belonged to the Muslim community. Male condom usage was reported by 26 women (2.6%). However, none of the participants had heard of HPV and its health effects. This community based study found complete ignorance about HPV among rural South Indian women in spite of a high literacy level.

  2. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.

  3. Salud es Vida: a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Rural Latina Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, John S; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Alfonso, Moya L; Suazo, Norma; Rebing, Laura; Ferris, Daron G

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of Salud es Vida-a promotora-led, Spanish language educational group session on cervical cancer screening (Pap tests)-self-efficacy (belief in ability to schedule and complete a Pap test), and knowledge among immigrant Hispanic/Latina women from farmworker backgrounds. These women are disproportionately burdened with cervical cancer, with mortality rates significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. The two-arm, quasi-experimental study was conducted in four rural counties of Southeast Georgia in 2014-2015. Hispanic/Latina immigrant women aged 21-65 years and overdue for a Pap test were included as intervention (N = 38) and control (N = 52) group participants. The intervention was developed in partnership with a group of promotoras to create the toolkit of materials which includes a curriculum guide, a brochure, a flipchart, a short animated video, and in-class activities. Twelve (32 %) intervention group participants received the Pap test compared to 10 (19 %) control group participants (p = 0.178). The intervention group scored significantly higher on both cervical cancer knowledge recall and retention than the control group (p < 0.001). While there was no statistically significant difference in cervical cancer screening self-efficacy scores between the group participants, both groups scored higher at follow-up, adjusting for the baseline scores. The group intervention approach was associated with increased cervical cancer knowledge but not uptake of Pap test. More intensive interventions using patient navigation approaches or promotoras who actively follow participants or conducting one-on-one rather than group sessions may be needed to achieve improved screening outcomes with this population.

  4. Relationship between school dropout and teen pregnancy among rural South African young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Molly; Pettifor, Audrey; Miller, William C; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Emch, Michael; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Sexual activity may be less likely to occur during periods of school enrolment because of the structured and supervised environment provided, the education obtained and the safer peer networks encountered while enrolled. We examined whether school enrolment was associated with teen pregnancy in South Africa. Using longitudinal demographic surveillance data from the rural Agincourt sub-district, we reconstructed the school enrolment status from 2000 through 2011 for 15 457 young women aged 12-18 years and linked them to the estimated conception date for each pregnancy during this time. We examined the effect of time-varying school enrolment on teen pregnancy using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for: age; calendar year; household socioeconomic status; household size; and gender, educational attainment and employment of household head. A secondary analysis compared the incidence of pregnancy among school enrolees by calendar time: school term vs school holiday. School enrolment was associated with lower teen pregnancy rates [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.57 (0.50, 0.65)].This association was robust to potential misclassification of school enrolment. For those enrolled in school, pregnancy occurred less commonly during school term than during school holidays [incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.90 (0.78, 1.04)]. Young women who drop out of school may be at higher risk for teen pregnancy and could likely benefit from receipt of accessible and high quality sexual health services. Preventive interventions designed to keep young women in school or addressing the underlying causes of dropout may also help reduce the incidence of teen pregnancy. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  5. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Anindita; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on cardiovascular health was

  6. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Anindita, E-mail: anidu14@gmail.com [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India); Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban [Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India)

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on

  7. Ethnic Identity Attachment and Motivation for Weight Loss and Exercise among Rural, Overweight, African-American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bryant Smalley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural and minority women are disproportionately impacted by the obesity epidemic; however, little research has studied the intersection of these disparity groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of racial identity on motivation for weight loss and exercise among rural, African-American women with an obesity-linked chronic disease. A total of 154 African-American women were recruited from the patient population of a Federally Qualified Health Center in the rural South to complete a questionnaire battery including the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and separate assessments of motivation for weight loss and exercise. Multivariate analyses, controlling for age, education status, insurance status, and body mass index revealed that attachment to ethnic identity was predictive of motivation for exercise but not for weight loss. Our findings suggest that attachment to ethnic identity may be an important factor in motivation for change among African-American women, particularly with respect to exercise, with direct implications for the development of culturally and geographically tailored weight loss interventions.

  8. An Assessment of Participation of Rural Women in Livestock Management and Their Training Needs in Potohar Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Nosheen*, Tanvir Ali1, Haq Nawaz Anwar2 and Muhammad Ahmad3

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Potohar plateau is a mountainous and rocky region, covered with scrub forest, interspaced with flat lying plains; the north and north-east consist of softly undulating plain areas along with some rocky patches. Realizing the need for the quantification of women participation in livestock management, a study was conducted to assess the level of participation and need of training in areas of interest. Chakwal, the third most populated district of barani Potohar, was selected as the universe of this research. Like other districts of Pakistan, all livestock species were reared in Potohar region including Chakwal district. Among total livestock population in the district, the decreasing order of species began with goats, followed by cattle, sheep, buffaloes, asses, camels, horses and mules. Although rural women had productive role in livestock management, yet they neither received adequate advice not had adequate access to modern technology that could benefit them in their livestock management activities. It was revealed from the study that more frequently carried out activities by rural women were livestock management, animal production, protection and poultry husbandry. Rural women were interested to get their training in livestock management, animal production, protection, poultry husbandry and marketing of animals to boost up the livestock productivity.

  9. Quality of life among menopausal women: A community-based study in a rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Nabarun; Majumdar, Somak; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Das, Sulagna

    2017-01-01

    During menopausal transition, there is a lot of fluctuation in the hormone levels making the peri and postmenopausal women susceptible to various mental and physical disorders. There is considerably lack of awareness about the effects of the menopausal symptoms in women in India. Studies on issues relating to menopause, especially among rural women, are also lacking. With this background, the current study was carried out in a rural area of West Bengal with the objective to assess the quality of life (QOL) of peri-menopausal women. The study was carried out among 100 peri and postmenopausal women (40-60 years) in Dearah village of West Bengal which is the rural field practice area of All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health during February-March 2014. The questionnaire used as study tool had two parts - Part 1: Sociodemographic characteristics. Part 2: About QOL due to menopausal symptoms based on four domains (vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual) using the 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire. Occurrence of vasomotor symptoms was average with 60% of them reporting hot flushes and 47% sweating. Most prevalent psychosocial symptoms reported were feeling of anxiety and nervousness (94%) and overall depression (88%). Physical symptoms were quite varying in occurrence with some symptoms such as feeling tired or worn out, decrease in physical strength and lack of energy occurring in 93% of the women to only 5% suffering from growth of facial hair. Overall sexual changes were reported among 49% who reported of avoiding intimacy with a partner and 26% complained of vaginal dryness. The results support that menopause causes both physical and psychiatric problems. Education, creating awareness and providing suitable intervention to improve their QOL are important which should be imparted to menopausal women at both individual and community level.

  10. Factors Influencing Participation of Rural Women in Zimbabwes 2013 Constitution Referendum A Case Study Of Ward 22 Gutu District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbra Ncube

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Participation is the cornerstone of citizen engagement. In constitution making and other public policy formulation processes public participation typically involves preparing the public to participate through civic education and public information campaigns as well as consulting the public on issues such as how the process should take place and the contents of the constitution itself. This study sought to examine the factors that influence womens participation in constitution making processes specifically relating to voting in the constitution referendum in the case of rural women residing in ward 22 of Gutu district of Zimbabwe. Gutu District is the third largest district in Masvingo province. Ward 22 is located in the communal region of Gutu central. The people of ward 22 largely depend on subsistence farming and market gardening for their livelihoods. The objectives of the study were to ascertain to what extent media campaign and publicity efforts by womens civic groups and public interaction through public meetings and hearings were able to influence the participation of Zimbabwean women in the 2013 referendum in ward 22 Gutu district. Over and above these objectives the study sought to document the experiences and views of rural Zimbabwean women on the constitution making process. This study adopted a descriptive case study research design. Samples of 108 women from Ward 22 Gutu District were conveniently selected to participate in this study. Data was collected using a structured interview guide and questionnaires which were administered to the respondents. A focused group discussion was also carried out to verify the information gathered through these instruments. Findings and conclusions were derived by means of detailed comparative and inductive analysis of data. Descriptive statistics were employed in the presentation of the findings. Amongst the major findings are that rural women in ward 22 in Gutu district were in actual

  11. Invisibility, safety and psycho-social distress among same-sex attracted women in rural South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Available work from North America indicates that same-sex attracted (SSA) individuals enjoy aspects of rural life but nonetheless report encountering homophobia and experiencing isolation from SSA networks. The experience of prejudice and social isolation are often associated with psycho-social distress among the general population of same-sex attracted individuals. Little is known of how SSA women experience life in rural areas of Australia and how this influences their psycho-social wellbeing. This was a small-scale qualitative study using guided interviews to explore the experience of SSA women living in rural areas of South Australia. Seven women identifying as same-sex attracted were interviewed. In addition, a woman who provides a counseling and support service for same-sex attracted women was also interviewed. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and were then analysed for emergent themes. Summaries of the interviews, based on the emergent themes, were sent to all interviewees so that they could verify or challenge the validity of the emergent themes, as well as to allow them to remove any information they felt might identify them. Most women had felt 'different' while growing up; almost unanimously describing themselves as having been 'tomboys'. However, the lack of visible SSA role models in rural areas, together with a lack of SSA social networks, did not allow some of the women to identify and name their same-sex attraction. For many of the women in this study, it was visits to the state capital, where they had the opportunity to meet other SSA women, which precipitated them identifying themselves as same-sex attracted. In light of this new knowledge, some women denied their same-sex attraction and entered into heterosexual relationships, often entailing marriage. Other women entered same-sex relationships but tried to keep them invisible within their communities. Rural communities are frequently close-knit environments, where

  12. Social context and drivers of intimate partner violence in rural Kenya: Implications for the health of pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail M.; Romito, Patrizia; Odero, Merab; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Onono, Maricianah; Turan, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    More than half of rural Kenyan women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Beyond physical consequences, IPV indirectly worsens maternal health because pregnant women avoid antenatal care or HIV testing when they fear violent reprisal from partners. To develop an intervention to mitigate violence towards pregnant women, we conducted qualitative research in rural Kenya. Through eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women (n=29), four with male partners (n=32), and in-depth interviews with service providers (n=20), we explored the social context of IPV using an ecological model. We found that women experienced physical and sexual IPV, but also economic violence like forced exile from the marital home or losing material support. Relationship triggers of IPV included perceived sexual infidelity or transgressing gender norms. Women described hiding antenatal HIV testing from partners, as testing was perceived as a sign of infidelity. Extended families were sometimes supportive, but often encouraged silence to protect the family image. The broader community viewed IPV as an intractable, common issue, which seemed to normalise its use. These results resonate with global IPV research showing that factors beyond the individual – gender roles in intimate partnerships, family dynamics, and community norms – shape high rates of violence. PMID:23387300

  13. Retention in care of HIV-infected pregnant and lactating women starting ART under Option B+ in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llenas-García, Jara; Wikman-Jorgensen, Philip; Hobbins, Michael; Mussa, Manuel Aly; Ehmer, Jochen; Keiser, Olivia; Mbofana, Francisco; Wandeler, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, Mozambique adopted Option B+, universal lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and lactating women, as national strategy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. We analysed retention in care of pregnant and lactating women starting Option B+ in rural northern Mozambique. We compared ART outcomes in pregnant ('B+ pregnant'), lactating ('B+ lactating') and non-pregnant non-lactating women of childbearing age starting ART according to clinical and/or immunological criteria ('own health') between July 2013 and June 2014. Lost to follow-up was defined as no contact >180 days after the last visit. Multivariable competing risk models were adjusted for type of facility (type 1 vs. peripheral type 2 health centre), age, WHO stage and time from HIV diagnosis to ART. Over 333 person-years of follow-up (243 'B+ pregnant', 65'B+ lactating' and 317 'own health' women), 3.7% of women died and 48.5% were lost to follow-up. 'B+ pregnant' and 'B+ lactating' women were more likely to be lost in the first year (57% vs. 56.9% vs. 31.6%; P pregnant' (adjusted subhazard ratio [asHR]: 2.77; 95% CI: 2.18-3.50; P HIV in rural settings with weak health systems will depend on specific improvements in counselling and retention measures, especially at the beginning of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The effects of siblings on the migration of women in two rural areas of Belgium and the Netherlands, 1829-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bras, H.; Neven, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the presence and activities of siblings shaped the chances of women migrating to rural and urban areas in two rural areas of Belgium and the Netherlands during the second half of the nineteenth and first decades of the twentieth century. Shared-frailty Cox

  15. What Explains Divorced Women's Poorer Health? The Mediating Role of Health Insurance and Access to Health Care in a Rural Iowan Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Bridget; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Wickrama, K. A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Economic restructuring in rural areas in recent decades has been accompanied by rising marital instability. To examine the implications of the increase in divorce for the health of rural women, we examine how marital status predicts adequacy of health insurance coverage and health care access, and whether these factors help to account for the…

  16. Empowerment of women and mental health promotion: a qualitative study in rural Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermode, Michelle; Herrman, Helen; Arole, Rajanikant; White, Joshua; Premkumar, Ramaswamy; Patel, Vikram

    2007-08-31

    The global burden of mental illness is high and opportunities for promoting mental health are neglected in most parts of the world. Many people affected by mental illness live in developing countries, where treatment and care options are limited. In this context, primary health care (PHC) programs can indirectly promote mental health by addressing its determinants i.e. by enhancing social unity, minimising discrimination and generating income opportunities. The objectives of this study were to: 1. Describe concepts of mental health and beliefs about determinants of mental health and illness among women involved with a PHC project in rural Maharashtra, India; 2. Identify perceived mental health problems in this community, specifically depression, suicide and violence, their perceived causes, and existing and potential community strategies to respond to them and; 3. Investigate the impact of the PHC program on individual and community factors associated with mental health We undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 32 women associated with the PHC project regarding: their concepts of mental health and its determinants; suicide, depression and violence; and the perceived impact of the PHC project on the determinants of mental health. The interviews were taped, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Mental health and illness were understood by these women to be the product of cultural and socio-economic factors. Mental health was commonly conceptualised as an absence of stress and the commonest stressors were conflict with husbands and mother-in-laws, domestic violence and poverty. Links between empowerment of women through income generation and education, reduction of discrimination based on caste and sex, and promotion of individual and community mental health were recognised. However, mental health problems such as suicide and violence were well-described by participants. While it is essential that affordable, accessible, appropriate treatments and

  17. Empowerment of women and mental health promotion: a qualitative study in rural Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Joshua

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of mental illness is high and opportunities for promoting mental health are neglected in most parts of the world. Many people affected by mental illness live in developing countries, where treatment and care options are limited. In this context, primary health care (PHC programs can indirectly promote mental health by addressing its determinants i.e. by enhancing social unity, minimising discrimination and generating income opportunities. The objectives of this study were to: 1. Describe concepts of mental health and beliefs about determinants of mental health and illness among women involved with a PHC project in rural Maharashtra, India; 2. Identify perceived mental health problems in this community, specifically depression, suicide and violence, their perceived causes, and existing and potential community strategies to respond to them and; 3. Investigate the impact of the PHC program on individual and community factors associated with mental health Method We undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 32 women associated with the PHC project regarding: their concepts of mental health and its determinants; suicide, depression and violence; and the perceived impact of the PHC project on the determinants of mental health. The interviews were taped, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results Mental health and illness were understood by these women to be the product of cultural and socio-economic factors. Mental health was commonly conceptualised as an absence of stress and the commonest stressors were conflict with husbands and mother-in-laws, domestic violence and poverty. Links between empowerment of women through income generation and education, reduction of discrimination based on caste and sex, and promotion of individual and community mental health were recognised. However, mental health problems such as suicide and violence were well-described by participants. Conclusion While it is

  18. Identification of a threshold for biomass exposure index for chronic bronchitis in rural women of Mysore district, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Exposure to air pollution due to combustion of biomass fuels remains one of the significant risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis. There is a need to identify the minimum threshold level of biomass index that is significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. This study was undertaken to identify a threshold for biomass exposure index in a rural women population in Mysore district, south India. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative population of Mysore and Nanjangud taluks. Eight villages each from Mysore and Nanjangud were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. A house-to-house survey was carried out by trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire, which evaluated the biomass smoke exposure and chronic bronchitis. All the women aged above 30 yr were included in the study. Results: A total of 2011 women from Mysore and 1942 women from Nanjangud participated in the study. All women were non-smoking and used biomass fuels as the primary fuel for cooking. A threshold of biomass fuel exposure of 60 was identified on multivariate analysis in Mysore district after adjusting for age, passive smoking and working in a occupational exposure to dust, as the minimum required for a significant association with chronic bronchitis. One in every 20 women in Mysore district exposed to biomass fuel exposure index of 110 or more developed chronic bronchitis. Interpretation & conclusions: The minimum threshold of biomass exposure index of 60 is necessary to have a significant risk of developing chronic bronchitis in women. The number needed to harm to develop chronic bronchitis reduces with increasing biomass exposure index and women residing in rural Nanjangud have a higher risk for developing chronic bronchitis as compared to women in Mysore.

  19. Identification of a threshold for biomass exposure index for chronic bronchitis in rural women of Mysore district, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Jayaraj, B S; Prabhakar, A K; Chaya, S K; Vijaysimha, R

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution due to combustion of biomass fuels remains one of the significant risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis. There is a need to identify the minimum threshold level of biomass index that is significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. This study was undertaken to identify a threshold for biomass exposure index in a rural women population in Mysore district, south India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative population of Mysore and Nanjangud taluks. Eight villages each from Mysore and Nanjangud were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. A house-to-house survey was carried out by trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire, which evaluated the biomass smoke exposure and chronic bronchitis. All the women aged above 30 yr were included in the study. A total of 2011 women from Mysore and 1942 women from Nanjangud participated in the study. All women were non-smoking and used biomass fuels as the primary fuel for cooking. A threshold of biomass fuel exposure of 60 was identified on multivariate analysis in Mysore district after adjusting for age, passive smoking and working in a occupational exposure to dust, as the minimum required for a significant association with chronic bronchitis. One in every 20 women in Mysore district exposed to biomass fuel exposure index of 110 or more developed chronic bronchitis. The minimum threshold of biomass exposure index of 60 is necessary to have a significant risk of developing chronic bronchitis in women. The number needed to harm to develop chronic bronchitis reduces with increasing biomass exposure index and women residing in rural Nanjangud have a higher risk for developing chronic bronchitis as compared to women in Mysore.

  20. Gendered childcare norms - evidence from rural Swaziland to inform innovative structural HIV prevention approaches for young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabangu, Pinky N; Brear, Michelle R

    2017-12-01

    Addressing discriminatory gender norms is a prerequisite for preventing HIV in women, including young women. However, the gendered expectation that women will perform unpaid childcare-related labour is rarely conceptualised as influencing their HIV risk. Our aim was to learn from members of a rural Swazi community about how gendered childcare norms. We performed sequential, interpretive analysis of focus group discussion and demographic survey data, generated through participatory action research. The results showed that gendered childcare norms were firmly entrenched and intertwined with discriminatory norms regarding sexual behaviour. Participants perceived that caring for children constrained young women's educational opportunities and providing for children's material needs increased their economic requirements. Some young women were perceived to engage in "transactional sex" and depend financially on men, including "sugar daddies", to provide basic necessities like food for the children they cared for. Our results suggested that men were no longer fulfilling their traditional role of caring for children's material needs, despite women's traditional role of caring for their physical and emotional needs remaining firmly entrenched. The results indicate that innovative approaches to prevent HIV in young women should incorporate structural approaches that aim to transform gendered norms, economically empower women and implement policies guaranteeing women equal rights.

  1. Sex, lies, and videos in rural China: a qualitative study of women's sexual debut and risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Davidson, Pamela

    2006-08-01

    This paper attempts to understand the sexual behaviors of young, unmarried women living in rural China with a special focus on sexual debut, sexual risk-taking behaviors, and reproductive health consequences. The analysis is based on forty in-depth interviews with young women who had undergone induced abortion as well as information from focus group discussions. Study participants identified pornographic videos and parents' tacit approval and even encouragement as factors instigating their sexual debut. Reasons for unprotected intercourse include spontaneous sexual activity, misconceptions about fertility and the effective use of contraceptives, and the lack of negotiation skills. The results indicate the importance of making reproductive health education more accessible to rural populations in China, a group usually considered to be more traditional and less likely to engage in premarital sex.

  2. A right to live: girl workers in the Bangladeshi garment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahra, G N; Rahman, F

    1995-06-01

    According to a survey conducted in 1989, there are 772 approved and registered garment factories in Bangladesh. These factories employ approximately 300,000 individuals, 90% of whom are women. A more recent estimate in a Bangladeshi newspaper, however, posits that up to five million people are directly or indirectly dependent upon the garment industry. Many of the women who work in Bangladesh's garment factories are under age 15 years. In some countries, such as the US, the employment of such young individuals constitutes a violation of child labor laws. Therefore, under the Harkin Bill, the US will no longer import garments produced by children younger than age 15 years. Many garment workers under age 15 years have already been put out of work or will soon be terminated. The authors explain that while the intent of the Harkin Bill may be to protect children, it is difficult to adopt the moral high ground in a poor country like Bangladesh. Regardless of one's age in Bangladesh, having a job may be the only way to survive. No job often means no food or shelter. The authors discuss women in the garment industry, one girl's case, alternative employment opportunities, and the future.

  3. Symptoms in Bangladeshi patients with incurable cancers: Implications for interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Love

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The poor state of palliative care in low- and middle-income countries has been termed a global crisis by the Lancet Commission on Palliative Care. The investigators previously reported on a cross-sectional study of symptoms in 640 Bangladeshi adults with incurable cancers. Usual levels of pain were high. The not-reported details of pain and other symptoms offered an opportunity to consider explanations and implications for interventions to lessen these symptoms.Methods: At one visit, 640 Bangladeshi patients completed a symptom questionnaire. The distributions of 12 symptom level scores and the correlations between pain and different symptom scores were determined.Results: The population had significantly high and functionally compromising average usual pain scores, but low percentages of patients with very high and low pain scores. The distributions of scores for multiple symptoms were all skewed to higher mid-scale levels and modestly high (≥0.6 correlations of pain with nausea, anxiety, lack of appetite, constipation, and sleep quality were seen.Conclusions: While the types and direct effects of the cancers, the young age distribution, and the true symptomatic status of this Bangladeshi population studied may explain the described characteristics, the observations deserve exploration of other causes with specific therapeutic implications. These patients appear to have been partially treated for pain, and in particular, environmental factors such as extreme heat and its consequences appear more likely causes of moderate levels of multiple symptoms, which collectively magnified patients' suffering. Greater attention to gastrointestinal symptoms and sleep disturbance, in particular, seems indicated.

  4. Why do women stop reproducing before menopause? A life-history approach to age at last birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Mary C; Nenko, Ilona; Walton, Savannah E

    2016-04-19

    Evolutionary biologists have long considered menopause to be a fundamental puzzle in understanding human fertility behaviour, as post-menopausal women are no longer physiologically capable of direct reproduction. Menopause typically occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, but across cultures and history, women often stop reproducing many years before menopause. Unlike age at first reproduction or even birth spacing, a woman nearing the end of her reproductive cycle is able to reflect upon the offspring she already has--their numbers and phenotypic qualities, including sexes. This paper reviews demographic data on age at last birth both across and within societies, and also presents a case study of age at last birth in rural Bangladeshi women. In this Bangladeshi sample, age at last birth preceded age at menopause by an average of 11 years, with marked variation around that mean, even during a period of high fertility. Moreover, age at last birth was not strongly related to age at menopause. Our literature review and case study provide evidence that stopping behaviour needs to be more closely examined as an important part of human reproductive strategies and life-history theory. Menopause may be a final marker of permanent reproductive cessation, but it is only one piece of the evolutionary puzzle. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Knowledge and Attitudes About Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    1- Knowledge and attitudes about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda Authors...vaccination among parents/guardians of the vaccinated girls and to assess the attitudes to HPV vaccination among parents/guardians of the vaccinated girls...general attitude towards HPV vaccination was positive among mothers though there is still need for the populations to appreciate HPV and cervical

  6. Women's maternity care needs and related service models in rural areas: A comprehensive systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ha; Le, Quynh; Ogden, Kathryn

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the needs of rural women in maternity care and service models available to them is significant for the development of effective policies and the sustainability of rural communities. Nevertheless, no systematic review of studies addressing these needs has been conducted. To synthesise the best available evidence on the experiences of women's needs in maternity care and existing service models in rural areas. Literature search of ten electronic databases, digital theses, and reference lists of relevant studies applying inclusion/exclusion criteria was conducted. Selected papers were assessed using standardised critical appraisal instruments from JBI-QARI. Data extracted from these studies were synthesised using thematic synthesis. 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. There were three main themes and several sub-themes identified. A comprehensive set of the maternity care expectations of rural women was reported in this review including safety (7), continuity of care (6) and quality of care (6), and informed choices needs (4). In addition, challenges in accessing maternity services also emerged from the literature such as access (6), risk of travelling (9) and associated cost of travel (9). Four models of maternity care examined in the literature were medically led care (5), GP-led care (4), midwifery-led care (7) and home birth (6). The systematic review demonstrates the importance of including well-conducted qualitative studies in informing the development of evidence-based policies to address women's maternity care needs and inform service models. Synthesising the findings from qualitative studies offers important insight for informing effective public health policy. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-Term Effects of Stressors on Relationship Well-Being and Parenting Among Rural African American Women*

    OpenAIRE

    Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women’s relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning, relationship well-being, and parenting were tested. Stressful events were related directly to diminished relationship well-being and heightened psyc...

  8. Made in the GDR : the changing geographies of women in the post-socialist rural society in Mecklenburg-Westpommerania

    OpenAIRE

    Hoven-Iganski, Bettina van

    1999-01-01

    This thesis explores women's experiences in rural areas under state socialism in the GDR and in the New Germany since 1989. The study is located within feminist geographical thinking and draws on a variety of qualitative and quantitative sources. Data for the research were collated through various research methods both qualitative and quantitative including correspondence, focus group interviews, key informant interviews, and the consultation of documentary evidence and statist...

  9. Factors associated with utilization of skilled service delivery among women in rural Northern Ghana: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gudu, William; Addo, Bright

    2017-01-01

    Background Ghana?s current Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) of 319 per 100,000 live births makes achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal of 70 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births or less by 2030 appear to be illusory. Skilled assistance during childbirth is a critical strategy to reducing maternal mortality, yet the proportion of deliveries taking place within health facilities where such assistance is provided is very low in Ghana, with huge disparity between urban and rural women....

  10. 'Safe', yet violent? Women's experiences with obstetric violence during hospital births in rural Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sreeparna; Mishra, Arima; Jacob, Suraj

    2017-11-03

    The majority of maternal health interventions in India focus on increasing institutional deliveries to reduce maternal mortality, typically by incentivising village health workers to register births and making conditional cash transfers to mothers for hospital births. Based on over 15 months of ethnographically informed fieldwork conducted between 2015 and 2017 in rural Assam, the Indian state with the highest recorded rate of maternal deaths, we find that while there has been an expansion in institutional deliveries, the experience of childbirth in government facilities is characterised by obstetric violence. Poor and indigenous women who disproportionately use state facilities report both tangible and symbolic violence including iatrogenic procedures such as episiotomies, in some instances done without anaesthesia, improper pelvic examinations, beating and verbal abuse during labour, with sometimes the shouting directed at accompanying relatives. While the expansion of institutional deliveries and access to emergency obstetric care is likely to reduce maternal mortality, in the absence of humane care during labour, institutional deliveries will continue to be characterised by the paradox of "safe" births (defined as simply reducing maternal deaths) and the deployment of violent practices during labour, underscoring the unequal and complex relationship between the bodies of the poor and reproductive governance.

  11. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  12. An association between Trichomonas vaginalis and high-risk human papillomavirus in rural Tanzanian women undergoing cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenby, Gweneth B; Taylor, Peyton T; Badman, Barbara S; McHaki, Emil; Korte, Jeffrey E; Soper, David E; Young Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vaginitis and its association with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) in women undergoing cervical cancer screening in rural Tanzania. For the purpose of cervical cancer screening, cytology and HR HPV polymerase chain reaction data were collected from 324 women aged between 30 and 60 years. Microscopy and gram stains were used to detect yeast and bacterial vaginosis. Cervical nucleic acid amplification test specimens were collected for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The majority of women were married (320 of 324) and reported having a single sexual partner (270 of 324); the median age of participants was 41 years. HR HPV was detected in 42 participants. Forty-seven percent of women had vaginitis. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common infection (32.4%), followed by TV (10.4%), and yeast (6.8%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, TV was associated with an increased risk of HR HPV (odds ratio, 4.2 [95% CI, 1.7-10.3]). Patients with TV were 6.5 times more likely to have HPV type 16 than patients negative for TV (50% vs 13.3%) (odds ratio, 6.5 [95% CI, 1.1-37]). Among rural Tanzanian women who presented for cervical cancer screening, Trichomonas vaginitis was significantly associated with HR HPV infection (specifically type 16). © 2014 Published by Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.

  13. Use of antenatal services and delivery care among women in rural western Kenya: a community based survey

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    Rosen Daniel H

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving maternal health is one of the UN Millennium Development Goals. We assessed provision and use of antenatal services and delivery care among women in rural Kenya to determine whether women were receiving appropriate care. Methods Population-based cross-sectional survey among women who had recently delivered. Results Of 635 participants, 90% visited the antenatal clinic (ANC at least once during their last pregnancy (median number of visits 4. Most women (64% first visited the ANC in the third trimester; a perceived lack of quality in the ANC was associated with a late first ANC visit (Odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–2.4. Women who did not visit an ANC were more likely to have 90%, but provision of other services was low, e.g. malaria prevention (21%, iron (53% and folate (44% supplementation, syphilis testing (19.4% and health talks (14.4%. Eighty percent of women delivered outside a health facility; among these, traditional birth attendants assisted 42%, laypersons assisted 36%, while 22% received no assistance. Factors significantly associated with giving birth outside a health facility included: age ≥ 30 years, parity ≥ 5, low SES, 1 hour walking distance from the health facility. Women who delivered unassisted were more likely to be of parity ≥ 5 (AOR 5.7, 95% CI 2.8–11.6. Conclusion In this rural area, usage of the ANC was high, but this opportunity to deliver important health services was not fully utilized. Use of professional delivery services was low, and almost 1 out of 5 women delivered unassisted. There is an urgent need to improve this dangerous situation.

  14. Knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women and female caregivers of under-five children in rural southwest Nigeria

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    Ayodeji M. Adebayo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria.Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%.Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1% had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5% were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years, had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0% respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs.Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among under

  15. The convergence of HIV/AIDS and customary tenure on women's access to land in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirhart, Naomi; Kabanga, Lucky; Nichols, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the convergence of HIV/AIDS and the social processes through which women access customary land in rural Malawi. Data were collected from focus group discussions with women in patrilineal and matrilineal communities. Women's land tenure is primarily determined through kinship group membership, customary inheritance practices and location of residence. In patrilineal communities, land is inherited through the male lineage and women access land through relationships with male members who are the rightful heirs. Conversely in matrilineal matrilocal communities, women as daughters directly inherit the land. This research found that in patrilineal communities, HIV/AIDS, gendered inequalities embedded in customary inheritance practices and resource shortages combine to affect women's access to land. HIV/AIDS may cause the termination of a woman's relationship with the access individual due to stigma or the individual's death. Termination of such relationships increases tenure insecurity for women accessing land in a community where they do not have inheritance rights. In contrast to the patrilineal patrilocal experience, research on matrilineal matrilocal communities demonstrates that where women are the inheritors of the land and have robust land tenure rights, they are not at risk of losing their access to land due to HIV/AIDS.

  16. Pregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria have higher rates of antiretroviral treatment initiation, but similar loss to follow-up as non-pregnant women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Blevins, Meridith; Megazzini, Karen M; Parrish, Deidra D; Audet, Carolyn M; Chan, Naomi; Odoh, Chisom; Gebi, Usman I; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y; Shepherd, Bryan E; Wester, C William; Vermund, Sten H

    2015-11-01

    We examined antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention by sex and pregnancy status in rural Nigeria. We studied HIV-infected ART-naïve patients aged ≥15 years entering care from June 2009 to September 2013. We calculated the probability of early ART initiation and cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during the first year of ART, and examined the association between LTFU and sex/pregnancy using Cox regression. The cohort included 3813 ART-naïve HIV-infected adults (2594 women [68.0%], 273 [11.8%] of them pregnant). The proportion of pregnant clients initiating ART within 90 days of enrollment (78.0%, 213/273) was higher than among non-pregnant women (54.3%,1261/2321) or men (53.0%, 650/1219), both pPregnant women initiated ART sooner than non-pregnant women and men (median [IQR] days from enrollment to ART initiation for pregnant women=7 days [0-21] vs 14 days [7-49] for non-pregnant women and 14 days [7-42] for men; pPregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria were more likely to initiate ART but were no more likely to be retained in care. Our findings underscore the importance of effective retention strategies across all patient groups, regardless of sex and pregnancy status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Differential returns from globalization to women smallholder coffee and food producers in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyamurwa, J M; Wamala, S; Baryamutuma, R; Kabwama, E; Loewenson, R

    2013-09-01

    Globalization-related measures to liberalize trade and stimulate export production were applied in Uganda in the late 1980s, including in the coffee production sector, to revitalize agricultural production, increase incomes to farmers and improve rural food security. To explore the different effects of such measures on the health and dietary outcomes of female coffee and food small holder farmers in Uganda. We gathered evidence through a cross-sectional comparative interview survey of 190 female coffee producers and 191 female food producers in Ntungamo district. The study mostly employed quantitative methods of data collection, targeting the sampled households. We also utilized qualitative data; collected three months after the household survey data had been collected and their analysis had been accomplished. Using qualitative interviews based on an unstructured interview guide, extra qualitative information was collected from key informants at national, district and community levels. This was among other underlying principles to avoid relying on snapshot information earlier collected at household level in order to draw valid and compelling conclusions from the study. We used indicators of production, income, access to food and dietary patterns, women's health and health care. Of the two groups selected from the same area, female coffee producers represented a higher level of integration into liberalised export markets. Document review suggests that, although Uganda's economy grew in the period, the household economic and social gains after the liberalization measures may have been less than expected. In the survey carried out, both food and coffee producers were similarly poor, involved in small-scale production, and of a similar age and education level. Coffee producers had greater land and livestock ownership, greater access to inputs and higher levels of income and used a wider variety of markets than food producers, but they had to work longer hours to obtain

  18. High parity predicts use of long-acting reversible contraceptives in the extended postpartum period among women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguzu, Ronald; Sempeera, Hassard; Sekandi, Juliet N

    2018-01-01

    The use of implants and Intra-uterine devices (IUD) during the post-partum period is very low in Uganda especially in rural settings. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) are known to be the most cost-effective for prevention of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortions. This study aimed at determining the factors associated with long-acting reversible contraceptive use among women in the extended postpartum period in rural Uganda. We conducted a household-based, cross-sectional study among 400 women in two rural communities in Mityana district, central Uganda. Eligible women were aged 15 to 45 years who had childbirth within 12 months of study enrollment in September 2014. The outcome variable was self-reported use of a LARC method, either IUD or implants in the extended postpartum period. The main independent variables were previous childbirths (parity), fertility desire, willingness to use modern contraception, duration of postpartum period and previous pregnancies (gravidity). A logistic regression model was run in STATA v12.0 to compute adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for factors that predicted LARC use statistically significant at p  postpartum period (AOR = 4.07, 95%CI 1.08-15.4). Willingness to use modern contraception, desire for more children and postpartum duration had no significant association with LARC use in the extended postpartum period. This study revealed low use of LARC within twelve months of child birth despite women's willingness to use them. High parity (≥5 childbirths) predicted LARC use. The next logical step is to identify barriers to using LARC in the extended postpartum period and design appropriate interventions to increase access and use especially in multi-parous women.

  19. Food beliefs and practices among the Kalenjin pregnant women in rural Uasin Gishu County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riang'a, Roselyter Monchari; Broerse, Jacqueline; Nangulu, Anne Kisaka

    2017-05-25

    Understanding food beliefs and practices is critical to the development of dietary recommendations, nutritional programmes, and educational messages. This study aimed to understand the pregnancy food beliefs and practices and the underlying reasons for these among the contemporary rural Kalenjin communities of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 154 pregnant and post-natal Kalenjin women about restricted and recommended foods, and why they are restricted or recommended during pregnancy. Respondents were purposively selected (based on diversity) from those attending Maternal and Child Health (MCH) care in 23 rural public health facilities. Key informant interviews (n = 9) with traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) who were also herbalists, community health workers, and nursing officers in charge of MCH were also conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS software. Data from respondents who gave consent to be tape recorded (n = 42) was transcribed and qualitatively analysed using MAXQDA software. The restriction of animal organs specifically the tongue, heart, udder and male reproductive organs, meat and eggs, and the recommendation of traditional green vegetables and milk was reported by more than 60% of the respondents. Recommendation of fruits, traditional herbs, ugali (a dish made of maize flour, millet flour, or Sorghum flour, sometimes mixed with cassava flour), porridge and liver, and restriction of avocadoes and oily food were reported by more than 20% of the respondents. The reasons for observing these dietary precautions were mainly fears of: big foetuses, less blood, lack of strength during birth, miscarriages or stillbirths, and maternal deaths as well as child's colic and poor skin conditions after birth. Pregnancy food beliefs were widely known and practised mainly to protect the health of the mother and child, and ensuring successful pregnancy outcome. Given the deep-rooted nature of the

  20. OBSTACLES TO FAMILY PLANNING USE AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN ATIAK HEALTH CENTER IV, AMURU DISTRICT, NORTHERN UGANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, S; Turyasima, M; Acca, H; Nabbale, F; Obita, K O; Rama, M; Adong, C C; Openy, A; Beatrice, M O; Odongo-Aginya, E I; Awor, S

    Uganda's rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders' involvement in family planning programme. In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family planning and thus reduce the rapid population growth and poverty.

  1. OBSTACLES TO FAMILY PLANNING USE AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN ATIAK HEALTH CENTER IV, AMURU DISTRICT, NORTHERN UGANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, S.; Turyasima, M.; Acca, H.; Nabbale, F.; Obita, K. O.; Rama, M.; Adong, C. C.; Openy, A.; Beatrice, M. O.; Odongo-Aginya, E. I.; Awor, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda’s rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. Objective To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. Design A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Subjects Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. Results The