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Sample records for running wheel exercise

  1. Improved infrared-sensing running wheel systems with an effective exercise activity indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.

  2. Improved infrared-sensing running wheel systems with an effective exercise activity indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA, with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.

  3. Metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle to voluntary wheel running exercise in hypertensive heart failure rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, R L; Kullman, E L; Waters, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    SHHF and Wistar-Furth (WF) rats were randomized to sedentary (SHHFsed and WFsed) and exercise groups (SHHFex and WFex). The exercise groups had access to running wheels from 6-22 months of age. Hindlimb muscles were obtained for metabolic measures that included mitochondrial enzyme function...... robust amounts of aerobic activity, voluntary wheel running exercise was not sufficiently intense to improve the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult SHHF animals, indicating an inability to compensate for declining heart function by improving peripheral oxidative adaptations in the skeletal...

  4. Running wheel exercise enhances recovery from nigrostriatal dopamine injury without inducing neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, S J; Gross, N B; Fricks, A N; Casiano, B D; Nguyen, T B; Marshall, J F

    2007-02-09

    Forced use of the forelimb contralateral to a unilateral injection of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine can promote recovery of motor function in that limb and can significantly decrease damage to dopamine terminals. The present study was conducted to determine (1) whether a form of voluntary exercise, wheel running, would improve motor performance in rats with such lesions, and (2) whether any beneficial effects of wheel running are attributable to ameliorating the dopaminergic damage. In experiment 1, rats were allowed to run in exercise wheels or kept in home cages for 2 1/2 weeks, then given stereotaxic infusions of 6-hydroxydopamine into the left striatum. The rats were replaced into their original environments (wheels or home cages) for four additional weeks, and asymmetries in forelimb use were quantified at 3, 10, 17, and 24 days postoperatively. After killing, dopaminergic damage was assessed by both quantifying 3 beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2 beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([(125)I]RTI-55) binding to striatal dopamine transporters and counting tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra. Exercised 6-hydroxydopamine-infused rats showed improved motor outcomes relative to sedentary lesioned controls, effects that were most apparent at postoperative days 17 and 24. Despite this behavioral improvement, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of striatal dopamine transporters and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nigral cells in exercised and sedentary groups did not differ. Since prior studies suggested that forced limb use improves motor performance by sparing nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine damage, experiment 2 used a combined regimen of forced plus voluntary wheel running. Again, we found that the motor performance of exercised rats improved more rapidly than that of sedentary controls, but that there were no differences between these groups in the damage produced by 6-hydroxydopamine. It appears that voluntary

  5. Wheel running exercise attenuates vulnerability to self-administer nicotine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Victoria; Lycas, Matthew D; Lynch, Wendy J; Brunzell, Darlene H

    2015-11-01

    Preventing or postponing tobacco use initiation could greatly reduce the number of tobacco-related deaths. While evidence suggests that exercise is a promising treatment for tobacco addiction, it is not clear whether exercise could prevent initial vulnerability to tobacco use. Thus, using an animal model, we examined whether exercise attenuates vulnerability to the use and reinforcing effects of nicotine, the primary addictive chemical in tobacco. Initial vulnerability was assessed using an acquisition procedure wherein exercising (unlocked running wheel, n=10) and sedentary (locked or no wheel, n=12) male adolescent rats had access to nicotine infusions (0.01-mg/kg) during daily 21.5-h sessions beginning on postnatal day 30. Exercise/sedentary sessions (2-h/day) were conducted prior to each of the acquisition sessions. The effects of exercise on nicotine's reinforcing effects were further assessed in separate groups of exercising (unlocked wheel, n=7) and sedentary (no wheel, n=5) rats responding for nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule with exercise/sedentary sessions (2-h/day) conducted before the daily progressive-ratio sessions. While high rates of acquisition of nicotine self-administration were observed among both groups of sedentary controls, acquisition was robustly attenuated in the exercise group with only 20% of exercising rats meeting the acquisition criterion within the 16-day testing period as compared to 67% of the sedentary controls. Exercise also decreased progressive-ratio responding for nicotine as compared to baseline and to sedentary controls. Exercise may effectively prevent the initiation of nicotine use in adolescents by reducing the reinforcing effects of nicotine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute bouts of wheel running decrease cocaine self-administration: Influence of exercise output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Fronk, Gaylen E; Zhang, Huailin; Magee, Charlotte P; Robinson, Andrea M

    Exercise is associated with lower rates of drug use in human populations and decreases drug self-administration in laboratory animals. Most of the existing literature examining the link between exercise and drug use has focused on chronic, long-term exercise, and very few studies have examined the link between exercise output (i.e., amount of exercise) and drug self-administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute bouts of exercise on cocaine self-administration, and to determine whether these effects were dependent on exercise output and the time interval between exercise and drug self-administration. Female rats were trained to run in automated running wheels, implanted with intravenous catheters, and allowed to self-administer cocaine on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. Immediately prior to each test session, subjects engaged in acute bouts of exercise in which they ran for 0, 30, or 60min at 12m/min. Acute bouts of exercise before test sessions decreased cocaine self-administration in an output-dependent manner, with the greatest reduction in cocaine intake observed in the 60-min exercise condition. Exercise did not reduce cocaine self-administration when wheel running and test sessions were separated by 12h, and exercise did not reduce responding maintained by food or responding during a saline substitution test. These data indicate that acute bouts of exercise decrease cocaine self-administration in a time- and output-dependent manner. These results also add to a growing body of literature suggesting that physical activity may be an effective component of drug abuse treatment programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Voluntary running-wheel exercise decreases the threshold for rewarding intracranial self-stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2012-08-01

    Physical exercise has mood-enhancing and antidepressant properties although the mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. The present experiment investigated the effects of prolonged access to a running wheel on electrical self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus (LHSS), a measure of hedonic state, in rats. Rats with continuous voluntary access to a running wheel for either 2 or 5 weeks exhibited dramatic leftward shifts in the effective current 50 (ECu50; current value that supports half of maximum responding) of their LHSS current-response functions compared to their baselines, indicating a decrease in reward threshold, whereas control rats current-response functions after 2 or 5 weeks were not significantly different from baseline. An inverse correlation existed between the change in ECu50 from baseline and the amount an animal had run in the day prior to LHSS testing, indicating that animals that exhibited higher levels of running showed a more robust decrease in LHSS threshold. We conclude that long-term voluntary exercise increases sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, which may contribute to its antidepressant properties.

  10. Exercise training effects on hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Kolb, Erik M; Malisch, Jessica L; Rhodes, Justin S; Mitchell, Gordon S; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We used experimental evolution to determine how selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running and exercise training (7-11 weeks) affect ventilatory chemoreflexes of laboratory mice at rest. What is the main finding and its importance? Selective breeding, although significantly affecting some traits, did not systematically alter ventilation across gas concentrations. As with most human studies, our findings support the idea that endurance training attenuates resting ventilation. However, little evidence was found for a correlation between ventilatory chemoreflexes and the amount of individual voluntary wheel running. We conclude that exercise 'training' alters respiratory behaviours, but these changes may not be necessary to achieve high levels of wheel running. Ventilatory control is affected by genetics, the environment and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test whether 37 generations of selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running (genetic effects) and/or long-term (7-11 weeks) wheel access (training effects) alter acute respiratory behaviour of mice resting in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. As the four replicate high-runner (HR) lines run much more than the four non-selected control (C) lines, we also examined whether the amount of exercise among individual mice was a quantitative predictor of ventilatory chemoreflexes at rest. Selective breeding and/or wheel access significantly affected several traits. In normoxia, HR mice tended to have lower mass-adjusted rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Chronic wheel access increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in both HR and C mice during hypercapnia. Breathing frequency and minute ventilation were significantly reduced by chronic wheel access in both HR and C mice during hypoxia. Selection history, while significantly affecting some traits

  11. Running wheel exercise before a binge regimen of methamphetamine does not protect against striatal dopaminergic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'dell, Steven J; Marshall, John F

    2014-09-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (mAMPH) to rodents in a single-day "binge" dosing regimen produces long-lasting damage to forebrain dopaminergic nerve terminals as measured by decreases in tissue dopamine (DA) content and levels of the plasmalemmal DA transporter (DAT). However, the midbrain cell bodies from which the DA terminals arise survive, and previous reports show that striatal DA markers return to control levels by 12 months post-mAMPH, suggesting long-term repair or regrowth of damaged DA terminals. We previously showed that when rats engaged in voluntary aerobic exercise for 3 weeks before and 3 weeks after a binge regimen of mAMPH, exercise significantly ameliorated mAMPH-induced decreases in striatal DAT. However, these data left unresolved the question of whether exercise protected against the initial neurotoxicity from the mAMPH binge or accelerated the repair of the damaged DA terminals. The present experiments were designed to test whether exercise protects against the mAMPH-induced injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to run in wheels for 3 weeks before an acute binge regimen of mAMPH or saline, then placed into nonwheel cages for an additional week before autoradiographic determination of striatal DAT binding. The autoradiographic findings showed that prior exercise provided no protection against mAMPH-induced damage to striatal DA terminals. These results, together with analyses from our previous experiments, suggest that voluntary exercise may accelerate the repair of mAMPH-damaged DA terminals and that voluntary exercise may be useful as therapeutic adjunct in the treatment mAMPH addicts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of long-term voluntary exercise wheel running on susceptibility to bacterial pulmonary infections in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Weert-van Leeuwen, Pauline B; de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Fentz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    moderate exercise has many health benefits, healthy mice showed increased bacterial (P. aeruginosa) load and symptoms, after regular voluntary exercise, with perseverance of the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils. Whether patients, suffering from bacterial infectious diseases, should......Regular moderate exercise has been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects and improve immune effector functions, resulting in reduced disease incidence and viral infection susceptibility. Whether regular exercise also affects bacterial infection susceptibility is unknown. The aim...... of this study was to investigate whether regular voluntary exercise wheel running prior to a pulmonary infection with bacteria (P. aeruginosa) affects lung bacteriology, sickness severity and phagocyte immune function in mice. Balb/c mice were randomly placed in a cage with or without a running wheel. After 28...

  13. Voluntary wheel running in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice: Relationships between exercise parameters and exacerbation of the dystrophic phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Smythe, Gayle M; White, Jason D

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running can potentially be used to exacerbate the disease phenotype in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. While it has been established that voluntary wheel running is highly variable between individuals, the key parameters of wheel running that impact the most on muscle pathology have not been examined in detail. We conducted a 2-week test of voluntary wheel running by mdx mice and the impact of wheel running on disease pathology. There was significant individual variation in the...

  14. Circadian rhythm disruption by a novel running wheel: Roles of exercise and arousal in blockade of the luteinizing hormone surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Marilyn J.; Franklin, Kathleen M.; Peng, Xiaoli; Yun, Christopher; Legan, Sandra J.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of proestrous Syrian hamsters to a new room, cage, and novel running wheel blocks the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge until the next day in ~75% of hamsters (Legan et al, 2010) [1]. The studies described here tested the hypotheses that 1) exercise and/or 2) orexinergic neurotransmission mediate novel wheel blockade of the LH surge and circadian phase advances. Female hamsters were exposed to a 14L:10D photoperiod and activity rhythms were monitored with infra-red detectors. In Expt. 1, to test the effect of exercise, hamsters received jugular cannulae and on the next day, proestrus (Day 1), shortly before zeitgeber time 5 (ZT 5, 7 hours before lights-off) the hamsters were transported to the laboratory. After obtaining a blood sample at ZT 5, the hamsters were transferred to a new cage with a novel wheel that was either freely rotating (unlocked), or locked until ZT 9, and exposed to constant darkness (DD). Blood samples were collected hourly for 2 days from ZT 5–11 under red light for determination of plasma LH levels by radioimmunoassay. Running rhythms were monitored continuously for the next 10–14 days. The locked wheels were as effective as unlocked wheels in blocking LH surges (no Day 1 LH surge in 6/9 versus 8/8 hamsters, P>0.05) and phase advances in the activity rhythms did not differ between the groups (P= 0.28), suggesting that intense exercise is not essential for novel wheel blockade and phase advance of the proestrous LH surge. Expt. 2 tested whether orexin neurotransmission is essential for these effects. Hamsters were treated the same as in Expt. 1 except they were injected (i.p.) at ZT 4.5 and 5 with either the orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB334867 (15 mg/kg per injection) or vehicle (25% DMSO in 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HCD). SB-334867 inhibited novel wheel blockade of the LH surge (surges blocked in 2/6 SB334867-injected animals versus 16/18 vehicle-injected animals, Pwheel running and circadian phase shifts, indicating that

  15. Maximal metabolic rates during voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and cold exposure in house mice selectively bred for high wheel-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Malisch, Jessica L; Garland, Theodore

    2005-06-01

    Selective breeding for high wheel-running activity has generated four lines of laboratory house mice (S lines) that run about 170% more than their control counterparts (C lines) on a daily basis, mostly because they run faster. We tested whether maximum aerobic metabolic rates (V(O2max)) have evolved in concert with wheel-running, using 48 females from generation 35. Voluntary activity and metabolic rates were measured on days 5+6 of wheel access (mimicking conditions during selection), using wheels enclosed in metabolic chambers. Following this, V(O2max) was measured twice on a motorized treadmill and twice during cold-exposure in a heliox atmosphere (HeO2). Almost all measurements, except heliox V(O2max), were significantly repeatable. After accounting for differences in body mass (S running speeds on the treadmill. However, running speeds and V(O2max) during voluntary exercise were significantly higher in S lines. Nevertheless, S mice never voluntarily achieved the V(O2max) elicited during their forced treadmill trials, suggesting that aerobic capacity per se is not limiting the evolution of even higher wheel-running speeds in these lines. Our results support the hypothesis that S mice have genetically higher motivation for wheel-running and they demonstrate that behavior can sometimes evolve independently of performance capacities. We also discuss the possible importance of domestication as a confounding factor to extrapolate results from this animal model to natural populations.

  16. Effect of long-term voluntary exercise wheel running on susceptibility to bacterial pulmonary infections in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline B van de Weert-van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available Regular moderate exercise has been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects and improve immune effector functions, resulting in reduced disease incidence and viral infection susceptibility. Whether regular exercise also affects bacterial infection susceptibility is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether regular voluntary exercise wheel running prior to a pulmonary infection with bacteria (P. aeruginosa affects lung bacteriology, sickness severity and phagocyte immune function in mice. Balb/c mice were randomly placed in a cage with or without a running wheel. After 28 days, mice were intranasally infected with P. aeruginosa. Our study showed that regular exercise resulted in a higher sickness severity score and bacterial (P. aeruginosa loads in the lungs. The phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils from spleen and lungs was not affected. Although regular moderate exercise has many health benefits, healthy mice showed increased bacterial (P. aeruginosa load and symptoms, after regular voluntary exercise, with perseverance of the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils. Whether patients, suffering from bacterial infectious diseases, should be encouraged to engage in exercise and physical activities with caution requires further research.

  17. Voluntary wheel running in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice: Relationships between exercise parameters and exacerbation of the dystrophic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Gayle M; White, Jason D

    2011-12-18

    Voluntary wheel running can potentially be used to exacerbate the disease phenotype in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. While it has been established that voluntary wheel running is highly variable between individuals, the key parameters of wheel running that impact the most on muscle pathology have not been examined in detail. We conducted a 2-week test of voluntary wheel running by mdx mice and the impact of wheel running on disease pathology. There was significant individual variation in the average daily distance (ranging from 0.003 ± 0.005 km to 4.48 ± 0.96 km), culminating in a wide range (0.040 km to 67.24 km) of total cumulative distances run by individuals. There was also variation in the number and length of run/rest cycles per night, and the average running rate. Correlation analyses demonstrated that in the quadriceps muscle, a low number of high distance run/rest cycles was the most consistent indicator for increased tissue damage. The amount of rest time between running bouts was a key factor associated with gastrocnemius damage. These data emphasize the need for detailed analysis of individual running performance, consideration of the length of wheel exposure time, and the selection of appropriate muscle groups for analysis, when applying the use of voluntary wheel running to disease exacerbation and/or pre-clinical testing of the efficacy of therapeutic agents in the mdx mouse.

  18. Regional gray matter volume increases following 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise: a longitudinal VBM study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Akira; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nonaka, Hiroi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-09-01

    The effects of physical exercise on brain morphology in rodents have been well documented in histological studies. However, to further understand when and where morphological changes occur in the whole brain, a noninvasive neuroimaging method allowing an unbiased, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of brain morphology should be used. In this study, we investigated the effects of 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise on regional gray matter volume (rGMV) using longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in rats. Eighteen pairs of adult male naïve Wistar rats were randomized to the exercise or control condition (one rat for each condition from each pair). Each rat was scanned in a 7.0-T MRI scanner at three time points: before exercise, after 7days of exercise, and after 7days of follow-up. The T2-weighted MRI images were segmented using the rat brain tissue priors that were recently published by our laboratory, and the intra- and inter-subject template creation steps were followed. Longitudinal VBM analysis revealed significant increases in rGMV in the motor, somatosensory, association, and visual cortices in the exercise group. Among these brain regions, rGMV changes in the motor cortex were positively correlated with the total distance that was run during the 7days of exercise. In addition, the effects of 7days of exercise on rGMV persisted after 7days of follow-up. These results support the utility of a longitudinal VBM study in rats and provide new insights into experience-dependent structural brain plasticity in naïve adult animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Circulating levels of endocannabinoids respond acutely to voluntary exercise, are altered in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running, and differ between the sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Zoe; Argueta, Donovan; Garland, Theodore; DiPatrizio, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The endocannabinoid system serves many physiological roles, including in the regulation of energy balance, food reward, and voluntary locomotion. Signaling at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor has been specifically implicated in motivation for rodent voluntary exercise on wheels. We studied four replicate lines of high runner (HR) mice that have been selectively bred for 81 generations based on average number of wheel revolutions on days five and six of a six-day period of wheel access. Four additional replicate lines are bred without regard to wheel running, and serve as controls (C) for random genetic effects that may cause divergence among lines. On average, mice from HR lines voluntarily run on wheels three times more than C mice on a daily basis. We tested the general hypothesis that circulating levels of endocannabinoids (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG] and anandamide [AEA]) differ between HR and C mice in a sex-specific manner. Fifty male and 50 female mice were allowed access to wheels for six days, while another 50 males and 50 females were kept without access to wheels (half HR, half C for all groups). Blood was collected by cardiac puncture during the time of peak running on the sixth night of wheel access or no wheel access, and later analyzed for 2-AG and AEA content by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We observed a significant three-way interaction among sex, linetype, and wheel access for 2-AG concentrations, with females generally having lower levels than males and wheel access lowering 2-AG levels in some but not all subgroups. The number of wheel revolutions in the minutes or hours immediately prior to sampling did not quantitatively predict plasma 2-AG levels within groups. We also observed a trend for a linetype-by-wheel access interaction for AEA levels, with wheel access lowering plasma concentrations of AEA in HR mice, while raising them in C mice. In addition, females tended to have higher AEA

  20. Wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Pitts, Elizabeth G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary wheel running on the positive reinforcing effects of heroin in rats with an established history of drug self-administration. Rats were assigned to sedentary (no wheel) and exercise (wheel) conditions and trained to self-administer cocaine under positive reinforcement contingencies. Rats acquiring cocaine self-administration were then tested with various doses of heroin during daily test sessions. Sedentary rats self-administered more heroin than exercising rats, and this effect was greatest at low and moderate doses of heroin. These data suggest that voluntary wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

  1. Reinventing the wheel: comparison of two wheel cage styles for assessing mouse voluntary running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, T; Harfmann, B D; Esser, K A; Schroder, E A

    2018-04-01

    Voluntary wheel cage assessment of mouse activity is commonly employed in exercise and behavioral research. Currently, no standardization for wheel cages exists resulting in an inability to compare results among data from different laboratories. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the distance run or average speed data differ depending on the use of two commonly used commercially available wheel cage systems. Two different wheel cages with structurally similar but functionally different wheels (electromechanical switch vs. magnetic switch) were compared side-by-side to measure wheel running data differences. Other variables, including enrichment and cage location, were also tested to assess potential impacts on the running wheel data. We found that cages with the electromechanical switch had greater inherent wheel resistance and consistently led to greater running distance per day and higher average running speed. Mice rapidly, within 1-2 days, adapted their running behavior to the type of experimental switch used, suggesting these running differences are more behavioral than due to intrinsic musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, or metabolic limits. The presence of enrichment or location of the cage had no detectable impact on voluntary wheel running. These results demonstrate that mice run differing amounts depending on the type of cage and switch mechanism used and thus investigators need to report wheel cage type/wheel resistance and use caution when interpreting distance/speed run across studies. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The results of this study highlight that mice will run different distances per day and average speed based on the inherent resistance present in the switch mechanism used to record data. Rapid changes in running behavior for the same mouse in the different cages demonstrate that a strong behavioral factor contributes to classic exercise outcomes in mice. Caution needs to be taken when interpreting mouse voluntary wheel running activity to

  2. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.C.; Chang, M.W.; Chang, C.P.; Chan, S.C.; Chang, W.Y.; Yang, C.L.; Lin, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use

  3. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h. An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS, an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05 and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  4. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Chang, M W; Chang, C P; Chan, S C; Chang, W Y; Yang, C L; Lin, M T

    2014-10-01

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  5. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, M.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, C.P. [Department of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chan, S.C.; Chang, W.Y.; Yang, C.L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, M.T. [Department of Medical Research, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  6. Breast cancer pulmonary metastasis is increased in mice undertaking spontaneous physical training in the running wheel; a call for revising beneficial effects of exercise on cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeda, Marta; Przyborowski, Kamil; Proniewski, Bartosz; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kaczor, Dawid; Stojak, Marta; Buczek, Elzbieta; Nieckarz, Zenon; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that regular aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effects on incidence and progression of cancer. However, the data regarding effects of exercise on metastatic dissemination remain conflicting. Therefore, in the present study the possible preventive effects of voluntary wheel running on primary tumor growth and metastases formation in the model of spontaneous pulmonary metastasis were analyzed after orthotopic injection of 4T1 breast cancer cells into mammary fat pads of female Balb/C mice. This study identified that in the mice injected with 4T1 breast cancer cells and running on the wheels (4T1 ex) the volume and size of the primary tumor were not affected, but the number of secondary nodules formed in the lungs was significantly increased compared to their sedentary counterparts (4T1 sed). This effect was associated with decreased NO production in the isolated aorta of exercising mice (4T1 ex), suggesting deterioration of endothelial function that was associated with lower platelet count without their overactivation. This was evidenced by comparable selectin P, active GPIIb/IIIa expression, fibrinogen and vWF binding on the platelet surface. In conclusion, voluntary wheel running appeared to impair, rather than improve endothelial function, and to promote, but not decrease metastasis in the murine orthotopic model of metastatic breast cancer. These results call for revising the notion of the persistent beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on breast cancer progression, though further studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms involved in pro-metastatic effects of voluntary exercise.

  7. Western diet increases wheel running in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Garland, T

    2010-06-01

    Mice from a long-term selective breeding experiment for high voluntary wheel running offer a unique model to examine the contributions of genetic and environmental factors in determining the aspects of behavior and metabolism relevant to body-weight regulation and obesity. Starting with generation 16 and continuing through to generation 52, mice from the four replicate high runner (HR) lines have run 2.5-3-fold more revolutions per day as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines, but the nature of this apparent selection limit is not understood. We hypothesized that it might involve the availability of dietary lipids. Wheel running, food consumption (Teklad Rodent Diet (W) 8604, 14% kJ from fat; or Harlan Teklad TD.88137 Western Diet (WD), 42% kJ from fat) and body mass were measured over 1-2-week intervals in 100 males for 2 months starting 3 days after weaning. WD was obesogenic for both HR and C, significantly increasing both body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass, the latter even when controlling statistically for wheel-running distance and caloric intake. The HR mice had significantly less fat than C mice, explainable statistically by their greater running distance. On adjusting for body mass, HR mice showed higher caloric intake than C mice, also explainable by their higher running. Accounting for body mass and running, WD initially caused increased caloric intake in both HR and C, but this effect was reversed during the last four weeks of the study. Western diet had little or no effect on wheel running in C mice, but increased revolutions per day by as much as 75% in HR mice, mainly through increased time spent running. The remarkable stimulation of wheel running by WD in HR mice may involve fuel usage during prolonged endurance exercise and/or direct behavioral effects on motivation. Their unique behavioral responses to WD may render HR mice an important model for understanding the control of voluntary activity levels.

  8. Enhanced voluntary wheel running in GPRC6A receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Pehmøller, Christian; Klein, Anders B

    2013-01-01

    to voluntary wheel running and forced treadmill exercise. Moreover, we assessed energy expenditure in the basal state, and evaluated the effects of wheel running on food intake, body composition, and a range of exercise-induced central and peripheral biomarkers. We found that adaptation to voluntary wheel...... running is affected by GPRC6A, as ablation of the receptor significantly enhances wheel running in KO relative to WT mice. Both genotypes responded to voluntary exercise by increasing food intake and improving body composition to a similar degree. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the GPRC6A...

  9. Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver, and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Angelia Maleah; Kephart, Wesley C; Mumford, Petey W; Mobley, Christopher Brooks; Lowery, Ryan P; Shake, Joshua J; Patel, Romil K; Healy, James C; McCullough, Danielle J; Kluess, Heidi A; Huggins, Kevin W; Kavazis, Andreas N; Wilson, Jacob M; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of different diets on adipose tissue, liver, serum morphology, and biomarkers in rats that voluntarily exercised. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼9-10 wk of age) exercised with resistance-loaded voluntary running wheels (EX; wheels loaded with 20-60% body mass) or remained sedentary (SED) over 6 wk. EX and SED rats were provided isocaloric amounts of either a ketogenic diet (KD; 20.2%-10.3%-69.5% protein-carbohydrate-fat), a Western diet (WD; 15.2%-42.7-42.0%), or standard chow (SC; 24.0%-58.0%-18.0%); n = 8-10 in each diet for SED and EX rats. Following the intervention, body mass and feed efficiency were lowest in KD rats, independent of exercise (P diets [total acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC), CD36, and CEBPα or phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, AMPKα, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)], although EX unexpectedly altered some OMAT markers (i.e., higher ACC and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, and lower phosphorylated AMPKα and phosphorylated HSL). Liver triglycerides were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and liver phosphorylated NF-κB/p65 was lowest in KD rats (P < 0.05). Serum insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were greater in WD and/or SC rats compared with KD rats (P < 0.05), and serum β-hydroxybutyrate was greater in KD vs. SC rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, KD rats presented a healthier metabolic profile, albeit the employed exercise protocol minimally impacts any potentiating effects that KD has on fat loss. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Eating meals before wheel-running exercise attenuate high fat diet-driven obesity in mice under two meals per day schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Yuta; Ikeda, Yuko; Kamagata, Mayo; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-06-01

    Mice that exercise after meals gain less body weight and visceral fat compared to those that exercised before meals under a one meal/exercise time per day schedule. Humans generally eat two or three meals per day, and rarely have only one meal. To extend our previous observations, we examined here whether a "two meals, two exercise sessions per day" schedule was optimal in terms of maintaining a healthy body weight. In this experiment, "morning" refers to the beginning of the active phase (the "morning" for nocturnal animals). We found that 2-h feeding before 2-h exercise in the morning and evening (F-Ex/F-Ex) resulted in greater attenuation of high fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain compared to other combinations of feeding and exercise under two daily meals and two daily exercise periods. There were no significant differences in total food intake and total wheel counts, but feeding before exercise in the morning groups (F-Ex/F-Ex and F-Ex/Ex-F) increased the morning wheel counts. These results suggest that habitual exercise after feeding in the morning and evening is more effective for preventing HFD-induced weight gain. We also determined whether there were any correlations between food intake, wheel rotation, visceral fat volume and skeletal muscle volumes. We found positive associations between gastrocnemius muscle volumes and morning wheel counts, as well as negative associations between morning food intake volumes/body weight and morning wheel counts. These results suggest that morning exercise-induced increase of muscle volume may refer to anti-obesity. Evening exercise is negatively associated with fat volume increases, suggesting that this practice may counteract fat deposition. Our multifactorial analysis revealed that morning food intake helps to increase exercise, and that evening exercise reduced fat volumes. Thus, exercise in the morning or evening is important for preventing the onset of obesity.

  11. Conditioned taste avoidance induced by forced and voluntary wheel running in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forristall, J R; Hookey, B L; Grant, V L

    2007-03-01

    Voluntary exercise by rats running in a freely rotating wheel (free wheel) produces conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) of a flavored solution consumed before running [e.g., Lett, B.T., Grant, V.L., 1996. Wheel running induces conditioned taste aversion in rats trained while hungry and thirsty. Physiol. Behav. 59, 699-702]. Forced exercise, swimming or running, also produces CTA in rats [e.g., Masaki, T., Nakajima, S., 2006. Taste aversion induced by forced swimming, voluntary running, forced running, and lithium chloride injection treatments. Physiol. Behav. 88, 411-416]. Energy expenditure may be the critical factor in producing such CTA. If so, forced running in a motorized running wheel should produce CTA equivalent to that produced by a similar amount of voluntary running. In two experiments, we compared forced running in a motorized wheel with voluntary running in a free wheel. Mean distance run over 30 min was equated as closely as possible in the two apparatuses. Both types of exercise produced CTA relative to sedentary, locked-wheel controls. However, voluntary running produced greater CTA than forced running. We consider differences between running in the free and motorized wheels that may account for the differences in strength of CTA.

  12. Mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running exhibit lower blood pressure during withdrawal from wheel access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Erik M; Kelly, Scott A; Garland, Theodore

    2013-03-15

    Exercise is known to be rewarding and have positive effects on mental and physical health. Excessive exercise, however, can be the result of an underlying behavioral/physiological addiction. Both humans who exercise regularly and rodent models of exercise addiction sometimes display behavioral withdrawal symptoms, including depression and anxiety, when exercise is denied. However, few studies have examined the physiological state that occurs during this withdrawal period. Alterations in blood pressure (BP) are common physiological indicators of withdrawal in a variety of addictions. In this study, we examined exercise withdrawal in four replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines). Mice from the HR lines run almost 3-fold greater distances on wheels than those from non-selected control lines, and have altered brain activity as well as increased behavioral despair when wheel access is removed. We tested the hypothesis that male HR mice have an altered cardiovascular response (heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure [MAP]) during exercise withdrawal. Measurements using an occlusion tail-cuff system were taken during 8 days of baseline, 6 days of wheel access, and 2 days of withdrawal (wheel access blocked). During withdrawal, HR mice had significantly lower systolic BP, diastolic BP, and MAP than controls, potentially indicating a differential dependence on voluntary wheel running in HR mice. This is the first characterization of a cardiovascular withdrawal response in an animal model of high voluntary exercise. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Branecky, Katrina L.; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits. PMID:24624109

  14. A comparison of two types of running wheel in terms of mouse preference, health, and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael; Mason, Georgia

    2018-07-01

    Voluntary wheel running occurs in mice of all strains, sexes, and ages. Mice find voluntary wheel running rewarding, and it leads to numerous health benefits. For this reason wheels are used both to enhance welfare and to create models of exercise. However, many designs of running wheel are used. This makes between-study comparisons difficult, as this variability could potentially affect the amount, pattern, and/or intensity of running behaviour, and thence the wheels' effects on welfare and exercise-related changes in anatomy and physiology. This study therefore evaluated two commercially available models, chosen because safe for group-housed mice: Bio Serv®'s "fast-trac" wheel combo and Ware Manufacturing Inc.'s stainless steel mesh 5″ upright wheel. Working with a total of three hundred and fifty one female C57BL/6, DBA/2 and BALB/c mice, we assessed these wheels' relative utilization by mice when access was free; the strength of motivation for each wheel-type when access required crossing an electrified grid; and the impact each wheel had on mouse well-being (inferred from acoustic startle responses and neophobia) and exercise-related anatomical changes (BMI; heart and hind limb masses). Mice ran more on the "fast-trac" wheel regardless of whether both wheel-types were available at once, or only if one was present. In terms of motivation, subjects required to work to access a single wheel worked equally hard for both wheel-types (even if locked and thus not useable for running), but if provided with one working wheel for free and the other type of wheel (again unlocked) accessible via crossing the electrified grid, the "fast-trac" wheel emerged as more motivating, as the Maximum Price Paid for the Ware metal wheel was lower than that paid for the "fast-trac" plastic wheel, at least for C57BL/6s and DBA/2s. No deleterious consequences were noted with either wheel in terms of health and welfare, but only mice with plastic wheels developed significantly larger

  15. Reduction of extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking by wheel running in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Anker, Justin J; Gliddon, Luke A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2010-03-01

    Previous work has shown that wheel running reduced the maintenance of cocaine self-administration in rats. In the present study, the effect of wheel running on extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking was examined. Female rats were trained to run in a wheel during 6-h sessions, and they were then catheterized and placed in an operant conditioning chamber where they did not have access to the wheel but were allowed to self-administer iv cocaine. Subsequently, rats were divided into four groups and were tested on the extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking while they had varying access to a wheel in an adjoining compartment. The four groups were assigned to the following wheel access conditions: (1) wheel running during extinction and reinstatement (WER), (2) wheel running during extinction and a locked wheel during reinstatement (WE), (3) locked wheel during extinction and wheel running during reinstatement (WR), and (4) locked wheel during extinction and reinstatement (WL). WE and WR were retested later to examine the effect of one session of wheel access on cocaine-primed reinstatement. There were no group differences in wheel revolutions, in rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration, or in responding during maintenance when there was no wheel access. However, during extinction, WE and WER responded less than WR and WL. WR and WER had lower cocaine-primed reinstatement than WE and WL. One session of wheel exposure in WE also suppressed cocaine-primed reinstatement. Wheel running immediately and effectively reduced cocaine-seeking behavior, but concurrent access to running was necessary. Thus, exercise is a useful and self-sustaining intervention to reduce cocaine-seeking behavior.

  16. Resting Is Rusting: A Critical View on Rodent Wheel-Running Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sophie Helene; Gass, Peter; Fuss, Johannes

    2014-08-01

    Physical exercise is known to exert various beneficial effects on brain function and bodily health throughout life. In biomedical research, these effects are widely studied by introducing running wheels into the cages of laboratory rodents. Yet, although rodents start to run in the wheels immediately, and perform wheel-running excessively on a voluntary basis, the biological significance of wheel-running is still not clear. Here, we review the current literature on wheel-running and discuss potentially negative side-effects that may give cause for concern. We particularly emphasize on analogies of wheel-running with stereotypic and addictive behavior to stimulate further research on this topic. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Reduced metabolic disease risk profile by voluntary wheel running accompanying juvenile Western diet in rats bred for high and low voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Braselton, Joshua F; Roberts, Christian K; Booth, Frank W

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic disease risk is influenced by genetics and modifiable factors, such as physical activity and diet. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, rats selectively bred for high (HVR) versus low voluntary running distance (LVR) behaviors were housed in a complex design with or without voluntary running wheels being fed either a standard or Western (WD, 42% kcal from fat and added sucrose) diet for 8 weeks. Upon intervention completion, percent body fat, leptin, insulin, and mediobasal hypothalamic mRNAs related to appetite control were assessed. Wheel access led to differences in body weight, food intake, and serum leptin and insulin. Intriguingly, percent body fat, leptin, and insulin did not differ between HVR and LVR lines in response to the two levels of voluntary running, regardless of diet, after the 8 wk. experiment despite HVR eating more calories than LVR regardless of diet and voluntarily running 5-7 times further in wheels than LVR. In response to WD, we observed increases in Cart and Lepr mediobasal hypothalamic mRNA in HVR, but no differences in LVR. Npy mRNA was intrinsically greater in LVR than HVR, while wheel access led to greater Pomc and Cart mRNA in LVR versus HVR. These data suggest that despite greater consumption of WD, HVR animals respond similarly to WD as LVR as a result, in part, of their increased wheel running behavior. Furthermore, high physical activity in HVR may offset the deleterious effects of a WD on adiposity despite greater energy intake in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514

  19. Using wheel availability to shape running behavior of the rat towards improved behavioral and neurobiological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Julia C; Morrell, Joan I

    2017-10-01

    Though voluntary wheel running (VWR) has been used extensively to induce changes in both behavior and biology, little attention has been given to the way in which different variables influence VWR. This lack of understanding has led to an inability to utilize this behavior to its full potential, possibly blunting its effects on the endpoints of interest. We tested how running experience, sex, gonadal hormones, and wheel apparatus influence VWR in a range of wheel access "doses". VWR increases over several weeks, with females eventually running 1.5 times farther and faster than males. Limiting wheel access can be used as a tool to motivate subjects to run but restricts maximal running speeds attained by the rodents. Additionally, circulating gonadal hormones regulate wheel running behavior, but are not the sole basis of sex differences in running. Limitations from previous studies include the predominate use of males, emphasis on distance run, variable amounts of wheel availability, variable light-dark cycles, and possible food and/or water deprivation. We designed a comprehensive set of experiments to address these inconsistencies, providing data regarding the "microfeatures" of running, including distance run, time spent running, running rate, bouting behavior, and daily running patterns. By systematically altering wheel access, VWR behavior can be finely tuned - a feature that we hypothesize is due to its positive incentive salience. We demonstrate how to maximize VWR, which will allow investigators to optimize exercise-induced changes in their behavioral and/or biological endpoints of interest. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Habituation contributes to the decline in wheel running within wheel-running reinforcement periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2005-02-28

    Habituation appears to play a role in the decline in wheel running within an interval. Aoyama and McSweeney [Aoyama, K., McSweeney, F.K., 2001. Habituation contributes to within-session changes in free wheel running. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 76, 289-302] showed that when a novel stimulus was presented during a 30-min interval, wheel-running rates following the stimulus increased to levels approximating those earlier in the interval. The present study sought to assess the role of habituation in the decline in running that occurs over a briefer interval. In two experiments, rats responded on fixed-interval 30-s schedules for the opportunity to run for 45 s. Forty reinforcers were completed in each session. In the first experiment, the brake and chamber lights were repeatedly activated and inactivated after 25 s of a reinforcement interval had elapsed to assess the effect on running within the remaining 20 s. Presentations of the brake/light stimulus occurred during nine randomly determined reinforcement intervals in a session. In the second experiment, a 110 dB tone was emitted after 25 s of the reinforcement interval. In both experiments, presentation of the stimulus produced an immediate decline in running that dissipated over sessions. No increase in running following the stimulus was observed in the first experiment until the stimulus-induced decline dissipated. In the second experiment, increases in running were observed following the tone in the first session as well as when data were averaged over several sessions. In general, the results concur with the assertion that habituation plays a role in the decline in wheel running that occurs within both long and short intervals. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  2. Restricted vs. unrestricted wheel running in mice: Effects on brain, behavior and endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Sarah V; Auer, Matthias K; Bindila, Laura; Ende, Gabriele; Lutz, Beat; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Gass, Peter; Fuss, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    Beneficial effects of voluntary wheel running on hippocampal neurogenesis, morphology and hippocampal-dependent behavior have widely been studied in rodents, but also serious side effects and similarities to stereotypy have been reported. Some mouse strains run excessively when equipped with running wheels, complicating the comparability to human exercise regimes. Here, we investigated how exercise restriction to 6h/day affects hippocampal morphology and metabolism, stereotypic and basal behaviors, as well as the endocannabinoid system in wheel running C57BL/6 mice; the strain most commonly used for behavioral analyses and psychiatric disease models. Restricted and unrestricted wheel running had similar effects on immature hippocampal neuron numbers, thermoregulatory nest building and basal home-cage behaviors. Surprisingly, hippocampal gray matter volume, assessed with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 9.4 Tesla, was only increased in unrestricted but not in restricted runners. Moreover, unrestricted runners showed less stereotypic behavior than restricted runners did. However, after blockage of running wheels for 24h stereotypic behavior also increased in unrestricted runners, arguing against a long-term effect of wheel running on stereotypic behavior. Stereotypic behaviors correlated with frontal glutamate and glucose levels assessed by 1 H-MR spectroscopy. While acute running increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide in former studies in mice and humans, we found an inverse correlation of anandamide with the daily running distance after long-term running. In conclusion, although there are some diverging effects of restricted and unrestricted running on brain and behavior, restricted running does not per se seem to be a better animal model for aerobic exercise in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pre-exposure to wheel running disrupts taste aversion conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Pierce, W David; Heth, Donald C; Russell, James C

    2002-05-01

    When rats are given access to a running wheel after drinking a flavored solution, they subsequently drink less of that flavor solution. It has been suggested that running produces a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). This study explored whether CTA is eliminated by prior exposure to wheel running [i.e., unconditioned stimulus (UCS) pre-exposure effect]. The rats in the experimental group (UW) were allowed to wheel run for 1 h daily for seven consecutive days of pre-exposure. Rats in the two other groups had either access to locked wheels (LW group) or were maintained in their home cages (HC group) during the pre-exposure days. All rats were then exposed to four paired and four unpaired trials using a "ABBAABBA" design. Conditioning trials were composed of one flavored liquid followed by 60-min access to wheel running. For the unpaired trials, rats received a different flavor not followed by the opportunity to run. All rats were then initially tested for water consumption followed by tests of the two flavors (paired or unpaired) in a counterbalanced design. Rats in the UW group show no CTA to the liquid paired with wheel running, whereas LW and HC groups developed CTA. These results indicate that pre-exposure to wheel running (i.e., the UCS), eliminates subsequent CTA.

  4. Blocking of conditioned taste avoidance induced by wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, W David; Heth, C Donald

    2010-01-01

    In Experiment 1, compared to non-reinforced presentation of a food stimulus (A-->no US), the association of a food stimulus with wheel running (A-->US) blocked subsequent avoidance of a distinctive flavor (X), when both the food and flavor were followed by wheel running (AX-->US). Experiment 2 replicated and extended the blocking effect, demonstrating that the amount of avoidance of X after AX-->wheel training depended on the correlation between A-alone trials and wheel running-the predictiveness of the A stimulus. The present study is the first to demonstrate associative blocking of conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) induced by wheel running and strongly implicates associative learning as the basis for this kind of avoidance. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of wheel running on chronic ethanol intake in aged Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brager, Allison J; Hammer, Steven B

    2012-10-10

    Alcohol dependence in aging populations is seen as a public health concern, most recently because of the significant proportion of heavy drinking among "Baby Boomers." Basic animal research on the effects of aging on physiological and behavioral regulation of ethanol (EtOH) intake is sparse, since most of this research is limited to younger models of alcoholism. Here, EtOH drinking and preference were measured in groups of aged Syrian hamsters. Further, because voluntary exercise (wheel-running) is a rewarding substitute for EtOH in young adult hamsters, the potential for such reward substitution was also assessed. Aged (24 month-old) male hamsters were subjected to a three-stage regimen of free-choice EtOH (20% v/v) or water and unlocked or locked running wheels to investigate the modulatory effects of voluntary wheel running on EtOH intake and preference. Levels of fluid intake and activity were recorded daily across 60 days of experimentation. Prior to wheel running, levels of EtOH intake were significantly less than levels of water intake, resulting in a low preference for EtOH (30%). Hamsters with access to an unlocked running wheel had decreased EtOH intake and preference compared with hamsters with access to a locked running wheel. These group differences in EtOH intake and preference were sustained for up to 10 days after running wheels were re-locked. These results extend upon those of our previous work in young adult hamsters, indicating that aging dampens EtOH intake and preference. Voluntary wheel running further limited EtOH intake, suggesting that exercise could offer a practical approach for managing late-life alcoholism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Wheel-running in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: protection or symptom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Helene; Ambrée, Oliver; Lewejohann, Lars; Herring, Arne; Keyvani, Kathy; Paulus, Werner; Palme, Rupert; Touma, Chadi; Schäbitz, Wolf-Rüdiger; Sachser, Norbert

    2008-06-26

    Several studies on both humans and animals reveal benefits of physical exercise on brain function and health. A previous study on TgCRND8 mice, a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease, reported beneficial effects of premorbid onset of long-term access to a running wheel on spatial learning and plaque deposition. Our study investigated the effects of access to a running wheel after the onset of Abeta pathology on behavioural, endocrinological, and neuropathological parameters. From day 80 of age, the time when Abeta deposition becomes apparent, TgCRND8 and wildtype mice were kept with or without running wheel. Home cage behaviour was analysed and cognitive abilities regarding object recognition memory and spatial learning in the Barnes maze were assessed. Our results show that, in comparison to Wt mice, Tg mice were characterised by impaired object recognition memory and spatial learning, increased glucocorticoid levels, hyperactivity in the home cage and high levels of stereotypic behaviour. Access to a running wheel had no effects on cognitive or neuropathological parameters, but reduced the amount of stereotypic behaviour in transgenics significantly. Furthermore, wheel-running was inversely correlated with stereotypic behaviour, suggesting that wheel-running may have stereotypic qualities. In addition, wheel-running positively correlated with plaque burden. Thus, in a phase when plaques are already present in the brain, it may be symptomatic of brain pathology, rather than protective. Whether or not access to a running wheel has beneficial effects on Alzheimer-like pathology and symptoms may therefore strongly depend on the exact time when the wheel is provided during development of the disease.

  7. Stereotypic wheel running decreases cortical activity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Simon P.; Cui, Nanyi; McKillop, Laura E.; Gemignani, Jessica; Bannerman, David M.; Oliver, Peter L.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness is thought to gradually increase ‘sleep need' and influence subsequent sleep duration and intensity, but the role of specific waking behaviours remains unclear. Here we report the effect of voluntary wheel running during wakefulness on neuronal activity in the motor and somatosensory cortex in mice. We find that stereotypic wheel running is associated with a substantial reduction in firing rates among a large subpopulation of cortical neurons, especially at high speeds. Wheel running also has longer-term effects on spiking activity across periods of wakefulness. Specifically, cortical firing rates are significantly higher towards the end of a spontaneous prolonged waking period. However, this increase is abolished when wakefulness is dominated by running wheel activity. These findings indicate that wake-related changes in firing rates are determined not only by wake duration, but also by specific waking behaviours. PMID:27748455

  8. The medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens mediate the motivation for voluntary wheel running in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Julia C; Morrell, Joan I

    2015-08-01

    Voluntary wheel running in rats provides a preclinical model of exercise motivation in humans. We hypothesized that rats run because this activity has positive incentive salience in both the acquisition and habitual stages of wheel running and that gender differences might be present. Additionally, we sought to determine which forebrain regions are essential for the motivational processes underlying wheel running in rats. The motivation for voluntary wheel running in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated during the acquisition (Days 1-7) and habitual phases (after Day 21) of running using conditioned place preference (CPP) and the reinstatement (rebound) response after forced abstinence, respectively. Both genders displayed a strong CPP for the acquisition phase and a strong rebound response to wheel deprivation during the habitual phase, suggesting that both phases of wheel running are rewarding for both sexes. Female rats showed a 1.5 times greater rebound response than males to wheel deprivation in the habitual phase of running, while during the acquisition phase, no gender differences in CPP were found. We transiently inactivated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or the nucleus accumbens (NA), hypothesizing that because these regions are involved in the acquisition and reinstatement of self-administration of both natural and pharmacological stimuli, they might also serve a role in the motivation to wheel run. Inactivation of either structure decreased the rebound response in the habitual phase of running, demonstrating that these structures are involved in the motivation for this behavior. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Wheel running, voluntary ethanol consumption, and hedonic substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozburn, Angela Renee; Harris, R Adron; Blednov, Yuri A

    2008-08-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between naturally rewarding behaviors and ethanol drinking behaviors in mice. Although natural and drug reinforcers activate similar brain circuitry, there is behavioral evidence suggesting food and drug rewards differ in perceived value. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the relationships between naturally reinforcing stimuli and consumption of ethanol in ethanol preferring C57BL/6J mice. Mouse behaviors were observed after the following environmental manipulations: standard or enhanced environment, accessible or inaccessible wheel, and presence or absence of ethanol. Using a high-resolution volumetric drinking monitor and wheel running monitor, we evaluated whether alternating access to wheel running modified ethanol-related behaviors and whether alternating access to ethanol modified wheel running or subsequent ethanol-related behaviors. We found that ethanol consumption remains stable with alternating periods of wheel running. Wheel running increases in the absence of ethanol and decreases upon reintroduction of ethanol. Upon reintroduction of ethanol, an alcohol deprivation effect was seen. Collectively, the results support theories of hedonic substitution and suggest that female C57BL/6J mice express ethanol seeking and craving under these specific conditions.

  10. Stabilization of the wheel running phenotype in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Robert S; Cates, Brittany E; Combs, Eric B; Dillard, Bryce M; Epting, Jessica T; Foster, Brittany R; Patterson, Shawnee V; Spivey, Thomas P

    2016-03-01

    Increased physical activity is well known to improve health and wellness by modifying the risks for many chronic diseases. Rodent wheel running behavior is a beneficial surrogate model to evaluate the biology of daily physical activity in humans. Upon initial exposure to a running wheel, individual mice differentially respond to the experience, which confounds the normal activity patterns exhibited in this otherwise repeatable phenotype. To promote phenotypic stability, a minimum seven-day (or greater) acclimation period is utilized. Although phenotypic stabilization is achieved during this 7-day period, data to support acclimation periods of this length are not currently available in the literature. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the wheel running response in C57BL/6j mice immediately following exposure to a running wheel. Twenty-eight male and thirty female C57BL/6j mice (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME) were acquired at eight weeks of age and were housed individually with free access to running wheels. Wheel running distance (km), duration (min), and speed (m∙min(-1)) were measured daily for fourteen days following initial housing. One-way ANOVAs were used to evaluate day-to-day differences in each wheel running character. Limits of agreement and mean difference statistics were calculated between days 1-13 (acclimating) and day 14 (acclimated) to assess day-to-day agreement between each parameter. Wheel running distance (males: F=5.653, p=2.14 × 10(-9); females: F=8.217, p=1.20 × 10(-14)), duration (males: F=2.613, p=0.001; females: F=4.529, p=3.28 × 10(-7)), and speed (males: F=7.803, p=1.22 × 10(-13); females: F=13.140, p=2.00 × 10(-16)) exhibited day-to-day differences. Tukey's HSD post-hoc testing indicated differences between early (males: days 1-3; females: days 1-6) and later (males: days >3; females: days >6) wheel running periods in distance and speed. Duration only exhibited an anomalous difference between wheel running on day 13

  11. Wheel running decreases palatable diet preference in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Laura; Liang, Joy; Choi, Pique P; Moran, Timothy H; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2015-10-15

    Physical activity has beneficial effects on not only improving some disease conditions but also by preventing the development of multiple disorders. Experiments in this study examined the effects of wheel running on intakes of chow and palatable diet e.g. high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) diet in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that acute wheel running results in robust HF or HS diet avoidance in male rats. Although female rats with running wheel access initially showed complete avoidance of the two palatable diets, the avoidance of the HS diet was transient. Experiment 2 demonstrated that male rats developed decreased HF diet preferences regardless of the order of diet and wheel running access presentation. Running associated changes in HF diet preference in females, on the other hand, depended on the testing schedule. In female rats, simultaneous presentation of the HF diet and running access resulted in transient complete HF diet avoidance whereas running experience prior to HF diet access did not affect the high preference for the HF diet. Ovariectomy in females resulted in HF diet preference patterns that were similar to those in male rats during simultaneous exposure of HF and wheel running access but similar to intact females when running occurred before HF exposure. Overall, the results demonstrated wheel running associated changes in palatable diet preferences that were in part sex dependent. Furthermore, ovarian hormones play a role in some of the sex differences. These data reveal complexity in the mechanisms underlying exercise associated changes in palatable diet preference. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Wheel running decreases palatable diet preference in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Laura; Liang, Joy; Choi, Pique P.; Moran, Timothy H.; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has beneficial effects on not only improving some disease conditions but also by preventing the development of multiple disorders. Experiments in this study examined the effects of wheel running on intakes of chow and palatable diet e.g. high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) diet in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that acute wheel running results in robust HF or HS diet avoidance in male rats. Although female rats with running wheel access initially showed complete avoidance of the two palatable diets, the avoidance of the HS diet was transient. Experiment 2 demonstrated that male rats developed decreased HF diet preferences regardless of the order of diet and wheel running access presentation. Running associated changes in HF diet preference in females, on the other hand, depended on the testing schedule. In female rats, simultaneous presentation of the HF diet and running access resulted in transient complete HF diet avoidance whereas running experience prior to HF diet access did not affect the high preference for the HF diet. Ovariectomy in females resulted in HF diet preference patterns that were similar to those in male rats during simultaneous exposure of HF and wheel running access but similar to intact females when running occurred before HF exposure. Overall, the results demonstrated wheel running associated changes in palatable diet preferences that were in part sex dependent. Furthermore, ovarian hormones play a role in some of the sex differences. These data reveal complexity in the mechanisms underlying exercise associated changes in palatable diet preference. PMID:25791204

  13. Running in a running wheel substitutes for stereotypies in mink (Mustela vison) but does it improve their welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2009-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether access to a running wheel affects the development of stereotypies during restricted feeding and whether selection for high or low levels of stereotypy affects the use of the running wheel. Sixty-two female mink kept in standard cages and selected for high or low...... levels of stereotypy were used. Thirty of these females had access to a running wheel whereas thirty-two female mink had no access to running wheels. The number of turns of the running wheel, behaviour, feed consumption, body weight and the concentration of plasma cortisol were measured during the winter...... period. Mink with access to a running wheel did not perform stereotypic behaviour and mink selected for a high level of stereotypies had more turns in the running wheel than mink selected for low levels of stereotypies. Mink with access to a running wheel used the running wheel for the same amount...

  14. Effects of acute voluntary loaded wheel running on BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minchul; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-12-31

    Voluntary loaded wheel running involves the use of a load during a voluntary running activity. A muscle-strength or power-type activity performed at a relatively high intensity and a short duration may cause fewer apparent metabolic adaptations but may still elicit muscle fiber hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine the effects of acute voluntary wheel running with an additional load on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat hippocampus. Ten-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to a (1) sedentary (Control) group; (2) voluntary exercise with no load (No-load) group; or (3) voluntary exercise with an additional load (Load) group for 1-week (acute period). The expression of BDNF genes was quantified by real-time PCR. The average distance levels were not significantly different in the No-load and Load groups. However, the average work levels significantly increased in the Load group. The relative soleus weights were greater in the No-load group. Furthermore, loaded wheel running up-regulated the BDNF mRNA level compared with that in the Control group. The BDNF mRNA levels showed a positive correlation with workload levels (r=0.75), suggesting that the availability of multiple workload levels contributes to the BDNF-related benefits of loaded wheel running noted in this study. This novel approach yielded the first set of findings showing that acute voluntary loaded wheel running, which causes muscular adaptation, enhanced BDNF expression, suggesting a possible role of high-intensity short-term exercise in hippocampal BDNF activity. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  15. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of pre-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2006-01-10

    Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. To assess the effect of pre-running, animals were allowed to run for 1h prior to a session of responding for sucrose and running. Results showed that, after pre-running, response rates in the later segments of the 30-s schedule decreased in the presence of a wheel-running stimulus and increased in the presence of a sucrose stimulus. Wheel-running rates were not affected. Analysis of mean post-reinforcement pauses (PRP) broken down by transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that pre-running lengthened pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling wheel running and shortened pauses in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. No effect was observed on local response rates. Changes in pausing in the presence of stimuli signaling the two reinforcers were consistent with a decrease in the reinforcing efficacy of wheel running and an increase in the reinforcing efficacy of sucrose. Pre-running decreased motivation to respond for running, but increased motivation to work for food.

  16. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: Relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems—including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors—that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity. PMID:22230703

  17. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Colleen M; Burghardt, Paul R; Levine, James A

    2012-03-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems-including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors-that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Innovative Running Wheel-based Mechanism for Improved Rat Training Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Yang, Chin-Lung; Chang, Ching-Ping

    2016-09-19

    This study presents an animal mobility system, equipped with a positioning running wheel (PRW), as a way to quantify the efficacy of an exercise activity for reducing the severity of the effects of the stroke in rats. This system provides more effective animal exercise training than commercially available systems such as treadmills and motorized running wheels (MRWs). In contrast to an MRW that can only achieve speeds below 20 m/min, rats are permitted to run at a stable speed of 30 m/min on a more spacious and high-density rubber running track supported by a 15 cm wide acrylic wheel with a diameter of 55 cm in this work. Using a predefined adaptive acceleration curve, the system not only reduces the operator error but also trains the rats to run persistently until a specified intensity is reached. As a way to evaluate the exercise effectiveness, real-time position of a rat is detected by four pairs of infrared sensors deployed on the running wheel. Once an adaptive acceleration curve is initiated using a microcontroller, the data obtained by the infrared sensors are automatically recorded and analyzed in a computer. For comparison purposes, 3 week training is conducted on rats using a treadmill, an MRW and a PRW. After surgically inducing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), modified neurological severity scores (mNSS) and an inclined plane test were conducted to assess the neurological damages to the rats. PRW is experimentally validated as the most effective among such animal mobility systems. Furthermore, an exercise effectiveness measure, based on rat position analysis, showed that there is a high negative correlation between the effective exercise and the infarct volume, and can be employed to quantify a rat training in any type of brain damage reduction experiments.

  19. Selection for increased voluntary wheel-running affects behavior and brain monoamines in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, R.Parrish; Pringle, R.B.; Forster, G.L.; Renner, K.J.; Malisch, J.L.; Garland, T.; Swallow, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. PMID:23352668

  20. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor but not neurotrophin-3 increases more in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R A; Rhodes, J S; Jeffrey, S L; Garland, T; Mitchell, G S

    2003-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running in rats increases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, a neurochemical important for neuronal survival, differentiation, connectivity and synaptic plasticity. Here, we report the effects of wheel running on BDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) protein levels in normal control mice, and in mice selectively bred (25 generations) for increased voluntary wheel running. We hypothesized that increased voluntary wheel running in selected (S) mice would increase CNS BDNF and NT-3 protein levels more than in control (C) mice. Baseline hippocampal BDNF levels (mice housed without running wheels) were similar in S and C mice. Following seven nights of running, hippocampal BDNF increased significantly more in S versus C mice, and levels were correlated with distance run (considering C and S mice together). Spinal and cerebellar BDNF and hippocampal NT-3 levels were not significantly affected by wheel running in any group, but there was a small, positive correlation between spinal C3-C6 BDNF levels and distance run (considering C and S mice together). This is the first study to demonstrate that mice which choose to run more have greater elevations in hippocampal BDNF, suggesting enhanced potential for exercise-induced hippocampal neuroplasticity.

  1. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effects of sucrose concentration and wheel-running reinforcer duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Hancock, Stephanie D

    2003-03-01

    Six male albino rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed-interval 30-s schedule of lever pressing that produced either a drop of sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for a fixed duration as reinforcers. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. In Experiment 1, the duration of running was held constant at 15 s while the concentration of sucrose solution was varied across values of 0, 2.5. 5, 10, and 15%. As concentration decreased, postreinforcement pause duration increased and local rates decreased in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. Consequently, the difference between responding in the presence of stimuli signaling wheel-running and sucrose reinforcers diminished, and at 2.5%, response functions for the two reinforcers were similar. In Experiment 2, the concentration of sucrose solution was held constant at 15% while the duration of the opportunity to run was first varied across values of 15, 45, and 90 s then subsequently across values of 5, 10, and 15 s. As run duration increased, postreinforcement pause duration in the presence of the wheel-running stimulus increased and local rates increased then decreased. In summary, inhibitory aftereffects of previous reinforcers occurred when both sucrose concentration and run duration varied; changes in responding were attributable to changes in the excitatory value of the stimuli signaling the two reinforcers.

  2. Voluntary wheel running delays disease onset and reduces pain hypersensitivity in early experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Curtis; Paylor, John W; Tenorio, Gustavo; Winship, Ian; Baker, Glen; Kerr, Bradley J

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classically defined by motor deficits, but it is also associated with the secondary symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Up to this point modifying these secondary symptoms has been difficult. There is evidence that both MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, can be modulated by exercise. To examine whether limited voluntary wheel running could modulate EAE disease progression and the co-morbid symptoms of pain, mice with EAE were allowed access to running wheels for 1h every day. Allowing only 1h every day of voluntary running led to a significant delay in the onset of clinical signs of the disease. The development of mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey hairs and indicated that wheel running had a modest positive effect on the pain hypersensitivity associated with EAE. These behavioral changes were associated with reduced numbers of cFOS and phosphorylated NR1 positive cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to no-run EAE controls. In addition, within the dorsal horn, voluntary wheel running reduced the number of infiltrating CD3(+) T-cells and reduced the overall levels of Iba1 immunoreactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we observed that wheel-running lead to significant changes in the spinal cord levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Oxidative stress has separately been shown to contribute to EAE disease progression and neuropathic pain. Together these results indicate that in mice with EAE, voluntary motor activity can delay the onset of clinical signs and reduce pain symptoms associated with the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fermented soymilk increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Kaneko, Daisuke; Nishimura, Ikuko; Matsuyama, Asahi

    2010-12-01

    Wheel running by rodents is thought to reflect voluntary exercise in humans. The present study examined the effect of fermented soymilk (FSM) on voluntary wheel running in rats. FSM was prepared from soymilk (SM) using the bacteria Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The rats were fed a normal diet for 3 weeks followed by a 3-week administration of diet containing FSM or SM (5% w/w), and then the diets were switched back to a normal diet for 3 weeks. The voluntary wheel running activity was increased by FSM administration, although no changes were observed by SM administration. This effect was observed 2 weeks after FSM administration and lasted 1 week after deprivation of FSM. Then we evaluated the effect of FSM on sexual behavior in male rats. FSM administration for 10 days significantly increased the number of mounts. The protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) increased in the hippocampus by FSM administration and it is suggested that FSM may change norepinephrine or dopamine signaling in the brain. Our study provides the first evidence that FSM increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior and suggests that TH may be involved in these effects.

  4. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity,...

  5. Voluntary wheel running reverses age-induced changes in hippocampal gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Kohman

    Full Text Available Normal aging alters expression of numerous genes within the brain. Some of these transcription changes likely contribute to age-associated cognitive decline, reduced neural plasticity, and the higher incidence of neuropathology. Identifying factors that modulate brain aging is crucial for improving quality of life. One promising intervention to counteract negative effects of aging is aerobic exercise. Aged subjects that exercise show enhanced cognitive performance and increased hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Currently, the mechanisms behind the anti-aging effects of exercise are not understood. The present study conducted a microarray on whole hippocampal samples from adult (3.5-month-old and aged (18-month-old male BALB/c mice that were individually housed with or without running wheels for 8 weeks. Results showed that aging altered genes related to chromatin remodeling, cell growth, immune activity, and synapse organization compared to adult mice. Exercise was found to modulate many of the genes altered by aging, but in the opposite direction. For example, wheel running increased expression of genes related to cell growth and attenuated expression of genes involved in immune function and chromatin remodeling. Collectively, findings show that even late-onset exercise may attenuate age-related changes in gene expression and identifies possible pathways through which exercise may exert its beneficial effects.

  6. Effects of leptin treatment and Western diet on wheel running in selectively bred high runner mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas H; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Vu, Kim T; Garland, Theodore

    2012-05-15

    The role of leptin in regulating physical activity is varied. The behavioral effects of leptin signaling depend on the type of activity and the animal's physiological state. We used mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running to further study how leptin regulates volitional exercise. Mice from four replicate high runner (HR) lines typically run ~3-fold more revolutions per day than those from four non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice have altered dopamine function and differences from C in brain regions known to be important in leptin-mediated behavior. Furthermore, male HR mice have been found to dramatically increase running when administered Western diet, an effect possibly mediated through leptin signaling. Male mice from generation 61 (representing three HR lines and one C line) were allowed wheel access at 24 days of age and given either Western diet (high in fat and with added sucrose) or standard chow. After four weeks, Western diet significantly increased circulating leptin, insulin, C-peptide, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and inflammatory hormone resistin concentrations in HR mice (C mice not measured). Western diet increased running in HR mice, but did not significantly affect running in C mice. During the fifth week, all mice received two days of intra-peritoneal sham injections (physiological saline) followed by three days of murine recombinant leptin injections, and then another six days of sham injections. Leptin treatment significantly decreased caloric intake (adjusted for body mass) and body mass in all groups. Wheel running significantly increased with leptin injections in HR mice (fed Western or standard diet), but was unaffected in C mice. Whether Western diet and leptin treatment stimulate wheel running in HR mice through the same physiological pathways awaits future study. These results have implications for understanding the neural and endocrine systems that control locomotor activity, food consumption, and body

  7. Voluntary resistance running wheel activity pattern and skeletal muscle growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Elliott, Bradley; Guillemin, Bernard; Smith, Heather K

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the pattern of voluntary activity of young rats in response to resistance loading on running wheels and to determine the effects of the activity on the growth of six limb skeletal muscles. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were housed individually with a resistance running wheel (R-RUN, n = 7) or a conventional free-spinning running wheel (F-RUN, n = 6) or without a wheel, as non-running control animals (CON, n = 6). The torque required to move the wheel in the R-RUN group was progressively increased, and the activity (velocity, distance and duration of each bout) of the two running wheel groups was recorded continuously for 45 days. The R-RUN group performed many more, shorter and faster bouts of running than the F-RUN group, yet the mean daily distance was not different between the F-RUN (1.3 +/- 0.2 km) and R-RUN group (1.4 +/- 0.6 km). Only the R-RUN resulted in a significantly (P RUN and R-RUN led to a significantly greater wet mass relative to increase in body mass and muscle fibre cross-sectional area in the soleus muscle compared with CON. We conclude that the pattern of voluntary activity on a resistance running wheel differs from that on a free-spinning running wheel and provides a suitable model to induce physiological muscle hypertrophy in rats.

  8. Endurance capacity of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas H; Lonquich, Brian P; Hannon, Robert M; Garland, Theodore

    2009-09-15

    Mice from four lines bred for high voluntary wheel activity run approximately 3-fold more revolutions per day and have elevated maximal oxygen consumption during forced treadmill exercise, as compared with four unselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that these high runner (HR) lines would have greater treadmill endurance-running capacity. Ninety-six mice from generation 49 were familiarized with running on a motorized treadmill for 3 days. On days 4 and 5, mice were given an incremental speed test (starting at 20 m min(-1), increased 1.5 m min(-1) every 2 min) and endurance was measured as the total time or distance run to exhaustion. Blood samples were taken to measure glucose and lactate concentrations at rest during the photophase, during peak nightly wheel running, and immediately following the second endurance test. Individual differences in endurance time were highly repeatable between days (r=0.79), and mice tended to run longer on the second day (paired t-test, Pwheel running and treadmill endurance differed between the sexes, reinforcing previous studies that indicate sex-specific responses to selective breeding. HR mice appear to have a higher endurance capacity than reported in the literature for inbred strains of mice or transgenics intended to enhance endurance.

  9. Forward conditioning with wheel running causes place aversion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2008-09-01

    Backward pairings of a distinctive chamber as a conditioned stimulus and wheel running as an unconditioned stimulus (i.e., running-then-chamber) can produce a conditioned place preference in rats. The present study explored whether a forward conditioning procedure with these stimuli (i.e., chamber-then-running) would yield place preference or aversion. Confinement of a rat in one of two distinctive chambers was followed by a 20- or 60-min running opportunity, but confinement in the other was not. After four repetitions of this treatment (i.e., differential conditioning), a choice preference test was given in which the rat had free access to both chambers. This choice test showed that the rats given 60-min running opportunities spent less time in the running-paired chamber than in the unpaired chamber. Namely, a 60-min running opportunity after confinement in a distinctive chamber caused conditioned aversion to that chamber after four paired trials. This result was discussed with regard to the opponent-process theory of motivation.

  10. Effect of wheel-running during abstinence on subsequent nicotine-seeking in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Victoria; Moore, Catherine F; Brunzell, Darlene H; Lynch, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Exercise appears to be a promising non-pharmacological treatment for nicotine addiction that may be useful for the vulnerable adolescent population. Objectives To determine if wheel running, an animal model of aerobic exercise, during an abstinence period would decrease subsequent nicotine-seeking in rats that had extended access to nicotine self-administration during adolescence. Methods Male adolescent rats (n = 55) were trained to self-administer saline or nicotine infusions (5 or 10 μg/kg) under a fixed ratio 1 schedule with a maximum of 20 infusions/day beginning on postnatal day 30. After 5 days, access was extended to 23-hr/day with unlimited infusions for a total of 10 days. After the last self-administration session, rats were moved to polycarbonate cages for a 10-day abstinence period where they either had access to a locked or unlocked running wheel for 2-hr/day. Nicotine-seeking was examined following the 10th day of abstinence under a within-session extinction/cue-induced reinstatement paradigm. Results Intake was higher at the 10 μg/kg dose as compared to the 5 μg/kg dose; however, intake did not differ within doses prior to wheel assignment. Compared to saline controls, rats that self-administered nicotine at either dose showed a significant increase in drug-seeking during extinction, and consistent with our hypothesis, exercise during abstinence attenuated this effect. Nicotine led to modest, but significant levels of cue-induced reinstatement; however, in this adolescent-onset model, levels were variable and not affected by exercise. Conclusions Exercise may effectively reduce relapse vulnerability for adolescent-onset nicotine addiction. PMID:23371488

  11. Effects of genetic background and environmental novelty on wheel running as a rewarding behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud; Stoker, Astrid K; Kas, Martien J H; Spruijt, Berry M

    2007-02-27

    Recent studies suggest running wheel activity to be naturally rewarding and reinforcing; considering the shared neuro-behavioural characteristics with drug-induced reward situations, wheel running behaviour gains interest as a tool to study mechanisms underlying reward-sensitivity. Previously, we showed that wheel running has the potential to disrupt the daily organization of home cage behaviour in female C57BL/6 [de Visser L, van den Bos R, Spruijt BM. Automated home cage observations as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on cage floor locomotion. Behav Brain Res 2005;160:382-8]. In the present study, we investigated the effects of novelty-induced stress on wheel running and its impact on home cage behaviour in male C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Our aim was to determine whether wheel running may be used as a tool to study both genetic and environmentally induced differences in sensitivity to rewarding behaviour in mice. One group of male mice was placed in an automated home cage observation system for 2 weeks with a wheel integrated in the cage. A second group of mice was allowed to habituate to this cage for 1 week before a running wheel was introduced. Results showed a pronounced sensitising effect of novelty on the level of wheel running in C57Bl/6 mice but not in DBA mice. Overall levels of wheel running were higher in DBA/2 mice. Furthermore, wheel running affected circadian rhythmicity in DBA/2 mice but not in C57BL/6 mice. From these findings we tentatively suggest that wheel running behaviour could serve as a tool to study the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in sensitivity to rewarding behaviour in mice. As it is displayed spontaneously and easy to monitor, wheel running may be well suitable to be included in high-throughput phenotyping assays.

  12. Reinforcement of wheel running in BALB/c mice: role of motor activity and endogenous opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Pérez, Héctor; Sellings, Laurie H L; Paredes, Raúl G; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A; Díaz, José-Luis

    2008-11-01

    The authors investigated the effect of the opioid antagonist naloxone on wheel-running behavior in Balb/c mice. Naloxone delayed the acquisition of wheel-running behavior, but did not reduce the expression of this behavior once acquired. Delayed acquisition was not likely a result of reduced locomotor activity, as naloxone-treated mice did not exhibit reduced wheel running after the behavior was acquired, and they performed normally on the rotarod test. However, naloxone-blocked conditioned place preference for a novel compartment paired previously with wheel running, suggesting that naloxone may delay wheel-running acquisition by blocking the rewarding or reinforcing effects of the behavior. These results suggest that the endogenous opioid system mediates the initial reinforcing effects of wheel running that are important in acquisition of the behavior.

  13. Access to a running wheel inhibits the acquisition of cocaine self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Pitts, Elizabeth G

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity decreases cocaine self-administration in laboratory animals and is associated with positive outcomes in substance abuse treatment programs; however, less is known about its efficacy in preventing the establishment of regular patterns of substance use in drug-naive individuals. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of access to a running wheel on the acquisition of cocaine self-administration in experimentally naive rats. Male, Long-Evans rats were obtained at weaning and assigned to sedentary (no wheel) or exercising (access to wheel) conditions immediately upon arrival. After six weeks, rats were surgically implanted with intravenous catheters and placed in operant conditioning chambers for 2 h/day for 15 consecutive days. Each session began with a noncontingent priming infusion of cocaine, followed by a free-operant period in which each response on the active lever produced an infusion of cocaine on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. For days 1-5, responding was reinforced with 0.25 mg/kg/infusion cocaine; for days 6-15, responding was reinforced with 0.75 mg/kg/infusion cocaine. In addition, all rats were calorically restricted during days 11-15 to 85% to 95% of their free-feeding body weight. Compared to sedentary rats, exercising rats acquired cocaine self-administration at a significantly slower rate and emitted significantly fewer active lever presses during the 15 days of behavioral testing. These data indicate that access to a running wheel inhibits the acquisition of cocaine self-administration, and that physical activity may be an effective intervention in substance abuse prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Wheel running decreases palatable diet preference in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Laura; Liang, Joy; Choi, Pique P.; Moran, Timothy H.; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has beneficial effects on not only improving some disease conditions but also by preventing the development of multiple disorders. Experiments in this study examined the effects of wheel running on intakes of chow and palatable diet e.g. high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) diet in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that acute wheel running results in robust HF or HS diet avoidance in male rats. Although female rats with running wheel...

  15. Why Animals Run on Legs, Not on Wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jared

    1983-01-01

    Speculates why animals have not developed wheels in place of inefficient legs. One study cited suggests three reasons why animals are better off without wheels: wheels are efficient only on hard surfaces, limitation of wheeled motion due to vertical obstructions, and the problem of turning in spaces cluttered with obstacles. (JN)

  16. Wheel set run profile renewing method effectiveness estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Somov, Dmitrij; Bazaras, Žilvinas; Žukauskaite, Orinta

    2010-01-01

    At all the repair enterprises, despite decreased rim wear-off resistance, after every grinding only geometry wheel profile parameters are renewed. Exploit wheel rim work edge decrease tendency is noticed what induces acquiring new wheels. This is related to considerable axle load and train speed increase and also because of wheel work edge repair method imperfection.

  17. Body weight manipulation, reinforcement value and choice between sucrose and wheel running: a behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2009-02-01

    Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low body weights. Results showed that wheel-running rate and lever-pressing rates for sucrose and wheel running increased, but the choice of wheel running decreased at the low body weight. A regression analysis of relative consumption as a function of relative price showed that consumption shifted toward sucrose and interacted with price differences in a manner consistent with increased substitutability. Demand curves showed that demand for sucrose became less elastic while demand for wheel running became more elastic at the low body weight. These findings reflect an increase in the difference in relative value of sucrose and wheel running as body weight decreased. Discussion focuses on the limitations of response rates as measures of reinforcement value. In addition, we address the commonalities between matching and demand curve equations for the analysis of changes in relative reinforcement value.

  18. Caffeine stimulates voluntary wheel running in mice without increasing aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Wi, Kristianna; Van, Lindsay; Garland, Theodore

    2017-03-01

    The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines. HR mice also have higher endurance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) during forced treadmill exercise. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that Gatorade or Red Bull might cause or allow mice to increase their voluntary wheel running. On days 5 and 6 of 6days of wheel access, as is used to select breeders, HR mice ran 3.3-fold more than C, and females ran 1.2-fold more than males, with no linetype by sex interaction. On day 7, mice were administered Gatorade, Red Bull or tap water. During the subsequent 19-hour period, Gatorade had no statistical effect on running, but Red Bull significantly increased distance run by both sexes and in both HR and C lines. The increase in distance run caused by Red Bull was attributable to time spent running, not an increase in mean (or maximum) speed. As previous studies have found that sucrose alone does not generally increase wheel running, we tested two other active ingredients in Red Bull, caffeine and taurine, in Experiment 2. With a similar testing protocol, caffeine alone and caffeine+taurine increased running by about half the magnitude of Red Bull. In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that Red Bull or caffeine alone can increase physiological performance ability during aerobic exercise, measured as VO 2

  19. Acute Restraint Stress Alters Wheel-Running Behavior Immediately Following Stress and up to 20 Hours Later in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisch, Jessica L; deWolski, Karen; Meek, Thomas H; Acosta, Wendy; Middleton, Kevin M; Crino, Ondi L; Garland, Theodore

    In vertebrates, acute stressors-although short in duration-can influence physiology and behavior over a longer time course, which might have important ramifications under natural conditions. In laboratory rats, for example, acute stress has been shown to increase anxiogenic behaviors for days after a stressor. In this study, we quantified voluntary wheel-running behavior for 22 h following a restraint stress and glucocorticoid levels 24 h postrestraint. We utilized mice from four replicate lines that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running activity (HR mice) for 60 generations and their nonselected control (C) lines to examine potential interactions between exercise propensity and sensitivity to stress. Following 6 d of wheel access on a 12L∶12D photo cycle (0700-1900 hours, as during the routine selective breeding protocol), 80 mice were physically restrained for 40 min, beginning at 1400 hours, while another 80 were left undisturbed. Relative to unrestrained mice, wheel running increased for both HR and C mice during the first hour postrestraint (P Wheel running was also examined at four distinct phases of the photoperiod. Running in the period of 1600-1840 hours was unaffected by restraint stress and did not differ statistically between HR and C mice. During the period of peak wheel running (1920-0140 hours), restrained mice tended to run fewer revolutions (-11%; two-tailed P = 0.0733), while HR mice ran 473% more than C (P = 0.0008), with no restraint × line type interaction. Wheel running declined for all mice in the latter part of the scotophase (0140-0600 hours), restraint had no statistical effect on wheel running, but HR again ran more than C (+467%; P = 0.0122). Finally, during the start of the photophase (0720-1200 hours), restraint increased running by an average of 53% (P = 0.0443) in both line types, but HR and C mice did not differ statistically. Mice from HR lines had statistically higher plasma corticosterone concentrations

  20. Mitochondrial haplotypes are not associated with mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wone, Bernard W M; Yim, Won C; Schutz, Heidi; Meek, Thomas H; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-04

    Mitochondrial haplotypes have been associated with human and rodent phenotypes, including nonshivering thermogenesis capacity, learning capability, and disease risk. Although the mammalian mitochondrial D-loop is highly polymorphic, D-loops in laboratory mice are identical, and variation occurs elsewhere mainly between nucleotides 9820 and 9830. Part of this region codes for the tRNA Arg gene and is associated with mitochondrial densities and number of mtDNA copies. We hypothesized that the capacity for high levels of voluntary wheel-running behavior would be associated with mitochondrial haplotype. Here, we analyzed the mtDNA polymorphic region in mice from each of four replicate lines selectively bred for 54 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from four control lines (Control) randomly bred for 54 generations. Sequencing the polymorphic region revealed a variable number of adenine repeats. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) varied from 2 to 3 adenine insertions, resulting in three haplotypes. We found significant genetic differentiations between the HR and Control groups (F st  = 0.779, p ≤ 0.0001), as well as among the replicate lines of mice within groups (F sc  = 0.757, p ≤ 0.0001). Haplotypes, however, were not strongly associated with voluntary wheel running (revolutions run per day), nor with either body mass or litter size. This system provides a useful experimental model to dissect the physiological processes linking mitochondrial, genomic SNPs, epigenetics, or nuclear-mitochondrial cross-talk to exercise activity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David

    2006-01-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

  2. Taste avoidance induced by wheel running: effects of backward pairings and robustness of conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Pierce, W David; Heth, Donald C; Russell, James C

    2004-09-15

    Rats repeatedly exposed to a distinctive novel solution (conditioned stimulus, CS) followed by the opportunity to run in a wheel subsequently drink less of this solution. Investigations on this phenomenon indicate that wheel running is an effective unconditioned stimulus (US) for establishing conditioned taste aversion (CTA) when using a forward conditioning procedure (i.e., the US-wheel running follows the CS-taste). However, other studies show that wheel running produces reliable preference for a distinctive place when pairings are backward (i.e., the CS-location follows the US-wheel running). One possibility to account for these results is that rewarding aftereffects of wheel running conditioned preference to the CS. The main objective of the present study was to assess the effects of backward conditioning using wheel running as the US and a distinctive taste as the CS. In a between-groups design, two experimental groups [i.e., forward (FC) and backward conditioning (BC)] and two control groups [CS-taste alone (TA) and CS-US unpaired (UNP)] were compared. Results from this experiment indicated that there is less suppression of drinking when a CS-taste followed a bout of wheel running. In fact, rats in the BC group drank more of the paired solution than all the other groups.

  3. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Tøien, Øivind; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S.; Buck, C. Loren; Oda, Gisele A.

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel. PMID:26460828

  4. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tachinardi

    Full Text Available Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel.

  5. Wheel running improves REM sleep and attenuates stress-induced flattening of diurnal rhythms in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Roller, Rachel; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Regular physical activity produces resistance to the negative health consequences of stressor exposure. One way that exercise may confer stress resistance is by reducing the impact of stress on diurnal rhythms and sleep; disruptions of which contribute to stress-related disease including mood disorders. Given the link between diurnal rhythm disruptions and stress-related disorders and that exercise both promotes stress resistance and is a powerful non-photic biological entrainment cue, we tested if wheel running could reduce stress-induced disruptions of sleep/wake behavior and diurnal rhythms. Adult, male F344 rats with or without access to running wheels were instrumented for biotelemetric recording of diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity, heart rate, core body temperature (CBT), and sleep (i.e. REM, NREM, and WAKE) in the presence of a 12 h light/dark cycle. Following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise conditions, rats were exposed to an acute stressor known to disrupt diurnal rhythms and produce behaviors associated with mood disorders. Prior to stressor exposure, exercise rats had higher CBT, more locomotor activity during the dark cycle, and greater %REM during the light cycle relative to sedentary rats. NREM and REM sleep were consolidated immediately following peak running to a greater extent in exercise, compared to sedentary rats. In response to stressor exposure, exercise rats expressed higher stress-induced hyperthermia than sedentary rats. Stressor exposure disrupted diurnal rhythms in sedentary rats; and wheel running reduced these effects. Improvements in sleep and reduced diurnal rhythm disruptions following stress could contribute to the health promoting and stress protective effects of exercise.

  6. Limits to sustained energy intake. XV. Effects of wheel running on the energy budget during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Król, Elzbieta; Moille, Sophie; Gamo, Yuko; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    The capacity of animals to dissipate heat may constrain sustained energy intake during lactation. We examined these constraints at peak lactation in MF1 mice that had ad libitum access to food, or that had to run a pre-set target on running wheels to obtain ad libitum access to food. The voluntary distance run decreased sharply during pregnancy and peak lactation. When lactating females were provided with 80% of their estimated food requirements, and had to run pre-set distances of 2, 4 or 6 km before given access to additional ad libitum food, most of them did not complete the running target during late lactation and the mice with the highest targets failed to reach their targets earlier in lactation. There were consequently significant group differences in asymptotic food intake (2 km, 16.97 ± 0.40 g day(-1); 4 km, 14.29 ± 0.72 g day(-1); and 6 km, 12.65 ± 0.45 g day(-1)) and weaned litter masses (2 km, 71.11 ± 2.39 g; 4 km, 54.63 ± 4.28 g and 6 km, 47.18 ± 2.46 g). When the females did run sufficiently to gain ad libitum food access, their intake did not differ between the different distance groups or from controls that were not required to run. Thus, despite being physically capable of running the distances, mice could not exercise sufficiently in lactation to gain regular ad libitum access to food, probably because of the risks of hyperthermia when combining heat production from exercise with thermogenesis from lactation.

  7. Nesting behavior of house mice (Mus domesticus) selected for increased wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Davis, S J; Garland, T

    2000-03-01

    Nest building was measured in "active" (housed with access to running wheels) and "sedentary" (without wheel access) mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines selected for 10 generations for high voluntary wheel-running behavior, and from four randombred control lines. Based on previous studies of mice bidirectionally selected for thermoregulatory nest building, it was hypothesized that nest building would show a negative correlated response to selection on wheel-running. Such a response could constrain the evolution of high voluntary activity because nesting has also been shown to be positively genetically correlated with successful production of weaned pups. With wheel access, selected mice of both sexes built significantly smaller nests than did control mice. Without wheel access, selected females also built significantly smaller nests than did control females, but only when body mass was excluded from the statistical model, suggesting that body mass mediated this correlated response to selection. Total distance run and mean running speed on wheels was significantly higher in selected mice than in controls, but no differences in amount of time spent running were measured, indicating a complex cause of the response of nesting to selection for voluntary wheel running.

  8. Dopamine D1 receptor modulation in nucleus accumbens lowers voluntary wheel running in rats bred to run high distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Gilpin, Leigh; Parker, Kyle E; Childs, Thomas E; Will, Matthew J; Booth, Frank W

    2012-02-01

    Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been postulated to influence reward development towards drugs of abuse and exercise. Herein, we used generation 4-5 rats that were selectively bred to voluntary run high (HVR) versus low (LVR) distances in order to examine if dopamine-like 1 (D1) receptor modulation in the NAc differentially affects nightly voluntary wheel running between these lines. A subset of generation 5-6 HVR and LVR rats were also used to study the mRNA expression of key genes related to reward and addiction in the NAc (i.e., DRD1, DRD5, DRD2, Nr4a2, FosB, and BDNF). In a crossover fashion, a D1-like agonist SKF 82958 (2 μg per side) or D1-like full antagonist SCH 23390 (4 μg per side) was bilaterally injected into the NAc of HVR and LVR female Wistar rats prior to their high running nights. Notably, during hours 2-4 (between 2000 and 2300) of the dark cycle there was a significant decrement in running distances in the HVR rats treated with the D1 agonist (p=0.025) and antagonist (p=0.017) whereas the running distances in LVR rats were not affected. Interestingly, HVR and LVR rats possessed similar NAc concentrations of the studied mRNAs. These data suggest that: a) animals predisposed to run high distances on a nightly basis may quickly develop a rewarding response to exercise due to an optimal D1-like receptor signaling pathway in the NAc that can be perturbed by either activation or blocking, b) D1-like agonist or antagonist injections do not increase running distances in rats that are bred to run low nightly distances, and c) running differences between HVR and LVR animals are seemingly not due to the expression of the studied mRNAs. Given the societal prevalence of obesity and extraneous physical inactivity, future studies should be performed in order to further determine the culprit for the low running phenotype observed in LVR animals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Chronic wheel running-induced reduction of extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats is associated with reduced number of periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieraj, Jeffery C; Kim, Airee; Fannon, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2016-01-01

    Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug-cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6 h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for 3 weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings also

  10. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of sucrose availability and pre-running on the intrinsic value of wheel running as an operant and a reinforcing consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2014-03-01

    The current study investigated the effect of motivational manipulations on operant wheel running for sucrose reinforcement and on wheel running as a behavioral consequence for lever pressing, within the same experimental context. Specifically, rats responded on a two-component multiple schedule of reinforcement in which lever pressing produced the opportunity to run in a wheel in one component of the schedule (reinforcer component) and wheel running produced the opportunity to consume sucrose solution in the other component (operant component). Motivational manipulations involved removal of sucrose contingent on wheel running and providing 1h of pre-session wheel running. Results showed that, in opposition to a response strengthening view, sucrose did not maintain operant wheel running. The motivational operations of withdrawing sucrose or providing pre-session wheel running, however, resulted in different wheel-running rates in the operant and reinforcer components of the multiple schedule; this rate discrepancy revealed the extrinsic reinforcing effects of sucrose on operant wheel running, but also indicated the intrinsic reinforcement value of wheel running across components. Differences in wheel-running rates between components were discussed in terms of arousal, undermining of intrinsic motivation, and behavioral contrast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel mouse running wheel that senses individual limb forces: biomechanical validation and in vivo testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Grahm C.; Edke, Mangesh

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical data provide fundamental information about changes in musculoskeletal function during development, adaptation, and disease. To facilitate the study of mouse locomotor biomechanics, we modified a standard mouse running wheel to include a force-sensitive rung capable of measuring the normal and tangential forces applied by individual paws. Force data were collected throughout the night using an automated threshold trigger algorithm that synchronized force data with wheel-angle data and a high-speed infrared video file. During the first night of wheel running, mice reached consistent running speeds within the first 40 force events, indicating a rapid habituation to wheel running, given that mice generated >2,000 force-event files/night. Average running speeds and peak normal and tangential forces were consistent throughout the first four nights of running, indicating that one night of running is sufficient to characterize the locomotor biomechanics of healthy mice. Twelve weeks of wheel running significantly increased spontaneous wheel-running speeds (16 vs. 37 m/min), lowered duty factors (ratio of foot-ground contact time to stride time; 0.71 vs. 0.58), and raised hindlimb peak normal forces (93 vs. 115% body wt) compared with inexperienced mice. Peak normal hindlimb-force magnitudes were the primary force component, which were nearly tenfold greater than peak tangential forces. Peak normal hindlimb forces exceed the vertical forces generated during overground running (50-60% body wt), suggesting that wheel running shifts weight support toward the hindlimbs. This force-instrumented running-wheel system provides a comprehensive, noninvasive screening method for monitoring gait biomechanics in mice during spontaneous locomotion. PMID:22723628

  13. Naloxone attenuates the conditioned place preference induced by wheel running in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, B T; Grant, V L; Koh, M T

    2001-02-01

    Pairings, during which an episode of wheel running is followed by confinement in a distinctive place, produce conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. This finding indicates that wheel running has a rewarding effect that outlasts the activity itself. In two similar experiments, we tested the hypothesis that this rewarding effect of wheel running is mediated by endogenous opioids. During a paired trial, the rats in the naloxone group were first allowed to wheel run for 2 h, then injected with naloxone (0.5 or 0.1 mg/kg in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively), and 10 min later placed in a distinctive chamber. During an unpaired trial, these rats were confined in an adjoining chamber without wheel running. Naloxone was injected before placement in both chambers, so that if naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion occurred, it would have counteracting effects on performance during the preference test. The rats in the saline group were similarly treated, except that saline was injected instead of naloxone. CPP occurred in the saline group, but not in the naloxone group. Thus, naloxone attenuated the CPP induced by wheel running. This finding supports the hypothesis that the rewarding effect of wheel running is mediated by endogenous opioids.

  14. Effect of short-term prefeeding and body weight on wheel running and responding reinforced by the opportunity to run in a wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David; Jensen, K

    2004-07-30

    A biobehavioural analysis of activity anorexia suggests that the motivation for physical activity is regulated by food supply and body weight. In the present experiment, food allocation was varied within subjects by prefeeding food-deprived rats 0, 5, 10 and 15 g of food before sessions of lever pressing for wheel-running reinforcement. The experiment assessed the effects of prefeeding on rates of wheel running, lever pressing, and postreinforcement pausing. Results showed that prefeeding animals 5 g of food had no effect. Prefeeding 10 g of food reduced lever pressing for wheel running and rates of wheel running without a significant change in body weight; the effect was, however, transitory. Prefeeding 15 g of food increased the animals' body weights, resulting in a sustained decrease of wheel running and lever pressing, and an increase in postreinforcement pausing. Overall the results indicate that the motivation for physical activity is regulated by changes in local food supply, but is sustained only when there is a concomitant change in body weight.

  15. Sex differences in the effect of wheel running on subsequent nicotine-seeking in a rat adolescent-onset self-administration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Victoria; Moore, Catherine F; Brunzell, Darlene H; Lynch, Wendy J

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Wheel running attenuates nicotine-seeking in male adolescent rats; however it is not known if this effect extends to females. Objective To determine if wheel running during abstinence would differentially attenuate subsequent nicotine-seeking in male and female rats that had extended access to nicotine self-administration during adolescence. Methods Male (N = 49) and female (N = 43) adolescent rats self-administered saline or nicotine (5μg/kg) under an extended access (23-hour) paradigm. Following the last self-administration session, rats were moved to polycarbonate cages for an abstinence period where they either had access to a locked or unlocked running wheel for 2-hours/day. Subsequently, nicotine-seeking was examined under a within-session extinction/cue-induced reinstatement paradigm. Due to low levels of nicotine-seeking in females in both wheel groups, additional groups were included that were housed without access to a running wheel during abstinence. Results Females self-administered more nicotine as compared to males; however, within males and females, intake did not differ between groups prior to wheel assignment. Compared to saline controls, males and females that self-administered nicotine showed a significant increase in drug-seeking during extinction. Wheel running during abstinence attenuated nicotine-seeking during extinction in males. In females, access to either locked or unlocked wheels attenuated nicotine-seeking during extinction. While responding was reinstated by cues in both males and females, levels were modest and not significantly affected by exercise in this adolescent-onset model. Conclusions While wheel running reduced subsequent nicotine-seeking in males, access to a wheel, either locked or unlocked, was sufficient to suppress nicotine-seeking in females. PMID:24271035

  16. Effects of size, sex, and voluntary running speeds on costs of locomotion in lines of laboratory mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Kelly, Scott A; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Selective breeding for over 35 generations has led to four replicate (S) lines of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) that run voluntarily on wheels about 170% more than four random-bred control (C) lines. We tested whether S lines have evolved higher running performance by increasing running economy (i.e., decreasing energy spent per unit of distance) as a correlated response to selection, using a recently developed method that allows for nearly continuous measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) and running speed in freely behaving animals. We estimated slope (incremental cost of transport [COT]) and intercept for regressions of power (the dependent variable, VO2/min) on speed for 49 males and 47 females, as well as their maximum VO2 and speeds during wheel running, under conditions mimicking those that these lines face during the selection protocol. For comparison, we also measured COT and maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) during forced exercise on a motorized treadmill. As in previous studies, the increased wheel running of S lines was mainly attributable to increased average speed, with males also showing a tendency for increased time spent running. On a whole-animal basis, combined analysis of males and females indicated that COT during voluntary wheel running was significantly lower in the S lines (one-tailed P=0.015). However, mice from S lines are significantly smaller and attain higher maximum speeds on the wheels; with either body mass or maximum speed (or both) entered as a covariate, the statistical significance of the difference in COT is lost (one-tailed P> or =0.2). Thus, both body size and behavior are key components of the reduction in COT. Several statistically significant sex differences were observed, including lower COT and higher resting metabolic rate in females. In addition, maximum voluntary running speeds were negatively correlated with COT in females but not in males. Moreover, males (but not females) from the S lines exhibited

  17. Differential expression of stress proteins in rat myocardium after free wheel or treadmill run training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, E G; Moraska, A; Mazzeo, R S; Roth, D A; Olsson, M C; Moore, R L; Fleshner, M

    1999-05-01

    High-intensity treadmill exercise increases the expression of a cardioprotective, inducible 72-kDa stress protein (SP72) in cardiac muscle. This investigation examined whether voluntary free wheel exercise training would be sufficient to confer a similar response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either treadmill (TM-Tr) or free wheel (FW-Tr) training groups. By the end of the 8-wk training period, TM-Tr animals ran 1 h/day, 5 days/wk up a 10% grade, covering a distance of 8,282 m/wk. FW-Tr rats ran, on average, 5,300 m/wk, with one-third of the animals covering distances similar to those for the TM-Tr group. At the time of death, hearts of trained and caged sedentary control (Sed) animals were divided into left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles. Citrate synthase activity and the relative immunoblot contents of SP72, SP73 (the constitutive isoform of the SP70 family), and a 75-kDa mitochondrial chaperone (SP75) were subsequently determined. LV and RV did not differ on any measure, and SP73, SP75, and citrate synthase were not affected by training. Cardiac SP72 levels were elevated over fourfold in both ventricles of TM-Tr compared with RV of FW-Sed rats. Despite the animals having run a similar total distance, cardiac SP72 content in FW-Tr rats was not different from that in Sed animals. These data indicate that voluntary exercise training is insufficient to elicit an elevation of SP72 in rat heart and suggest that exercise intensity may be a critical factor in evoking the cardioprotective SP72 response.

  18. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLosnegard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL•kg-1•min-1 participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis with subsequent criteria for interpreting the magnitude of correlation (r. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81 and a large correlation between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53 and double poling and running (r = 0.58. There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23, cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46, body mass (r = -0.09-0.46 and body height (r = 0.11-0.36. In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could only moderately be explained by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height and therefore we suggest that other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  19. Voluntary wheel running increases bile acid as well as cholesterol excretion and decreases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Maxi; Lombardo, Elisa; Havinga, Rick; Tietge, Uwe J F; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K

    2011-10-01

    Regular physical activity decreases the risk for atherosclerosis but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We questioned whether voluntary wheel running provokes specific modulations in cholesterol turnover that translate into a decreased atherosclerotic burden in hypercholesterolemic mice. Male LDLR-deficient mice (8 weeks old) had either access to a voluntary running wheel for 12 weeks (RUN) or remained sedentary (CONTROL). Both groups were fed a western-type/high cholesterol diet. Running activity and food intake were recorded. At 12 weeks of intervention, feces, bile and plasma were collected to determine fecal, biliary and plasma parameters of cholesterol metabolism and plasma cytokines. Atherosclerotic lesion size was determined in the aortic root. RUN weighed less (∼13%) while food consumption was increased by 17% (p=0.004). Plasma cholesterol levels were decreased by 12% (p=0.035) and plasma levels of pro-atherogenic lipoproteins decreased in RUN compared to control. Running modulated cholesterol catabolism by enhancing cholesterol turnover: RUN displayed an increased biliary bile acid secretion (68%, p=0.007) and increased fecal bile acid (93%, p=0.009) and neutral sterol (33%, p=0.002) outputs compared to control indicating that reverse cholesterol transport was increased in RUN. Importantly, aortic lesion size was decreased by ∼33% in RUN (p=0.033). Voluntary wheel running reduces atherosclerotic burden in hypercholesterolemic mice. An increased cholesterol turnover, specifically its conversion into bile acids, may underlie the beneficial effect of voluntary exercise in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Post-Session Wheel Running on Within-Session Changes in Operant Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the effects of post-session wheel running on within-session changes in operant responding. Lever-pressing by six rats was reinforced by a food pellet under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule in 30-min sessions. Two different flavored food pellets were used as reinforcers. In the wheel conditions, 30-min operant-sessions…

  1. A novel instrumented multipeg running wheel system, Step-Wheel, for monitoring and controlling complex sequential stepping in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsukawa, Takashi; Nagata, Masatoshi; Yanagihara, Dai; Tomioka, Ryohei; Utsumi, Hideko; Kubota, Yasuo; Yagi, Takeshi; Graybiel, Ann M; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2011-07-01

    Motor control is critical in daily life as well as in artistic and athletic performance and thus is the subject of intense interest in neuroscience. Mouse models of movement disorders have proven valuable for many aspects of investigation, but adequate methods for analyzing complex motor control in mouse models have not been fully established. Here, we report the development of a novel running-wheel system that can be used to evoke simple and complex stepping patterns in mice. The stepping patterns are controlled by spatially organized pegs, which serve as footholds that can be arranged in adjustable, ladder-like configurations. The mice run as they drink water from a spout, providing reward, while the wheel turns at a constant speed. The stepping patterns of the mice can thus be controlled not only spatially, but also temporally. A voltage sensor to detect paw touches is attached to each peg, allowing precise registration of footfalls. We show that this device can be used to analyze patterns of complex motor coordination in mice. We further demonstrate that it is possible to measure patterns of neural activity with chronically implanted tetrodes as the mice engage in vigorous running bouts. We suggest that this instrumented multipeg running wheel (which we name the Step-Wheel System) can serve as an important tool in analyzing motor control and motor learning in mice.

  2. Dissociation of conditioned taste avoidance from conditioned disgust reactions induced by wheel running in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Virginia L; McDonald, Sarah V; Sheppard, Robyn C; Caldwell, Catherine L; Heeley, Thomas H; Brown, Adam R; Martin, Gerard M

    2012-06-01

    It is well established that wheel running in rats produces conditioned taste avoidance; that is, rats that run in wheels after consuming a novel-tasting solution later consume less of that solution than rats that do not run. In experiment 1, we found that wheel running also produces conditioned disgust reactions, indicated by gapes elicited by both the taste and context that were experienced before running. Experiment 2 showed that the conditioned disgust reactions were likely not due to running itself but to a by-product of running, the rocking of the wheel that occurs when the running stops. When rocking was reduced, the disgust reactions were also reduced, but consumption of the taste solution was not changed, showing dissociation of conditioned taste avoidance and disgust. These findings indicate that the taste avoidance induced by wheel running itself is more like the taste avoidance produced by rewarding drugs than that produced by nausea-inducing drugs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Light/Dark Cycle on Wheel Running and Responding Reinforced by the Opportunity to Run Depends on Postsession Feeding Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, T. W.; Mondona, A. R.; Conrad, K. M.; Poirier, K. F.; Pickering, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Do rats run and respond at a higher rate to run during the dark phase when they are typically more active? To answer this question, Long Evans rats were exposed to a response-initiated variable interval 30-s schedule of wheel-running reinforcement during light and dark cycles. Wheel-running and local lever-pressing rates increased modestly during…

  4. Influence of photoperiod and running wheel access on the entrainment of split circadian rhythms in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Jeffrey A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the laboratory, behavioral and physiological states of nocturnal rodents alternate, with a period near 24 h, between those appropriate for the night (e.g., elevated wheel-running activity and high melatonin secretion and for the day (e.g., rest and low melatonin secretion. Under appropriate 24 h light:dark:light:dark conditions, however, rodents may be readily induced to express bimodal rest/activity cycles that reflect a global temporal reorganization of the central neural pacemaker in the hypothalamus. We examine here how the relative length of the light and dark phases of the environmental cycle influences this rhythm splitting and the necessity of a running wheel for expression of this entrainment condition. Results Rhythm splitting was observed in wheel-running and general locomotion of Siberian and Syrian hamsters. The latter also manifest split rhythms in body temperature. Access to a running wheel was necessary neither for the induction nor maintenance of this entrainment pattern. While rhythms were only transiently split in many animals with two 5 h nights, the incidence of splitting was greater with twice daily nights of shorter duration. Removal of running wheels altered the body temperature rhythm but did not eliminate its clear bimodality. Conclusion The expression of entrained, split circadian rhythms exhibits no strict dependence on access to a running wheel, but can be facilitated by manipulation of ambient lighting conditions. These circadian entrainment patterns may be of therapeutic value to human shift-workers and others facing chronobiological challenges.

  5. Wheel-running attenuates intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; Hunter, Robb G; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2002-10-01

    This experiment examines the effect of access to a running-wheel on intravenous cocaine self-administration in male and female rats. Rats maintained at 85% of their free-feeding body weight were first exposed to the running-wheel alone during the 6-h sessions until behavior stabilized for 14 days. Intravenous cannulae were then implanted, and the rats were trained to self-administer a low dose of cocaine (0.2 mg/kg) under a fixed-ratio (FR 1) schedule during the 6-h sessions, while the wheel remained inactive and cocaine self-administration stabilized (cocaine-only condition). Next, the wheel access and cocaine self-administration were concurrently available followed by a period of cocaine-only. Behavior was allowed to stabilize for 10 days at each phase. During wheel access, cocaine infusions decreased by 21.9% in males and 70.6% in females compared to the cocaine-only condition; the effect was statistically significant in females. Infusions increased to baseline levels when wheel access was terminated. When cocaine infusions were concurrently available, wheel revolutions were reduced by 63.7% and 61.5% in males and females, respectively, compared to the wheel-only condition. This result did not differ due to sex, but it was statistically significant when data from males and females were combined. These results indicate that wheel-running activity had a greater suppressant effect on cocaine self-administration in females than in males, and in females, wheel-running and cocaine self-administration are substitutable as reinforcers.

  6. Wheel-running activity and energy metabolism in relation to ambient temperature in mice selected for high wheel-running activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Garland, Theodore; Daan, Serge; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore; Heldmaier, G.

    Interrelationships between ambient temperature, activity, and energy metabolism were explored in mice that had been selectively bred for high spontaneous wheel-running activity and their random-bred controls. Animals were exposed to three different ambient temperatures (10, 20 and 30 degrees C) and

  7. Plasma adiponectin is increased in mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity, but not by wheel running per se

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, L. M.; Meerlo, P.; Garland, T.; Visser, G. H.; van Dijk, G.

    2007-01-01

    Mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity (S) have decreased fat content compared to mice from randomly bred control (C) lines. We explored whether this difference was associated with alterations in levels of circulating hormones involved in regulation of food intake and energy balance,

  8. Voluntary wheel running is beneficial to the amino acid profile of lysine-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Seki, Shinobu; Kawai, Nobuhiro; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Michio

    2010-06-01

    Rats voluntarily run up to a dozen kilometers per night when their cages are equipped with a running wheel. Daily voluntary running is generally thought to enhance protein turnover. Thus, we sought to determine whether running worsens or improves protein degradation caused by a lysine-deficient diet and whether it changes the utilization of free amino acids released by proteolysis. Rats were fed a lysine-deficient diet and were given free access to a running wheel or remained sedentary (control) for 4 wk. Amino acid levels in plasma, muscle, and liver were measured together with plasma insulin levels and tissue weight. The lysine-deficient diet induced anorexia, skeletal muscle loss, and serine and threonine aminoacidemia, and it depleted plasma insulin and essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. Allowing rats to run voluntarily improved these symptoms; thus, voluntary wheel running made the rats less susceptible to dietary lysine deficiency. Amelioration of the declines in muscular leucine and plasma insulin observed in running rats could contribute to protein synthesis together with the enhanced availability of lysine and other essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running under lysine-deficient conditions does not enhance protein catabolism; on the contrary, it accelerates protein synthesis and contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass. The intense nocturnal voluntary running that characterizes rodents might be an adaptation of lysine-deficient grain eaters that allows them to maximize opportunities for food acquisition.

  9. Serotonin-mediated central fatigue underlies increased endurance capacity in mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Thompson, Zoe; Barber, Curtis; Garland, Theodore

    2016-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is implicated in central fatigue, and 5-HT1A pharmaceuticals are known to influence locomotor endurance in both rodents and humans. We studied the effects of a 5-HT1A agonist and antagonist on both forced and voluntary exercise in the same set of mice. This cohort of mice was taken from 4 replicate lines of mice that have been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (HR) as compared with 4 non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice run voluntarily on wheels about 3× as many revolutions per day as compared with C, and have greater endurance during forced treadmill exercise. We hypothesized that drugs targeting serotonin receptors would have differential effects on locomotor behavior of HR and C mice. Subcutaneous injections of a 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100,635), a combination of 5-HT1A agonist and a 5-HT1A/1B partial agonist (8-OH-DPAT+pindolol), or physiological saline were given to separate groups of male mice before the start of each of three treadmill trials. The same manipulations were used later during voluntary wheel running on three separate nights. WAY-100,635 decreased treadmill endurance in HR but not C mice (dose by linetype interaction, P=0.0014). 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol affected treadmill endurance (PWheel running was reduced in HR but not C mice at the highest dose of 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol (dose by linetype, P=0.0221), but was not affected by WAY-100,635 treatment. These results provide further evidence that serotonin signaling is an important determinant of performance during both forced and voluntary exercise. Although the elevated wheel running of HR mice does not appear related to alterations in serotonin signaling, their enhanced endurance capacity does. More generally, our results indicate that both forced and voluntary exercise can be affected by an intervention that acts (primarily) centrally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Brief Opportunity to Run Does Not Function as a Reinforcer for Mice Selected for High Daily Wheel-Running Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W.; Garland, Theodore, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Mice from replicate lines, selectively bred based on high daily wheel-running rates, run more total revolutions and at higher average speeds than do mice from nonselected control lines. Based on this difference it was assumed that selected mice would find the opportunity to run in a wheel a more efficacious consequence. To assess this assumption…

  11. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L.; Letsinger, Ayland C.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Granados, Jorge Z.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s) may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD) or high fat/high sugar (HFHS) diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males) and 17β-estradiol (females) to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity. Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀) were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28%) and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%). In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat. Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones. PMID:28890701

  12. Wheel running from a juvenile age delays onset of specific motor deficits but does not alter protein aggregate density in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spires Tara L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the cerebral cortex and striatum. Transgenic mice (R6/1 line, expressing a CAG repeat encoding an expanded polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, closely model HD. We have previously shown that environmental enrichment of these HD mice delays the onset of motor deficits. Furthermore, wheel running initiated in adulthood ameliorates the rear-paw clasping motor sign, but not an accelerating rotarod deficit. Results We have now examined the effects of enhanced physical activity via wheel running, commenced at a juvenile age (4 weeks, with respect to the onset of various behavioral deficits and their neuropathological correlates in R6/1 HD mice. HD mice housed post-weaning with running wheels only, to enhance voluntary physical exercise, have delayed onset of a motor co-ordination deficit on the static horizontal rod, as well as rear-paw clasping, although the accelerating rotarod deficit remains unaffected. Both wheel running and environmental enrichment rescued HD-induced abnormal habituation of locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in the open field. We have found that neither environment enrichment nor wheel running ameliorates the shrinkage of the striatum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in HD mice, nor the overall decrease in brain weight, measured at 9 months of age. At this age, the density of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in the striatum and ACC is also not significantly ameliorated by environmental enrichment or wheel running. Conclusion These results indicate that enhanced voluntary physical activity, commenced at an early presymptomatic stage, contributes to the positive effects of environmental enrichment. However, sensory and cognitive stimulation, as well as motor stimulation not associated with running, may constitute major components of the therapeutic benefits associated with enrichment

  13. Dopamine D3 receptor status modulates sexual dimorphism in voluntary wheel running behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinker, Florian; Ko Hnemann, Kathrin; Paulus, Walter; Liebetanz, David

    2017-08-30

    Sexual dimorphism has been described in various aspects of physiological and pathophysiological processes involving dopaminergic signaling. This might account for the different disease characteristics in men and women in e.g. Parkinson's disease or ADHD. A better understanding might contribute to the future individualization of therapy. We examined spontaneous wheel running activity of male and female mice, homo- and heterozygote for dopamine D3 receptor deficiency (D3R -/- and D3R+/-), and compared them to wild type controls. We found higher wheel running activity in female mice than in their male littermates. D3-/- mice, irrespective of sex, were also hyperactive compared to both D3+/- and wild type animals. Hyperactivity of D3-/- female mice was pronounced during the first days of wheel running but then decreased while their male counterparts continued to be hyperactive. Physical activity was menstrual cycle-dependent. Activity fluctuations were also seen in D3 receptor knockout mice and are therefore presumably independent of D3 receptor activation. Our data underscore the complex interaction of dopaminergic signaling and gonadal hormones that leads to specific running behavior. Furthermore, we detected sex- and D3 receptor status-specific reactions during novel exposure to the running wheel. These findings suggest the need for adapting dopaminergic therapies to individual factors such as sex or even menstrual cycle to optimize therapeutic success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High levels of wheel running protect against behavioral sensitization to cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria Diaz, Laura; Siontas, Dora; Mendoza, Jose; Arvanitogiannis, Andreas

    2013-01-15

    Although there is no doubt that the direct action of stimulant drugs on the brain is necessary for sensitization to their behavioral stimulating effects, several experiments indicate that drug action is often not sufficient to produce sensitization. There is considerable evidence that many individual characteristics and experiential variables can modulate the behavioral and neural changes that are seen following repeated exposure to stimulant drugs. In the work presented here, we examined whether chronic wheel running would modulate behavioral sensitization to cocaine, and whether any such influence was contingent on individual differences in wheel running. We found that a 5- or 10-week experience with wheel running protects against behavioral sensitization to cocaine but only in animals with a natural tendency to run the most. Understanding the mechanism underlying the modulating effect of wheel running on behavioral sensitization may have important implications for future studies on the link between drug-induced behavioral and neural adaptations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Voluntary wheel running increases satellite cell abundance and improves recovery from disuse in gastrocnemius muscles from mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew J; Hajira, Ameena; Mohamed, Junaith S; Alway, Stephen E

    2018-02-22

    Reloading of atrophied muscles after hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) can induce injury and prolong recovery. Low-impact exercise, such as voluntary wheel running, has been identified as a non-damaging rehabilitation therapy in rodents, but its effects on muscle function, morphology, and satellite cell activity after HSU are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that low impact wheel running would increase satellite cell proliferation and improve recovery of muscle structure and function after HSU in mice. Young adult male and female C57BL/6 mice (n=6/group) were randomly placed into 5 groups. These included HSU without recovery (HSU), normal ambulatory recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+NoWR), and voluntary wheel running recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+WR). Two control groups were used: non-suspended mice-cage controls (Control) and voluntary wheel running controls (ControlWR). Satellite cell activation, was evaluated by providing mice 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in their drinking water. As expected, HSU significantly reduced in vivo maximal force and decreased the in vivo fatigability and decreased type I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MHC) abundance in plantarflexor muscles. HSU+WR mice significantly improved plantarflexor fatigue resistance, increased type type I and IIa MHC abundance, increased fiber cross sectional area (CSA), and an increased the percentage of type I and IIA muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle. HSU+WR mice also had a significantly greater percentage of BrdU-positive and Pax 7 positive nuclei inside muscle fibers and a greater MyoD to Pax 7 protein ratio when compared to HSU+NoWR mice. The mechanotransduction protein Yes-associated protein (YAP) was elevated with reloading after HSU, but HSU+WR had lower levels of the inactive phosphorylated YAP serine127 which may have contributed to increased satellite cell activation creased with reloading after HSU. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running increased YAP

  16. Decrease in Ground-Run Distance of Small Airplanes by Applying Electrically-Driven Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Akira

    A new takeoff method for small airplanes was proposed. Ground-roll performance of an airplane driven by electrically-powered wheels was experimentally and computationally studied. The experiments verified that the ground-run distance was decreased by half with a combination of the powered driven wheels and propeller without increase of energy consumption during the ground-roll. The computational analysis showed the ground-run distance of the wheel-driven aircraft was independent of the motor power when the motor capability exceeded the friction between tires and ground. Furthermore, the distance was minimized when the angle of attack was set to the value so that the wing generated negative lift.

  17. Behavioral Traits are Affected by Selective Breeding for Increased Wheel-Running Behavior in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, I.; Schubert, K. A.; Reijne, A. C.; Scholte, J.; Garland, T.; Gerkema, M. P.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.; Maxson, Stephen

    Voluntary physical activity may be related to personality traits. Here, we investigated these relations in two mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior and in one non-selected control line. Selection lines were more explorative and "information gathering" in the

  18. Depression of home cage wheel running: a reliable and clinically relevant method to assess migraine pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Ram; Lee, Andrea T; Morgan, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    The development of new anti-migraine treatments is limited by the difficulty inassessing migraine pain in laboratory animals. Depression of activity is one of the few diagnostic criteria formigraine that can be mimicked in rats. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis thatdepression of home cage wheel running is a reliable and clinically relevant method to assess migraine painin rats. Adult female rats were implanted with a cannula to inject allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) onto the dura to induce migraine pain, as has been shown before. Rats recovered from implantation surgery for 8 days in cages containing a running wheel. Home cage wheel running was recorded 23 h a day. AITC and the migraine medication sumatriptan were administered in the hour prior to onset of the dark phase. Administration of AITC caused a concentration-dependent decrease in wheel running that lasted 3 h. The duration and magnitude of AITC-induced depression of wheel running was consistent following three repeated injections spaced 48 h apart. Administration of sumatriptan attenuated AITC-induced depressionof wheel running when a large dose (1 mg/kg) was administered immediately following AITC administration. Wheel running patterns did not change when sumatriptan was given to naïve rats. These data indicate that home cage wheel running is a sensitive, reliable, and clinically relevant method to assess migraine pain in the rat.

  19. Investigations of timing during the schedule and reinforcement intervals with wheel-running reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Christie-Fougere, Melissa M

    2006-11-01

    Across two experiments, a peak procedure was used to assess the timing of the onset and offset of an opportunity to run as a reinforcer. The first experiment investigated the effect of reinforcer duration on temporal discrimination of the onset of the reinforcement interval. Three male Wistar rats were exposed to fixed-interval (FI) 30-s schedules of wheel-running reinforcement and the duration of the opportunity to run was varied across values of 15, 30, and 60s. Each session consisted of 50 reinforcers and 10 probe trials. Results showed that as reinforcer duration increased, the percentage of postreinforcement pauses longer than the 30-s schedule interval increased. On probe trials, peak response rates occurred near the time of reinforcer delivery and peak times varied with reinforcer duration. In a second experiment, seven female Long-Evans rats were exposed to FI 30-s schedules leading to 30-s opportunities to run. Timing of the onset and offset of the reinforcement period was assessed by probe trials during the schedule interval and during the reinforcement interval in separate conditions. The results provided evidence of timing of the onset, but not the offset of the wheel-running reinforcement period. Further research is required to assess if timing occurs during a wheel-running reinforcement period.

  20. Are voluntary wheel running and open-field behavior correlated in mice? Different answers from comparative and artificial selection approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Ordonez, Genesis; Garland, Theodore

    2012-09-01

    Voluntary wheel running and open-field behavior are probably the two most widely used measures of locomotion in laboratory rodents. We tested whether these two behaviors are correlated in mice using two approaches: the phylogenetic comparative method using inbred strains of mice and an ongoing artificial selection experiment on voluntary wheel running. After taking into account the measurement error and phylogenetic relationships among inbred strains, we obtained a significant positive correlation between distance run on wheels and distance moved in the open-field for both sexes. Thigmotaxis was negatively correlated with distance run on wheels in females but not in males. By contrast, mice from four replicate lines bred for high wheel running did not differ in either distance covered or thigmotaxis in the open field as compared with mice from four non-selected control lines. Overall, results obtained in the selection experiment were generally opposite to those observed among inbred strains. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  1. The reinforcing property and the rewarding aftereffect of wheel running in rats: a combination of two paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Wagner, Jason P

    2005-02-28

    Wheel running reinforces the behavior that generates it and produces a preference for the context that follows it. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate both of these effects in the same animals. Twelve male Wistar rats were first exposed to a fixed-interval 30 s schedule of wheel-running reinforcement. The operant was lever-pressing and the reinforcer was the opportunity to run for 45 s. Following this phase, the method of place conditioning was used to test for a rewarding aftereffect following operant sessions. On alternating days, half the rats responded for wheel-running reinforcement while the other half remained in their home cage. Upon completion of the wheel-running reinforcement sessions, rats that ran and rats that remained in their home cages were placed into a chamber of a conditioned place preference (CPP) apparatus for 30 min. Each animal received six pairings of a distinctive context with wheel running and six pairings of a different context with their home cage. On the test day, animals were free to move between the chambers for 10 min. Results showed a conditioned place preference for the context associated with wheel running; however, time spent in the context associated with running was not related to wheel-running rate, lever-pressing rate, or post-reinforcement pause duration. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of vertical pressures on running wheels of freight trolleys of bridge type cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Denisov, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The problematic issues of the design of the bridge-type trolley crane, connected with ensuring uniform load distribution between the running wheels, are considered. The shortcomings of the existing methods of calculation of reference pressures are described. The results of the analytical calculation of the pressure of the support wheels are compared with the results of the numerical solution of this problem for various schemes of trolley supporting frames. Conclusions are given on the applicability of various methods for calculating vertical pressures, depending on the type of metal structures used in the trolley.

  3. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Vellers

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels.Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD or high fat/high sugar (HFHS diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males and 17β-estradiol (females to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity.Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀ were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001 and had significantly higher body fat (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001. The HFHS diet did not reduce sex hormone levels, but did significantly reduce acute running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28% and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%. In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat.Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones.

  4. Effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Mitsutoshi; Naito, Hisashi; Ogura, Yuji; Kojima, Atsushi; Goto, Katsumasa; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle. Seventeen 5-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a control (n = 5) or training (n = 12) group. Each rat in the training group ran voluntarily in a running-wheel cage for 8 weeks. After the training period, the animals were anesthetized, and the plantaris muscles were removed, weighed, and analyzed immunohistochemically and biochemically. Although there were no significant differences in muscle weight or fiber area between the groups, the numbers of satellite cells and myonuclei per muscle fiber, percentage of satellite cells, and citrate synthase activity were significantly higher in the training group compared with the control group (p run in the training group (r = 0.61, p running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without changing the mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle; this increase in satellite cell content is a function of distance run. Key pointsThere is no study about the effect of voluntary running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle.Voluntary running training causes an increase of citrate synthase activity in the rat plantaris muscle but does not affect muscle weight and mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle.Voluntary running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without hypertrophy of the rat plantaris muscle.

  5. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of D-amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, T W; Oldford, A C; Forgie, M Y; Beye, J A

    2005-07-01

    The present study assessed the effect of D-amphetamine on responding maintained by wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed-interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 5% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15 s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. Doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg D-amphetamine were administered by i.p. injection 20 min prior to a session. As the dose increased, index of curvature values decreased toward zero and rate-dependency plots revealed increases in lower rates early in the interval and decreases in higher rates toward the end of the interval. Effects were similar in the presence of both stimuli. However, an analysis of post-reinforcement pauses and local response rates broken down by transitions revealed a differential effect. As the dose increased, local response rates following a wheel-running reinforcer were affected more than those following a sucrose reinforcer.

  6. Spontaneous appetence for wheel-running: a model of dependency on physical activity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anthony; Lamarque, Stéphanie; Boyer, Patrice; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Jouvent, Roland; Cohen-Salmon, Charles

    2006-12-01

    According to human observations of a syndrome of physical activity dependence and its consequences, we tried to examine if running activity in a free activity paradigm, where rats had a free access to activity wheel, may present a valuable animal model for physical activity dependence and most generally to behavioral dependence. The pertinence of reactivity to novelty, a well-known pharmacological dependence predictor was also tested. Given the close linkage observed in human between physical activity and drugs use and abuse, the influence of free activity in activity wheels on reactivity to amphetamine injection and reactivity to novelty were also assessed. It appeared that (1) free access to wheel may be used as a valuable model for physical activity addiction, (2) two populations differing in activity amount also differed in dependence to wheel-running. (3) Reactivity to novelty did not appeared as a predictive factor for physical activity dependence (4) activity modified novelty reactivity and (5) subjects who exhibited a high appetence to wheel-running, presented a strong reactivity to amphetamine. These results propose a model of dependency on physical activity without any pharmacological intervention, and demonstrate the existence of individual differences in the development of this addiction. In addition, these data highlight the development of a likely vulnerability to pharmacological addiction after intense and sustained physical activity, as also described in man. This model could therefore prove pertinent for studying behavioral dependencies and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. These results may influence the way psychiatrists view behavioral dependencies and phenomena such as doping in sport or addiction to sport itself.

  7. Automated home cage observations as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on cage floor locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud; Spruijt, Berry M

    2005-05-28

    This paper introduces automated observations in a modular home cage system as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on the time distribution and daily organization of cage floor locomotor activity in female C57BL/6 mice. Mice (n = 16) were placed in the home cage system for 6 consecutive days. Fifty percent of the subjects had free access to a running wheel that was integrated in the home cage. Overall activity levels in terms of duration of movement were increased by wheel running, while time spent inside a sheltering box was decreased. Wheel running affected the hourly pattern of movement during the animals' active period of the day. Mice without a running wheel, in contrast to mice with a running wheel, showed a clear differentiation between novelty-induced and baseline levels of locomotion as reflected by a decrease after the first day of introduction to the home cage. The results are discussed in the light of the use of running wheels as a tool to measure general activity and as an object for environmental enrichment. Furthermore, the possibilities of using automated home cage observations for e.g. behavioural phenotyping are discussed.

  8. Open-field behavior of house mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, A M; Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Girard, I A; Rhodes, J S; Garland, T

    2001-05-01

    Open-field behavioral assays are commonly used to test both locomotor activity and emotionality in rodents. We performed open-field tests on house mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines genetically selected for high voluntary wheel-running for 22 generations and from four replicate random-bred control lines. Individual mice were recorded by video camera for 3 min in a 1-m2 open-field arena on 2 consecutive days. Mice from selected lines showed no statistical differences from control mice with respect to distance traveled, defecation, time spent in the interior, or average distance from the center of the arena during the trial. Thus, we found little evidence that open-field behavior, as traditionally defined, is genetically correlated with wheel-running behavior. This result is a useful converse test of classical studies that report no increased wheel-running in mice selected for increased open-field activity. However, mice from selected lines turned less in their travel paths than did control-line mice, and females from selected lines had slower travel times (longer latencies) to reach the wall. We discuss these results in the context of the historical open-field test and newly defined measures of open-field activity.

  9. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of body weight manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2004-02-27

    As body weight increases, the excitatory strength of a stimulus signaling an opportunity to run should weaken to a greater degree than that of a stimulus signaling an opportunity to eat. To test this hypothesis, six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. The effect of varying body weight on responding maintained by these two reinforcers was investigated by systematically increasing and decreasing post-session food amounts. The initial body weight was 335 g. Body weights were increased to approximately 445 g and subsequently returned to 335 g. As body weight increased, overall and local lever-pressing rates decreased while post-reinforcement pauses lengthened. Analysis of post-reinforcement pauses and local lever-pressing rates in terms of transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that local response rates in the presence of stimuli signaling upcoming wheel and sucrose reinforcers were similarly affected. However, pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling a wheel-running reinforcer lengthened to a greater extent than did pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. This result suggests that as body weight approaches ad-lib levels, the likelihood of initiation of responding to obtain an opportunity to run approaches zero and the animal "rejects" the opportunity to run in a manner similar to the rejection of less preferred food items in studies of food selectivity.

  10. Locomotor trade-offs in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Chappell, Mark A; McGillivray, David G; Syme, Douglas A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-08-01

    We investigated sprint performance and running economy of a unique ;mini-muscle' phenotype that evolved in response to selection for high voluntary wheel running in laboratory mice (Mus domesticus). Mice from four replicate selected (S) lines run nearly three times as far per day as four control lines. The mini-muscle phenotype, resulting from an initially rare autosomal recessive allele, has been favoured by the selection protocol, becoming fixed in one of the two S lines in which it occurred. In homozygotes, hindlimb muscle mass is halved, mass-specific muscle oxidative capacity is doubled, and the medial gastrocnemius exhibits about half the mass-specific isotonic power, less than half the mass-specific cyclic work and power, but doubled fatigue resistance. We hypothesized that mini-muscle mice would have a lower whole-animal energy cost of transport (COT), resulting from lower costs of cycling their lighter limbs, and reduced sprint speed, from reduced maximal force production. We measured sprint speed on a racetrack and slopes (incremental COT, or iCOT) and intercepts of the metabolic rate versus speed relationship during voluntary wheel running in 10 mini-muscle and 20 normal S-line females. Mini-muscle mice ran faster and farther on wheels, but for less time per day. Mini-muscle mice had significantly lower sprint speeds, indicating a functional trade-off. However, contrary to predictions, mini-muscle mice had higher COT, mainly because of higher zero-speed intercepts and postural costs (intercept-resting metabolic rate). Thus, mice with altered limb morphology after intense selection for running long distances do not necessarily run more economically.

  11. EFFECTS OF VOLUNTARY WHEEL RUNNING ON SATELLITE CELLS IN THE RAT PLANTARIS MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kojima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle. Seventeen 5-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a control (n = 5 or training (n = 12 group. Each rat in the training group ran voluntarily in a running-wheel cage for 8 weeks. After the training period, the animals were anesthetized, and the plantaris muscles were removed, weighed, and analyzed immunohistochemically and biochemically. Although there were no significant differences in muscle weight or fiber area between the groups, the numbers of satellite cells and myonuclei per muscle fiber, percentage of satellite cells, and citrate synthase activity were significantly higher in the training group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. The percentage of satellite cells was also positively correlated with distance run in the training group (r = 0.61, p < 0.05. Voluntary running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without changing the mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle; this increase in satellite cell content is a function of distance run

  12. Effects of voluntary running exercise on bone histology in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Takamine

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity in children and adolescents, which may lead to type 2 diabetes, is increasing. Exercise is recommended to prevent and improve diabetes. However, little is known about the bone marrow environment at the onset of diabetes in the young, and it is unclear whether exercise training is useful for maintaining bone homeostasis, such as mechanical and histological properties. Thus, this study clarified the histological properties of bone and whether exercise contributes to maintaining bone homeostasis at the onset of type 2 diabetes in rats. Four-week-old male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF; n = 21 rats as a diabetic model and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; n = 18 rats as a control were assigned randomly to four groups: the OLETF sedentary group (O-Sed; n = 11, OLETF exercise group (O-Ex; n = 10, LETO sedentary group (L-Sed; n = 9, and LETO exercise group (L-Ex; n = 9. All rats in the exercise group were allowed free access to a steel running wheel for 20 weeks (5-25 weeks of age. In the glucose tolerance test, blood glucose level was higher in the O-Sed group than that in the L-Sed and L-Ex groups, and was markedly suppressed by the voluntary running exercise of O-Ex rats. The energy to fracture and the two-dimensional bone volume at 25 weeks of age did not differ significantly among the groups, though the maximum breaking force and stiffness were lower in OLETF rats. However, bone marrow fat volume was greater in O-Sed than that in L-Sed and L-Ex rats, and was markedly suppressed by wheel running in the O-Ex rats. Our results indicate that exercise has beneficial effects not only for preventing diabetes but also on normal bone remodeling at an early age.

  13. Effects of voluntary running exercise on bone histology in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamine, Yuri; Ichinoseki-Sekine, Noriko; Tsuzuki, Takamasa; Yoshihara, Toshinori; Naito, Hisashi

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of obesity in children and adolescents, which may lead to type 2 diabetes, is increasing. Exercise is recommended to prevent and improve diabetes. However, little is known about the bone marrow environment at the onset of diabetes in the young, and it is unclear whether exercise training is useful for maintaining bone homeostasis, such as mechanical and histological properties. Thus, this study clarified the histological properties of bone and whether exercise contributes to maintaining bone homeostasis at the onset of type 2 diabetes in rats. Four-week-old male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF; n = 21) rats as a diabetic model and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; n = 18) rats as a control were assigned randomly to four groups: the OLETF sedentary group (O-Sed; n = 11), OLETF exercise group (O-Ex; n = 10), LETO sedentary group (L-Sed; n = 9), and LETO exercise group (L-Ex; n = 9). All rats in the exercise group were allowed free access to a steel running wheel for 20 weeks (5-25 weeks of age). In the glucose tolerance test, blood glucose level was higher in the O-Sed group than that in the L-Sed and L-Ex groups, and was markedly suppressed by the voluntary running exercise of O-Ex rats. The energy to fracture and the two-dimensional bone volume at 25 weeks of age did not differ significantly among the groups, though the maximum breaking force and stiffness were lower in OLETF rats. However, bone marrow fat volume was greater in O-Sed than that in L-Sed and L-Ex rats, and was markedly suppressed by wheel running in the O-Ex rats. Our results indicate that exercise has beneficial effects not only for preventing diabetes but also on normal bone remodeling at an early age.

  14. Voluntary wheel running increases bile acid as well as cholesterol excretion and decreases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Lombardo, Elisa; Havinga, Rick; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Regular physical activity decreases the risk for atherosclerosis but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We questioned whether voluntary wheel running provokes specific modulations in cholesterol turnover that translate into a decreased atherosclerotic burden in

  15. Techniques for establishing schedules with wheel running as reinforcement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, I H

    1993-07-01

    In three experiments, access to wheel running was contingent on lever pressing. In each experiment, the duration of access to running was reduced gradually to 4, 5, or 6 s, and the schedule parameters were expanded gradually. The sessions lasted 2 hr. In Experiment 1, a fixed-ratio 20 schedule controlled a typical break-and-run pattern of lever pressing that was maintained throughout the session for 3 rats. In Experiment 2, a fixed-interval schedule of 6 min maintained lever pressing throughout the session for 3 rats, and for 1 rat, the rate of lever pressing was positively accelerated between reinforcements. In Experiment 3, a variable-ratio schedule of 20 or 35 was in effect and maintained lever pressing at a very stable pace throughout the session for 2 of 3 rats; for 1 rat, lever pressing was maintained at an irregular rate. When the session duration was extended to successive 24-hr periods, with food and water accessible in Experiment 3, lever pressing settled into a periodic pattern occurring at a high rate at approximately the same time each day. In each experiment, the rats that developed the highest local rates of running during wheel access also maintained the most stable and highest rates of lever pressing.

  16. Evidence for positive, but not negative, behavioral contrast with wheel-running reinforcement on multiple variable-ratio schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-12-01

    Rats responded on a multiple variable-ratio (VR) 10 VR 10 schedule of reinforcement in which lever pressing was reinforced by the opportunity to run in a wheel for 30s in both the changed (manipulated) and unchanged components. To generate positive contrast, the schedule of reinforcement in the changed component was shifted to extinction; to generate negative contrast, the schedule was shifted to VR 3. With the shift to extinction in the changed component, wheel-running and local lever-pressing rates increased in the unchanged component, a result supporting positive contrast; however, the shift to a VR 3 schedule in the changed component showed no evidence of negative contrast in the unaltered setting, only wheel running decreased in the unchanged component. Changes in wheel-running rates across components were consistent in showing a compensation effect, depending on whether the schedule manipulation increased or decreased opportunities for wheel running in the changed component. These findings are the first to demonstrate positive behavioral contrast on a multiple schedule with wheel running as reinforcement in both components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of intrinsic aerobic capacity and ovariectomy on voluntary wheel running and nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A; Padilla, Jaume; Zidon, Terese; Welly, Rebecca J; Will, Matthew J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Booth, Frank W; Thyfault, John P; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J

    2016-10-01

    Rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) aerobic capacity show a stark divergence in wheel running behavior, which may be associated with the dopamine (DA) system in the brain. HCR possess greater motivation for voluntary running along with greater brain DA activity compared to LCR. We recently demonstrated that HCR are not immune to ovariectomy (OVX)-associated reductions in spontaneous cage (i.e. locomotor) activity. Whether HCR and LCR rats differ in their OVX-mediated voluntary wheel running response is unknown. To determine whether HCR are protected from OVX-associated reduction in voluntary wheel running. Forty female HCR and LCR rats (age ~27weeks) had either SHM or OVX operations, and given access to a running wheel for 11weeks. Weekly wheel running distance was monitored throughout the intervention. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) was assessed for mRNA expression of DA receptors at sacrifice. Compared to LCR, HCR ran greater distance and had greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression (both line main effects, PWheel running distance was significantly, positively correlated with the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression across animals. In both lines, OVX reduced wheel running (Pwheel running, they had greater OVX-induced reduction in wheel running than LCR such that no differences were found 11weeks after OVX between HCROVX and LCROVX (interaction, Pwheel running in HCR was associated with an OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. The DA system in the NAc region may play a significant role in motivation to run in female rats. Compared to LCR, HCR rats run significantly more, which associates with greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. However, despite greater inherent motivation to run and an associated brain DA mRNA expression profile, HCR rats are not protected against OVX-induced reduction in wheel running or OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory

  18. Simple and conditional visual discrimination with wheel running as reinforcement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, I H

    1998-09-01

    Three experiments explored whether access to wheel running is sufficient as reinforcement to establish and maintain simple and conditional visual discriminations in nondeprived rats. In Experiment 1, 2 rats learned to press a lit key to produce access to running; responding was virtually absent when the key was dark, but latencies to respond were longer than for customary food and water reinforcers. Increases in the intertrial interval did not improve the discrimination performance. In Experiment 2, 3 rats acquired a go-left/go-right discrimination with a trial-initiating response and reached an accuracy that exceeded 80%; when two keys showed a steady light, pressing the left key produced access to running whereas pressing the right key produced access to running when both keys showed blinking light. Latencies to respond to the lights shortened when the trial-initiation response was introduced and became much shorter than in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, 1 rat acquired a conditional discrimination task (matching to sample) with steady versus blinking lights at an accuracy exceeding 80%. A trial-initiation response allowed self-paced trials as in Experiment 2. When the rat was exposed to the task for 19 successive 24-hr periods with access to food and water, the discrimination performance settled in a typical circadian pattern and peak accuracy exceeded 90%. When the trial-initiation response was under extinction, without access to running, the circadian activity pattern determined the time of spontaneous recovery. The experiments demonstrate that wheel-running reinforcement can be used to establish and maintain simple and conditional visual discriminations in nondeprived rats.

  19. Investigation of pre-pubertal sex differences in wheel running and social behavior in three mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elizabeth A; Corbitt, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    Sex differences in social behaviors exist in mammals during adulthood, and further evidence suggests that sex differences in behavior are present before sexual maturity. In order to model behavioral disorders in animals, it is important to assess baseline sex-related behavioral differences, especially when studying disorders for which sex-related behavioral effects are expected. We investigated the effect of sex on behavior in 3 strains of pre-pubertal mice (C57BL/6, CFW, and CF1) using a wheel-running assay. We found no significant sex differences in latency to run on the wheel or total duration of wheel running within each strain. During the social interaction test, there were no differences between sexes in latency or total duration of contact or following between a subject and novel mouse. We also evaluated behavioral patterns of wheel running and stereotypical behaviors, such as burrowing and grooming. Both sexes showed characteristic wheel running behavior, spending the majority of each trial interacting with the wheel when it was free and more time performing other activities ( e.g. , stereotypical behaviors, general locomotion) when it was jammed. These results provide evidence that, among various strains of pre-pubertal mice, baseline sex-related behavioral differences are not strong enough to influence the measured behaviors.

  20. Home cage wheel running is an objective and clinically relevant method to assess inflammatory pain in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Ram; Calsbeek, Jonas J.; Morgan, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The assessment of nociception in preclinical studies is undergoing a transformation from pain-evoked to pain-depressed tests to more closely mimic the effects of clinical pain. Many inflammatory pain-depressed behaviors (reward seeking, locomotion) have been examined, but these tests are limited because of confounds such as stress and difficulties in quantifying behavior. New Method The present study evaluates home cage wheel running as an objective method to assess the magnitude and duration of inflammatory pain in male and female rats. Results Injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) into the right hindpaw to induce inflammatory pain almost completely inhibited wheel running for 2 days in males and females. Wheel running gradually returned to baseline levels within 12 days despite persistent mechanical hypersensitivity (von Frey test). Comparison with Existing Methods Continuously monitoring home cage wheel running improves on previous studies examining inflammatory pain-depressed wheel running because it is more sensitive to noxious stimuli, avoids the stress of removing the rat from its cage for testing, and provides a complete analysis of the time course for changes in nociception. Conclusions The present data indicate that home cage wheel running is a clinically relevant method to assess inflammatory pain in the rat. The decrease in activity caused by inflammatory pain and subsequent gradual recovery mimics the changes in activity caused by pain in humans. The tendency for pain-depressed wheel running to be greater in female than male rats is consistent with the tendency for women to be at greater risk of chronic pain than men. PMID:26891874

  1. The effect of wheel eccentricity and run-out on grinding forces, waviness, wheel wear and chatter

    OpenAIRE

    O'DONNELL, GARRET; MURPHY, STUART

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED The effect of grinding-wheel eccentricity on grinding forces, wheel wear and final waviness height was studied. Eccentricity was evident in force oscillations and acceleration and audio measurements. A model was developed to predict final scallop-profile shape from grinding parameters and eccentricity. Recommendations are given on detecting eccentricity and determining when eccentricity is tolerable.

  2. One day access to a running wheel reduces self-administration of d-methamphetamine, MDMA and Methylone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarde, Shawn M.; Miller, Michelle L.; Creehan, Kevin M.; Vandewater, Sophia A.; Taffe, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise influences drug craving and consumption in humans and drug self-administration in laboratory animals, but the effects can be variable. Improved understanding of how exercise affects drug intake or craving would enhance applications of exercise programs to human drug users attempting cessation. Methods Rats were trained in the intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of d-methamphetamine (METH; 0.05 mg/kg/inf), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 0.5 mg/kg/inf) or methylone (0.5 mg/kg/inf). Once IVSA was established, the effect of ~22 hrs of wheel access in the home cage on subsequent drug taking was assessed in a two cohort crossover design. Results Provision of home cage wheel access during the day prior to IVSA sessions significantly decreased the self-administration of METH, MDMA and methylone. At the individual level, there was no correlation between the amount a rat used the wheel and the size of the individual’s decrease in drug intake. Conclusions Wheel access can reduce self-administration of a variety of psychomotor stimulants. It does so immediately, i.e., without a need for weeks of exercise prior to drug access. This study therefore indicates that future mechanistic investigations should focus on acute effects of exercise. In sum, the results predict that exercise programs can be used to decrease stimulant drug use in individuals even with no exercise history and an established drug taking pattern. PMID:25863714

  3. Effects of diet-induced obesity and voluntary wheel running on the microstructure of the murine distal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timonen Jussi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and osteoporosis, two possibly related conditions, are rapidly expanding health concerns in modern society. Both of them are associated with sedentary life style and nutrition. To investigate the effects of diet-induced obesity and voluntary physical activity we used high resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT together with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT to examine the microstructure of the distal femoral metaphysis in mice. Methods Forty 7-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to 4 groups: control (C, control + running (CR, high-fat diet (HF, and high-fat diet + running (HFR. After a 21-week intervention, all the mice were sacrificed and the left femur dissected for pQCT and μCT measurements. Results The mice fed the high-fat diet showed a significant weight gain (over 70% for HF and 60% for HFR, with increased epididymal fat pad mass and impaired insulin sensitivity. These obese mice had significantly higher trabecular connectivity density, volume, number, thickness, area and mass, and smaller trabecular separation. At the whole bone level, they had larger bone circumference and cross-sectional area and higher density-weighted maximal, minimal, and polar moments of inertia. Voluntary wheel running decreased all the cortical bone parameters, but increased the trabecular mineral density, and decreased the pattern factor and structure model index towards a more plate-like structure. Conclusions The results suggest that in mice the femur adapts to obesity by improving bone strength both at the whole bone and micro-structural level. Adaptation to running exercise manifests itself in increased trabecular density and improved 3D structure, but in a limited overall bone growth

  4. Changes in hippocampal theta rhythm and their correlations with speed during different phases of voluntary wheel running in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J-Y; Kuo, T B J; Hsieh, I-T; Yang, C C H

    2012-06-28

    Hippocampal theta rhythm (4-12 Hz) can be observed during locomotor behavior, but findings on the relationship between locomotion speed and theta frequency are inconsistent if not contradictory. The inconsistency may be because of the difficulties that previous analyses and protocols have had excluding the effects of behavior training. We recorded the first or second voluntary wheel running each day, and assumed that theta frequency and activity are correlated with speed in different running phases. By simultaneously recording electroencephalography, physical activity, and wheel running speed, this experiment explored the theta oscillations during spontaneous running of the 12-h dark period. The recording was completely wireless and allowed the animal to run freely while being recorded in the wheel. Theta frequency and theta power of middle frequency were elevated before running and theta frequency, theta power of middle frequency, physical activity, and running speed maintained persistently high levels during running. The slopes of the theta frequency and theta activity (4-9.5 Hz) during the initial running were different compared to the same values during subsequent running. During the initial running, the running speed was positively correlated with theta frequency and with theta power of middle frequency. Over the 12-h dark period, the running speed did not positively correlate with theta frequency but was significantly correlated with theta power of middle frequency. Thus, theta frequency was associated with running speed only at the initiation of running. Furthermore, theta power of middle frequency was associated with speed and with physical activity during running when chronological order was not taken into consideration. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of early-life exposure to Western diet and wheel access on metabolic syndrome profiles in mice bred for high voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Keeney, B K; Hannon, R M; Dlugosz, E M; Garland, T

    2014-03-01

    Experimental studies manipulating diet and exercise have shown varying effects on metabolic syndrome components in both humans and rodents. To examine the potential interactive effects of diet, exercise and genetic background, we studied mice from four replicate lines bred (52 generations) for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines) and four unselected control lines (C). At weaning, animals were housed for 60 days with or without wheels and fed either a standard chow or Western diet (WD, 42% kcal from fat). Four serial (three juvenile and one adult) blood samples were taken to measure fasting total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides and glucose. Western diet was obesogenic for all mice, even after accounting for the amount of wheel running and kilojoules consumed. Western diet significantly raised glucose as well as TC and HDL-C concentrations. At the level of individual variation (repeatability), there was a modest correlation (r = 0.3-0.5) of blood lipids over time, which was reduced with wheel access and/or WD. Neither genetic selection history nor wheel access had a statistically significant effect on blood lipids. However, HR and C mice had divergent ontogenetic trajectories for body mass and caloric intake. HR mice also had lower adiposity, an effect that was dependent on wheel access. The environmental factors of diet and wheel access had pronounced effects on body mass, food consumption and fasting glucose concentrations, interacting with each other and/or with genetic strain. These data underscore the importance (and often unpredictable nature) of genotype-by-environment and environment-by-environment interactions when studying body weight regulation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. Energy homeostasis and running wheel activity during pregnancy in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, S R; Carter, K M; Grattan, D R

    2018-05-05

    Pregnancy and lactation are metabolically challenging states, where the mother must supply all the energy requirements for the developing fetus and growing pups respectively. The aim of the current study was to characterize many aspects of energy homeostasis before and during pregnancy in the mouse, and to examine the role of voluntary activity on changes in energy expenditure during pregnancy. In a secondary aim, we evaluate measures of energy homeostasis during pregnancy in mice that successfully reared their litter or in mice that went on to abandon their litter, to determine if an impairment in pregnancy-induced adaptation of energy homeostasis might underlie the abandonment of pups soon after birth. During pregnancy, food intake was increased, characterized by increased meal size and duration but not number of meals per day. The duration of time spent inactive, predicted to indicate sleep behaviour, was increased both early and late in pregnancy compared to pre-pregnancy levels. Increased x + y beam breaks, as a measure of activity increased during pregnancy and this reflected an increase in ambulatory behaviour in mid pregnancy and an increase in non-ambulatory movement in late pregnancy. Energy expenditure, as measured by indirect calorimetry, increased across pregnancy, likely due to the growth and development of fetal tissue. There was also a dramatic reduction in voluntary wheel running as soon as the mice became pregnant. Compared with successful pregnancies and lactations, pregnancies where pups were abandoned soon after birth were associated with reduced body weight gain and an increase in running wheel activity at the end of pregnancy, but no difference in food intake or energy expenditure. Overall, during pregnancy there are multiple adaptations to change energy homeostasis, resulting in partitioning of provisions of energy to the developing fetus and storing energy for future metabolic demands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exclusive Preference Develops Less Readily on Concurrent Ratio Schedules with Wheel-Running than with Sucrose Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggested that allocation of responses on concurrent schedules of wheel-running reinforcement was less sensitive to schedule differences than typically observed with more conventional reinforcers. To assess this possibility, 16 female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent FR FR schedules of reinforcement and the schedule…

  8. Effects of selective breeding for increased wheel-running behavior on circadian timing of substrate oxidation and ingestive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, I.; Vaanholt, L. M.; Doornbos, M.; Garland, T.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in substrate preference and utilization across the circadian cycle may be influenced by the degree of physical activity and nutritional status. In the present study, we assessed these relationships in control mice and in mice from a line selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running

  9. Voluntary wheel running augments aortic l-arginine transport and endothelial function in rats with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Christopher R; Kuczmarski, James M; Kim, Jahyun; Guers, John J; Harris, M Brennan; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon; Edwards, David G

    2014-08-15

    Reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis contributes to risk for cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular uptake of the NO precursor l-arginine (ARG) is attenuated in rodents with CKD, resulting in reduced substrate availability for NO synthesis and impaired vascular function. We tested the effect of 4 wk of voluntary wheel running (RUN) and/or ARG supplementation on endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) in rats with CKD. Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ⅚ ablation infarction surgery to induce CKD, or SHAM surgery as a control. Beginning 4 wk following surgery, CKD animals either remained sedentary (SED) or received one of the following interventions: supplemental ARG, RUN, or combined RUN+ARG. Animals were euthanized 8 wk after surgery, and EDR was assessed. EDR was significantly impaired in SED vs. SHAM animals after 8 wk, in response to ACh (10(-9)-10(-5) M) as indicated by a reduced area under the curve (AUC; 44.56 ± 9.01 vs 100 ± 4.58, P RUN and RUN+ARG-treated animals. Maximal relaxation was elevated above SED in RUN+ARG animals only. l-[(3)H]arginine uptake was impaired in both SED and ARG animals and was improved in RUN and RUN+ARG animals. The results suggest that voluntary wheel running is an effective therapy to improve vascular function in CKD and may be more beneficial when combined with l-arginine. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Beneficial effects of fluoxetine, reboxetine, venlafaxine, and voluntary running exercise in stressed male rats with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapmanee, Sarawut; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2013-08-01

    Rodents exposed to mild but repetitive stress may develop anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Whether this stress response could be alleviated by pharmacological treatments or exercise interventions, such as wheel running, was unknown. Herein, we determined anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in restraint stressed rats (2h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks) subjected to acute diazepam treatment (30min prior to behavioral test), chronic treatment with fluoxetine, reboxetine or venlafaxine (10mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), and/or 4-week voluntary wheel running. In elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced swimming tests (FST), stressed rats spent less time in the open arms and had less swimming duration than the control rats, respectively, indicating the presence of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Stressed rats also developed learned fear as evaluated by elevated T-maze test (ETM). Although wheel running could reduce anxiety-like behaviors in both EPM and ETM, only diazepam was effective in the EPM, while fluoxetine, reboxetine, and venlafaxine were effective in the ETM. Fluoxetine, reboxetine, and wheel running, but not diazepam and venlafaxine, also reduced depression-like behavior in FST. Combined pharmacological treatment and exercise did not further reduce anxiety-like behavior in stressed rats. However, stressed rats treated with wheel running plus reboxetine or venlafaxine showed an increase in climbing duration in FST. In conclusion, regular exercise (voluntary wheel running) and pharmacological treatments, especially fluoxetine and reboxetine, could alleviate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed male rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Active and safe with wheeled walkers : Pilot study on feasibility of mobility exercises for wheeled walker users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Marina; Lang, Frieder R; Freiberger, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    The number of older people with mobility impairments using wheeled walkers is increasing; however, the handling of these walking aids is often ineffective. Moreover, age-associated functional loss, environmental demands and fear of falling may additionally challenge mobility. The new training program "Active and safe with wheeled walkers" aims to enhance skills and to improve mobility. The present pilot study was carried out to assess the feasibility of the training as well as to identify training effects and methodological insights for further research. The study was carried out with 28 wheeled walker users (age 68-91 years) in assisted living facilities using a pre-post design. Of the participants 13 persons were trained for 10 weeks (90 min, twice a week) and 15 persons served as a control group. Data were collected on functional mobility, hand strength, leg strength, balance, walker handling and fear of falling. The drop-out rate for the training was 38 % due to health concerns (n = 2), lack of time (n = 1) and changes in health status independent of training (n = 3). Medium to large effects were detected. Data regarding the recruitment strategy and the acceptance of individual exercises are available. The results indicate a good feasibility and effectiveness of the training. The simple accessibility of the training was conducive for the regular participation. The everyday relevance of the results and the lack of comparable interventions suggest that further research efforts be carried out. Recruitment strategies, training requirements and data collection methods need to be optimized.

  12. Spinning the Big Wheel on “The Price is Right”: A Spreadsheet Simulation Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Willoughby

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A popular game played in each broadcast of the United States television game show “The Price is Right” has contestants spinning a large wheel comprised of twenty different monetary values (in 5-cent increments from $0.05 to $1.00. A player wins by scoring closest to, without exceeding, $1.00. Players may accomplish this in one or a total of two spins. We develop a spreadsheet modeling exercise, useful in an introductory undergraduate Spreadsheet Analytics course, to simulate the spinning of the wheel and to determine optimal spinning strategies.

  13. Effect of sucrose availability on wheel-running as an operant and as a reinforcing consequence on a multiple schedule: Additive effects of extrinsic and automatic reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2015-07-01

    As a follow up to Belke and Pierce's (2014) study, we assessed the effects of repeated presentation and removal of sucrose solution on the behavior of rats responding on a two-component multiple schedule. Rats completed 15 wheel turns (FR 15) for either 15% or 0% sucrose solution in the manipulated component and lever pressed 10 times on average (VR 10) for an opportunity to complete 15 wheel turns (FR 15) in the other component. In contrast to our earlier study, the components advanced based on time (every 8min) rather than completed responses. Results showed that in the manipulated component wheel-running rates were higher and the latency to initiate running longer when sucrose was present (15%) compared to absent (0% or water); the number of obtained outcomes (sucrose/water), however, did not differ with the presentation and withdrawal of sucrose. For the wheel-running as reinforcement component, rates of wheel turns, overall lever-pressing rates, and obtained wheel-running reinforcements were higher, and postreinforcement pauses shorter, when sucrose was present (15%) than absent (0%) in manipulated component. Overall, our findings suggest that wheel-running rate regardless of its function (operant or reinforcement) is maintained by automatically generated consequences (automatic reinforcement) and is increased as an operant by adding experimentally arranged sucrose reinforcement (extrinsic reinforcement). This additive effect on operant wheel-running generalizes through induction or arousal to the wheel-running as reinforcement component, increasing the rate of responding for opportunities to run and the rate of wheel-running per opportunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of a rail vehicle running with the damaged wheel on a ride comfort for passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dižo Ján

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain conditions rail vehicles wheels can be during operation damaged. Then, the profile of wheels is no longer circular, but it is changed depending on the type and severity of defects. When such rail vehicle with the damaged wheel operates, the quality of a ride comfort for passenger is degraded. This article is focused on the assessment of ride comfort for passenger based on results obtained from dynamic analyses. Simulations and calculations were carried out in commercial multibody software. In our research we considered one type of the railway wheel untrueness – wheel-flat. This type of wheel damaging is relatively common and has such influence on the ride comfort for passenger worsening, which needs to be detected and investigated.

  15. EXERCISE-INDUCED PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AFTER RUNNING A MARATHON

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was e...

  16. Strain screen and haplotype association mapping of wheel running in inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; Leamy, Larry; Pomp, Daniel; Turner, Michael J; Fodor, Anthony A; Knab, Amy; Bowen, Robert S; Ferguson, David; Moore-Harrison, Trudy; Hamilton, Alicia

    2010-09-01

    Previous genetic association studies of physical activity, in both animal and human models, have been limited in number of subjects and genetically homozygous strains used as well as number of genomic markers available for analysis. Expansion of the available mouse physical activity strain screens and the recently published dense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map of the mouse genome (approximately 8.3 million SNPs) and associated statistical methods allowed us to construct a more generalizable map of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with physical activity. Specifically, we measured wheel running activity in male and female mice (average age 9 wk) in 41 inbred strains and used activity data from 38 of these strains in a haplotype association mapping analysis to determine QTL associated with activity. As seen previously, there was a large range of activity patterns among the strains, with the highest and lowest strains differing significantly in daily distance run (27.4-fold), duration of activity (23.6-fold), and speed (2.9-fold). On a daily basis, female mice ran further (24%), longer (13%), and faster (11%). Twelve QTL were identified, with three (on Chr. 12, 18, and 19) in both male and female mice, five specific to males, and four specific to females. Eight of the 12 QTL, including the 3 general QTL found for both sexes, fell into intergenic areas. The results of this study further support the findings of a moderate to high heritability of physical activity and add general genomic areas applicable to a large number of mouse strains that can be further mined for candidate genes associated with regulation of physical activity. Additionally, results suggest that potential genetic mechanisms arising from traditional noncoding regions of the genome may be involved in regulation of physical activity.

  17. Rates and Risks for Running and Exercise Injuries: Studies in Three Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Steven N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the results of three epidemiologic studies of orthopedic running and exercise injuries in exercisers present information regarding relationships between type of injury and participant age, gender, exercise level, exercise surface, and physical fitness. (Author/CB)

  18. Agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running exercise effectively prevent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment in restraint stressed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Lapmanee

    Full Text Available Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known. Herein, male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 4 weeks with anti-anxiety/anti-depressive drugs, agomelatine and venlafaxine, or voluntary wheel running, followed by 4 weeks of restraint-induced stress. During the stress period, rats received neither drug nor exercise intervention. Our results showed that restraint stress induced mixed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment as determined by elevated plus-maze, elevated T-maze, open field test (OFT, forced swimming test (FST, and Morris water maze (MWM. Both pharmacological pre-treatments and running successfully prevented the anxiety-like behavior, especially learned fear, in stressed rats. MWM test suggested that agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running could prevent stress-induced memory impairment, but only pharmacological treatments led to better novel object recognition behavior and positive outcome in FST. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that venlafaxine and running exercise upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, agomelatine, venlafaxine as well as voluntary wheel running had beneficial effects, i.e., preventing the restraint stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment.

  19. Contingency discriminability and the generalized matching law describe choice on concurrent ratio schedules of wheel-running reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2012-07-01

    Belke (2010) showed that on concurrent ratio schedules, the difference in ratio requirements required to produce near exclusive preference for the lower ratio alternative was substantively greater when the reinforcer was wheel running than when it was sucrose. The current study replicated this finding and showed that this choice behavior can be described by the matching law and the contingency discriminability model. Eight female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent VR schedules of wheel-running reinforcement (30s) and the schedule value of the initially preferred alternative was systematically increased. Two rats rapidly developed exclusive preference for the lower ratio alternative, but the majority did not - even when ratios differed by 20:1. Analysis showed that estimates of slopes from the matching law and the proportion of reinforcers misattributed from the contingency discriminability model were related to the ratios at which near exclusive preference developed. The fit of these models would be consistent with misattribution of reinforcers or poor discrimination between alternatives due to the long duration of wheel running. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estrous correlated modulations of circadian and ultradian wheel-running activity rhythms in LEW/Ztm rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wollnik, Franziska; Turek, Fred W.

    1988-01-01

    Estrogen treatment alters the expression of ultradian activity rhythms in male and female LEW/Ztm rats. This finding raises the possibility that the expression of ultradian rhythms may vary on different days of the estrous cycle. To test this hypothesis, we recorded the circadian and ultradian wheel-running activity rhythms of entrained (LD 12:12) and free-running sexually mature LEW/Ztm females during their 4- or 5-day estrous cycle. The mean daily activity, the duration of activity, the cir...

  1. Mu-opioid receptor inhibition decreases voluntary wheel running in a dopamine-dependent manner in rats bred for high voluntary running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Brown, Jacob D; Kovarik, M Cathleen; Miller, Dennis K; Booth, Frank W

    2016-12-17

    The mesolimbic dopamine and opioid systems are postulated to influence the central control of physical activity motivation. We utilized selectively bred rats for high (HVR) or low (LVR) voluntary running behavior to examine (1) inherent differences in mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) expression and function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), (2) if dopamine-related mRNAs, wheel-running, and food intake are differently influenced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone injection in HVR and LVR rats, and (3) if dopamine is required for naltrexone-induced changes in running and feeding behavior in HVR rats. Oprm1 mRNA and protein expression were greater in the NAc of HVR rats, and application of the Oprm1 agonist [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to dissociated NAc neurons produced greater depolarizing responses in neurons from HVR versus LVR rats. Naltrexone injection dose-dependently decreased wheel running and food intake in HVR, but not LVR, rats. Naltrexone (20mg/kg) decreased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and Fos and Drd5 mRNA in NAc shell of HVR, but not LVR, rats. Additionally, lesion of dopaminergic neurons in the NAc with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) ablated the decrease in running, but not food intake, in HVR rats following i.p. naltrexone administration. Collectively, these data suggest the higher levels of running observed in HVR rats, compared to LVR rats, are mediated, in part, by increased mesolimbic opioidergic signaling that requires downstream dopaminergic activity to influence voluntary running, but not food intake. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The TreadWheel: A Novel Apparatus to Measure Genetic Variation in Response to Gently Induced Exercise for Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Mendez

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the dramatic health issues affecting developed and developing nations, and exercise is a well-established intervention strategy. While exercise-by-genotype interactions have been shown in humans, overall little is known. Using the natural negative geotaxis of Drosophila melanogaster, an important model organism for the study of genetic interactions, a novel exercise machine, the TreadWheel, can be used to shed light on this interaction. The mechanism for inducing exercise with the TreadWheel is inherently gentle, thus minimizing possible confounding effects of other stressors. Using this machine, we were able to assess large cohorts of adult flies from eight genetic lines for their response to exercise after one week of training. We measured their triglyceride, glycerol, protein, glycogen, glucose content, and body weight, as well as their climbing ability and feeding behavior in response to exercise. Exercised flies showed decreased stored triglycerides, glycogen, and body weight, and increased stored protein and climbing ability. In addition to demonstrating an overall effect of TreadWheel exercise on flies, we found significant interactions of exercise with genotype, sex, or genotype-by-sex effects for most of the measured phenotypes. We also observed interaction effects between exercise, genotype, and tissue (abdomen or thorax for metabolite profiles, and those differences can be partially linked to innate differences in the flies' persistence in maintaining activity during exercise bouts. In addition, we assessed gene expression levels for a panel of 13 genes known to be associated with respiratory fitness and found that many responded to exercise. With this study, we have established the TreadWheel as a useful tool to study the effect of exercise in flies, shown significant genotype-specific and sex-specific impacts of exercise, and have laid the ground work for more extensive studies of how genetics, sex, environment

  3. The TreadWheel: A Novel Apparatus to Measure Genetic Variation in Response to Gently Induced Exercise for Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Sean; Watanabe, Louis; Hill, Rachel; Owens, Meredith; Moraczewski, Jason; Rowe, Glenn C.; Riddle, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the dramatic health issues affecting developed and developing nations, and exercise is a well-established intervention strategy. While exercise-by-genotype interactions have been shown in humans, overall little is known. Using the natural negative geotaxis of Drosophila melanogaster, an important model organism for the study of genetic interactions, a novel exercise machine, the TreadWheel, can be used to shed light on this interaction. The mechanism for inducing exercise with the TreadWheel is inherently gentle, thus minimizing possible confounding effects of other stressors. Using this machine, we were able to assess large cohorts of adult flies from eight genetic lines for their response to exercise after one week of training. We measured their triglyceride, glycerol, protein, glycogen, glucose content, and body weight, as well as their climbing ability and feeding behavior in response to exercise. Exercised flies showed decreased stored triglycerides, glycogen, and body weight, and increased stored protein and climbing ability. In addition to demonstrating an overall effect of TreadWheel exercise on flies, we found significant interactions of exercise with genotype, sex, or genotype-by-sex effects for most of the measured phenotypes. We also observed interaction effects between exercise, genotype, and tissue (abdomen or thorax) for metabolite profiles, and those differences can be partially linked to innate differences in the flies' persistence in maintaining activity during exercise bouts. In addition, we assessed gene expression levels for a panel of 13 genes known to be associated with respiratory fitness and found that many responded to exercise. With this study, we have established the TreadWheel as a useful tool to study the effect of exercise in flies, shown significant genotype-specific and sex-specific impacts of exercise, and have laid the ground work for more extensive studies of how genetics, sex, environment, and aging interact

  4. Depression of home cage wheel running is an objective measure of spontaneous morphine withdrawal in rats with and without persistent pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Ram; Lee, Andrea T.; Morgan, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    Opioid withdrawal in humans is often subtle and almost always spontaneous. In contrast, most preclinical studies precipitate withdrawal by administration of an opioid receptor antagonist such as naloxone. These animal studies rely on measurement of physiological symptoms (e.g., wet dog shakes) in the period immediately following naloxone administration. To more closely model the human condition, we tested the hypothesis that depression of home cage wheel running will provide an objective method to measure the magnitude and duration of spontaneous morphine withdrawal. Rats were allowed access to a running wheel in their home cage for 8 days prior to implantation of two 75 mg morphine or placebo pellets. The pellets were removed 3 or 5 days later to induce spontaneous withdrawal. In normal pain-free rats, removal of the morphine pellets depressed wheel running for 48 hours compared to rats that had placebo pellets removed. Morphine withdrawal-induced depression of wheel running was greatly enhanced in rats with persistent inflammatory pain induced by injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) into the hindpaw. Removal of the morphine pellets following 3 days of treatment depressed wheel running in these rats for over 6 days. These data demonstrate that home cage wheel running provides an objective and more clinically relevant method to assess spontaneous morphine withdrawal compared to precipitated withdrawal in laboratory rats. Moreover, the enhanced withdrawal in rats with persistent inflammatory pain suggests that pain patients may be especially susceptible to opioid withdrawal. PMID:28366799

  5. Effects of loaded voluntary wheel exercise on performance and muscle hypertrophy in young and old male C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffe, Z; Radley-Crabb, H G; McMahon, C; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the capacity of young and old male C57Bl/6J mice to exercise with increasing resistance over 10 weeks, and its impact on muscle mass. Young mice (aged 15-25 weeks) were subjected to low (LR) and high (HR) resistance exercise, whereas only LR was used for old mice (107-117 weeks). Weekly patterns of voluntary wheel activity, food consumption and body weights were measured. Running patterns changed over time and with age, with two peaks of activity detected for young, but only one for old mice: speed and distance run was also less for old mice. The mass for six limb muscles was measured at the end of the experiment. The most pronounced increase in mass in response to exercise was for the soleus in young and old mice, and also quadriceps and gastrocnemius in young mice. Soleus and quadriceps muscles were analyzed histologically for myofiber number and size. A striking feature was the many small myofibers in response to exercise in young (but not old) soleus, whereas these were not present after exercise in young or old quadriceps. Overall, there was a striking difference in response to exercise between muscles and this was influenced by age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The general matching law describes choice on concurrent variable-interval schedules of wheel-running reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, T W; Belliveau, J

    2001-05-01

    Six male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent variable-interval schedules of wheel-running reinforcement. The reinforcer associated with each alternative was the opportunity to run for 15 s, and the duration of the changeover delay was 1 s. Results suggested that time allocation was more sensitive to relative reinforcement rate than was response allocation. For time allocation, the mean slopes and intercepts were 0.82 and 0.008, respectively. In contrast, for response allocation, mean slopes and intercepts were 0.60 and 0.03, respectively. Correction for low response rates and high rates of changing over, however, increased slopes for response allocation to about equal those for time allocation. The results of the present study suggest that the two-operant form of the matching law can be extended to wheel-running reinforcement. 'I'he effects of a low overall response rate, a short Changeover delay, and long postreinforcement pausing on the assessment of matching in the present study are discussed.

  7. Circadian wheel running behavior is altered in an APP/E4 mouse model of late onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Katelyn N; Kakalec, Peter A; Smith, Meghann L; Howell, Stefanie N; Flinn, Jane M

    2017-12-01

    Circadian rhythms are altered in several diseases associated with aging, one of which is Alzheimer's disease (AD). One example of a circadian rhythm is the rest-activity cycle, which can be measured in mice by monitoring their wheel-running. The present study sought to investigate differences in light phase/dark phase activity between a mouse model of late onset AD (APP/E4) and control (C57Bl6J) mice, in both the pre-plaque and post-plaques stages of the disease. To assess activity level, 24-h wheel running behavior was monitored at six months (pre-plaque) and twelve months (post-plaque) for a period of nine days. The following measures were analyzed: counts (wheel rotations) during the dark phase, counts during the light phase, hour of activity onset, and hour of activity offset. Key findings indicate that activity onset is delayed in APP/E4 mice at six and twelve months, and activity profiles for APP/E4 and C57Bl6J mice differ during the light and dark phase in such a way that APP/E4 mice run less in the early hours of the dark phase and more in the later hours of the dark phase compared to C57Bl6J mice. These findings imply that rest-activity cycle is altered in the pre-plaque stages of AD in APP/E4 mice, as they show impairments as early as six months of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic wheel running reduces maladaptive patterns of methamphetamine intake: regulation by attenuation of methamphetamine-induced neuronal nitric oxide synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Alexander J.; Aparicio, Mark B.; Kim, Airee; Sobieraj, Jeffery C.; Yuan, Clara J.; Grant, Yanabel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether prior exposure to chronic wheel running (WR) alters maladaptive patterns of excessive and escalating methamphetamine intake under extended access conditions, and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration-induced neurotoxicity. Adult rats were given access to WR or no wheel (sedentary) in their home cage for 6 weeks. A set of WR rats were injected with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to determine WR-induced changes in proliferation (2-h old) and survival (28-day old) of hippocampal progenitors. Another set of WR rats were withdrawn (WRw) or continued (WRc) to have access to running wheels in their home cages during self-administration days. Following self-administration [6 h/day], rats were tested on the progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Following PR, BrdU was injected to determine levels of proliferating progenitors (2-h old). WRc rats self-administered significantly less methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition and escalation sessions, and demonstrated reduced motivation for methamphetamine seeking. Methamphetamine reduced daily running activity of WRc rats compared with that of pre-methamphetamine days. WRw rats self-administered significantly more methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition, an effect that was not observed during escalation and PR sessions. WR-induced beneficial effects on methamphetamine self-administration were not attributable to neuroplasticity effects in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, but were attributable to WR-induced inhibition of methamphetamine-induced increases in the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing neurons and apoptosis in the nucleus accumbens shell. Our results demonstrate that WR prevents methamphetamine-induced damage to forebrain neurons to provide a beneficial effect on drug-taking behavior. Importantly, WR-induced neuroprotective effects are transient and continued WR activity is necessary to prevent compulsive methamphetamine intake

  9. Concurrent schedules of wheel-running reinforcement: choice between different durations of opportunity to run in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2006-02-01

    How do animals choose between opportunities to run of different durations? Are longer durations preferred over shorter durations because they permit a greater number of revolutions? Are shorter durations preferred because they engender higher rates of running? Will longer durations be chosen because running is less constrained? The present study reports on three experiments that attempted to address these questions. In the first experiment, five male Wistar rats chose between 10-sec and 50-sec opportunities to run on modified concurrent variable-interval (VI) schedules. Across conditions, the durations associated with the alternatives were reversed. Response, time, and reinforcer proportions did not vary from indifference. In a second experiment, eight female Long-Evans rats chose between opportunities to run of equal (30 sec) and unequal durations (10 sec and 50 sec) on concurrent variable-ratio (VR) schedules. As in Experiment 1, between presentations of equal duration conditions, 10-sec and 50-sec durations were reversed. Results showed that response, time, and reinforcer proportions on an alternative did not vary with reinforcer duration. In a third experiment, using concurrent VR schedules, durations were systematically varied to decrease the shorter duration toward 0 sec. As the shorter duration decreased, response, time, and reinforcer proportions shifted toward the longer duration. In summary, differences in durations of opportunities to run did not affect choice behavior in a manner consistent with the assumption that a longer reinforcer is a larger reinforcer.

  10. Loss of Cdk5 function in the nucleus accumbens decreases wheel running and may mediate age‐related declines in voluntary physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Childs, Thomas E.; Grigsby, Kolter B.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Physical inactivity, which drastically increases with advancing age, is associated with numerous chronic diseases.The nucleus accumbens (the pleasure and reward ‘hub’ in the brain) influences wheel running behaviour in rodents.RNA‐sequencing and subsequent bioinformatics analysis led us to hypothesize a potential relationship between the regulation of dendritic spine density, the molecules involved in synaptic transmission, and age‐related reductions in wheel running. Upon completion of follow‐up studies, we developed the working model that synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens is central to age‐related changes in voluntary running.Testing this hypothesis, inhibition of Cdk5 (comprising a molecule central to the processes described above) in the nucleus accumbens reduced wheel running.The results of the present study show that reductions in synaptic transmission and Cdk5 function are related to decreases in voluntary running behaviour and provide guidance for understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie age‐dependent reductions in the motivation to be physically active. Abstract Increases in age are often associated with reduced levels of physical activity, which, in turn, associates with the development of numerous chronic diseases. We aimed to assess molecular differences in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) (a specific brain nucleus postulated to influence rewarding behaviour) with respect to wheel running and sedentary female Wistar rats at 8 and 14 weeks of age. RNA‐sequencing was used to interrogate transcriptomic changes between 8‐ and 14‐week‐old wheel running rats, and select transcripts were later analysed by quantitative RT‐PCR in age‐matched sedentary rats. Voluntary wheel running was greatest at 8 weeks and had significantly decreased by 12 weeks. From 619 differentially expressed mRNAs, bioinformatics suggested that cAMP‐mediated signalling, dopamine‐ and cAMP‐regulated neuronal phosphoprotein of 32

  11. Selective Breeding and Short-Term Access to a Running Wheel Alter Stride Characteristics in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Kay, Jarren C; Ordonez, Genesis; Hampton, Thomas G; Garland, Theodore

    Postural and kinematic aspects of running may have evolved to support high runner (HR) mice to run approximately threefold farther than control mice. Mice from four replicate HR lines selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running show many differences in locomotor behavior and morphology as compared with four nonselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that HR mice would show stride alterations that have coadapted with locomotor behavior, morphology, and physiology. More specifically, we predicted that HR mice would have stride characteristics that differed from those of C mice in ways that parallel some of the adaptations seen in highly cursorial animals. For example, we predicted that limbs of HR mice would swing closer to the parasagittal plane, resulting in a two-dimensional measurement of narrowed stance width. We also expected that some differences between HR and C mice might be amplified by 6 d of wheel access, as is used to select breeders each generation. We used the DigiGait Imaging System (Mouse Specifics) to capture high-speed videos in ventral view as mice ran on a motorized treadmill across a range of speeds and then to automatically calculate several aspects of strides. Young adults of both sexes were tested both before and after 6 d of wheel access. Stride length, stride frequency, stance width, stance time, brake time, propel time, swing time, duty factor, and paw contact area were analyzed using a nested analysis of covariance, with body mass as a covariate. As expected, body mass and treadmill speed affected nearly every analyzed metric. Six days of wheel access also affected nearly every measure, indicating pervasive training effects, in both HR and C mice. As predicted, stance width was significantly narrower in HR than C mice. Paw contact area and duty factor were significantly greater in minimuscle individuals (subset of HR mice with 50%-reduced hind limb muscle mass) than in normal-muscled HR or C mice. We conclude that

  12. Rats do not respond differently in the presence of stimuli signaling wheel-running reinforcers of different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2007-05-01

    Rats were exposed to a fixed interval 30 s schedule that produced opportunities to run of equal or unequal durations to assess the effect of differences in duration on responding. Each duration was signaled by a different stimulus. Wheel-running reinforcer duration pairs were 30 s 30 s, 50 s 10 s, and 55 s 5 s. An analysis of median postreinforcement pause duration and mean local lever-pressing rates broken down by previous reinforcer duration and duration of signaled upcoming reinforcer showed that postreinforcement pause duration was affected by the duration of the previous reinforcer but not by the stimulus signaling the duration of the upcoming reinforcer. Local lever-pressing rates were not affected by either previous or upcoming reinforcer duration. In general, the results are consistent with indifference between these durations obtained using a concurrent choice procedure.

  13. Energy loss optimization of run-off-road wheels applying imperialist competitive algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Taghavifar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The novel imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA has presented outstanding fitness on various optimization problems. Application of meta-heuristics has been a dynamic studying interest of the reliability optimization to determine idleness and reliability constituents. The application of a meta-heuristic evolutionary optimization method, imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA, for minimization of energy loss due to wheel rolling resistance in a soil bin facility equipped with single-wheel tester is discussed. The required data were collected thorough various designed experiments in the controlled soil bin environment. Local and global searching of the search space proposed that the energy loss could be reduced to the minimum amount of 15.46 J at the optimized input variable configuration of wheel load at 1.2 kN, tire inflation pressure of 296 kPa and velocity of 2 m/s. Meanwhile, genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO and hybridized GA–PSO approaches were benchmarked among the broad spectrum of meta-heuristics to find the outperforming approach. It was deduced that, on account of the obtained results, ICA can achieve optimum configuration with superior accuracy in less required computational time.

  14. Analyzing the Wheeled Vehicle Gearbox Structures for Running in Harsh Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vasiliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In domestic automotive industry the need for transition from transmission with manual control to automatic gearboxes (GB emerged long ago. Regarding the leading foreign manufacturers (Allison, ZF, Eaton, etc., an experience in design of automatic transmissions and the level of technological development is incomparably small. Thus, to have an informed choice of the gearbox structure types and control system is a relevant problem. Application efficiency of this or other gearbox depends both on its adaptability to the actual operating conditions and on the quality of transition refinement. This paper analyzes the special features of the gear change process in the most common types of automatic gearboxes. Constructive feasibilities of an "ideal" gear change (without power loss and strategies for gear shifting are compared. The paper offers an overview of common problems when achieving these goals and the ways to solve them. An automatic transmission of the particular type used in the wheeled vehicles under off-road conditions determines the probability of maintaining their mobility. This is due to the phenomenon of wheel`s breakdown to slipping caused by sharp increase of torque on the wheel. Planetary hydromechanical transmissions (AT provide continuous input torque to the wheels, but they are expensive and difficult to manufacture and use. Besides, to provide a high number of density ratios in them is more complicated than in the automated and manual transmissions (AMT. This is important when moving long in the lower gears under difficult conditions. Compared with AT dual clutch transmissions due to design features require even more precise and fast control system of actuators and engine. Automation of constant-mesh or synchromesh transmissions provides a significant reduction in the duration of interruption in torque delivery. If it is not enough to increase mobility in the harsh conditions, a rational choice is to use a transmission type of TCCT

  15. Voluntary wheel running selectively augments insulin-stimulated vasodilation in arterioles from white skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikus, Catherine R; Roseguini, Bruno T; Uptergrove, Grace M; Morris, E Matthew; Rector, Randy Scott; Libla, Jessica L; Oberlin, Douglas J; Borengasser, Sarah J; Taylor, Angelina M; Ibdah, Jamal A; Laughlin, Maurice Harold; Thyfault, John P

    2012-11-01

    Exercise (RUN) prevents declines in insulin-mediated vasodilation, an important component of insulin-mediated glucose disposal, in rats prone to obesity and insulin resistance. Determine whether RUN (1) improves insulin-stimulated vasodilation after insulin resistance has been established, and (2) differentially affects arterioles from red and white muscle. Insulin signaling and vasoreactivity to insulin (1-1000 μIU/mL) were assessed in 2A from the Gw and Gr of SED OLETF rats at 12 and 20 weeks of age (SED12, SED20) and those undergoing RUN (RUN20) or caloric restriction (CR20; to match body weight of RUN) from 12 to 20 weeks. Glucose and insulin responses to i.p. glucose were reduced in RUN20, elevated in SED20 (p RUN20 (p RUN selectively improved insulin-mediated vasodilation in Gw 2As, in part through attenuated ET-1 sensitivity/production, an adaptation that was independent of changes in adiposity and may contribute to enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Infusion of low dose glyceryl trinitrate has no consistent effect on burrowing behavior, running wheel activity and light sensitivity in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Louise T; Petersen, Steffen; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo

    2016-01-01

    . In the current paper we have studied the effect of glyceryl trinitrate infusion on three different rat behaviors. Methods: The stability of burrowing behavior, running wheel activity and light sensitivity towards repeated testing was evaluated also with respect to estrous cycle. Finally, the effect of glyceryl...... trinitrate on these behaviors in female rats was observed. Results: Burrowing behavior and running wheel activity were stable in the individual rat between experiments. The burrowing behavior was significantly affected by the stage of estrous cycle. The other assays were stable throughout the cycle. None...

  17. Effects of selective breeding for increased wheel-running behavior on circadian timing of substrate oxidation and ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónás, I; Vaanholt, L M; Doornbos, M; Garland, T; Scheurink, A J W; Nyakas, C; van Dijk, G

    2010-04-19

    Fluctuations in substrate preference and utilization across the circadian cycle may be influenced by the degree of physical activity and nutritional status. In the present study, we assessed these relationships in control mice and in mice from a line selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior, either when feeding a carbohydrate-rich/low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet. Housed without wheels, selected mice, and in particular the females, exhibited higher cage activity than their non-selected controls during the dark phase and at the onset of the light phase, irrespective of diet. This was associated with increases in energy expenditure in both sexes of the selection line. In selected males, carbohydrate oxidation appeared to be increased compared to controls. In contrast, selected females had profound increases in fat oxidation above the levels in control females to cover the increased energy expenditure during the dark phase. This is remarkable in light of the finding that the selected mice, and in particular the females showed higher preference for the LF diet relative to controls. It is likely that hormonal and/or metabolic signals increase carbohydrate preference in the selected females, which may serve optimal maintenance of cellular metabolism in the presence of augmented fat oxidation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental enrichment in the absence of wheel running produces beneficial behavioural and anti-oxidative effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, F; Sánchez, J; Torres, M N; Chamizo, V D

    2017-11-01

    The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) when solving a simple spatial task in adult male rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals. Enriched rats also performed better on a subsequent test trial without the platform with the geometry cue individually presented (in the absence of the landmark). Most importantly, the beneficial effects of the present protocol were obtained in the absence of wheel running. Additionally, the antioxidative effects in the hippocampus produced by the previous protocol are also shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Forced running exercise attenuates hippocampal neurogenesis impairment and the neurocognitive deficits induced by whole-brain irradiation via the BDNF-mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Jian-feng; Ji, Sheng-jun; Sun, Rui; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Li-yuan; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Forced exercise can ameliorate WBI induced cognitive impairment in our rat model. •Mature BDNF plays an important role in the effects of forced exercise. •Exercise may be a possible treatment of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. -- Abstract: Cranial radiotherapy induces progressive and debilitating cognitive deficits, particularly in long-term cancer survivors, which may in part be caused by the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested that voluntary exercise can reduce the cognitive impairment caused by radiation therapy. However, there is no study on the effect of forced wheel exercise and little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of exercise. In the present study, we investigated whether the forced running exercise after irradiation had the protective effects of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Sixty-four Male Sprague–Dawley rats received a single dose of 20 Gy or sham whole-brain irradiation (WBI), behavioral test was evaluated using open field test and Morris water maze at 2 months after irradiation. Half of the rats accepted a 3-week forced running exercise before the behavior detection. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and Western blotting was used to assess changes in the levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMKII), cAMP-calcium response element binding protein (CREB) in the BDNF–pCREB signaling. We found forced running exercise significantly prevented radiation-induced cognitive deficits, ameliorated the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis and attenuated the down-regulation of these proteins. Moreover, exercise also increased behavioral performance, hippocampal neurogenesis and elevated BDNF–pCREB signaling in non

  20. Forced running exercise attenuates hippocampal neurogenesis impairment and the neurocognitive deficits induced by whole-brain irradiation via the BDNF-mediated pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jian-feng; Ji, Sheng-jun; Sun, Rui; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Li-yuan; Tian, Ye, E-mail: dryetian@hotmail.com

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Forced exercise can ameliorate WBI induced cognitive impairment in our rat model. •Mature BDNF plays an important role in the effects of forced exercise. •Exercise may be a possible treatment of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. -- Abstract: Cranial radiotherapy induces progressive and debilitating cognitive deficits, particularly in long-term cancer survivors, which may in part be caused by the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested that voluntary exercise can reduce the cognitive impairment caused by radiation therapy. However, there is no study on the effect of forced wheel exercise and little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of exercise. In the present study, we investigated whether the forced running exercise after irradiation had the protective effects of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Sixty-four Male Sprague–Dawley rats received a single dose of 20 Gy or sham whole-brain irradiation (WBI), behavioral test was evaluated using open field test and Morris water maze at 2 months after irradiation. Half of the rats accepted a 3-week forced running exercise before the behavior detection. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and Western blotting was used to assess changes in the levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMKII), cAMP-calcium response element binding protein (CREB) in the BDNF–pCREB signaling. We found forced running exercise significantly prevented radiation-induced cognitive deficits, ameliorated the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis and attenuated the down-regulation of these proteins. Moreover, exercise also increased behavioral performance, hippocampal neurogenesis and elevated BDNF–pCREB signaling in non

  1. Running wheel training does not change neurogenesis levels or alter working memory tasks in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A. Acevedo-Triana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Exercise can change cellular structure and connectivity (neurogenesis or synaptogenesis, causing alterations in both behavior and working memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male Wistar rats using a T-maze test. Methods An experimental design with two groups was developed: the experimental group (n = 12 was subject to a forced exercise program for five days, whereas the control group (n = 9 stayed in the home cage. Six to eight weeks after training, the rats’ working memory was evaluated in a T-maze test and four choice days were analyzed, taking into account alternation as a working memory indicator. Hippocampal neurogenesis was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry of BrdU positive cells. Results No differences between groups were found in the behavioral variables (alternation, preference index, time of response, time of trial or feeding, or in the levels of BrdU positive cells. Discussion Results suggest that although exercise may have effects on brain structure, a construct such as working memory may require more complex changes in networks or connections to demonstrate a change at behavioral level.

  2. Analysis of inflammation-induced depression of home cage wheel running in rats reveals the difference between opioid antinociception and restoration of function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Ram; Calsbeek, Jonas J.; Morgan, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are effective at inhibiting responses to noxious stimuli in rodents, but have limited efficacy and many side effects in chronic pain patients. One reason for this disconnect is that nociception is typically assessed using withdrawal from noxious stimuli in animals, whereas chronic pain patients suffer from abnormal pain that disrupts normal activity. We hypothesized that assessment of home cage wheel running in rats would provide a much more clinically relevant method to assess opioid efficacy to restore normal behavior. Intraplantar injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) into the right hindpaw depressed wheel running and caused mechanical allodynia measured with the von Frey test in both male and female rats. Administration of an ED50 dose of morphine (3.2 mg/kg) reversed mechanical allodynia, but did not reverse CFA-induced depression of wheel running. In contrast, administration of a low dose of morphine (1.0 mg/kg) restored running for one hour in both sexes, but had no effect on mechanical allodynia. Administration of the atypical opioid buprenorphine had no effect on inflammation-induced depression of wheel running in male or female rats, but attenuated mechanical allodynia in male rats. Administration of buprenorphine and higher doses of morphine depressed wheel running in non-inflamed rats, suggesting that the side effects of opioids interfere with restoration of function. These data indicate that restoration of pain-depressed function requires antinociception in the absence of disruptive side effects. The disruptive side effects of opioids are consistent with the major limitation of opioid use in human pain patients. PMID:27746208

  3. Microglial response to Alzheimer's disease is differentially modulated by voluntary wheel running and enriched environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J J; Noristani, H N; Verkhratsky, A

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an untreatable neurodegenerative disease that deteriorates memory. Increased physical/cognitive activity reduces dementia risk by promoting neuronal and glial response. Although few studies have investigated microglial response in wild-type rodents following exposure to physical/cognitive stimulation, environmental-induced changes of microglia response to AD have been neglected. We investigated effects of running (RUN) and enriched (ENR) environments on numerical density (N v, #/mm(3)) and morphology of microglia in a triple transgenic (3×Tg-AD) mouse model of AD that closely mimics AD pathology in humans. We used immunohistochemical approach to characterise microglial domain by measuring their overall cell surface, volume and somata volume. 3×Tg-AD mice housed in standard control (STD) environment showed significant increase in microglial N v (11.7 %) in CA1 stratum lacunosum moleculare (S.Mol) of the hippocampus at 12 months compared to non-transgenic (non-Tg) animals. Exposure to combined RUN and ENR environments prevented an increase in microglial N v in 3×Tg-AD and reduced microglial numbers to non-Tg control levels. Interestingly, 3×Tg-AD mice housed solely in ENR environment displayed significant decrease in microglial N v in CA1 subfield (9.3 % decrease), stratum oriens (11.5 % decrease) and S.Mol (7.6 % decrease) of the hippocampus compared to 3×Tg-AD mice housed in STD environment. Morphological analysis revealed microglial hypertrophy due to pronounced increase in microglia surface, volume and somata volume (61, 78 and 41 %) in 3×Tg-AD mice housed in RUN (but not in ENR) compared to STD environment. These results indicate that exposure to RUN and ENR environments have differential effects on microglial density and activation-associated changes in microglial morphology.

  4. Sex-Dependent and Independent Effects of Long-Term Voluntary Wheel Running on Bdnf mRNA and Protein Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Venezia, Andrew C.; Guth, Lisa M.; Sapp, Ryan M.; Spangenburg, Espen E.; Roth, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effects of physical activity on brain health (synaptogenesis, neurogenesis, enhanced synaptic plasticity, improved learning and memory) appear to be mediated through changes in region-specific expression of neurotrophins, transcription factors, and postsynaptic receptors, though investigations of sex differences in response to long-term voluntary wheel running are limited.

  5. Comparison of Effects of Running and Playing Exercises on Differential Leucocyte Count in Young Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenikli, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present research are to test the effects of running and playing exercises on leucocyte and differential leucocyte accounts, and to test the possible differences between running and playing exercises in terms of leucocyte accounts. They were thirty two male young soccer players. Participants arrived at the laboratory after a 12-hour…

  6. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  7. Running from fear: Exercise modulation of fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Margaret K; Hake, Holly S; Bouchet, Courtney A; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2018-03-31

    Extinction-based exposure therapy is the most common behavioral therapy for anxiety and trauma-related disorders, but fear tends to resurface even after successful extinction. Identification of novel strategies to enhance fear extinction and reduce fear relapse is of paramount importance to mental health. Exercise can enhance cognitive function, but it is not yet well understood whether exercise can be an effective augmentation strategy for fear extinction. In the current review, we present the current state of knowledge on the effects of exercise on fear extinction. Effects of exercise duration, explanations for conflicting results, and potential mechanisms, focusing on a hypothesized role for dopamine, are all discussed. We also provide new data suggesting that the timing in which acute exercise occurs relative to fear extinction, is a crucial variable in determining whether exercise can enhance fear extinction. Clinical implications and ideas to guide future research endeavors in this area are provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hyperphagia, lower body temperature, and reduced running wheel activity precede development of morbid obesity in New Zealand obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Hella S; Schürmann, Annette; Kluge, Reinhart; Ortmann, Sylvia; Klaus, Susanne; Joost, Hans-Georg; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2006-04-13

    Among polygenic mouse models of obesity, the New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse exhibits the most severe phenotype, with fat depots exceeding 40% of total body weight at the age of 6 mo. Here we dissected the components of energy balance including feeding behavior, locomotor activity, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis compared with the related lean New Zealand black (NZB) and obese B6.V-Lep(ob)/J (ob/ob) strains (11% and 65% fat at 23 wk, respectively). NZO mice exhibited a significant hyperphagia that, when food intake was expressed per metabolic body mass, was less pronounced than that of the ob/ob strain. Compared with NZB, NZO mice exhibited increased meal frequency, meal duration, and meal size. Body temperature as determined by telemetry with implanted sensors was reduced in NZO mice, but again to a lesser extent than in the ob/ob strain. In striking contrast to ob/ob mice, NZO mice were able to maintain a constant body temperature during a 20-h cold exposure, thus exhibiting a functioning cold-induced thermogenesis. No significant differences in spontaneous home cage activity were observed among NZO, NZB, and ob/ob strains. When mice had access to voluntary running wheels, however, running activity was significantly lower in NZO than NZB mice and even lower in ob/ob mice. These data indicate that obesity in NZO mice, just as in humans, is due to a combination of hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure, and insufficient physical activity. Because NZO mice differ strikingly from the ob/ob strain in their resistance to cold stress, we suggest that the molecular defects causing hyperphagia in NZO mice are located distal from leptin and its receptor.

  9. Altered fibre types in gastrocnemius muscle of high wheel-running selected mice with mini-muscle phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderley, Helga; Joanisse, Denis R; Mokas, Sophie; Bilodeau, Geneviève M; Garland, Theodore

    2008-03-01

    Selective breeding of mice for high voluntary wheel running has favoured characteristics that facilitate sustained, aerobically supported activity, including a "mini-muscle" phenotype with markedly reduced hind limb muscle mass, increased mass-specific activities of oxidative enzymes, decreased % myosin heavy chain IIb, and, in the medial gastrocnemius, reduced twitch speed, reduced mass-specific isotonic power, and increased fatigue resistance. To evaluate whether selection has altered fibre type expression in mice with either "mini" or normal muscle phenotypes, we examined fibre types of red and white gastrocnemius. In both the medial and lateral gastrocnemius, the mini-phenotype increased activities of oxidative enzymes and decreased activities of glycolytic enzymes. In red muscle samples, the mini-phenotype markedly changed fibre types, with the % type I and type IIA fibres and the surface area of type IIA fibres increasing; in addition, mice from selected lines in general had an increased % type IIA fibres and larger type I fibres as compared with mice from control lines. White muscle samples from mini-mice showed dramatic structural alterations, with an atypical distribution of extremely small, unidentifiable fibres surrounded by larger, more oxidative fibres than normally present in white muscle. The increased proportion of oxidative fibres and these atypical small fibres together may explain the reduced mass and increased mitochondrial enzyme activities in mini-muscles. These and previous results demonstrate that extension of selective breeding beyond the time when the response of the selected trait (i.e. distance run) has levelled off can still modify the mechanistic underpinnings of this behaviour.

  10. Wheel running alters patterns of uncontrollable stress-induced cfos mRNA expression in rat dorsal striatum direct and indirect pathways: a possible role for plasticity in adenosine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter J.; Ghasem, Parsa R.; Mika, Agnieszka; Day, Heidi E.; Herrera, Jonathan J.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that adenosine is a major regulator of striatum activity, in part, through the antagonistic modulation of dopaminergic function. Exercise can influence adenosine and dopamine activity, which may subsequently promote plasticity in striatum adenosine and dopamine systems. Such changes could alter activity of medium spiny neurons and impact striatum function. The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first was to characterize the effect of long-term wheel running on adenosine 1 (A1R), adenosine 2A (A2AR), dopamine 1 (D1R), and dopamine 2 (D2R) receptor mRNA expression in adult rat dorsal and ventral striatum structures using in situ hybridization. The second was to determine if changes to adenosine and dopamine receptor mRNA from running are associated with altered cfos mRNA induction in dynorphin- (direct pathway) and enkephalin- (indirect pathway) expressing neurons of the dorsal striatum following stress exposure. We report that chronic running, as well as acute uncontrollable stress, reduced A1R and A2AR mRNA levels in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Running also modestly elevated D2R mRNA levels in striatum regions. Finally, stress-induced cfos was potentiated in dynorphin and attenuated in enkephalin expressing neurons of running rats. These data suggest striatum adenosine and dopamine systems are targets for neuroplasticity from exercise, which may contribute to changes in direct and indirect pathway activity. These findings may have implications for striatum mediated motor and cognitive processes, as well as exercise facilitated stress-resistance. PMID:25017571

  11. Maternal exposure to Western diet affects adult body composition and voluntary wheel running in a genotype-specific manner in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Kay, Jarren C; Thompson, Zoe; Singleton, Jennifer M; Claghorn, Gerald C; Albuquerque, Ralph L; Ho, Brittany; Ho, Brett; Sanchez, Gabriela; Garland, Theodore

    2017-10-01

    Some human diseases, including obesity, Type II diabetes, and numerous cancers, are thought to be influenced by environments experienced in early life, including in utero. Maternal diet during the perinatal period may be especially important for adult offspring energy balance, potentially affecting both body composition and physical activity. This effect may be mediated by the genetic background of individuals, including, for example, potential "protective" mechanisms for individuals with inherently high levels of physical activity or high basal metabolic rates. To examine some of the genetic and environmental factors that influence adult activity levels, we used an ongoing selection experiment with 4 replicate lines of mice bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and 4 replicate, non-selected control lines (C). Dams (half HR and half C) were fed a "Western" diet (WD, high in fat and sucrose) or a standard diet (SD) from 2weeks prior to mating until their pups could feed on solid food (14days of age). We analyzed dam and litter characteristics from birth to weaning, and offspring mass and physical activity into adulthood. One male offspring from each litter received additional metabolic and behavioral tests. Maternal WD caused pups to eat solid food significantly earlier for C litters, but not for HR litters (interaction of maternal environment and genotype). With dam mass as a covariate, mean pup mass was increased by maternal WD but litter size was unaffected. HR dams had larger litters and tended to have smaller pups than C dams. Home-cage activity of juvenile focal males was increased by maternal WD. Juvenile lean mass, fat mass, and fat percent were also increased by maternal WD, but food consumption (with body mass as a covariate) was unaffected (measured only for focal males). Behavior in an elevated plus maze, often used to indicate anxiety, was unaffected by maternal WD. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2 max) was also unaffected by maternal WD, but HR had

  12. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Close, Graeme L; MacLaren, Don P M; Gregson, Warren; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively quantify ratings of perceived enjoyment using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale following high-intensity interval running versus moderate-intensity continuous running. Eight recreationally active men performed two running protocols consisting of high-intensity interval running (6 × 3 min at 90% VO(2max) interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% VO(2max) with a 7-min warm-up and cool down at 70% VO(2max)) or 50 min moderate-intensity continuous running at 70% VO(2max). Ratings of perceived enjoyment after exercise were higher (P running compared with continuous running (88 ± 6 vs. 61 ± 12) despite higher (P running may be relevant for improving exercise adherence, since running is a low-cost exercise intervention requiring no exercise equipment and similar relative exercise intensities have previously induced health benefits in patient populations.

  13. Different Intensities of Treadmill Running Exercise do Not Alter Melatonin Levels in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular and moderate exercise has been considered an interesting neuroprotective strategy. Our research group demonstrated that a protocol of moderate exercise on a treadmill reduced, while a protocol of high-intensity exercise increased in vitro ischemic cell damage in Wistar rats. The molecular mechanisms by which physical exercise exerts neuroprotective effects remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exercise may have short- and long-term effects on melatonin secretion in humans. Melatonin, the main product of the pineal gland, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in models of brain and spinal cord injury and cerebral ischemia. A dual modulation of melatonin secretion by physical activity has also been demonstrated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different exercise intensities, moderate- and high-intensity exercise, on serum melatonin levels in rats. Methods: Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into non-exercised (sedentary and exercised (20- or 60-min sessions groups. The exercise protocols consisted of two weeks of daily treadmill training. Blood samples were collected approximately 16 hours after the last training session (8:00-10:00 and melatonin levels were assayed by ELISA. Results: The exercise protocols, two weeks of 20 min/day or 60 min/day of treadmill running, did not affect serum melatonin levels. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that melatonin levels may not be directly involved in the exercise-induced, intensity-dependent dual effect on in vitro ischemia.

  14. Selective pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor attenuates light and 8-OH-DPAT induced phase shifts of mouse circadian wheel running activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eShelton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have illustrated a reciprocal relationship between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor may provide a crucial link between the two sides of this equation since the receptor plays a critical role in sleep, depression, and circadian rhythm regulation. To further define the role of the 5-HT7 receptor as a potential pharmacotherapy to correct circadian rhythm disruptions, the current study utilized the selective 5-HT7 antagonist JNJ-18038683 (10 mg/kg in three different circadian paradigms. While JNJ-18038683 was ineffective at phase shifting the onset of wheel running activity in mice when administered at different circadian time (CT points across the circadian cycle, pretreatment with JNJ-18038683 blocked non-photic phase advance (CT6 induced by the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (3 mg/kg. Since light induced phase shifts in mammals are partially mediated via the modulation of the serotonergic system, we determined if JNJ-18038683 altered phase shifts induced by a light pulse at times known to phase delay (CT15 or advance (CT22 wheel running activity in free running mice. Light exposure resulted in a robust shift in the onset of activity in vehicle treated animals at both times tested. Administration of JNJ-18038683 significantly attenuated the light-induced phase delay and completely blocked the phase advance. The current study demonstrates that pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor by JNJ-18038683 blunts both non-photic and photic phase shifts of circadian wheel running activity in mice. These findings highlight the importance of the 5-HT7 receptor in modulating circadian rhythms. Due to the opposite modulating effects of light resetting between diurnal and nocturnal species, pharmacotherapy targeting the 5-HT7 receptor in conjunction with bright light therapy may prove therapeutically beneficial by correcting the desynchronization of internal rhythms observed in depressed individuals.

  15. A database for analysis of speech under physical stress: detection of exercise intensity while running and talking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Beek, Peter; Evers, Vanessa

    One of the ways to gauge your own exercise intensity while running, is to assess your capability of talking while running: if you can still speak comfortably, you are running within the recommended intensity guidelines. This subjective way of estimating one's exercise intensity by talking (i.e. the

  16. The effects of running exercise on oxidative capacity and PGC-1α mRNA levels in the soleus muscle of rats with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Fumiko; Fujino, Hidemi; Kondo, Hiroyo; Kouzaki, Motoki; Gu, Ning; Takeda, Isao; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Ishihara, Akihiko

    2012-03-01

    Skeletal muscles in animals with metabolic syndrome exhibit reduced oxidative capacity. We investigated the effects of running exercise on fiber characteristics, oxidative capacity, and mRNA levels in the soleus muscles of rats with metabolic syndrome [SHR/NDmcr-cp (cp/cp); CP]. We divided 5-week-old CP rats into non-exercise (CP) and exercise (CP-Ex) groups. Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as the control group. CP-Ex rats were permitted voluntary exercise on running wheels for 10 weeks. Triglyceride levels were higher and adiponectin levels lower in the CP and CP-Ex groups than in the WKY group. However, triglyceride levels were lower and adiponectin levels higher in the CP-Ex group than in the CP group. The soleus muscles in CP-Ex rats contained only high-oxidative type I fibers, whereas those in WKY and CP rats contained type I, IIA, and IIC fibers. Muscle succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was higher in the CP-Ex group than in the CP group; there was no difference in SDH activity between the WKY and CP-Ex groups. Muscle proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA levels were higher in the CP-Ex group than in the CP group; there was no difference in PGC-1α mRNA levels between the WKY and CP-Ex groups. In CP-Ex rats, longer running distance was associated with increased muscle SDH activity and PGC-1α mRNA levels. We concluded that running exercise restored decreased muscle oxidative capacity and PGC-1α mRNA levels and improved hypertriglyceridemia in rats with metabolic syndrome.

  17. Running exercise protects the capillaries in white matter in a rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin-Mu; Zhang, Ai-Pin; Wang, Fei-Fei; Tan, Chuan-Xue; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Chun-Xia; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Lin; Zhou, Chun-Ni; Chao, Feng-Lei; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Running has been shown to improve depressive symptoms when used as an adjunct to medication. However, the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of running are not fully understood. Changes of capillaries in white matter have been discovered in clinical patients and depression model rats. Considering the important part of white matter in depression, running may cause capillary structural changes in white matter. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) rats were provided with a 4-week running exercise (from the fifth week to the eighth week) for 20 minutes each day for 5 consecutive days each week. Anhedonia was measured by a behavior test. Furthermore, capillary changes were investigated in the control group, the CUS/Standard group, and the CUS/Running group using stereological methods. The 4-week running increased sucrose consumption significantly in the CUS/Running group and had significant effects on the total volume, total length, and total surface area of the capillaries in the white matter of depression rats. These results demonstrated that exercise-induced protection of the capillaries in white matter might be one of the structural bases for the exercise-induced treatment of depression. It might provide important parameters for further study of the vascular mechanisms of depression and a new research direction for the development of clinical antidepressant means. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3577-3586, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of Running Wheel Activity and Dietary HMB and β-alanine Co-Supplementation on Muscle Quality in Aged Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, D W; Acksel, C; McCorkle, K W; Edens, N K; Garvey, S M

    2017-01-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle function is linked to increased risk for loss of health and independence in older adults. Dietary interventions that can enhance aging muscle function, alone or in combination with exercise, may offer an effective way to reduce these risks. The goal of this study was to evaluate the muscular effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and beta-alanine (β-Ala) co-supplementation in aged Sprague-Dawley rats with voluntary access to running wheels (RW). Aged (20 months) rats were housed with ad libitum access to RW while on a purified diet for 4 weeks, then balanced for RW activity and assigned to either a control or an experimental diet (control + HMB and β-Ala) for the next 4 weeks (n = 10/group). At the end of the study, we assessed muscle size, in situ force and fatigability in the medial gastrocnemius muscles, as well as an array of protein markers related to various age- and activity-responsive signaling pathways. Dietary HMB+β-Ala did not improve muscle force or fatigue resistance, but a trend for increased muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was observed (P = 0.077). As a result, rats on the experimental diet exhibited reduced muscle quality (force/CSA; P = 0.032). Dietary HMB+β-Ala reduced both the abundance of PGC1-α (P = 0.050) and the ratio of the lipidated to non-lipidated forms of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (P = 0.004), markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy, respectively. Some alterations in myostatin signaling also occurred in the dietary HMB+β-Ala group. There was an unexpected difference (P = 0.046) in RW activity, which increased throughout the study in the animals on the control diet, but not in animals on the experimental diet. These data suggest that the short-term addition of dietary HMB+β-Ala to modest physical activity provided little enhancement of muscle function in this model of uncomplicated aging.

  19. Resveratrol Attenuates Exercise-Induced Adaptive Responses in Rats Selectively Bred for Low Running Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Nikolett; Sarga, Linda; Csende, Zsolt; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Davies, Kelvin J.A.; Radak, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    Low capacity runner (LCR) rats have been developed by divergent artificial selection for treadmill endurance capacity to explore an aerobic biology-disease connection. The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation have been demonstrated in endurance running. In this study it was examined whether 12 weeks of treadmill exercise training and/or resveratrol can retrieve the low running performance of the LCR and impact mitochondrial biogenesis and quality control. Resveratrol regressed ru...

  20. Voluntary Exercise Prevents Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Wasting during Chemotherapy in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Fjelbye, Jonas; Zerahn, Bo

    2014-01-01

    , food intake as well as muscle mass, strength and signalling. Mice were treated weekly with 4 mg/kg cisplatin or saline for 6 weeks, and randomized to voluntary wheel running or not. Cisplatin treatment induced loss of body weight (29.8%, P ... as anorexia, impaired muscle strength (22.5% decrease, P wheel running during treatment attenuated body weight...... loss by 50% (P wheel running, nor was glucose tolerance improved. Exercise...

  1. Early motor deficits in mouse disease models are reliably uncovered using an automated home-cage wheel-running system: a cross-laboratory validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandillo, Silvia; Heise, Ines; Garbugino, Luciana; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P.; Giuliani, Alessandro; Wells, Sara; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in motor function are debilitating features in disorders affecting neurological, neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems. Although these disorders can vary greatly with respect to age of onset, symptomatic presentation, rate of progression and severity, the study of these disease models in mice is confined to the use of a small number of tests, most commonly the rotarod test. To expand the repertoire of meaningful motor function tests in mice, we tested, optimised and validated an automated home-cage-based running-wheel system, incorporating a conventional wheel with evenly spaced rungs and a complex wheel with particular rungs absent. The system enables automated assessment of motor function without handler interference, which is desirable in longitudinal studies involving continuous monitoring of motor performance. In baseline studies at two test centres, consistently significant differences in performance on both wheels were detectable among four commonly used inbred strains. As further validation, we studied performance in mutant models of progressive neurodegenerative diseases – Huntington’s disease [TgN(HD82Gln)81Dbo; referred to as HD mice] and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [Tg(SOD1G93A)dl1/GurJ; referred to as SOD1 mice] – and in a mutant strain with subtle gait abnormalities, C-Snap25Bdr/H (Blind-drunk, Bdr). In both models of progressive disease, as with the third mutant, we could reliably and consistently detect specific motor function deficits at ages far earlier than any previously recorded symptoms in vivo: 7–8 weeks for the HD mice and 12 weeks for the SOD1 mice. We also conducted longitudinal analysis of rotarod and grip strength performance, for which deficits were still not detectable at 12 weeks and 23 weeks, respectively. Several new parameters of motor behaviour were uncovered using principal component analysis, indicating that the wheel-running assay could record features of motor function that are independent of rotarod

  2. Early motor deficits in mouse disease models are reliably uncovered using an automated home-cage wheel-running system: a cross-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandillo, Silvia; Heise, Ines; Garbugino, Luciana; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Giuliani, Alessandro; Wells, Sara; Nolan, Patrick M

    2014-03-01

    Deficits in motor function are debilitating features in disorders affecting neurological, neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems. Although these disorders can vary greatly with respect to age of onset, symptomatic presentation, rate of progression and severity, the study of these disease models in mice is confined to the use of a small number of tests, most commonly the rotarod test. To expand the repertoire of meaningful motor function tests in mice, we tested, optimised and validated an automated home-cage-based running-wheel system, incorporating a conventional wheel with evenly spaced rungs and a complex wheel with particular rungs absent. The system enables automated assessment of motor function without handler interference, which is desirable in longitudinal studies involving continuous monitoring of motor performance. In baseline studies at two test centres, consistently significant differences in performance on both wheels were detectable among four commonly used inbred strains. As further validation, we studied performance in mutant models of progressive neurodegenerative diseases--Huntington's disease [TgN(HD82Gln)81Dbo; referred to as HD mice] and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [Tg(SOD1G93A)(dl)1/GurJ; referred to as SOD1 mice]--and in a mutant strain with subtle gait abnormalities, C-Snap25(Bdr)/H (Blind-drunk, Bdr). In both models of progressive disease, as with the third mutant, we could reliably and consistently detect specific motor function deficits at ages far earlier than any previously recorded symptoms in vivo: 7-8 weeks for the HD mice and 12 weeks for the SOD1 mice. We also conducted longitudinal analysis of rotarod and grip strength performance, for which deficits were still not detectable at 12 weeks and 23 weeks, respectively. Several new parameters of motor behaviour were uncovered using principal component analysis, indicating that the wheel-running assay could record features of motor function that are independent of rotarod

  3. Myosin heavy chain isoform expression in adult and juvenile mini-muscle mice bred for high-voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, Robert J; Acosta, Wendy; Garland, Theodore

    2014-11-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform composition of locomotor and non-locomotor muscles of mini-muscle mice were assessed at the protein and mRNA levels in both adult and juvenile (21 day old) mice. Mini-muscle mice are one outcome of a replicated artificial selection experiment in which four lines of mice were bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines). Two of the lines responded with an increase in frequency of a single nucleotide polymorphism in an intron in the MyHC-2b gene (myh4) that when homozygous causes a dramatic reduction in triceps surae mass. We found that both locomotor and non-locomotor muscles of adult mini-muscle mice displayed robust reductions, but not elimination, of the MyHC-2b isoform at both the protein and mRNA levels, with commensurate increases in MyHC-2x and sometimes MyHC-2a, as compared with either a line of HR mice that does not display the mini-muscle phenotype or inbred C57Bl6 mice. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that locomotor muscles of mini-muscle mice contain fibers that express the MyHC-2b isoform, which migrates normally in SDS-PAGE gels. However, these MyHC-2b positive fibers are generally smaller than the surrounding fibers and smaller than the MyHC-2b positive fibers of non-mini-muscle mice, resulting in characteristically fast muscles that lack a substantial MyHC-2b positive (superficial) region. In contrast, the masseter, a non-locomotor muscle of mini-muscle mice contained MyHC-2b positive fibers that stained more lightly for MyHC-2b, but appeared normal in size and distribution. In adults, many of the MyHC-2b positive fibers in the mini-muscle mice also display central nuclei. Only a small proportion of small MyHC-2b fibers in mini-muscle mice stained positive for the neural cell adhesion molecule, suggesting that anatomical innervation was not compromised. In addition, weanling (21 day old), but not 5 day old mice, displayed alterations in MyHC isoform content at both the protein and mRNA levels, including

  4. Preventive effects of running exercise on bones in heavy ion particle irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo; Yan, Xueming

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effects of running exercise on preventing decreases in bone mineral and tissue volume after heavy ion particle irradiation in rats. Male Wistar rats experienced whole-body irradiation by heavy ion particle beam (C-290 MeV) at doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 Gy and were divided into voluntary running groups and control groups. Rats in the running groups ran on the treadmill 15 m/mim, 90 min/day for 35 days after exposure. At the end of the experiment, a tibia was obtained from each rat for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and cross-sectional area, strength strain index, and bone histomorphometric analysis. The weights of muscles and concentration of serum calcium were measured. Total BMD and trabecular BMD in the metaphysis and cortical BMD of the diaphysis of tibia in the running groups increased. Bone volume and trabecular thickness increased while trabecular separation decreased in the running groups compared to those in the control groups at respective doses. However, the osteoid surface and eroded surface varied in the running groups compared to those of the respective corresponding groups. The dynamic parameters such as mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate in the running groups were varied, probably due to the differences in radiation-induced sensitivities of bones following radiation exposure. The overall results suggest that running exercise might have a beneficial effect on preventing bone mineral loss and changes in bone structure induced by space radiation, but it is necessary to examine the optimal conditions of running exercise response to doses. (author)

  5. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus D Ortega

    Full Text Available Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy.To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults.15 older adults (69 ± 3 years who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s. We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study.Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016 and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237. We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461 and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (p<.0001.Running mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  6. Physical and Emotional Benefits of Different Exercise Environments Designed for Treadmill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiao-Pu; Stone, Joseph A; Churchill, Sarah M; Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2017-07-11

    (1) Background: Green physical activity promotes physical health and mental wellbeing and interesting questions concern effects of this information on designing indoor exercise environments. This study examined the physical and emotional effects of different nature-based environments designed for indoor treadmill running; (2) Methods: In a counterbalanced experimental design, 30 participants performed three, twenty-minute treadmill runs at a self-selected pace while viewing either a static nature image, a dynamic nature image or self-selected entertainment. Distance ran, heart rate (HR) and five pre-and post-exercise emotional states were measured; (3) Results: Participants ran farther, and with higher HRs, with self-selected entertainment compared to the two nature-based environment designs. Participants attained lowered anger, dejection, anxiety and increased excitement post exercise in all of the designed environments. Happiness increased during the two nature-based environment designs compared with self-selected entertainment; (4) Conclusions: Self-selected entertainment encouraged greater physical performances whereas running in nature-based exercise environments elicited greater happiness immediately after running.

  7. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Justus D; Beck, Owen N; Roby, Jaclyn M; Turney, Aria L; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. 15 older adults (69 ± 3 years) who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years) who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461) and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (peconomy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  8. Involuntary wheel running improves but does not fully reverse the deterioration of bone structure of obese rats despite decreasing adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive adiposity induced by a high-fat diet is detrimental to bone structure and strength in various animal models. This study investigated whether exercise or anti-oxidant supplementation with vitamin C and E during exercise counteracts bone structure deterioration at different skeletal sites an...

  9. Warm-Up Exercises May Not Be So Important for Enhancing Submaximal Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kazuki; Yamaguchi, Taichi; Shibata, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    Takizawa, K, Yamaguchi, T, and Shibata, K. Warm-up exercises may not be so important for enhancing submaximal running performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1383-1390, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate warm-up intensity for enhancing performance in submaximal running at 90% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max (it assumes 3,000-5,000 m in track events). Seven trained male university athletes took part in this study (age: 21.3 ± 2.1 years, height: 169.3 ± 4.7 cm, body mass: 58.4 ± 5.6 kg, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 73.33 ± 5.46 ml·kg·min). Each subject ran on a treadmill at 90% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max until exhaustion after 1 of 4 warm-up treatments. The 4 warm-up treatments were no warm-up, 15 minutes running at 60% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, at 70% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and at 80% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The running performance was evaluated by time to exhaustion (TTE). V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and vastus lateralis muscle temperature were also measured. There were no significant differences in TTE among the warm-up exercises (p > 0.05). V[Combining Dot Above]O2 in no warm-up showed slower reaction than the other warm-up exercises. Regarding, the vastus lateralis muscle temperature immediately after warm-up, no warm-up was significantly (p warm-up exercises. Our results suggested that submaximal running performance was not affected by the presence or absence of a warm-up or by warm-up intensity, although physiological changes occurred.

  10. Effect of post-exercise hydrotherapy water temperature on subsequent exhaustive running performance in normothermic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Alan; Crampton, David; Egaña, Mikel

    2013-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of cold water immersion (CWI) in normothermic conditions, little data is available on its effect on subsequent endurance performance. This study examined the effect of CWI as a recovery strategy on subsequent running performance in normothermic ambient conditions (∼22°C). Nine endurance-trained men completed two submaximal exhaustive running bouts on three separate occasions. The running bouts (Ex1 and Ex2) were separated by 15min of un-immersed seated rest (CON), hip-level CWI at 8°C (CWI-8) or hip-level CWI at 15°C (CWI-15). Intestinal temperature, blood lactate and heart rate were recorded throughout and V˙O2, running economy and exercise times were recorded during the running sessions. Running time to failure (min) during Ex2 was significantly (p<0.05, ES=0.7) longer following CWI-8 (27.7±6.3) than CON (23.3±5) but not different between CWI-15 (26.3±3.4) and CON (p=0.06, ES=0.7) or CWI-8 and CWI-15 (p=0.4, ES=0.2). Qualitative analyses showed a 95% and 89% likely beneficial effect of CWI-8 and CWI-15 during Ex2 compared with CON, respectively. Time to failure during Ex2 was significantly shorter than Ex1 only during the CON condition. Intestinal temperature and HR were significantly lower for most of Ex2 during CWI-8 and CWI-15 compared with CON but they were similar at failure for the three conditions. Blood lactate, running economy and V˙O2 were not altered by CWI. These data indicate that a 15min period of cold water immersion applied between repeated exhaustive exercise bouts significantly reduces intestinal temperature and enhances post-immersion running performance in normothermic conditions. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Skin blister formation together with patterned intradermal hematoma: a special type of tire mark injury in victims run over by a wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pircher, R; Epting, T; Schmidt, U; Geisenberger, D; Pollak, S; Kramer, L

    2015-04-01

    A traffic accident victim run over by a vehicle may show a patterned skin hematoma reflecting the grooves of the tire's profile. Apart from this well-known type of imprint mark, the affected skin can also be blistered provided that the wheel exerts high pressure on the body for a prolonged period of time. The macro- and micromorphological findings as well as the protein composition of the blister fluid were investigated on the basis of a relevant autopsy case. Analogous to blisters associated with hanging marks, the transudation of serous fluid with consecutive detachment of the epidermis is interpreted as a pressure-related effect which cannot be regarded as a sign of vitality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Normobaric Hypoxia and Submaximal Exercise Effects on Running Memory and Mood State in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; Gerhart, Hayden D; Stavres, Jon; Fennell, Curtis; Draper, Shane; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-07-01

    An acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive function in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. However, limited research supports the improvement of cognitive function and mood state in women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypoxia and exercise on working memory and mood state in women. There were 15 healthy women (age = 22 ± 2 yr) who completed the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4th Edition (ANAM), including the Running Memory Continuous Performance Task (RMCPT) and Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in normoxia (21% O2), at rest in normoxia and hypoxia (12.5% O2), and during cycling exercise at 60% and 40% Vo2max in hypoxia. RMCPT was not significantly impaired at 30 (100.3 ± 17.2) and 60 (96.6 ± 17.3) min rest in hypoxia compared to baseline in normoxia (97.0 ± 17.0). However, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (106.7 ± 20.8) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia. Following 30 (-89.4 ± 48.3) and 60 min of exposure to hypoxia (-79.8 ± 55.9) at rest, TMD was impaired compared with baseline (-107.1 ± 46.2). TMD was significantly improved during exercise (-108.5 ± 42.7) at 40% Vo2max compared with 30 min rest in hypoxia. Also, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (104.0 ± 19.1) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia (96.6 ± 17.3). Hypoxia and an acute bout of exercise partially influence RMCPT and TMD. Furthermore, a moderate-intensity bout of exercise (60%) may be a more potent stimulant for improving cognitive function than low-intensity (40%) exercise. The present data should be considered by aeromedical personnel performing cognitive tasks in hypoxia.Seo Y, Gerhart HD, Stavres J, Fennell C, Draper S, Glickman EL. Normobaric hypoxia and submaximal exercise effects on running memory and mood state in women. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):627-632.

  13. Voluntary running enhances glymphatic influx in awake behaving, young mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We...... of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas...

  14. Voluntary Wheel Running Reduces the Acute Inflammatory Response to Liver Carcinogen in a Sex-specific Manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, M L; Gehl, Julie; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2017-01-01

    demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth, including diethylnitrosamine-(DEN)-induced hepatocarcinoma. Having observed a sex-dependent development of DEN-induced hepatocarcinoma, we aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise and sex on the acute inflammatory response to DEN. Thus, we randomized male and female mice...

  15. Stereological Study on the Positive Effect of Running Exercise on the Capillaries in the Hippocampus in a Depression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linmu Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Running exercise is an effective method to improve depressive symptoms when combined with drugs. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully clear. Cerebral blood flow perfusion in depressed patients is significantly lower in the hippocampus. Physical activity can achieve cerebrovascular benefits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impacts of running exercise on capillaries in the hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG regions. The chronic unpredictable stress (CUS depression model was used in this study. CUS rats were given 4 weeks of running exercise from the fifth week to the eighth week (20 min every day from Monday to Friday each week. The sucrose consumption test was used to measure anhedonia. Furthermore, stereological methods were used to investigate the capillary changes among the control group, CUS/Standard group and CUS/Running group. Sucrose consumption significantly increased in the CUS/Running group. Running exercise has positive effects on the capillaries parameters in the hippocampal CA1 and DG regions, such as the total volume, total length and total surface area. These results demonstrated that capillaries are protected by running exercise in the hippocampal CA1 and DG might be one of the structural bases for the exercise-induced treatment of depression-like behavior. These results suggest that drugs and behavior influence capillaries and may be considered as a new means for depression treatment in the future.

  16. The fly wheel exercise device (FWED): A countermeasure against bone loss and muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueser, Detlev; Wolff, Christian; Berg, Hans E.; Tesch, Per A.; Cork, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The flywheel exercise device (FWED) is planned for use as an in-flight exercise system, to demonstrate its efficacy as a countermeasure device to prevent muscle atrophy, bone loss and impairment of muscle function in human beings in response to long duration spaceflight. It is intended to be used on the International Space Station (ISS) and will be launched by the European cargo carrier, the automated transfer vehicle (ATV) in late 2005. The FWED is a non-gravity-dependent mechanical device based on the Yo-Yo principle, which provides resistance during coupled concentric and eccentric muscle actions, through the inertia of a spinning flywheel. Currently, the development of a FWED Flight and Ground Model is in progress and is due to be completed in May 2004. An earlier developed prototype is available that has been used for various ground studies. Our FWED design provides a maximum of built-in safety and support to the operation by one astronaut. This is achieved in particular by innovative mechanical design features and an easy, safe to use man-machine interface. The modular design is optimized for efficient set-up and maintenance operations to be performed in orbit by the crew. The mechanical subsystem of the FWED includes a μg disturbance suspension, which minimizes the mechanical disturbances of the exercising subject at the mechanical interface to the ISS. During the FWED operation the astronaut is guided through the exercises by the data management subsystem, which acquires sensor data from the FWED, calculates and displays real-time feedback to the subject, and stores all data on hard disk and personalized storage media for later scientific analysis.

  17. [High versus moderate intense running exercise - effects on cardiometabolic risk-factors in untrained males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Lell, M; Scharf, M; Fraunberger, L; von Stengel, S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction | The philosophy on how to improve cardiometabolic risk factors most efficiently by endurance exercise is still controversial. To determine the effect of high-intensity (interval) training (HI[I]T) vs. moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) training on cardiometabolic risk factors we conducted a 16-week crossover randomized controlled trial. Methods | 81 healthy untrained middle aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(I)T-group and a control-group that started the MICE running program after their control status. HI(I)T consisted of running exercise around or above the individual anaerobic threshold (≈ 80- 100 % HRmax); MICE focused on continuous running exercise at ≈ 65-77.5 % HRmax. Both protocols were comparable with respect to energy consumption. Study endpoints were cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), metabolic syndrome Z-score (MetS-Z-score), intima-media-thickness (IMT) and body composition. Results | VO2max-changes in this overweighed male cohort significantly (p=0.002) differ between HIIT (14.7 ± 9.3 %, p=0.001) and MICE (7.9 ± 7.4 %,p=0.001). LVMI, as determined via magnetic resonance imaging, significantly increased in both exercise groups (HIIT: 8.5 ± 5.4 %, p=0.001 vs. MICE: 5.3 ± 4.0 %, p=0.001), however the change was significantly more pronounced (p=0.005) in the HIIT-group. MetS-Z-score (HIIT: -2.06 ± 1.31, p=0.001 vs. MICE: -1.60 ± 1.77, p=0.001) and IMT (4.6 ± 5.9 % p=0.011 vs. 4.4 ± 8.1 %, p=0.019) did not show significant group-differences. Reductions of fat mass (-4.9 ± 9.0 %, p=0.010 vs. -9.5 ± 9.4, p=0.001) were significantly higher among the MICE-participants (p=0.034), however, the same was true (p=0.008) for lean body mass (0.5 ± 2.3 %, p=0.381 vs. -1.3 ± 2.0 %, p=0.003). Conclusion | In summary high-intensity interval training tends to impact cardiometabolic health more favorable compared with a moderate-intensity continuous endurance exercise protocol.

  18. Comparison of Gene and Protein Expressions in Rats Residing in Standard Cages with Those Having Access to an Exercise Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine M. Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lifelong physical inactivity is associated with morbidity in adulthood, possibly influenced by changes in gene and protein expressions occurring earlier in life. mRNA (Affymetrix gene array and proteomic (2D-DIGE MALDI-TOF/MS analyses were determined in cardiac tissue of young (3 months and old (16 months Sprague-Dawley rats housed with no access to physical activity (SED versus an exercise wheel (EX. Unfavorable phenotypes for body weight, dyslipidemia, and tumorogenesis appeared more often in adult SED versus EX. No differentially expressed genes (DEGs occurred between groups at 3 or 16 months. Within groups, SED and EX shared 215 age-associated DEGs. In SED, ten unique DEGs occurred with age; three had cell adhesion functions (fn1, lgals3, ncam2. In EX, five unique DEGs occurred with age; two involved hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal hormone axis (nrob2, xpnpep2. Protein expression involved in binding, sugar metabolic processes, and vascular regulation declined with age in SED (KNT1, ALBU, GPX1, PYGB, LDHB, G3P, PYGM, PGM1, ENOB. Protein expression increased with age in EX for ATP metabolic processes (MYH6, MYH7, ATP5J, ATPA and vascular function (KNT1, ALBU, GPX1. Differences in select gene and protein expressions within sedentary and active animals occurred with age and contributed to distinct health-related phenotypes in adulthood.

  19. Moderate treadmill running exercise prior to tendon injury enhances wound healing in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianying; Yuan, Ting; Wang, James H-C

    2016-02-23

    The effect of exercise on wound healing in aging tendon was tested using a rat moderate treadmill running (MTR) model. The rats were divided into an MTR group that ran on a treadmill for 4 weeks and a control group that remained in cages. After MTR, a window defect was created in the patellar tendons of all rats and wound healing was analyzed. We found that MTR accelerated wound healing by promoting quicker closure of wounds, improving the organization of collagen fibers, and decreasing senescent cells in the wounded tendons when compared to the cage control. MTR also lowered vascularization, increased the numbers of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs) and TSC proliferation than the control. Besides, MTR significantly increased the expression of stem cell markers, OCT-4 and Nanog, and tenocyte genes, Collagen I, Collagen III and tenomodulin, and down-regulated PPAR-γ, Collagen II and Runx-2 (non-tenocyte genes). These findings indicated that moderate exercise enhances healing of injuries in aging tendons through TSC based mechanisms, through which exercise regulates beneficial effects in tendons. This study reveals that appropriate exercise may be used in clinics to enhance tendon healing in aging patients.

  20. Exercise Decreases Marrow Adipose Tissue Through ß-Oxidation in Obese Running Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styner, Maya; Pagnotti, Gabriel M; McGrath, Cody; Wu, Xin; Sen, Buer; Uzer, Gunes; Xie, Zhihui; Zong, Xiaopeng; Styner, Martin A; Rubin, Clinton T; Rubin, Janet

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and bone health is poorly understood. We used running exercise to ask whether obesity-associated MAT can be attenuated via exercise and whether this correlates with gains in bone quantity and quality. C57BL/6 mice were divided into diet-induced obesity (DIO, n = 14) versus low-fat diet (LFD, n = 14). After 3 months, 16-week-old mice were allocated to an exercise intervention (LFD-E, DIO-E) or a control group (LFD, DIO) for 6 weeks (4 groups, n = 7/group). Marrow adipocyte area was 44% higher with obesity (pexercise 33% lower in LFD (pexercise did not affect adipocyte number; however, in DIO, the adipocyte number was 56% lower (pexercise associated with reduced MAT (–23% in LFD, –48% in DIO, pexercise in tibial mRNA (+92% in LFD,+60% in DIO, pexercise with an increase of 19% (pexercise augmented this further. In conclusion, obesity associated with increases in marrow lipid—measured by osmium-µCT and MRI—and partially due to an increase in adipocyte size, suggesting increased lipid uptake into preexisting adipocytes. Exercise associated with smaller adipocytes and less bone lipid, likely invoking increased ß-oxidation and basal lipolysis as evidenced by higher levels of PLIN3. PMID:28436105

  1. AMPK agonist AICAR delays the initial decline in lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak, while voluntary wheel running fails to delay its initial decline in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toedebusch, Ryan G; Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Braselton, Joshua F; Heese, Alexander J; Hofheins, John C; Childs, Tom E; Thyfault, John P; Booth, Frank W

    2016-02-01

    There has never been an outcome measure for human health more important than peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2 peak), yet little is known regarding the molecular triggers for its lifetime decline with aging. We examined the ability of physical activity or 5 wk of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) administration to delay the initial aging-induced decline in lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak and potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Experiment 1 consisted of female rats with (RUN) and without (NO RUN) running wheels, while experiment 2 consisted of female nonrunning rats getting the AMPK agonist AICAR (0.5 mg/g/day) subcutaneously for 5 wk beginning at 17 wk of age. All rats underwent frequent, weekly or biweekly V̇o2 peak tests beginning at 10 wk of age. In experiment 1, lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak occurred at 19 wk of age in both RUN and NO RUN and decreased thereafter. V̇o2 peak measured across experiment 1 was ∼25% higher in RUN than in NO RUN. In experiment 2, AICAR delayed the chronological age observed in experiment 1 by 1 wk, from 19 wk to 20 wk of age. RUN and NO RUN showed different skeletal muscle transcriptomic profiles both pre- and postapex. Additionally, growth and development pathways are differentially regulated between RUN and NO RUN. Angiomotin mRNA was downregulated postapex in RUN and NO RUN. Furthermore, strong significant correlations to V̇o2 peak and trends for decreased protein concentration supports angiomotin's potential importance in our model. Contrary to our primary hypothesis, wheel running was not sufficient to delay the chronological age of lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak decline, whereas AICAR delayed it 1 wk. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Exercise attenuates the metabolic effects of dim light at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonken, Laura K; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-01-30

    Most organisms display circadian rhythms that coordinate complex physiological and behavioral processes to optimize energy acquisition, storage, and expenditure. Disruptions to the circadian system with environmental manipulations such as nighttime light exposure alter metabolic energy homeostasis. Exercise is known to strengthen circadian rhythms and to prevent weight gain. Therefore, we hypothesized providing mice a running wheel for voluntary exercise would buffer against the effects of light at night (LAN) on weight gain. Mice were maintained in either dark (LD) or dim (dLAN) nights and provided either a running wheel or a locked wheel. Mice exposed to dim, rather than dark, nights increased weight gain. Access to a functional running wheel prevented body mass gain in mice exposed to dLAN. Voluntary exercise appeared to limit weight gain independently of rescuing changes to the circadian system caused by dLAN; increases in daytime food intake induced by dLAN were not diminished by increased voluntary exercise. Furthermore, although all of the LD mice displayed a 24h rhythm in wheel running, nearly half (4 out of 9) of the dLAN mice did not display a dominant 24h rhythm in wheel running. These results indicate that voluntary exercise can prevent weight gain induced by dLAN without rescuing circadian rhythm disruptions. © 2013.

  3. Protein Supplementation During or Following a Marathon Run Influences Post-Exercise Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Saunders

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of protein supplementation on the ratings of energy/fatigue, muscle soreness [ascending (A and descending (D stairs], and serum creatine kinase levels following a marathon run were examined. Variables were compared between recreational male and female runners ingesting carbohydrate + protein (CP during the run (CPDuring, n = 8 versus those that were consuming carbohydrate (CHODuring, n = 8. In a second study, outcomes were compared between subjects who consumed CP or CHO immediately following exercise [CPPost (n = 4 versus CHOPost (n = 4]. Magnitude-based inferences revealed no meaningful differences between treatments 24 h post-marathon. At 72 h, recovery [Δ(72 hr-Pre] was likely improved with CPDuring versus CHODuring, respectively, for Physical Energy (+14 ± 64 vs −74 ± 70 mm, Mental Fatigue (−52 ± 59 vs +1 ± 11 mm, and Soreness-D (+15 ± 9 vs +21 ± 70 mm. In addition, recovery at 72 h was likely-very likely improved with CPPost versus CHOPost for Physical Fatigue, Mental Energy, and Soreness-A. Thus, protein supplementation did not meaningfully alter recovery during the initial 24 h following a marathon. However, ratings of energy/fatigue and muscle soreness were improved over 72 h when CP was consumed during exercise, or immediately following the marathon.

  4. Studies of wheel-running reinforcement: parameters of Herrnstein's (1970) response-strength equation vary with schedule order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, T W

    2000-05-01

    Six male Wistar rats were exposed to different orders of reinforcement schedules to investigate if estimates from Herrnstein's (1970) single-operant matching law equation would vary systematically with schedule order. Reinforcement schedules were arranged in orders of increasing and decreasing reinforcement rate. Subsequently, all rats were exposed to a single reinforcement schedule within a session to determine within-session changes in responding. For each condition, the operant was lever pressing and the reinforcing consequence was the opportunity to run for 15 s. Estimates of k and R(O) were higher when reinforcement schedules were arranged in order of increasing reinforcement rate. Within a session on a single reinforcement schedule, response rates increased between the beginning and the end of a session. A positive correlation between the difference in parameters between schedule orders and the difference in response rates within a session suggests that the within-session change in response rates may be related to the difference in the asymptotes. These results call into question the validity of parameter estimates from Herrnstein's (1970) equation when reinforcer efficacy changes within a session.

  5. AMPKα in Exercise-Induced Substrate Metabolism and Exercise Training-Induced Metabolic and Mitochondrial Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim

    in response to 4 weeks of voluntary running wheel exercise training. However, the acute exercise-induced increase in mRNA expression of several metabolic and mitochondrial marker genes is impaired in the mice lacking AMPKα1 and α2. In addition to the two studies and some currently unpublished data this thesis...

  6. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in high school athletes via a free running test: incidence and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukafka, D S; Lang, D M; Porter, S; Rogers, J; Ciccolella, D; Polansky, M; D'Alonzo, G E

    1998-12-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) affects up to 35% of athletes and up to 90% of asthmatics. Asthma morbidity and mortality have increased over the past several decades among residents of Philadelphia, PA. It is possible that a simple free running test for EIB may serve as a tool to study the factors contributing to recent trends in asthma, and to screen for asthma in athletes in the urban setting. The purposes of this study were to (1) assess a free running test to screen for EIB, and (2) examine prevalence of and epidemiologic factors associated with EIB in high school athletes. Cross-sectional observational study on the incidence and risk factors for EIB. To validate our method and criteria for the diagnosis of EIB, a repeat test was performed on a portion of the athletes. In a randomized single-blinded fashion, 15 athletes who had demonstrated EIB initially received albuterol or placebo prior to a repeat exercise test. Community high school athletic facilities. We studied 238 male high school varsity football players. All athletes underwent an acquaintance session with a questionnaire, followed by a 1-mile outdoor run (6 to 8 mins). Peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements were determined prior to and 5, 15, and 30 min after exercise. Heart rates (HRs) and dyspnea scores were measured. EIB was defined as a decrease of 15% in PEF at any time point after exercise. Associations of EIB with demographic factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Two hundred thirty-eight athletes participated: 92 European-Americans (EA), 140 African-Americans (AA), 5 Hispanics, and 1 Native American. Mean age was 16+/-1 years. Average HR postexercise was 156+/-24 beats/min. Twenty-four (10%) reported a history of treated asthma. The prevalence of EIB among the remaining 214 athletes was 19 of 214 (9%). The rate of EIB among AA athletes was higher than among EA athletes: (17/126 [13%] AA vs 2/82 [2%] EA, p = 0.01). During the validation portion of the study, the

  7. Influence of music on maximal self-paced running performance and passive post-exercise recovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sam; Kimmerly, Derek S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fast tempo music (FM) on self-paced running performance (heart rate, running speed, ratings of perceived exertion), and slow tempo music (SM) on post-exercise heart rate and blood lactate recovery rates. Twelve participants (5 women) completed three randomly assigned conditions: static noise (control), FM and SM. Each condition consisted of self-paced treadmill running, and supine postexercise recovery periods (20 min each). Average running speed, heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the treadmill running period, while HR and blood lactate were measured during the recovery period. Listening to FM during exercise resulted in a faster self-selected running speed (10.8±1.7 vs. 9.9±1.4 km•hour-1, Peffect P<0.001) and blood lactate at the end of recovery (2.8±0.4 vs. 4.7±0.8 mmol•L-1, P<0.05). Listening to FM during exercise can increase self-paced intensity without altering perceived exertion levels while listening to SM after exercise can accelerate the recovery rate back to resting levels.

  8. Therapy of solid cancers using T cells and running shoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straten, Per Thor

    2017-01-01

    of tumor specific T cells at the tumor site, and underscores the need to define ways as how to increase immune cell infiltration to the tumor site. Regular exercise reduces the risk of cancer and disease recurrence, by largely unknown mechanisms. We recently demonstrated that voluntary wheel running showed...

  9. Locomotion Mode Affects the Physiological Strain during Exercise at Walk-Run Transition Speed inElderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Raul; Farinatti, Paulo; Cunha, Felipe; Silva, Brenno; Monteiro, Walace

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated cardiorespiratory responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during prolonged walking and running exercise performed at the walk-run transition speed (WRTS) in untrained healthy elderly men. 20 volunteers (mean±SE, age: 68.4±1.2 yrs; height: 170.0±0.02 cm; body mass: 74.7±2.3 kg) performed the following bouts of exercise: a) maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET); b) specific protocol to detect WRTS; and c) two 30-min walking and running bouts at WRTS. Expired gases were collected during exercise bouts via the Ultima CardiO 2 metabolic analyzer. Compared to walking, running at the WRTS resulted in higher oxygen uptake (>0.27 L·min -1 ), pulmonary ventilation (>7.7 L·min -1 ), carbon dioxide output (>0.23 L·min -1 ), heart rate (>15 beats·min -1 ), oxygen pulse (>0.88 15 mL·beats -1 ), energy expenditure (>27 kcal) and cost of oxygen transport (>43 mL·kg -1 ·km -1 ·bout -1 ). The increase of overall and local RPEs with exercise duration was similar across locomotion modes (Pexercise tolerance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Relationships among the contact patch length and width, the tire deflection and the rolling resistance of a free-running wheel in a soil bin facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaraee, P.; Mardani, A.; Mohebbi, A.; Taghavifar, H.

    2015-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of contact patch length-rolling resistance, contact patch width-rolling resistance and tire deflection-rolling resistance at different wheel load and inflation pressure levels is presented. The experiments were planned in a randomized block design and were conducted in the controlled conditions provided by a soil bin environment utilizing a well-equipped single wheel-tester of Urmia University, Iran. The image processing technique was used for determination of the contact patch length and contact patch width. Analysis of covariance was used to evaluate the correlations. The highest values of contact length and width and tire deflection occurred at the highest wheel load and lowest tire inflation pressure. Contact patch width is a polynomial (order 2) function of wheel load while there is a linear relationship between tire contact length and wheel load as well as between tire deflection and wheel load. Correlations were developed for the evaluation of contact patch length-rolling resistance, contact patch width-rolling resistance and tire deflection-rolling resistance. It is concluded that the variables studied have a significant effect on rolling resistance. (Author)

  11. Isometric pre-conditioning blunts exercise-induced muscle damage but does not attenuate changes in running economy following downhill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo C R; Bassan, Natália M; Cardozo, Adalgiso C; Gonçalves, Mauro; Greco, Camila C; Denadai, Benedito S

    2018-05-08

    Running economy (RE) is impaired following unaccustomed eccentric-biased exercises that induce muscle damage. It is also known that muscle damage is reduced when maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) are performed at a long muscle length 2-4 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise with the same muscle, a phenomenon that can be described as isometric pre-conditioning (IPC). We tested the hypothesis that IPC could attenuate muscle damage and changes in RE following downhill running. Thirty untrained men were randomly assigned into experimental or control groups and ran downhill on a treadmill (-15%) for 30 min. Participants in the experimental group completed 10 MVIC in a leg press machine two days prior to downhill running, while participants in the control group did not perform IPC. The magnitude of changes in muscle soreness determined 48 h after downhill running was greater for the control group (122 ± 28 mm) than for the experimental group (92 ± 38 mm). Isometric peak torque recovered faster in the experimental group compared with the control group (3 days vs. no full recovery, respectively). No significant effect of IPC was found for countermovement jump height, serum creatine kinase activity or any parameters associated with RE. These results supported the hypothesis that IPC attenuates changes in markers of muscle damage. The hypothesis that IPC attenuates changes in RE was not supported by our data. It appears that the mechanisms involved in changes in markers of muscle damage and parameters associated with RE following downhill running are not completely shared. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 5000 Meter Run Performance is not Enhanced 24 Hrs After an Intense Exercise Bout and Cold Water Immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenson, Mary C; Stenson, Matthew R; Matthews, Tracey D; Paolone, Vincent J

    2017-06-01

    Cold water immersion (CWI) is used by endurance athletes to speed recovery between exercise bouts, but little evidence is available on the effects of CWI on subsequent endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CWI following an acute bout of interval training on 5000 m run performance 24 hrs after interval training, perceived muscle soreness (PMS), range of motion (ROM), thigh circumference (TC), and perceived exertion (RPE). Nine endurance-trained males completed 2 trials, each consisting of an interval training session of 8 repetitions of 1200 m at a running pace equal to 75% of VO 2 peak, either a control or CWI treatment, and a timed 5000 m run 24 hrs post interval training session. CWI was performed for 12 min at 12 degrees Celsius on the legs. Recovery treatments were performed in a counterbalanced design. Run time for 5000 m was not different between the CWI and control trials (CWI = 1317.33 ± 128.33 sec, control = 1303.44 ± 105.53 sec; p = 0.48). PMS increased significantly from baseline to immediately post exercise (BL = 1.17 ± 0.22, POST = 2.81 ± 0.52; p = 0.02) and remained elevated from baseline to 24 hrs post exercise (POST24 = 2.19 ± 0.32; p = 0.02), but no difference was observed between the treatments. No differences were observed for the interaction between time and treatment for TC (λ = 0.73, p = 0.15) and ROM (λ = 0.49; p = 0.10). CWI performed immediately following an interval training exercise bout did not enhance subsequent 5000 m run performance or reduce PMS. CWI may not provide a recovery or performance advantage when athletes are accustomed to the demands of the prior exercise bout.

  13. Pre-exercise carbohydrate and fluid ingestion: influence of glycemic response on 10-km treadmill running performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J B; Braun, W A; Pizza, F X; Forrest, M

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of ingesting solutions containing mixtures of carbohydrate (CHO) types on pre-exercise glycemic response, exercise-induced hypoglycemia, metabolic responses, and 10-km treadmill running performance in a warm environment. Ten trained runners completed 6, self-paced 10-km treadmill runs one hour after ingesting 900 ml of one of the following test solutions: a water placebo (WP), an 8 g 100 ml-1 high fructose corn syrup solution (HFG; 72 g CHO), a 6 g 100 ml-1 glucose solution (GLU; 54 g CHO), a 6 g.100 ml-1 sucrose/glucose mixture (SUG; 54 g CHO), or banana with water to equal 900 ml (BAN; approx. 54 g CHO). The sixth condition was 675 ml of an 8 g.100 ml-1 HFCS solution (LFG; 54 g CHO). Blood samples were taken prior to ingestion and every 15 min during rest and at 15 and 30 min, and at the end of the 10-km run. Blood was analyzed for glucose (BG) insulin (IN), glycerol, lactate, and percent change in plasma volume. Urine volume during the 1 hour of rest and change in body mass during exercise were also determined. A significant (p glucose was related to the PEGR; however, the decline in BG did not affect 10-km running performance. In addition, there were no differences in the metabolic responses during exercise between the different CHO types, nor did the type of CHO influence running performance. Finally, the presence of CHO and/or electrolytes in the hydration solutions produced a better fluid retention during the 60-min pre-exercise rest period compared to water. The results confirmed that if a competitive athlete consumed a breakfast prior to ingesting a CHO-electrolyte beverage, a practice that is common, the glycemic responses may be different.

  14. Non-exchangeability of running vs. other exercise in their association with adiposity, and its implications for public health recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Williams

    Full Text Available Current physical activity recommendations assume that different activities can be exchanged to produce the same weight-control benefits so long as total energy expended remains the same (exchangeability premise. To this end, they recommend calculating energy expenditure as the product of the time spent performing each activity and the activity's metabolic equivalents (MET, which may be summed to achieve target levels. The validity of the exchangeability premise was assessed using data from the National Runners' Health Study.Physical activity dose was compared to body mass index (BMI and body circumferences in 33,374 runners who reported usual distance run and pace, and usual times spent running and other exercises per week. MET hours per day (METhr/d from running was computed from: a time and intensity, and b reported distance run (1.02 MET • hours per km.When computed from time and intensity, the declines (slope±SE per METhr/d were significantly greater (P<10(-15 for running than non-running exercise for BMI (slopes±SE, male: -0.12 ± 0.00 vs. 0.00±0.00; female: -0.12 ± 0.00 vs. -0.01 ± 0.01 kg/m(2 per METhr/d and waist circumference (male: -0.28 ± 0.01 vs. -0.07±0.01; female: -0. 31±0.01 vs. -0.05 ± 0.01 cm per METhr/d. Reported METhr/d of running was 38% to 43% greater when calculated from time and intensity than distance. Moreover, the declines per METhr/d run were significantly greater when estimated from reported distance for BMI (males: -0.29 ± 0.01; females: -0.27 ± 0.01 kg/m(2 per METhr/d and waist circumference (males: -0.67 ± 0.02; females: -0.69 ± 0.02 cm per METhr/d than when computed from time and intensity (cited above.The exchangeability premise was not supported for running vs. non-running exercise. Moreover, distance-based running prescriptions may provide better weight control than time-based prescriptions for running or other activities. Additional longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials are

  15. Resistance wheel exercise from mid-life has minimal effect on sciatic nerves from old mice in which sarcopenia was prevented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vidya S; White, Zoe; Terrill, Jessica R; Hodgetts, Stuart I; Fitzgerald, Melinda; Shavlakadze, Tea; Harvey, Alan R; Grounds, Miranda D

    2017-10-01

    The ability of resistance exercise, initiated from mid-life, to prevent age-related changes in old sciatic nerves, was investigated in male and female C57BL/6J mice. Aging is associated with cellular changes in old sciatic nerves and also loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia). Mature adult mice aged 15 months (M) were subjected to increasing voluntary resistance wheel exercise (RWE) over a period of 8 M until 23 M of age. This prevented sarcopenia in the old 23 M aged male and female mice. Nerves of control sedentary (SED) males at 3, 15 and 23 M of age, showed a decrease in the myelinated axon numbers at 15 and 23 M, a decreased g-ratio and a significantly increased proportion of myelinated nerves containing electron-dense aggregates at 23 M. Myelinated axon and nerve diameter, and axonal area, were increased at 15 M compared with 3 and 23 M. Exercise increased myelinated nerve profiles containing aggregates at 23 M. S100 protein, detected with immunoblotting was increased in sciatic nerves of 23 M old SED females, but not males, compared with 15 M, with no effect of exercise. Other neuronal proteins showed no significant alterations with age, gender or exercise. Overall the RWE had no cellular impact on the aging nerves, apart from an increased number of old nerves containing aggregates. Thus the relationship between cellular changes in aging nerves, and their sustained capacity for stimulation of old skeletal muscles to help maintain healthy muscle mass in response to exercise remains unclear.

  16. Effect of maturation on hemodynamic and autonomic control recovery following maximal running exercise in highly-trained young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBuchheit

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maturation on post-exercise hemodynamic and autonomic responses. Fifty-five highly-trained young male soccer players (12-18 yr classified as pre-, circum- or post-peak height velocity (PHV performed a graded running test to exhaustion on a treadmill. Before (Pre and after (5th-10th min, Post exercise, heart rate (HR, stroke volume (SV, cardiac ouput (CO, arterial pressure (AP and total peripheral resistance (TPR were monitored. Parasympathetic (high-frequency [HFRR] of HR variability (HRV and baroreflex sensitivity [Ln BRS] and sympathetic activity (low-frequency [LFSAP] of systolic AP variability were estimated. Post-exercise blood lactate [La]b, the HR recovery (HRR time constant and parasympathetic reactivation (time varying HRV analysis were assessed. In all three groups, exercise resulted in increased HR, CO, AP and LFSAP (P<0.001, decreased SV, HFRR and Ln BRS (all P<0.001, and no change in TPRI (P=0.98. There was no ‘maturation x time’ interaction for any of the hemodynamic or autonomic variables (all P>0.22. After exercise, pre-PHV players displayed lower SV, CO and [La]b, faster HRR and greater parasympathetic reactivation compared with circum- and post-PHV players. Multiple regression analysis showed that lean muscle mass, [La]b and Pre parasympathetic activity were the strongest predictors of HRR (r2=0.62, P<0.001. While pre-PHV players displayed a faster HRR and greater post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, maturation had little influence on the hemodynamic and autonomic responses following maximal running exercise. HRR relates to lean muscle mass, blood acidosis and intrinsic parasympathetic function, with less evident impact of post-exercise autonomic function.

  17. Effects of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity and food consumption in mice: Results from an artificial selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Acosta, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and food consumption in mice from 4 replicate lines bred for 57 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from 4 non-selected control (C) lines. Beginning at ~24 days of age, mice were housed in standard cages or in cages with attached wheels. Wheel activity and SPA were monitored in 1-min intervals. Data from the 8th week of the experiment were analyzed because mice were sexually mature and had plateaued in body mass, weekly wheel running distance, SPA, and food consumption. Body mass, length, and masses of the retroperitoneal fat pad, liver, and heart were recorded after the 13th week. SPA of both HR and C mice decreased with wheel access, due to reductions in both duration and average intensity of SPA. However, total activity duration (SPA+wheel running; min/day) was ~1/3 greater when mice were housed with wheels, and food consumption was significantly increased. Overall, food consumption in both HR and C mice was more strongly affected by wheel running than by SPA. Duration of wheel running had a stronger effect than average speed, but the opposite was true for SPA. With body mass as a covariate, chronic wheel access significantly reduced fat pad mass and increased heart mass in both HR and C mice. Given that both HR and C mice housed with wheels had increased food consumption, the energetic cost of wheel running was not fully compensated by concomitant reductions in SPA. The experiment demonstrates that both duration and intensity of both wheel running and SPA were significant predictors of food consumption. This sort of detailed analysis of the effects of different aspects of physical activity on food consumption has not previously been reported for a non-human animal, and it sets the stage for longitudinal examination of energy balance and its components in rodent models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 33/4 inches of the flange. (g) Worn flanges... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires...

  19. Influence of exercise duration on cardiorespiratory responses, energy cost and tissue oxygenation within a 6 hour treadmill run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhervé, Hugo A; McLean, Scott; Birkenhead, Karen; Parr, David; Solomon, Colin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms for alterations in oxygen utilization ([Formula: see text]) and the energy cost of running ( C r ) during prolonged running are not completely understood, and could be linked with alterations in muscle and cerebral tissue oxygenation. Eight trained ultramarathon runners (three women; mean ± SD; age 37 ± 7 yr; maximum [Formula: see text] 60 ± 15 mL min -1  kg -1 ) completed a 6 hr treadmill run (6TR), which consisted of four modules, including periods of moderate (3 min at 10 km h -1 , 10-CR) and heavy exercise intensities (6 min at 70% of maximum [Formula: see text], HILL), separated by three, 100 min periods of self-paced running (SP). We measured [Formula: see text], minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]), ventilatory efficiency ([Formula: see text]), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), C r , muscle and cerebral tissue saturation index (TSI) during the modules, and heart rate (HR) and perceived exertion (RPE) during the modules and SP. Participants ran 58.3 ± 10.5 km during 6TR. Speed decreased and HR and RPE increased during SP. Across the modules, HR and [Formula: see text] increased (10-CR), and RER decreased (10-CR and HILL). There were no significant changes in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], C r , TSI and RPE across the modules. In the context of positive pacing (decreasing speed), increased cardiac drift and perceived exertion over the 6TR, we observed increased RER and increased HR at moderate and heavy exercise intensity, increased [Formula: see text] at moderate intensity, and no effect of exercise duration on ventilatory efficiency, energy cost of running and tissue oxygenation.

  20. Effect of Cold (14° C) vs. Ice (5° C) Water Immersion on Recovery From Intermittent Running Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Nunn, James; Tyler, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    Anderson, D, Nunn, J, and Tyler, CJ. Effect of cold (14° C) vs. ice (5° C) water immersion on recovery from intermittent running exercise. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 764-771, 2018-The purpose was to compare 14° C (CWI14° C) and 5° C (CWI5° C) cold water immersion after intermittent running. On 3 occasions, 9 male team-sport players undertook 12 minutes of CWI14° C, CWI5° C, or nonimmersed seated recovery (CON) after 45 minutes of intermittent running exercise. Maximal cycling performance and markers of recovery were measured before and in the 0-72 hours after exercise. Peak power output (PPO) was immediately reduced after all interventions (d = 1.8). CWI5° C was more effective at restoring PPO than CWI14° C (d = 0.38) and CON (d = 0.28) 24 hours after exercise, whereas both CON (d = 0.20) and CWI5 (d = 0.37) were more effective than CWI14° C after 48 hours. Cold water immersion (CWI) was more effective than CON at restoring PPO 72 hours after exercise (d = 0.28-0.30). Mean power output (MPO) was higher in CON compared with CWI5° C (d = 0.30) and CWI14° C (d = 0.21), but there was no difference between CWI5° C and CWI14° C (d = 0.08). CWI5° C was more effective than CWI14° C for restoring MPO to baseline levels 24 hours (d = 0.28) and 72 hours (d = 0.28) after exercise; however, CON was more, or equally, effective as CWI5° C and CWI14° C throughout. Lactate and creatine kinase concentrations were unaffected. Perceived muscle soreness remained elevated in CWI5 and CON throughout but was similar to baseline in CWI14° C after 72 hours. In conclusion, repeated bouts of exercise are initially impaired after 5 and 14° C CWI, but PPO may be improved 72 hours after exercise. Cold water immersion is not recommended for acute recovery based on these data. Athletes and coaches should use the time currently allocated to CWI for more effective and alternative recovery modalities.

  1. Effects of Running Shoes with Abrasion Resistant Rubber Sole on the Exercise Capacity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.

  2. COMPARISON OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING HIGH-SPEED RUNNING AND VARIOUS HAMSTRING STRENGTHENING EXERCISES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Jens Asmund Brevik; Bencke, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Background Several studies have examined the effect of hamstring strength exercises upon hamstring strains in team sports that involve many sprints. However, there has been no cross comparison among muscle activation of these hamstring training exercises with actual sprinting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine different hamstring exercises and compare the muscle activity in the hamstring muscle group during various exercises with the muscular activity produced during maximal sprints. Methods Twelve male sports students (age 25 ± 6.2 years, 1.80 ± 7.1 m, body mass 81.1 ± 15.6 kg) participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris to measure muscle activity during seven hamstrings exercises and sprinting together with 3D motion capture to establish at what hip and knee angles maximal muscle activation (EMG) occurs. Maximal EMG activity during sprints for each muscle was used in order to express each exercise as a percentage of max activation during sprinting. Results The main findings were that maximal EMG activity of the different hamstring exercises were on average between 40-65% (Semitendinosus), 18-40% (biceps femoris) and 40-75% (Semimembranosus) compared with the max EMG activity in sprints, which were considered as 100%. The laying kick together with the Nordic hamstring exercises and its variations had the highest muscle activations, while the cranes showed the lowest muscle activation (in all muscles) together with the standing kick for the semimembranosus. In addition, angles at which the peak EMG activity of the hamstring muscle occurs were similar for the Nordic hamstring exercises and different for the two crane exercises (hip angle), standing kick (hip angle) and the laying kick (knee angle) compared with the sprint. Conclusions Nordic hamstring exercises with its variation together with the laying kick activates the hamstrings at high levels and

  3. The effects of voluntary running exercise coincidence with social isolation after early weaning on monoaminergic axonal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, J; Ishikawa, A

    2013-01-29

    The axonal development of serotonin (5-HT)-, noradrenaline (NA)-, or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing monoaminergic neurons is affected by rearing conditions during the juvenile period. Impaired monoaminergic axonal development is implicated in the pathophysiology of emotional and cognitive dysfunction. On the other hand, exercise may have beneficial effects on emotional and learning performance in adults. We have examined whether voluntary running exercise during social isolation after early weaning (early weaning/social isolation; EI) from postnatal day (PD) 14-28 could prevent the impaired monoaminergic axonal development associated with EI. Compared with control animals reared with their dam and siblings until PD28, the EI animals showed lower density of 5-HT and NA axons in the dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala and of NA- and TH-containing axons in the ventral-mPFC. These adverse effects of EI were not observed in rats taking part in voluntary running (EI+R) when these animals were compared to controls. The 5-HT axon density in the ventral-mPFC was significantly higher in the EI+R rats than that in the EI rats, although both these values were significantly lower than those in the control rats. The density of monoaminergic axons in the dentate gyrus and CA3 of the hippocampus was not affected by either EI or EI+R. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of voluntary running may be because of the modulation of monoaminergic axonal morphology. Our findings will hopefully provide the basis for future research into the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise during the juvenile period on brain development and emotional and cognitive performance. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Physical Exercise and Food Restriction on the Biomechanical Properties of the Femur of Ageing Male Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary running in wheels as well as food reduction increase the life spans of rats. Disparate parameters such as the collagen biomarker of ageing and the development of kidney pathologies are decreased by voluntary exercise. There are few reports on the influence of physical exercise...... were used: baseline (BL), voluntarily running in wheels (RW), food restriction to attain pair weight with RW animals (PW), forced running in treadmills (TM), and sedentary controls (SE). The biomechanical properties of femoral neck, diaphysis, and distal metaphysis were measured. RESULTS: While...

  5. The repeated bout effect of traditional resistance exercises on running performance across 3 bouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Schumann, Moritz; Leicht, Anthony Scott; Heilbronn, Brian Edward; Damas, Felipe; Burt, Dean

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the repeated bout effect of 3 typical lower body resistance-training sessions on maximal and submaximal effort running performance. Twelve resistance-untrained men (age, 24 ± 4 years; height, 1.81 ± 0.10 m; body mass, 79.3 ± 10.9 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 48.2 ± 6.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ; 6-repetition maximum squat, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg) undertook 3 bouts of resistance-training sessions at 6-repetitions maximum. Countermovement jump (CMJ), lower-body range of motion (ROM), muscle soreness, and creatine kinase (CK) were examined prior to and immediately, 24 h (T24), and 48 h (T48) after each resistance-training bout. Submaximal (i.e., below anaerobic threshold (AT)) and maximal (i.e., above AT) running performances were also conducted at T24 and T48. Most indirect muscle damage markers (i.e., CMJ, ROM, and muscle soreness) and submaximal running performance were significantly improved (P running performance was also improved following the third bout (P 0.05). In conclusion, the initial bout induced the greatest change in CK; however, at least 2 bouts were required to produce protective effects on other indirect muscle damage markers and submaximal running performance measures. This suggests that submaximal running sessions should be avoided for at least 48 h after resistance training until the third bout, although a greater recovery period may be required for maximal running sessions.

  6. Influence of exercise duration on cardiorespiratory responses, energy cost and tissue oxygenation within a 6 hour treadmill run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Kerhervé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The physiological mechanisms for alterations in oxygen utilization ( $\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ V ̇ O 2 and the energy cost of running (Cr during prolonged running are not completely understood, and could be linked with alterations in muscle and cerebral tissue oxygenation. Methods Eight trained ultramarathon runners (three women; mean ± SD; age 37 ± 7 yr; maximum $\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ V ̇ O 2 60 ± 15 mL min−1 kg−1 completed a 6 hr treadmill run (6TR, which consisted of four modules, including periods of moderate (3 min at 10 km h−1, 10-CR and heavy exercise intensities (6 min at 70% of maximum $\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ V ̇ O 2 , HILL, separated by three, 100 min periods of self-paced running (SP. We measured $\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ V ̇ O 2 , minute ventilation ( ${\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}}_{\\mathrm{E}}$ V ̇ E , ventilatory efficiency ( ${\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}}_{\\mathrm{E}}:\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ V ̇ E : V ̇ O 2 , respiratory exchange ratio (RER, Cr, muscle and cerebral tissue saturation index (TSI during the modules, and heart rate (HR and perceived exertion (RPE during the modules and SP. Results Participants ran 58.3 ± 10.5 km during 6TR. Speed decreased and HR and RPE increased during SP. Across the modules, HR and $\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ V ̇ O 2 increased (10-CR, and RER decreased (10-CR and HILL. There were no significant changes in ${\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}}_{\\mathrm{E}}$ V ̇ E , ${\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}}_{\\mathrm{E}}:\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ V ̇ E : V ̇ O 2 , Cr, TSI and RPE across the modules. Conclusions In the context of positive pacing (decreasing speed, increased cardiac drift and perceived exertion over the 6TR, we observed increased RER and increased HR at moderate and heavy exercise intensity, increased $\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ V ̇ O 2 at moderate intensity, and no effect of

  7. Voluntary running enhances glymphatic influx in awake behaving, young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Vascular pathology and protein accumulation contribute to cognitive decline, whereas exercise can slow vascular degeneration and improve cognitive function. Recent investigations suggest that glymphatic clearance measured in aged mice while anesthetized is enhanced following exercise. We predicted that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We injected fluorescent tracers in cisterna magna of awake behaving mice and in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice, and later assessed tracer distribution in coronal brain sections. Voluntary exercise consistently increased CSF influx during wakefulness, primarily in the hypothalamus and ventral parts of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas of the mouse brain, which may contribute to the pro-cognitive effects of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of long-term voluntary exercise on learning and memory processes: dependency of the task and level of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Capdevila, Sílvia; Portell-Cortés, Isabel; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Costa-Miserachs, David

    2009-09-14

    The effect of long-term voluntary exercise (running wheel) on anxiety-like behaviour (plus maze and open field) and learning and memory processes (object recognition and two-way active avoidance) was examined on Wistar rats. Because major individual differences in running wheel behaviour were observed, the data were analysed considering the exercising animals both as a whole and grouped according to the time spent in the running wheel (low, high, and very-high running). Although some variables related to anxiety-like behaviour seem to reflect an anxiogenic compatible effect, the view of the complete set of variables could be interpreted as an enhancement of defensive and risk assessment behaviours in exercised animals, without major differences depending on the exercise level. Effects on learning and memory processes were dependent on task and level of exercise. Two-way avoidance was not affected either in the acquisition or in the retention session, while the retention of object recognition task was affected. In this latter task, an enhancement in low running subjects and impairment in high and very-high running animals were observed.

  9. Running for extinction? Aerobic exercise as an augmentation of exposure therapy in panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Sophie; Wieder, Gesine; Einsle, Franziska; Petzold, Moritz B; Janßen, Christiane; Mumm, Jennifer L M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Fydrich, Thomas; Plag, Jens; Ströhle, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Exposure-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (eb-CBT) represents the most evidence-based psychotherapeutic approach in anxiety disorders. However, its efficacy may be limited by a delay in onset of action and a substantial number of patients does not respond sufficiently to treatment. In this context, aerobic exercise was found to be effective in reducing clinical anxiety as well as to improve (elements of) disorder-specific CBT in some mental disorders. We therefore investigated the effect of aerobic exercise supplementary to an eb-CBT in panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). 77 patients with PD/AG performed a 30 min treadmill task with moderate or low intensity (70% or 30% of the maximal oxygen uptake [VO 2max ]) prior to five exposure sessions within a standardized seven-week CBT. At baseline, after completing the treatment period (post) and six month after post (follow-up), several measures of (un)specific psychopathology (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [Ham-A], Mobility Inventory [MI], Panic and Agoraphobia Scale [PAS], Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire [ACQ], Body Sensations Questionnaire [BSQ]) were established to assess for clinical changes. All patients experienced a significant improvement of symptoms from baseline to post (for all measures p < .001) but repeated-measures analyses of variance found a trend towards a significant time × group interaction in the Ham-A in favor for the moderate intense exercise group (f[1, 74] = 4.15, p = .045, α=.025). This trend, however, disappeared at follow-up since the low-intense exercise group further improved significantly in Ham-A after post. Our findings therefore might point to an accelerating effect of moderate-intense exercise within an exposure-based CBT for AG/PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is there really an eccentric action of the hamstrings during the swing phase of high-speed running? Part II: Implications for exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooren, Bas; Bosch, Frans

    2017-12-01

    We have previously argued that there may actually be no significant eccentric, but rather predominantly an isometric action of the hamstring muscle fibres during the swing phase of high-speed running when the attachment points of the hamstrings are moving apart. Based on this we suggested that isometric rather than eccentric exercises are a more specific way of conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running. In this review we argue that some of the presumed beneficial adaptations following eccentric training may actually not be related to the eccentric muscle fibre action, but to other factors such as exercise intensity. Furthermore, we discuss several disadvantages associated with commonly used eccentric hamstring exercises. Subsequently, we argue that high-intensity isometric exercises in which the series elastic element stretches and recoils may be equally or even more effective at conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running, since they also avoid some of the negative side effects associated with eccentric training. We provide several criteria that exercises should fulfil to effectively condition the hamstrings for high-speed running. Adherence to these criteria will guarantee specificity with regards to hamstrings functioning during running. Practical examples of isometric exercises that likely meet several criteria are provided.

  11. Effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on sprint time in a sled-towing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Cooper, James E

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise. The coefficients of friction of four common sports surfaces (a synthetic athletics track, a natural grass rugby pitch, a 3G football pitch, and an artificial grass hockey pitch) were determined from the force required to tow a weighted sled across the surface. Timing gates were then used to measure the 30-m sprint time for six rugby players when towing a sled of varied weight across the surfaces. There were substantial differences between the coefficients of friction for the four surfaces (micro = 0.21-0.58), and in the sled-towing exercise the athlete's 30-m sprint time increased linearly with increasing sled weight. The hockey pitch (which had the lowest coefficient of friction) produced a substantially lower rate of increase in 30-m sprint time, but there were no significant differences between the other surfaces. The results indicate that although an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise is affected by the coefficient offriction of the surface, the relationship relationship between the athlete's rate of increase in 30-m sprint time and the coefficient of friction is more complex than expected.

  12. Inhibition of Glutathione Synthesis Induced by Exhaustive Running Exercise via the Decreased Influx Rate of L-Cysteine in Rat Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanlian; Xiong, Yanlei; Zhou, Shuai; Yu, Zhenhai; Zhao, Dongmei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuling; Yan, Jingtong; Cai, Yu; Zhang, Wenqian

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exhaustive exercise on L-cysteine uptake and its effect on erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) synthesis and metabolism. Rats were divided into three groups: sedentary control (C), exhaustive running exercise (ERE) and moderate running exercise (MRE) (n=12 rats/group). We determined the L-cysteine efflux and influx in vitro in rat erythrocytes and its relationship with GSH synthesis. Total anti-oxidant potential of plasma was measured in terms of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) values for each exercise group. In addition, the glucose metabolism enzyme activity of erythrocytes was also measured under in vitro incubation conditions. Biochemical studies confirmed that exhaustive running exercise significantly increased oxidative damage parameters in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and methemoglobin levels. Pearson correlation analysis suggested that L-cysteine influx was positively correlated with erythrocyte GSH synthesis and FRAP values in both the control and exercise groups. In vitro oxidation incubation significantly decreased the level of glucose metabolism enzyme activity in the control group. We presented evidence of the exhaustive exercise-induced inhibition of GSH synthesis due to a dysfunction in L-cysteine transport. In addition, oxidative stress-induced changes in glucose metabolism were the driving force underlying decreased L-cysteine uptake in the exhaustive exercise group. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The Long Run: Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Exercise on Adult Neurogenesis from Youth to Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Mastrorilli, Valentina; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background The rapid lengthening of life expectancy has raised the problem of providing social programs to counteract the age-related cognitive decline in a growing number of older people. Physical activity stands among the most promising interventions aimed at brain wellbeing, because of its effective neuroprotective action and low social cost. The purpose of this review is to describe the neuroprotective role exerted by physical activity in different life stages. In particular, we focus on adult neurogenesis, a process which has proved being highly responsive to physical exercise and may represent a major factor of brain health over the lifespan. Methods The most recent literature related to the subject has been reviewed. The text has been divided into three main sections, addressing the effects of physical exercise during childhood/adolescence, adulthood and aging, respectively. For each one, the most relevant studies, carried out on both human participants and rodent models, have been described. Results The data reviewed converge in indicating that physical activity exerts a positive effect on brain functioning throughout the lifespan. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the effect and its biological underpinnings. Cellular and synaptic plasticity provided by adult neurogenesis are highly probable mediators, but the mechanism for their action has yet to be conclusively established. Conclusion Despite alternative mechanisms of action are currently debated, age-appropriate physical activity programs may constitute a large-scale, relatively inexpensive and powerful approach to dampen the individual and social impact of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27000776

  14. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be securely fastened to the spindle and the bearing surface shall run true. When more than one wheel... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheel machinery. 1910.215 Section 1910.215 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a...

  15. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... two adjoining spots that are each two or more inches in length. (e) A seam running lengthwise that is...

  16. Physical exercises on a bicycle-ergometer and running track to prevent hypodynamia in workers of intellectual labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, V. V.; Korableva, Y. N.; Trunin, V. V.

    1980-01-01

    A program of exercises was developed and tested, consisting of a 12 minute session on a variable load bicycle ergometer and a 10-11 min. run with brief stretching and resting sessions between. Physical performance capacity was measured before, during, and after the period of the experiment and physical exams conducted. After a 4 month test period involving 30 men, aged 25-35, the program was found to be successful in increasing physical performance capacity. The PWC170 increased an average of 22 percent and maximum oxygen consumption 14 percent. Arterial pressure dropped (120/75 to 114/68), vital capacity of lungs increased by 6 percent, strength of respiratory muscles by 8.8 percent, duration of respiratory delay by 18 percent. Duration of cardiac cycles increased, stress index decreased. Cardiac contraction rate 2 minutes after work on the ergometer decreased from 118 to 102 bt/min.

  17. Individual and combinatory effects of voluntary wheel running and sActRIIB-Fc administration on redox-balance in mdx mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hentilä, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy (DMD) is X-chromosome linked muscle wasting dis-ease. It is caused by a mutation in the gene coding protein called dystrophin leading to premature death and significantly impairing the quality of life of DMD patients. Oxida-tive stress is a contributing factor in the pathology of DMD. Light intensity exercise and interventions that promote sirtuin (SIRT) 1 activity have been shown to be antioxidant for mdx mice and to ameliorate the symptoms of DMD. Also blocking...

  18. The effect of running versus cycling high-intensity intermittent exercise on local tissue oxygenation and perceived enjoyment in 18–30-year-old sedentary men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Background High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise format to improve exercise adherence, thereby targeting the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Exercise mode (cycling, running), if self-selected, will likely affect the physiological and enjoyment responses to HIIT in sedentary individuals. Differences in physiological and enjoyment responses, associated with the mode of exercise, could potentially influence the uptake and continued adherence to HIIT. It was hypothesised that in young sedentary men, local and systemic oxygen utilisation and enjoyment would be higher during a session of running HIIT, compared to a session of cycling HIIT. Methods A total of 12 sedentary men (mean ± SD; age 24 ± 3 years) completed three exercise sessions: a maximal incremental exercise test on a treadmill (MAX) followed by two experiment conditions, (1) free-paced cycling HIIT on a bicycle ergometer (HIITCYC) and (2) constant-paced running HIIT on a treadmill ergometer (HIITRUN). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the gastrocnemius (GN), the left vastus lateralis (LVL) and the right vastus lateralis (RVL) muscles, oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physical activity enjoyment (PACES) were measured during HIITCYC and HIITRUN. Results There was a higher HHb in the LVL (p = 0.001) and RVL (p = 0.002) sites and a higher VO2 (p = 0.017) and HR (p HIIT produces higher levels of physiological stress when compared to constant-paced running HIIT. Participants perceived running HIIT to be more enjoyable than cycling HIIT. These findings have implications for selection of mode of HIIT for physical stress, exercise enjoyment and compliance.

  19. The effect of running versus cycling high-intensity intermittent exercise on local tissue oxygenation and perceived enjoyment in 18-30-year-old sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriel, Yuri; Askew, Christopher D; Solomon, Colin

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise format to improve exercise adherence, thereby targeting the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Exercise mode (cycling, running), if self-selected, will likely affect the physiological and enjoyment responses to HIIT in sedentary individuals. Differences in physiological and enjoyment responses, associated with the mode of exercise, could potentially influence the uptake and continued adherence to HIIT. It was hypothesised that in young sedentary men, local and systemic oxygen utilisation and enjoyment would be higher during a session of running HIIT, compared to a session of cycling HIIT. A total of 12 sedentary men (mean ± SD; age 24 ± 3 years) completed three exercise sessions: a maximal incremental exercise test on a treadmill (MAX) followed by two experiment conditions, (1) free-paced cycling HIIT on a bicycle ergometer (HIITCYC) and (2) constant-paced running HIIT on a treadmill ergometer (HIITRUN). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the gastrocnemius (GN), the left vastus lateralis (LVL) and the right vastus lateralis (RVL) muscles, oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physical activity enjoyment (PACES) were measured during HIITCYC and HIITRUN. There was a higher HHb in the LVL ( p = 0.001) and RVL ( p = 0.002) sites and a higher VO 2 ( p = 0.017) and HR ( p HIIT produces higher levels of physiological stress when compared to constant-paced running HIIT. Participants perceived running HIIT to be more enjoyable than cycling HIIT. These findings have implications for selection of mode of HIIT for physical stress, exercise enjoyment and compliance.

  20. Nox4 Is Dispensable for Exercise Induced Muscle Fibre Switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Vogel

    Full Text Available By producing H2O2, the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is involved in differentiation of mesenchymal cells. Exercise alters the composition of slow and fast twitch fibres in skeletal. Here we hypothesized that Nox4 contributes to exercise-induced adaptation such as changes in muscle metabolism or muscle fibre specification and studied this in wildtype and Nox4-/- mice.Exercise, as induced by voluntary running in a running wheel or forced running on a treadmill induced a switch from fast twitch to intermediate fibres. However the induced muscle fibre switch was similar between Nox4-/- and wildtype mice. The same held true for exercise-induced expression of PGC1α or AMPK activation. Both are increased in response to exercise, but with no difference was observed between wildtype and Nox4-/- mice.Thus, exercise-induced muscle fibre switch is Nox4-independent.

  1. Long-Term Oral Feeding of Lutein-Fortified Milk Increases Voluntary Running Distance in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared wit...

  2. Elevator wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    An elevator wheel is suggested for unloading a sunken product from a bath of a heavy-average separator including discs of a bucket with inner walls, and covering sheets hinged to the buckets. In order to improve the degree of dehydration of the removed product, the inner wall of each bucket is made of sheets installed in steps with gaps of one in relation to the other.

  3. Effects of different delayed exercise regimens on cognitive performance in fimbria‑fornix transected rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, Elise; Marschner, Linda; Gram, Marie Gajhede

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that exercise can positively influence cognitive performance after brain injury. This study investigated the effects of different exercise regimens on allocentric place learning after fimbria‑fornix (FF) transection. One hundred and sixteen pre‑shaped rats were subjected either...... to a mechanical transection of the FF or control sham surgery and divided into following groups: i) no exercise (NE), ii) voluntary exercise in a running wheel (RW), iii) forced swimming exercise administered as interval training of short (3x5 min) duration (FS‑SI), iv) forced swimming exercise administered...

  4. Voluntary Running Suppresses Tumor Growth through Epinephrine- and IL-6-Dependent NK Cell Mobilization and Redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line; Idorn, Manja; Olofsson, Gitte H.

    2016-01-01

    Regular exercise reduces the risk of cancer and disease recurrence. Yet the mechanisms behind this protection remain to be elucidated. In this study, tumor-bearing mice randomized to voluntary wheel running showed over 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across five different tumor models....... Microarray analysis revealed training-induced upregulation of pathways associated with immune function. NK cell infiltration was significantly increased in tumors from running mice, whereas depletion of NK cells enhanced tumor growth and blunted the beneficial effects of exercise. Mechanistic analyses showed...

  5. Effect of Wheelchair Running on Recovery of Blood Lactate and Physical Performance after High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise – An Experimental Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Repetitive sprint sport players perform high intensity exercise only for a small percentage of a total game and such periods are often instrumental in determining the eventual outcome. Recovery is a key factor for performance, and constant lack of recovery or insufficient recovery turns into overtraining which is detrimental in achieving peak performance. The purpose was to find out the effect of wheelchair running on the physical performance recovery after high-intensity intermittent exercise. Method: Ten sportsmen having the age range from 20 to 29, VO2max Ranges from 60.51 to 64.29 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. After filling pre-participation questionnaire and 30-min of supine rest, Blood lactate and the field tests for the measurement of static balance, power, speed and agility were applied. The subjects were made to run in the treadmill and to increase the intensity to reach the Target Heart Rate (THR. After 1-min the subjects were given rest for 15-s and after that they started exercise again and thus the subjects completed several bouts of such exercises until exhaustion followed by either Passive rest or wheelchair running for the duration of 10 minutes. Parameters were measures after completed the exercise bout and after the recovery. Results: After the recovery in experimental group significant improvement found only in blood lactate (p<0.01 and no significant changes found in other parameters while in control group no significant changes found in all parameters. There was no significant difference found in all the parameters including blood lactate between the groups. Conclusion: Both wheelchair running and passive recovery are same in the efficiency of blood lactate removal and restoration of physical performance following intense intermittent exercise.

  6. Wheel traffic effect on air-filled porosity and air permeability in a soil catena across the wheel rut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    might induce different effects on soil physical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of vehicle traffic on soil physical properties and air permeability by systematic collection of samples in a transect running from the center to the outside of the wheel rut. A field...... catena running from center of the wheel rut to un wheeled part of the field ( 0, 20, 40, 50,60 and 400 cm horizontal distance). We measured water retention and air permeability (ka) at -30, -100 and -300 hPa matric potentials. At -100 hPa, we obtained consistently lower air filled under the wheel rut......The impact of wheel traffic on soil physical properties is usually quantified by randomly collecting soil cores at specific depths below the wheeled surface. However, modeling studies as well as few measurements indicated a non-uniform stress distribution in a catena across the wheel rut, which...

  7. Pre-Exercise Hyperhydration-Induced Bodyweight Gain Does Not Alter Prolonged Treadmill Running Time-Trial Performance in Warm Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. B. Goulet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE upon treadmill running time-trial (TT performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA. PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P < 0.01 and, compared with PEE, reduced BW loss from 3.1% ± 0.3% (EUH to 1.4% ± 0.4% (HYP (P < 0.01 during exercise. Running TT time did not differ between groups (PEH: 85.6 ± 11.6 min; PEE: 85.3 ± 9.6 min, P = 0.82. Heart rate (5 ± 1 beats/min and rectal (0.3 ± 0.1 °C and body (0.2 ± 0.1 °C temperatures of PEE were higher than those of PEH (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in abdominal discomfort and perceived exertion or heat stress between groups. Our results suggest that pre-exercise sodium-induced hyperhydration of a magnitude of 1 L does not alter 80–90 min running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise.

  8. Differential effects of voluntary wheel running and toy rotation on the mRNA expression of neurotrophic factors and FKBP5 in a post-traumatic stress disorder rat model with the shuttle-box task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanichi, Masaaki; Toda, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Kunio; Koga, Minori; Saito, Taku; Enomoto, Shingo; Boku, Shuken; Asai, Fumiho; Mitsui, Yumi; Nagamine, Masanori; Fujita, Masanori; Yoshino, Aihide

    2018-06-18

    Life-threatening experiences can result in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. We have developed an animal model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using a shuttle box in rats. In this paradigm, the rats were exposed to inescapable foot-shock stress (IS) in a shuttle box, and then an avoidance/escape task was performed in the same box 2 weeks after IS. A previous study using this paradigm revealed that environmental enrichment (EE) ameliorated avoidance/numbing-like behaviors, but not hyperarousal-like behaviors, and EE also elevated hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. However, the differential effects of EE components, i.e., running wheel (RW) or toy rotation, on PTSD-like behaviors has remained unclear. In this experiment, we demonstrated that RW, toy rotation, and EE (containing RW and toy rotation) ameliorated avoidance/numbing-like behaviors, induced learning of avoidance responses, and improved depressive-like behaviors in traumatized rats. The RW increased the hippocampal mRNA expression of neurotrophic factors, especially BDNF and glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor. Toy rotation influenced FK506 binding protein 5 mRNA expression, which is believed to be a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis system, in the hippocampus and amygdala. This is the first report to elucidate the differential mechanistic effects of RW and toy rotation. The former appears to exert its effects via neurotrophic factors, while the latter exerts its effects via the HPA axis. Further studies will lead to a better understanding of the influence of environmental factors on PTSD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Running exercise enhances motor functional recovery with inhibition of dendritic regression in the motor cortex after collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Waseda, Yuya; Ishida, Kazuto

    2016-03-01

    Rehabilitative approaches benefit motor functional recovery after stroke and relate to neuronal plasticity. We investigated the effects of a treadmill running exercise on the motor functional recovery and neuronal plasticity after collagenase-induced striatal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with type IV collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH. Sham-operated animals were injected with saline instead of collagenase. The animals were randomly assigned to the sham control (SC), the sham exercise (SE), the ICH control (IC), or the ICH exercise (IE) group. The exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill at a speed of 9 m/min for 30 min/day between days 4 and 14 after surgery. Behavioral tests were performed using a motor deficit score, a beam-walking test and a cylinder test. At fifteen days after surgery, the animals were sacrificed, and their brains were removed. The motor function of the IE group significantly improved compared with the motor function of the IC group. No significant differences in cortical thickness were found between the groups. The IC group had fewer branches and shorter dendrite lengths compared with the sham groups. However, dendritic branches and lengths were not significantly different between the IE and the other groups. Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) expression levels increased in the IE compared with IC group, but no significant differences in other protein (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF; Nogo-A; Rho-A/Rho-associated protein kinase 2, ROCK2) expression levels were found between the groups. These results suggest that improved motor function after a treadmill running exercise after ICH may be related to the prevention of dendritic regression due to TrkB upregulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Stereological Investigation of the Effects of Treadmill Running Exercise on the Hippocampal Neurons in Middle-Aged APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Fenglei; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Chunni; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Jing; Liang, Xin; Qi, Yingqiang; Zhu, Yanqing; Ma, Jing; Tang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    The risk of cognitive decline during Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be reduced if physical activity is maintained; however, the specific neural events underlying this beneficial effect are still uncertain. To quantitatively investigate the neural events underlying the effect of running exercise on middle-aged AD subjects, 12-month-old male APP/PS1 mice were randomly assigned to a control group or running group, and age-matched non-transgenic littermates were used as a wild-type group. AD running group mice were subjected to a treadmill running protocol (regular and moderate intensity) for four months. Spatial learning and memory abilities were assessed using the Morris water maze. Hippocampal amyloid plaques were observed using Thioflavin S staining and immunohistochemistry. Hippocampal volume, number of neurons, and number of newborn cells (BrdU+ cells) in the hippocampus were estimated using stereological techniques, and newborn neurons were observed using double-labelling immunofluorescence. Marked neuronal loss in both the CA1 field and dentate gyrus (DG) and deficits in both the neurogenesis and survival of new neurons in the DG of middle-aged APP/PS1 mice were observed. Running exercise could improve the spatial learning and memory abilities, reduce amyloid plaques in the hippocampi, delay neuronal loss, induce neurogenesis, and promote the survival of newborn neurons in the DG of middle-aged APP/PS1 mice. Exercise-induced protection of neurons and adult neurogenesis within the DG might be part of the important structural basis of the improved spatial learning and memory abilities observed in AD mice.

  11. Interplay between exercise and dietary fat modulates myelinogenesis in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Hyesook; Kleven, Andrew; Paulsen, Alex; Kleppe, Laurel; Wu, Jianmin; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

    2016-01-01

    Here we show that the interplay between exercise training and dietary fat regulates myelinogenesis in the adult central nervous system. Mice consuming high fat with coordinate voluntary running wheel exercise for 7 weeks showed increases in the abundance of the major myelin membrane proteins, proteolipid (PLP) and myelin basic protein (MBP), in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Expression of MBP and PLP RNA, as well that for Myrf1, a transcription factor driving oligodendrocyte differentiation wer...

  12. Exercise-Induced Catecholamines Activate the Hippo Tumor Suppressor Pathway to Reduce Risks of Breast Cancer Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Hansen, Louise S; Lillelund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    effect of exercise-conditioned serum was found to be mediated through phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention of YAP and reduced expression of downstream target genes, for example, ANKRD1 and CTGF. In parallel, tumor-bearing mice with access to running wheels showed reduced growth of MCF-7 (-36%, P

  13. AMPKα is essential for acute exercise-induced gene responses but not for exercise training-induced adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim; Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Maag Kristensen, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    -induced increases in exercise capacity and expression of metabolic proteins as well as acute exercise-induced gene regulation would be compromised in AMPKα1 and -α2 muscle-specific double knockout (mdKO) mice. An acute bout of exercise increased skeletal muscle mRNA content of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I......, glucose transporter 4 and VEGF in an AMPK-dependent manner, while cluster of differentiation 36 and fatty acid transport protein 1 mRNA content increased similarly in AMPKα wild type (WT) and mdKO mice. During four weeks of voluntary running wheel exercise training, the AMPKα mdKO mice ran less than WT...

  14. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Chamizo

    2012-01-01

      On 17th January, as soon as the services were restored after the technical stop, sub-systems started powering on. Since then, we have been running 24/7 with reduced shift crew — Shift Leader and DCS shifter — to allow sub-detectors to perform calibration, noise studies, test software upgrades, etc. On 15th and 16th February, we had the first Mid-Week Global Run (MWGR) with the participation of most sub-systems. The aim was to bring CMS back to operation and to ensure that we could run after the winter shutdown. All sub-systems participated in the readout and the trigger was provided by a fraction of the muon systems (CSC and the central RPC wheel). The calorimeter triggers were not available due to work on the optical link system. Initial checks of different distributions from Pixels, Strips, and CSC confirmed things look all right (signal/noise, number of tracks, phi distribution…). High-rate tests were done to test the new CSC firmware to cure the low efficiency ...

  15. Effect of running exercise on the number of the neurons in the hippocampus of young transgenic APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Chun-Ni; Zhang, Lei; Chao, Feng-Lei; Chen, Lin-Mu; Jiang, Rong; Wu, Hong; Tang, Yong

    2018-08-01

    To investigate the effect of running exercise on the number of the neurons in the hippocampus of young APP/PS1 mice, twenty 6-month-old male APP/ PS1 transgenic mice were randomly divided into the APP/PS1 control (AD control) group and the APP/PS1 running (AD running) group (10 mice per group), and ten wild-type mice of the littermate were regarded as the wild-type (WT) group. The AD running mice ran on motorized treadmill machiene for 4 months, while the WT mice and AD control mice were housed in standard condition without running. Then, Morris water maze tests (MWM) were used to assess the special learning and memory abilities of mice in three groups. The stereological methods were used to quantitatively evaluate the volume of the hippocampus, CA1/2, CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG) and count the number of the neurons in CA1/2, CA3 and DG. We found that 4-month running effectively shortened the escape latency of young APP/PS1 control mice in MWM. More importantly, 4-month running effectively increased the volumes of the hippocampus, CA1/2, CA3 and DG and increased the number of neurons in CA1/2, CA3 and DG in young APP/PS1 mice. The present results suggested that 4-month running has significant beneficial effects on the spatial learning and memory capacities of young APP/PS1 mice and could delay the progress of atrophy of hippocampus and the neuron death in CA1/2, CA3 and DG in young APP/PS1 mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exercise Increases Insulin Content and Basal Secretion in Pancreatic Islets in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Hung Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise appears to improve glycemic control for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D. However, the mechanism responsible for this improvement is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise has a direct effect on the insulin-producing islets. Eight-week-old mice were divided into four groups: sedentary diabetic, exercised diabetic, sedentary control, and exercised control. The exercised groups participated in voluntary wheel running for 6 weeks. When compared to the control groups, the islet density, islet diameter, and β-cell proportion per islet were significantly lower in both sedentary and exercised diabetic groups and these alterations were not improved with exercise. The total insulin content and insulin secretion were significantly lower in sedentary diabetics compared to controls. Exercise significantly improved insulin content and insulin secretion in islets in basal conditions. Thus, some improvements in exercise-induced glycemic control in T1D mice may be due to enhancement of insulin content and secretion in islets.

  17. Wheel inspection system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-18

    International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM) has developed and is now marketing a state-of-the-art Wheel Inspection System Environment (WISE). WISE provides wheel profile and dimensional measurements, i.e. rim thickness, flange height, flange ...

  18. Voluntary resistance wheel exercise from mid-life prevents sarcopenia and increases markers of mitochondrial function and autophagy in muscles of old male and female C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Zoe; Terrill, Jessica; White, Robert B; McMahon, Christopher; Sheard, Phillip; Grounds, Miranda D; Shavlakadze, Tea

    2016-12-13

    There is much interest in the capacity of resistance exercise to prevent the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia. This study investigates the molecular basis underlying the benefits of resistance exercise in aging C57BL/6J mice of both sexes. This study is the first to demonstrate that long-term (34 weeks) voluntary resistance wheel exercise (RWE) initiated at middle age, from 15 months, prevents sarcopenia in selected hindlimb muscles and causes hypertrophy in soleus, by 23 months of age in both male and female C57BL/6J mice. Compared with 23-month-old sedentary (SED) controls, RWE (0-6 g of resistance) increased intramuscular mitochondrial density and oxidative capacity (measured by citrate synthase and NADH-TR) and increased LC3II/I ratios (a marker of autophagy) in exercised mice of both sexes. RWE also reduced mRNA expression of Gadd45α (males only) and Runx1 (females only) but had no effect on other markers of denervation including Chrng, Chrnd, Musk, and Myog. RWE increased heart mass in all mice, with a more pronounced increase in females. Significant sex differences were also noted among SED mice, with Murf1 mRNA levels increasing in male, but decreasing in old female mice between 15 and 23 months. Overall, long-term RWE initiated from 15 month of age significantly improved some markers of the mitochondrial and autophagosomal pathways and prevented age-related muscle wasting.

  19. The Effects of Exercise on Expression of CYP19 and StAR mRNA in Steroid-Induced Polycystic Ovaries of Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Fatemeh; Khazali, Homayoun; Hedayati, Mehdi; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent female endocrine disorder that affects 5-10% of women. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase (CYP19) mRNA in the ovaries of an estradiol valerate (EV)-induced PCOS rat model, and the effect of treadmill and running wheel (voluntary) exercise on these parameters. In this experimental study, we divided adult female Wistar rats that weighed approximately 220 ± 20 g initially into control (n=10) and PCOS (n=30). Subsequently, PCOS group were divided to PCOS, PCOS with treadmill exercise (P-ExT), and PCOS with running wheel exercise (P-ExR) groups (n=10 per group). The expressions of StAR and CYP19 mRNA in the ovaries were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software, version 16. The data were assessed at α=0.05. There was significantly lower mRNA expression of CYP19 in the EV-induced PCOS, running wheel and treadmill exercise rats compared to the control group (PStAR in the ovaries of the PCOS group indicated an increasing trend compared to the control group, however this was not statistically significant (P=0.810). We observed that 8 weeks of running wheel and treadmill exercises could not statistically decrease StAR mRNA expression compared to the PCOS group (P=0.632). EV-induced PCOS in rats decreased CYP19 mRNA expression, but had no effect on StAR mRNA expression. We demonstrated that running wheel and moderate treadmill exercise could not modify CYP19 and StAR mRNA expressions. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  20. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Squeal noise from wheel/rail and brake disc/pad frictional contact is typical in railways. ... squeal noise by multibody simulation of a rail car running on rigid rails. ... system, traditional complex eigenvalue analysis by finite element was used.

  1. Voluntary resistance running with short distance enhances spatial memory related to hippocampal BDNF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Chul; Okamoto, Masahiro; Liu, Yu Fan; Inoue, Koshiro; Matsui, Takashi; Nogami, Haruo; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-10-15

    Although voluntary running has beneficial effects on hippocampal cognitive functions if done abundantly, it is still uncertain whether resistance running would be the same. For this purpose, voluntary resistance wheel running (RWR) with a load is a suitable model, since it allows increased work levels and resultant muscular adaptation in fast-twitch muscle. Here, we examined whether RWR would have potential effects on hippocampal cognitive functions with enhanced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as does wheel running without a load (WR). Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to sedentary (Sed), WR, and RWR (to a maximum load of 30% of body weight) groups for 4 wk. We found that in RWR, work levels increased with load, but running distance decreased by about half, which elicited muscular adaptation for fast-twitch plantaris muscle without causing any negative stress effects. Both RWR and WR led to improved spatial learning and memory as well as gene expressions of hippocampal BDNF signaling-related molecules. RWR increased hippocampal BDNF, tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB), and cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein levels, whereas WR increased only BDNF. With both exercise groups, there were correlations between spatial memory and BDNF protein (r = 0.41), p-CREB protein (r = 0.44), and work levels (r = 0.77). These results suggest that RWR plays a beneficial role in hippocampus-related cognitive functions associated with hippocampal BDNF signaling, even with short distances, and that work levels rather than running distance are more determinant of exercise-induced beneficial effects in wheel running with and without a load.

  2. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschek, Katelyn; Pritchett, Robert; Bergman, Ethan; Pritchett, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min) completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer) time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving) immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97) between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s). No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK) levels (p = 0.31), or muscle soreness (p = 0.21) between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits. PMID:24362706

  3. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Peschek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97 between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s. No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK levels (p = 0.31, or muscle soreness (p = 0.21 between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits.

  4. Peculiarities of Clutch Forming Rails and Wheel Block Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiler, V. V.; Galiev, I. I.; Shiler, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    The clutch of the wheel and rail is significantly influenced by the design features of the standard wheel pair, which are manifested in the presence of "parasitic" slipping of the wheels along the rails during its movement. The purpose of the presented work is to evaluate new design solutions for wheel sets. The research was carried out using methods of comparative simulation modelling and physical prototyping. A new design of the wheel pair (block wheel pair) is proposed, which features an independent rotation of all surfaces of the wheels in contact with the rails. The block construction of the wheel pair forms open mechanical contours with the track gauge, which completely eliminates the "parasitic" slippage. As a result, in the process of implementing traction or braking forces, the coupling coefficient of the block construction of the wheel pair is significantly higher than that of existing structures. In addition, in the run-out mode, the resistance to movement of the block wheel pair is half as much. All this will allow one to significantly reduce the energy consumption for traction of trains, wear of track elements and crew, and to increase the speed and safety of train traffic.

  5. Computation of wheel-rail contact force for non-mapping wheel-rail profile of Translohr tram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuanjin; Ren, Lihui; Zhou, Jinsong

    2017-09-01

    Translohr tram has steel wheels, in V-like arrangements, as guide wheels. These operate over the guide rails in inverted-V arrangements. However, the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the guide wheels and guide rails are not always mapped one-to-one. In this study, a simplified elastic method is proposed in order to calculate the contact points between the wheels and the rails. By transforming the coordinates, the non-mapping geometric relationship between wheel and rail is converted into a mapping relationship. Considering the Translohr tram's multi-point contact between the guide wheel and the guide rail, the elastic-contact hypothesis take into account the existence of contact patches between the bodies, and the location of the contact points is calculated using a simplified elastic method. In order to speed up the calculation, a multi-dimensional contact table is generated, enabling the use of simulation for Translohr tram running on curvatures with different radii.

  6. Upregulation of circulating IL-15 by treadmill running in healthy individuals: is IL-15 an endocrine mediator of the beneficial effects of endurance exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Keiichi; Kantani, Tomomi; Hayashi, Junichi; Ishida, Nobuhiko; Kaneki, Masao

    2011-01-01

    The beneficial effects of endurance exercise include insulin-sensitization and reduction of fat mass. Limited knowledge is available about the mechanisms by which endurance exercise exerts the salutary effects. Myokines, cytokines secreted by skeletal muscle, have been recognized as a potential mediator. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived interleukin-15 (IL-15) in improvement of fat-lean body mass composition and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. Yet, previous studies have reported that endurance training does not increase production or secretion of IL-15 in skeletal muscle. Here, we show that in opposition to previous findings, 30-min treadmill running at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate resulted in a significant increase in circulating IL-15 level in untrained healthy young men. These findings suggest that IL-15 might play a role in the systemic anti-obesogenic and insulin-sensitizing effects of endurance exercise, not only as a paracrine and autocrine but also as an endocrine factor.

  7. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  8. EFFECT OF IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED COLD WATER IMMERSION AFTER A HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE SESSION ON SUBSEQUENT RUN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Brophy-Williams

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of cold water immersion (CWI performed immediately or 3 h after a high intensity interval exercise session (HIIS on next-day exercise performance. Eight male athletes performed three HIIS at 90%VO2max velocity followed by either a passive recovery (CON, CWI performed immediately post-exercise (CWI(0 or CWI performed 3 h post-exercise (CWI(3. Recovery trials were performed in a counter balanced manner. Participants then returned 24 h later and completed a muscle soreness and a totally quality recovery perception (TQRP questionnaire, which was then followed by the Yoyo Intermittent Recovery Test [level 1] (YRT. Venous blood samples were collected pre-HIIS and pre-YRT to determine C-Reactive Protein (CRP levels. Significantly more shuttles were performed during the YRT following CWI(0 compared to the CON trial (p=0.017, ES = 0. 8, while differences between the CWI(3 and the CON trials approached significance (p = 0.058, ES = 0.5. Performance on the YRT between the CWI(0 and CWI(3 trials were similar (p = 0.147, ES = 0. 3. Qualitative analyses demonstrated a 98% and 92% likely beneficial effect of CWI(0 and CWI(3 on next day performance, compared to CON, respectively, while CWI(0 resulted in a 79% likely benefit when compared to CWI(3. CRP values were significantly lower pre-YRT, compared to baseline, following CWI(0 (p = 0.0.36 and CWI(3 (p = 0.045, but were similar for CON (p = 0.157. Muscle soreness scores were similar between trials (p = 1.10, while TQRP scores were significantly lower for CON compared to CWI(0 (p = 0.002 and CWI(3 (p = 0.024. Immediate CWI resulted in superior next-day YRT performance compared to CON, while delayed (3 h CWI was also likely to be beneficial. Qualitative analyses suggested that CWI(0 resulted in better performance than CWI(3. These results are important for athletes who do not have immediate access to CWI following exercise

  9. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  10. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  11. The Power of Exercise and the Exercise of Power: The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory, Distance Running, and the Disappearance of Work, 1919-1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2015-08-01

    In the early twentieth century, fatigue research marked an area of conflicting scientific, industrial, and cultural understandings of working bodies. These different understandings of the working body marked a key site of political conflict during the growth of industrial capitalism. Many fatigue researchers understood fatigue to be a physiological fact and allied themselves with Progressive-era reformers in urging industrial regulation. Opposed to these researchers were advocates of Taylorism and scientific management, who held that fatigue was a mental event and that productivity could be perpetually increased through managerial efficiency. Histories of this conflict typically cease with the end of the First World War, when it is assumed that industrial fatigue research withered away. This article extends the history of fatigue research through examining the activities of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in the 1920s and 1930s. The Laboratory developed sophisticated biochemical techniques to study the blood of exercising individuals. In particular, it found that exercising individuals could attain a biochemically "steady state," or equilibrium, and extrapolated from this to assert that fatigue was psychological, not physiological, in nature. In contrast to Progressive-era research, the Laboratory reached this conclusion through laboratory examination, not of industrial workers, but of Laboratory staff members and champion marathon runners. The translation of laboratory research to industrial settings, and the eventual erasure of physiological fatigue from discussions of labor, was a complex function of institutional settings, scientific innovation, and the cultural meanings of work and sport.

  12. Diet choice patterns in rodents depend on novelty of the diet, exercise, species, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiffany; Xu, Wei-Jie; York, Haley; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2017-07-01

    Prolonged consumption of a palatable, high fat (HF) diet paired with a lack of physical activity can exacerbate the development of obesity. Exercise can facilitate the maintenance of a healthy body weight, possibly though mediating changes in diet preference. Using a two-diet choice and wheel running (WR) paradigm, our laboratory previously demonstrated that WR induces HF diet avoidance with different persistency in male and female rats when HF diet and WR are introduced simultaneously. The aims of this study were to examine whether this behavior is species dependent and to what extent the novelty of the diet affects WR induced HF diet avoidance. Experiment 1 utilized male C57BL6 mice in a two-diet choice and WR paradigm. Results show that all mice preferred HF to chow diet regardless of exercise and the order in which exercise and HF diet were presented. Experiment 2A (diet novelty) utilized Sprague-Dawley rats that were first habituated to a 45% HF diet prior to the simultaneous introduction of WR and a novel high-carbohydrate, low-fat (DK) diet. All rats avoided the novel high-carbohydrate diet and neither male nor female wheel running rats exhibited reduction in HF diet intake or HF diet avoidance. After all rats were returned to a sedentary condition, female rats consumed significantly more of the DK diet than the male rats. In Experiment 2B (diet familiarity), rats remained sedentary and were re-habituated to the DK diet until intake stabilized. Subsequently, a 60% HF diet was introduced for all rats and for running rats, access to the running wheels were provided simultaneously. Consistent with our previous findings, HF diet intake and preference was significantly reduced in all wheel running rats. These data suggest that exercise induced HF diet avoidance is affected by species and the novelty of the diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecologically Valid Carbohydrate Intake during Soccer-Specific Exercise Does Not Affect Running Performance in a Fed State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Funnell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg−1∙min−1; soccer experience 13 ± 4 years completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time. Blocks 3 and 6, allowed self-selection of running speeds and sprint times, were assessed throughout. Subjects consumed 250 mL of either a 12% carbohydrate solution (CHO or a non-caloric taste matched placebo (PLA before and at half-time of the LIST. Sprint times were not different between trials (CHO 2.71 ± 0.15 s, PLA 2.70 ± 0.14 s; p = 0.202. Total distance covered in self-selected blocks (block 3: CHO 2.07 ± 0.06 km; PLA 2.09 ± 0.08 km; block 6: CHO 2.04 ± 0.09 km; PLA 2.06 ± 0.08 km; p = 0.122 was not different between trials. There was no difference between trials for distance covered (p ≥ 0.297 or mean speed (p ≥ 0.172 for jogging or cruising. Blood glucose concentration was greater (p < 0.001 at the end of half-time during the CHO trial. In conclusion, consumption of 250 mL of 12% CHO solution before and at half-time of a simulated soccer match does not affect self-selected running or sprint performance in a fed state.

  14. Grinding Wheel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Stephen; Gao, Robert; Guo, Changsheng; Varghese, Biju; Pathare, Sumukh

    2003-08-05

    A grinding wheel system includes a grinding wheel with at least one embedded sensor. The system also includes an adapter disk containing electronics that process signals produced by each embedded sensor and that transmits sensor information to a data processing platform for further processing of the transmitted information.

  15. Voluntary exercise increases cholesterol efflux but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuipers Folkert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical exercise beneficially impacts on the plasma lipoprotein profile as well as on the incidence of cardiovascular events and is therefore recommended in primary and secondary prevention strategies against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise in mice impacts on cholesterol efflux and in vivo reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. After two weeks of voluntary wheel running (average 10.1 ± 1.4 km/day plasma triglycerides were lower (p

  16. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  17. Milk fat globule membrane supplementation with voluntary running exercise attenuates age-related motor dysfunction by suppressing neuromuscular junction abnormalities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Michiko; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Sugita, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu

    2017-10-15

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function attenuates physical performance, and maintaining fine muscle innervation is known to play an important role in its prevention. We had previously shown that consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) with habitual exercise improves the muscle mass and motor function in humans and mice. Improvement of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MFGM intake combined with voluntary running (MFGM-VR) on morphological changes of NMJ and motor function in aging mice. Seven months following the intervention, the MFGM-VR group showed a significantly improved motor coordination in the rotarod test and muscle force in the grip strength test compared with the control group at 13 and 14months of age, respectively. In 14-month old control mice, the extensor digitorum longus muscle showed increased abnormal NMJs, such as fragmentation and denervation, compared with 6-month old young mice. However, such age-related deteriorations of NMJs were significantly suppressed in the MFGM-VR group. Increase in the expression of NMJ formation-related genes, such as agrin and LDL Receptor Related Protein 4 (LRP4), might contribute to this beneficial effect. Rotarod performance and grip strength showed significant negative correlation with the status of denervation and fragmentation of NMJs. These results suggest that MFGM intake with voluntary running exercise effectively suppresses age-related morphological deterioration of NMJ, thus contributing to improvement of motor function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered compared with control rats (vehicle administered. This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1, total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK, and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  19. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared with control rats (vehicle administered). This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  20. Problems of locomotive wheel wear in fleet replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Lingaytis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct a research and find out the causes of defects appearing on the wheel thread of freight locomotives 2М62 and SIEMENS ER20CF. Methodology. To find the ways to solve this problem comparing the locomotive designs and their operating conditions. Findings. After examining the nature of the wheel wear the main difference was found: in locomotives of the 2M62 line wears the wheel flange, and in the locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF – the tread surface. After installation on the 2M62 locomotive the lubrication system of flanges their wear rate significantly decreased. On the new freight locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF the flange lubrication systems of the wheel set have been already installed at the factory, however the wheel thread is wearing. As for locomotives 2M62, and on locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF most wear profile skating wheels of the first wheel set. On both locomotive lines the 2М62 and the SIEMENS ER20CF the tread profile of the first wheel set most of all is subject to the wear. After reaching the 170 000 km run, the tread surface of some wheels begins to crumble. There was a suspicion that the reason for crumb formation of the wheel surface may be insufficient or excessive wheel hardness or its chemical composition. In order to confirm or deny this suspicion the following studies were conducted: the examination of the rim surface, the study of the wheel metal hardness and the document analysis of the wheel production and their comparison with the results of wheel hardness measurement. Practical value. The technical condition of locomotives is one of the bases of safety and reliability of the rolling stock. The reduction of the wheel wear significantly reduces the operating costs of railway transport. After study completion it was found that there was no evidence to suggest that the ratio of the wheel-rail hardness could be the cause of the wheel surface crumbling.

  1. Running the running

    OpenAIRE

    Cabass, Giovanni; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}} = \\mathrm{d}\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ of the spectral index $n_{\\mathrm{s}}$ of primordial scalar fluctuations. We find $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s}=0.011\\pm0.010$ and $\\beta_\\mathrm{s}=0.027\\...

  2. Effects of exercise on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and ability of learning and memory after hippocampus lesion in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHEN; Shan GONG; Li-Dong SHAN; Wei-Ping XU; Yue-Jin ZHANG; Shi-Yu GUO; Tadashi Hisamitsu; Qi-Zhang YIN; Xing-Hong JIANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of exercise on dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis and the ability of learning and memory in hippocampus-lesioned adult rats. Methods Hippocampus lesion was produced by intrahippocampal microinjection of kainic acid (KA). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label dividing cells. Y maze test was used to evaluate the ability of learning and memory. Exercise was conducted in the form of forced running in a motor-driven running wheel. The speed of wheel revolution was regulated at 3 kinds of intensity: lightly running, moderately running, or heavily running. Results Hippocampus lesion could increase the number of BrdU-labeled DG cells, moderately running after lesion could further enhance the number of BrdU-labeled cells and decrease the error number (EN) in Y maze test,while neither lightly running, nor heavily running had such effects. There was a negative correlation between the number of DG BrdU-labeled cells and the EN in the Y maze test after running. Conclusion Moderate exercise could enhance the DG neurogenesis and ameliorate the ability of learning and memory in hippocampus-lesioned rats.

  3. Thermoregulatory responses to acute heat loads in rats following spontaneous running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, N; Shido, O; Sakurada, S; Nagasaka, T

    1999-02-01

    Earlier studies showed that spontaneous exercise training in rodents shifted their core temperature and thermoeffector thresholds to high levels. The present study investigated heat loss and heat production responses to acute heat loads of exercise-trained rats. The exercise-trained rats were allowed to run in a running wheel freely for 6 months, while the sedentary controls were denied access to the wheel during the same period. Then, they were loosely restrained and put in a direct calorimeter. After thermal equilibrium had been attained, they were warmed for 30 min with an intraperitoneal electric heater (internal heating). At least 2 h later, the rats were externally warmed for 90 min by raising the ambient temperature from 24 to 38C (external warming). Hypothalamic temperature (Thy), evaporative and nonevaporative heat loss (R+C+K) and heat production were measured. Internal and external heating significantly increased Thy. During internal heating, the magnitude of the increase in Thy was significantly smaller and the amount of increase in (R+C+K) was significantly greater in the exercise-trained rats than in the controls. The slope showing the relationship between Thy and (R+C+K) in the trained rats was significantly steeper than that in the controls. During external warming, the magnitude of increase in Thy of the exercise-trained rats was significantly greater than that of the controls. The slope showing the relationship between Thy and (R+C+K) in the trained rats was not different from that in the controls. Changes in evaporative heat loss and heat production during the two types of heat load did not differ between the two groups. The results suggest that, in rats, exercise training with voluntary running improves heat tolerance through enhancing nonevaporative heat loss response. However, this may be the case only when the rats are subjected to a direct internal heat load.

  4. Running and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Hansen, Pamela A

    2010-07-01

    The overall health benefits of cardiovascular exercise, such as running, are well established. However, it is also well established that in certain circumstances running can lead to overload injuries of muscle, tendon, and bone. In contrast, it has not been established that running leads to degeneration of articular cartilage, which is the hallmark of osteoarthritis. This article reviews the available literature on the association between running and osteoarthritis, with a focus on clinical epidemiologic studies. The preponderance of clinical reports refutes an association between running and osteoarthritis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Reaction Wheel Pendulum

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Daniel J; Spong, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    This monograph describes the Reaction Wheel Pendulum, the newest inverted-pendulum-like device for control education and research. We discuss the history and background of the reaction wheel pendulum and other similar experimental devices. We develop mathematical models of the reaction wheel pendulum in depth, including linear and nonlinear models, and models of the sensors and actuators that are used for feedback control. We treat various aspects of the control problem, from linear control of themotor, to stabilization of the pendulum about an equilibrium configuration using linear control, t

  6. A Nontoxic Barlow's Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Barlow's wheel has been a favorite demonstration since its invention by Peter Barlow (1776-1862) in 1822.1 In the form shown in Fig. 1, it represents the first electric motor. The interaction between the electric current passing from the axle of the wheel to the rim and the magnetic field produced by the U-magnet produces a torque that turns the wheel. The original device used mercury to provide electrical contact to the rim, and the dangers involved with the use of this heavy metal have caused the apparatus to disappear from the lecture hall.

  7. Voluntary Exercise Improves Estrous Cyclicity in Prenatally Androgenized Female Mice Despite Programming Decreased Voluntary Exercise: Implications for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Lori D; Burger, Laura L; Cuttitta, Ashley J; Michele, Daniel E; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure in mice produces a phenotype resembling lean polycystic ovary syndrome. We studied effects of voluntary exercise on metabolic and reproductive parameters in PNA vs vehicle (VEH)-treated mice. Mice (8 wk of age) were housed individually and estrous cycles monitored. At 10 weeks of age, mice were divided into groups (PNA, PNA-run, VEH, VEH-run, n = 8-9/group); those in the running groups received wheels allowing voluntary running. Unexpectedly, PNA mice ran less distance than VEH mice; ovariectomy eliminated this difference. In ovary-intact mice, there was no difference in glucose tolerance, lower limb muscle fiber types, weight, or body composition among groups after 16 weeks of running, although some mitochondrial proteins were mildly up-regulated by exercise in PNA mice. Before running, estrous cycles in PNA mice were disrupted with most days in diestrus. There was no change in cycles during weeks 1-6 of running (10-15 wk of age). In contrast, from weeks 11 to 16 of running, cycles in PNA mice improved with more days in proestrus and estrus and fewer in diestrus. PNA programs reduced voluntary exercise, perhaps mediated in part by ovarian secretions. Exercise without weight loss improved estrous cycles, which if translated could be important for fertility in and counseling of lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  8. Voluntary Exercise Training: Analysis of Mice in Uninjured, Inflammatory, and Nerve-Injured Pain States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayler D Sheahan

    Full Text Available Both clinical and animal studies suggest that exercise may be an effective way to manage inflammatory and neuropathic pain conditions. However, existing animal studies commonly use forced exercise paradigms that incorporate varying degrees of stress, which itself can elicit analgesia, and thus may complicate the interpretation of the effects of exercise on pain. We investigated the analgesic potential of voluntary wheel running in the formalin model of acute inflammatory pain and the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in mice. In uninjured, adult C57BL/6J mice, 1 to 4 weeks of exercise training did not alter nociceptive thresholds, lumbar dorsal root ganglia neuronal excitability, or hindpaw intraepidermal innervation. Further, exercise training failed to attenuate formalin-induced spontaneous pain. Lastly, 2 weeks of exercise training was ineffective in reversing spared nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity or in improving muscle wasting or hindpaw denervation. These findings indicate that in contrast to rodent forced exercise paradigms, short durations of voluntary wheel running do not improve pain-like symptoms in mouse models of acute inflammation and peripheral nerve injury.

  9. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  10. Wheeled hopping robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gary J [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  11. Simulation and Measurement of Wheel on Rail Fatigue and Wear

    OpenAIRE

    Dirks, Babette

    2015-01-01

    The life of railway wheels and rails has been decreasing in recent years. This is mainly caused by more traffic and running at higher vehicle speed. A higher speed usually generates higher forces, unless compensated by improved track and vehicle designs, in the wheel-rail contact, resulting in more wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) damage to the wheels and rails. As recently as 15 years ago, RCF was not recognised as a serious problem. Nowadays it is a serious problem in many countries a...

  12. Effect of endurance exercise training on oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after emergence of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroko; Kon, Nobuko; Furukawa, Satoshi; Mukaida, Masahiro; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuko; Sone, Hirohito; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effect of wheel training on oxidative stress maker levels in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in the aorta of SHRs were allowed to run for 10 weeks from the age of 15 weeks were measured and compared with those of nonexercised SHRs. The 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in the exercised group were significantly lower than those in the nonexercised group. The exercised group showed a significant increase of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase. Endurance exercise showed a possible suppressing effect on the arteriosclerosis development by reducing oxidative stress, even after emergence of hypertension.

  13. Ventricular action potential adaptation to regular exercise: role of β-adrenergic and KATP channel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinrui; Fitts, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    Regular exercise training is known to affect the action potential duration (APD) and improve heart function, but involvement of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) subtypes and/or the ATP-sensitive K + (K ATP ) channel is unknown. To address this, female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel-running or control groups; they were anesthetized after 6-8 wk of training, and myocytes were isolated. Exercise training significantly increased APD of apex and base myocytes at 1 Hz and decreased APD at 10 Hz. Ca 2+ transient durations reflected the changes in APD, while Ca 2+ transient amplitudes were unaffected by wheel running. The nonselective β-AR agonist isoproterenol shortened the myocyte APD, an effect reduced by wheel running. The isoproterenol-induced shortening of APD was largely reversed by the selective β 1 -AR blocker atenolol, but not the β 2 -AR blocker ICI 118,551, providing evidence that wheel running reduced the sensitivity of the β 1 -AR. At 10 Hz, the K ATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide prolonged the myocyte APD more in exercise-trained than control rats, implicating a role for this channel in the exercise-induced APD shortening at 10 Hz. A novel finding of this work was the dual importance of altered β 1 -AR responsiveness and K ATP channel function in the training-induced regulation of APD. Of physiological importance to the beating heart, the reduced response to adrenergic agonists would enhance cardiac contractility at resting rates, where sympathetic drive is low, by prolonging APD and Ca 2+ influx; during exercise, an increase in K ATP channel activity would shorten APD and, thus, protect the heart against Ca 2+ overload or inadequate filling. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our data demonstrated that regular exercise prolonged the action potential and Ca 2+ transient durations in myocytes isolated from apex and base regions at 1-Hz and shortened both at 10-Hz stimulation. Novel findings were that wheel running shifted the

  14. Running rescues a fear-based contextual discrimination deficit in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody V. Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging and exercise exert extensive, often opposing, effects on the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus altering volume, synaptic function, and behaviors. The DG is especially important for behaviors requiring pattern separation—a cognitive process that enables animals to differentiate between highly similar contextual experiences. To determine how age and exercise modulate pattern separation in an aversive setting, young, aged, and aged mice provided with a running wheel were assayed on a fear-based contextual discrimination task. Aged mice showed a profound impairment in contextual discrimination compared to young animals. Voluntary exercise rescued this deficit to such an extent that behavioral pattern separation of aged-run mice was now similar to young animals. Running also resulted in a significant increase in the number of immature neurons with tertiary dendrites in aged mice. Despite this, neurogenesis levels in aged-run mice were still considerably lower than in young animals. Thus, mechanisms other than DG neurogenesis likely play significant roles in improving behavioral pattern separation elicited by exercise in aged animals.

  15. Differential regulation of PGC-1α expression in rat liver and skeletal muscle in response to voluntary running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Salman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The beneficial actions of exercise training on lipid, glucose and energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity appear to be in part mediated by PGC-1α. Previous studies have shown that spontaneously exercised rats show at rest enhanced responsiveness to exogenous insulin, lower plasma insulin levels and increased skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. This study was initiated to examine the functional interaction between exercise-induced modulation of skeletal muscle and liver PGC-1α protein expression, whole body insulin sensitivity, and circulating FFA levels as a measure of whole body fatty acid (lipid metabolism. Methods Two groups of male Wistar rats (2 Mo of age, 188.82 ± 2.77 g BW were used in this study. One group consisted of control rats placed in standard laboratory cages. Exercising rats were housed individually in cages equipped with running wheels and allowed to run at their own pace for 5 weeks. At the end of exercise training, insulin sensitivity was evaluated by comparing steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG concentrations at constant plasma insulin levels attained during the continuous infusion of glucose and insulin to each experimental group. Subsequently, soleus and plantaris muscle and liver samples were collected and quantified for PGC-1α protein expression by Western blotting. Collected blood samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin and FFA concentrations. Results Rats housed in the exercise wheel cages demonstrated almost linear increases in running activity with advancing time reaching to maximum value around 4 weeks. On an average, the rats ran a mean (Mean ± SE of 4.102 ± 0.747 km/day and consumed significantly more food as compared to sedentary controls (P P P P Conclusion These data suggest that PGC-1α most likely plays a restricted role in exercise-mediated improvements in insulin resistance (sensitivity and lowering of circulating FFA levels.

  16. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Clark

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress. Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS and lateral (DLS dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress.

  17. Wheeling in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The quest for economic efficiency, or lowest cost, in the electricity supply industry is furthered by trading between high and low cost utilities, one aspect being transporting or wheeling power through the transmission system of a third party. Some of the pressures and constraints limiting wheeling are discussed. A simple formula is presented for determining whether trading and wheeling are worthwhile. It is demonstrated for assumed capital and operating cost levels, the viability of nine cases where bulk power or economy energy would need to be wheeled across provincial boundaries in order to reach potential buyers. Wheeling in Canada is different from the situation in the USA, due to large distances spanned by Canadian utilities and because most are provincial crown corporations, with different territorial interests and profit motivations than investor-owned utilities. Most trading in electricity has been between contiguous neighbours, for mutual advantage. New technology allows power transmission over distances of up to 1000 miles, and the economics of Canada's electrical supply could be improved, with means including access to low cost coal of Alberta, and remote hydro in British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec and Labrador. Nuclear plants could be located anywhere but suffer from an unfriendly public attitude. A bridge across the Prairies appears uneconomic due to cost of transmission, and also due to low valuation given to Alberta coal. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. The hydraulic wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Cardona, A.

    1985-01-01

    The present article this dedicated to recover a technology that key in disuse for the appearance of other techniques. It is the hydraulic wheel with their multiple possibilities to use their energy mechanical rotational in direct form or to generate electricity directly in the fields in the place and to avoid the high cost of transport and transformation. The basic theory is described that consists in: the power of the currents of water and the hydraulic receivers. The power of the currents is determined knowing the flow and east knowing the section of the flow and its speed; they are given you formulate to know these and direct mensuration methods by means of floodgates, drains and jumps of water. The hydraulic receivers or properly this hydraulic wheels that are the machines in those that the water acts like main force and they are designed to transmit the biggest proportion possible of absolute work of the water, the hydraulic wheels of horizontal axis are the common and they are divided in: you rotate with water for under, you rotate with side water and wheels with water for above. It is analyzed each one of them, their components are described; the conditions that should complete to produce a certain power and formulate them to calculate it. There are 25 descriptive figures of the different hydraulic wheels

  19. Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, R; Dietz, O

    1954-01-01

    Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

  20. Methamphetamine blocks exercise effects on Bdnf and Drd2 gene expression in frontal cortex and striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew B; Stolyarova, Alexandra; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei; Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse can produce many neurobiological changes which may lead to increased valuation of rewards and decreased sensitivity to their costs. Many of these behavioral alterations are associated with activity of D2-expressing medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Additionally, Bdnf in the striatum has been shown to play a role in flexible reward-seeking behavior. Given that voluntary aerobic exercise can affect the expression of these proteins in healthy subjects, and that exercise has shown promise as an anti-addictive therapy, we set out to quantify changes in D2 and Bdnf expression in methamphetamine-exposed rats given access to running wheels. Sixty-four rats were treated for two weeks with an escalating dose of methamphetamine or saline, then either sacrificed, housed in standard cages, or given free access to a running wheel for 6 weeks prior to sacrifice. Rats treated with methamphetamine ran significantly greater distances than saline-treated rats, suggesting an augmentation in the reinforcement value of voluntary wheel running. Transcription of Drd2 and Bdnf was assessed via RT-qPCR. Protein expression levels of D2 and phosphorylation of the TrkB receptor were measured via western blot. Drd2 and Bdnf mRNA levels were impacted independently by exercise and methamphetamine, but exposure to methamphetamine prior to the initiation of exercise blocked the exercise-induced changes seen in rats treated with saline. Expression levels of both proteins were elevated immediately after methamphetamine, but returned to baseline after six weeks, regardless of exercise status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Costs associated with wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Wheeling costs are incurred by all companies that experience a change in power flows over their transmission lines during a specific transaction, whether or not the lines of that company are part of the contract path. The costs of providing wheeling service differ from one system to another and from one kind of wheeling transaction to another. While most transactions may be completed using existing capacity, others may require an increase in line. Depending on the situation, some cost components may be high, low, negative, or not incurred at all. This article discusses two general categories of costs; transactional and capital. The former are all operation, maintenance and opportunity costs incurred in completing a specific transaction assuming the existence of adequate capacity. Capital costs are the costs of major new equipment purchases and lines necessary to provide any increased level of transmission services

  2. Forced treadmill exercise can induce stress and increase neuronal damage in a mouse model of global cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Svensson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is known to be a beneficial factor by increasing the cellular stress tolerance. In ischemic stroke, physical exercise is suggested to both limit the brain injury and facilitate behavioral recovery. In this study we investigated the effect of physical exercise on brain damage following global cerebral ischemia in mice. We aimed to study the effects of 4.5 weeks of forced treadmill running prior to ischemia on neuronal damage, neuroinflammation and its effect on general stress by measuring corticosterone in feces. We subjected C57bl/6 mice (n = 63 to either treadmill running or a sedentary program prior to induction of global ischemia. Anxious, depressive, and cognitive behaviors were analyzed. Stress levels were analyzed using a corticosterone ELISA. Inflammatory and neurological outcomes were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, multiplex electrochemoluminescence ELISA and Western blot. To our surprise, we found that forced treadmill running induced a stress response, with increased anxiety in the Open Field test and increased levels of corticosterone. In accordance, mice subjected to forced exercise prior to ischemia developed larger neuronal damage in the hippocampus and showed higher cytokine levels in the brain and blood compared to non-exercised mice. The extent of neuronal damage correlated with increased corticosterone levels. To compare forced treadmill with voluntary wheel running, we used a different set of mice that exercised freely on running wheels. These mice did not show any anxiety or increased corticosterone levels. Altogether, our results indicate that exercise pre-conditioning may not be beneficial if the animals are forced to run as it can induce a detrimental stress response.

  3. A combination of exercise and capsinoid supplementation additively suppresses diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo; Bannai, Makoto

    2015-02-15

    Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. The prospects for retail wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.H.; Center, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper as published is an outline of a presentation on retail wheeling of electric power. The topics discussed are development of increased wholesale transmission access, government regulatory policies on wholesale transmission, examples of past and present retail transmission access agreements, examples of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission jurisdiction over retail wheeling, and state policies on retail wheeling

  5. Wheel slip dump valve for railway braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, LiHao; Li, QingXuan; Shi, YanTao

    2017-09-01

    As we all know, pneumatic braking system plays an important role in the safety of the whole vehicle. In the anti slip braking system, the pressure of braking cylinder can be adjusted by the quick power response of wheel slip dump valve, so that the lock situation won’t occur during vehicle service. During the braking of railway vehicles, the braking force provided by braking disc reduces vehicle’s speed. But the locking slip will happen due to the oversize of braking force or the reduction of sticking coefficient between wheel and rail. It will cause not only the decline of braking performance but also the increase of braking distance. In the meanwhile, it will scratch the wheel and influence the stable running of vehicles. Now, the speed of passenger vehicle has been increased. In order to shorten the braking distance as far as possible, sticking stickiness must be fully applied. So the occurrence probability of wheel slip is increased.

  6. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  7. Atomic Ferris wheel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembessis, Vasileios E.

    2017-07-01

    We study the generation of atom vortex beams in the case where a Bose-Einstein condensate, released from a trap and moving in free space, is diffracted from a properly tailored light mask with a spiral transverse profile. We show how such a diffraction scheme could lead to the production of an atomic Ferris wheel beam.

  8. Differential effects of voluntary and forced exercise on stress responses after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, Grace S; Tio, Delia L; Vincelli, Jennifer; McArthur, David L; Taylor, Anna N

    2012-05-01

    Voluntary exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) when it occurs during a delayed time window. In contrast, acute post-TBI exercise does not increase BDNF. It is well known that increases in glucocorticoids suppress levels of BDNF. Moreover, recent work from our laboratory showed that there is a heightened stress response after fluid percussion injury (FPI). In order to determine if a heightened stress response is also observed with acute exercise, at post-injury days 0-4 and 7-11, corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release were measured in rats running voluntarily or exposed to two daily 20-min periods of forced running wheel exercise. Forced, but not voluntary exercise, continuously elevated CORT. ACTH levels were initially elevated with forced exercise, but decreased by post-injury day 7 in the control, but not the FPI animals. As previously reported, voluntary exercise did not increase BDNF in the FPI group as it did in the control animals. Forced exercise did not increase levels of BDNF in any group. It did, however, decrease hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors in the control group. The results suggest that exercise regimens with strong stress responses may not be beneficial during the early post-injury period.

  9. Sensor set-up for wireless measurement of automotive rim and wheel parameters in laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, M.; Prus, P.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Rychlik, A.; Kozubel, W.

    2017-08-01

    Modern rims and wheels are tested at the design and production stages. Tests can be performed in laboratory conditions and on the ride. In the laboratory, complex and costly equipment is used, as for example wheel balancers and impact testers. Modern wheel balancers are equipped with electronic and electro-mechanical units that enable touch-less measurement of dimensions, including precision measurement of radial and lateral wheel run-out, automatic positioning and application of the counterweights, and vehicle wheel set monitoring - tread wear, drift angles and run-out unbalance. Those tests are performed by on-wheel axis measurements with laser distance meters. The impact tester enables dropping of weights from a defined height onto a wheel. Test criteria are the loss of pressure of the tire and generation of cracks in the wheel without direct impact of the falling weights. In the present paper, a set up composed of three accelerometers, a temperature sensor and a pressure sensor is examined as the base of a wheel tester. The sensor set-up configuration, on-line diagnostic and signal transmission are discussed.

  10. Wheels With Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, Dwayne; Clauss, Douglas; Hewson, Fraser; Brown, Robert; Hisrich, Robert; Taylor, Cyrus

    2002-10-01

    We describe a student intrapreneurial project in the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University. At the request of a major fortune 100 company, a study has been made of the technical and marketing issues for a new business of selling sensors on commercial vehicle wheels for monitoring pressure, temperature, rotations, and vibrations, as well as providing identification. The nature of the physics involved in the choice of the appropriate device such as capacitive or piezoresistive sensors is discussed, along with the possibility of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology and RFID (radiofrequency identification) readout on wheels. Five options (status quo, in-house development, external business acquisition, a large business national partnership, and a small-business Cleveland consortium partnership) were studied from both technological and business perspectives to commercialize the technology. The decision making process for making a choice is explained.

  11. Prediction of the comparative reinforcement values of running and drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PREMACK, D

    1963-03-15

    The probability of free drinking and running in rats was controlled by sucrose concentration and force requirements on an activity wheel. Drinking and running were then made contingent on pressing a bar. Barpressing increased monotonically with the associated response probability, and equally for drinking and running. The results support the assumption that different responses of equal probability have equal reinforcement value.

  12. Diabetes education on wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardway, D; Weatherly, K S; Bonheur, B

    1993-01-01

    Diabetes education programs remain underdeveloped in the pediatric setting, resulting in increased consumer complaints and financial liability for hospitals. The Diabetes Education on Wheels program was designed to provide comprehensive, outcome-oriented education for patients with juvenile diabetes. The primary goal of the program was to enhance patients' and family members' ability to achieve self-care in the home setting. The program facilitated sequential learning, improved consumer satisfaction, and promoted financial viability for the hospital.

  13. Long-term exercise in mice has sex-dependent benefits on body composition and metabolism during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Rachel C; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Buckley, Brian K; Faber, James E; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment. One-year-old male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) mice were divided into equal size cohorts and aged for an additional year. One cohort was given access to voluntary running wheels while another was denied exercise other than home cage movement. Body mass, composition, and metabolic traits were measured before, throughout, and after 1 year of treatment. Long-term exercise significantly prevented gains in body mass and body fat, while preventing loss of lean mass. We observed sex-dependent differences in body mass and composition trajectories during aging. Wheel running (distance, speed, duration) was greater in females than males and declined with age. We conclude that long-term exercise may serve as a preventive measure against age-related weight gain and body composition changes, and that mouse inbred strains can be used to characterize effects of long-term exercise and factors (e.g. sex, age) modulating these effects. These findings will facilitate studies on relationships between exercise and health in aging populations, including genetic predisposition and genotype-by-environment interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  14. Voluntary exercise does not ameliorate context memory and hyperarousal in a mouse model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Vogt, Miriam A; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta; Gass, Peter

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running as model for intervention on the development of contextual fear and hyperarousal in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Physical exercise in general has been associated with improved hippocampus-dependent memory performance both in animals and humans. However, studies that have tried to link physical exercise and contextual conditioning in an animal model of PTSD, revealed mixed findings. Here we tested contextual fear conditioning, generalized fear response, acoustic startle response and emotionality in C57BL/6NCrl mice which had free access to a running wheel for 28 days, compared with control animals which did not run and mice which did not receive a shock during the conditioning phase. We found no significant effects of voluntary running on the above-mentioned variables, except for enhanced anxiety levels in the Dark-Light-Box and O-Maze tests of running mice. Our results suggest that running as a model for intervention does not ameliorate contextual aversive learning but has the potency to change emotional behaviours.

  15. Effects of 2-AG on the reinforcing properties of wheel activity in obese and lean Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shilo L; Rasmussen, Erin B

    2010-07-01

    The endocannabinoid system plays a role in obesity, primarily by its role in food reward. Activity, also involved in obesity, seems to be at least partially controlled by the endocannabinoid system, but the relevant behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms have not been well established. This study represents an attempt to begin elucidating these mechanisms by examining the effects of an endogenous cannabinoid ligand, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), on the reinforcing properties of exercise reinforcement in lean and obese Zucker rats. Ten obese and 10 lean Zucker rats pressed a locked door under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement that, when unlocked, provided access to a running wheel for 2-min periods. After baseline breakpoints were established, doses of 2-AG (0.3-3 mg/kg) were administered before experimental sessions. Obese rats exhibited lower breakpoints for wheel activity, lower response rates, and fewer revolutions compared with lean rats. 2-AG decreased breakpoints, response rates, and revolutions for obese rats, and revolutions only for lean rats. These data suggest that 2-AG may reduce the reinforcing properties of activity, and that obese Zuckers may show a greater sensitivity to 2-AG. The data also suggest that endocannabinoids may play a role in the reinforcing properties of exercise.

  16. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c) Mounting... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall...

  17. Phenotypic and molecular differences between rats selectively bred to voluntarily run high vs. low nightly distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Brown, Jacob D; Company, Joseph M; Oberle, Lauren P; Heese, Alexander J; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Wells, Kevin D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Knouse, John A; Ferreira, J Andries; Childs, Thomas E; Brown, Marybeth; Booth, Frank W

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to partially phenotype male and female rats from generations 8-10 (G8-G10) that had been selectively bred to possess low (LVR) vs. high voluntary running (HVR) behavior. Over the first 6 days with wheels, 34-day-old G8 male and female LVRs ran shorter distances (P HVR counterparts, respectively. HVR and LVR lines consumed similar amounts of standard chow with or without wheels. No inherent difference existed in PGC-1α mRNA in the plantaris and soleus muscles of LVR and HVR nonrunners, although G8 LVR rats inherently possessed less NADH-positive superficial plantaris fibers compared with G8 HVR rats. While day 28 body mass tended to be greater in both sexes of G9-G10 LVR nonrunners vs. G9-G10 HVR nonrunners (P = 0.06), body fat percentage was similar between lines. G9-G10 HVRs had fat mass loss after 6 days of running compared with their prerunning values, while LVR did not lose or gain fat mass during the 6-day voluntary running period. RNA deep sequencing efforts in the nucleus accumbens showed only eight transcripts to be >1.5-fold differentially expressed between lines in HVR and LVR nonrunners. Interestingly, HVRs presented less Oprd1 mRNA, which ties in to potential differences in dopaminergic signaling between lines. This unique animal model provides further evidence as to how exercise may be mechanistically regulated.

  18. Naloxone and rimonabant reduce the reinforcing properties of exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Erin B; Hillman, Conrad

    2011-12-01

    Naloxone and rimonabant block neurotransmitter action of some drugs of abuse (such as ethanol, opiates, and nicotine), and thereby reduce drug seeking and self-administration by suppressing the drugs' reinforcing properties. The present study represents an attempt to elucidate whether these drugs may also reduce rewarding properties of other events, in this case, activity-based reinforcement. In Experiment 1, 10 obese and 10 lean Zucker rats pressed a locked door under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement that, when unlocked, provided access to a running wheel for 2-min intervals. After baseline breakpoints were established, doses of naloxone (0.3-10 mg/kg) were administered prior to experimental sessions. Obese rats exhibited lower baseline breakpoints for wheel activity, lower response rates, and fewer revolutions compared to lean rats. Naloxone decreased revolutions and response rates for lean and obese rats, but did not reduce breakpoints. In Experiment 2, five Long-Evans rats pressed a door to unlock a wheel for 20 s of wheel activity. Doses of rimonabant (1-10 mg/kg) were administered before some experimental sessions. The highest dose of rimonabant suppressed breakpoints and response rates, but did not affect revolutions. These data suggest that both drugs reduce the reinforcing properties of wheel running, but do so in different manners: naloxone may suppress wheel-based activity (consummatory behavior), but not seeking (appetitive behavior), and rimonabant does the converse. The data also support the role of endocannabinoids in the reinforcing properties of exercise, an implication that is important in terms of CB1 antagonists as a type of pharmacotherapy.

  19. Tracked Vehicle Road Wheel Puller

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    employed for removing smaller-size components, such as bolts and the like. U.S. Patent No. 5,410,792, issued to Freeman (3), discloses a caster wheel ...separation of the rubberized annular layer from the outer annular surface of the wheel . Figure 5 further illustrates a modification of the wheel puller...2001. 2. Rubino et al. Pulling Tool. U.S. Patent 5,479,688, 1996. 3. Freeman. Caster Wheel Axle Extraction Apparatus. U.S. Patent 5,410,792

  20. Diet and sex modify exercise and cardiac adaptation in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konhilas, John P; Chen, Hao; Luczak, Elizabeth; McKee, Laurel A; Regan, Jessica; Watson, Peter A; Stauffer, Brian L; Khalpey, Zain I; Mckinsey, Timothy A; Horn, Todd; LaFleur, Bonnie; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2015-01-15

    The heart adapts to exercise stimuli in a sex-dimorphic manner when mice are fed the traditional soy-based chow. Females undergo more voluntary exercise (4 wk) than males and exhibit more cardiac hypertrophy per kilometer run (18, 32). We have found that diet plays a critical role in cage wheel exercise and cardiac adaptation to the exercise stimulus in this sex dimorphism. Specifically, feeding male mice a casein-based, soy-free diet increases daily running distance over soy-fed counterparts to equal that of females. Moreover, casein-fed males have a greater capacity to increase their cardiac mass in response to exercise compared with soy-fed males. To further explore the biochemical mechanisms for these differences, we performed a candidate-based RT-PCR screen on genes previously implicated in diet- or exercise-based cardiac hypertrophy. Of the genes screened, many exhibit significant exercise, diet, or sex effects but only transforming growth factor-β1 shows a significant three-way interaction with no genes showing a two-way interaction. Finally, we show that the expression and activity of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase-α2 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase is dependent on exercise, diet, and sex.

  1. Diet and sex modify exercise and cardiac adaptation in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Luczak, Elizabeth; McKee, Laurel A.; Regan, Jessica; Watson, Peter A.; Stauffer, Brian L.; Khalpey, Zain I; Mckinsey, Timothy A.; Horn, Todd; LaFleur, Bonnie; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The heart adapts to exercise stimuli in a sex-dimorphic manner when mice are fed the traditional soy-based chow. Females undergo more voluntary exercise (4 wk) than males and exhibit more cardiac hypertrophy per kilometer run (18, 32). We have found that diet plays a critical role in cage wheel exercise and cardiac adaptation to the exercise stimulus in this sex dimorphism. Specifically, feeding male mice a casein-based, soy-free diet increases daily running distance over soy-fed counterparts to equal that of females. Moreover, casein-fed males have a greater capacity to increase their cardiac mass in response to exercise compared with soy-fed males. To further explore the biochemical mechanisms for these differences, we performed a candidate-based RT-PCR screen on genes previously implicated in diet- or exercise-based cardiac hypertrophy. Of the genes screened, many exhibit significant exercise, diet, or sex effects but only transforming growth factor-β1 shows a significant three-way interaction with no genes showing a two-way interaction. Finally, we show that the expression and activity of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase-α2 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase is dependent on exercise, diet, and sex. PMID:25398983

  2. Voluntary exercise decreases atherosclerosis in nephrectomised ApoE knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M Shing

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with kidney disease. The effectiveness of exercise for cardiovascular disease that is accelerated by the presence of chronic kidney disease remains unknown. The present study utilized apolipoprotein E knockout mice with 5/6 nephrectomy as a model of combined kidney disease and cardiovascular disease to investigate the effect of exercise on aortic plaque formation, vascular function and systemic inflammation. Animals were randomly assigned to nephrectomy or control and then to either voluntary wheel running exercise or sedentary. Following 12-weeks, aortic plaque area was significantly (p0.05. Nephrectomy increased IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations compared with control mice (p0.05. Exercise was an effective non-pharmacologic approach to slow cardiovascular disease in the presence of kidney disease in the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse.

  3. Long-Term Exercise Protects against Cellular Stresses in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Belaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the effect of aging and long-term wheel-running on the expression of heat shock protein (HSP, redox regulation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress markers in tibialis anterior (T.A. and soleus muscle of mice. Male mice were divided into young (Y, 3-month-old, old-sedentary (OS, 24-month-old, and old-exercise (OE, 24-month-old groups. The OE group started voluntary wheel-running at 3 months and continued until 24 months of age. Aging was associated with a higher thioredoxin-interacting protein (TxNiP level, lower thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1 to TxNiP ratio—a determinant of redox regulation and increased CHOP, an indicator of ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in both muscles. Notably, GRP78, a key indicator of ER stress, was selectively elevated in T.A. Long-term exercise decreased TxNiP in T.A. and soleus muscles and increased the TRX-1/TxNiP ratio in soleus muscle of aged mice. Inducible HSP70 and constituent HSC70 were upregulated, whereas CHOP was reduced after exercise in soleus muscle. Thus, our data demonstrated that aging induced oxidative stress and activated ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in skeletal muscle, whereas long-term wheel-running improved redox regulation, ER stress adaptation and attenuated ER stress-related apoptosis signaling. These findings suggest that life-long exercise can protect against age-related cellular stress.

  4. Running to well-being: A comparative study on the impact of exercise on the physical and mental health of law and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skead, Natalie K; Rogers, Shane L

    Research indicates that, in comparison to other university students, law students are at greater risk of experiencing high levels of psychological distress. There is also a large body of literature supporting a general negative association between exercise and stress, anxiety and depression. However, we are not aware of any studies exploring the impact of exercise on the mental health of law students specifically. This article reports evidence of a negative association between exercise and psychological distress in 206 law and psychology students. Compared to psychology students, the law students not only reported greater psychological distress, but, in addition, there was a stronger association between their levels of distress and their levels of exercise. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a simple yet effective way law schools might support the mental health of their students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiological demands of running during long distance runs and triathlons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, C; Lehénaff, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to identify the main metabolic factors which have an influence on the energy cost of running (Cr) during prolonged exercise runs and triathlons. This article proposes a physiological comparison of these 2 exercises and the relationship between running economy and performance. Many terms are used as the equivalent of 'running economy' such as 'oxygen cost', 'metabolic cost', 'energy cost of running', and 'oxygen consumption'. It has been suggested that these expressions may be defined by the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at a steady state (i.e. between 60 to 90% of maximal VO2) at a submaximal running speed. Endurance events such as triathlon or marathon running are known to modify biological constants of athletes and should have an influence on their running efficiency. The Cr appears to contribute to the variation found in distance running performance among runners of homogeneous level. This has been shown to be important in sports performance, especially in events like long distance running. In addition, many factors are known or hypothesised to influence Cr such as environmental conditions, participant specificity, and metabolic modifications (e.g. training status, fatigue). The decrease in running economy during a triathlon and/or a marathon could be largely linked to physiological factors such as the enhancement of core temperature and a lack of fluid balance. Moreover, the increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol at the end of these long exercise durations bear witness to the decrease in Cr values. The combination of these factors alters the Cr during exercise and hence could modify the athlete's performance in triathlons or a prolonged run.

  6. Wheel speed management control system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spacecraft attitude control system uses at least four reaction wheels. In order to minimize reaction wheel speed and therefore power, a wheel speed management system is provided. The management system monitors the wheel speeds and generates a wheel speed error vector. The error vector is integrated, and the error vector and its integral are combined to form a correction vector. The correction vector is summed with the attitude control torque command signals for driving the reaction wheels.

  7. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  8. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity and skeletal muscle metabolism in the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Flynn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although skeletal muscle metabolism is a well-studied physiological process, little is known about how it is regulated at the transcriptional level. The myogenic transcription factor myogenin is required for skeletal muscle development during embryonic and fetal life, but myogenin's role in adult skeletal muscle is unclear. We sought to determine myogenin's function in adult muscle metabolism. A Myog conditional allele and Cre-ER transgene were used to delete Myog in adult mice. Mice were analyzed for exercise capacity by involuntary treadmill running. To assess oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, we performed indirect calorimetry, monitored blood glucose and lactate levels, and performed histochemical analyses on muscle fibers. Surprisingly, we found that Myog-deleted mice performed significantly better than controls in high- and low-intensity treadmill running. This enhanced exercise capacity was due to more efficient oxidative metabolism during low- and high-intensity exercise and more efficient glycolytic metabolism during high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, Myog-deleted mice had an enhanced response to long-term voluntary exercise training on running wheels. We identified several candidate genes whose expression was altered in exercise-stressed muscle of mice lacking myogenin. The results suggest that myogenin plays a critical role as a high-level transcriptional regulator to control the energy balance between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in adult skeletal muscle.

  9. Fight Cravings with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... run up and down the stairs. Fact: Exercise boosts your endorphins, gives you time to clear your ... I find gardening really helps me keep my mind off smoking. It’s relaxing and good exercise, too!" - ...

  10. Estrogen and voluntary exercise interact to attenuate stress-induced corticosterone release but not anxiety-like behaviors in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexis B; Gupton, Rebecca; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2016-09-15

    The beneficial effects of physical exercise to reduce anxiety and depression and to alleviate stress are increasingly supported in research studies. The role of ovarian hormones in interactions between exercise and anxiety/stress has important implications for women's health, given that women are at increased risk of developing anxiety-related disorders, particularly during and after the menopausal transition. In these experiments, we tested the hypothesis that estrogen enhances the positive impact of exercise on stress responses by investigating the combined effects of exercise and estrogen on anxiety-like behaviors and stress hormone levels in female rats after an acute stressor. Ovariectomized female rats with or without estrogen were given access to running wheels for one or three days of voluntary running immediately after or two days prior to being subjected to restraint stress. We found that voluntary running was not effective at reducing anxiety-like behaviors, whether or not rats were subjected to restraint stress. In contrast, stress-induced elevations of stress hormone levels were attenuated by exercise experience in estrogen-treated rats, but were increased in rats without estrogen. These results suggest that voluntary exercise may be more effective at reducing stress hormone levels if estrogen is present. Additionally, exercise experience, or the distance run, may be important in reducing stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aerobic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Schmidt, Karl T; Iordanou, Jordan C; Mustroph, Martina L

    2008-11-01

    Aerobic exercise can serve as an alternative, non-drug reinforcer in laboratory animals and has been recommended as a potential intervention for substance abusing populations. Unfortunately, relatively little empirical data have been collected that specifically address the possible protective effects of voluntary, long-term exercise on measures of drug self-administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise on sensitivity to the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine in the drug self-administration procedure. Female rats were obtained at weaning and immediately divided into two groups. Sedentary rats were housed individually in standard laboratory cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed individually in modified cages equipped with a running wheel. After 6 weeks under these conditions, rats were surgically implanted with venous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Once self-administration was acquired, cocaine was made available on a progressive ratio schedule and breakpoints were obtained for various doses of cocaine. Sedentary and exercising rats did not differ in the time to acquire cocaine self-administration or responding on the fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. However, on the progressive ratio schedule, breakpoints were significantly lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats when responding was maintained by both low (0.3mg/kg/infusion) and high (1.0mg/kg/infusion) doses of cocaine. In exercising rats, greater exercise output prior to catheter implantation was associated with lower breakpoints at the high dose of cocaine. These data indicate that chronic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine and support the possibility that exercise may be an effective intervention in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  12. Liquidity Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.; Perotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Can the risk of losses upon premature liquidation produce bank runs? We show how a unique run equilibrium driven by asset liquidity risk arises even under minimal fundamental risk. To study the role of illiquidity we introduce realistic norms on bank default, such that mandatory stay is triggered

  13. Exercise reduces diet-induced cognitive decline and increases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in CA3 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Emily E; Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Little, Morgan R; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Wang, ChuanFeng

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that a western diet impairs, whereas physical exercise enhances hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Both diet and exercise influence expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is associated with improved cognition. We hypothesized that exercise reverses diet-induced cognitive decline while increasing hippocampal BDNF. To test the effects of exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory, we compared cognitive scores of Sprague-Dawley rats exercised by voluntary running wheel (RW) access or forced treadmill (TM) to sedentary (Sed) animals. Memory was tested by two-way active avoidance test (TWAA), in which animals are exposed to a brief shock in a specific chamber area. When an animal avoids, escapes or has reduced latency to do either, this is considered a measure of memory. In a second experiment, rats were fed either a high-fat diet or control diet for 16 weeks, then randomly assigned to running wheel access or sedentary condition, and TWAA memory was tested once a week for 7 weeks of exercise intervention. Both groups of exercised animals had improved memory as indicated by reduced latency to avoid and escape shock, and increased avoid and escape episodes (pdiet resulted in poor performance during both the acquisition and retrieval phases of the memory test as compared to controls. Exercise reversed high-fat diet-induced memory impairment, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neurons of the hippocampal CA3 region. These data suggest that exercise improves memory retrieval, particularly with respect to avoiding aversive stimuli, and may be beneficial in protecting against diet induced cognitive decline, likely via elevated BDNF in neurons of the CA3 region. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Deletion of running-induced hippocampal neurogenesis by irradiation prevents development of an anxious phenotype in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Fuss

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence postulates a role of hippocampal neurogenesis in anxiety behavior. Here we report that elevated levels of neurogenesis elicit increased anxiety in rodents. Mice performing voluntary wheel running displayed both highly elevated levels of neurogenesis and increased anxiety in three different anxiety-like paradigms: the open field, elevated O-maze, and dark-light box. Reducing neurogenesis by focalized irradiation of the hippocampus abolished this exercise-induced increase of anxiety, suggesting a direct implication of hippocampal neurogenesis in this phenotype. On the other hand, irradiated mice explored less frequently the lit compartment of the dark-light box test irrespective of wheel running, suggesting that irradiation per se induced anxiety as well. Thus, our data suggest that intermediate levels of neurogenesis are related to the lowest levels of anxiety. Moreover, using c-Fos immunocytochemistry as cellular activity marker, we observed significantly different induction patterns between runners and sedentary controls when exposed to a strong anxiogenic stimulus. Again, this effect was altered by irradiation. In contrast, the well-known induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF by voluntary exercise was not disrupted by focal irradiation, indicating that hippocampal BDNF levels were not correlated with anxiety under our experimental conditions. In summary, our data demonstrate to our knowledge for the first time that increased neurogenesis has a causative implication in the induction of anxiety.

  15. An elevator wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    This invention deals with mineral enrichment and is primarily for unloading submerged products of enrichment during separation in heavy mediums. An elevator wheel is proposed for unloading the submerged product from the bath of a heavy to medium separator which includes ladle disks with internal walls and overlapping sheets hinged to the ends. In order to increase the degree of dehydration of the unloaded product, the internal wall of each ladle is made of sheets installed in stages with clearances relative to each other. The advantages of the proposed device include an improvement in the degree of dehydration of the submerged product in the ladles and a reduction in the carry away of the heavy medium with the enrichment products.

  16. Thirty Minutes of Running Exercise Decreases T2 Signal Intensity but Not Thickness of the Knee Joint Cartilage: A 3.0-T Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanfil, Yiğitcan; Babayeva, Naila; Dönmez, Gürhan; Diren, H Barış; Eryılmaz, Muzaffer; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Korkusuz, Feza

    2018-04-01

    Objective Recent studies showed a potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can be used as an additional tool for diagnosing cartilage degeneration in the early stage. We designed a cross-sectional study in order to evaluate knee joint cartilage adaptation to running, using 3.0-T MRI equipped with the 3-dimensional turbo spin echo (VISTA = Volume ISotropic Turbo spin echo Acquisition) software. By this thickness (mm) and signal intensity (mean pixel value) can be quantified, which could be closely related to the fluid content of the knee joint cartilage, before and after running. Methods A total of 22 males, aged 18 to 35 years, dominant (right) and nondominant (left) knees were assessed before and after 30 minutes of running. Cartilage thickness and signal intensity of surfaces of the patella, medial and lateral femoral and tibial condyles were measured. Results Cartilage thickness of the lateral condyle decreased at the dominant knee, while it increased at the medial tibial plateau. Signal intensity decreased at all locations, except the lateral patella in both knees. The most obvious decrease in signal intensity (10.6%) was at the medial tibial plateau from 949.8 to 849.0 of the dominant knee. Conclusion There was an increase in thickness measurements and decrease in signal intensity in medial tibial plateau of the dominant knee after 30 minutes of running. This outcome could be related to fluid outflow from the tissue. Greater reductions in the medial tibial plateau cartilage indicate greater load sharing by these areas of the joint during a 30-minute running.

  17. Effects of exercise conditioning on thermoregulatory responses to repeated administration of chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowsey, Pamela Johnson; Metzger, Bonnie L.; Arlson, John; Gordon, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    little is known about the effects of physical activity (i.e., exercise training) on susceptibility to environmental toxicants. Chloropyrifos (CHP), an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, affects thermoregulation, causing a cute period of hypothermia followed by a delayed fever. Since exercise conditioning alters the thermo regulatory responses of rodents, this study examined whether exercise training would alter the thermo regulatory response to repeated CHP administration in the female Sprague-Dawley rat. Core temperature (T c ) and motor activity (MA) were monitored by radio telemetry in rats housed at an ambient temperature (T a ) of 22 deg. C. The rats either were provided with continuous access to running wheels (exercise group) or were housed in standard cages without wheels (sedentary group). The exercise group rats ran predominately at night with an average of 7.6 km/24 h. After 8 weeks the rats in both groups were garaged daily with corn oil or 10 mg/kg HP (dissolved in corn oil) for 4 days. CHP induced an immediate hypothermic response followed by a delayed fever throughout the next day in the sedentary group rats after the first three doses of CHP. The exercise group rats showed no hypothermia after the first dose of CHP. However, they became hypothermic after the second and third doses of CHP. The exercise group rats developed a smaller daytime fever after each dose of CHP compared to the sedentary group rats. Overall, exercise training attenuated the hypothermic and febrile effects of repeated CHP. Thus, the data suggest that a sedentary lifestyle may increase the sensitivity to OP insecticides. Exercise training was also associated with a more rapid recovery of plasma cholinesterase activity

  18. How to run 100 meters ?

    OpenAIRE

    Aftalion, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    A paraitre dans SIAP; The aim of this paper is to bring a mathematical justification to the optimal way of organizing one's effort when running. It is well known from physiologists that all running exercises of duration less than 3mn are run with a strong initial acceleration and a decelerating end; on the contrary, long races are run with a final sprint. This can be explained using a mathematical model describing the evolution of the velocity, the anaerobic energy, and the propulsive force: ...

  19. Evaluation of oxidative stress in mice subjected to aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mônica Cruvinel de; Marks, Guido; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Cônsolo, Lourdes Zélia Zanoni; Nogueira, Gabriel Bogalho

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of aerobic exercise on oxidative stress in mice. The study included twenty female mice Mus musculus-Swiss divided into two groups: sedentary control (GA) and exercise (GB), each containing ten animals. All animals underwent an adaptation period of seven days isolated in individual boxes. After this period, the animals in the exercise group (GB) were trained in angled running wheel with circumference of 25 cm assembled on an articulated axle during five minutes for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, they underwent an exercise program of one session lasting 45 minutes. The evaluation of oxidative stress was performed by determining the levels of malondialhyde derived of lipid peroxidation by the TBA method. The samples were read in a spectrophotometer at 535 nm. No significant difference was observed in the intergroup comparison of MDA levels in the tissues evaluated. A significant difference was observed in the intragroup comparison of MDA levels in the control group (p = 0.0201).The Tukeys' post hoc test indicated significantly lower values of MDA in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma. In the analysis of variance in the exercise group, a significant difference between tissues (p = 0.0009), with significantly lower values in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma (pstress in mice which were undergone a single session of aerobic exercise.

  20. Wheels lining up for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 30 October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year.

  1. Grinding Wheel Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This graphic dubbed by engineers as the 'Grinding Wheel Profile' is the detective's tool used by the Opportunity team to help them understand one of the processes that formed the interior of a rock called 'McKittrick.' Scientists are looking for clues as to how layers, grains and minerals helped create this rock, and the engineers who built the rock abrasion tool (RAT) wanted to ensure that their instrument's handiwork did not get confused with natural processes.In the original microscopic image underlaying the graphics, engineers and scientists noticed 'layers' or 'scratches' on the spherical object nicknamed 'blueberry' in the lower right part of the image. The designers of the rock abrasion tool noticed that the arc length and width of the scratches were similar to the shape and size of the rock abrasion tool's grinding wheel, which is made out of a pad of diamond teeth.The scrapes on the bottom right blueberry appear to be caused by the fact that the berry got dislodged slightly and its surface was scraped with the grinding pad. In this image, the largest yellow circle is the overall diameter of the hole ground by the rock abrasion tool and the largest yellow rectangular shape is the area of the grinding wheel bit. The smaller yellow semi-circle is the path that the center of the grinding tool follows. The orange arrow arcing around the solid yellow circle (center of grinding tool) indicates the direction that the grinding tool spins around its own center at 3,000 revolutions per minute. The tool simultaneously spins in an orbit around the center of the hole, indicated by the larger orange arrow to the left.The grinding tool is 22 millimeters (0.9 inches) in length and the actual grinding surface, which consists of the diamond pad, is 1.5 millimeters (0.06 inches) in length, indicated by the two smaller rectangles. You can see that the smaller bottom rectangle fits exactly the width of the scrape marks.The grooves on the blueberry are also the same as the

  2. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is required for beneficial effects of exercise during chronic high-fat feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Christine; Magrisso, I. Jack; Haas, Michael; Balusu, Sowmya; Krishna, Radha; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Sandoval, Darleen A.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Obici, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is an effective therapy against the metabolic syndrome. However, the molecular pathways underlying the advantageous effects of exercise are elusive. Glucagon receptor signaling is essential for exercise benefits, and recent evidence indicates that a downstream effector of glucagon, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), is implicated in this response. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that FGF21 action is necessary in mediating metabolic effects of exercise. We utilized acute exhaustive treadmill exercise in Wistar rats to identify a putative, concomitant increase in plasma glucagon and FGF21 with the increase in glucose and lactate following exercise. To test the necessity of FGF21 action in the exercise response, we exposed FGF21 congenitally deficient mice (Fgf21−/−) and their wild-type (Wt) littermates to chronic high-fat (HF) feeding and inoperable (sedentary) or operable (exercise) voluntary running wheels. Physiological tests were performed to assess the role of FGF21 in the beneficial effect of exercise on glucose metabolism. Wt and Fgf21−/− littermates exhibited similar running behavior, and exercise was effective in suppressing weight and fat mass gain and dyslipidemia independently of genotype. However, exercise failed to positively affect hepatic triglyceride content and glucose tolerance in HF diet-fed Fgf21−/− mice. Furthermore, Fgf21−/− mice exhibited an impaired adaptation to exercise training, including reduced AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle. This study demonstrates that FGF21 action is necessary to achieve the full metabolic benefits of exercise during chronic HF feeding. PMID:27445299

  3. Estimating the Backup Reaction Wheel Orientation Using Reaction Wheel Spin Rates Flight Telemetry from a Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    A report describes a model that estimates the orientation of the backup reaction wheel using the reaction wheel spin rates telemetry from a spacecraft. Attitude control via the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) onboard a spacecraft uses three reaction wheels (one wheel per axis) and a backup to accommodate any wheel degradation throughout the course of the mission. The spacecraft dynamics prediction depends upon the correct knowledge of the reaction wheel orientations. Thus, it is vital to determine the actual orientation of the reaction wheels such that the correct spacecraft dynamics can be predicted. The conservation of angular momentum is used to estimate the orientation of the backup reaction wheel from the prime and backup reaction wheel spin rates data. The method is applied in estimating the orientation of the backup wheel onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The flight telemetry from the March 2011 prime and backup RWA swap activity on Cassini is used to obtain the best estimate for the backup reaction wheel orientation.

  4. The Impact of Exercise on Statin-Associated Skeletal Muscle Myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hae R.; Vakil, Mayand; Munroe, Michael; Parikh, Alay; Meador, Benjamin M.; Wu, Pei T.; Jeong, Jin H.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Boppart, Marni D.

    2016-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are the most effective pharmacological means of reducing cardiovascular disease risk. The most common side effect of statin use is skeletal muscle myopathy, which may be exacerbated by exercise. Hypercholesterolemia and training status are factors that are rarely considered in the progression of myopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which acute and chronic exercise can influence statin-induced myopathy in hypercholesterolemic (ApoE-/-) mice. Mice either received daily injections of saline or simvastatin (20 mg/kg) while: 1) remaining sedentary (Sed), 2) engaging in daily exercise for two weeks (novel, Nov), or 3) engaging in daily exercise for two weeks after a brief period of training (accustomed, Acct) (2x3 design, n = 60). Cholesterol, activity, strength, and indices of myofiber damage and atrophy were assessed. Running wheel activity declined in both exercise groups receiving statins (statin x time interaction, pstatin treatment (statin main effect, pstatin x exercise interaction, pstatin treatment. Exercise (Acct and Nov) increased atrogin-1 mRNA in combination with statin treatment, yet enhanced fiber damage or atrophy was not observed. The results from this study suggest that exercise (Nov, Acct) does not exacerbate statin-induced myopathy in ApoE-/- mice, yet statin treatment reduces activity in a manner that prevents muscle from mounting a beneficial adaptive response to training. PMID:27936249

  5. Running Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Dalheimer, Matthias Kalle

    2006-01-01

    The fifth edition of Running Linux is greatly expanded, reflecting the maturity of the operating system and the teeming wealth of software available for it. Hot consumer topics such as audio and video playback applications, groupware functionality, and spam filtering are covered, along with the basics in configuration and management that always made the book popular.

  6. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF WHEELS OF PERSPECTIVE STRUCTURAL SCHEME FOR RAILWAY VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Semenov

    2016-12-01

    , used in running gear of railway vehicles were substantiated. Practical value. The calculation method proposed in this publication allows evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using the wheels of promising design scheme in the running gears of railway vehicles.

  7. Exercise, learned helplessness, and the stress-resistant brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Exercise can prevent the development of stress-related mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this effect, however, remain unknown. Recently, researchers have used animal models to begin to elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying the protective effects of physical activity. Using the behavioral consequences of uncontrollable stress or "learned helplessness" as an animal analog of depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in rats, we are investigating factors that could be important for the antidepressant and anxiolytic properties of exercise (i.e., wheel running). The current review focuses on the following: (1) the effect of exercise on the behavioral consequences of uncontrollable stress and the implications of these effects on the specificity of the "learned helplessness" animal model; (2) the neurocircuitry of learned helplessness and the role of serotonin; and (3) exercise-associated neural adaptations and neural plasticity that may contribute to the stress-resistant brain. Identifying the mechanisms by which exercise prevents learned helplessness could shed light on the complex neurobiology of depression and anxiety and potentially lead to novel strategies for the prevention of stress-related mood disorders.

  8. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Qun; Liang, Feng-Ying; Dai, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Jin-Sheng; Pei, Zhong; Xu, Guang-Qing; Lan, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the interstitial fluid (ISF). A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); synaptic function was investigated with Thy1 -green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95) increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition. These data suggest

  9. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fei He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and the interstitial fluid (ISF. A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4, astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; synaptic function was investigated with Thy1–green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95 increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition

  10. Effect of exercise on photoperiod-regulated hypothalamic gene expression and peripheral hormones in the seasonal Dwarf Hamster Phodopus sungorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Petri

    Full Text Available The Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus is a seasonal mammal responding to the annual cycle in photoperiod with anticipatory physiological adaptations. This includes a reduction in food intake and body weight during the autumn in anticipation of seasonally reduced food availability. In the laboratory, short-day induction of body weight loss can be reversed or prevented by voluntary exercise undertaken when a running wheel is introduced into the home cage. The mechanism by which exercise prevents or reverses body weight reduction is unknown, but one hypothesis is a reversal of short-day photoperiod induced gene expression changes in the hypothalamus that underpin body weight regulation. Alternatively, we postulate an exercise-related anabolic effect involving the growth hormone axis. To test these hypotheses we established photoperiod-running wheel experiments of 8 to 16 weeks duration assessing body weight, food intake, organ mass, lean and fat mass by magnetic resonance, circulating hormones FGF21 and insulin and hypothalamic gene expression. In response to running wheel activity, short-day housed hamsters increased body weight. Compared to short-day housed sedentary hamsters the body weight increase was accompanied by higher food intake, maintenance of tissue mass of key organs such as the liver, maintenance of lean and fat mass and hormonal profiles indicative of long day housed hamsters but there was no overall reversal of hypothalamic gene expression regulated by photoperiod. Therefore the mechanism by which activity induces body weight gain is likely to act largely independently of photoperiod regulated gene expression in the hypothalamus.

  11. Two new wheels for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Juergen Zimmer (Max Planck Institute), Roy Langstaff (TRIUMF/Victoria) and Sergej Kakurin (JINR), in front of one of the completed wheels of the ATLAS Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter. A decade of careful preparation and construction by groups in three continents is nearing completion with the assembly of two of the four 4 m diameter wheels required for the ATLAS Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter. The first two wheels have successfully passed all their mechanical and electrical tests, and have been rotated on schedule into the vertical position required in the experiment. 'This is an important milestone in the completion of the ATLAS End Cap Calorimetry' explains Chris Oram, who heads the Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter group. Like most experiments at particle colliders, ATLAS consists of several layers of detectors in the form of a 'barrel' and two 'end caps'. The Hadronic Calorimeter layer, which measures the energies of particles such as protons and pions, uses two techniques. The barrel part (Tile Calorimeter) cons...

  12. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2011-01-01

    The cross country running season has started well this autumn with two events: the traditional CERN Road Race organized by the Running Club, which took place on Tuesday 5th October, followed by the ‘Cross Interentreprises’, a team event at the Evaux Sports Center, which took place on Saturday 8th October. The participation at the CERN Road Race was slightly down on last year, with 65 runners, however the participants maintained the tradition of a competitive yet friendly atmosphere. An ample supply of refreshments before the prize giving was appreciated by all after the race. Many thanks to all the runners and volunteers who ensured another successful race. The results can be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/default.aspx CERN participated successfully at the cross interentreprises with very good results. The teams succeeded in obtaining 2nd and 6th place in the Mens category, and 2nd place in the Mixed category. Congratulations to all. See results here: http://www.c...

  13. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  14. Voluntary resistance running induces increased hippocampal neurogenesis in rats comparable to load-free running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Chul; Inoue, Koshiro; Okamoto, Masahiro; Liu, Yu Fan; Matsui, Takashi; Yook, Jang Soo; Soya, Hideaki

    2013-03-14

    Recently, we reported that voluntary resistance wheel running with a resistance of 30% of body weight (RWR), which produces shorter distances but higher work levels, enhances spatial memory associated with hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling compared to wheel running without a load (WR) [17]. We thus hypothesized that RWR promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) as a neuronal substrate underlying this memory improvement. Here we used 10-week-old male Wistar rats divided randomly into sedentary (Sed), WR, and RWR groups. All rats were injected intraperitoneally with the thymidine analogue 5-Bromo-2'-deoxuridine (BrdU) for 3 consecutive days before wheel running. We found that even when the average running distance decreased by about half, the average work levels significantly increased in the RWR group, which caused muscular adaptation (oxidative capacity) for fast-twitch plantaris muscle without causing any negative stress effects. Additionally, immunohistochemistry revealed that the total BrdU-positive cells and newborn mature cells (BrdU/NeuN double-positive) in the dentate gyrus increased in both the WR and RWR groups. These results provide new evidence that RWR has beneficial effects on AHN comparable to WR, even with short running distances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Recreational Exercise in TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rats: Role of NOS/HO/MPO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Szalai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are opposite views in the available literature: Whether physical exercise has a protective effect or not on the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Therefore, we investigated the effects of recreational physical exercise before the induction of colitis. After 6 weeks of voluntary physical activity (running wheel, male Wistar rats were treated with TNBS (10 mg. 72 hrs after trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS challenge we measured colonic gene (TNF-α, IL-1β, CXCL1 and IL-10 and protein (TNF-α expressions of various inflammatory mediators and enzyme activities of heme oxygenase (HO, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, and myeloperoxidase (MPO enzymes. Wheel running significantly increased the activities of HO, constitutive NOS (cNOS isoform. Furthermore, 6 weeks of running significantly decreased TNBS-induced inflammatory markers, including extent of lesions, severity of mucosal damage, and gene expression of IL-1β, CXCL1, and MPO activity, while IL-10 gene expression and cNOS activity were increased. iNOS activity decreased and the activity of HO enzyme increased, but not significantly, compared to the sedentary TNBS-treated group. In conclusion, recreational physical exercise can play an anti-inflammatory role by downregulating the gene expression of proinflammatory mediators, inducing anti-inflammatory mediators, and modulating the activities of HO and NOS enzymes in a rat model of colitis.

  16. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  17. Analysis of power wheeling services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepel, R.C.; Jewell, W.; Johnson, R.; Maddigan, R.

    1986-11-01

    Purpose of this study is to examine existing wheeling arrangements to determine the terms of the agreements, to analyze the terms relative to regulatory goals, and finally, to suggest ways in which the arrangements can be modified to lead to outcomes more closely in line with the goals. The regulatory goals that are considered are: Does the arrangement meet the revenue requirement of the wheeling firm. Is efficient use promoted. Are the costs fairly apportioned. And, is the arrangement practical and feasible to implement.

  18. Rapid Alterations in Perirenal Adipose Tissue Transcriptomic Networks with Cessation of Voluntary Running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N Ruegsegger

    Full Text Available In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated with the rapid increase in adipose tissue after ending 6 wks of voluntary running at the time of puberty. Age-matched, male Wistar rats were given access to running wheels from 4 to 10 weeks of age. From the 10th to 11th week of age, one group of rats had continued wheel access, while the other group had one week of wheel locking. Perirenal adipose tissue was extracted, RNA sequencing was performed, and bioinformatics analyses were executed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA. IPA was chosen to assist in the understanding of complex 'omics data by integrating data into networks and pathways. Wheel locked rats gained significantly more fat mass and significantly increased body fat percentage between weeks 10-11 despite having decreased food intake, as compared to rats with continued wheel access. IPA identified 646 known transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05 between continued wheel access and wheel locking. In wheel locked rats, IPA revealed enrichment of transcripts for the following functions: extracellular matrix, macrophage infiltration, immunity, and pro-inflammatory. These findings suggest that increases in visceral adipose tissue that accompanies the cessation of pubertal physical activity are associated with the alteration of multiple pathways, some of which may potentiate the development of pubertal obesity and obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation that occurs later in life.

  19. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a...) when applied or turned. (b) The maximum variation in the diameter between any two wheel sets in a three...

  20. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Rakness.

    2013-01-01

    After three years of running, in February 2013 the era of sub-10-TeV LHC collisions drew to an end. Recall, the 2012 run had been extended by about three months to achieve the full complement of high-energy and heavy-ion physics goals prior to the start of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), which is now underway. The LHC performance during these exciting years was excellent, delivering a total of 23.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, 6.2 fb–1 at 7 TeV, and 5.5 pb–1 at 2.76 TeV. They also delivered 170 μb–1 lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon and 32 nb–1 proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon. During these years the CMS operations teams and shift crews made tremendous strides to commission the detector, repeatedly stepping up to meet the challenges at every increase of instantaneous luminosity and energy. Although it does not fully cover the achievements of the teams, a way to quantify their success is the fact that that...

  1. Phenotypic and molecular differences between rats selectively bred to voluntarily run high vs. low nightly distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D.; Brown, Jacob D.; Company, Joseph M.; Oberle, Lauren P.; Heese, Alexander J.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Wells, Kevin D.; Cruthirds, Clayton L.; Knouse, John A.; Ferreira, J. Andries; Childs, Thomas E.; Brown, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to partially phenotype male and female rats from generations 8–10 (G8–G10) that had been selectively bred to possess low (LVR) vs. high voluntary running (HVR) behavior. Over the first 6 days with wheels, 34-day-old G8 male and female LVRs ran shorter distances (P HVR counterparts, respectively. HVR and LVR lines consumed similar amounts of standard chow with or without wheels. No inherent difference existed in PGC-1α mRNA in the plantaris and soleus muscles of LVR and HVR nonrunners, although G8 LVR rats inherently possessed less NADH-positive superficial plantaris fibers compared with G8 HVR rats. While day 28 body mass tended to be greater in both sexes of G9–G10 LVR nonrunners vs. G9–G10 HVR nonrunners (P = 0.06), body fat percentage was similar between lines. G9–G10 HVRs had fat mass loss after 6 days of running compared with their prerunning values, while LVR did not lose or gain fat mass during the 6-day voluntary running period. RNA deep sequencing efforts in the nucleus accumbens showed only eight transcripts to be >1.5-fold differentially expressed between lines in HVR and LVR nonrunners. Interestingly, HVRs presented less Oprd1 mRNA, which ties in to potential differences in dopaminergic signaling between lines. This unique animal model provides further evidence as to how exercise may be mechanistically regulated. PMID:23552494

  2. Voluntary physical exercise alters attentional orienting and social behavior in a rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael E; Sharma, Mita; Evans, Gretchen C; Bucci, David J

    2009-06-01

    The effects of voluntary physical exercise on attentional function and social behavior were examined in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Rats in the exercise groups had free access to a running wheel for 2 weeks and then all rats received nonreinforced presentations of a visual stimulus (light) during the 1st training session, followed by daily sessions in which the light was paired with food. Nonexercising male and female SHR rats exhibited more unconditioned orienting behavior than Wistar-Kyoto rats. SHRs also exhibited impaired conditioning when the light was paired with food. Exercise reduced orienting in female SHRs but not in male SHRs. In the social interaction task, nonexercising male and female SHRs interacted more with an unfamiliar rat than Wistar-Kyoto rats. Exercise reduced the number of social interactions in female SHRs but not male SHRs. There were no differences in general locomotor activity observed between the nonexercising and exercising SHRs. These data indicate that exercise may preferentially benefit female SHRs, and has implications for using exercise as an intervention for ADHD and for understanding sex differences in the effects of exercise on behavior. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Recovery tread wheel pairs of machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor IVANOV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic methods of resurfacing wheels are determined and analised. It’sshown that for raising resource of used wheels and decreasing requirements of railwaytransport for new wheels it’s reasonable to use methods of recovering not only geometricparameters of rim, but also its mechanical properties. It’s marked that use of infeedprofile high-speed grinding (VPVSh enables to intensify significantly process ofmechanical treatment of wheel rim profile both when its resurfacing in service and whenmanufacturing new wheel.

  4. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  5. Frequency of exercise-induced ST-T-segment deviations and cardiac arrhythmias in recreational endurance athletes during a marathon race: results of the prospective observational Berlin Beat of Running study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herm, Juliane; Töpper, Agnieszka; Wutzler, Alexander; Kunze, Claudia; Krüll, Matthias; Brechtel, Lars; Lock, Jürgen; Fiebach, Jochen B; Heuschmann, Peter U; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Endres, Matthias; Jungehulsing, Gerhard Jan; Haeusler, Karl Georg

    2017-08-03

    While regular physical exercise has many health benefits, strenuous physical exercise may have a negative impact on cardiac function. The 'Berlin Beat of Running' study focused on feasibility and diagnostic value of continuous ECG monitoring in recreational endurance athletes during a marathon race. We hypothesised that cardiac arrhythmias and especially atrial fibrillation are frequently found in a cohort of recreational endurance athletes. The main secondary hypothesis was that pathological laboratory findings in these athletes are (in part) associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Prospective observational cohort study including healthy volunteers. One hundred and nine experienced marathon runners wore a portable ECG recorder during a marathon race in Berlin, Germany. Athletes underwent blood tests 2-3 days prior, directly after and 1-2 days after the race. Overall, 108 athletes (median 48 years (IQR 45-53), 24% women) completed the marathon in 249±43 min. Blinded ECG analysis revealed abnormal findings during the marathon in 18 (16.8%) athletes. Ten (9.3%) athletes had at least one episode of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, one of whom had atrial fibrillation; eight (7.5%) individuals showed transient ST-T-segment deviations. Abnormal ECG findings were associated with advanced age (OR 1.11 per year, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.23), while sex and cardiovascular risk profile had no impact. Directly after the race, high-sensitive troponin T was elevated in 18 (16.7%) athletes and associated with ST-T-segment deviation (OR 9.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 51.5), while age, sex and cardiovascular risk profile had no impact. ECG monitoring during a marathon is feasible. Abnormal ECG findings were present in every sixth athlete. Exercise-induced transient ST-T-segment deviations were associated with elevated high-sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) values. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01428778; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  6. Three omni-directional wheels control on a mobile robot

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, António Fernando; Moutinho, Ivo; Silva, Pedro; Fraga, Carlos; Pereira, Nino

    2004-01-01

    Traditional two wheels differential drive normally used on mobile robots have manoeuvrability limitations and take time to sort out. Most teams use two driving wheels (with one or two cast wheels), four driving wheels and even three driving wheels. A three wheel drive with omni-directional wheel has been tried with success, and was implemented on fast moving autonomous mobile robots. This paper deals with the mathematical kinematics description of such mobile platform, it describes the advant...

  7. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 29th September at 18h. The 5.5km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at http://cern.ch/club...

  8. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2012-01-01

      On Wednesday 14 March, the machine group successfully injected beams into LHC for the first time this year. Within 48 hours they managed to ramp the beams to 4 TeV and proceeded to squeeze to β*=0.6m, settings that are used routinely since then. This brought to an end the CMS Cosmic Run at ~Four Tesla (CRAFT), during which we collected 800k cosmic ray events with a track crossing the central Tracker. That sample has been since then topped up to two million, allowing further refinements of the Tracker Alignment. The LHC started delivering the first collisions on 5 April with two bunches colliding in CMS, giving a pile-up of ~27 interactions per crossing at the beginning of the fill. Since then the machine has increased the number of colliding bunches to reach 1380 bunches and peak instantaneous luminosities around 6.5E33 at the beginning of fills. The average bunch charges reached ~1.5E11 protons per bunch which results in an initial pile-up of ~30 interactions per crossing. During the ...

  9. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2012-01-01

      With the analysis of the first 5 fb–1 culminating in the announcement of the observation of a new particle with mass of around 126 GeV/c2, the CERN directorate decided to extend the LHC run until February 2013. This adds three months to the original schedule. Since then the LHC has continued to perform extremely well, and the total luminosity delivered so far this year is 22 fb–1. CMS also continues to perform excellently, recording data with efficiency higher than 95% for fills with the magnetic field at nominal value. The highest instantaneous luminosity achieved by LHC to date is 7.6x1033 cm–2s–1, which translates into 35 interactions per crossing. On the CMS side there has been a lot of work to handle these extreme conditions, such as a new DAQ computer farm and trigger menus to handle the pile-up, automation of recovery procedures to minimise the lost luminosity, better training for the shift crews, etc. We did suffer from a couple of infrastructure ...

  10. Care for the case manager: balancing your wheel of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, D M

    1998-01-01

    The case manager's role in our complex health care system is demanding and draining without some self-reflective attention. The Wheel of Life is a key tool for individuals to assess how well they are leading a fully balanced life. The eight aspects of a balanced life--values, self-care, work, relationships, leisure, relaxation, exercise, and centering--are explained and discussed. A self-reflective activity is presented that encourages readers to assess their current life balance. This focused clarification of personal and professional life will facilitate a more fully balanced life with rewards for case managers as individuals, and for their family, clients, and the health care organization.

  11. [Physiological differences between cycling and running].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Grégoire

    2009-08-05

    This review compares the differences in systemic responses (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, heart rate and economy) and in underlying mechanisms of adaptation (ventilatory and hemodynamic and neuromuscular responses) between cycling and running. VO2max is specific to the exercise modality. Overall, there is more physiological training transfer from running to cycling than vice-versa. Several other physiological differences between cycling and running are discussed: HR is different between the two activities both for maximal and sub-maximal intensities. The delta efficiency is higher in running. Ventilation is more impaired in cycling than running due to mechanical constraints. Central fatigue and decrease in maximal strength are more important after prolonged exercise in running than in cycling.

  12. Recruitment of the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in Parkinsonian rats following skilled aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G; Heintz, Ryan; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    Exercise modality and complexity play a key role in determining neurorehabilitative outcome in Parkinson's disease (PD). Exercise training (ET) that incorporates both motor skill training and aerobic exercise has been proposed to synergistically improve cognitive and automatic components of motor control in PD patients. Here we introduced such a skilled aerobic ET paradigm in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation. Rats with bilateral, intra-striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions were exposed to forced ET for 4weeks, either on a simple running wheel (non-skilled aerobic exercise, NSAE) or on a complex wheel with irregularly spaced rungs (skilled aerobic exercise, SAE). Cerebral perfusion was mapped during horizontal treadmill walking or at rest using [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine 1week after the completion of ET. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantified by autoradiography and analyzed in 3-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. SAE compared to NSAE resulted in equal or greater recovery in motor deficits, as well as greater increases in rCBF during walking in the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex, broad areas of the somatosensory cortex, and the cerebellum. NSAE compared to SAE animals showed greater activation in the dorsal caudate-putamen and dorsal hippocampus. Seed correlation analysis revealed enhanced functional connectivity in SAE compared to NSAE animals between the prelimbic cortex and motor areas, as well as altered functional connectivity between midline cerebellum and sensorimotor regions. Our study provides the first evidence for functional brain reorganization following skilled aerobic exercise in Parkinsonian rats, and suggests that SAE compared to NSAE results in enhancement of prefrontal cortex- and cerebellum-mediated control of motor function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Different types of exercise induce differential effects on neuronal adaptations and memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Wei; Chen, Shean-Jen; Huang, Tung-Yi; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chuang, Jih-Ing; Wu, Fong-Sen; Kuo, Yu-Min; Jen, Chauying J

    2012-01-01

    Different exercise paradigms show differential effects on various forms of memory. We hypothesize that the differential effects of exercises on memory performance are caused by different neuroplasticity changes in relevant brain regions in response to different exercise trainings. We examined the effects of treadmill running (TR) and wheel running (WR) on the Pavlovian fear conditioning task that assesses learning and memory performance associated with the amygdala (cued conditioning) and both the amygdala and hippocampus (contextual conditioning). The skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity, an indicator of aerobic capacity, was elevated in rats received 4 w of TR, but not WR. While both TR and WR elevated the contextual conditional response, only TR facilitated the cued conditional response. Using a single-neuron labeling technique, we found that while both TR and MR enlarged the dendritic field and increased the spine density in hippocampal CA3 neurons, only TR showed these effects in basolateral amygdalar neurons. Moreover, both types of exercise upregulated synaptic proteins (i.e., TrkB and SNAP-25) in the hippocampus; however only TR showed similar effects in the amygdala. Injection of K252a, a TrkB kinase inhibitor, in the dorsal hippocampus or basolateral amygdala abolished the exercise-facilitated contextual or cued fear learning and memory performance, respectively, regardless of the types of exercise. In summary, our results supported that different types of exercise affect the performance of learning and memory via BDNF-TrkB signaling and neuroplasticity in specific brain regions. The brain region-specific neuronal adaptations are possibly induced by various levels of intensity/stress elicited by different types of exercise. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integration of uniform design and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to the robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system under different wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method, integrating the uniform design (UD) of experiments and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), to solve the problem of a robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system. Based on the new nonlinear creep model derived from combining Hertz contact theory, Kalker's linear theory and a heuristic nonlinear creep model, the modeling and dynamic analysis of a 24 degree-of-freedom railway vehicle system were investigated. The Lyapunov indirect method was used to examine the effects of suspension parameters, wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii on critical hunting speeds. Generally, the critical hunting speeds of a vehicle system resulting from worn wheels with different wheel rolling radii are lower than those of a vehicle system having original wheels without different wheel rolling radii. Because of worn wheels, the critical hunting speed of a running railway vehicle substantially declines over the long term. For safety reasons, it is necessary to design the suspension system parameters to increase the robustness of the system and decrease the sensitive of wheel noises. By applying UD and QPSO, the nominal-the-best signal-to-noise ratio of the system was increased from -48.17 to -34.05 dB. The rate of improvement was 29.31%. This study has demonstrated that the integration of UD and QPSO can successfully reveal the optimal solution of suspension parameters for solving the robust design problem of a railway vehicle suspension system.

  15. Sieving for pseudosquares and pseudocubes in parallel using doubly-focused enumeration and wheel datastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    We extend the known tables of pseudosquares and pseudocubes, discuss the implications of these new data on the conjectured distribution of pseudosquares and pseudocubes, and present the details of the algorithm used to do this work. Our algorithm is based on the space-saving wheel data structure combined with doubly-focused enumeration, run in parallel on a cluster supercomputer.

  16. Space shuttle wheels and brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsley, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

  17. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  18. Voluntary and forced exercise influence the survival and body composition of ageing male rats differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narath, E; Skalicky, M; Viidik, A

    2001-11-01

    The importance of maintaining physical fitness by engaging in exercise in a life-long perspective as well as the avoidance of obesity has been emphasised in recent years by epidemiological studies on human populations as well as studies on laboratory rodents. In laboratory studies, voluntary running in wheels and forced training in a treadmill have been used with beneficial results. Restriction of the food intake of sedentary laboratory rodents can be regarded either as life prolongation or prevention of life shortening by obesity. We compared the effects of these interventions on male Sprague-Dawley rats from the age of 5 to 23 months in the following groups: (1) RW=voluntary running in wheels; (2) PW=fed to pair weight with RW animals; (3) TM=forced training in a treadmill; and (4) S1=sedentary with ad libitum access to food. Each group consisted of 32 animals, all housed individually in cages. Two RW animals died, five died in each of the PW and S1 groups and 10 in the TM group (pmuch they run.

  19. Cardioprotective Effects of Voluntary Exercise in a Rat Model: Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regular exercise at moderate intensity reduces cardiovascular risks. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs play a major role in cardiac remodeling, facilitating physiological adaptation to exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of voluntary physical exercise on the MMP-2 enzyme activity and to investigate the cardiac performance by measurement of angina susceptibility of the heart, the basal blood pressure, the surviving aorta ring contraction, and the cardiac infarct size after I/R-induced injury. Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into control and exercising groups. After a 6-week period, the serum level of MMP-2, basal blood pressure, cardiac angina susceptibility (the ST segment depression provoked by epinephrine and 30 s later phentolamine, AVP-induced heart perfusion and aorta ring contraction, infarct size following 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion, and coronary effluent MMP-2 activity were measured. Results. Voluntary wheel-running exercise decreased both the sera (64 kDa and 72 kDa and the coronary effluent (64 kDa MMP-2 level, reduced the development of ST depression, improved the isolated heart perfusion, and decreased the ratio of infarct size. Conclusion. 6 weeks of voluntary exercise training preserved the heart against cardiac injury. This protective mechanism might be associated with the decreased activity of MMP-2.

  20. Moderate daily exercise activates metabolic flexibility to prevent prenatally induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jennifer L; Huber, Korinna; Thompson, Nichola M; Davison, Michael; Breier, Bernhard H

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities are of major worldwide concern. It is now recognized that there are a number of metabolically distinct pathways of obesity development. The present paper investigates the effect of moderate daily exercise on the underlying mechanisms of one such pathway to obesity, through interrogation of metabolic flexibility. Pregnant Wistar rats were either fed chow ad libitum or undernourished throughout pregnancy, generating control or intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) offspring, respectively. At 250 d of age, dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry scans and plasma analyses showed that moderate daily exercise, in the form of a measured amount of wheel running (56 m/d), prevented the development of obesity consistently observed in nonexercised IUGR offspring. Increased plasma C-peptide and hepatic atypical protein kinase Czeta levels explained increased glucose uptake and increased hepatic glycogen storage in IUGR offspring. Importantly, whereas circulating levels of retinol binding protein 4 were elevated in obese, nonexercised IUGR offspring, indicative of glucose sparing without exercise, retinol binding protein 4 levels were normalized in the exercised IUGR group. These data suggest that IUGR offspring have increased flexibility of energy storage and use and that moderate daily exercise prevents obesity development through activation of distinct pathways of energy use. Thus, despite a predisposition to develop obesity under sedentary conditions, obesity development was prevented in IUGR offspring when exercise was available. These results emphasize the importance of tailored lifestyle changes that activate distinct pathways of metabolic flexibility for obesity prevention.

  1. PGC-1α is dispensable for exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn C Rowe

    Full Text Available Exercise confers numerous health benefits, many of which are thought to stem from exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis (EIMB in skeletal muscle. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α, a potent regulator of metabolism in numerous tissues, is widely believed to be required for EIMB. We show here that this is not the case. Mice engineered to lack PGC-1α specifically in skeletal muscle (Myo-PGC-1αKO mice retained intact EIMB. The exercise capacity of these mice was comparable to littermate controls. Induction of metabolic genes after 2 weeks of in-cage voluntary wheel running was intact. Electron microscopy revealed no gross abnormalities in mitochondria, and the mitochondrial biogenic response to endurance exercise was as robust in Myo-PGC-1αKO mice as in wildtype mice. The induction of enzymatic activity of the electron transport chain by exercise was likewise unperturbed in Myo-PGC-1αKO mice. These data demonstrate that PGC-1α is dispensable for exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, in sharp contrast to the prevalent assumption in the field.

  2. Prefrontal cortex NG2 glia undergo a developmental switch in their responsiveness to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Lyl; Huang, Po Hsuan; Colognato, Holly

    2018-03-22

    Aerobic exercise is known to influence brain function, e.g., enhancing executive function in both children and adults, with many of these influences being attributed to alterations in neurogenesis and neuronal function. Yet oligodendroglia in adult brains have also been reported to be highly responsive to exercise, including in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a late myelinating region implicated in working memory. However, whether exercise affects oligodendroglia or myelination in juveniles, either in the PFC or in other brain regions, remains unknown. To address this, both juvenile and young adult mice were provided free access to running wheels for four weeks followed by an analysis of oligodendrocyte development and myelination in the PFC and the corpus callosum, a major white matter tract. Working memory and PFC NG2+ cell development were both affected by exercise in juvenile mice, yet surprisingly these exercise-mediated effects were distinct in juveniles and young adults. In the PFC, NG2+ cell proliferation was increased in exercising juveniles, but not young adults, whereas newly-born oligodendrocyte production was increased in exercising young adults, but not juveniles. Although no overall changes in myelin genes were found, elevated levels of Monocarboxylate Transporter 1, a glial lactate transporter important during active myelination, were found in the PFC of exercising young adults. Overall our findings reveal that long-term exercise modulates PFC glial development and does so differentially in juvenile and young adult mice, providing insight into the cellular responses that may underlie cognitive benefits to teenagers and young adults in response to exercise. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Experimental analysis and regression prediction of desiccant wheel behavior in high temperature heat pump and desiccant wheel air-conditioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Zhang, Yufeng; Sun, Yuexia

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance of desiccant wheel (DW) in the running system and obtain the useful data for practical application. The combined influences of multiple variables on the performance of desiccant wheel are investigated based on evaluating the indexes...... of moisture removal capacity, dehumidification effectiveness, dehumidification coefficient of performance and sensible energy ratio. The results show that higher effect on the dehumidification is due to the regeneration temperature and outdoor air humidity ratio rather than the outdoor air temperature...... and the ratio between regeneration and process air flow rates. A simple method based on multiple linear regression theory for predicting the performance of the wheel has been proposed. The predicted values and the experimental data are compared and good agreements are obtained. Regression models are established...

  4. Electron Beam Welding of Gear Wheels by Splitted Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dřímal Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the issue of electron beam welding of high-accurate gear wheels composed of a spur gearing and fluted shaft joined with a face weld for automotive industry. Both parts made of the high-strength low-alloy steel are welded in the condition after final machining and heat treatment, performed by case hardening, whereas it is required that the run-out in the critical point of weldment after welding, i. e. after the final operation, would be 0.04 mm max..

  5. Exercise clothing and shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form-fitting, stretchy clothing for activities like: Running Biking Advanced yoga/Pilates Swimming You may be able ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  6. Why Exercise Is Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these: swimming basketball hockey running or walking skating soccer cross-country skiing riding your bike jumping rope ... My Body? Can Kids With Asthma Play Sports? Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports, Exercise, and Diabetes Getting Muscles ...

  7. Reversal of glial and neurovascular markers of unhealthy brain aging by exercise in middle-aged female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin S Latimer

    Full Text Available Healthy brain aging and cognitive function are promoted by exercise. The benefits of exercise are attributed to several mechanisms, many which highlight its neuroprotective role via actions that enhance neurogenesis, neuronal morphology and/or neurotrophin release. However, the brain is also composed of glial and vascular elements, and comparatively less is known regarding the effects of exercise on these components in the aging brain. Here, we show that aerobic exercise at mid-age decreased markers of unhealthy brain aging including astrocyte hypertrophy, a hallmark of brain aging. Middle-aged female mice were assigned to a sedentary group or provided a running wheel for six weeks. Exercise decreased hippocampal astrocyte and myelin markers of aging but increased VEGF, a marker of angiogenesis. Brain vascular casts revealed exercise-induced structural modifications associated with improved endothelial function in the periphery. Our results suggest that age-related astrocyte hypertrophy/reactivity and myelin dysregulation are aggravated by a sedentary lifestyle and accompanying reductions in vascular function. However, these effects appear reversible with exercise initiated at mid-age. As this period of the lifespan coincides with the appearance of multiple markers of brain aging, including initial signs of cognitive decline, it may represent a window of opportunity for intervention as the brain appears to still possess significant vascular plasticity. These results may also have particular implications for aging females who are more susceptible than males to certain risk factors which contribute to vascular aging.

  8. Testes de broncoprovocação com metacolina e com exercício em bicicleta e corrida livre em crianças com asma intermitente Bronchial provocation tests using methacholine, cycle ergometer exercise and free running in children with intermittent asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. T. G. Souza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a responsividade de vias aéreas à metacolina e ao teste de exercício na bicicleta ergométrica e corrida livre em crianças com asma intermitente. MÉTODOS: Estudo randomizado. Trinta crianças de ambos os sexos com asma intermitente participaram do estudo. Cada teste foi realizado em 3 dias diferentes, através de randomização: a broncoprovocação com metacolina, método do dosímetro; b teste de exercício: corrida livre em um corredor de 50 m; c teste de exercício: bicicleta ergométrica com ar seco. A freqüência cardíaca atingida foi 80 a 90% da freqüência cardíaca máxima. A espirometria foi realizada aos 3, 6, 10, 15, 20 e 30 minutos após o exercício. Broncoespasmo induzido por exercício foi definido como a queda de volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 > 10% em relação aos valores pré-teste. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi 11±3 anos. O VEF1 e VEF1/CVF (capacidade vital forçada foram normais e similares antes dos três testes de broncoprovocação. A freqüência cardíaca máxima foi de 178±7 bpm durante o exercício na bicicleta e 181±6 bpm na corrida livre (p > 0,05. Broncoespasmo significante foi visto em 23 crianças após o teste com metacolina, em 19 após a corrida livre e em 14 crianças após exercício em bicicleta (p OBJECTIVE: To compare airway responsiveness to methacholine, cycle ergometer exercise and free running in children with intermittent asthma. METHODS: A randomized study was conducted with 30 children of both genders with intermittent asthma. Each child was submitted to challenge testing on three separate days, in random order: a Methacholine challenge using a dosimeter; b Exercise challenge testing - free running along a 50-meter-long corridor; c Dry-air exercise challenge on a cycle ergometer. Target heart rate during exercise was 80 to 90% of the maximum predicted value. Spirometry was performed 3, 6,10,15,20 and 30 minutes after exercise. Exercise

  9. Reaction wheels for kinetic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A.

    1984-11-01

    In contrast to all existing reaction wheel implementations, an order of magnitude increase in speed can be obtained efficiently if power to the actuators can be recovered. This allows a combined attitude control-energy storage system to be developed with structure mounted reaction wheels. The feasibility of combining reaction wheels with energy storage wwheels is demonstrated. The power required for control torques is a function of wheel speed but this energy is not dissipated; it is stored in the wheel. The I(2)R loss resulting from a given torque is shown to be constant, independent of the design speed of the motor. What remains, in order to efficiently use high speed wheels (essential for energy storage) for control purposes, is to reduce rotational losses to acceptable levels. Progress was made in permanent magnet motor design for high speed operation. Variable field motors offer more control flexibility and efficiency over a broader speed range.

  10. Customer loads of two-wheeled vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, C.; Öztürk, K.; Liebich, R.

    2017-12-01

    Customer usage profiles are the most unknown influences in vehicle design targets and they play an important role in durability analysis. This publication presents a customer load acquisition system for two-wheeled vehicles that utilises the vehicle's onboard signals. A road slope estimator was developed to reveal the unknown slope resistance force with the help of a linear Kalman filter. Furthermore, an automated mass estimator was developed to consider the correct vehicle loading. The mass estimation is performed by an extended Kalman filter. Finally, a model-based wheel force calculation was derived, which is based on the superposition of forces calculated from measured onboard signals. The calculated wheel forces were validated by measurements with wheel-load transducers through the comparison of rainflow matrices. The calculated wheel forces correspond with the measured wheel forces in terms of both quality and quantity. The proposed methods can be used to gather field data for improved vehicle design loads.

  11. New methodology for fast prediction of wheel wear evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apezetxea, I. S.; Perez, X.; Casanueva, C.; Alonso, A.

    2017-07-01

    In railway applications wear prediction in the wheel-rail interface is a fundamental matter in order to study problems such as wheel lifespan and the evolution of vehicle dynamic characteristic with time. However, one of the principal drawbacks of the existing methodologies for calculating the wear evolution is the computational cost. This paper proposes a new wear prediction methodology with a reduced computational cost. This methodology is based on two main steps: the first one is the substitution of the calculations over the whole network by the calculation of the contact conditions in certain characteristic point from whose result the wheel wear evolution can be inferred. The second one is the substitution of the dynamic calculation (time integration calculations) by the quasi-static calculation (the solution of the quasi-static situation of a vehicle at a certain point which is the same that neglecting the acceleration terms in the dynamic equations). These simplifications allow a significant reduction of computational cost to be obtained while maintaining an acceptable level of accuracy (error order of 5-10%). Several case studies are analysed along the paper with the objective of assessing the proposed methodology. The results obtained in the case studies allow concluding that the proposed methodology is valid for an arbitrary vehicle running through an arbitrary track layout.

  12. Voluntary exercise inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Jihyeung; Nolan, Bonnie; Cheh, Michelle; Bose, Mousumi; Lin, Yong; Wagner, George C; Yang, Chung S

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer in humans. Results from animal studies, however, are inconclusive. The present study investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on intestinal tumor formation in two different animal models, Apc Min/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. In Experiments 1 and 2, five-week old female Apc Min/+ mice were either housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 6 weeks (for mice maintained on the AIN93G diet; Experiment 1) or 9 weeks (for mice on a high-fat diet; Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, male CF-1 mice at 6 weeks of age were given a dose of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) and, 12 days later, 1.5% DSS in drinking fluid for 1 week. The mice were then maintained on a high-fat diet and housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 16 weeks. In the Apc Min/+ mice maintained on either the AIN93G or the high-fat diet, voluntary exercise decreased the number of small intestinal tumors. In the AOM/DSS-treated mice maintained on a high-fat diet, voluntary exercise also decreased the number of colon tumors. In Apc Min/+ mice, voluntary exercise decreased the ratio of serum insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 to IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels. It also decreased prostaglandin E 2 and nuclear β-catenin levels, but increased E-cadherin levels in the tumors. These results indicate hat voluntary exercise inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc Min/+ mice and AOM/DSS-treated mice, and the inhibitory effect is associated with decreased IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, aberrant β-catenin signaling, and arachidonic acid metabolism

  13. Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    Four-wheel suspension system uses simple system of levers with no compliant components to provide three-point suspension of chassis of vehicle while maintaining four-point contact with uneven terrain. Provides stability against tipping of four-point rectangular base, without rocking contact to which rigid four-wheel frame susceptible. Similar to six-wheel suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354).

  14. Recent run-time experience and investigation of impurities in turbines circuit of Helium plant of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the key sub-systems of Steady State superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is cryogenic 1.3 kW at 4.5 K Helium refrigerator/liquefier system. The helium plant consists of 3 nos. of screw compressors, oil removal system, purifier and cold-box with 3 turbo expanders (turbines) and helium cold circulator. During the recent SST-1 plasma campaigns, we observed high pressure drop of the order of 3 bar between the wheel outlet of turbine A and the wheel inlet of turbine - B. This was significant higher values of pressures drop across turbines, which reduced the speed of turbine A and B and in turn reduced the overall plant capacity. The helium circuits in the plant have 10-micron filter at the mouth of turbine - B. Initially, major suspects of such high blockage are assumed to be air-impurity, dust particles or collapse of filter. Several breaks in plant operation have been taken to warm up the turbines circuits up to 90 K to remove condensation of air-impurities at filter. Still this exercise did not solve blockage of filter in turbine circuits. A detailed investigation exercise with air/water regeneration and rinsing of cold box as well as purification of helium gas in buffer tanks are carried out to remove air impurities from cold-box. A trial run of cold box was executed in liquefier mode with turbines up to cryogenic temperatures and solved blockage in turbine circuits. The paper describes run-time experience of helium plant with helium impurity in turbine circuits, methods to remove impurity, demonstration of turbine performance and lessons learnt during this operation. (author)

  15. Origami Wheel Transformer: A Variable-Diameter Wheel Drive Robot Using an Origami Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Sa-Reum; Kim, Ji-Suk; Park, Jae-Jun; Cho, Kyu-Jin

    2017-06-01

    A wheel drive mechanism is simple, stable, and efficient, but its mobility in unstructured terrain is seriously limited. Using a deformable wheel is one of the ways to increase the mobility of a wheel drive robot. By changing the radius of its wheels, the robot becomes able to pass over not only high steps but also narrow gaps. In this article, we propose a novel design for a variable-diameter wheel using an origami-based soft robotics design approach. By simply folding a patterned sheet into a wheel shape, a variable-diameter wheel was built without requiring lots of mechanical parts and a complex assembly process. The wheel's diameter can change from 30 to 68 mm, and it is light in weight at about 9.7 g. Although composed of soft materials (fabrics and films), the wheel can bear more than 400 times its weight. The robot was able to change the wheel's radius in response to terrain conditions, allowing it to pass over a 50-mm gap when the wheel is shrunk and a 50-mm step when the wheel is enlarged.

  16. Development of free running differential. Development of differential with an actuator and a clutch which disconnects the traction; Free running defu no kaihatsu. Kirippanashi kiko oyobi actuator wo naizoshita differential sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, N; Teraoka, M; Ishikawa, O; Nagaoka, T; Ugajin, K [Tochigi Fuji Sangyo Co. Ltd., Tochigi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Free Running Differential has an effect on fuel economy and noise reduction from drive line for four wheel drive vehicle. It has an actuator and a clutch which disconnects the traction from no driving side tire when two wheel drive is selected. this unit can be installed in conventional differential carrier with no design change. It is compact in design and low in cost. We evaluate it as having a dominant position among any other Free running system. 7 figs.

  17. Greasing the Wheels of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik P. van Dalen; Aico P. van Vuuren

    2003-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in a publication in 'De Economist' , 2005, 153(2), 139-165. How much does a nation spend on resources to 'grease the wheels of trade'? To examine this question the Dutch economy is used as an exemplary case as the Netherlands are known as a nation of traders. This image was derived in the seventeenth century from successes in long distance trade, shipping and financial innovations. Despite its historical background in trading the potential to 'truck and barter' ...

  18. Meals on Wheels Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meals About Meals on Wheels Get Started The Issue The Problem & Our Solution Meals on Wheels Health Facts & Resources Senior Facts Map State Fact Sheets Research More Than a Meal Pilot Research Study Medicare Claims Analyses Policy Myths Hunger in Older Adults Take Action Volunteer Advocate #SAVELUNCH ...

  19. A Full Disturbance Model for Reaction Wheels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, M.P.; Ellenbroek, Marcellinus Hermannus Maria; Seiler, R; van Put, P.; Cottaar, E.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction wheels are rotating devices used for the attitude control of spacecraft. However, reaction wheels also generate undesired disturbances in the form of vibrations, which may have an adverse effect on the pointing accuracy and stability of spacecraft (optical) payloads. A disturbance model for

  20. Assessment of a Boat Fractured Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelic Goran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During regular use of the steering wheel mounted on a boat, two cracks emanating from a fastener hole were noticed which, consequently, caused final fracture of the wheel. To determine the behavior of a boat steering wheel with cracks present, assessment of a fractured wheel was performed. Torque moments of the fasteners were measured prior to removing the steering wheel from the boat. Visual and dye penetrant inspection followed along with the material detection. Besides using experimental procedures, assessment of the fractured wheel was performed using finite element analysis, i.e. stress intensity factor values were numerically determined. Variation of stress intensity factor with crack length is presented. Possible causes of crack occurrence are given and they include excessive values of fastener torque moments coupled with fretting between fastener and fastener hole that was poorly machined. Results obtained by this assessment can be taken for predicting fracture behavior of a cracked steering wheel and as a reference in the design, mounting and exploitation process of steering wheels improving that way their safety in transportation environment.

  1. Riding the Ferris Wheel: A Sinusoidal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Taylor, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    When thinking of models for sinusoidal waves, examples such as tides of the ocean, daily temperatures for one year in your town, light and sound waves, and certain types of motion are used. Many textbooks [1, p. 222] also present a "Ferris wheel description problem" for students to work. This activity takes the Ferris wheel problem out of the…

  2. The Ferris Wheel and Justifications of Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Irma E.; Moore, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses the results of semi-structured clinical interviews with ten prospective secondary mathematics teachers who were provided with dynamic images of Ferris wheels. We asked the students to graph the relationship between the distance a rider traveled around the Ferris wheel and the height of the rider from the ground. We focus on…

  3. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... wheels shall fit freely on the spindle and shall not be forced on. The spindle nut shall be tightened...

  4. Dynamic and Acoustic Characterisation of Automotive Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Curà

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the dynamic and acoustic characterisation of an automotive wheel. In particular, an experimental research activity previously performed by the authors about the dynamic behaviour of automotive wheels has been extended to the acoustic field.

  5. Additive effects of physical exercise and environmental enrichment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Fabel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary physical exercise (wheel running, RUN and environmental enrichment (ENR both stimulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis but do so by different mechanisms. RUN induces precursor cell proliferation, whereas ENR exerts a survival-promoting effect on newborn cells. In addition, continued RUN prevented the physiologically occurring age-related decline in precursor cell in the dentate gyrus but did not lead to a corresponding increase in net neurogenesis. We hypothesized that in the absence of appropriate cognitive stimuli the potential for neurogenesis could not be realized but that an increased potential by proliferating precursor cells due to RUN could actually lead to more adult neurogenesis if an appropriate survival-promoting stimulus follows the exercise. We thus asked whether a sequential combination of RUN and ENR (RUNENR would show additive effects that are distinct from the application of either paradigm alone. We found that the effects of 10 days of RUN followed by 35 days of ENR were additive in that the combined stimulation yielded an approximately 30% greater increase in new neurons than either stimulus alone, which also increased neurogenesis. Surprisingly, this result indicates that although overall the amount of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus is poorly predictive of net adult neurogenesis, an increased neurogenic potential nevertheless provides the basis for a greater efficiency of the same survival-promoting stimulus. We thus propose that physical activity can “prime” the neurogenic region of the dentate gyrus for increased neurogenesis in the case the animal is exposed to an additional cognitive stimulus, here represented by the enrichment paradigm.

  6. Kegel Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ...

  7. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  8. Biaxial wheel/hub test facility. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Grubisic, V. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The 4{sup th} meeting aims to exchange the experience and knowledge of engineers during several presentations and discussions about new developments required for a reliable, time and cost reducing validation of the wheel/hub assembly. Tremendous development of the wheel performance, described by the ratio of the rated load (kg) versus the wheel weight (kg) had taken place during the last 5000 years. Starting from the ratio of 3 for wooden 2-piece-disc-wheels in Mesopotamia it needed nearly 1000 years to increase the ratio to approx 5 at light-weight spoke wheels for fighting carriages, found in the grave of king Tutenchamon in Egypt. Modern light alloy wheels of commercial vehicles reach values up to 160 kg/kg. Additionally the comlex design of the modern systems for cars and commercial vehicles comprising wheel, brake, hub, bearing, spindle and hub carrier, including different materials and their treatment, fasteners, press-fits, require an appropriate testing procedure. The variable loading conditions, caused by operational wheel forces, brake and torque moments including heating, may result in changing tolerances and press-fits during operation and consequently in different damage mechanisms. This can be simulated in the Biaxial Wheel Test Machine, whereby corresponding load programs are necessary. An overview about all biaxial test machines in usage at the end of 1999 is shown in the introduction. The total number is 17 for cars, 7 for commercial vehicles and 1 for trains. The six presentations of this meeting were consequently concentrated on: (a) recommendations for a standardization of load programs of the German Wheel Committee, (b) the simulation of brake and torque events and (c) the possibility for a numerical stress analyses and fatigue life assessment. (orig./AKF)

  9. Not Just Running: Coping with and Managing Everyday Life through Road-Running

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Simon

    2014-01-01

    From the external form, running looks like running. Yet this alikeness masks a hugely divergent practice consisting of different movements, meanings and experiences. In this paper I wish to shed light upon some of these different ‘ways of running’ and in turn identify a range of the sometimes surprising, sometimes significant and sometimes banal benefits that road-running can gift its practitioners beyond simply exercise and physical fitness. Drawing on an innovative mapping and ethnographic ...

  10. Mathematical Modeling of the Braking System of Wheeled Mainline Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The braking system of the landing gear wheels of a mainline aircraft has to meet mandatory requirements laid out in the Aviation Regulations AP-25 (Para 25.735. «Brakes and brake systems". These requirements are essential when creating the landing gear wheel brake control system (WBCS and are used as main initial data in its mathematical modeling. The WBCS is one of the most important systems to ensure the safe completion of the flight. It is a complex of devices, i.e. units (hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical, connected through piping, wiring, mechanical constraints. This complex should allow optimizing the braking process when a large number of parameters change. The most important of them are the following: runway friction coefficient (RFC, lifting force, weight and of the aircraft, etc. The main structural elements involved in braking the aircraft are: aircraft wheels with pneumatics (air tires and brake discs, WBCS, and cooling system of gear wheels when braking.To consider the aircraft deceleration on the landing run is of essence at the stage of design, development, and improvement of brakes and braking systems. Based on analysis of equation of the aircraft motion and energy balance can be determined energy loading and its basic design parameters, braking distances and braking time.As practice and analysis of energy loading show, they (brake + wheel absorb the aircraftpossessed kinetic energy at the start of braking as much as 60-70%, 70-80%, and 80-90%, respectively, under normal increased, and emergency operating conditions. The paper presents a procedure for the rapid calculation of energy loading of the brake wheel.Currently, the mainline aircrafts use mainly electrohydraulic brake systems in which there are the main, backup, and emergency-parking brake systems. All channels are equipped with automatic anti-skid systems. Their presence in the emergency (the third reserve channel significantly improves the reliability and safety of

  11. Assistive devices alter gait patterns in Parkinson disease: advantages of the four-wheeled walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegelmeyer, Deb A; Parthasarathy, Sowmya; Kostyk, Sandra K; White, Susan E; Kloos, Anne D

    2013-05-01

    Gait abnormalities are a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and contribute to fall risk. Therapy and exercise are often encouraged to increase mobility and decrease falls. As disease symptoms progress, assistive devices are often prescribed. There are no guidelines for choosing appropriate ambulatory devices. This unique study systematically examined the impact of a broad range of assistive devices on gait measures during walking in both a straight path and around obstacles in individuals with PD. Quantitative gait measures, including velocity, stride length, percent swing and double support time, and coefficients of variation were assessed in 27 individuals with PD with or without one of six different devices including canes, standard and wheeled walkers (two, four or U-Step). Data were collected using the GAITRite and on a figure-of-eight course. All devices, with the exception of four-wheeled and U-Step walkers significantly decreased gait velocity. The four-wheeled walker resulted in less variability in gait measures and had less impact on spontaneous unassisted gait patterns. The U-Step walker exhibited the highest variability across all parameters followed by the two-wheeled and standard walkers. Higher variability has been correlated with increased falls. Though subjects performed better on a figure-of-eight course using either the four-wheeled or the U-Step walker, the four-wheeled walker resulted in the most consistent improvement in overall gait variables. Laser light use on a U-Step walker did not improve gait measures or safety in figure-of-eight compared to other devices. Of the devices tested, the four-wheeled-walker offered the most consistent advantages for improving mobility and safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Integration and Autonomy to Teach an Elementary Running Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, J. Brandon; Howard-Shaughnessy, Candice

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is an important aspect of overall fitness, health, and wellness, and running can be an excellent lifetime physical activity. One of the most simple and effective means of exercise, running raises heart rate in a short amount of time and can be done with little to no cost for equipment. There are many benefits to running,…

  13. Early effects of a high-caloric diet and physical exercise on brain volumetry and behavior: a combined MRI and histology study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Markus; Lenz, Jenny N; Jakovcevski, Mira; Biedermann, Sarah V; Falfán-Melgoza, Claudia; Deussing, Jan; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Pfister, Frederik; Stalla, Günter K; Sartorius, Alexander; Gass, Peter; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Fuss, Johannes; Auer, Matthias K

    2017-10-01

    Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in the long-term. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating early effects of a cafeteria-diet on gray and white brain matter volume by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Half of the mice performed voluntary wheel running to study if regular physical exercise prevents unfavorable effects of a cafeteria-diet. In addition, histological analyses for myelination and neurogenesis were performed. As expected, wheel running resulted in a significant increase of gray matter volume in the CA1-3 areas, the dentate gyrus and stratum granulosum of the hippocampus in the VBM analysis, while a positive effect of the cafeteria-diet was shown for the whole hippocampal CA1-3 area only in the ROI analysis, indicating a regional volume effect. It was earlier found that hippocampal neurogenesis may be related to volume increases after exercise. Interestingly, while running resulted in a significant increase in neurogenesis assessed by doublecortin (DCX)-labeling, this was not true for cafeteria diet. This indicates different underlying mechanisms for gray matter increase. Moreover, animals receiving cafeteria diet only showed mild deficits in long-term memory assessed by the puzzle-box paradigm, while executive functioning and short term memory were not affected. Our data therefore highlight that high caloric diet impacts on the brain and behavior. Physical exercise seems not to interact with these mechanisms.

  14. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Human Polymorphism Impairs the Beneficial Exercise-Induced Neurobiological Changes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Madaio, Alessandro I; Mallei, Alessandra; Lee, Francis S; Popoli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that exercise improves cognitive functions and emotional behaviors. Positive effects of exercise have been associated with enhanced brain plasticity, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, a substantial variability of individual response to exercise has been described, which may be accounted for by individual genetic variants. Here, we have assessed whether and how the common human BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influences the neurobiological effects modulated by exercise in BDNF Val66Met knock-in male mice. Wild-type (BDNFVal/Val) and homozygous BDNF Val66Met (BDNFMet/Met) male mice were housed in cages equipped with or without running wheels for 4 weeks. Changes in behavioral phenotype, hippocampal adult neurogenesis, and gene expression were evaluated in exercised and sedentary control mice. We found that exercise reduced the latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding and the immobility time in the forced swimming test in BDNFVal/Val but not in BDNFMet/Met mice. Hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced in BDNFMet/Met mice compared with BDNFVal/Val mice. BDNFMet/Met mice had lower basal BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus, which was not recovered following exercise. Moreover, exercise-induced expression of total BDNF, BDNF splice variants 1, 2, 4, 6 and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) mRNA levels were absent or reduced in the dentate gyrus of BDNFMet/Met mice. Exercise failed to enhance PGC-1α and FNDC5 mRNA levels in the BDNFMet/Met muscle. Overall these results indicate that, in adult male mice, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism impairs the beneficial behavioral and neuroplasticity effects induced by physical exercise. PMID:27388329

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  16. The response of a high-speed train wheel to a harmonic wheel-rail force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yuxia; Zhou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The maximum speed of China's high-speed trains currently is 300km/h and expected to increase to 350-400km/h. As a wheel travels along the rail at such a high speed, it is subject to a force rotating at the same speed along its periphery. This fast moving force contains not only the axle load component, but also many components of high frequencies generated from wheel-rail interactions. Rotation of the wheel also introduces centrifugal and gyroscopic effects. How the wheel responds is fundamental to many issues, including wheel-rail contact, traction, wear and noise. In this paper, by making use of its axial symmetry, a special finite element scheme is developed for responses of a train wheel subject to a vertical and harmonic wheel-rail force. This FE scheme only requires a 2D mesh over a cross-section containing the wheel axis but includes all the effects induced by wheel rotation. Nodal displacements, as a periodic function of the cross-section angle 6, can be decomposed, using Fourier series, into a number of components at different circumferential orders. The derived FE equation is solved for each circumferential order. The sum of responses at all circumferential orders gives the actual response of the wheel. (paper)

  17. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise training in transgenic mice is associated with attenuation of early breast cancer growth in a dose-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorming Goh

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research suggests that regular physical activity confers beneficial effects that mediate an anti-tumor response and may reduce cancer recurrence. It is unclear what amount of physical activity is necessary to exert such a protective effect and what mechanisms are involved. We investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running on tumor progression and cytokine gene expression in the transgenic polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT mouse model of invasive breast cancer. Runners showed significantly reduced tumor sizes compared with non-runners after 3 weeks of running (p ≤ 0.01, and the greater the running distance the smaller the tumor size (Pearson's r = -0.61, p ≤ 0.04, R(2 = 0.38. Mice running greater than 150 km per week had a significantly attenuated tumor size compared with non-runners (p ≤ 0.05. Adipose tissue mass was inversely correlated with tumor size in runners (Pearson's r = -0.77, p = 0.014 but not non-runners. Gene expression of CCL22, a cytokine associated with recruitment of immunosuppressive T regulatory cells, was decreased in tumors of runners compared to non-runners (p ≤ 0.005. No differences in tumor burden or metastatic burden were observed between runners and non-runners after ten weeks of running when the study was completed. We conclude that voluntary wheel running in PyMT mice correlates with an attenuation in tumor progression early during the course of invasive breast cancer. This effect is absent in the later stages of overwhelming tumor burden even though cytokine signaling for immunosuppressive regulatory T cells was down regulated. These observations suggest that the initiation of moderate exercise training for adjunctive therapeutic benefit early in the course of invasive breast cancer should be considered for further investigation.

  19. Deletion of TLX and social isolation impairs exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adolescent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozareva, Danka A; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2018-01-01

    Adolescence is a sensitive period of neurodevelopment during which life experiences can have profound effects on the brain. Hippocampal neurogenesis, the neurodevelopmental process of generating functional new neurons from neural stem cells, occurs throughout the lifespan and has been shown to play a role in learning, memory and in mood regulation. In adulthood it is influenced by extrinsic environmental factors such as exercise and stress. Intrinsic factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis include the orphan nuclear receptor TLX (Nr2e1) which is primarily expressed in the neurogenic niches of the brain. While mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been widely studied, less is known on how hippocampal neurogenesis is affected during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both TLX and isolation stress on exercise-induced increases in neurogenesis in running and sedentary conditions during adolescence. Single- (isolation stress) wild type and Nr2e1 -/- mice or pair-housed wild type mice were housed in sedentary conditions or allowed free access to running wheels for 3 weeks during adolescence. A reduction of neuronal survival was evident in mice lacking TLX, and exercise did not increase hippocampal neurogenesis in these Nr2e1 -/- mice. This suggests that TLX is necessary for the pro-neurogenic effects of exercise during adolescence. Interestingly, although social isolation during adolescence did not affect hippocampal neurogenesis, it prevented an exercise-induced increase in neurogenesis in the ventral hippocampus. Together these data demonstrate the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in promoting an exercise-induced increase in neurogenesis at this key point in life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Minisatellite Attitude Guidance Using Reaction Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion STROE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper [2], the active torques needed for the minisatellite attitude guidance from one fixed attitude posture to another fixed attitude posture were determined using an inverse dynamics method. But when considering reaction/momentum wheels, instead of this active torques computation, the purpose is to compute the angular velocities of the three reaction wheels which ensure the minisatellite to rotate from the initial to the final attitude. This paper presents this computation of reaction wheels angular velocities using a similar inverse dynamics method based on inverting Euler’s equations of motion for a rigid body with one fixed point, written in the framework of the x-y-z sequence of rotations parameterization. For the particular case A=B not equal C of an axisymmetric minisatellite, the two computations are compared: the active torques computation versus the computation of reaction wheels angular velocities ̇x , ̇y and ̇z. An interesting observation comes out from this numerical study: if the three reaction wheels are identical (with Iw the moment of inertia of one reaction wheel with respect to its central axis, then the evolutions in time of the products between Iw and the derivatives of the reaction wheels angular velocities, i.e. ̇ , ̇ and ̇ remain the same and do not depend on the moment of inertia Iw.

  1. Interplay between exercise and dietary fat modulates myelinogenesis in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyesook; Kleven, Andrew; Paulsen, Alex; Kleppe, Laurel; Wu, Jianmin; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Scarisbrick, Isobel A

    2016-04-01

    Here we show that the interplay between exercise training and dietary fat regulates myelinogenesis in the adult central nervous system. Mice consuming high fat with coordinate voluntary running wheel exercise for 7weeks showed increases in the abundance of the major myelin membrane proteins, proteolipid (PLP) and myelin basic protein (MBP), in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Expression of MBP and PLP RNA, as well that for Myrf1, a transcription factor driving oligodendrocyte differentiation were also differentially increased under each condition. Furthermore, expression of IGF-1 and its receptor IGF-1R, known to promote myelinogenesis, were also increased in the spinal cord in response to high dietary fat or exercise training. Parallel increases in AKT signaling, a pro-myelination signaling intermediate activated by IGF-1, were also observed in the spinal cord of mice consuming high fat alone or in combination with exercise. Despite the pro-myelinogenic effects of high dietary fat in the context of exercise, high fat consumption in the setting of a sedentary lifestyle reduced OPCs and mature oligodendroglia. Whereas 7weeks of exercise training alone did not alter OPC or oligodendrocyte numbers, it did reverse reductions seen with high fat. Evidence is presented suggesting that the interplay between exercise and high dietary fat increase SIRT1, PGC-1α and antioxidant enzymes which may permit oligodendroglia to take advantage of diet and exercise-related increases in mitochondrial activity to yield increases in myelination despite higher levels of reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of voluntary, involuntary, and forced exercises on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and motor function recovery: a rat brain ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke rehabilitation with different exercise paradigms has been investigated, but which one is more effective in facilitating motor recovery and up-regulating brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF after brain ischemia would be interesting to clinicians and patients. Voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and involuntary muscle movement caused by functional electrical stimulation (FES have been individually demonstrated effective as stroke rehabilitation intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three common interventions on brain BDNF changes and motor recovery levels using a rat ischemic stroke model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and seventeen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups: Control (Con, Voluntary exercise of wheel running (V-Ex, Forced exercise of treadmill running (F-Ex, and Involuntary exercise of FES (I-Ex with implanted electrodes placed in two hind limb muscles on the affected side to mimic gait-like walking pattern during stimulation. Ischemic stroke was induced in all rats with the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model and fifty-seven rats had motor deficits after stroke. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, rats were arranged to their intervention programs. De Ryck's behavioral test was conducted daily during the 7-day intervention as an evaluation tool of motor recovery. Serum corticosterone concentration and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex were measured after the rats were sacrificed. V-Ex had significantly better motor recovery in the behavioral test. V-Ex also had significantly higher hippocampal BDNF concentration than F-Ex and Con. F-Ex had significantly higher serum corticosterone level than other groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Voluntary exercise is the most effective intervention in upregulating the hippocampal BDNF level, and facilitating motor recovery. Rats that exercised voluntarily also showed less

  3. Economic efficiency, independent power producers and wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, electric utilities have sought to decrease the cost of production by such means as merit order running of machines, by improving equipment efficiency, by fuel mix, by interconnection and exchange of cheap energy, and by unit participation and firm purchase and sale contracts for long term savings. In the ''new look'', it was suggested that financial and technical competition is not enough, and that economic gains could be achieved through fostering independent power producers, i.e., non-utility generators (NUG's), greater exchanges of economy energy, unrestricted access to the transmission network for moving cheap energy through facilities of third parties, and by bidding to supply energy to non-generators, etc. Naturally, the proposals to change the comfortable and time-hallowed practices by which utility business had been carried out in the past has created an ongoing debate both pro and con, much of it acrimonious, and, unfortunately, some of it ill-informed. The turmoil in the political context impacts on a utility's technical and financial planners, and on their managements, all of whom contribute to justifying and maintaining the flow of capital to the industry and energy to the customer. They must now seek new ways to implement both short- and long-term planning of power supply. Some of the factors that were neglected in the past will demand more attention in the future. This paper discusses some of the costs that, under the anticipated modus operandi, must be integrated into the planning process while meeting the new challenges. The costs are those relating to third-parties, costs of transmission constraints, and costs of wheeling. The opinion is ventured that much of the efficiency improvement anticipated during the debate has already been achieved by conscientious utility managements. (author)

  4. Depression and Anxiety: Exercise Eases Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make a difference. It may take less time exercising to improve your mood when you do more-vigorous activities, such as running or bicycling. The mental health benefits of exercise and physical activity may last only ...

  5. Distinct cardiac transcriptional profiles defining pregnancy and exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhee Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the hypertrophic responses of the heart to pregnancy and exercise are both considered to be physiological processes, they occur in quite different hormonal and temporal settings. In this study, we have compared the global transcriptional profiles of left ventricular tissues at various time points during the progression of hypertrophy in exercise and pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following groups of female mice were analyzed: non-pregnant diestrus cycle sedentary control, mid-pregnant, late-pregnant, and immediate-postpartum, and animals subjected to 7 and 21 days of voluntary wheel running. Hierarchical clustering analysis shows that while mid-pregnancy and both exercise groups share the closest relationship and similar gene ontology categories, late pregnancy and immediate post-partum are quite different with high representation of secreted/extracellular matrix-related genes. Moreover, pathway-oriented ontological analysis shows that metabolism regulated by cytochrome P450 and chemokine pathways are the most significant signaling pathways regulated in late pregnancy and immediate-postpartum, respectively. Finally, increases in expression of components of the proteasome observed in both mid-pregnancy and immediate-postpartum also result in enhanced proteasome activity. Interestingly, the gene expression profiles did not correlate with the degree of cardiac hypertrophy observed in the animal groups, suggesting that distinct pathways are employed to achieve similar amounts of cardiac hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that cardiac adaptation to the later stages of pregnancy is quite distinct from both mid-pregnancy and exercise. Furthermore, it is very dynamic since, by 12 hours post-partum, the heart has already initiated regression of cardiac growth, and 50 genes have changed expression significantly in the immediate-postpartum compared to late-pregnancy. Thus, pregnancy

  6. A rotating target wheel system for gammasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    A description is given for a low-mass, rotating target wheel to be used within the Gammasphere target chamber. This system was developed for experiments employing high beam currents in order to extend lifetimes of targets using low-melting point target material. The design is based on a previously successful implementation of rotating target wheels for the Argonne Positron Experiment (APEX) as well as the Fragment Mass Analyser (FMA) at ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). A brief history of these rotating target wheel systems is given as well as a discussion on target preparation and performance

  7. Effects of voluntary running on plasma levels of neurotrophins, hippocampal cell proliferation and learning and memory in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, S-Y; Lau, B W-M; Zhang, E-D; Lee, J C-D; Li, A; Lee, T M C; Ching, Y-P; Xu, A-M; So, K-F

    2012-10-11

    Previous studies have shown that a 2-week treatment with 40 mg/kg corticosterone (CORT) in rats suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis and decreases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and impairs spatial learning, all of which could be counteracted by voluntary wheel running. BDNF and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) have been suggested to mediate physical exercise-enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition. Here we examined whether such running-elicited benefits were accompanied by corresponding changes of peripheral BDNF and IGF-1 levels in a rat model of stress. We examined the effects of acute (5 days) and chronic (4 weeks) treatment with CORT and/or wheel running on (1) hippocampal cell proliferation, (2) spatial learning and memory and (3) plasma levels of BDNF and IGF-1. Acute CORT treatment improved spatial learning without altered cell proliferation compared to vehicle treatment. Acute CORT-treated non-runners showed an increased trend in plasma BDNF levels together with a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. Acute running showed no effect on cognition, cell proliferation and peripheral BDNF and IGF-1 levels. Conversely, chronic CORT treatment in non-runners significantly impaired spatial learning and suppressed cell proliferation in association with a decreased trend in plasma BDNF level and a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. Running counteracted cognitive deficit and restored hippocampal cell proliferation following chronic CORT treatment; but without corresponding changes in plasma BDNF and IGF-1 levels. The results suggest that the beneficial effects of acute stress on cognitive improvement may be mediated by BDNF-enhanced synaptic plasticity that is hippocampal cell proliferation-independent, whereas chronic stress may impair cognition by decreasing hippocampal cell proliferation and BDNF levels. Furthermore, the results indicate a trend in changes of plasma BDNF levels associated with a

  8. Depletion of Pax7+ satellite cells does not affect diaphragm adaptations to running in young or aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Kevin A; Confides, Amy L; Ho, Angel; Jackson, Janna R; Ghazala, Lina S; Peterson, Charlotte A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E

    2017-10-01

    Satellite cell depletion does not affect diaphragm adaptations to voluntary wheel running in young or aged mice. Satellite cell depletion early in life (4 months of age) has minimal effect on diaphragm phenotype by old age (24 months). Prolonged satellite cell depletion in the diaphragm does not result in excessive extracellular matrix accumulation, in contrast to what has been reported in hind limb muscles. Up-regulation of Pax3 mRNA+ cells after satellite cell depletion in young and aged mice suggests that Pax3+ cells may compensate for a loss of Pax7+ satellite cells in the diaphragm. Future investigations should focus on the role of Pax3+ cells in the diaphragm during adaptation to exercise and ageing. Satellite cell contribution to unstressed diaphragm is higher compared to hind limb muscles, which is probably attributable to constant activation of this muscle to drive ventilation. Whether satellite cell depletion negatively impacts diaphragm quantitative and qualitative characteristics under stressed conditions in young and aged mice is unknown. We therefore challenged the diaphragm with prolonged running activity in the presence and absence of Pax7+ satellite cells in young and aged mice using an inducible Pax7 CreER -R26R DTA model. Mice were vehicle (Veh, satellite cell-replete) or tamoxifen (Tam, satellite cell-depleted) treated at 4 months of age and were then allowed to run voluntarily at 6 months (young) and 22 months (aged). Age-matched, cage-dwelling, Veh- and Tam-treated mice without wheel access served as activity controls. Diaphragm muscles were analysed from young (8 months) and aged (24 months) mice. Satellite cell depletion did not alter diaphragm mean fibre cross-sectional area, fibre type distribution or extracellular matrix content in young or aged mice, regardless of running activity. Resting in vivo diaphragm function was also unaffected by satellite cell depletion. Myonuclear density was maintained in young satellite cell

  9. Maternal Voluntary Exercise during Pregnancy Enhances the Spatial Learning Acquisition but not the Retention of Memory in Rat Pups via a TrkB-mediated Mechanism: The Role of Hippocampal BDNF Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar M Akhavan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: The effect of maternal voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF level in rat offspring was studied. In addition, the possible role of hippocampal BDNF receptors in maternal exercise induced enhancement of learning in the rat pups was investigated.   Materials and Methods: Pregnant rats have been randomly assigned to sedentary control or voluntary exercise groups. Each of the exercising pregnant rats was given access to a cage that was equipped with a running wheel until the end of their pregnancy. On post natal day (PND 36, two groups consisted of 7 male rat pups in each group from sedentary or exercised mothers were sacrificed and the hippocampus was dissected for BDNF proteins level determination. Also, bilateral injection of K252a to the hippocampus was used to block the hippocampal BDNF action on PND59 in the rat pups. Results: Voluntary exercise during pregnancy significantly increased the level of BDNF protein in the hippocampus of the rat pups on PND36 compared to the control group (P=0.048. Inhibiting BDNF action abolished the exercise-induced improvement of learning acquisition in offspring in training trials (P=0.0001. No difference was observed in the platform location latency and the time spent in the target in the probe test between two groups. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that voluntary exercise during pregnancy via a TrkB-mediated mechanism enhances the spatial learning acquisition, however, not the retention of memory in the rat pups.

  10. Effects of voluntary exercise on the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups born from morphine- dependent mothers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydari, Sakineh; Safari, Manouchehr; Zarbakhsh, Sam; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2016-11-10

    This study was designed to investigate whether free access to a running wheel during pregnancy in morphine-dependent mothers would influence the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with free access to a running wheel. Male pups are weaned at 21days of birth and their bones marrows were aspirated from the femurs and tibias and also the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured. MTT assay was used to determine cell viability and proliferation rate. The level of BDNF was measured in the supernant of BMSCs culture by ELISA. The sedentary morphine-dependent mothers' pups showed a significant increase in the percentage cell viability and proliferation rate and also a significant decrease in the BDNF protein levels in BMSCs. The rat pups borne from exercising the control and morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in the percentage viability, proliferation rate and BDNF levels of the BMSCs. This study showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy in morphine-dependent and non-dependent mothers, with increasing of BDNF levels increased the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Also, chronic administration of morphine during pregnancy was able to increase the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The psychological benefits of recreational running: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila; Abrahám, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Running yields positive changes in affect, but the external validity of controlled studies has received little attention in the literature. In this inquiry, 50 recreational runners completed the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (Gauvin & Rejeskí, 1993) before and after a bout of self-planned running on an urban running path. Positive changes were seen in all four measures of affect (p run, weekly running time, weekly running distance, and running experience) to the observed changes in affect. The results have revealed that exercise characteristics accounted for only 14-30% of the variance in the recreational runners' affect, in both directions. It is concluded that psychological benefits of recreational running may be linked to placebo (conditioning and/or expectancy) effects.

  12. Running and Osteoarthritis: Does Recreational or Competitive Running Increase the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Exercise, like running, is good for overall health and, specifically, our hearts, lungs, muscles, bones, and brains. However, some people are concerned about the impact of running on longterm joint health. Does running lead to higher rates of arthritis in knees and hips? While many researchers find that running protects bone health, others are concerned that this exercise poses a high risk for age-related changes to hips and knees. A study published in the June 2017 issue of JOSPT suggests that the difference in these outcomes depends on the frequency and intensity of running. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(6):391. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0505.

  13. The effects of aerobic exercise on depression-like, anxiety-like, and cognition-like behaviours over the healthy adult lifespan of C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Julie A; Singhal, Gaurav; Corrigan, Frances; Jaehne, Emily J; Jawahar, Magdalene C; Baune, Bernhard T

    2018-01-30

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated exercise improves various types of behaviours such as anxiety-like, depression-like, and cognition-like behaviours. However, these findings were largely conducted in studies utilising short-term exercise protocols, and the effects of lifetime exercise on these behaviours remain unknown. This study investigates the behavioural effects of lifetime exercise in normal healthy ageing C57BL/6 mice over the adult lifespan. 12 week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel running or non-exercise (control) groups. Exercise commenced at aged 3 months and behaviours were assessed in young adult (Y), early middle age (M), and old (O) mice (n=11-17/group). The open field and elevated zero maze examined anxiety-like behaviours, depression-like behaviours were quantified with the forced swim test, and the Y maze and Barnes maze investigated cognition-like behaviours. The effects of lifetime exercise were not simply an extension of the effects of chronic exercise on anxiety-like, depression-like, and cognition-like behaviours. Exercise tended to reduce overt anxiety-like behaviours with ageing, and improved recognition memory and spatial learning in M mice as was expected. However, exercise also increased anxiety behaviours including greater freezing behaviour that extended spatial learning latencies in Y female mice in particular, while reduced distances travelled contributed to longer spatial memory and cognitive flexibility latencies in Y and O mice. Lifetime exercise may increase neurogenesis-associated anxiety. This could be an evolutionary conserved adaptation that nevertheless has adverse impacts on cognition-like function, with particularly pronounced effects in Y female mice with intact sex hormones. These issues require careful investigation in future rodent studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Of faeces and sweat. How much a mouse is willing to run: having a hard time measuring spontaneous physical activity in different mouse sub-strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Coletti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has multiple beneficial effects in the physiology and pathology of the organism. In particular, we and other groups have shown that running counteracts cancer cachexia in both humans and rodents. The latter are prone to exercise in wheel-equipped cages even at advanced stages of cachexia. However, when we wanted to replicate the experimental model routinely used at the University of Rome in a different laboratory (i.e. at Paris 6 University, we had to struggle with puzzling results due to unpredicted mouse behavior. Here we report the experience and offer the explanation underlying these apparently irreproducible results. The original data are currently used for teaching purposes in undergraduate student classes of biological sciences.

  15. The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Molyneux-Berry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an “in-service” wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing. The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets.

  16. An Ultrasonic Wheel-Array Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, B. W.; Brotherhood, C. J.; Freemantle, R. J.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the development and modeling of an ultrasonic array wheel probe scanning system. The system operates at 10 MHz using a 64 element array transducer which is 50 mm in length and located in a fluid filled wheel. The wheel is coupled to the test structure dry, or with a small amount of liquid couplant. When the wheel is rolled over the surface of the test structure a defect map (C-Scan) is generated in real-time. The tyre is made from a soft, durable polymer which has very little acoustic loss. Two application studies are presented; the inspection of sealant layers in an aluminum aircraft wing structure and the detection of embedded defects in a thick section carbon composite sample.

  17. Multiple Wheel Throwing: And Chess Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1978-01-01

    A chess set project is suggested to teach multiple throwing, the creation on a potter's wheel of several pieces of similar configuration. Processes and finished sets are illustrated with photographs. (SJL)

  18. UT Biomedical Informatics Lab (BMIL) probability wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Cheng; Lee, Sara; Wang, Allen; Cantor, Scott B.; Sun, Clement; Fan, Kaili; Reece, Gregory P.; Kim, Min Soon; Markey, Mia K.

    A probability wheel app is intended to facilitate communication between two people, an "investigator" and a "participant", about uncertainties inherent in decision-making. Traditionally, a probability wheel is a mechanical prop with two colored slices. A user adjusts the sizes of the slices to indicate the relative value of the probabilities assigned to them. A probability wheel can improve the adjustment process and attenuate the effect of anchoring bias when it is used to estimate or communicate probabilities of outcomes. The goal of this work was to develop a mobile application of the probability wheel that is portable, easily available, and more versatile. We provide a motivating example from medical decision-making, but the tool is widely applicable for researchers in the decision sciences.

  19. ANALYSIS OF FORMING TREAD WHEEL SETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor IVANOV

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a theoretical study of profile high-speed grinding (PHSG for forming tread wheel sets during repair instead of turning and mold-milling. Significant disadvantages of these methods are low capacity to adapt to the tool and inhomogeneous structure of the wheel material. This leads to understated treatment regimens and difficulties in recovering wheel sets with thermal and mechanical defects. This study carried out modeling and analysis of emerging cutting forces. Proposed algorithms describe the random occurrence of the components of the cutting forces in the restoration profile of wheel sets with an inhomogeneous structure of the material. To identify the statistical features of randomly generated structures fractal dimension and the method of random additions were used. The multifracta