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Sample records for rulison underground nuclear

  1. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Rulison Underground Nuclear Test Site, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earman, S.; Chapman, J.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations that were used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater from these sites is an important part of the preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations are undertaken to allow prioritization of the test areas in terms of risk, provide a quantitative basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work at the sites, and provide a framework for assessing data needs to be filled by site characterization. The Rulison site in west-central Colorado was the location of an underground detonation of a 40-kiloton nuclear device in 1969. The test took place 2,568 m below ground surface in the Mesaverde Formation. Though located below the regional water table, none of the bedrock formations at the site yielded water during hydraulic tests, indicating extremely low permeability conditions. The scenario evaluated was the migration of radionuclides from the blast-created cavity through the Mesaverde Formation. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides from the test are contained entirely within the area currently administered by DOE. The transport calculations are most sensitive to changes in the mean groundwater velocity and the correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity, with transport of strontium and cesium also sensitive to the sorption coefficient

  2. Final Rulison Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management developed this report as a guide for discussions with the Colorado State regulators and other interested stakeholders in response to increased drilling for natural gas reserves near the underground nuclear explosion site at Rulison, Colorado. The Rulison site is located in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado, 40 miles northeast of Grand Junction. The Rulison test was the second natural gas reservoir stimulation experiment in the Plowshare Program, which was designed to develop peaceful uses for nuclear energy. On September 10, 1969, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of DOE, detonated a 40-kiloton nuclear device 8426 feet below the ground surface in an attempt to release commercially marketable quantities of natural gas. The blast vaporized surrounding rock and formed a cavity about 150 feet in diameter. Although the contaminated materials from drilling operations were subsequently removed from the surface of the blast site, no feasible technology exists to remove subsurface radioactive contamination in or around the test cavity. An increase in drilling for natural gas near the site has raised concern about the possibility of encountering residual radioactivity from the area of the detonation. DOE prohibits drilling in the 40-acre lot surrounding the blast site at a depth below 6000 feet. DOE has no evidence that indicates contamination from the Rulison site detonation has migrated or will ever migrate beyond the 40-acre institutional control boundary. The Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) established two wider boundaries around the site. When a company applies for a permit to drill within a 3-mile radius of surface ground zero, COGCC notifies DOE and provides an opportunity to comment on the application. COGCC also established a half-mile radius around surface ground zero. An application to drill within one-half mile requires a full hearing before the

  3. Project Rulison: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M Jr; Bray, B G; Mann, R L

    1970-01-01

    Project Rulison was designed to use underground nuclear technology to determine the potential of this technique for commercial development of the deep, thick, lenticular, low permeability, Mesaverde Formation of the Tuli Rulison field in Garfield County, Colorado. A feasibility study completed in July 1966 indicated that nuclear explosives were a potentially economic method of stimulating recovery of natural gas from the reservoir. The gas-in-place, estimated to be between 90 to 125 billion cu ft per 640 acres from earlier wells, was confirmed from information obtained on 2 conventional wells completed in 1966. The Project Rulison exploratory well, R-EX, was completed in May 1968. Detailed testing of this well provided data on geology, hydrology and reservoir characteristics. The data obtained from the testing have been used to determine the flow capacity of the Mesaverde reservoir. The reservoir characteristics were then used as input data to make predictions of post-shot reservoir performance in the nuclear stimulated well, using a radial, unsteady state gas-flow computer model. (20 refs.)

  4. Determination and maintenance of DE minimis risk for migration of residual tritium (3H) from the 1969 Project Rulison nuclear test to nearby hydraulically fractured natural gas wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jeffrey I; Chapman, Jenny B

    2013-05-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was a proof-of-concept experiment that was conducted under the Plowshare Program in 1969 in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin in west-central Colorado. Today, commercial production of natural gas is possible from low permeability, natural gas bearing formations like that of the Williams Fork Formation using modern hydraulic fracturing techniques. With natural gas exploration and production active in the Project Rulison area, this human health risk assessment was performed in order to add a human health perspective for site stewardship. Tritium (H) is the radionuclide of concern with respect to potential induced migration from the test cavity leading to subsequent exposure during gas-flaring activities. This analysis assumes gas flaring would occur for up to 30 d and produce atmospheric H activity concentrations either as low as 2.2 × 10 Bq m (6 × 10 pCi m) from the minimum detectable activity concentration in produced water or as high as 20.7 Bq m (560 pCi m), which equals the highest atmospheric measurement reported during gas-flaring operations conducted at the time of Project Rulison. The lifetime morbidity (fatal and nonfatal) cancer risks calculated for adults (residents and workers) and children (residents) from inhalation and dermal exposures to such activity concentrations are all below 1 × 10 and considered de minimis. The implications for monitoring production water for conforming health-protective, risk-based action levels also are examined.

  5. Project Rulison: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Miles Jr [Austral Oil Company Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States); Bray, Bruce G; Mann, Robert L [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Project Rulison was designed to use underground nuclear technology to determine the potential of this technique for commercial development of the deep, thick, lenticular, low permeability, Mesaverde Formation of the Rulison Field in Garfield County, Colorado. Since discovery in 1952, this reservoir has been tested by nine widely-spaced conventionally completed wells. A method of stimulation, far greater in magnitude and efficiency than conventional hydraulic fracturing, is needed to recover this gas at economic rates. A feasibility study completed in July 1966 indicated that nuclear explosives were a potentially economic method of stimulating recovery of natural gas from the reservoir. The gas-in-place, estimated to be between 90-125 billion cubic feet per 640 acres from earlier wells, was confirmed from information obtained on two conventional wells completed in 1966. The Project Rulison exploratory well, R-EX, was completed in May 1968. Detailed testing of this well provided data on geology, hydrology and reservoir characteristics. The data obtained from the testing have been used to determine the flow capacity of the Mesaverde reservoir. The reservoir characteristics were then used as input data to make predictions of post-shot reservoir performance in the nuclear stimulated well, using a radial, unsteady state gas flow computer model. A nuclear explosive with a design yield of 40 kilotons was emplaced in a 10-3/4 inch hole at a depth of 8426 feet below ground surface and detonated on September 10, 1969. A preliminary appraisal of the data taken at shot time indicate that the explosive behaved as predicted. The explosion was completely contained underground as predicted and no major seismic damage occurred. The post-shot drilling program, to reenter the chimney, will congruence in March 1970, approximately six months after detonation. A test program will be initiated at that time to determine the degree of reservoir stimulation achieved. (author)

  6. MODELING OF FLOW AND TRANSPORT INDUCED BY PRODUCTION OF HYDROFRACTURE-STIMULATED GAS WELLS NEAR THE RULISON NUCLEAR TEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Rex A. [Navarro Research and Engineering; Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Falta, Ronald [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2012-09-17

    The Piceance Basin in western Colorado contains significant reserves of natural gas in poorly connected, low-permeability (tight) sandstone lenses of the Mesaverde Group. The ability to enhance the production of natural gas in this area has long been a goal of the oil and gas industry. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, participated in three tests using nuclear detonations to fracture tight formations in an effort to enhance gas production. The tests were conducted under Project Plowshare, a program designed to identify peaceful, beneficial uses for nuclear devices. The first, Project Gasbuggy, was conducted in 1967 in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico. The two subsequent tests, Project Rulison in 1969 and Project Rio Blanco in 1973, were in the Piceance Basin. The ability to enhance natural gas production from tight sands has become practical through advances in hydraulic fracturing technology (hydrofracturing). This technology has led to an increase in drilling activity near the Rulison site, raising concerns that contamination currently contained in the subsurface could be released through a gas well drilled too close to the site. As wells are drilled nearer the site, the DOE Office of Legacy Management has taken the approach outlined in the June 2010 Rulison Path Forward document (DOE 2010), which recommends a conservative, staged approach to gas development. Drillers are encouraged to drill wells in areas with a low likelihood of encountering contamination (both distance and direction from the detonation zone are factors) and to collect data from these wells prior to drilling nearer the site’s 40 acre institutional control boundary (Lot 11). Previous modeling results indicate that contamination has been contained within Lot 11 (Figure 1). The Path Forward document couples the model predictions with the monitoring of gas and produced water from the gas wells

  7. Rulison Site corrective action report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Project Rulison was a joint US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Austral Oil Company (Austral) experiment, conducted under the AEC`s Plowshare Program, to evaluate the feasibility of using a nuclear device to stimulate natural gas production in low-permeability gas-producing geologic formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 40-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 m below ground surface (BGS). This Corrective Action Report describes the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbon- and heavy-metal-contaminated sediments from an old drilling effluent pond and characterization of the mud pits used during drilling of the R-EX well at the Rulison Site. The Rulison Site is located approximately 65 kilometers (40 miles) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. The effluent pond was used for the storage of drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for the 1969 gas stimulation test conducted by the AEC. This report also describes the activities performed to determine whether contamination is present in mud pits used during the drilling of well R-EX, the gas production well drilled at the site to evaluate the effectiveness of the detonation in stimulating gas production. The investigation activities described in this report were conducted during the autumn of 1995, concurrent with the cleanup of the drilling effluent pond. This report describes the activities performed during the soil investigation and provides the analytical results for the samples collected during that investigation.

  8. Rulison Site corrective action report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    Project Rulison was a joint US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Austral Oil Company (Austral) experiment, conducted under the AEC's Plowshare Program, to evaluate the feasibility of using a nuclear device to stimulate natural gas production in low-permeability gas-producing geologic formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 40-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 m below ground surface (BGS). This Corrective Action Report describes the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbon- and heavy-metal-contaminated sediments from an old drilling effluent pond and characterization of the mud pits used during drilling of the R-EX well at the Rulison Site. The Rulison Site is located approximately 65 kilometers (40 miles) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. The effluent pond was used for the storage of drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for the 1969 gas stimulation test conducted by the AEC. This report also describes the activities performed to determine whether contamination is present in mud pits used during the drilling of well R-EX, the gas production well drilled at the site to evaluate the effectiveness of the detonation in stimulating gas production. The investigation activities described in this report were conducted during the autumn of 1995, concurrent with the cleanup of the drilling effluent pond. This report describes the activities performed during the soil investigation and provides the analytical results for the samples collected during that investigation

  9. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  10. Underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo.

    1997-01-01

    In an underground-type nuclear power plant, groups of containing cavities comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally by way of partition walls are disposed in parallel underground. Controlled communication tunnels for communicating the containing cavities belonging to a control region to each other, and non-controlled communication tunnels for communicating containing cavities belonging to a non-controlled area to each other are disposed underground. A controlled corridor tunnel and a non-controlled corridor tunnel extended so as to surround the containing cavity groups are disposed underground, and the containing cavities belonging to the controlled area are connected to the controlled corridor tunnel respectively, and the containing cavities belonging to the non-controlled area are connected to the non-controlled corridor tunnel respectively. The excavating amount of earth and sand upon construction can be reduced by disposing the containing cavity groups comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally. The time and the cost for the construction can be reduced, and various excellent effects can be provided. (N.H.)

  11. The effects of the Rulison event on buildings and other surface structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Lloyd A.; Skjei, Roger E.

    1970-01-01

    Project RULISON is a joint experiment sponsored, by Austral Oil Company Incorporated, Houston, Texas, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Department of the Interior, with the Program Management provided by CER Geonuclear Corporation of Las Vegas, Nevada under contract to Austral. Its purpose is to study the economic and technical feasibility of using underground nuclear explosions to stimulate production of natural gas from the low productivity, gas bearing Mesaverde formation in the RULISON Field. The nuclear explosive for Project RULISON was detonated successfully at 3:00 p.m. plus 0.1 seconds Mountain Daylight Time, September 10, 1969, at a depth of 8425.5 feet below ground level and was completely contained. Preliminary results indicate that the RULISON device behaved about as expected; i.e., with a yield of about 40 kt. The wellhead of the emplacement well, Hayward 25-95A, is at an elevation of 8154 feet above mean sea level (MSL) and is located 1976.31 feet east of west line and 1813.19 feet north of south line of Section 25, Township 7 South, Range 95 west of 6th P.M., Garfield County, Colorado which corresponds to geodetic coordinates of longitude 107 deg. 56'53'' west and latitude 39 deg. 24'21'' north. John A. Blume and Associates Research Division, under contract with the Nevada Operations Office of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, has been assigned responsibility for structural inventories in the range of probable damage, structural response and damage predictions, surface earth structure hazard evaluations, and recommendations for safety measures in these particular aspects. The predictions were based on field data, office studies, ground motion predictions from the Environmental Research Corporation (ERC), and pertinent published information. This paper is essentially an interim report of currently available data. Studies are continuing to further develop the relationship of ground motion, structural properties, and damage. (author)

  12. The effects of the Rulison event on buildings and other surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Lloyd A; Skjei, Roger E [John A. Blume and Associates Research Division, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Project RULISON is a joint experiment sponsored, by Austral Oil Company Incorporated, Houston, Texas, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Department of the Interior, with the Program Management provided by CER Geonuclear Corporation of Las Vegas, Nevada under contract to Austral. Its purpose is to study the economic and technical feasibility of using underground nuclear explosions to stimulate production of natural gas from the low productivity, gas bearing Mesaverde formation in the RULISON Field. The nuclear explosive for Project RULISON was detonated successfully at 3:00 p.m. plus 0.1 seconds Mountain Daylight Time, September 10, 1969, at a depth of 8425.5 feet below ground level and was completely contained. Preliminary results indicate that the RULISON device behaved about as expected; i.e., with a yield of about 40 kt. The wellhead of the emplacement well, Hayward 25-95A, is at an elevation of 8154 feet above mean sea level (MSL) and is located 1976.31 feet east of west line and 1813.19 feet north of south line of Section 25, Township 7 South, Range 95 west of 6th P.M., Garfield County, Colorado which corresponds to geodetic coordinates of longitude 107 deg. 56'53'' west and latitude 39 deg. 24'21'' north. John A. Blume and Associates Research Division, under contract with the Nevada Operations Office of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, has been assigned responsibility for structural inventories in the range of probable damage, structural response and damage predictions, surface earth structure hazard evaluations, and recommendations for safety measures in these particular aspects. The predictions were based on field data, office studies, ground motion predictions from the Environmental Research Corporation (ERC), and pertinent published information. This paper is essentially an interim report of currently available data. Studies are continuing to further develop the relationship of ground motion, structural properties, and damage. (author)

  13. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  14. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Chapman, Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  15. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels Jeffrey I.,Chapman Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  16. Rulison Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-01

    The Project Rulison Monitoring Plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management's mission to protect human health and the environment. The purpose of the plan is to monitor fluids from gas wells for radionuclides that would indicate contamination is migrating from the Rulison detonation zone to producing gas wells, allowing action to be taken before the contamination could pose a risk. The Monitoring Plan (1) lists the contaminants present and identifies those that have the greatest potential to migrate from the detonation zone (radionuclide source term), (2) identifies locations that monitor the most likely transport pathways, (3) identifies which fluids will be sampled (gas and liquid) and why, (4) establishes the frequency of sampling, and (5) specifies the most practical analyses and where the analysis results will be reported. The plan does not affect the long-term hydrologic sampling conducted by DOE since 1972, which will continue for the purpose of sampling shallow groundwater and surface water near the site. The Monitoring Plan was developed in anticipation of gas wells being drilled progressively nearer the Rulison site. DOE sampled 10 gas wells in 1997 and 2005 at distances ranging from 2.7 to 7.6 miles from the site to establish background concentrations for radionuclides. In a separate effort, gas industry operators and the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) developed an industry sampling and analysis plan that was implemented in 2007. The industry plan requires the sampling of gas wells within 3 miles of the site, with increased requirements for wells within 1 mile of the site. The DOE plan emphasizes the sampling of wells near the site (Figure 1), specifically those with a bottom-hole location of 1 mile or less from the detonation, depending on the direction relative to the natural fracture trend of the producing formation. Studies indicate that even the most mobile

  17. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarath, Chamaka; Caspar Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The CASPAR mainly focuses on Stellar Nucleosynthesis, its impact on the production of heavy elements and study the strength of stellar neutron sources that propels the s-process, 13C(α,n)16O and 22Ne(α,n)25Mg. Currently, implementation of a 1MV fully refurbished Van de Graaff accelerator that can provide a high intensity Î+/- beam, is being done at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF). The accelerator is built among a collaboration of South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, University of Notre Dame and Colorado School of Mines. It is understood that cosmic ray neutron background radiation hampers experimental Nucleosynthesis studies, hence the need to go underground in search for a neutron free environment, to study these reactions at low energies is evident. The first beam was produced in the middle of summer 2017. The entire accelerator will be run before the end of this year. A detailed overview of goals of CASPAR will be presented. NFS Grant-1615197.

  18. Underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Gary H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  19. Underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Gary H.

    1970-01-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  20. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  1. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J E

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commercial radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects.

  2. Rulison: radiation contamination clearance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Under contract with Austral Oil Company, Eberline Instrument Corporation provided supervision and technicians to radiologically support the well plugging and site abandonment activities at the Project Rulison site during the period September 1, 1976 through October 12, 1976. The purpose of the support was to identify and prepare for removal of all radioactively contaminated materials remaining on site. The emplacement and reentry wells were successfully plugged without a serious radiological incident. There was no measurable radiation exposure above natural background to participating personnel. Decontamination and monitoring procedures assured that no equipment or material was improperly released to unrestricted use. A review of the history of project operations, the conduct of comprehensive sampling programs, and an extensive final survey, ensures that the extent of radioactivity on the site is identified and that such activity is well below established guide lines. Except for appropriate restrictions regarding deep drilling, the radiological condition of the Project Rulison site permits its return to unrestricted use

  3. Seismic motions from project Rulison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    In the range from a few to a few hundred km, seismic measurements from the Rulison event are shown and compared with experimentally and analytically derived pre-event estimates. Seismograms, peak accelerations, and response spectra are given along with a description of the associated geologic environment. Techniques used for the pre-event estimates are identified with emphasis on supportive data and on Rulison results. Of particular interest is the close-in seismic frequency content which is expected to contain stronger high frequency components. This higher frequency content translates into stronger accelerations within the first tens of km, which in turn affect safety preparations. Additionally, the local geologic structure at nearby population centers must be considered. Pre-event reverse profile refraction surveys are used to delineate the geology at Rifle, Rulison, Grand Valley, and other sites. The geologic parameters are then used as input to seismic amplification models which deliver estimates of local resonant frequencies. Prediction of such resonances allows improved safety assurance against seismic effects hazards. (author)

  4. Concept of underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Sotoaki

    1976-01-01

    The concept of constructing nuclear power plants on the sea or underground as the future sitting is based on moving the present power plants on the ground with actual results to the sea or underground without changing the design. The underground nuclear power plants have many similar points to underground hydro-electric power stations with many achievements in the construction viewpoint, though they have their proper difficult problems. Of course, it requires to excavate larger underground caves than the case of underground hydro-electric power plants. The maximum dimensions of the caves have been determined through experience in practice. Therefore the developments of design theory and construction technique are desirable in this field. In discussing underground construction, two evaluating methods are considered for the shielding effect of base rocks. The minimum vertical distance up to ground surface from the center of the cave differs depending upon the in-cave pressure, and the conditions of base rock, soil and underground water in case of the accident assumed in the design, and is approximately 60m, if the cave is assumed to be an indefinite cylindrical shape, by the safer side calculation in the above two evaluations. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Underground Nuclear Testing Program, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) continues to conduct an underground nuclear testing program which includes tests for nuclear weapons development and other tests for development of nuclear explosives and methods for their application for peaceful uses. ERDA also continues to provide nuclear explosive and test site support for nuclear effects tests sponsored by the Department of Defense. This Supplement extends the Environmental Statement (WASH-1526) to cover all underground nuclear tests and preparations for tests of one megaton (1 MT) or less at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during Fiscal Year 1976. The test activities covered include numerous continuing programs, both nuclear and non-nuclear, which can best be conducted in a remote area. However, if nuclear excavation tests or tests of yields above 1 MT or tests away from NTS should be planned, these will be covered by separate environmental statements

  6. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  7. Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel; Ilgner, Christoph; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Grieger, Marcel; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Stoeckel, Klaus; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background underground, accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear astrophysics reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies, as well as the continuation of solar fusion studies. As a result, NuPECC strongly recommended the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators. Such a project is underway in Dresden. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator is currently being refurbished by installing an ion source on the high voltage terminal, enabling intensive helium beams. The preparation of the underground site is funded, and the civil engineering project is being updated. The science case, operational strategy and project status are reported.

  8. US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  9. Electromagnetic signals from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.; Fitzhugh, R.; Homuth, F.

    1985-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields and ground currents resulting from underground nuclear explosions have been observed since the first such event. A few measurements have been reported, but most have not. There also have been some speculations as to their origin; the two most generally proposed are the magnetic bubble and the seismoelectric effect. The evidence seems to favor the latter mechanism. 15 refs., 36 figs

  10. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Ying Yangjun; Li Jinhong; Bai Yun

    2013-01-01

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  11. Underground nuclear waste storage backed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Latest to hold hearings on nuclear waste disposal problems is the Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space. Testimonies by John M. Deutch, Rustum Roy (presenting results of National Research Council panel on waste solidification), and Darleane C. Hoffman are summarized

  12. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, F.

    1982-01-01

    The symposium gave the opportunity for an international exchange of views on the concepts of underground nuclear power plants, which are presently world wide under consideration. The results of investigations into the advantages and disadvantages with regard to the technical safety aspects of the underground plants in comparison to plants on the surface led to open and sometimes controversal discussions. As a result of the symposium (32 contributions) a general agreement can be stated on the judgement concerning the advantages and the disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants (nnp). The advantages are: increased protection against external events; delayed release of fission products in accident situations, if the closures operate properly. The disadvantages are: increased costs of the construction of underground and restrictions to such sites where either large caverns or deep pits can be constructed, which also requires that certain technical problems must be solved beforehand. Also, additional safety certificates related to the site will be required within the licensing procedures. The importance of these advantages and disadvantages was in some cases assessed very differently. The discussions also showed, that there are a number of topics where some questions have not been finally answered yet. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Magnitude determination for large underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Lawrence D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    A method is presented for determining the local magnitudes for large underground nuclear explosions. The Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is applied to the peak amplitudes for 24 large underground nuclear explosions that took place in Nevada. The amplitudes were measured at 18 California Wood-Anderson stations located 150-810 km from the explosion epicenter. The variation of the individual station magnitudes and magnitude corrections and the variation of the average and rms error estimates in the magnitude determinations are examined with respect to distance, azimuth, and event location. The magnitude prediction capability of the Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is examined on the basis of these two criteria, and certain corrections are suggested. The azimuthal dependence of the individual station magnitudes is investigated, and corrections for the California stations are calculated. Statistical weighting schemes for two-component data are employed, and the assumptions and limitations in the use of peak amplitudes are discussed. (author)

  14. Rulison Site groundwater monitoring report fourth quarter, 1996. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Project Rulison, a joint US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Austral Oil Company (Austral) experiment, was conducted under the AEC`s Plowshare Program to evaluate the feasibility of using a nuclear device to stimulate natural gas production in low-permeability, gas-producing geologic formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 40-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 m below ground surface. This report summarizes the results of the fourth quarter 1996 groundwater sampling event for the Rulison Site, which is located approximately 65 kilometers (km) (40 miles [mi]) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. The sampling was performed as part of a quarterly groundwater monitoring program implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to monitor the effectiveness of remediation of a drilling effluent pond located at the site. The effluent pond was used for the storage of drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for a 1969 gas stimulation test.

  15. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Charles R [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  16. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  18. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m 3 . Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m 3 . By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m 3

  19. Siting technology of underground nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, M.; Hibino, S.

    1989-01-01

    For the site of a nuclear power station, it may be possible to select a seaside mountain area, if the condition is suitable to excavate large rock caverns in which a reactor and other equipments are installed. As the case study on the siting technology for an underground nuclear power station, the following example was investigated. The site is a seaside steep mountain area, and almost all the equipments are installed in plural tunnel type caverns. The depth from the ground surface to the top of the reactor cavern is about 150 m, and the thickness of the rock pillar between the reactor cavern of 33 m W x 82 mH x 79 mD and the neighboring turbine cavern is 60 m. In this paper, the stability of rock caverns in this example, evaluated by numerical analysis, is described. The numerical analysis was carried out on the central cross section of the reactor cavern, taking the turbine cavern, geostress, the mechanical properties of rock mass and the process of excavation works in consideration. By the analysis, the underground caverns in this example were evaluated as stable, if the rock quality is equivalent to C H class or better according to the CRIEPI rock classification. (K.I.)

  20. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry

  1. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  2. Potential Advantages of Underground Nuclear Parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Carl W.; Elkins, Ned Z.; Kunze, Jay F.; Mahar, James M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that an underground nuclear park (UNP) could potentially lead to lower capital and operating cost for the reactors installed in the UNP compared to the traditional approach, which would be to site the reactors at the earth's surface at distributed locations. The UNP approach could also lead to lower waste management cost. A secondary benefit would be the increased margins of safety and security that would be realized simply as a consequence of siting the reactors underground. Lowered capital and operating cost for a UNP relative to traditional reactor siting is possible through the aggregate effect of the elimination of containment structures, in-place decommissioning, reduced physical security costs, reduced weather-related costs, reduced cost of liability insurance and reduced unit-cost for the nth reactor made possible through the continuous construction of multiple reactors at the same underground location. Other cost reductions might be possible through the transfer of the capital cost for part of the underground construction from the reactor owners to the owners of the UNP. Lower waste management cost is possible by siting the UNP at a location where there are geological and hydrological conditions suitable for hosting both the reactors and the repository for the waste from those reactors. After adequate storage and cooling, and assuming direct disposal, this would enable the spent fuel from the reactors to be transported directly to the repository and remain entirely underground during the transport process. Community concerns and transportation costs would be significantly reduced relative to current situations where the reactors are separated from the repository by long distances and populated areas. The concept for a UNP in bedded salt is used to develop a rough order of magnitude cost estimate for excavation of the reactor array portion of a UNP. Excavation costs appear to be only a small fraction of the overall power plant costs

  3. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  4. Cavities produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    This investigation studied the displacement of rock that formerly occupied cavities produced by underground nuclear explosions. There are three possible explanations for this displacement: the volume could be displaced to the free surface; it could occupy previously air-filled pores removed from the surrounding rock through compaction; or it could be accounted for by persisting compressive stresses induced by the outgoing shock wave. The analysis shows it unlikely that stored residual elastic stresses account for large fractions of cavity volumes. There is limited experimental evidence that free surface displacement accounts for a significant portion of this volume. Whenever the explosion mediums contain air-filled pores, the compaction of these pores most likely accounts for all the volume. Calculations show that 4 percent air-filled porosity can account for all the cavity volume within about 4 cavity radii and that even 1 percent can account for a significant fraction of the volume

  5. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  6. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.

  7. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  8. Subsidence caused by an underground nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, W W [Environmental Research Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    An underground nuclear detonation creates a cavity, which may be followed by the formation of a rubble chimney and possibly by a surface subsidence crater. A knowledge of the mechanisms of surface and subsurface subsidence is valuable not only because of the potential engineering uses of the chimneys and craters that may form, but also for the prevention of surface damage. Some of the parameters that are of interest in the subsidence phenomenon are the height and volume of the chimney, the porosity of the chimney, the crater size (depth and radius) and shape, and the time required after detonation for formation of the chimney or crater. The influence of the properties of the subsidence medium on the geometry of the subsidence crater must be considered. The conditions under which partial or complete subsidence is prevented must also be studied. The applicability of the relations that have been developed for the flow of bulk solids for relatively small masses and low pressures to the subsidence problem associated with nuclear explosions is examined. Rational modifications are made to describe the subsidence problem. Sensitivity of the subsidence parameters to material properties and the prevailing geometry is shown. Comparison with observed results at the Nevada Test Site is made and the variations encountered are found to be within reasonable limits. The chimney size and subsidence crater dimensions are found to be a function of the bulking characteristics of the medium, the strength parameters, the dimensions of the subsurface cavity, and the depth of the cavity. The great influence of the strength parameters on the collapse times is shown. For a given medium, the prevention of subsidence is dependent on the cavity size. (author)

  9. Review of underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A review of the potential for the underground siting of nuclear power generating plants has been undertaken. The review comprised a survey and assessment of relevant published documents currently available, together with discussions with Government sponsored agencies and other bodies, to evaluate the current status of technology related to the design and construction of underground nuclear power plants. It includes a review of previous work related to the underground siting of power plants and other facilities; a preliminary evaluation of the relative merits of the various concepts of undergrounding which have been proposed or constructed; a review of current technology as it relates to the requirements for the design, construction and operation of underground nuclear power plants; an examination of the safety and environmental aspects; and the identification of areas of further study which will be required if the underground is to be established as a fully viable alternative to surface siting. No attempt has been made to draw final conclusions at this stage. Nothing has been found to suggest that the underground siting concept could not provide a viable alternative to the surface concept. It is also apparent that no major technological developments are required. It is not clear, however, whether the improvements in safety and containment postulated for the underground can be realized at an economic cost; or even whether any additional cost is in fact involved. The problem is essentially site dependent and requires further study for which recommendations are made. (auth)

  10. Horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobzheva, Ya.V.; Krasnov, V.M.; Sokolova, O.I.

    2001-01-01

    The horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions have been experimentally determined for 13 explosions conducted at the Balapan test site of the Semipalatinsk test site. (author)

  11. Structural design and dynamic analysis of underground nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierans, T.W.; Reddy, D.V.; Heale, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Present actual experience in the structural design of undeground containments is limited to only four rather small reactors all located in Europe. Thus proposals for future underground reactors depend on the transposition of applicable design specifications, constraints and criteria from existing surface nuclear power plants to underground, and the use of many years of experience in the structural design of large underground cavities and cavity complexes for other purposes such as mining, hydropower stations etc. An application of such considerations in a recent input for the Underground Containment sub-section of the Seismic Task Group Report to the ASCE Committee for Nuclear Structures and Materials is presented as follows: underground concept considerations, siting criteria and structural selection, structural types, analytical and semi-analytical approaches, design and other miscellaneous considerations

  12. Project Rulison: post-shot plans and evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-12-01

    Project Rulison post-shot plans and evaluations are discussed and include physical characteristics of the Rulison cavity; pressure and temperature expected in the cavity; amount, nature, and distribution of radioactivity in the cavity; reentry plan; radioactive species which may be encountered during reentry; public safety considerations arising from release of radioactivity; procedures to assure public safety; and the radiological safety plan. Maximum hypothetical accidents and ecological considerations are discussed in the appendices.

  13. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called 'array beams'. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  14. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  15. Underground siting of nuclear power plants: potential benefits and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.; Finger, J.T.; Milloy, J.A.; Murfin, W.B.; Rodeman, R.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1977-08-01

    The potential for improving nuclear power safety is analyzed by siting plants underground in mined cavities or by covering plants with fill earth after construction in an excavated cut. Potential benefits and penalties of underground plants are referenced to analogous plants located on the surface. Three representative regional sites having requisite underground geology were used to evaluate underground siting. The major factors which were evaluated for all three sites were: (1) containment of radioactive materials, (2) transport of groundwater contamination, and (3) seismic vulnerability. External protection, plant security, feasibility, operational considerations, and cost were evaluated on a generic basis. Additionally, the national availability of sites having the requisite geology for both underground siting concepts was determined

  16. Underground nuclear energy complexes - technical and economic advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kunze, Jay F [IDAHO STATE UNIV; Giraud, Kellen M [BABECOCK AND WILCOX; Mahar, James M [IDAHO STATE UNIV

    2010-01-01

    Underground nuclear power plant parks have been projected to be economically feasible compared to above ground instalIations. This paper includes a thorough cost analysis of the savings, compared to above ground facilities, resulting from in-place entombment (decommissioning) of facilities at the end of their life. reduced costs of security for the lifetime of the various facilities in the underground park. reduced transportation costs. and reduced costs in the operation of the waste storage complex (also underground). compared to the fair share of the costs of operating a national waste repository.

  17. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.; Telleschi, P.

    1978-10-01

    Two of the main underground siting alternatives, the rock cavity plant and the pit siting, have been investigated in detail and two layouts, developed for specific sites, have been proposed. The influence of this type of siting on normal operating conditions and during abnormal occurences have been investigated. (Auth.)

  18. War protected underground siting of nuclear power plants -a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-06-01

    In connection with studies concerning the need of war protected nuclear power production the technical and economical conditions with war protection of nuclear power plants have been studied within CDL. Comprehensively one have shown that no technical construction obstacles for siting a nuclear power plant underground exist that the additional costs for underground siting with price level mid 1973 are some 175-250 MSwCr (In today's price level 250 MSwCr will probably correspond to some 300 MSwCr per unit) and that the construction time is some one year longer than for an above ground plant. A study ought to examine more closely the consequences of underground siting from a radiological point of view and what demands on that occasion ought to be put on the technical design. (author)

  19. A survey of the underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.

    1979-12-01

    The idea of locating nuclear power plants underground is not new, since in the period of time between the late fifties and the early sixties, four small nuclear plants have been built in Europe in rock cavities. Safety has been, in general, the main motivation for such a siting solution. In the last years several factors such as increasing power transmission costs, decreasing number of suitable sites above ground, increased difficulties in obtaining site approval by the licensing authorities, increasing opposition to nuclear power, increasing concern for extreme - but highly improbable - accidents, together with the possibility of utilizing the waste heat and the urban siting concept have renewed the interest for the underground siting as an alternative to surface siting. The author presents a survey of the main studies carried out on the subject of underground siting. (Auth.)

  20. Case study of siting technology for underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibino, Satoshi; Komada, Hiroya; Honsho, Shizumitsu; Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Motojima, Mutsumi; Nakagawa, Kameichiro; Nosaki, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Underground siting method is one of new feasible siting methods for nuclear power plants. This report presents the results on case studies on underground siting. Two sites of a steeply inclined and plateau like configurations were selected. 'Tunnel type cavern; all underground siting' method was applied for the steeply inclined configuration, and 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was applied for the plateau like configuration. The following designs were carried out for these two sites as case studies; (1) conceptual designs, (2) geological surveys and rock mechanics tests, (3) stability analysis during cavern excavations, (4) seismic stability analysis of caverns during earthquake, (5) reinforcement designs for caverns, (6) drainage designs. The case studies showed that these two cases were fully feasible, and comparison between two cases revealed that the 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was more suitable for Japanese islands. As a first step of underground siting, therefore, the authors recommend to construct a nuclear power plant by this method. (author)

  1. Review of Soviet studies related to peaceful underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies of contained and crater-forming underground nuclear explosions by USSR investigators are reviewed and summarized. Published data on U.S., USSR, and French cavity-forming nuclear explosions are compared with those predicted by the formula. Empirical studies on U.S. and USSR cratering explosions, both high explosions, both high explosive and nuclear are summarized. The parameters governing an excavation explosion are reviewed

  2. Underground nuclear explosions. Study of the cavity radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, L.

    1968-11-01

    An underground nuclear explosion creates a cavity due to the expansion of the surrounding medium vaporized by the shot. The cavity radius is related to the energy of explosion and to the overburden pressure of the medium. The introduction of new elements such as the environment of the device (in a deep hole or in a tunnel) and the cohesion of the medium leads to a relationship which determines this radius. The known French and American underground explosions performed in various media, energy and overburden conditions, satisfy this relationship with a good precision. (author) [fr

  3. Chapter 2. Peculiarities of radioactive particle formation and isotope fractionation resulted from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive particles, forming terrain fallouts from underground nuclear explosion differ sufficiently from radioactive particles, produced by atmospheric nuclear explosions. Patterns of underground nuclear explosion development, release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, formation of a cloud and base surge, peculiarities of formed radioactive particles, data on isotope fractionation in radioactive particles are presented. Scheme of particle activation, resulted from underground explosions is given

  4. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  5. Underground nuclear explosion effects in granite rock fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.

    1970-01-01

    On the Saharan nuclear test site in Hoggar granite, mechanical properties of the altered zones were studied by in situ and laboratory measurements. In situ methods of study are drillings, television, geophysical and permeability measurements. Fracturing is one of the most important nuclear explosion effects. Several altered zones were identified. There are: crushed zone, fractured zone and stressed zone. Collapse of crushed and fractured zone formed the chimney. The extent of each zone can be expressed in terms of yield and of characteristic parameters. Such results are of main interest for industrial uses of underground nuclear explosives in hard rock. (author)

  6. Underground nuclear explosion effects in granite rock fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etude de Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1970-05-01

    On the Saharan nuclear test site in Hoggar granite, mechanical properties of the altered zones were studied by in situ and laboratory measurements. In situ methods of study are drillings, television, geophysical and permeability measurements. Fracturing is one of the most important nuclear explosion effects. Several altered zones were identified. There are: crushed zone, fractured zone and stressed zone. Collapse of crushed and fractured zone formed the chimney. The extent of each zone can be expressed in terms of yield and of characteristic parameters. Such results are of main interest for industrial uses of underground nuclear explosives in hard rock. (author)

  7. Managing nuclear waste: the underground perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A simplified, very-general overview of the history of nuclear waste management is presented. The sources of different wastes of different levels of radioactivity are discussed. The current governmental program, including three DOE programs currently studying the problems of isolating waste in geological repositories, is discussed briefly. The general thrust of ensuing articles in the same magazine dealing with different facets of the waste-management program is outlined. (BLM)

  8. Letter Report: Contaminant Boundary at the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann

    2004-01-01

    As part of the corrective action strategy reached between the U.S. Department of Energy and the State of Nevada, the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations must be addressed. This report provides the contaminant boundary for the Project Shoal Site, based on the groundwater flow and transport model for the site, by Pohlmann (and others)

  9. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cowan, T. E.; Gohl, S.; Ilgner, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Röder, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, proteced from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise has been carried out using the same HPGe detector in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup at several sites, including the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory. It was found that its rock overburden of 45m rock, together with an active veto against the remaining muon flux, reduces the background to a level that is similar to the deep underground scenario. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  10. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, John S.

    1970-01-01

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  11. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, John S [ESSA Research Laboratories, and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  12. Natural gas production from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-01-01

    A remote location in Rio Arriba County, NW. New Mexico, is being considered as the site for an experiment in the use of a nuclear explosive to increase production from a natural gas field. A feasibility study has been conducted by the El Paso Natural Gas Co., the U.S. Atomic Energy commission, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. As presently conceived, a nuclear explosive would be set in an emplacement hole and detonated. The explosion would create a cylinder or ''chimney'' of collapsed rock, and a network of fractures extending beyond the chimney. The fractures are the key effect. These would consist of new fractures, enlargement of existing ones, and movement along planes where strata overlap. In addition, there are a number of intangible but important benefits that could accrue from the stimulating effect. Among these are the great increase in recoverable reserves and the deliverability of large volumes of gas during the periods of high demand. It is believed that this type of well stimulation may increase the total gas production of these low permeability natural gas fields by about 7 times the amounts now attainable.

  13. UNDERGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-11-15

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  14. UNDERGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  15. Salt creep design consideration for underground nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.T.; Wu, C.L.; Antonas, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the creep consideration in the design of nuclear waste storage facilities in salt, describes the non-linear analysis method for evaluating the design adequacy, and presents computational results for the current storage design. The application of rock mechanics instrumentation to assure the appropriateness of the design is discussed. It also describes the design evolution of such a facility, starting from the conceptual design, through the preliminary design, to the detailed design stage. The empirical design method, laboratory tests and numerical analyses, and the underground in situ tests have been incorporated in the design process to assure the stability of the underground openings, retrievability of waste during the operation phase and encapsulation of waste after decommissioning

  16. Progress of Jinping Underground laboratory for Nuclear Astrophysics (JUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu WeiPing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jinping Underground lab for Nuclear Astrophysics (JUNA will take the advantage of the ultralow background in Jinping underground lab, high current accelerator based on an ECR source and highly sensitive detector to study directly a number of crucial reactions to the hydrostatic stellar evolution for the first time at their relevant stellar energies. In its first phase, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ26Al, 19F(p,α16O, 13C(α,n16O and 12C(α,γ16O. The experimental setup, which include the accelerator system with high stability and high intensity, the detector system, and the shielding material with low background, will be established during the above research. The current progress of JUNA will be given.

  17. Effects of Containment on Radionuclide Releases from Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Confirming the occurrence of an underground nuclear explosion can require capturing short-lived noble gas radioisotopes produced by the explosion, sometimes referred to as the "smoking gun" for nuclear explosion detection. It is well known that the radioisotopic distribution resulting from the detonation evolves with time in the explosion cavity. In effect, the explosion cavity or chimney behaves as a chemical reactor. As long as the parent and daughter radionuclides remain in a closed and well-mixed cavity, parameters, such as radioxenon isotopic ratios, can be calculated analytically from a decay-chain network model. When gases from the cavity migrate into the containment regime, consideration of a "leaky reactor" model is more appropriate. We consider several implications of such a leaky reactor model relevant to interpretations of gas samples from the subsurface during an on-site inspection that could potentially be carried out under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Additionally, we have attempted to validate our leaky reactor model against atmospheric observations of radioactive xenon isotopes detected by radionuclide monitoring stations in Japan and Russia following the February 2013 DPRK underground nuclear explosion (Carrigan et al., 2016). While both model uncertainty and observational error are significant, our model of isotopic evolution appears to be in broad agreement with radionuclide observations, and for the first time links atmospheric measurements of radioxenon isotopic ratios to estimates of seismic yield. Carrigan et al., Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 23032 (2016) doi:10.1038/srep23032

  18. The consequences of underground nuclear testing in French Polynesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    France began atmospheric nuclear testing at Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls in the South Pacific in July 1966. Following international protest, atmospheric testing ceased in August 1970. In late 1995, an International Geomechanical Commission (IGC) was created to assess the short- and long-term effects of underground nuclear testing on the stability and hydrology of Mururoa and Fangataufa. With the aid of its consultants, the Commission sought to develop its own understanding of the mechanics and consequences of the underground nuclear tests. It carried out extensive numerical analyses of shock wave effects, seismic wave propagation, slope stability and pre- and post-test hydrology. However, in its studies, the IGC was constrained to use the data made available to it by the French authorities. The Commission's report (International Geomechanical Commission 1998) has been submitted to the French Government. This article draws heavily on parts of that report. The Commission's observations and analyses show that there has been no apparent change, on the atoll scale, to the overall mechanical stability of either atoll as a consequence of the underground nuclear tests. The main observable consequences of the tests are underwater slope failures, open fractures on the rim surface and surface settlements. The fractures visible on the surface are generally associated with subsurface slope displacements and occur only in the carbonates. There is no evidence that slope failures or settlements have occurred in the underlying volcanics. There has been no significant change in the long-term (beyond 500 years) hydrology of either atoll. The IGC estimates that the long-term change in the natural groundwater flow will be no more than 1%. There are, however, significant short-term changes locally around the test sites, which are briefly outlined

  19. Nuclear reactors sited deep underground in steel containment vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourque, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Although nuclear power plants are certainly very safe, they are not perceived as safe by the general populace. Also, there are concerns about overland transport of spent fuel rods and other irradiated components. It is hereby proposed that the nuclear components of nuclear power plants be placed in deep underground steel vessels with secondary coolant fed from them to turbines at or near the surface. All irradiated components, including spent fuel, would remain in the chamber indefinitely. This general concept was suggested by the late Edward Teller, generated some activity 20-25 years ago and appears to be recently reviving in interest. Previous work dealt with issues of geologic stability of underground, possibly reinforced, caverns. This paper presents another approach that makes siting independent of geology by placing the reactor components in a robust steel vessel capable of resisting full overburden pressure as well as pressures resulting from accident scenarios. Structural analysis of the two vessel concepts and approximate estimated costs are presented. This work clears the way for the extensive discussions required to evaluate the advantages of this concept. (author)

  20. Underground Nuclear Explosions and Release of Radioactive Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubasov, Yuri V.

    2010-05-01

    Over a period in 1961-1990 496 underground nuclear tests and explosions of different purpose and in different rocks were conducted in the Soviet Union at Semipalatinsk and anovaya Zemlya Test Sites. A total of 340 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. One hundred seventy-nine explosions (52.6%) among them were classified as these of complete containment, 145 explosions (42.6%) as explosions with weak release of radioactive noble gases (RNG), 12 explosions (3.5%) as explosions with nonstandard radiation situation, and four excavation explosions with ground ejection (1.1%). Thirty-nine nuclear tests had been conducted at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site; six of them - in shafts. In 14 tests (36%) there were no RNG release. Twenty-three tests have been accompanied by RNG release into the atmosphere without sedimental contamination. Nonstandard radiation situation occurred in two tests. In incomplete containment explosions both early-time RNG release (up to ~1 h) and late-time release from 1 to 28 h after the explosion were observed. Sometimes gas release took place for several days, and it occurred either through tunnel portal or epicentral zone, depending on atmospheric air temperature.

  1. Radioactive rare gases emission at underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubasov, Yu.V.

    2016-01-01

    The examples of radioactive rare gases emission at underground nuclear explosions conducted in the USSR on the Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk test sites are considered. It is pointed out that in the case of evasive explosion in vertical wells without apparent radioactive gases emission the samples of subsurface gas must contain the traces of radioactive rare gases. Under the inspection of evasive explosion in horizontal workings of rock massif, one should guided by the analysis of atmospheric air samples in the inspected area [ru

  2. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delort, F.; Guerrini, C.

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [fr

  3. Inherent security benefits of underground dry storage of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.D.; Zahn, T.

    1997-07-01

    This paper, augmented by color slides and handouts, will examine the inherent security benefits of underground dry storage of nuclear materials. Specific items to be presented include: the successful implementation of this type of storage configuration at Argonne National Laboratory - West; facility design concepts with security as a primary consideration; physical barriers achieved by container design; detection, assessment, and monitoring capabilities; and open-quotes self protectionclose quotes strategies. This is a report on the security features of such a facility. The technical operational aspects of the facility are beyond the scope of this paper

  4. Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Jeff Daniels; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) have reached agreement on a corrective action strategy applicable to address the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations. This strategy is described in detail in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 2000). As part of the corrective action strategy, the nuclear detonations that occurred underground were identified as geographically distinct corrective action units (CAUs). The strategic objective for each CAU is to estimate over a 1,000-yr time period, with uncertainty quantified, the three-dimensional extent of groundwater contamination that would be considered unsafe for domestic and municipal use. Two types of boundaries (contaminant and compliance) are discussed in the FFACO that will map the three-dimensional extent of radionuclide contamination. The contaminant boundary will identify the region wi th 95 percent certainty that contaminants do not exist above a threshold value. It will be prepared by the DOE and presented to NDEP. The compliance boundary will be produced as a result of negotiation between the DOE and NDEP, and can be coincident with, or differ from, the contaminant boundary. Two different thresholds are considered for the contaminant boundary. One is based on the enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for radionuclides, which were developed as a requirement of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The other is a risk-based threshold considering applicable lifetime excess cancer-risk-based criteria The contaminant boundary for the Faultless underground nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is calculated using a newly developed groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model that incorporates aspects of both the original three-dimensional model (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and the two-dimensional model developed for the Faultless data decision

  5. Analysis on one underground nuclear waste repository rock mass in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Qiuling; Zhang Tiantian

    2012-01-01

    When analyzing the rock mass of a underground nuclear waste repository, the current studies are all based on the loading mechanical condition, and the unloading damage of rock mass is unconsidered. According to the different mechanical condition of actual engineering rock mass of loading and unloading, this paper implements a comprehensive analysis on the rock mass deformation of underground nuclear waste repository through the combination of present loading and unloading rock mass mechanics. It is found that the results of comprehensive analysis and actual measured data on the rock mass deformation of underground nuclear waste repository are basically the same, which provide supporting data for the underground nuclear waste repository. (authors)

  6. Summary of Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium held in Durango, Colorado on March 23-25, 1993. The symposium was sponsored by the Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation of the United States Department of Energy and hosted by the Source Region Program of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss state-of-the-art advances in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology for the purpose of test ban monitoring. Another goal of the symposium was to promote discussion between seismologists and explosion source-code calculators. Presentation topics include the following: numerical model fits to data, measurement and characterization of material response models, applications of modeling to monitoring problems, explosion source phenomenology, numerical simulations and seismic sources

  7. The role of underground laboratories in nuclear waste disposal programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Underground research laboratories (URLs) are essential to provide the scientific and technical information and practical experience that are needed for the design and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities, as well as for the development of the safety case that must be presented at various stages of repository development. This report provides an overview of the purpose of URLs within repository development programmes; the range of URLs that have been developed, or are planned, in NEA Member countries to date; the various contributions that such facilities can make to repository development programmes and the development of a safety case; considerations on the timing of developing a URL within a national programme; and the opportunities and benefits of international co-operation in relation to URLs. (author)

  8. Rulison Site groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the fourth quarter 1997 groundwater sampling event for the Rulison Site, which is located approximately 65 kilometers (km) (40 miles [mi]) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. This is the eighth and final sampling event of a quarterly groundwater monitoring program implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This program monitored the effectiveness of remediation of a drilling effluent pond that had been used to store drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for a 1969 gas stimulation test conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (the predecessor agency to the DOE) and Austral Oil Company (Austral)

  9. Consideration of impact of atmospheric intrusion in subsurface sampling for investigation of suspected underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrey, J.D.; Bowyer, T.W.; Haas, D.A.; Hayes, J.C.; Biegalski, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive noble gases radioxenon and radioargon constitute the primary smoking gun of an underground nuclear explosion. The aim of subsurface sampling of soil gas as part of an on-site inspection (OSI) is to search for evidence of a suspected underground nuclear event. It has been hypothesized that atmospheric gas can disturb soil gas concentrations and therefore potentially add to problems in civilian source discrimination verifying treaty compliance under the comprehensive nuclear-test ban treaty. This work describes a study of intrusion of atmospheric air into the subsurface and its potential impact on an OSI using results of simulations from the underground transport of environmental xenon (UTEX) model. (author)

  10. The 20th nuclear explosion test of the Peoples' Republic of China (underground nuclear test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    (1) The New China News Agency and the Radio Peking announced that China conducted the underground nuclear explosion test on 17 October, 1976. However, no exact data concerning the data, the place and the scale of this test was stated in above announcement. (2) However, relatively high radioactivity than that of normal level was detected in the rain and dry fallout samples collected from several prefectures. (author)

  11. Safety consideration and economic advantage of a new underground nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.; Ching, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design of an underground nuclear power plant is proposed to make undergrounding of nuclear reactors not only environmentally desirable but also economically feasible. Expedient to the underground environment, this design capitalizes on the pressure-containing and radiation filtering characteristics of the new underground boundary conditions. Design emphasis is on the containment of a catastrophic accident - that of a reactor vessel rupture caused by external means. The High Capacity Rapid Energy Dissipation Underground Containment (HiC-REDUCE) system which efficiently contains loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and small break conditions is described. The end product is a radiation-release-proof plant which, in effect, divorces the public from the safety of the reactor. (Auth.)

  12. Recognition of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake based on neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Jia Weimin

    2000-01-01

    Many features are extracted to improve the identified rate and reliability of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake. But how to synthesize these characters is the key of pattern recognition. Based on the improved Delta algorithm, features of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake are inputted into BP neural network, and friendship functions are constructed to identify the output values. The identified rate is up to 92.0%, which shows that: the way is feasible

  13. Numerical simulation of stress wave propagation from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J T; Petersen, F L [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of stress wave propagation (SOC) which uses material properties data from a preshot testing program to predict the stress-induced effects on the rock mass involved in a Plowshare application. SOC calculates stress and particle velocity history, cavity radius, extent of brittle failure, and the rock's efficiency for transmitting stress. The calculations are based on an equation of state for the rock, which is developed from preshot field and laboratory measurements of the rock properties. The field measurements, made by hole logging, determine in situ values of the rock's density, water content, and propagation velocity for elastic waves. These logs also are useful in judging the layering of the rock and in choosing which core samples to test in the laboratory. The laboratory analysis of rock cores includes determination of hydrostatic compressibility to 40 kb, triaxial strength data, tensile strength, Hugoniot elastic limit, and, for the rock near the point of detonation, high-pressure Hugoniot data. Equation-of-state data are presented for rock from three sites subjected to high explosive or underground nuclear shots, including the Hardhat and Gasbuggy sites. SOC calculations of the effects of these two shots on the surrounding rock are compared with the observed effects. In both cases SOC predicts the size of the cavity quite closely. Results of the Gasbuggy calculations indicate that useful predictions of cavity size and chimney height can be made when an adequate preshot testing program is run to determine the rock's equation of state. Seismic coupling is very sensitive to the low-pressure part of the equation of state, and its successful prediction depends on agreement between the logging data and the static compressibility data. In general, it appears that enough progress has been made in calculating stress wave propagation to begin looking at derived numbers, such as number of cracks per zone, for some insight into the

  14. Numerical simulation of stress wave propagation from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, J.T.; Petersen, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of stress wave propagation (SOC) which uses material properties data from a preshot testing program to predict the stress-induced effects on the rock mass involved in a Plowshare application. SOC calculates stress and particle velocity history, cavity radius, extent of brittle failure, and the rock's efficiency for transmitting stress. The calculations are based on an equation of state for the rock, which is developed from preshot field and laboratory measurements of the rock properties. The field measurements, made by hole logging, determine in situ values of the rock's density, water content, and propagation velocity for elastic waves. These logs also are useful in judging the layering of the rock and in choosing which core samples to test in the laboratory. The laboratory analysis of rock cores includes determination of hydrostatic compressibility to 40 kb, triaxial strength data, tensile strength, Hugoniot elastic limit, and, for the rock near the point of detonation, high-pressure Hugoniot data. Equation-of-state data are presented for rock from three sites subjected to high explosive or underground nuclear shots, including the Hardhat and Gasbuggy sites. SOC calculations of the effects of these two shots on the surrounding rock are compared with the observed effects. In both cases SOC predicts the size of the cavity quite closely. Results of the Gasbuggy calculations indicate that useful predictions of cavity size and chimney height can be made when an adequate preshot testing program is run to determine the rock's equation of state. Seismic coupling is very sensitive to the low-pressure part of the equation of state, and its successful prediction depends on agreement between the logging data and the static compressibility data. In general, it appears that enough progress has been made in calculating stress wave propagation to begin looking at derived numbers, such as number of cracks per zone, for some insight into the

  15. Geologic surface effects of underground nuclear testing, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a new Geographic Information System composite map of the geologic surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing in the Yucca Flat Physiographic Area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established in 1951 as a continental location for testing nuclear devices (Allen and others, 1997, p.3). Originally known as the ''Nevada Proving Ground'', the NTS hosted a total of 928 nuclear detonations, of which 828 were conducted underground (U.S. Department of Energy, 1994). Three principal testing areas of the NTS were used: (1) Yucca Flat, (2) Pahute Mesa, and (3) Rainier Mesa including Aqueduct Mesa. Underground detonations at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa were typically emplaced in vertical drill holes, while others were tunnel emplacements. Of the three testing areas, Yucca Flat was the most extensively used, hosting 658 underground tests (747 detonations) located at 719 individual sites (Allen and others, 1997, p.3-4). Figure 1 shows the location of Yucca Flat and other testing areas of the NTS. Figure 2 shows the locations of underground nuclear detonation sites at Yucca Flat. Table 1 lists the number of underground nuclear detonations conducted, the number of borehole sites utilized, and the number of detonations mapped for surface effects at Yucca Flat by NTS Operational Area

  16. Pro and con decision criteria to underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchhardt, F.

    1981-01-01

    In general, basic design criteria for underground siting define increased safety margins which are mostly step-wise augmentated. The larger those postulated additional impacts become, the more the general concept might already be previously determined. Depending on site availability in general two ways may be practised - the berm-contained concept as well as mined rock caverns. According to the present technical feasibility the cut-and-cover burial seems to be favoured more. If increased external (artificial) impacts are postulated underground facilities have considerable advantages since the earth coverage provides an excellent stopping medium. In case of internal influences the features suggested mostly are additional pressure relief systems which cannot be considered typical for undergrounding. The problem of the access-way sealing is a key-point of a 'real' supplemental underground containment. With a very high safety degree a reliable closure of the penetrations must be guaranteed in case extreme external as well as internal events occur. To come to a final conclusion wheter the benefits or penalties predominate, valuation criteria and matrices are elaborated from the view of different initial points. At this time period it still seems too early to give a definite judgement of pro or con for the underground concept. (orig./HP)

  17. Control of the dynamic environment produced by underground nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D L; Jackson, E C; Miller, A B [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    One important aspect of any underground nuclear explosion is recording, retrieval and analysis of experiment and/or device performance. Most of the information is recorded or conditioned on sensitive electronic equipment and often transmitted via antennas that must remain in alignment. Sometimes diagnostic packages are located in towers near surface ground zero (SGZ). Also, some equipment is needed for timing and firing as well as safety requirements. Generally it is desirable to locate this equipment as close to SGZ as possible. This paper is a summary of LRL's method of controlling the dynamic environment in order to get good quality data and protect equipment while optimizing the cost. The overall problem blends together: (1) definition of input, i.e. ground shock parameters; (2) shock sensitivity or fragility level of equipment to the input and purpose (i.e. does it record or transmit through shock arrival time?); and (3) design of a fail-safe shock mount (SM) system to modify the shock environment when required. Before any SM system can be designed, items I and 2 must be answered as the ground shock can vary over a wide range and the sensitivity/fragility of the equipment can vary from less than 1/2 g to more than 100 g's, particularly if recording is done through shock arrival time. Keeping antennas in alignment is a somewhat different problem. Whenever possible the design of the SM system is based only on peak input parameters of the ground motion since detailed time histories of the ground motions are very difficult to predict. For towers and other systems which require detailed time histories, computer codes have been developed which allow a parametric study of the input ground motion's effect on the response of the system. This paper deals mainly with the close-in region where the dynamic environment is quite severe. In this region, non-standard methods and analysis are required. Out of this region, more standard methods can be used. (author)

  18. Control of the dynamic environment produced by underground nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Jackson, E.C.; Miller, A.B.

    1970-01-01

    One important aspect of any underground nuclear explosion is recording, retrieval and analysis of experiment and/or device performance. Most of the information is recorded or conditioned on sensitive electronic equipment and often transmitted via antennas that must remain in alignment. Sometimes diagnostic packages are located in towers near surface ground zero (SGZ). Also, some equipment is needed for timing and firing as well as safety requirements. Generally it is desirable to locate this equipment as close to SGZ as possible. This paper is a summary of LRL's method of controlling the dynamic environment in order to get good quality data and protect equipment while optimizing the cost. The overall problem blends together: (1) definition of input, i.e. ground shock parameters; (2) shock sensitivity or fragility level of equipment to the input and purpose (i.e. does it record or transmit through shock arrival time?); and (3) design of a fail-safe shock mount (SM) system to modify the shock environment when required. Before any SM system can be designed, items I and 2 must be answered as the ground shock can vary over a wide range and the sensitivity/fragility of the equipment can vary from less than 1/2 g to more than 100 g's, particularly if recording is done through shock arrival time. Keeping antennas in alignment is a somewhat different problem. Whenever possible the design of the SM system is based only on peak input parameters of the ground motion since detailed time histories of the ground motions are very difficult to predict. For towers and other systems which require detailed time histories, computer codes have been developed which allow a parametric study of the input ground motion's effect on the response of the system. This paper deals mainly with the close-in region where the dynamic environment is quite severe. In this region, non-standard methods and analysis are required. Out of this region, more standard methods can be used. (author)

  19. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, G H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  20. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.H.

    1969-01-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  1. The strengthening and repair of underground structures: A new approach to the management of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents three closely related ideas and technologies: (1) The secure, repairable, long time confinement of nuclear radioactive waste underground by a large surrounding region of compressive overstress; (2) The inherent tectonic weakness and vulnerability of the normal underground environment and its modification by overstress; (3) The process of creating overstress by the sequential periodic high pressure injection of a finite gel strength rapid setting grout. 12 refs., 6 figs

  2. Adaptation of magnesian cements to underground storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufournet, F.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the experimental study of magnesium oxychloride cements as filling materials for underground granitic cavities containing high level radioactive wastes. After a bibliographic study, mechanical properties are examined before and after setting, in function of the ratio MgO/MgCl 2 . Then behavior with water is investigated: swelling, cracking and leaching [fr

  3. Radionuclide Partitioning in an Underground Nuclear Test Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, T P; Hu, Q; Zhao, P; Conrado, C L; Dickerson, R; Eaton, G F; Kersting, A B; Moran, J E; Nimz, G; Powell, B A; Ramon, E C; Ryerson, F J; Williams, R W; Wooddy, P T; Zavarin, M

    2009-01-09

    In 2004, a borehole was drilled into the 1983 Chancellor underground nuclear test cavity to investigate the distribution of radionuclides within the cavity. Sidewall core samples were collected from a range of depths within the re-entry hole and two sidetrack holes. Upon completion of drilling, casing was installed and a submersible pump was used to collect groundwater samples. Test debris and groundwater samples were analyzed for a variety of radionuclides including the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 155}Eu, the activation products {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 154}Eu, and the actinides U, Pu, and Am. In addition, the physical and bulk chemical properties of the test debris were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Microprobe measurements. Analytical results were used to evaluate the partitioning of radionuclides between the melt glass, rubble, and groundwater phases in the Chancellor test cavity. Three comparative approaches were used to calculate partitioning values, though each method could not be applied to every nuclide. These approaches are based on: (1) the average Area 19 inventory from Bowen et al. (2001); (2) melt glass, rubble, and groundwater mass estimates from Zhao et al. (2008); and (3) fission product mass yield data from England and Rider (1994). The U and Pu analyses of the test debris are classified and partitioning estimates for these elements were calculated directly from the classified Miller et al. (2002) inventory for the Chancellor test. The partitioning results from this study were compared to partitioning data that were previously published by the IAEA (1998). Predictions of radionuclide distributions from the two studies are in agreement for a majority of the nuclides under consideration. Substantial differences were noted in the partitioning values for {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, and uranium. These differences are attributable to two factors

  4. Dynamic analysis and structural design of underground nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierans, T.W.; Reddy, D.V.

    1975-01-01

    All concept options are assumed to be similar in design criteria for structural competence to contain radioactivity and fuel heat and meet the functional, servicing, protective and aesthetic requirements. The choice of underground siting should be based on criteria developed from the sequential consideration of load-causing phenomena, concept and site characteristics. From the criteria, loads for a particular concept and site are calculated and the design formulated. (orig./ORU) [de

  5. A Careful Blasting Technique During Construction of underground Openings for Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ester, Z.; Vrkljan, D.

    1998-01-01

    Underground nuclear waste repositories are constructed in natural rock formations, with heterogenous compound and structure, and should be accommodated in design and construction according to rock conditions. The quality insurance of underground repository, during and after construction, is most demanding in view of contour and category of excavation. the technology of drilling and blasting, regarding the mechanical excavation, is accommodated in sense of response to cross section magnitude of underground openings, the rock conditions and category, the support performance and other design demands. The high level rock damage around underground openings, that is in opposition with reaching quality insurance. Conventional construction technology can be successful by implementation of controlled blasting technique avoiding extensive rock weakness. (author)

  6. Conceptual designs of automated systems for underground emplacement and retrieval of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum, A.H.; Hou, W.M.; Park, K.; Hochmuth, C.; Thurston, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Current designs of underground nuclear waste repositories have not adequately addressed the possibility of automated, unmanned emplacement and retrieval. This report will present design methodologies for development of an automated system for underground emplacement of nuclear waste. By scaling generic issues to different repositories, it is shown that a two vehicle automated waste emplacement/retrieval system can be designed to operate in a fail-safe mode. Evaluation of cost at this time is not possible. Significant gains in worker safety, however, can be realized by minimizing the possibility of human exposure

  7. Verification and Uncertainty Reduction of Amchitka Underground Nuclear Testing Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2006-02-01

    The modeling of Amchitka underground nuclear tests conducted in 2002 is verified and uncertainty in model input parameters, as well as predictions, has been reduced using newly collected data obtained by the summer 2004 field expedition of CRESP. Newly collected data that pertain to the groundwater model include magnetotelluric (MT) surveys conducted on the island to determine the subsurface salinity and porosity structure of the subsurface, and bathymetric surveys to determine the bathymetric maps of the areas offshore from the Long Shot and Cannikin Sites. Analysis and interpretation of the MT data yielded information on the location of the transition zone, and porosity profiles showing porosity values decaying with depth. These new data sets are used to verify the original model in terms of model parameters, model structure, and model output verification. In addition, by using the new data along with the existing data (chemistry and head data), the uncertainty in model input and output is decreased by conditioning on all the available data. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach is adapted for developing new input parameter distributions conditioned on prior knowledge and new data. The MCMC approach is a form of Bayesian conditioning that is constructed in such a way that it produces samples of the model parameters that eventually converge to a stationary posterior distribution. The Bayesian MCMC approach enhances probabilistic assessment. Instead of simply propagating uncertainty forward from input parameters into model predictions (i.e., traditional Monte Carlo approach), MCMC propagates uncertainty backward from data onto parameters, and then forward from parameters into predictions. Comparisons between new data and the original model, and conditioning on all available data using MCMC method, yield the following results and conclusions: (1) Model structure is verified at Long Shot and Cannikin where the high-resolution bathymetric data collected by CRESP

  8. Earthquakes: no danger for deep underground nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    On the Earth, the continental plates are steadily moving. Principally at the plate boundaries such shifts produce stresses which are released in form of earthquakes. The highest the built-up energy, the more violent will be the shaking. Earthquakes accompany mankind from very ancient times on and they disturb the population. Till now nobody is able to predict where and when they will take place. But on the Earth there are regions where, due to their geological situation, the occurrence of earthquakes is more probable than elsewhere. The impact of a very strong earthquake on the structures at the Earth surface depends on several factors. Besides the ground structure, the density of buildings, construction style and materials used play an important role. Construction-related technical measures can improve the safety of buildings and, together with a correct behaviour of the people concerned, save many lives. Earthquakes are well known in Switzerland. Here, the stresses are due to the collision of the African and European continental plates that created the Alps. The impact of earthquake is more limited in the underground than at the Earth surface. There is no danger for deep underground repositories

  9. Analytic model for surface ground motion with spall induced by underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacQueen, D.H.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides a detailed presentation and critique of a model used to characterize the surface ground motion following a contained, spalling underground nuclear explosion intended for calculation of the resulting atmospheric acoustic pulse. Some examples of its use are included. Some discussion of the general approach of ground motion model parameter extraction, not dependent on the specific model, is also presented

  10. On the infrasound detected from the 2013 and 2016 DPRK's underground nuclear tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, J. D.; Averbuch, G.; Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    The underground nuclear tests by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) generated atmospheric infrasound both in 2013 and 2016. Clear detections were made in the Russian Federation (I45RU) and Japan (I30JP) in 2013 at stations from the International Monitoring System. Both tropospheric

  11. The French experimentation at the underground nuclear testing site in the Sahara desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauvenet, Andre [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France)

    1970-05-01

    The present paper will be essentially an introduction to the technical exposes which will be delivered during the Las Vegas Meeting. The presentation is divided in two parts. The first part summarizes very briefly the experience that has been gained from the underground nuclear shots which took place in the Sahara desert from 1961 to 1966. in the second part, an idea is given of the studies at present carried on in France in the domain of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions.

  12. The French experimentation at the underground nuclear testing site in the Sahara desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet, Andre

    1970-01-01

    The present paper will be essentially an introduction to the technical exposes which will be delivered during the Las Vegas Meeting. The presentation is divided in two parts. The first part summarizes very briefly the experience that has been gained from the underground nuclear shots which took place in the Sahara desert from 1961 to 1966. in the second part, an idea is given of the studies at present carried on in France in the domain of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions

  13. Geomechanical problems of an underground storage of spent nuclear fuel and their mathematic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Hájek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the use of mathematical modelling for analysis of the thermo-mechanical (T-M processes, which are relevant for the assessment of underground repositories of the spent nuclear fuel. Wes shall discuss mathematical formulation, numerical methods and parallel alghorithms, which are capable to solve large-scale complicated and coupled 3D problems. Particularly, we show an application of the described methods and parallel computer simulations for analysis of model problems concerning the Swedish KBS3 concept of underground repository.

  14. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.

  15. Evaluation of earthquake resistance design for underground structures of nuclear power plant, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohma, Junichi; Kokusho, Kenji; Iwatate, Takahiro; Ohtomo, Keizo

    1986-01-01

    As to earthquake resistant design of underground civil engineering structures related with emergency cooling water system of nuclear power plant, it is required these structures must maintain the function of great important their own facilities during earthquakes, especially for design earthquake motion. In this study, shaft pipline, pit and duct for cooling sea water facilities were chosen as typical underground structures, and the authors deal with the seismic design method for calculation of the principal sectional force in these structures generated by design earthquake motion. Especially, comparative investigations concerned with response displacement method versus dynamic analysis methods (lumped mass analysis and finite element analysis) are discussed. (author)

  16. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP

  17. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

  18. Seismic signal simulation and study of underground nuclear sources by moment inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crusem, R.

    1986-09-01

    Some problems of underground nuclear explosions are examined from the seismological point of view. In the first part a model is developed for mean seismic propagation through the lagoon of Mururoa atoll and for calculation of synthetic seismograms (in intermediate fields: 5 to 20 km) by summation of discrete wave numbers. In the second part this ground model is used with a linear inversion method of seismic moments for estimation of elastic source terms equivalent to the nuclear source. Only the isotrope part is investigated solution stability is increased by using spectral smoothing and a minimal phase hypothesis. Some examples of applications are presented: total energy estimation of a nuclear explosion, simulation of mechanical effects induced by an underground explosion [fr

  19. A study of feasibility, design and cost of excavations for underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    A study conducted for the State Power Board on underground siting of nuclear power plants is presented. The report is divided into two chapters, both concerning the technical aspects of large underground openings. The first chapter gives a brief general survey of the problems involved, and the second outlines the technical aspects of a PWR project at a specific site. Details are given in 8 appendices and arrangement drawings. The project differs from conventional hydroelectric excavation schemes mainly in the fact that the spherical reactor containment requires a vault of 60m free span, and the turbine hall a cylindrical vault of 45m span, both of which exceed any span hitherto built for similar purposes. This requires a comparatively wide extrapolation of tested and available experience in underground excavations for permanent civil use. To what extent and under what circumstances such extrapolation is tenable must be tested in practice, preferably in a specially controlled prototype test. However the study indicates that conventional nuclear power plants can be sited underground when the topography and rock conditions are suitable. A 1000-2000 MW conventional plant adapted for underground siting will require large span caverns, tunnels and shafts, totalling about 1.0 mill. cubic metres of underground excavation. In addition access and cooling water tunnels, depending on the location, will require 0.2-0.5 mill. cubic metres of tunnel excavations. The excavations and support work can be completed within a construction time of about 2 1/2 years at an estimated total cost of 215 mill. Norwegian kroner (1975 value). (JIW)

  20. GIS surface effects archive of underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, D.N.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a new comprehensive, digital archive of more than 40 years of geologic surface effects maps produced at individual detonation sites throughout the Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa nuclear testing areas of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Geographic Information System (GIS) surface effects map archive on CD-ROM (this report) comprehensively documents the surface effects of underground nuclear detonations conducted at two of the most extensively used testing areas of the Nevada Test Site. Between 1951 and 1992, numerous investigators of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency meticulously mapped the surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing. Their work documented the effects of more than seventy percent of the underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and all of the underground nuclear detonations conducted at Pahute Mesa

  1. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA.

  2. Measurements of Argon-39 at the U20az underground nuclear explosion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J I; Aalseth, C E; Alexander, T R; Back, H O; Bellgraph, B J; Bowyer, T W; Chipman, V; Cooper, M W; Day, A R; Drellack, S; Foxe, M P; Fritz, B G; Hayes, J C; Humble, P; Keillor, M E; Kirkham, R R; Krogstad, E J; Lowrey, J D; Mace, E K; Mayer, M F; Milbrath, B D; Misner, A; Morley, S M; Panisko, M E; Olsen, K B; Ripplinger, M D; Seifert, A; Suarez, R

    2017-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory reports on the detection of 39 Ar at the location of an underground nuclear explosion on the Nevada Nuclear Security Site. The presence of 39 Ar was not anticipated at the outset of the experimental campaign but results from this work demonstrated that it is present, along with 37 Ar and 85 Kr in the subsurface at the site of an underground nuclear explosion. Our analysis showed that by using state-of-the-art technology optimized for radioargon measurements, it was difficult to distinguish 39 Ar from the fission product 85 Kr. Proportional counters are currently used for high-sensitivity measurement of 37 Ar and 39 Ar. Physical and chemical separation processes are used to separate argon from air or soil gas, yielding pure argon with contaminant gases reduced to the parts-per-million level or below. However, even with purification at these levels, the beta decay signature of 85 Kr can be mistaken for that of 39 Ar, and the presence of either isotope increases the measurement background level for the measurement of 37 Ar. Measured values for the 39 Ar measured at the site ranged from 36,000 milli- Becquerel/standard-cubic-meter-of-air (mBq/SCM) for shallow bore holes to 997,000 mBq/SCM from the rubble chimney from the underground nuclear explosion. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA

  4. Ground motion effects of underground nuclear testing on perennial vegetation at Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, W.A.

    1976-07-01

    In this study to estimate the potential injury to vegetation from earth movement caused by underground nuclear detonations and to estimate the extent to which this may have occurred at NTS, two explosions in the megaton range on Pahute Mesa were studied in some detail: Boxcar, which caused a surface subsidence, and Benham, which did not. Because of the subsidence phenomenology, shock propagation through the earth and along the surface, and the resulting fractures, shrubs were killed at Boxcar around the perimeter of the subsidence crater. Both trees and shrubs were killed along tectonic faults, which became the path for earth fractures, and along fractures and rock falls elsewhere. There was also evidence at Boxcar of tree damage which antedated the nuclear testing program, presumably from natural earthquakes. With the possible exception of damage to aged junipers this investigation did not reveal any good evidence of immediate effects from underground testing on vegetation beyond that recognized earlier as the edge effect

  5. The destabilizing influence of heat flow on the geological environment during underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politikov, M.I.; Kamberov, I.M.; Krivchenko, V.F.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Solodukhin, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    The study has determined the fact that the processes of gas-radioactive ectoplasm intrusion from nuclear cavities in the geological environment bring the significant contribution in bosom destabilizing besides the mechanical rock destruction as affected by underground nuclear explosions. Not only heat field forming that reduces the rock resistance and increases its porosity is related to it, but also the forming, on the way, of man-caused contamination aureoles of the geological environment, including the underground water bearing horizon. Unfortunately, this problem is hardly studied, mainly for the lack of reliable apparatus and methods. Judging by the results of information search, the best way to solve the problem is not yet known. (author)

  6. The density jump at the inner core boundary using underground nuclear explosion records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnoshchekov, D.N.; Ovchinnikov, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the estimation of the minimum jump value using experimental wave forms reflected from the boundary between the Earth core and mantle (PcP) and the one between the inner and outer core (PKiKP) at a distance of 6 deg. Digital seismic records of underground nuclear tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site in 70s by Zerenda-Vostochny-Chkalovo seismic array have been used. (author)

  7. Remote installation of risers on underground nuclear waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.P.; Gessner, R.F.

    1988-03-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project was established to solidify 2120 m 3 (560,000) gallons of high-level nuclear waste generated during six years of commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing. This liquid will be processed to remove radioactive elements which, with the remaining sludge, will be combined with glass formers and be converted into borosilicate glass. Risers were installed on the high-level tank for installation of pumps which will be used to remove the liquid and sludge. The extensive use of remote technology was required to install the risers and to minimize operator exposure to high levels of radiation and contamination. The riser installation required remotely: drilling through two feet of concrete shielding; installing pump access pipes which are welded to the tank top; and cutting holes in tanks located 3658 mm (12) feet below ground. These operations were successfully completed 13 times without exposing personnel to high-level radiation or contamination. Specially designed remote equipment was developed for each step of this operation. Extensive operator training in the use of this equipment was performed on a tank with low radiation prior to work on the high-level tank. This paper discusses the application of remote technology that assured a quality job was safely accomplished. 3 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Enhanced coupling and decoupling of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terhune, R.W.; Snell, C.M.; Rodean, H.C.

    1979-09-04

    The seismic coupling efficiency of nuclear explosions was studied in granite by means of computer calculations as a function of scaled explosion source radius. The scaled source radii were varied from 0.1 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (point source) to 20 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (representing a nearly full decoupling cavity). It was found that seismic coupling efficiency is at a maximum when the scaled source radius is approximately 2 m/kt/sup 1/3/. The primary cause of this maximum in seismic wave source strength is the effect of initial source radius on peak particle velocity and pulse duration of the outgoing elastic wave. A secondary cause is that rock vaporization (an energy sink) does not occur for scaled source radii somewhat greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/. Therefore, for scaled source radii greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/, there is additional energy available for seismic wave generations. Available data for some nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not provide sufficient evidence to either support or negate the enhanced coupling that is indicated by calculations at scaled source radii of 1-2 m/kt/sup 1/3/.

  9. Enhanced coupling and decoupling of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.W.; Snell, C.M.; Rodean, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    The seismic coupling efficiency of nuclear explosions was studied in granite by means of computer calculations as a function of scaled explosion source radius. The scaled source radii were varied from 0.1 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (point source) to 20 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (representing a nearly full decoupling cavity). It was found that seismic coupling efficiency is at a maximum when the scaled source radius is approximately 2 m/kt/sup 1/3/. The primary cause of this maximum in seismic wave source strength is the effect of initial source radius on peak particle velocity and pulse duration of the outgoing elastic wave. A secondary cause is that rock vaporization (an energy sink) does not occur for scaled source radii somewhat greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/. Therefore, for scaled source radii greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/, there is additional energy available for seismic wave generations. Available data for some nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not provide sufficient evidence to either support or negate the enhanced coupling that is indicated by calculations at scaled source radii of 1-2 m/kt/sup 1/3/

  10. Comparison of the inelastic response of steel building frames to strong earthquake and underground nuclear explosion ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytic studies were made of the adequacy of simulating earthquake effects at the Nevada Test Site for structural testing purposes. It is concluded that underground nuclear explosion ground motion will produce inelastic behavior and damage comparable to that produced by strong earthquakes. The generally longer duration of earthquakes compared with underground nuclear explosions does not appear to significantly affect the structural behavior of the building frames considered. A comparison of maximum ductility ratios, maximum story drifts, and maximum displacement indicate similar structural behavior for both types of ground motion. Low yield (10 - kt) underground nuclear explosions are capable of producing inelastic behavior in large structures. Ground motion produced by underground nuclear explosions can produce inelastic earthquake-like effects in large structures and could be used for testing large structures in the inelastic response regime. The Nevada Test Site is a feasible earthquake simulator for testing large structures

  11. An underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, V.E.

    1988-05-17

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working fluid in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast- acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor. 5 figs.

  12. Underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working flud in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast-acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor.

  13. Underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a nuclear reactor for generating electricity disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working fluid in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast-acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor

  14. To the issue about negative consequences of underground nuclear explosions in the salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, D.N.; Mokhov, V.A.; Murzadilov, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    I. From 1970 to 1984, 26 underground explosions were conducted at Azgir test site salt domes and Karachaganak gas-condensate deposit (KGKD) of Kazakhstan. Consequence, 9 and 6, relatively, underground cavities were created. At Azgir test site 5 cavities were filled by water and brines. Some of them were destroyed with surface spotting formation. It is noticed the spreading of radionuclides out of cavities bounds. At the KGKD gas-condensate is loaded into 4 cavities, another 2 cavities are in the accident condition, the last one (5TK) was filled by brine. There are characters of radioecological situation degradation above the last cavity. Radioactive logging in the cavity shown that the γ-activity of rock was increased more then 8 times in the distance of depths 0-64 m for 3 years. Apparently, outbreak of radioactive brines takes place along the zones of fissuring on the bound of casing tubes into the 5TK borehole and along enclosing rocks with sorption of radioactive isotopes in clay rocks. 2. There are examples of negative evolution of events at the Astrakhan gas-condensate deposit, where 15 nuclear cavities were created from 1980 to 1984 years. In 1986 year, 13 of them stopped to exist because of tectonic shearing, triggering by underground nuclear explosion in the salt dome. Many of them are flooded and they throw out the radioactive brines, reaching the surface. 3. Negative development of radioecological situation is occurred because of depressurization of cavities, their flooding, displacement of radionuclides with salt into the brines, destroying of cavities, extrusion of radioactive brines along the permeable zones, more often along the militant and observation boreholes. It is possible to spread of radioactive contamination along horizontal at the distance for l,5-3 km. In 2 years after the underground nuclear explosion at the Grachev oil deposit of Bashkiria radioactive tritium was detected in underground water and in the ground more then 3 km far from

  15. Underground collocation of nuclear power plant reactors and repository to facilitate the post-renaissance expansion of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elkins, Ned Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Underground collocation of nuclear power reactors and the nuclear waste management facilities supporting those reactors, termed an underground nuclear park (UNP), appears to have several advantages compared to the conventional approach to siting reactors and waste management facilities. These advantages include the potential to lower reactor capital and operating cost, lower nuclear waste management cost, and increase margins of physical security and safety. Envirorunental impacts related to worker health, facility accidents, waste transportation, and sabotage and terrorism appear to be lower for UNPs compared to the current approach. In-place decommissioning ofUNP reactors appears to have cost, safety, envirorunental and waste disposal advantages. The UNP approach has the potential to lead to greater public acceptance for the deployment of new power reactors. Use of the UNP during the post-nuclear renaissance time frame has the potential to enable a greater expansion of U.S. nuclear power generation than might otherwise result. Technical and economic aspects of the UNP concept need more study to determine the viability of the concept.

  16. The Dresden Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics - Status and first physics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgner, Ch. [Nuclear Astrophysics group, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, protected from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise using the same High-Purity Ge detector at several sites has shown that, with a combination of 45 m rock overburden, as can be found in the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, and an active veto against the remaining muon flux, in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup a background level can be achieved that is similar to the deep underground scenario as in the Gran- Sasso underground laboratory, for instance. Recently, a muon background study and geodetic measurements were carried out by the REGARD group. It was estimated that the rock overburden at the place of the future ion accelerator is equivalent to 130 m of water. The maximum muon flux measured was 2.5 m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} s{sup -1}, in the direction of the tunnel entrance. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem accelerator with 250 μA up-charge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is in progress and far advanced. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the

  17. On-site inspection for the radionuclide observables of an underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty an on-site inspection (OSI) may be undertaken to identify signatures from a potential nuclear explosion. This includes the measurement of 17 particulate radionuclides ( 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99 Mo, 99m Tc, 103 Ru, 106 Rh, 132 Te, 131 I, 132 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 147 Nd). This research provides an assessment of the potential to detect these radionuclides during an OSI within 1 week to 2 years after a nuclear explosion at two locations. A model has been developed that simulates the underground detonation of a 1 kT 235 U nuclear weapon with 1 % venting. This indicates a requirement to minimise the time since detonation with accurate determination of the test location. (author)

  18. Progress of the Felsenkeller Shallow-Underground Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cowan, T. E.; Grieger, M.; Hensel, T.; Junghans, A. R.; Ludwig, F.; Müller, S. E.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Schulz, S.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    Low-background experiments with stable ion beams are an important tool for putting the model of stellar hydrogen, helium, and carbon burning on a solid experimental foundation. The pioneering work in this regard has been done by the LUNA collaboration at Gran Sasso, using a 0.4 MV accelerator. In the present contribution, the status of the project for a higher-energy underground accelerator is reviewed. Two tunnels of the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, Germany, are currently being refurbished for the installation of a 5 MV high-current Pelletron accelerator. Construction work is on schedule and expected to complete in August 2017. The accelerator will provide intense, 50 µA, beams of 1H+, 4He+, and 12C+ ions, enabling research on astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions with unprecedented sensitivity.

  19. Summary of USSR reports on mechanical and radioactivity effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Paul [Civil Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Two reports have been issued by the USSR which examine the mechanical effects and radioactive contamination of the environment from underground nuclear explosions. In reviewing the mechanical effects, the institute of Terrestrial Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences emphasizes the advantages of nuclear explosives, namely the tremendous power and small dimensions, in the industrial and construction fields. The authors note that the mechanical effects are based not only upon the explosive yield but also upon the thermodynamic properties of the cavity gases during expansion. These properties may vary widely depending upon the rock material. A list of the basic parameters affecting the mechanical effects of contained nuclear explosions includes: cavity volume, dimensions of the chimney, degree of rock fracturing, intensity of the compression wave as a function of distance from shot point, and seismic effects. The second paper describes the phenomenology of radioactive contamination of the environment for both contained and excavation explosions.

  20. Summary of USSR reports on mechanical and radioactivity effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Paul

    1970-01-01

    Two reports have been issued by the USSR which examine the mechanical effects and radioactive contamination of the environment from underground nuclear explosions. In reviewing the mechanical effects, the institute of Terrestrial Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences emphasizes the advantages of nuclear explosives, namely the tremendous power and small dimensions, in the industrial and construction fields. The authors note that the mechanical effects are based not only upon the explosive yield but also upon the thermodynamic properties of the cavity gases during expansion. These properties may vary widely depending upon the rock material. A list of the basic parameters affecting the mechanical effects of contained nuclear explosions includes: cavity volume, dimensions of the chimney, degree of rock fracturing, intensity of the compression wave as a function of distance from shot point, and seismic effects. The second paper describes the phenomenology of radioactive contamination of the environment for both contained and excavation explosions

  1. Investigation of surface and underground waters about the Blayais nuclear site - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migeon, A.; Bernollin, A.; Dunand, E.; Barbey, P.; Boilley, D.; Josset, M.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation aims at proposing a first assessment of the impact of releases on surface and underground waters around the Blayais nuclear power station, i.e. the assessment of the (mainly radiological) quality of waters. The report identifies the various pollution sources: old sources (like atmospheric nuclear tests, nuclear accidents), incidents in the Blayais station, and potential sources for the present contamination. Different radionuclides are searched like tritium, carbon 14, gamma radioactivity (from different elements), some beta emitters, radon as well as some chemicals related to the station activity (hydrazine, boric acid, EDTA, lithium, morpholine). Sampling sites are presented (estuary, canals, reservoirs). Radiological and chemical analysis are reported and commented. Significant presence of Tritium and Nickel-63 are noticed

  2. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project Shoal Area for the protection of the public and the environment.

  3. Multidimensional flow of radioactive gases through the soil surrounding an underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkelacker, A.

    1980-01-01

    In connection with the underground siting of nuclear power plants the spreading of radioactive gases that are released into the soil coverage after a hypothetical accident is investigated. A physical model is presented that includes the isothermal one- and two-component flow of ideal gases through an inhomogeneous porous medium on the basis of Darcy's law. Based on this model a computer code has been developed that permits the calculation of transient pressure and concentration distributions in inhomogeneous porous media in one to three dimensions, as well as the determination of retention times. (orig.) [de

  4. Synthetic seismograms - II. Synthesis of amplitude spectra and seismograms of P waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banghar, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of programme of seismic detection of underground nuclear explosions, step by step variations in the amplitude spectra and waveforms of P wave signal, as it propagates from source to receiver region, are investigated. Influences on the amplitude spectra and waveforms of teleseismic p waves due to : (1) variation in the shape of reduced displacement potential, (2) variation of mantle Q values, (3) change in depth, (4) various yields, (5) spalling, and (6) variation of crustal structure at source as well as at receiver are studied. The results show that for a yield of 85 kilotons, the time structure of seismograms is nearly same for four types of reduced displacement potentials considered here. The duration of waveforms is affected both by crustal structure at source as well as due to spalling. In general, effect of receiver crust on seismograms is found to be minor. Synthesized and observed P wave seismograms for Longshot, Milrow and Cannikin underground nuclear explosions are computed at various seismometer array stations of the UKAEA. Computed seismograms compare well with the recorded ones. It is seen that: (1) overburden P wave velocity inferred from seismograms is less as compared to its value obtained from on-site measurements, and (2) the source function, the source crust transfer function, the mantle transfer function and the spalling function are the most important factors that influence shaping of spectra and seismograms. (M.G.B.)

  5. ISC origin times for announced and presumed underground nuclear explosions at several test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Announced data for US and French underground nuclear explosions indicate that nearly all detonations have occurred within one or two tenths of a second after the minute. This report contains ISC origin-time data for announced explosions at two US test sites and one French test site, and includes similar data for presumed underground nuclear explosions at five Soviet sites. Origin-time distributions for these sites are analyzed for those events that appeared to be detonated very close to the minute. Particular attention is given to the origin times for the principal US and Soviet test sites in Nevada and Eastern Kazakhstan. The mean origin times for events at the several test sites range from 0.4 s to 2.8 s before the minute, with the earlier mean times associated with the Soviet sites and the later times with the US and French sites. These times indicate lower seismic velocities beneath the US and French sites, and higher velocities beneath the sites in the USSR 9 figures, 8 tables

  6. UK National Data Centre archive of seismic recordings of (presumed) underground nuclear tests 1964-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John; Peacock, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    The year 1996 has particular significance for forensic seismologists. This was the year when the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was signed in September at the United Nations, setting an international norm against nuclear testing. Blacknest, as a long time seismic centre for research into detecting and identifying underground explosions using seismology, provided significant technical advice during the CTBT negotiations. Since 1962 seismic recordings of both presumed nuclear explosions and earthquakes from the four seismometer arrays Eskdalemuir, Scotland (EKA), Yellowknife, Canada (YKA), Gauribidanur, India (GBA), and Warramunga, Australia (WRA) have been copied, digitised, and saved. There was a possibility this archive would be lost. It was decided to process the records and catalogue them for distribution to other groups and institutions. This work continues at Blacknest but the archive is no longer under threat. In addition much of the archive of analogue tape recordings has been re-digitised with modern equipment, allowing sampling rates of 100 rather than 20 Hz.

  7. Study of the mineralogical transformations of granite by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Jean

    1970-01-01

    The object of the following communication is to prove new data about the petrographic effects of the underground nuclear explosions. It is founded on the results of trench tests in granite rock. The samples are collected by drilling and the temperature of the rock was measured in the hole. Four types of melted rocks can be sorted, grey-green glass and pumices, beige to red-brown pumices, dark lavas, dark veinlets and crushed granite. The distribution of these rocks is studied. Optical microscopy, X-rays and chemical analysis, study by electron probe, are made. The results complete previously published data. They are interesting as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author)

  8. Calculational model for condensation of water vapor during an underground nuclear detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    An empirally derived mathematical model was developed to calculate the pressure and temperature history during condensation of water vapor in an underground-nuclear-explosion cavity. The condensation process is non-isothermal. Use has been made of the Clapeyron-Clausius equation as a basis for development of the model. Analytic fits to the vapor pressure and the latent heat of vaporization for saturated-water vapor, together with an estimated value for the heat-transfer coefficient, have been used to describe the phenomena. The calculated pressure-history during condensation has been determined to be exponential, with a time constant somewhat less than that observed during the cooling of the superheated steam from the explosion. The behavior of the calculated condensation-pressure compares well with the observed-pressure record (until just prior to cavity collapse) for a particular nuclear-detonation event for which data is available

  9. Study of the mineralogical transformations of granite by underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Jean [Commissariat a I' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1970-05-15

    The object of the following communication is to prove new data about the petrographic effects of the underground nuclear explosions. It is founded on the results of trench tests in granite rock. The samples are collected by drilling and the temperature of the rock was measured in the hole. Four types of melted rocks can be sorted, grey-green glass and pumices, beige to red-brown pumices, dark lavas, dark veinlets and crushed granite. The distribution of these rocks is studied. Optical microscopy, X-rays and chemical analysis, study by electron probe, are made. The results complete previously published data. They are interesting as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author)

  10. Geochemistry research planning for the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report is a preliminary attempt to plan a comprehensive program of geochemistry research aimed at resolving problems connected with the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The problems and research needs were identified in a companion report to this one. The research needs were taken as a point of departure and developed into a series of proposed projects with estimated manpowers and durations. The scope of the proposed research is based on consideration of an underground repository as a multiple barrier system. However, the program logic and organization reflect conventional strategies for resolving technological problems. The projects were scheduled and the duration of the program, critical path projects and distribution of manpower determined for both full and minimal programs. The proposed research was then compared with ongoing research within DOE, NRC and elsewhere to identify omissions in current research. Various options were considered for altering the scope of the program, and hence its cost and effectiveness. Finally, recommendations were made for dealing with omissions and uncertainties arising from program implementation. 11 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  11. Design of an intense ion source and LEBT for Jinping Underground Nuclear Astrophysics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.; Sun, L.T.; Cui, B.Q.; Lian, G.; Yang, Y.; Ma, H.Y.; Tang, X.D.; Zhang, X.Z.; Zhang, Z.M.; Liu, W.P.

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Jinping Underground Nuclear Astrophysics experiment (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultralow background in China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL), high current accelerator driven by on an ECR source and highly sensitive detector to study directly a number of important reactions for the first time within their relevant stellar energy range. A 2.45 GHz ECR ion source is one of its key components to provide 10 emA H + , 10 emA He + and 2.0 emA He 2+ beams for the study of (p,γ), (p,α), (α,p) and (α,γ) reactions in the first phase of the JUNA project. Ion beam is extracted from the source with energies up to 50 kV/q. The following low energy beam transport (LEBT) system transports and matches the ion beam from the exit of ion source to the acceleration tube (AT). The design status of the ECR ion source and LEBT system for the JUNA project are presented. The potential risks of the ion source are also discussed and analysed.

  12. Design of an intense ion source and LEBT for Jinping Underground Nuclear Astrophysics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q., E-mail: wuq@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Sun, L.T., E-mail: sunlt@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cui, B.Q.; Lian, G. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Yang, Y.; Ma, H.Y.; Tang, X.D.; Zhang, X.Z.; Zhang, Z.M. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, W.P. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

    2016-09-11

    The ongoing Jinping Underground Nuclear Astrophysics experiment (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultralow background in China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL), high current accelerator driven by on an ECR source and highly sensitive detector to study directly a number of important reactions for the first time within their relevant stellar energy range. A 2.45 GHz ECR ion source is one of its key components to provide 10 emA H{sup +}, 10 emA He{sup +} and 2.0 emA He{sup 2+} beams for the study of (p,γ), (p,α), (α,p) and (α,γ) reactions in the first phase of the JUNA project. Ion beam is extracted from the source with energies up to 50 kV/q. The following low energy beam transport (LEBT) system transports and matches the ion beam from the exit of ion source to the acceleration tube (AT). The design status of the ECR ion source and LEBT system for the JUNA project are presented. The potential risks of the ion source are also discussed and analysed.

  13. Utilization of the noble gases in studies of underground nuclear detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.

    1973-01-01

    The Livermore Gas Diagnostics Program employs a number of rare gas isotopes, both stable and radioactive, in its investigations of the phenomenology of underground nuclear detonations. Radioactive gases in a sample are radiochemically purified by elution chromatography, and the separated gases are radioassayed by gamma-ray spectrometry and by internal or thin-window beta proportional counting. Concentrations of the stable gases are determined by mass-spectrometry, following chemical removal of the reactive gases in the sample. The most general application of the noble gases is as device fraction indicators to provide a basis for estimating totals of chimney-gas components. All of the stable rare gases, except argon, have been used as tracers, as have xenon-127 and krypton-85. Argon-37 and krypton-85 have proven to be of particular value in the absence of a good tracer material as reference species for studies of chimney-gas chemistry. The rate of mixing of chimney gases, and the degree to which the sampled gas truly represents the underground gas mixture, can be studied with the aid of the fission-product gases. Radon-222 and helium are released to the cavity from the surrounding rock, and are, therefore, useful in studies of the interaction of the detonation with the surrounding medium

  14. Regional waste treatment facilities with underground monolith disposal for all low-heat-generating nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative system for treatment and disposal of all ''low-heat-generating'' nuclear wastes from all sources is proposed. The system, Regional Waste Treatment Facilities with Underground Monolith Disposal (RWTF/UMD), integrates waste treatment and disposal operations into single facilities at regional sites. Untreated and/or pretreated wastes are transported from generation sites such as reactors, hospitals, and industries to regional facilities in bulk containers. Liquid wastes are also transported in bulk after being gelled for transport. The untreated and pretreated wastes are processed by incineration, crushing, and other processes at the RWTF. The processed wastes are mixed with cement. The wet concrete mixture is poured into large low-cost, manmade caverns or deep trenches. Monolith dimensions are from 15 to 25 m wide, and 20 to 60 m high and as long as required. This alternative waste system may provide higher safety margins in waste disposal at lower costs

  15. Remote sensing of traveling ionospheric disturbances resulting from underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, C.

    1985-01-01

    Following an underground nuclear test, an acoustic pulse propagates upward through the atmosphere and sets the ionosphere in motion which, in turn, generates gravity waves. The usual ionospheric monitoring approach is to use a phase sounder to observe the acoustic pulse. However, there are other detection techniques that can be employed. These detection techniques include the use of a low-frequency filter so that only long period (approximately 10 minutes) gravity waves can be observed. Another detection technique is to correlate microbarographic measurements on the surface with HF sounder data from the ionosphere to measure Lamb waves. A third detection technique is to correlate seismometer measurements in the ground with their corresponding ionospheric perturbations. The theoretical and experimental aspects of these remote detection techniques are discussed here

  16. The influence of geological loading on the structural integrity of an underground nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakeman, N.

    1985-08-01

    Stresses are developed in underground nuclear waste repositories as a result of applied loads from geological movements caused by the encroachment of ice sheets or seismic activity for example. These stresses may induce fracturing of the waste matrix, repository vault and nearfield host geology. This fracturing will enhance the advective flow and allow more-rapid transfer of radionuclides from their encapsulation through the repository barriers and nearfield host rock. Geological loads may be applied either gradually as in crustal folding or encroachment of ice sheets, or rapidly as in the case of seismic movements. The analysis outlined in this report is conducted with a view to including the effects of geological loading in a probabilistic repository site assessment computer code such as SYVAC. (author)

  17. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  18. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  19. Utility of Characterizing and Monitoring Suspected Underground Nuclear Sites with VideoSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, S. M.; Yocky, D. A.; Riley, R.; Calloway, T. M.; Wahl, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories proposed using airborne synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) collected in VideoSAR mode to characterize the Underground Nuclear Explosion Signature Experiment (UNESE) test bed site at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The SNL SAR collected airborne, Ku-band (16.8 GHz center frequency), 0.2032 meter ground resolution over NNSS in August 2014 and X-band (9.6 GHz), 0.1016 meter ground resolution fully-polarimetric SAR in April 2015. This paper reports the findings of processing and exploiting VideoSAR for creating digital elevation maps, detecting cultural artifacts and exploiting full-circle polarimetric signatures. VideoSAR collects a continuous circle of phase history data, therefore, imagery can be formed over the 360-degrees of the site. Since the Ku-band VideoSAR had two antennas suitable for interferometric digital elevation mapping (DEM), DEMs could be generated over numerous aspect angles, filling in holes created by targets with height by imaging from all sides. Also, since the X-band VideoSAR was fully-polarimetric, scattering signatures could be gleaned from all angles also. Both of these collections can be used to find man-made objects and changes in elevation that might indicate testing activities. VideoSAR provides a unique, coherent measure of ground objects allowing one to create accurate DEMS, locate man-made objects, and identify scattering signatures via polarimetric exploitation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. The authors would like to thank the National Nuclear Security Administration, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development, for sponsoring this work. We would also like to thank the Underground Nuclear Explosion Signatures Experiment team, a multi

  20. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results Report for Project Rulison, Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–22 and 27, 2015. Several of the land owners were not available to allow access to their respective properties, which created the need for several sample collection trips. This report documents the analytical results of the Rulison monitoring event and includes the trip report and the data validation package (Appendix A). The groundwater and surface water monitoring were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high- resolution gamma spectrometry. Tritium was analyzed using two methods, the conventional tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and the enriched method (for selected samples), which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  1. Wide area change detection with satellite imagery for locating underground nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, M.J.; Jasani, B.; Schlittenhardt, J.

    2001-01-01

    With the advent of high resolution optical imagery from commercial earth observation satellites, the use of remote sensing data for verification of nuclear non-proliferation agreements is becoming increasingly attractive. Non-governmental organizations are routinely publishing high-quality imagery of sensitive nuclear installations round the world, and international verification authorities, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), will also want to make use, directly or indirectly, of this additional open source of information. Exact location of the sites of underground nuclear explosions is a task eminently suited to satellite imagery. Here both moderate resolutions for detecting signals in very large testing ranges as well as high resolution images for exact interpretation play important roles. We describe in our paper a particularly sensitive change detection procedure for bitemporal, multispectral satellite imagery which can be used to locate the spall zone of underground nuclear explosions with commercial satellite imagery. The method is based on the multivariate alteration detection (MAD) technique of Nielsen et al. Linear combinations of the spectral channels in two images of the same scene are chosen so as to minimize their positive correlation. This leads to a series of difference images - the so-called MAD components - which are mutually orthogonal (uncorrelated) and ordered according to decreasing variance in their pixel intensities. Since interesting changes in man-made structures may contribute minimally to the overall variance (as the latter may be dominated for instance by seasonal vegetation differences) it is often the case that such changes turn up in a higher order MAD component. This is because they will be uncorrelated with seasonal vegetation changes, stochastic image noise or other major contributions to the overall change signal. This in fact is one of the

  2. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

  3. Analysis of trace neptunium in the vicinity of underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P; Tinnacher, R M; Zavarin, M; Kersting, A B

    2014-11-01

    A high sensitivity analytical method for (237)Np analysis was developed and applied to groundwater samples from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) using short-lived (239)Np as a yield tracer and HR magnetic sector ICP-MS. The (237)Np concentrations in the vicinity of the Almendro, Cambric, Dalhart, Cheshire, and Chancellor underground nuclear test locations range from nuclear tests at very low but measureable concentrations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Gnome underground nuclear test site, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earman, S.; Chapman, J.; Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations that were used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater from these sites is an important part of the preliminary site risk analysis. These evaluations are undertaken to allow prioritization of the test areas in terms of risk, provide a quantitative basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work at the sites, and provide a framework for assessing data needs to be filled by site characterization. The Gnome site in southeastern New Mexico was the location of an underground detonation of a 3.5-kiloton nuclear device in 1961, and a hydrologic tracer test using radionuclides in 1963. The tracer test involved the injection of tritium, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs directly into the Culebra Dolomite, a nine to ten-meter-thick aquifer located approximately 150 in below land surface. The Gnome nuclear test was carried out in the Salado Formation, a thick salt deposit located 200 in below the Culebra. Because salt behaves plastically, the cavity created by the explosion is expected to close, and although there is no evidence that migration has actually occurred, it is assumed that radionuclides from the cavity are released into the overlying Culebra Dolomite during this closure process. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides may be present in concentrations exceeding drinking water regulations outside the drilling exclusion boundary established by DOE. Calculated mean tritium concentrations peak at values exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard of 20,000 pCi/L at distances of up to almost eight kilometers west of the nuclear test

  5. The use of contained nuclear explosions to create underground reservoirs, and experience of operating these for gas condensate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Dorodnov, V.F.; Nikiforov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on the creation of underground reservoirs by means of nuclear explosions have been going on in the Soviet Union for many years. In this paper the authors consider three main kinds of sites or formations that can be used for constructing reservoirs by this method, namely, low-permeable rocks, worked-out mines and rock salt formations. Formulae are given for predicting the mechanical effect of an explosion in rocks, taking their strength characteristics into account. Engineering procedures are described for sealing and restoring the emplacement holes, so that they can be used for operating the underground reservoir. Experience with the contruction and operation of a 50 000 m 3 gas-condensate reservoir in a rock salt formation is described. In the appendix to the paper a method is presented for calculating the stability of spherical cavities created by nuclear explosions in rock salt, allowing for the development of elasto-plastic deformations and creep

  6. Traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 2009 North Korean underground nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, L. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Geodesy and Geomatics

    2015-04-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) can induce acoustic-gravity waves, which disturb the ionosphere and initiate traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). In this paper, we employ a multi-step and multi-order numerical difference method with dual-frequency GPS data to detect ionospheric disturbances triggered by the North Korean UNE on 25 May 2009. Several International GNSS Service (IGS) stations with different distances (400 to 1200 km) from the epicenter were chosen for the experiment. The results show that there are two types of disturbances in the ionospheric disturbance series: high-frequency TIDs with periods of approximately 1 to 2 min and low-frequency waves with period spectrums of 2 to 5 min. The observed TIDs are situated around the epicenter of the UNE, and show similar features, indicating the origin of the observed disturbances is the UNE event. According to the amplitudes, periods and average propagation velocities, the high-frequency and low-frequency TIDs can be attributed to the acoustic waves in the lower ionosphere and higher ionosphere, respectively. (orig.)

  7. Underground nuclear explosions. Geological survey of the cavities; Explosions nucleaires souterraines etude geologique des cavites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A geological survey of underground nuclear explosions makes it possible to determine the main characteristics of the cavity formed. The lower portion is spherical; the same was very likely true of the roof, which collapses in the majority of media with the exception of rock-salt. Its radius, for a given bomb size, can vary by a factor of two according to the type of rock. The lay-out of its contents depends on the characteristics of the solid and liquid products at the moment of the roof collapse; according to the medium involved, mixing of the rubble and the mud-flow occurs (granite) or does not occur (tuff and alluvia). In all media, the average physical properties can be evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude geologique d'explosions nucleaires souterraines permet de determiner les principaux caracteres de la cavite creee. Sa partie inferieure est spherique; il en etait vraisemblablement de meme de sa voute, effondree dans la plupart des milieux a l'exception du sel gemme. Son rayon, a energie d'engin egale, varie selon les roches du simple au double. La disposition de son contenu depend des caracteristiques des produits solides et liquides au moment de la chute du toit; selon le cas, il n'y a pas (tuf et alluvions) ou il y a (granite) melange des eboulis et des laves. Dans tous les milieux, les proprietes physiques moyennes peuvent etre evaluees. (auteur)

  8. Surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Seismic surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain is studied through a series of synthetic radiation-pattern calculations based on the earthquake-trigger model. From amplitude and phase radiation patterns for 20-s Rayleigh waves, inferences are made about effects on surface-wave magnitude, M/sub s/, and waveform character. The focus of this study is a comparison between two mechanisms of tectonic strain release: strike-slip motion on vertical faults and thrust motion on 45 0 dipping faults. The results of our calculations show that Rayleigh-wave amplitudes of the dip-slip model at F values between 0.75 and 1.5 are significantly lower than amplitudes of the strike-slip model or of the explosion source alone. This effect translates into M/sub s/ values about 0.5 units lower than M/sub s/ of the explosion alone. Waveform polarity reversals occur in two of four azimuthal quadrants for the strike-slip model and in all azimuths of the dip-slip-thrust model for F values above about 3. A cursory examination of waveforms from presumed explosions in eastern Kazakhstan suggests that releases of tectonic strain are accompanying the detonation of many of these explosions. Qualitatively, the observations seem to favor the dip-slip-thrust model, which, in the case of a few explosions, must have F values above 3

  9. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

  10. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach

  11. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Gasbuggy underground nuclear test site, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earman, S.; Chapman, J.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations that were used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater from these sites is an important part of the preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations are undertaken to allow prioritization of the test areas in terms of risk, provide a quantitative basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work at the sites, and provide a framework for assessing data needs to be filled by site characterization. The Gasbuggy site in northwestern New Mexico was the location of an underground detonation of a 29-kiloton nuclear device in 1967. The test took place in the Lewis Shale, approximately 182 m below the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, which is the aquifer closest to the detonation horizon. The conservative assumption was made that tritium was injected from the blast-created cavity into the Ojo Alamo Sandstone by the force of the explosion, via fractures created by the shot. Model results suggest that if radionuclides produced by the shot entered the Ojo Alamo, they are most likely contained within the area currently administered by DOE. The transport calculations are most sensitive to changes in the mean groundwater velocity, followed by the variance in hydraulic conductivity, the correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity, the transverse hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient, and uncertainty in the source size. This modeling was performed to investigate how the uncertainty in various physical parameters affects calculations of radionuclide transport at the Gasbuggy site, and to serve as a starting point for discussion regarding further investigation at the site; it was not intended to be a definitive simulation of migration pathways or radionuclide concentration values

  12. Estimation of thawing cryolithic area with numerical modeling in 3D geometry while exploiting underground small nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results on 3D numerical calculation of a thermal task related to assessing a thawing area when placing modules with reactor and steam-turbine facility of a small nuclear power plant in thickness of permafrost rocks. The paper discusses influence of the coefficient of thermal conductivity for large-scaled underground excavations lining and cryolithic area porosity on thawing depth and front movement velocity under different spatial directions

  13. Monitoring of surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions with help of ionospheric radio-sounding above test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.M.; Drobzheva, Ya.V.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of ionospheric method to monitor surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions. The ionosphere is 'an apparatus' for the infra-sound measurements immediately above the test site. Using remote radio sounding of the ionosphere you can obtain that information. So you carry out the inspection at the test site. The main disadvantage of the ionospheric method is the necessity to sound the ionosphere with radio waves. (author)

  14. TYBO/BENHAM: Model Analysis of Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration from Underground Nuclear Tests in Southwestern Pahute Mesa, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Wolfsberg; Lee Glascoe; Guoping Lu; Alyssa Olson; Peter Lichtner; Maureen McGraw; Terry Cherry; Guy Roemer

    2002-09-01

    Recent field studies have led to the discovery of trace quantities of plutonium originating from the BENHAM underground nuclear test in two groundwater observation wells on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. These observation wells are located 1.3 km from the BENHAM underground nuclear test and approximately 300 m from the TYBO underground nuclear test. In addition to plutonium, several other conservative (e.g. tritium) and reactive (e.g. cesium) radionuclides were found in both observation wells. The highest radionuclide concentrations were found in a well sampling a welded tuff aquifer more than 500m above the BENHAM emplacement depth. These measurements have prompted additional investigations to ascertain the mechanisms, processes, and conditions affecting subsurface radionuclide transport in Pahute Mesa groundwater. This report describes an integrated modeling approach used to simulate groundwater flow, radionuclide source release, and radionuclide transport near the BENHAM and TYBO underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. The components of the model include a flow model at a scale large enough to encompass many wells for calibration, a source-term model capable of predicting radionuclide releases to aquifers following complex processes associated with nonisothermal flow and glass dissolution, and site-scale transport models that consider migration of solutes and colloids in fractured volcanic rock. Although multiple modeling components contribute to the methodology presented in this report, they are coupled and yield results consistent with laboratory and field observations. Additionally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to provide insight into the relative importance of uncertainty ranges in the transport parameters.

  15. Spatial selection of focal of underground nuclear explosion by means of directed investigation and a method of vibroseismic oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskobojnikova, G.M.; Sedukhina, G.F.; Khajretdinov, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    An approach to task solving on parameters localization and determination within focal area of underground nuclear explosion (UNE) by scanning the inspected area by vibroseismic translucent field is considered. For the method, which application has been justified for task solving on On-Site Inspection (OSI), results of numerical modeling of seismic antenna orientation specifications are given, results of experiments on directed method of vibroseismic oscillation is described, questions on practical application of On-Site Inspection tasks are discussed. (author)

  16. Study of chemical reactions in the nuclear underground explosion - Incidence on radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picq, Jean Maurice

    1970-01-01

    In order to find out and state the theoretical or semi-empirical laws governing the reaction of radioactivity in contained nuclear explosion, we are studying the chemical reactions during the different stages of the cavity and chimney formation, as well as thermal transfers. At the same time, we are carrying an experimental study on melted rock and gas samples taken from the French underground explosions. The results of which can be found in this paper are derived from our present experiments at the plant (have been obtained from partial studies). During the French underground explosions, we took gaseous samples. The gas analysis, without taking water vapour into consideration, showed that those samples were composed of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide with small quantities of hydrocarbons (chiefly methane - about one per cent). The total amount of gas being quite large and proportional to the burst power, we came to the conclusion that those gases were produced by rock reactions (that rock was granite). We considered the following reagents because they were found in sufficient quantities to alter the balance between the different components: ferrous ions contained in mica, biotite, carbon dioxide from carbonates and water, either free or in a component state, contained in the rock. A comparison between theoretical and experimental results led us to notice among other things: the temperature of rock re-solidification; pressure nearing lithostatic pressure. Since the components of the environment, water not included, is quite homogeneous, the gas volume produced by '1 kiloton' is quite constant. On the other hand, the relative proportion of the gases undergoes a few changes, particularly the ratio CO/CO 2 which normally depends on the quantity of water contained in the environment. This statement is verified by the calculation of thermodynamic equilibriums. In order to calculate the simultaneous chemical equilibrium we have first selected five reactions. We

  17. Underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, A., E-mail: Bettini@pd.infn.i [Padua University and INFN Section, Dipartimento di Fisca G. Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Plaza Ayuntamiento n1 2piso, Canfranc (Huesca) (Spain)

    2011-01-21

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to frontier experiments in particle and nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines, geology and biology, that can profit of their unique characteristics. The cosmic silence allows to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators by searching for extremely rare phenomena. I will briefly review the facilities that are operational or in an advanced status of approval around the world.

  18. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, B.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes

  19. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, B.A. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Walck, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes.

  20. Analysis of world experience in constructing underground small nuclear power plants and assessment of its potential use in the Russian Arctic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Yu. G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the common ideology and main idea of locating underground nuclear plants. Specific examples in domestic and foreign experience have been analyzed. It has been established that underground small nuclear power plants can be used as an alternative source of electric and thermal energy for solving defense-strategic and social-economic tasks particularly when developing mineral raw material resources in the Russian Arctic regions

  1. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Underground design Simpevarp, Layout D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    This report is a compilation of the results of the underground design work carried out in design phase D1 of the Repository Design Project within the Deep Repository Project for the Simpevarp site. Similar reports are also being produced for the Laxemar and Forsmark sites. The design phase coincides with the initial site investigation phase. The main purpose of phase D1 is to answer the question 'Can a final repository be accommodated within the designated site', but also to test the design methodology and provide feedback to the modelling project. Design was carried out in accordance with the methodology described in UDP (Underground Design Premises), SKB R-04-60, and was based on preliminary data from various disciplines in the site modelling project. The preliminary input data used were then cross-checked against data in the final Site Descriptive Model SDM v 1.2 and significant differences were integrated in the design work. The design results from each design topic were presented by the designer at presentation meetings for SKB's design management and the reviewers engaged by SKB for the specific topic. After the presentation meeting the designer wrote up the work reports for the topic in question. The work reports were then reviewed by SKB's review team. The results of the review were compiled in a statement that was submitted to the designer to be dealt with. In the statement the designer documented which comments were dealt with and how. This report is a compilation of the entire design phase D1 for Simpevarp. The 3D layout with coordinate lists for deposition holes and tunnels that was drawn to illustrate a possible layout was used in the Preliminary safety evaluation of the Simpevarp subarea and the hydro modelling of the Open Repository, both activities within the Deep Repository Project. According to current plans for the Swedish nuclear programme, the minimum required number of canister positions in the repository is estimated to be

  2. A Study on distinguishing seismic waves caused by natural earthquakes and underground nuclear explosion within North Korean Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premlet, B.; Sabu, S.; Kamarudheen, R.; Subair, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the first nuclear test on 15 July 1945 , there have been over 2,051 other weapon tests around the world . The waveforms of a natural earthquake which generates strong S waves and an underground explosion which is dominated by P waves were distinguished from the analysis of data corresponding to a 2005 M5.0 Earthquake and a 2016 North Korean nuclear test , both at similar distances from seismometer . Further differences between the seismograms were evaluated and successfully distinguished between the origins of the elastic waves through the data using Moment Tensor Solution using stations BJT , HIA and INCN . North Korea has developed a nuclear fuel cycle capability and has both plutonium and enriched uranium programs at Pyongyang . Seismic recordings of vertical ground motion at Global Seismographic Network station IC.MDJ of the 4 seismic events at Punggye-ri , North Korea , which occurred on the 9th of October 2006 , 25th of May 2009, 12th of February 2013 and on the 6th of January and 9th of September , 2016 were examined and the P waves of these seismic waves , which show very similar wave form , were inspected and compared to the seismic data of the latest underground nuclear test on the 3rd of September 2017 at 03:30 UTC at the same site which is many times more powerful than the previous tests . The country , which is the only nation to have tested nuclear weapons in this millennium , has successfully prevented the release of radioactive isotopes and hampered data collection but further studies were done using acoustic data which was analysed from sonograms of the 4 North Korean tests at station MDJ. The latest explosion data from 3rd September was also compared to 42 presumed underground explosions which occurred in China , India , the U.S.S.R , Iran , Turkey and recorded at Arkansas Seismic Network.

  3. Geomechanical problems of an underground storage of spent nuclear fuel and their mathematic modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blaheta, Radim; Byczanski, Petr; Šňupárek, Richard; Hájek, Antonín

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2007), s. 140-146 ISSN 1335-1788 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : mathematical modelling * thermo-mechanical processes * underground deposition Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  4. Effect on localized waste-container failure on radionuclide transport from an underground nuclear waste vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, S.C.H.; Chan, T.

    1983-07-01

    In the geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste, one option is to emplace the waste container in a borehole drilled into the floor of the underground vault. In the borehole, the waste container is surrounded by a compacted soil material known as the buffer. A finite-element simulation has been performed to study the effect of localized partial failure of the waste container on the steady-state radionuclide transport by diffusion from the container through the buffer to the surrounding rock and/or backfill. In this study, the radionuclide concentration at the buffer-backfill interface is assumed to be zero. Two cases are considered at the interface between the buffer and the rock. In case 1, a no-flux boundary condition is used to simulate intact rock. In case 2, a constant radionuclide concentration condition is used to simulate fractured rock with groundwater flow. The results show that the effect of localized partial failure of the waste container on the total flux is dependent on the boundary condition at the buffer-rock interface. For the intact rock condition, the total flux is mainly dependent on the location of the failure. The total flux increases as the location changes from the bottom to the top of the emplaced waste container. For a given localized failure of the waste container, the total flux remains unaffected by the area of failed surface below the top of the failure. For fractured rock, the total flux is directly proportional to the failed surface area of the waste container regardless of the failure location

  5. Artificial radionuclides in oils from the underground nuclear test site (Perm region, Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, S.N.; Sapozhnikov, Yu.A.; Goloubov, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    Underground nuclear tests (UNT) are one of the possible sources of radioactive contamination of environment. About 2500 UNTs were carried out both for military and industrial (peaceful) purposes. In the former Soviet Union most of peaceful UNTs were oriented to the needs of the gas- and oil-extracting industry. Earlier it was considered that the holes of UNT are hermetic and the leakage of radionuclides is negligible. In this work nine oil samples from Gezh oil deposit in Perm region of Russia collected from different holes both where the explosion took part and from distant holes were analyzed for 3 H and 14 C and such fission products as 90 Sr and 134,137 Cs. For the determination of gamma-emitting radionuclides the gamma spectrometry with HPGe detector was used. For 90 Sr determination the measurements of Cherenkov radiation generated by daughter 90 Y were carried out with liquid scintillation equipment. It showed that even in the oil samples from the hole where the explosion took place no measurable 134,137 Cs and 90 Sr activities were detected. For 3 H and 14 C determination the oil samples were fractionated by distillation. For each sample 10-12 fractions were taken. Liquid scintillation spectrometry was used for 3 H and 14 C simultaneous determination. It was shown that in all samples the 3 H and 14 C concentrations are higher than the background level and for the hole where the explosion took place reached the value of about 1.3 x 10 5 Bq/L for low boiling fraction (40-750C). The 3 H and 14 C enrichment of oils from distant holes shows that UNT cavities are not hermetic and the radionuclide migration is not negligible. (author)

  6. Joint maximum-likelihood magnitudes of presumed underground nuclear test explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Sheila; Douglas, Alan; Bowers, David

    2017-08-01

    Body-wave magnitudes (mb) of 606 seismic disturbances caused by presumed underground nuclear test explosions at specific test sites between 1964 and 1996 have been derived from station amplitudes collected by the International Seismological Centre (ISC), by a joint inversion for mb and station-specific magnitude corrections. A maximum-likelihood method was used to reduce the upward bias of network mean magnitudes caused by data censoring, where arrivals at stations that do not report arrivals are assumed to be hidden by the ambient noise at the time. Threshold noise levels at each station were derived from the ISC amplitudes using the method of Kelly and Lacoss, which fits to the observed magnitude-frequency distribution a Gutenberg-Richter exponential decay truncated at low magnitudes by an error function representing the low-magnitude threshold of the station. The joint maximum-likelihood inversion is applied to arrivals from the sites: Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Novaya Zemlya, former Soviet Union; Singer (Lop Nor), China; Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia; and Nevada, USA. At sites where eight or more arrivals could be used to derive magnitudes and station terms for 25 or more explosions (Nevada, Semipalatinsk and Mururoa), the resulting magnitudes and station terms were fixed and a second inversion carried out to derive magnitudes for additional explosions with three or more arrivals. 93 more magnitudes were thus derived. During processing for station thresholds, many stations were rejected for sparsity of data, obvious errors in reported amplitude, or great departure of the reported amplitude-frequency distribution from the expected left-truncated exponential decay. Abrupt changes in monthly mean amplitude at a station apparently coincide with changes in recording equipment and/or analysis method at the station.

  7. Thermoluminescence response of calcic bentonite subjected to conditions of high nuclear waste underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, J.; Miralles, L.; Tarrasa, F.; Pueyo, J.J.; Cuevas, C. de las

    2002-01-01

    Bentonite is regarded as a backfilling material for underground storage facilities of highly radioactive nuclear waste built on granite formations. In these facilities, bentonite will be subjected to a gradient of temperature and dose rate, achieving a very high integrated dose and, therefore, changes in its structure and physical properties may take place. Two experiments to discriminate between the thermal and the irradiation effect were performed. In the first (named BIC-2A), samples were subjected to temperature while in second (named BIC-2B) the combined effect of temperature and irradiation was studied. The experimental conditions were: a thermal gradient between 130 deg. C and 90 deg. C, a maximum dose rate of 3.5 kGy.h -1 and a gradient of the integrated dose between 1.75 MGy and 10 MGy. Both experiments lasted a total of 124 days. An irradiation source of 60 Co with an activity close to 300,000 Ci, and bentonite samples of 200 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter were used. After the experiment, the samples were ground and two fractions were obtained: a fine fraction ( 80 μm). The results are described of thermoluminescence analyses on the two fractions obtained which showed that the coarse fractions can be 100 times more sensitive to radiation than the fine fraction. On the other hand, the heated and irradiated samples showed a thermoluminescence response around 50 times greater than the samples that were only heated. In addition to this, the temperature and dose rate conditions are relevant parameters in the generation and stabilisation of radiation induced defects. Finally, the response of samples heated and irradiated for two months was quite similar to that obtained on samples heated and irradiated for four months, indicating a saturation phenomenon. (author)

  8. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions; Phenomenologie generale des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S; Supiot, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [French] On donne une description essentiellement qualitative des phenomenes lies aux explosions nucleaires souterraines (explosion d'un seul engin, d'engins en ligne et explosions simultanees). Dans un premier chapitre sont decrits les phenomenes communs aux explosions contenues et aux explosions formant un cratere (formation et propagation d'une onde de choc provoquant la vaporisation, la fusion et la fracturation du milieu). Le deuxieme chapitre decrit les phenomenes lies aux tirs contenus (formation d'une cavite et d'une cheminee). Le troisieme chapitre est consacre a la phenomenologie des tirs formant un cratere et decrit notamment le mecanisme de formation et les differents types de crateres en fonction de la profondeur d'explosion et de la nature du terrain. Les phenomenes aeriens lies aux explosions formant un cratere: onde de pression aerienne et focalisation a grande distance, nuages de poussieres, sont egalement abordes. (auteurs)

  9. Analysis of the stability of underground high-level nuclear waste repository in discontinuous rock mass using 3DEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-03-01

    For the safe design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in deep location, it is necessary to confirm the stability of the underground excavations under the high overburden pressure and also to investigate the influence of discontinuities such as fault, fracture zone, and joints. In this study, computer simulations using 3DEC, which is a Distince Element (DEM) code, were carried out for determining important parameters on the stability of the disposal tunnel and deposition holes excavated in 500 m deep granite body. The development of plastic zone and stress and strain distributions were analyzed with various modelling conditions with variation on the parameters including joint numbers, tunnel size, joint properties, rock properties, and stress ratio. Furthermore, the influence of fracture zone, which is located around the underground excavations, on the stability of the excavation was investigated. In this study, the variation of stress and strain distribution due to the variation of fracture zone location, dip, and width was analyzed

  10. Calibration of antimony-based electrode for ph monitoring into underground components of nuclear repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betelu, S.; Ignatiadis, I.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Nuclear waste repositories are being installed in deep excavated rock formations in some places in Europe to isolate and store radioactive waste. In France, Callovo-Oxfordian formation (COx) is potential candidate for nuclear waste repository. It is thus necessary to measure in situ the state of a structure's health during its entire life. The monitoring of the near-field rock and the knowledge of the geochemical transformations can be carried out by a set of sensors for a sustainable management of long-term safety, reversibility and retrievability. Among the chemical parameters, the most significant are pH, conductivity and redox potential. Based upon the reversible interfacial redox processes involving H + , metal-metal oxides electrodes should be regarded among the promising technologies to be devoted to the observation and monitoring of pH into the underground components of nuclear repositories due to their physical and chemical stability, with regards to temperatures, pressures and aggressive environments. Metal-metal oxides electrodes present furthermore the advantage of being easily miniaturised. Among the metal-metal oxide group, antimony-antimony oxide system, for which improved properties were obtained using mono-crystalline antimony, has been the first and then the most investigated and disputed for pH sensing; the fact remains that it has been the most frequently used in practical pH measurements. Nevertheless, numerous conflicting data exist concerning the disturbances of their potential by various physical and chemical parameters, which require calibrating the electrode under conditions similar to those in which it is to be applied. This work aimed to calibrate mono-crystalline Sb electrode (99.999 %, m = 500 mg, d = 6.7) for pH measurements into the underground components of nuclear repositories. The electrode presented the advantage of being strong in the conception: it presented an important

  11. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository

  12. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository.

  13. Evaluation of the radionuclide tracer test conducted at the project Gnome Underground Nuclear Test Site, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohll, G.; Pohlmann, K.

    1996-08-01

    A radionuclide tracer test was conducted in 1963 by the U.S. Geological Survey at the Project Gnome underground nuclear test site, approximately 40 km southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The tracer study was carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to study the transport behavior of radionuclides in fractured rock aquifers. The Culebra Dolomite was chosen for the test because it was considered to be a reasonable analogue of the fractured carbonate aquifer at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the principal location of U.S. underground nuclear tests. Project Gnome was one of a small number of underground nuclear tests conducted by the AEC at sites distant from the NTS. The Gnome device was detonated on December 10, 1961 in an evaporate unit at a depth of 360 m below ground surface. Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close these offsite nuclear test areas. An early step in this process is performance of a preliminary risk analysis of the hazard posed by each site. The Desert Research Institute has performed preliminary hydrologic risk evaluations for the groundwater transport pathway at Gnome. That evaluation included the radioactive tracer test as a possible source because the test introduced radionuclides directly into the Culebra Dolomite, which is the only aquifer at the site. This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the radionuclide tracer test as a source for radionuclide migration in the Culebra Dolomite. The results of this study will assist in planning site characterization activities and refining estimates of the radionuclide source for comprehensive models of groundwater transport st the Gnome site

  14. First observations of tritium in ground water outside chimneys of underground nuclear explosions, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    Abnormal levels of radionuclides had not been detected in ground water at the Nevada Test Site beyond the immediate vicinity of underground nuclear explosions until April 1974, when above-background tritium activity levels were detected in ground-water inflow from the tuff beneath Yucca Flat to an emplacement chamber being mined in hole U2aw in the east-central part of Area 2. No other radionuclides were detected in a sample of water from the chamber. In comparison with the amount of tritium estimated to be present in the ground water in nearby nuclear chimneys, the activity level at U2aw is very low. To put the tritium activity levels at U2aw into proper perspective, the maximum tritium activity level observed was significantly less than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for a restricted area, though from mid-April 1974 until the emplacement chamber was expended in September 1974, the tritium activity exceeded the MPC for the general public. Above-background tritium activity was also detected in ground water from the adjacent exploratory hole, Ue2aw. The nearest underground nuclear explosion detonated beneath the water table, believed to be the source of the tritium observed, is Commodore (U2am), located 465 m southeast of the emplacement chamber in U2aw. Commodore was detonated in May 1967. In May 1975, tritium activity May significantly higher than regional background. was detected in ground water from hole Ue2ar, 980 m south of the emplacement chamber in U2aw and 361 m from a second underground nuclear explosion, Agile (U2v), also detonated below the water table, in February 1967. This paper describes these occurrences of tritium in the ground water. A mechanism to account for the movement of tritium is postulated

  15. Radioecological zoning of territories of carrying out of underground nuclear explosions in conditions of Yakutia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, V.D.; Stepanov, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In territory of Yakutia on period 1974 - 1987 years in the industrial purposes 12 peace underground nuclear explosions (UNE) have been made seven from which is carried out on Average-Botuobinsk a deposit with the purpose of an intensification of an oil recovery and inflow of gas (a chink No. 42, 43, 47, 66, 61, 68) and one (No. 101) - for creation of underground capacity - storehouses of the oil, four explosions - for seismic sounding an earth's crust ('Kimberlit', 'Horizon - 4', 'Kraton-4', 'Kraton-3'), and one 'Crystal' - for creation of a dam by loosening of breeds. From them 'Crystal' and 'Kraton-3' are emergency where the dead woods forming impact zones were formed. Impact zones are the sites dated for places with attributes of changes of an environment from influence of radiation. Differently, impact zone can be characterized as a zone of shock influence of the radiating factor on an environment allocated on the basis of seen damages of a vegetative cover. On Average-Botuobinsk 'air-blast cleaning' a deposit are available local radioactive a stain, formed (educated) at 'air-blast cleaning' chinks 42, 43, 47, 68 after end of chisel works and opening potted component which is taking place under the cement bridge. As a result of it has taken place teknogen change of a radiating background as a local stain the area approximately from 4 up to 25 m 2 , adjoining to mouth blowing lines (in approximately 100 m from a mouth of chinks). As a result of radioecological researches on vicinities of objects UNE conclusions which further can be a basis of the concept are received. 1. radioactive pollution of objects UNE have spotty character, are found out: on emergency UNE - a) cesium - 137, americium - 241, cobalt - 60; 6) cesium - 134, antimony - 125, europium - 155; a) objects kamuflet cesium - 137 and americium -241. 2. Definition impact zones on objects UNE is based on attributes- a) the vegetative cover is damaged; the level of a scale - background is

  16. Investigative study of the underground excavations for a nuclear waste repository in tuff: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.M.

    1987-07-01

    Numerical studies were conducted on the behavior of a tuff rock mass within which emplacement drifts for a nuclear waste repository are excavated. The first study evaluated the effects of rockbolting and excavation-induced damage on the behavior of the rock mass round typical drifts. The second study provided a simple means of assessing the significance of drift shape, drift size, and in-situ state of stress on the deformation and stress in the vicinity of drifts for vertical and horizontal emplacement of waste. Neither study considered the effect of heating of the rock mass after emplacement of the waste so the conclusions pertain only to the conditions immediately after excavation of the underground openings. The results of analyses of the rockbolted excavations indicated that rockbolts do not have a significant influence on the states of deformation or stress within the rock mass, and that the rockbolts are subjected to acceptable levels of stress even if installed as close to the face of the excavation as possible. Accordingly, rockbolts were not considered in the study of drift shape, drift size, and the in-situ state of stress. That study indicated that stable openings of the dimensions investigated can be constructed within a tuff rock mass with the properties assumed. Of the parameters investigated, the in-situ state of stress appeared to be most important. Potentially adverse conditions were predicted if the in-situ horizontal stress is very low, but current indications are that it lies within a range which is consistent with good conditions and a stable roof. 28 refs., 49 figs., 11 tabs

  17. Remediation of the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test: Moving Forward in the Face of Model Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J. B.; Pohlmann, K.; Pohll, G.; Hassan, A.; Sanders, P.; Sanchez, M.; Jaunarajs, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Faultless underground nuclear test, conducted in central Nevada, is the site of an ongoing environmental remediation effort that has successfully progressed through numerous technical challenges due to close cooperation between the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration and the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The challenges faced at this site are similar to those of many other sites of groundwater contamination: substantial uncertainties due to the relative lack of data from a highly heterogeneous subsurface environment. Knowing when, where, and how to devote the often enormous resources needed to collect new data is a common problem, and one that can cause remediators and regulators to disagree and stall progress toward closing sites. For Faultless, a variety of numerical modeling techniques and statistical tools are used to provide the information needed for DOE and NDEP to confidently move forward along the remediation path to site closure. A general framework for remediation was established in an agreement and consent order between DOE and the State of Nevada that recognized that no cost-effective technology currently exists to remove the source of contaminants in nuclear cavities. Rather, the emphasis of the corrective action is on identifying the impacted groundwater resource and ensuring protection of human health and the environment from the contamination through monitoring. As a result, groundwater flow and transport modeling is the linchpin in the remediation effort. An early issue was whether or not new site data should be collected via drilling and testing prior to modeling. After several iterations of the Corrective Action Investigation Plan, all parties agreed that sufficient data existed to support a flow and transport model for the site. Though several aspects of uncertainty were included in the subsequent modeling work, concerns remained regarding uncertainty in individual

  18. Yield Estimation for Semipalatinsk Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Seismic Surface-wave Observations at Near-regional Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.

    - A statistical procedure is described for estimating the yields of underground nuclear tests at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site using the peak amplitudes of short-period surface waves observed at near-regional distances (Δ Semipalatinsk explosions, including the Soviet JVE explosion of September 14, 1988, and it is demonstrated that it provides seismic estimates of explosion yield which are typically within 20% of the yields determined for these same explosions using more accurate, non-seismic techniques based on near-source observations.

  19. Measurement and evaluation of high-rise building response to ground motion generated by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the structural response research program being conducted for ERDA, the response behavior of high-rise buildings in Las Vegas, Nevada, due to ground motion caused by underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been measured for the past 12 years. Results obtained include variation in dynamic response properties as a function of amplitude of motion, influence of nonstructural partitions in the building response, and comparison of calculated and measured response. These data for three reinforced concrete high-rise buildings, all designed as moment-resisting space frames are presented

  20. The acoustic field in the ionosphere caused by an underground nuclear explosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasnov, Valerij Michailovič; Drobzheva, Yana Viktorovna

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 67, - (2005), s. 913-920 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/2110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Underground explosion * Acoustic wave * Atmosphere * Ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.309, year: 2005

  1. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  2. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  3. Geology in the Vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM Underground Nuclear Tests, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. B. Prothro

    2001-12-01

    Recent radiochemical evidence from groundwater characterization and monitoring wells in the vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM underground nuclear tests in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site, suggests that migration of radionuclides within groundwater beneath this portion of Area 20 may be more rapid than previously thought. In order to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions in the TYBO-BENHAM area for more accurate flow and transport modeling, a reevaluation of the subsurface geologic environment in the vicinity of the two underground tests was conducted. Eight existing drill holes provided subsurface control for the area. These holes included groundwater characterization and monitoring wells, exploratory holes, and large-diameter emplacement holes used for underground nuclear weapons tests. Detailed and consistent geologic descriptions of these holes were produced by updating existing geologic descriptions with data from petrographic, chemical, and mineralogic analyses, and current stratigraphic concepts of the region. The updated descriptions, along with surface geologic data, were used to develop a detailed geologic model of the TYBO-BENHAM area. This model is represented by diagrams that correlate stratigraphic, lithologic, and alteration intervals between holes, and by isopach and structure maps and geologic cross sections. Regional data outside the TYBO-BENHAM area were included in the isopach and structure maps to better evaluate the geology of the TYBO-BENHAM area in a regional context. The geologic model was then evaluated with regard to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration to assess the model's implications for flow and transport modeling. Implications include: (1) confirmation of the general hydrogeology of the area described in previous studies; (2) the presence of two previously unrecognized buried faults that could act as zones of enhanced permeability within aquifers; and (3) secondary alteration within tuff confining

  4. Safety substantiation for underground isolation of spent nuclear fuel or spent nuclear materials as a basis to develop reliable technological solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupalo, T.A.; Beygul, V.P.; Gupalo, M.S.; Kudinov, K.G.

    2000-01-01

    Major issues of the technique for mining and ecological safety substantiation of multi-barrier systems for long-term underground isolation of spent nuclear materials and solidified wastes containing long-lived radionuclides have been presented. The experience with the use of this technique for assessment of ecological safety for the long-term storage of plutonium-containing intermediate level wastes in underground facilities existing in the crystalline rock mass has been considered. The probabilistic evaluations of events of the emergency sequences of abnormal situations are based on the results of 40-year in-situ investigations in the rock mass. Feasibility of optimization has been shown for technological design solutions on storage facilities by the ''risk-costs'' principle. (authors)

  5. Detecting and modeling persistent self-potential anomalies from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKague, H.L.; Kansa, E.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Self-potential anomalies are naturally occurring, nearly stationary electric fields that are detected by measuring the potential difference between two points on (or in) the ground. SP anomalies arise from a number of causes: principally electrochemical reactions, and heat and fluid flows. SP is routinely used to locate mineral deposits, geothermal systems, and zones of seepage. This paper is a progress report on our work toward detecting explosion-related SP signals at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in understanding the physics of these anomalies that persist and continue changing over periods of time that range from months to years. As background, we also include a brief description of how SP signals arise, and we mention their use in other areas such as exploring for geothermal resources and locating seepage through dams. Between the years 1988 and 1991, we surveyed the areas around seven underground nuclear tests for persistent SP anomalies. We not only detected anomalies, but we also found that various phenomena could be contributing to them and that we did not know which of these were actually occurring. We analyzed our new data with existing steady state codes and with a newly developed time-dependent thermal modeling code. Our results with the new code showed that the conductive decay of the thermal pulse from an underground nuclear test could produce many of the observed signals, and that others are probably caused by movement of fluid induced by the explosion. 25 refs

  6. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Tur, Y S

    2012-11-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on "Degelen" site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water-atmosphere, tunnel air-atmosphere, soil water-atmosphere, vegetation-atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area "Degelen". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Material movement of medium surrounding an underground nuclear explosion; Mouvement materiel du milieu environnant une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrini, C; Garnier, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The results of measurements of the mechanical effects in the, intermediate zone around underground nuclear explosions in Sahara granite are presented. After a description of the main characteristics of the equipment used, the laws drawn up using experimental results for the acceleration, the velocity, and the material displacement are presented. These laws are compared to those published in other countries for nuclear tests in granite, in tuff and in alluvial deposits. (authors) [French] Les resultats de mesures d'effets mecaniques en zone intermediaire autour d'essais nucleaires souterrains dans le granite du Sahara sont exposes. Apres avoir decrit, dans leurs grandes lignes, les materiels utilises, on presente les lois etablies avec les resultats experimentaux pour l'acceleration, la vitesse et le deplacement materiel. Ces lois sont comparees a celles publiees a l'etranger pour des essais nucleaires dans le granite, le tuf et les alluvions. (auteur)

  8. UTEX modeling of xenon signature sensitivity to geology and explosion cavity characteristics following an underground nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, J. D.; Haas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce anthropogenic isotopes that can potentially be used in the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Several isotopes of radioactive xenon gas have been identified as radionuclides of interest within the International Monitoring System (IMS) and in an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Substantial research has been previously undertaken to characterize the geologic and atmospheric mechanisms that can drive the movement of radionuclide gas from a well-contained UNE, considering both sensitivities on gas arrival time and signature variability of xenon due to the nature of subsurface transport. This work further considers sensitivities of radioxenon gas arrival time and signatures to large variability in geologic stratification and generalized explosion cavity characteristics, as well as compares this influence to variability in the shallow surface.

  9. Possibility of use of Azgir underground nuclear cavities for burial of sulfur and her toxic compounds - products of oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.Z.; Adymov, Zh.I.

    1998-01-01

    The intensive growth of production oil and gas in Western Kazakhstan increases ecological vulnerability of an environment and a fauna because of the pressure of negative consequences arising with production, refining and transportation of the oil raw material, and also because of pernicious influence of accompanying products and wastes of oil refining manufacture being chemically dangerous and toxic, requiring special conditions of the handling, warehousing and storage for provision of ecological safety. A problem of the reclamation, safe warehousing, storage and long-term disposal (burial) of such accompanying products and wastes, as for example, sulfur and its compounds till now is not solved. For example, the mass of the accumulated mountains of crystal sulfur makes on cautious calculations from 2 up to 3 million tonnes also creates real danger of the propagation and harmful influence on the environment. The neutralization of sulfur and its compounds means removal them from the active handling with an environment, i.e. creation of such conditions in which sulfur products for a long time cannot cause harm atmosphere, underground medium and waters, vegetative and animal world. For it is offered to use underground cavities in a salt dome raising Large Azgir and the funnel-shaped hollow in persalt rocks formed as a result of underground nuclear explosions, carried out in 1978-1979 years near village Azgir Atyrau province. The sulfur products is possible to place on a long safe storage in funnel-shaped hollow (the A9 platform) volume 1,5 million cubic meters, by keeping, if necessary, an possibility of their extraction for needs of the future generations or to remove in underground nuclear cavities in stone salt (the A8 and A11 platforms) total volume 330000 cubic meters, from which it is not provided in the future to take out the sulfur products. At this the sulfur is removed from an environment on a storage or burial in the inactive form, i.e. the sulfur products

  10. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Underground design Forsmark, Layout D1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantberger, Martin; Zetterqvist, Anders; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Torben; Olsson, Tommy; Outters, Nils; Syrjaenen, Pauli

    2006-04-01

    This report comprises the design step D1 related to the underground design for a deep repository located at the Forsmark site. The design is based on the Site Descriptive Model Forsmark v1.2. All studies have been focussed at an area southeast of the Forsmark nuclear plant, which has been considered to be the most promising area for hosting the repository. SKB has developed guidelines for the design of the repository, which further describes the methodology applied for the studies. From these guidelines the following basic objectives for the design step D1 are summarized: to determine whether the final repository can be accommodated within the studied site; to identify site-specific facility critical issues; to test and evaluate the design methodology; to provide feedback to: the design organisation regarding additional studies that needs to be done; the site investigation and modelling organization regarding further investigations required; and the safety assessment team. The possible locations for a tentative deep repository are analysed in Chapter 3 of the report. The most promising area for the repository (denoted 'priority site') has been defined by SKB to be located southeast of the Forsmark nuclear plant and northwest of the gently dipping deformation zone ZFMNE00A2. Regarding the repository depth, present knowledge acquired from the site investigations indicates that it is possible to locate the repository at all stipulated depths according to SKB, that is between 400 m and 700 m depth. The preliminary assessment made in Chapter 3 clearly demonstrates that the repository can be accommodated within the 'priority site'. The potential to accommodate the repository is essentially the same for both 400 m and 500 m depths. The design of the deposition areas is reported in Chapter 4, which includes the design of layout features for all tunnels and deposition holes, orientation of tunnels, calculation of anticipated loss of deposition holes due to the applied

  11. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Underground design Forsmark, Layout D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantberger, Martin; Zetterqvist, Anders [Ramboell Sweden AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Torben [Ramboell Denmark A/S, Virum (Denmark); Olsson, Tommy [IandT Olsson AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Syrjaenen, Pauli [Gridpoint Oy, Helsinki (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    This report comprises the design step D1 related to the underground design for a deep repository located at the Forsmark site. The design is based on the Site Descriptive Model Forsmark v1.2. All studies have been focussed at an area southeast of the Forsmark nuclear plant, which has been considered to be the most promising area for hosting the repository. SKB has developed guidelines for the design of the repository, which further describes the methodology applied for the studies. From these guidelines the following basic objectives for the design step D1 are summarized: to determine whether the final repository can be accommodated within the studied site; to identify site-specific facility critical issues; to test and evaluate the design methodology; to provide feedback to: the design organisation regarding additional studies that needs to be done; the site investigation and modelling organization regarding further investigations required; and the safety assessment team. The possible locations for a tentative deep repository are analysed in Chapter 3 of the report. The most promising area for the repository (denoted 'priority site') has been defined by SKB to be located southeast of the Forsmark nuclear plant and northwest of the gently dipping deformation zone ZFMNE00A2. Regarding the repository depth, present knowledge acquired from the site investigations indicates that it is possible to locate the repository at all stipulated depths according to SKB, that is between 400 m and 700 m depth. The preliminary assessment made in Chapter 3 clearly demonstrates that the repository can be accommodated within the 'priority site'. The potential to accommodate the repository is essentially the same for both 400 m and 500 m depths. The design of the deposition areas is reported in Chapter 4, which includes the design of layout features for all tunnels and deposition holes, orientation of tunnels, calculation of anticipated loss of deposition holes due

  12. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyakhova, O.N.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Larionova, N.V.; Tur, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on “Degelen” site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water–atmosphere, tunnel air–atmosphere, soil water–atmosphere, vegetation–atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area “Degelen”. - Highlights: ► The basic mechanisms for tritium distribution in the air of nuclear testing sites were examined. ► We researched the distribution of tritium in the systems such as water–atmosphere, tunnel air–atmosphere, soil water–atmosphere and vegetation–atmosphere. ► An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere was performed. ► We experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in

  13. Development of Phenomenological Models of Underground Nuclear Tests on Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site - BENHAM and TYBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1999-09-21

    Although it is well accepted that underground nuclear explosions modify the in situ geologic media around the explosion point, the details of these changes are neither well understood nor well documented. As part of the engineering and containment process before a nuclear test, the physical environment is characterized to some extent to predict how the explosion will interact with the in situ media. However, a more detailed characterization of the physical environment surrounding an expended site is needed to successfully model radionuclide transport in the groundwater away from the detonation point. It is important to understand how the media have been altered and where the radionuclides are deposited. Once understood, this information on modified geologic media can be incorporated into a phenomenological model that is suitable for input to computer simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. The primary goals of this study are to (1) identify the modification of the media at a pertinent scale, and (2) provide this information to researchers modeling radionuclide transport in groundwater for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Results from this study are most applicable at near-field scale (a model domain of about 500 m) and intermediate-field scale (a model domain of about 5 km) for which detailed information can be maximized as it is incorporated in the modeling grids. UGTA collected data on radionuclides in groundwater during recent drilling at the ER-20-5 site, which is near BENHAM and TYBO on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Computer simulations are being performed to better understand radionuclide transport. The objectives of this modeling effort include: evaluating site-specific information from the BENHAM and TYBO tests on Pahute Mesa; augmenting the above data set with generalized containment data; and developing a phenomenological model suitable for input to

  14. Enhanced-safety underground nuclear power plants based on the use of proven ship-building equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashin, V.M.; Petrov, E.L.; Khazov, B.S.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations performed in the last few years by the State Science Center of the Russian Federation - Academician A. N. Krylov Central Scientific-Research Institute, together with specialized enterprises of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation, Sudprom, and other agencies of Russia, have shown the promise of marine nuclear power plants for producing underground nuclear power plants with a higher degree of protection from external and internal actions of different intensity. The concept was developed on the basis of an analysis of the energy supply in different regions of Russia and the near-abroad using fossil fuels (lignite, oil, natural gas). The change in the international environment, which makes it possible to convert the military technology, frees the industrial potential and skilled workers in Russia for development of products for the national economy. Stricter international standards and rules for increased safety and protection of nuclear power plants made it necessary to develop a new generation of reactors for ground-based power plants, which under the modern economic conditions cannot be implemented within the time periods acceptable for economics for most of the countries surrounding Russia. In the development of a new generation of ground-based nuclear power plants, the intense improvement of the aviation and space technology must be taken into account. This is connected with the increase in the catastrophes and the threat they present to the safety of unprotected power plants. This article is an abstract of the entire report

  15. Design and construction work of underground pit for existing light oil tank foundation at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Keita; Date, Masanao; Horimi, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Based on the new regulatory standards for commercial power plant reactors enforced in July 2013, Onagawa Nuclear Power Station of Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. implemented various safety measure works. One of them was a measure for the existing light oil tank foundation for emergency diesel generators for Unit 2 reactor. In consideration of tornado, external fire, and earthquake resistance, the company implemented the underground pit construction for a light oil tank basement by utilizing the existing oil retaining wall and foundation. This paper reported the outline of the planning, design, and implementation of construction works, which were carried out while securing quality and safety. Upon installation of the underground pit, the company utilized the existing oil retaining wall from the viewpoint of reducing construction costs, shortening time schedule, and reducing environmental burden. As a result of checking bending and axial force, part of these values exceeded the design reference values. So, 3-dimensional shell model was applied, and the simulation results showed sufficient seismic margin. As a measure to secure seismic margin against shear force, Ceramic-Cap-bar construction method was adopted. Upon construction, the company adopted the water jet method, and devised the sequential order of construction. In parallel with the day and night work and tank installation, it constructed the top slab, which secured the time schedule and quality. (A.O.)

  16. RADIATION SAFETY JUSTIFICATION FOR THE LONG-TERM STORAGE OF GAS CONDENSATE IN THE UNDERGROUND RESERVOURS FORMED BY THE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents approaches to the safety justification of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs formed by the nuclear explosion technology. Gas condensate and brine are the intermediate level liquid radioactive waste containing isotopes: 3Н, 137Cs and 90Sr, in traces - 239Pu, 235U, 241Am.Safety of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs is assessed on the base of the multi-barrier principle implementation, used during radioactive waste disposal. It is shown that the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the sealed underground reservoirs formed by nuclear explosion technologies in salt domes does not lead to the surface radioactive contamination and population exposure.

  17. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J

    2007-01-15

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project.

  18. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project

  19. Estimating the size of the cavity and surrounding failed region for underground nuclear explosions from scaling rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Leo A [El Paso Natural Gas Company (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The fundamental physical principles involved in the formation of an underground cavity by a nuclear explosion and breakage of the rock surrounding the cavity are examined from the point of view of making preliminary estimates of their sizes where there is a limited understanding of the rock characteristics. Scaling equations for cavity formation based on adiabatic expansion are reviewed and further developed to include the strength of the material surrounding the shot point as well as the overburden above the shot point. The region of rock breakage or permanent distortion surround ing the explosion generated cavity is estimated using both the Von Mises and Coulomb-Mohr failure criteria. It is found that the ratio of the rock failure radius to the cavity radius for these two criteria becomes independent of yield and dependent only on the failure mechanics of the rock. The analytical solutions developed for the Coulomb-Mohr and Von Mises criteria are presented in graphical form. (author)

  20. Time-domain study of tectonic strain-release effects on seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, K.K.; Sherman, N.W.

    1982-09-01

    Tectonic strain release affects both the amplitude and phase of seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions. Surface wave magnitudes are strongly affected by the component of tectonic strain release in the explosion. Amplitudes and radiation patterns of surface waves from explosions with even small tectonic components change magnitudes significantly and show a strong dependence on receiver locations. A thrust-slip source superimposed on an isotropic explosion can explain observed reversals in waveform at different azimuths and phase delays between normal and reversed Rayleigh waves. The mechanism of this reversal is due to the phase relationship between reasonable explosion and tectonic release sources. Spallation or an unusual source time function are not required. The observations of Shagan River events imply thrust-slip motion along faults in a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent with regional tectonics

  1. Modeling the Propagation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves Produced by an Underground Nuclear Explosion using the Transfer Function Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruntz, R. J.; Mayr, H. G.; Paxton, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    We will present results from the Transfer Function Model (TFM), which simulates the neutral atmosphere, from 0 to 700 km, across the entire globe (pole to pole). The TFM is able to rapidly calculate the density and temperature perturbations created by a localized impulse. We have used TFM to simulate a ground-level explosion (equivalent to an underground nuclear explosion (UNE)) and its effects on the neutral atmosphere, including the propagation of gravity waves up to ionospheric heights. At ionospheric altitudes ion-neutral interactions are expected to lead to perturbations in the electron density. These perturbations can be observed as changes in the total electron content (TEC), a feature readily observed by the globally distributed network of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) sensors. We will discuss the time and location of the maximum atmospheric disturbances at a number of altitudes, including the peaks of several ionospheric layers, including the F2 layer, which is often treated as the major driver of changes in GNSS-TEC observations. We will also examine the drop-off of atmospheric disturbances at those altitudes, both with increasing time and distance. The 6 known underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) by North Korea in the 21st century have sparked increased interest in UNE detection through atmospheric and ionospheric observations. The latest test by North Korea (3 Sept. 2017) was the largest UNE in over 2 decades. We will compare TFM results to the analysis of previous UNEs, including some tests by North Korea, and discuss possible confounding factors in predicting the time, location, and amplitude of atmospheric and ionospheric disturbances produced by a UNE.

  2. Joint experiment on verification of the treaty on the limitation of underground nuclear tests and its value in nuclear disarmament problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    This conference commemorates the 10th anniversary of the Joint Verification Experiment. The experiment was performed in order to specify methods controlling yield of underground explosions in the USA and the USSR. Basic of the the experiment were coordinated and formulated in the Agreement signed by Heads of departments of foreign policies in Moscow on 31 May 1988. The tasks can be briefly revealed the following way: - each of the parties can measure (on mutual basis) the explosion yield in the course of the experiment performed on the test site of the other party using tele seismic and hydrodynamic methods; - each party also makes tele seismic measurement of both explosions of the experiment with the help of its national net of seismic stations; - each party makes hydrodynamic measurements of explosion yield in the course of the experiment in a special additional borehole; - each party performs tele-seismic measurements of both explosions' yield at its five seismic stations with which the parties exchanged data on the explosions made earlier. In the course of the experiment the parties exchanged the data obtained in the same volume. The analysis showed: 1. The experiment conformed to all the requirements of the Agreement in spite of all the complexity of the procedures and differences in conditions of the experiment performance. 2. The experiment became an example of an unprecedented level of cooperation between two countries in one of the most significant for national security fields of defense activity. 3. The experiment gave the basis for concrete coordination of underground test yield control measures. It also considerable advanced the elaboration of protocols to treaties of 1974 and 1976. 4. In the course of the experiment there appeared an opportunity to compare scientific-technical level of hydrodynamic and seismic measurements and safety provision for nuclear tests of both countries. Cooperative development of anti intrusive devices for hydrodynamic method

  3. Relative source comparison of the NPE to underground nuclear explosions at local distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) provides an opportunity to compare broadband characteristics of chemical to nuclear explosions at a group of local stations (4 to 40 km distant). The locations for these stations were established on bedrock to record a small partially decoupled nuclear explosion and two nearby nuclear experiments, all shots within {open_quotes}N{close_quotes} Tunnel on Rainier Mesa, Area 12. These sites were also occupied to record aftershocks from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and chemical explosions from the USGS Sierra Experiment. To minimize calibration errors during this period, redundant instrumentation were used for each event. THe analysis emphasizes the source characteristics of the different explosions. The 300-lb chemical calibration explosion allows removal of path effects from each explosion. The NPE and nearby experiments produce very similar waveforms. The decoupled nuclear explosion and the 300-lb chemical calibration explosion show higher frequency content consistent with a higher corner frequency for the sources.

  4. A review of a field study of radionuclide migration from an underground nuclear explosion at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.; Daniels, W.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Thompson, J.L.; Rundberg, R.S.; Fraser, S.L.; Daniels, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a long-term (9 year) field study of the distribution of radionuclides around an underground nuclear explosion cavity at the Nevada Test Site are reviewed. The goals of this Radionuclide Migration project are to examine the rates of migration underground in various media and to determine the potential for movement, both on and off the Nevada Test Site, of radioactivity from such explosions, with particular interest in possible contamination of water supplies. Initial studies were undertaken near the site of the low-yield test Cambric, which was detonated 73 m beneath the water table in tuffaceous alluvium. Solid samples were obtained from just below ground surface to 50 m below the detonation point, and water was sampled from five different regions in the vicinity of the explosion. Ten years after the test, most of the radioactivity was found to be retained in the fused debris in the cavity region and no activity above background was found 50 m below. Only tritium and 90 Sr were present in water in the cavity at levels greater than recommended concentration guides for water in uncontrolled areas. A satellite well is being used to remove water 91 m from the detonation point. During seven years (7x10 6 m 3 ) of pumping, tritium, 85 Kr, 36 Cl and 129 I have been detected in the water. Approximately 40% of the total tritium from the cavity region has been removed by pumping at the satellite well, and the maximum in the tritium concentration is clearly defined. Use of sensitive analytical techniques has permitted measurement of the very low concentrations of 36 Cl and 129 I present in the water. The 36 Cl peak precedes the tritiated water, possibly as a result of anion exclusion. Additional analyses are in progress to better define the shape of the 129 I concentration curve. (author)

  5. Review of a field study of radionuclide migration from an underground nuclear explosion at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.; Daniels, W.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Thompson, J.L.; Rundberg, R.S.; Fraser, S.L.; Daniels, K.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results from a long-term (9 year) field study of the distribution of radionuclides around an underground nuclear explosion cavity at the Nevada Test Site are reviewed. The goals of this Radionuclide Migration project are to examine the rates of migration underground in various media and to determine the potential for movement, both on and off the Nevada Test Site, of radioactivity from such explosions, with particular interest in possible contamination of water supplies. Initial studies were undertaken near the site of the low-yield test Cambric, which was detonated 73 m beneath the water table in tuffaceous alluvium. Solid samples were obtained from just below ground surface to 50 m below the detonation point, and water was sampled from five different regions in the vicinity of the explosion. Ten years after the test, most of the radioactivity was found to be retained in the fused debris in the cavity region and no activity above background was found 50 m below. Only tritium and 90 Sr were presented in water in the cavity at levels greater than recommended concentration guides for water in uncontrolled areas. A satellite well is being used to remove water 91 m from the detonation point. During seven years (7 x 10 6 m 3 ) of pumping, tritium, 85 Kr, 36 Cl, and 129 I have been detected in the water. Approximately 40% of the total tritium from the cavity region has been removed by pumping at the satellite well, and the maximum in the tritium concentration is clearly defined. Use of sensitive analytical techniques has permitted measurement of the very low concentrations of 36 Cl and 129 I present in the water. The 36 Cl peak precedes the tritiated water, possibly as a result of anion exclusion. Additional analyses are in progress to better define the shape of the 129 I concentration curve

  6. Study of the chimney produced by an underground nuclear explosion; Etude de la cheminee creee par une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    Underground nuclear explosions lead to the formation of a cavity which is roughly of spherical shape. The roof of this cavity is unstable and collapses in most cases, leading to the formation of a chimney. The height and the diameter depend on the energy of the charge and on the nature of the surroundings. The chronology of the various stages can be determined by seismic observations. The interior of the chimney is filled, either partially or completely, with rubble earth. This phenomenon is of great importance as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author) [French] Les explosions nucleaires souterraines creent une cavite de forme grossierement spherique. La voute de cette cavite est instable et s'effondre dans la plupart des cas, donnant lieu a la formation d'une cheminee. La hauteur et le diametre sont fonction de l'energie du tir et de la nature du milieu. La chronologie des evenements peut etre determinee par des observations seismiques. L'interieur des cheminees est occupe, en partie ou en totalite, par des eboulis. Ce phenomene presente un grand interet pour l'utilisation des explosions nucleaires a des fins industrielles. (auteur)

  7. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 2: Methodology and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

  8. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 2: Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  9. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 1: Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.Z.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

  10. The discussion of a method to determine the underground destruction range of nuclear earth penetrator bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Xiaobing; Zhang Zhongshan

    2007-01-01

    This thesis chooses cross hole seismic tomography to determine the destruction range of surrounded rock in virtue of the characteristic of nuclear earth penetrator explosion.According to Fermat's principle, ray tracing method-the shortest path method suggested by Moser used, a programme was produced to calculate seismic travel time and then to simulate the collection the practical travel time data. The Genetic Algorithm is adopted as the inversion method to simulate in accordance with the crater model of nuclear earth penetrator explosion. (authors)

  11. Investigation of the seismicity at regional and teleseismic distances following underground nuclear detonations. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.E.; Stubenrauch, A.; Willis, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    The main emphasis of the investigation was to determine the seismicity of the Nevada Test Site area during a time period which encompassed a lull in the testing program. The time period studied extends from April 1, 1973 to October 1, 1975. The aftershock sequence of nuclear shots fired on Pahute Mesa during late 1975 and early 1976 were also included

  12. Seismological investigation of September 09 2016, North Korea underground nuclear test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gaber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On Sep. 9, 2016, a seismic event of mb 5.3 took place in North Korea. This event was reported as a nuclear test. In this study, we applied a number of discriminant techniques that facilitate the ability to distinguish between explosions and earthquakes on the Korean Peninsula. The differences between explosions and earthquakes are due to variation in source dimension, epicenter depth and source mechanism, or a collection of them. There are many seismological differences between nuclear explosions and earthquakes, but not all of them are detectable at large distances or are appropriate to each earthquake and explosion. The discrimination methods used in the current study include the seismic source location, source depth, the differences in the frequency contents, complexity versus spectral ratio and Ms-mb differences for both earthquakes and explosions. Sep. 9, 2016, event is located in the region of North Korea nuclear test site at a zero depth, which is likely to be a nuclear explosion. Comparison between the P wave spectra of the nuclear test and the Sep. 8, 2000, North Korea earthquake, mb 4.9 shows that the spectrum of both events is nearly the same. The results of applying the theoretical model of Brune to P wave spectra of both explosion and earthquake show that the explosion manifests larger corner frequency than the earthquake, reflecting the nature of the different sources. The complexity and spectral ratio were also calculated from the waveform data recorded at a number of stations in order to investigate the relation between them. The observed classification percentage of this method is about 81%. Finally, the mb:Ms method is also investigated. We calculate mb and Ms for the Sep. 9, 2016, explosion and compare the result with the mb: Ms chart obtained from the previous studies. This method is working well with the explosion. Keywords: Discrimination, Seismic source location, Brune model, Spectral parameters, Complexity method, Mb: Ms

  13. Radionuclide migration experiments related to an underground nuclear test: II. modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompson, A.; Carle, S.F.; Smith, D.K.; Hudson, G.B.; Bruton, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The goal of this project is to improve our understanding of water and radionuclide migration in both saturated and unsaturated geologic media by coupling advanced simulation techniques, available characterization data, and radioanalytical measurements in the context of a remarkable field experiment. Between 1975 and 1991, groundwater was steadily pumped from a well adjacent to a 1965 underground test conducted in alluvium at the Nevada Test Site. The experiment was primarily conducted in order to elicit information on radionuclide migration through the saturated zone between the test and the well. The effluent was monitored. discharged to an unlined ditch, and allowed to infiltrate into the ground during flow towards a dry lake, about a kilometer away. The 16 years of pumping and infiltration created an unexpected second experiment in which the migration of the ditch effluent through the 200 meters of unsaturated media, back to the water table, could be studied. Pumping and effluent data are being utilized in conjunction with chemical measurements made in groundwater and a series of numerical models to better understand the movement of radionuclides in the system, both between the test and the well, and between the ditch and the water table. The release of radionuclides away from a testing area will be controlled by local groundwater flow rates, by their dissolution from solidified melt glass produced by the test, and by chemical sorption processes that retard their migration rates in chemically reactive geologic media. Only the more mobile and less reactive radionuclides (e.g.. tritium, 14 C, 36 Cl, 85 Kr, and 129 I) were measured in the well effluent. The movement of these radionuclides through the unsaturated media beneath the ditch will be affected additionally by the capillary nature of moisture movement under unsaturated conditions and by their interaction with and potential mass exchange with the gas (air) phase. Results of numerical simulations

  14. Ionospheric disturbances due to underground nuclear explosions and other sources: an elementary discussion, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, L.F.

    1971-01-01

    The possible effect of verticle ground surface motion on the ionosphere, as a consequence of acoustic propagation, is discussed. Estimates of R. F. phase path perturbations are developed for several representative sources and several propagative modes (both terrestrial and atmospheric). In particular, amplitude models for ionospheric density perturbations are used. The discrimination of earth quakes and nuclear explosive disturbances is considered and some detailed properties of the extended atmosphere are described. A list of references is provided. (U.S.)

  15. The underground as a storage facility. Modelling of nuclear waste repositories and aquifer thermal energy stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probert, T.

    1998-06-01

    This thesis, which consists of eleven papers and reports, deals with nuclear waste repositories in solid rock and with aquifer thermal energy storage systems. All these storage systems induce multidimensional, time-variable thermo-hydro-elastic processes in the ground in and around the storage region. The partial differential equations that govern the physical processes are solved analytically in some cases, and in other cases numerical models are developed. Many methods of classical mathematical physics are employed for the solution. The analytical approach provides a deeper physical understanding of the processes and their interactions. At large depths, the salinity of groundwater, and hence its density, often increases downwards. In the first study, the upward buoyancy flow of groundwater in fracture planes due to heat release from the nuclear waste is studied considering the added effect of a salt gradient. The aim of the study is to determine the natural barrier effect caused by the salt. A simple formula for the largest upward displacement from the repository is derived. There may be a strong natural barrier, which is independent of fracture permeabilities. In two papers, the temperature field in rock due to a large rectangular grid of heat-releasing canisters containing nuclear waste is studied. The solution is by superposition divided into different parts. There is a global temperature field due to the large rectangular canister area, while a local field accounts for the remaining heat source problem. A complete analytical solution is presented. In the next set of papers, the thermoelastic response from the rectangular field of nuclear waste is analysed. Another study concerns the use of heat as a tracer to investigate flow in a fracture plane. Two papers deal with the thermohydraulic evaluations of two aquifer thermal energy storage projects in southern Sweden. Both plants have been successfully simulated using models based on conformal flow and entropy

  16. Inventory of geochemical sensors available for monitoring an underground site of nuclear waste repository research pathways for new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiadis, I.; Gaucher, E.; Buschaert, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The principle of the nuclear waste storage is based on the installation of a whole of robust barriers in order to make safe the secular containment of waste. In many industrial countries deep argillaceous formations are considered as potential host media for high level radioactive wastes. This is because clayey geo-materials have the ability to adsorb a large amount of ions and they possess the low permeability required to slow down the percolations of fluids. Containers with radioactive waste will be also protected with barriers made from porous materials such as bentonite. For the safety assessment of long-term radioactive waste disposals, a critical issue is the continuous disposal monitoring of the repository. In this framework, it is desirable to have non-invasive tools in order to determine in situ some geochemical, thermal and mechanical parameters for the suitable detection of changes that can take place during the life of the underground repository. The major objective of this work is to carry out a detailed inventory of robust geochemical sensor concepts being able to be devoted (after adaptation or development and/or implementation) to the observation and monitoring of the underground components of a nuclear waste storage. These sensors must answer precise specifications related to the requirements and constraints of observation and monitoring of the storage components (architecture, geological environment and associated phenomenology). In addition to the technical aspects, the major constraint seems to be the operation life, which will have to be based on the robustness and the perseverance (durability) of the principle of the sensors. Among the geochemical parameters to be followed, the most significant are: temperature, pH, conductivity, redox potential, the speciation of certain elements, and measurement of H 2 , O 2 , CO 2 and H 2 S. The inventory and the assessment of the currently available

  17. Challenges in defining a radiologic and hydrologic source term for underground nuclear test centers, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.

    1995-06-01

    The compilation of a radionuclide inventory for long-lived radioactive contaminants residual from nuclear testing provides a partial measure of the radiologic source term at the Nevada Test Site. The radiologic source term also includes potentially mobile short-lived radionuclides excluded from the inventory. The radiologic source term for tritium is known with accuracy and is equivalent to the hydrologic source term within the saturated zone. Definition of the total hydrologic source term for fission and activation products that have high activities for decades following underground testing involves knowledge and assumptions which are presently unavailable. Systematic investigation of the behavior of fission products, activation products and actinides under saturated or Partially saturated conditions is imperative to define a representative total hydrologic source term. This is particularly important given the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides within testing centers. Data quality objectives which emphasize a combination of measurements and credible estimates of the hydrologic source term are a priority for near-field investigations at the Nevada Test Site

  18. Surface motion near underground nuclear explosions in desert alluvium Operation Nougat I, Area 3, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, W.R.

    1978-05-01

    During Operation Nougat I, which was conducted in late 1961 and the first half of 1962, Sandia Laboratories measured surface motion in the vicinity of all contained underground nuclear explosions conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. This report presents and analyses most of the data derived from that study. Propagation velocities in the desert alluvium, 4440 ft/sec, and underlying tuff, 6020 ft/sec, are typical of those derived from later measurements. Motion attenuation data exhibit considerable scatter, in part because of early measurement and data reduction techniques but primarily because of differences in the characteristics of the geologic media which had not then been recognized. However, regression fits to the scaled data show attenuation of scaled acceleration at a rate 35% greater than that observed for Merlin event data (Merlin was conducted later in Area 3). The attenuation rate for particle velocity data from Nougat I events was 47% less than that for Merlin data, and the Nougat I scaled displacement data attenuation rate was 87% less than that for Merlin data. Analysis of data from a vertical string of gages extending to the surface above the Mink explosion has established a significant difference between normal spallation above contained explosions in competent rock and the reaction of uncemented alluvium to similar explosive loading

  19. Tunnel Boring Machine Cutter Maintenance for Constructing Underground Cable Lines from Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Wang; Yee, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) can construct an underground tunnel efficiently and without construction noise vibration related problems. Many civil projects, such as NPP construction, set importance on the economics of construction. Thus, advance rate, which is the speed at which the TBM is able to progress along its intended route, is one of the key factors affecting construction period and construction expenses. As the saying goes, time is money. Right Double Quotation Mark In addition, it is important to manage construction permits and civil complaints, even when construction expenses and construction periods are excluded. So, accurate prediction for advance rate is important when designing tunnel project. Several designers and project owners have tried to improve construction efficiency and tunneling advance rate.. There have been several studies on managing the rate of wear, designing an optimum tunnel face, and finding the optimum cutter spacing. Cutter replacements due to cutter wear and tear are very important because the wear and tear of cutters attached to the cutter head profoundly affect the advance rate. To manage cutter wear and tear is to control parameters related to cutter shape and cutter wear rate. There have been studies on the relationship between rock properties or TBM characteristics, and cutter wear or replacement. However, many of these studies relied on computer simulations or other small scale experiments. Therefore, this paper attempts to present a correlation between cutter replacement or cutter wear, against various parameters using practical data such as rock quality and TBM shield specifications, from an actual construction site. This study was conducted to suggest directions in the improvement of TBM cutters by analyzing relationships between rock conditions and cutter maintenance as well as TBM advance rates. Actual field data was collected and compared to actual design values in evaluating the effectiveness of traditional

  20. Tunnel Boring Machine Cutter Maintenance for Constructing Underground Cable Lines from Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Wang; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) can construct an underground tunnel efficiently and without construction noise vibration related problems. Many civil projects, such as NPP construction, set importance on the economics of construction. Thus, advance rate, which is the speed at which the TBM is able to progress along its intended route, is one of the key factors affecting construction period and construction expenses. As the saying goes, time is money. Right Double Quotation Mark In addition, it is important to manage construction permits and civil complaints, even when construction expenses and construction periods are excluded. So, accurate prediction for advance rate is important when designing tunnel project. Several designers and project owners have tried to improve construction efficiency and tunneling advance rate.. There have been several studies on managing the rate of wear, designing an optimum tunnel face, and finding the optimum cutter spacing. Cutter replacements due to cutter wear and tear are very important because the wear and tear of cutters attached to the cutter head profoundly affect the advance rate. To manage cutter wear and tear is to control parameters related to cutter shape and cutter wear rate. There have been studies on the relationship between rock properties or TBM characteristics, and cutter wear or replacement. However, many of these studies relied on computer simulations or other small scale experiments. Therefore, this paper attempts to present a correlation between cutter replacement or cutter wear, against various parameters using practical data such as rock quality and TBM shield specifications, from an actual construction site. This study was conducted to suggest directions in the improvement of TBM cutters by analyzing relationships between rock conditions and cutter maintenance as well as TBM advance rates. Actual field data was collected and compared to actual design values in evaluating the effectiveness of traditional

  1. Detection of nuclear testing from surface concentration measurements: Analysis of radioxenon from the February 2013 underground test in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzeja, R. J.; Buckley, R. L.; Werth, D. W.; Chiswell, S. R.

    2018-03-01

    A method is outlined and tested to detect low level nuclear or chemical sources from time series of concentration measurements. The method uses a mesoscale atmospheric model to simulate the concentration signature from a known or suspected source at a receptor which is then regressed successively against segments of the measurement series to create time series of metrics that measure the goodness of fit between the signatures and the measurement segments. The method was applied to radioxenon data from the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) collection site in Ussuriysk, Russia (RN58) after the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) underground nuclear test on February 12, 2013 near Punggye. The metrics were found to be a good screening tool to locate data segments with a strong likelihood of origin from Punggye, especially when multiplied together to a determine the joint probability. Metrics from RN58 were also used to find the probability that activity measured in February and April of 2013 originated from the Feb 12 test. A detailed analysis of an RN58 data segment from April 3/4, 2013 was also carried out for a grid of source locations around Punggye and identified Punggye as the most likely point of origin. Thus, the results support the strong possibility that radioxenon was emitted from the test site at various times in April and was detected intermittently at RN58, depending on the wind direction. The method does not locate unsuspected sources, but instead, evaluates the probability of a source at a specified location. However, it can be extended to include a set of suspected sources. Extension of the method to higher resolution data sets, arbitrary sampling, and time-varying sources is discussed along with a path to evaluate uncertainty in the calculated probabilities.

  2. JPRS Report, Arms Control, Protocol to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests of July 3, 1974, hereinafter referred to as the Treaty, convinced of the necessity to ensure effective...

  3. Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R. [eds.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test ban monitoring. We focused on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems. The second goal of the symposium was to establish a dialogue between seismologists and explosion-source code calculators. The meeting was divided into five main sessions: explosion source phenomenology, material response modeling, numerical simulations, the seismic source, and phenomenology from near source to far field. We feel the symposium reached many of its goals. Individual papers submitted at the conference are indexed separately on the data base.

  4. Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test ban monitoring. We focused on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems. The second goal of the symposium was to establish a dialogue between seismologists and explosion-source code calculators. The meeting was divided into five main sessions: explosion source phenomenology, material response modeling, numerical simulations, the seismic source, and phenomenology from near source to far field. We feel the symposium reached many of its goals. Individual papers submitted at the conference are indexed separately on the data base

  5. A technique for the geometric modeling of underground surfaces: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    There is a need within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) project to develop three-dimensional surface definitions for the subterranean stratigraphies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The nature of the data samples available to the project require an interpolation technique that can perform well with sparse and irregularly spaced data. Following an evaluation of the relevant existing methods, a new technique, Multi-Kernel Modulation (MKM), is presented. MKM interpolates sparse and irregularly spaced data by modulating a polynomial trend surface with a linear summation of regular surfaces (kernels). A perspective discussion of MKM, Kriging, and Multiquadric Analysis reveals that MKM has the advantage of simplicity and efficiency when used with sparse samples. An example of the use of MKM to model a complex topography is presented. 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Rio Blanco underground nuclear test site, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.; Earman, S.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-10-01

    DOE is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater is part of preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations allow prioritization of test areas in terms of risk, provide a basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work, and provide a framework for assessing site characterization data needs. The Rio Blanco site in Colorado was the location of the simultaneous detonation of three 30-kiloton nuclear devices. The devices were located 1780, 1899, and 2039 below ground surface in the Fort Union and Mesaverde formations. Although all the bedrock formations at the site are thought to contain water, those below the Green River Formation (below 1000 in depth) are also gas-bearing, and have very low permeabilities. The transport scenario evaluated was the migration of radionuclides from the blast-created cavity through the Fort Union Formation. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides from the test are contained entirely within the area currently administered by DOE. This modeling was performed to investigate how the uncertainty in various physical parameters affect radionuclide transport at the site, and to serve as a starting point for discussion regarding further investigation; it was not intended to be a definitive simulation of migration pathways or radionuclide concentration values. Given the sparse data, the modeling results may differ significantly from reality. Confidence in transport predictions can be increased by obtaining more site data, including the amount of radionuclides which would have been available for transport (i.e., not trapped in melt glass or vented during gas flow testing), and the hydraulic properties of the formation. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Shear Slip Potential Induced by Thermomechanical Loading in an Underground Repository for Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaewon; Min, Kibok; Stephansson, Ove

    2010-01-01

    In the context of a deep geological repository for nuclear water, the thermal stress generated by nuclear waster is expected to contribute to shear slip and dilation, which will eventually alter the fracture permeability in the region. In this study, the probability of the occurrence of shear slip at a fracture was examined by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The study was based on the fracture orientation generated by the Latin hypercube sampling method, which can improve the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations by the use of a more systematic approach for selecting the input samples. Statistical data of fracture orientations from the site investigation in Forsmark, Sweden, were used in this study. The historical assessment of thermal stress was based on three-dimensional finite element modeling of a geological repository that measures 800 m by 2000 m and on a time scale up to 10,000 years. The results show that the probability of shear slip evolved differently at six selected points due to the difference stresses at each point. However, it was evident that the probability of shear slip was more that twice as large as the initial probability of failure. This increased permeability and micro seismicity, which can be an issue during the initial operation of the repository. The study provided a quantitative assessment of the probability of shear slip at a fracture, which is an important parameter for assessing the performance of a geological repository. Conclusions are summarized as follows: · With random orientation data, the probability of shear slip around the repository model increases with increased thermal stress. · The probability of shear slip depends on the manner in which the thermal stress is generated. Higher shear slip is expected with higher differential thermal stress. · The probability of shear slip at Forsmark was less than 1 %. If different sites have fracture sets with more overlap, however, the probability may become increase. Therefore, a

  8. Shear Slip Potential Induced by Thermomechanical Loading in an Underground Repository for Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaewon; Min, Kibok; Stephansson, Ove

    2010-01-01

    In the context of a deep geological repository for nuclear water, the thermal stress generated by nuclear waster is expected to contribute to shear slip and dilation, which will eventually alter the fracture permeability in the region. In this study, the probability of the occurrence of shear slip at a fracture was examined by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The study was based on the fracture orientation generated by the Latin hypercube sampling method, which can improve the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations by the use of a more systematic approach for selecting the input samples. Statistical data of fracture orientations from the site investigation in Forsmark, Sweden, were used in this study. The historical assessment of thermal stress was based on three-dimensional finite element modeling of a geological repository that measures 800 m by 2000 m and on a time scale up to 10,000 years. The results show that the probability of shear slip evolved differently at six selected points due to the difference stresses at each point. However, it was evident that the probability of shear slip was more that twice as large as the initial probability of failure. This increased permeability and micro seismicity, which can be an issue during the initial operation of the repository. The study provided a quantitative assessment of the probability of shear slip at a fracture, which is an important parameter for assessing the performance of a geological repository. Conclusions are summarized as follows: · With random orientation data, the probability of shear slip around the repository model increases with increased thermal stress. · The probability of shear slip depends on the manner in which the thermal stress is generated. Higher shear slip is expected with higher differential thermal stress. · The probability of shear slip at Forsmark was less than 1 %. If different sites have fracture sets with more overlap, however, the probability may become increase. Therefore, a

  9. Subsurface Completion Report for Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echelard, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska, in 1965, 1969, and 1971. The effects of the Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin tests on the environment were extensively investigated during and following the detonations, and the area continues to be monitored today. This report is intended to document the basis for the Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin (hereafter referred to as ''Amchitka Site'') subsurface completion recommendation of No Further Remedial Action Planned with Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance, and define the long-term surveillance and maintenance strategy for the subsurface. A number of factors were considered in evaluating and selecting this recommendation for the Amchitka Site. Historical studies and monitoring data, ongoing monitoring data, the results of groundwater modeling, and the results of an independent stakeholder-guided scientific investigation were also considered in deciding the completion action. Water sampling during and following the testing showed no indication that radionuclides were released to the near surface, or marine environment with the exception of tritium, krypton-85, and iodine-131 found in the immediate vicinity of Long Shot surface ground zero. One year after Long Shot, only tritium was detectable (Merritt and Fuller, 1977). These tritium levels, which were routinely monitored and have continued to decline since the test, are above background levels but well below the current safe drinking water standard. There are currently no feasible means to contain or remove radionuclides in or around the test cavities beneath the sites. Surface remediation was conducted in 2001. Eleven drilling mud pits associated with the Long Shot, Milrow and Cannikin sites were remediated. Ten pits were remediated by stabilizing the contaminants and constructing an impermeable cap over each pit. One pit was remediated by removing all of the contaminated mud

  10. Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) from the Magnetic Bubble Source as a Discriminator of Underground Nuclear Explosions, Including Cavity Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    planned shock physics experiments (SPE) 4. Design/develop a very low frequency (VLF)/ELF pulsar to serve as an underground calibration source 5...Carry out underground (in tunnels, etc.) pulsar calibration experiments  A-1 APPENDIX A. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS CORRTEX Continuous Reflectometry...Site Office P.O. Box 98521 M/S NLV 101 Las Vegas, NV 89193-8521 ATTN: Ping Lee 1 Los Alamos National Laboratory PO Box 1663 Los Alamos, NM 87545

  11. Making nuclear waste governable. Deep underground disposal and the challenge of reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Aparicio, Luis; Cezanne-Bert, Pierrick; Chateauraynaud, Francis

    2010-12-01

    This book is the result of a collaboration that began over two years ago between researchers from the social sciences and ANDRA engineers and natural scientists. Contributions to the various chapters have been discussed and enhanced, especially during the workshop and the interdisciplinary conference both held by ANDRA in 2008 and 2009 respectively. The French approach to reversibility will also once again be developed and open to debate during the international conference organised under the aegis of the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in Reims from December 14 to 17, 2010. Devoted to the application of the reversibility principle to radioactive waste management, this work is divided into three chapters. The discussion throughout the chapters deals mainly with the issue of how to implement the 'definitive securing' of the waste, as stated by the French Planning Act dated June 28 2006, while providing a flexible management programme that keeps options open over time to make radioactive waste governable. The originality of this work is, precisely, to focus on the specific operational provisions being considered today to allow present and future generations to ensuring the protection of persons and the environment sustainably. The first chapter was written by Yannick Barthe, researcher at the CNRS and member of the Centre for the Sociology of Innovation at the Mines ParisTech School. He examines the political qualities of technology, analysing the action modes related to the various management solutions being suggested. According to the author, different decision-making models - as well as specific approaches to safety - are inscribed within technical devices. In this regard, the introduction of the reversibility principle appears to be a radical innovation, both in technical and in political terms. The second chapter reports on Andra's current positioning with respect to the project of a reversible deep disposal facility. It presents a recursive definition for

  12. Making nuclear waste governable. Deep underground disposal and the challenge of reversibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Aparicio, Luis (ed.) [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean-Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France); Barthe, Yannick [Centre de Sociologie de l' Innovation, Mines Paris Tech, 60, Boulevard Saint-Michel 75272 Paris cedex 06 (France); Cezanne-Bert, Pierrick; Chateauraynaud, Francis [Groupe de Sociologie Pragmatique et Reflexive - GSPR, Ecole des hautes etudes en sciences sociales - EHESS, 105 bd Raspail 75006 Paris (France)

    2010-12-15

    This book is the result of a collaboration that began over two years ago between researchers from the social sciences and ANDRA engineers and natural scientists. Contributions to the various chapters have been discussed and enhanced, especially during the workshop and the interdisciplinary conference both held by ANDRA in 2008 and 2009 respectively. The French approach to reversibility will also once again be developed and open to debate during the international conference organised under the aegis of the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in Reims from December 14 to 17, 2010. Devoted to the application of the reversibility principle to radioactive waste management, this work is divided into three chapters. The discussion throughout the chapters deals mainly with the issue of how to implement the 'definitive securing' of the waste, as stated by the French Planning Act dated June 28 2006, while providing a flexible management programme that keeps options open over time to make radioactive waste governable. The originality of this work is, precisely, to focus on the specific operational provisions being considered today to allow present and future generations to ensuring the protection of persons and the environment sustainably. The first chapter was written by Yannick Barthe, researcher at the CNRS and member of the Centre for the Sociology of Innovation at the Mines ParisTech School. He examines the political qualities of technology, analysing the action modes related to the various management solutions being suggested. According to the author, different decision-making models - as well as specific approaches to safety - are inscribed within technical devices. In this regard, the introduction of the reversibility principle appears to be a radical innovation, both in technical and in political terms. The second chapter reports on Andra's current positioning with respect to the project of a reversible deep disposal facility. It presents a recursive

  13. The concept of underground nuclear heat and power plants (UNHPP) of upgraded safety, developed on the basis of ship-building technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashin, V.M.; Petrov, Eh.L.; Shalik, G.P.; Khazov, B.S.; Malyshev, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    A concept of underground nuclear heat and power plants (UNHPP) of upgraded safety on the basis of ship-building technologies is considered, in which the priority is set to population security and environmental protection. Ways of realization of ziro radiation risk for the population residing in a close vicinity of UNHPP are substantiated. basic principles of the concept are formulated which envisage the use of ship propulsion reactor facilities that have been multiply tested in operation. The sources of economic competitiveness of UNHPPs, as compared with the existing NPPs, are shown

  14. Study methods for borings carried out near the underground nuclear experiments in the Sahara. Part 2. techniques for studying the walls of the bore-holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, J.

    1969-01-01

    Measurements by drilling have been carried out during the underground nuclear bomb explosions on the Sahara test site: observation of the rock by television and permeability measurements. After a presentation of the principle of the experiment, a description is given of the technique used, i.l. the equipment and its manipulation. Finally problems arising from the interpretation of the results are considered. The conclusion stresses the importance of the results of this work from the point of view of possible industrial applications. (author) [fr

  15. OCENER, a one-dimensional computer code for the numerical simulation of the mechanical effects of peaceful underground nuclear explosions in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Sikka, S.K.; Chidambaram, R.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of a one-dimensional spherical symmetric computer code for the numerical simulation of the effects of peaceful underground nuclear explosions in rocks (OCENER). In the code, the nature of the stress field and response of the medium to this field are modelled numerically by finite difference form of the laws of continuum mechanics and the constitutive relations of the rock medium in which the detonation occurs. It enables to approximate well the cavity growth and fracturing of the surrounding rock for contained explosions and the events upto the time the spherical symmetry is valid for cratering-type explosions. (auth.)

  16. An assessment of the reported leakage of anthropogenic radionuclides from the underground nuclear test sites at Amchitka Island, Alaska, USA to the surface environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasher, Douglas; Hanson, Wayne; Read, Stan; Faller, Scott; Farmer, Dennis; Efurd, Wes; Kelley, John; Patrick, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Three underground nuclear tests representing approximately 15-16% of the total effective energy released during the United States underground nuclear testing program from 1951 to 1992 were conducted at Amchitka Island, Alaska. In 1996, Greenpeace reported that leakage of radionuclides, 241 Am and 239+240 Pu, from these underground tests to the terrestrial and freshwater environments had been detected. In response to this report, a federal, state, tribal and non-governmental team conducted a terrestrial and freshwater radiological sampling program in 1997. Additional radiological sampling was conducted in 1998. An assessment of the reported leakage to the freshwater environment was evaluated by assessing 3 H values in surface waters and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios in various sample media. Tritium values ranged from 0.41 Bq/l±0.11 two sigma to 0.74 Bq/l±0.126 two sigma at the surface water sites sampled, including the reported leakage sites. Only at the Long Shot test site, where leakage of radioactive gases to the near-surface occurred in 1965, were higher 3 H levels of 5.8 Bq/l±0.19 two sigma still observed in 1997, in mud pit no. 3. The mean 240 Pu/ 239 Pu for all of the Amchitka samples was 0.1991±0.0149 one standard deviation, with values ranging from 0.1824±1.43% one sigma to 0.2431±6.56% one sigma. The measured 3 H levels and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios in freshwater moss and sediments at Amchitka provide no evidence of leakage occurring at the sites reported by Buske and Miller (1998 Nuclear-Weapons-Free America and Alaska Community Action on Toxics, Anchorage, Ak, p. 38) and Miller and Buske (1996 Nuclear Flashback: The Return to Anchitka, p. 35). It was noted that the marine sample; 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios are statistically different than the global fallout ratios presented by Krey et al. (1976) and Kelley, Bond, and Beasley (1999). The additional non-fallout component 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio, assuming a single unique source, necessary to modify the global fallout 240

  17. An assessment of the reported leakage of anthropogenic radionuclides from the underground nuclear test sites at Amchitka Island, Alaska, USA to the surface environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasher, Douglas E-mail: ddasher@envircon.state.ak.us; Hanson, Wayne; Read, Stan; Faller, Scott; Farmer, Dennis; Efurd, Wes; Kelley, John; Patrick, Robert

    2002-07-01

    Three underground nuclear tests representing approximately 15-16% of the total effective energy released during the United States underground nuclear testing program from 1951 to 1992 were conducted at Amchitka Island, Alaska. In 1996, Greenpeace reported that leakage of radionuclides, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu, from these underground tests to the terrestrial and freshwater environments had been detected. In response to this report, a federal, state, tribal and non-governmental team conducted a terrestrial and freshwater radiological sampling program in 1997. Additional radiological sampling was conducted in 1998. An assessment of the reported leakage to the freshwater environment was evaluated by assessing {sup 3} H values in surface waters and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios in various sample media. Tritium values ranged from 0.41 Bq/l{+-}0.11 two sigma to 0.74 Bq/l{+-}0.126 two sigma at the surface water sites sampled, including the reported leakage sites. Only at the Long Shot test site, where leakage of radioactive gases to the near-surface occurred in 1965, were higher {sup 3}H levels of 5.8 Bq/l{+-}0.19 two sigma still observed in 1997, in mud pit no. 3. The mean {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu for all of the Amchitka samples was 0.1991{+-}0.0149 one standard deviation, with values ranging from 0.1824{+-}1.43% one sigma to 0.2431{+-}6.56% one sigma. The measured {sup 3}H levels and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios in freshwater moss and sediments at Amchitka provide no evidence of leakage occurring at the sites reported by Buske and Miller (1998 Nuclear-Weapons-Free America and Alaska Community Action on Toxics, Anchorage, Ak, p. 38) and Miller and Buske (1996 Nuclear Flashback: The Return to Anchitka, p. 35). It was noted that the marine sample; {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios are statistically different than the global fallout ratios presented by Krey et al. (1976) and Kelley, Bond, and Beasley (1999). The additional non-fallout component {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu

  18. Capability of space-spectral analysis used for studying underground nuclear explosions effect on ground surface condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melent'ev, M.I.; Velikanov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the results of the work of study of the influence underground nucleus blasts (UNB) on condition of the day surface of the site Balapan on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site using materials of remote space sensing. The estimation of the cosmic spectral analysis information density is given for revealing the post-explosive geo- dynamic processes. (author)

  19. Deeper underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brearley, D. [Pantek Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    The paper describes how efficient data gathering has led to production and uptime improvements in UK Coal's Daw Mill colliery in Warwickshire. Software called FactorySuite A{sup 2} from Wonderware is being used to control and monitor all underground production and conveying. 3 photos.

  20. H-terminated polycrystalline boron doped diamond electrode for geochemical sensing into underground components of nuclear repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussadi, A.; Betelu, S.; Ignatiadis, I.; Silva, F.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Nuclear waste repositories are being installed in deep excavated rock formations in some places in Europe to isolate and store radioactive waste. In France, Callovo-Oxfordian formation (COx) is potential candidate for nuclear waste repository. It is thus necessary to measure in situ the state of a structure's health during its entire life. The monitoring of the near-field rock and the knowledge of the geochemical transformations can be carried out by a set of sensors for a sustainable management of long-term safety, reversibility and retrievability. Among the chemical parameters, the most significant are pH, conductivity and redox potential. Wide band gap semiconductors are favored materials for chemical sensing because of their high stability to many chemical agents. Among the wide band gap materials, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) boron doped diamond (BDD) benefits from a large band gap, which gives rise to a wide electrochemical potential window. It is moreover described as a radiation, corrosion and bio-corrosion resistant. These remarkable properties, in addition to a low double layer capacity and a low residual current, make BDD a promising material for geochemical sensor elaboration. This work aimed to investigate BDD- based electrodes coated with p-type polycrystalline BDD-hydrogen- terminated surfaces (1 cm 2 ) for pH and/or redox measurements into the underground components of nuclear repositories. The boron-doped p-type channel was grown in a microwave plasma reactor (BJS 150). The boron-doped channel was hydrogen terminated by a hydrogen plasma treatment in the CVD reactor, resulting in full saturation of the surface carbon bonds with hydrogen atoms. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the polycrystalline BDD coating with a Bore/Carbon ratio of 500 ppm shows the typical columnar growth of the polycrystalline CVD diamond. A homogeneous surface was observed concerning the crystallite size which average

  1. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  2. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Brady, B.H.G. [ITASCA Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (USA)

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K.

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  5. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G W [Austral Oil Company Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States); Coffer, H F; Luetkehans, G R [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  6. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.W.; Coffer, H.F.; Luetkehans, G.R.

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  7. Design study of underground facility of the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiya, Keisuke; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Ishizuka, Mineo; Anezaki, Susumu

    1998-03-01

    Geoscientific research program to study deep geological environment has been performed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). This research is supported by 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. An Underground Research Laboratory is planned to be constructed at Shoma-sama Hora in the research area belonging to PNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously studied at the Tono Area is planned in the laboratory. The Underground Research Laboratory is consisted of Surface Laboratory and Underground Research Facility located from the surface down to depth between several hundreds and 1,000 meters. Based on the results of design study in last year, the design study performed in this year is to investigate the followings in advance of studies for basic design and practical design: concept, design procedure, design flow and total layout. As a study for the concept of the underground facility, items required for the facility are investigated and factors to design the primary form of the underground facility are extracted. Continuously, design methods for the vault and the underground facility are summarized. Furthermore, design procedures of the extracted factors are summarized and total layout is studied considering the results to be obtained from the laboratory. (author)

  8. From two reports; authorization of 17 nuclear power plants in '81 and '82: by the year 2000, underground and offshore siting should be possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has published ''Electric power facility plan, 1981'', and set the target of the installed capacity of nuclear power in 1990 at 51,000 MW. In order to reach this target, the Ministry must submit the electrical power facility plan involving 20,000 MW to the Electric Power Resource Development Coordination Council for the required authorization. Meanwhile, the Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industry has engaged in the assessment of long term electric power needs for three years, and completed the report ''Prospects of electric power supply and demand until the year 2000, long term energy strategy''. The conclusions are that nuclear energy must be actively promoted, and that the limitation of land space and the geological conditions in Japan must be overcome, and for the purpose, the technologies of locating nuclear power stations underground and offshore should be developed. The summaries of these two reports are given. 17 units are planned to be submitted to the ERDCC for the approval in the years 1981 and 1982. But the actual situation is severe because it takes long years from the application for construction to the start of operation of nuclear power plants. (Kako, I.)

  9. RMS Lg Studies of Underground Nuclear Explosions in the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-19

    releva=c in the context of on-site inspections that might be associated with monitorig a;Oso A A 01est73-0. Section five desrMbes analog data from...conspicuous failure, was an effort to find adequate documentation of the CLOUD GAP project carried out principally at NTS during the 1960s and early 1970s... CLOUD GAP included a major VELA-UNIFORM study of a variety of technologies pertinent to on-site inspection of the vicinity of a suspected underground

  10. Simulation of the three-dimensional dispersion of radioactive gases through layers of ground in connection with underground design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkelacker, A.

    1979-01-01

    In connection with underground design of nuclear power plants there is studied the dispersion of radioactive gases released from the underground plant into the ground covering, following a hypothetical accident. For this purpose there was developed a model of dispersion describing the one-and two-component flow of ideal gases in an inhomogeneous porous medium. The description of the gas flow is based on Darcy's Law. The flow process is assumed to be isothermal. The model is completed by simulation of radioactive tracer particles for determining retention times. Based on the mathematical dispersion model the computer code FLOG3D was developed. It permits to calculate the unsteady distributions of pressure and concentration in an inhomogeneous porous medium in cartesian coordinates as well as the location of radioactive tracer particles. According to the choice of boundary conditions the calculation can be performed in up to three dimensions. For numerical solution of the model equations a special wide-mesh method was used. This method applies polymonial set-ups for the behavior of the solution in the individual meshes. For verification of the code FLOG3D there were performed comparative and test computations. One- and multidimensional calculating examples demonstrate the overall applicability for this code. (orig.) [de

  11. Underground storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-10

    A procedure is described for making an underground storage cavity in a soluble formation. Two holes are drilled, and fluid is pumped into the first hole. This fluid is a non-solute for the formation material. Then pressure is applied to the fluid until the formation is fractured in the direction of the second hole. More non-solute fluid is injected to complete the fracture between the 2 holes. A solute fluid is then circulated between the 2 holes, which results in removal of that part of the formation next to the fracture and the forming of a chamber.

  12. Simulation of Local Seismic Ground Motions from the FLASK Underground Nuclear Explosion near the Source Physics Experiment Dry Alluvium Geology Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Pitarka, A.; Wagoner, J. L.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The FLASK underground nuclear explosion (UNE) was conducted in Area 2 of Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site on May 26, 1970. The yield was 105 kilotons (DOE/NV-209-Rev 16) and the working point was 529 m below the surface. This test was detonated in faulted Tertiary volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat. Coincidently, the FLASK UNE ground zero (GZ) is close (earth structure, including surface topography. SW4 includes vertical mesh refinement which greatly reduces the computational resources needed to run a specific problem. Simulations are performed on high-performance computers with grid spacing as small as 10 meters and resolution to 6 Hz. We are testing various subsurface models to identify the role of 3D structure on path propagation effects from the source. We are also testing 3D models to constrain structure for the upcoming DAG experiments in 2018.

  13. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 4. Releases to the biosphere of radionuclides from underground nuclear weapon tests at the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This report is Volume 4 in the series of 6 volumes of the Technical Report on the radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and the Fangataufa. It is the second of the three volumes dealing with the evaluation of the long term radiological situation as a consequence of radionuclide migration from underground sources, which is the responsibility of Task Group B. This volume is based on the activities of Working Group 4 and uses, as its primary input on radionuclide inventories the report of Working Group 3, which is Vol. 3 in this series of Technical Report. Nuclear testing in the atmosphere, outer space and under open ocean was prohibited by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 5 August 1963 and signed by UK, USA and USSR. France ceased atmospheric testing in September 1974. Isolation from the biosphere in geological formations, or containment in geological formations, became the preferred alternative. The explosion of 137 underground nuclear devices in Mururoa and Fangataufa over the testing period 1975-1996, together with 10 safety trials and the burial of radioactively contaminated material gathered from the atoll surfaces, has resulted in a substantial accumulation of radionuclides in the rock beneath the two atolls. Assessment of the rate at which these radionuclides move from the cavities to the environment accessible to humans, or biosphere and the total radionuclide release to the biosphere over time is the central effort of this Study. The rock mass within which the radionuclides are initially deposited, and which serves to contain or delay release of the radionuclides, will be referred to as the geosphere to distinguish it from the biosphere, where the radionuclides would be accessible either directly or through the food chain to the living environment. This assessment of geosphere transport has been divided into the following four interrelated tasks: (a) Geological Pathways; (b) Hydrological Modelling; (c) Solution Source Term; and (d) Geosphere

  14. Prediction of Pseudo relative velocity response spectra at Yucca Mountain for underground nuclear explosions conducted in the Pahute Mesa testing area at the Nevada testing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), managed by the Office of Geologic Disposal of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for commercial, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This work, intended to extend our understanding of the ground motion at Yucca Mountain resulting from testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS, was funded by the Yucca Mountain project and the Military Applications Weapons Test Program. This report summarizes one aspect of the weapons test seismic investigations conducted in FY88. Pseudo relative velocity response spectra (PSRV) have been calculated for a large body of surface ground motions generated by underground nuclear explosions. These spectra have been analyzed and fit using multiple linear regression techniques to develop a credible prediction technique for surface PSRVs. In addition, a technique for estimating downhole PSRVs at specific stations is included. A data summary, data analysis, prediction development, prediction evaluation, software summary and FORTRAN listing of the prediction technique are included in this report

  15. Characterization and 3D reservoir modelling of fluvial sandstones of the Williams Fork Formation, Rulison Field, Piceance Basin, Colorado, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pranter, Matthew J; Vargas, Marielis F; Davis, Thomas L

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the stratigraphic characteristics and distribution of fluvial deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Williams Fork Formation in a portion of Rulison Field and addresses 3D geologic modelling of reservoir sand bodies and their associated connectivity. Fluvial deposits include isolated and stacked point-bar deposits, crevasse splays and overbank (floodplain) mudrock. Within the Williams Fork Formation, the distribution and connectivity of fluvial sandstones significantly impact reservoir productivity and ultimate recovery. The reservoir sandstones are primarily fluvial point-bar deposits interbedded with shales and coals. Because of the lenticular geometry and limited lateral extent of the reservoir sandstones (common apparent widths of ∼500–1000 ft; ∼150–300 m), relatively high well densities (e.g. 10 acre (660 ft; 200 m) spacing) are often required to deplete the reservoir. Heterogeneity of these fluvial deposits includes larger scale stratigraphic variability associated with vertical stacking patterns and structural heterogeneities associated with faults that exhibit lateral and reverse offsets. The discontinuous character of the fluvial sandstones and lack of distinct marker beds in the middle and upper parts of the Williams Fork Formation make correlation between wells tenuous, even at a 10 acre well spacing. Some intervals of thicker and amalgamated sandstones within the middle and upper Williams Fork Formation can be correlated across greater distances. To aid correlation and for 3D reservoir modelling, vertical lithology proportion curves were used to estimate stratigraphic trends and define the stratigraphic zonation within the reservoir interval. Object-based and indicator-based modelling methods have been applied to the same data and results from the models were compared. Results from the 3D modelling indicate that sandstone connectivity increases with net-to-gross ratio and, at lower net-to-gross ratios (<30%), differences exist in

  16. Modeling Groundwater Flow and Transport of Radionuclides at Amchitka Island's Underground Nuclear Tests: Milrow, Long Shot, and Cannikin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan; Karl Pohlmann; Jenny Chapman

    2002-11-19

    Since 1963, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive material in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these locations, Amchitka Island, Alaska is the subject of this report. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. Long Shot was an 80-kiloton-yield test conducted at a depth of 700 meters (m) on October 29, 1965 (DOE, 2000). Milrow had an announced yield of about 1,000 kilotons, and was detonated at a depth of 1,220 m on October 2, 1969. Cannikin had an announced yield less than 5,000 kilotons, and was conducted at a depth of 1,790 m on November 6, 1971. The purpose of this work is to provide a portion of the information needed to conduct a human-health risk assessment of the potential hazard posed by the three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. Specifically, the focus of this work is the subsurface transport portion, including the release of radionuclides from the underground cavities and their movement through the groundwater system to the point where they seep out of the ocean floor and into the marine environment. This requires a conceptual model of groundwater flow on the island using geologic, hydrologic, and chemical information, a numerical model for groundwater flow, a conceptual model of contaminant release and transport properties from the nuclear test cavities, and a numerical model for contaminant transport. Needed for the risk assessment are estimates of the quantity of radionuclides (in terms of mass flux) from the underground tests on Amchitka that could discharge to the ocean, the time of possible discharge, and the location in terms of distance from shoreline. The radionuclide data presented here are all reported in terms of normalized

  17. Underground engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Developments of any underground engineering application utilizing nuclear explosives involve answering the same questions one encounters in any new area of technology: What are the characteristics of the new tool? How is it applicable to the job to be done? Is it safe to use? and, most importantly, is its use economically acceptable? The many facets of the answers to these questions will be explored. The general types of application presently under consideration will also be reviewed, with particular emphasis on those specific projects actively being worked on by commercial interests and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  18. Underground engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1969-01-01

    Developments of any underground engineering application utilizing nuclear explosives involve answering the same questions one encounters in any new area of technology: What are the characteristics of the new tool? How is it applicable to the job to be done? Is it safe to use? and, most importantly, is its use economically acceptable? The many facets of the answers to these questions will be explored. The general types of application presently under consideration will also be reviewed, with particular emphasis on those specific projects actively being worked on by commercial interests and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  19. Change Detection for Remote Monitoring of Underground Nuclear Testing: Comparison with Seismic and Associated Explosion Source Phenomenological Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jahnke, G.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of open-source satellite imagery is in process of establishing itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world which are relevant to disarmament treaties, like e. g. the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). However, the detection of anthrop......The analysis of open-source satellite imagery is in process of establishing itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world which are relevant to disarmament treaties, like e. g. the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). However, the detection...... of conventional multispectral satellite platforms with moderate ground resolution (Landsat TM, ASTER) to detect changes over wide areas.We chose the Nevada Test Site (NTS), USA, for a case study because of the large amount of available ground truth information. The analysis is based on the multivariate alteration...

  20. Layout of the objects of underground nuclear tests at the Balapan test field of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, V.E.; Gryaznov, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated research of practical and scientific interest is conducted at the Balapan test field of the Semipalatinsk test site. The lack of the reliable locations for features associated with nuclear testing causes considerable difficulties while carrying out the research. To fill this gap the authors present data available at the Institute of Geophysical Research of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  1. Calibration of antimony-based electrode for pH monitoring into underground components of nuclear repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Betelu , Stéphanie; Ignatiadis , Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear waste repositories are being installed in deep excavated rock formations in some places in Europe to isolate and store radioactive waste. In France, Callovo-Oxfordian formation (COx) is potential candidate for nuclear waste repository. It is thus necessary to measure in situ the state of a structure's health during its entire life. The monitoring of the near-field rock and the knowledge of the geochemical transformations can be carried out by a set of sensors for a sustainable managem...

  2. A Global Survey and Interactive Map Suite of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges: (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, M. C.; Russell, G. P.; Perry, F.; Kelley, R.; Champenois, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    This global survey presents a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information reflected in four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies, sites, or disposal facilities; 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding deep underground "facilities", history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database [http://gis.inl.gov/globalsites/] provide each facility's approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not all encompassing, it is a comprehensive review of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development as a communication tool applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  3. Mining and engineering aspects and variants for the underground construction of a deep geological repository for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milchev, M.; Michailov, B.; Nanovska, E.; Harizanov, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present report is to investigate and to describe systematically the foreign experience, scientific and technical achievements and stages of development concerning the mining and engineering aspects and variants for underground construction of a deep geological repository for radioactive waste (RAW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The ideal solution in managing the problems with harmful wastes seems to be either to remove them permanently from Earth (which is related with high risks and high costs) or to transform long-lived radionuclides to short-lived radionuclides using nuclear transmutation processes in a reactor or a particle accelerator. The latter is also a complex and immensely costly process and it can only reduce the quantities of some long-lived radionuclides, which can be then disposed in a geological repository. At present, the deep geological disposal remains the only solution for solving the problem with the hazard of storing radioactive wastes. The report submits a brief description and systematization of the performed investigations, accompanied by analysis of the scientific and technical level on world scale. The analysis is related with the particular geological conditions and the existing scientific studies available so far in Bulgaria. The main conclusions are that the complex scientific-technical and engineering problems related with the construction of a deep geological repository for RAW and SNF require long-term scientific investigations and preliminary complex works and it is high time to launch them in Bulgaria. (authors)

  4. A review of the available technologies for sealing a potential underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Richardson, A.M.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the availability of technologies to seal underground openings. The technologies are needed to seal the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Technologies are evaluated for three basic categories of seal components: backfill (general fill and graded fill), bulkheads, and grout curtains. Not only is placement of seal components assessed, but also preconditioning of the placement area and seal component durability. The approach taken was: First, review selected sealing case histories (literature searches and site visits) from the mining, civil, and defense industries; second, determine whether reasonably available technologies to seal the potential repository exist; and finally, identify deficiencies in existing technologies. It is concluded that reasonably available technologies do exist to place backfill, bulkheads, and grout curtains. Technologies also exist to precondition areas where seal components are to be placed. However, if final performance requirements are stringent for these engineered structures, some existing technologies may need to be developed. Deficiencies currently do exist in technologies that demonstrate the long-term durability and performance of seal components. Case histories do not currently exist that demonstrate the placement of seal components in greatly elevated thermal and high-radiation environments and in areas where ground support (rock bolts and concrete liners) has been removed. The as-placed, in situ material properties for sealing materials appropriate to Yucca Mountain are not available

  5. Water underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  6. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J.; Beltran, B.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Luzon, G.; Martinez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedon, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories

  7. BIODOSE: a code for predicting the dose to man from radionuclides released from underground nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, N.A.; Ng, Y.C.

    1980-03-01

    The BIODOSE computer program simulates the environmental transport of radionuclides released to surface water and predicts the resulting dosage to humans. This report describes the program and discusses its use in the evaluation of nuclear waste repositories. The methods used to estimate dose are examined critically, and the most important parameters in each stage of the calculations are identified as an aid in planning for measurements in the field. Dose predictions from releases of nuclear waste to a large northwestern river (the baseline river) are presented to point out the nuclides, compartments and pathways that contribute most to the hazard as a function of waste storage time. Predictions for five other water systems are presented to identify the most important system parameters that determine the concentrations of individual nuclides in compartments and the resultant dose. The uncertainties in the biological parameters for dose prediction are identified, and changes in current values are suggested. Various ways of reporting dose estimates for radiological safety assessments are discussed. Additional work needed to improve the dose predictions from BIODOSE and specific areas and steps to improve our capabilities to assess the environmental transport of nuclides released from nuclear waste repositories and the resultant dose to man are suggested

  8. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  9. Prediction of ground motion from underground nuclear weapons tests as it relates to siting of a nuclear waste storage facility at NTS and compatibility with the weapons test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vortman, L.J. IV.

    1980-04-01

    This report assumes reasonable criteria for NRC licensing of a nuclear waste storage facility at the Nevada Test Site where it would be exposed to ground motion from underground nuclear weapons tests. Prediction equations and their standard deviations have been determined from measurements on a number of nuclear weapons tests. The effect of various independent parameters on standard deviation is discussed. That the data sample is sufficiently large is shown by the fact that additional data have little effect on the standard deviation. It is also shown that coupling effects can be separated out of the other contributions to the standard deviation. An example, based on certain licensing assumptions, shows that it should be possible to have a nuclear waste storage facility in the vicinity of Timber Mountain which would be compatible with a 700 kt weapons test in the Buckboard Area if the facility were designed to withstand a peak vector acceleration of 0.75 g. The prediction equation is a log-log linear equation which predicts acceleration as a function of yield of an explosion and the distance from it

  10. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  11. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-06-14

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  12. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assay of water sampled from the underground nuclear explosion site in the north of the Perm region (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@list.ru; Shuktomova, Ida I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The results of our study revealed a local biologically relevant surface water contamination in the radionuclide anomaly in the north of Russia (Perm region) by means of Allium schoenoprasum L. anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay. This radionuclide anomaly was formed in 1971 as a result of an underground nuclear explosion with soil excavation. Specific activities of main dose-forming radionuclides in all examined reservoirs are below intervention levels officially adopted in Russia for drinking water. We found that {sup 90}Sr significantly contributes to induction of cytogenetic disturbances. Our previous data and the data described here suggest that metal and radionuclide combined exposure (with the dose below permissible exposure limits for human) may cause substantial biological effects. These effects are in part due to synergic response. The findings described here indicated that development of a new concept of radiation protection for humans and biota should be based on the clear understanding of biological effects of low doses of radiation in chronic exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures.

  13. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions; Degats dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines sur les habitations et les equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, F; Guerrini, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [French] Les degats sur diverses structures, constructions, habitations, equipements mecaniques et materiels electriques provoques par des explosions nucleaires souterraines dans le granite sont decrits. On a indique pour chaque type de materiel ou de construction, les distances limites correspondant a un degre de gravite de dommage observe. Ces distances ont ete reliees a un parametre caracterisant le mouvement du milieu, permettant ainsi de generaliser les resultats obtenus dans le granite, a differents milieux. Le probleme de la prevision des degats en zone lointaine a ete aborde. (auteurs)

  14. Diffusional mass transport phenomena in the buffer material and damaged zone of a borehole wall in an underground nuclear fuel waste vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, S.; Cheung, S.C.H.

    1983-06-01

    The effects of the geometry of the borehole and the characteristics of the damaged borehole rock wall on the movement of the radionuclides from an underground nuclear waste vault have been studied. The results show that radionuclide transport will occur mainly through the buffer into the damaged zone of the borehole wall. As the degree of facturing of the damaged zone increases, the total radionuclide flux will increase up to a limit which can be approximated by a one-dimensional radial diffusion model. For large degrees of fracturing of the damaged zone, an increase in the radial buffer material thickness will decrease the total flux, whereas, for small degrees of fracturing, an increase in the radial buffer thickness may slightly increase the total flux. Increasing the vertical buffer thickness will significantly decrease the total flux when the degree of fracturing of the damaged zone is small. An increase in the vertical extent of the damaged zone will cause an increase in total flux

  15. Nuclear astrophysics deep underground the case of the 15N(p,γ)16O reaction at LUNA

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzocchi, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    Measuring nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest at the relevant energies is not always possible on the Earth’s surface because of the cosmic-ray background that dominates the spectra. The LUNA collaboration exploits the lowbackground enviroment of Gran Sasso National Laboratory to study these reactions at or close to the Gamow peak. The latest experimental efforts included the measurement of the 15N(p,γ)16O at beam energies between 77 and 350 keV. The status of these measurements is summarised in this contribution.

  16. Bibliography of reports by US Geological Survey personnel pertaining to underground nuclear testing and radioactive waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site, and radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP Site, New Mexico, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography presents reports released to the public between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 1979, by personnel of the US Geological Survey. Reports include information on underground nuclear testing and waste management projects at the NTS (Nevada Test Site) and radioactive waste projects at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, New Mexico. Reports on Project Dribble, Tatum Dome, Mississippi, previously prepared as administrative reports and released to the public as 474-series reports during 1979 are also included in this bibliography

  17. Evaluation of the Non-Transient Hydrologic Source Term from the CAMBRIC Underground Nuclear Test in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompson, A B; Maxwell, R M; Carle, S F; Zavarin, M; Pawloski, G A.; Shumaker, D E

    2005-01-01

    Hydrologic Source Term (HST) calculations completed in 1998 at the CAMBRIC underground nuclear test site were LLNL's first attempt to simulate a hydrologic source term at the NTS by linking groundwater flow and transport modeling with geochemical modeling (Tompson et al., 1999). Significant effort was applied to develop a framework that modeled in detail the flow regime and captured all appropriate chemical processes that occurred over time. However, portions of the calculations were simplified because of data limitations and a perceived need for generalization of the results. For example: (1) Transient effects arising from a 16 years of pumping at the site for a radionuclide migration study were not incorporated. (2) Radionuclide fluxes across the water table, as derived from infiltration from a ditch to which pumping effluent was discharged, were not addressed. (3) Hydrothermal effects arising from residual heat of the test were not considered. (4) Background data on the ambient groundwater flow direction were uncertain and not represented. (5) Unclassified information on the Radiologic Source Term (RST) inventory, as tabulated recently by Bowen et al. (2001), was unavailable; instead, only a limited set of derived data were available (see Tompson et al., 1999). (6) Only a small number of radionuclides and geochemical reactions were incorporated in the work. (7) Data and interpretation of the RNM-2S multiple well aquifer test (MWAT) were not available. As a result, the current Transient CAMBRIC Hydrologic Source Term project was initiated as part of a broader Phase 2 Frenchman Flat CAU flow and transport modeling effort. The source term will be calculated under two scenarios: (1) A more specific representation of the transient flow and radionuclide release behavior at the site, reflecting the influence of the background hydraulic gradient, residual test heat, pumping experiment, and ditch recharge, and taking into account improved data sources and modeling

  18. Ecology and economic estimate of using of the underground excavation space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umnov, V.A.; Tarasov, V.F.; Tret'yakov, I.O.; Sheloumov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Stages of ecological and economic estimates of utilizing underground space, including evaluation of underground space resources, selection of its utilization trends and substantiation of optimal parameters for selected trends, are considered. Certain directions of possible repeated utilization of mining excavations are shown, including underground hydropower stations, underground energy storages, underground nuclear stations. Underground waste disposal is one of the most available directions in utilization of the underground space presently. Evaluation of the underground space utilization at all stages envisages complete account of all economical, social and ecological results

  19. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  20. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  1. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  2. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  3. Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-03-01

    The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

  4. Study of underground radon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Hakl, J.; Lenart, L.

    1990-01-01

    The soil gas radon content measurements with solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are widely used in geoscience, for instance in uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. In these applications the radon frequently is used as a natural tracer of underground fluid transport processes. Obviously, to get the soil radon measuring method more and more effective the study of these transport processes in deeper part of the Earth is fundamental. The Track Detector Group in the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Debrecen has been performing environmental radon activity concentration measurements since 1977 with alpha sensitive SSNTDs. These types of measurements were initiated and widely used by the late head of the group Dr. G. Somogyi, who devoted his life to better understanding of the nature. The measurements in caves, springs and drilled wells proved to be effective to study these underground radon transport processes. We are glad to present some results of our investigations. 7 refs, 7 figs

  5. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  6. Spectral content of seismic movements produced by underground nuclear explosions; Contenu spectral des mouvements seismiques dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaret, A; Duclaux, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a summary of available data, both theoretical and experimental, concerning the spectral content of seismic movements, a description is given of the experiments carried out during the French nuclear explosions in the Sahara, and of the results obtained on the volume waves. A comparison is then made with certain American results. A new method is described for studying the amplitude spectra; it has made it possible to show that the amount of low frequencies in the spectrum increases with the power of the explosion, and decreases with the distance to the zero point and with the filtering effect of the weathered zone. A calculation is then made of the low cut-off ground filter, this giving a better representation of the initial seismic phenomenon. (authors) [French] Apres avoir resume les connaissances disponibles, aussi bien theoriques qu'experimentales, sur le contenu spectral des mouvements seismiques, on decrit les experiences effectuees a l'occasion des explosions nucleaires francaises du Sahara et les resultats obtenus sur les ondes de volume. Puis on les compare avec certains resultats americains. On decrit une nouvelle methode d'etude des spectres d'amplitudes qui montre que le spectre est d'autant plus riche en basses frequences que la puissance de l'explosion est grande, que la distance au point zero est faible et qu'il est moins filtre par la zone alteree superficielle. Puis on calcule le filtre terrain coupe-bas qui permet de donner une representation plus fidele du phenomene seismique initial. (auteurs)

  7. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  8. Risk analysis and reliability of the GERDA Experiment extraction and ventilation plant at Gran Sasso mountain underground laboratory of Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, Mara; Garzia, Fabio; Guarascio, Massimo; Giovannone, Enzo Paolo; Giampaoli, Antonio; Musti, Mafalda; Ranalli, Maria Teresa; Perruzza, Roberto; Tartaglia, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is the risk analysis evaluation about argon release from the GERDA experiment in the Gran Sasso underground National Laboratories (LNGS) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). The GERDA apparatus, located in Hall A of the LNGS, is a facility with germanium detectors located in a wide tank filled with about 70 m"3 of cold liquefied argon. This cryo-tank sits in another water-filled tank (700 m"3 ) at atmospheric pressure. In such cryogenic processes, the main cause of an accidental scenario is lacking insulation of the cryo-tank. A preliminary HazOp analysis has been carried out on the whole system. The risk assessment identified two possible top-events: explosion due to a Rapid Phase Transition - RPT and argon runaway evaporation. Risk analysis highlighted a higher probability of occurrence of the latter top event. To avoid emission in Hall A, the HazOp, Fault Tree and Event tree analyses of the cryogenic gas extraction and ventilation plant have been made. The failures related to the ventilation system are the main cause responsible for the occurrence. To improve the system reliability some corrective actions were proposed: the use of UPS and the upgrade of damper opening devices. Furthermore, the Human Reliability Analysis identified some operating and management improvements: action procedure optimization, alert warnings and staff training. The proposed model integrates the existing analysis techniques by applying the results to an atypical work environment and there are useful suggestions for improving the system reliability. (author)

  9. Risk analysis and reliability of the GERDA Experiment extraction and ventilation plant at Gran Sasso mountain underground laboratory of Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lombardi

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is the risk analysis evaluation about argon release from the GERDA experiment in the Gran Sasso underground National Laboratories (LNGS of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN. The GERDA apparatus, located in Hall A of the LNGS, is a facility with germanium detectors located in a wide tank filled with about 70 m3 of cold liquefied argon. This cryo-tank sits in another water-filled tank (700 m3 at atmospheric pressure. In such cryogenic processes, the main cause of an accidental scenario is lacking insulation of the cryo-tank. A preliminary HazOp analysis has been carried out on the whole system. The risk assessment identified two possible top-events: explosion due to a Rapid Phase Transition - RPT and argon runaway evaporation. Risk analysis highlighted a higher probability of occurrence of the latter top event. To avoid emission in Hall A, the HazOp, Fault Tree and Event tree analyses of the cryogenic gas extraction and ventilation plant have been made. The failures related to the ventilation system are the main cause responsible for the occurrence. To improve the system reliability some corrective actions were proposed: the use of UPS and the upgrade of damper opening devices. Furthermore, the Human Reliability Analysis identified some operating and management improvements: action procedure optimization, alert warnings and staff training. The proposed model integrates the existing analysis techniques by applying the results to an atypical work environment and there are useful suggestions for improving the system reliability.

  10. Risk analysis and reliability of the GERDA Experiment extraction and ventilation plant at Gran Sasso mountain underground laboratory of Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Mara; Garzia, Fabio; Guarascio, Massimo; Giovannone, Enzo Paolo; Giampaoli, Antonio; Musti, Mafalda; Ranalli, Maria Teresa; Perruzza, Roberto; Tartaglia, Roberto, E-mail: mara.lombardi@uniroma1.it, E-mail: fabio.garzia@uniroma1.it, E-mail: massimo.guarascio@uniroma1.it [Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza-Engineering Roma (Italy); Corpo Nazionale Vigili del Fuoco L' Aquila (CNVF) (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori del Gran Sasso L' Aquila, Abruzzo (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    The aim of this study is the risk analysis evaluation about argon release from the GERDA experiment in the Gran Sasso underground National Laboratories (LNGS) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). The GERDA apparatus, located in Hall A of the LNGS, is a facility with germanium detectors located in a wide tank filled with about 70 m{sup 3} of cold liquefied argon. This cryo-tank sits in another water-filled tank (700 m{sup 3} ) at atmospheric pressure. In such cryogenic processes, the main cause of an accidental scenario is lacking insulation of the cryo-tank. A preliminary HazOp analysis has been carried out on the whole system. The risk assessment identified two possible top-events: explosion due to a Rapid Phase Transition - RPT and argon runaway evaporation. Risk analysis highlighted a higher probability of occurrence of the latter top event. To avoid emission in Hall A, the HazOp, Fault Tree and Event tree analyses of the cryogenic gas extraction and ventilation plant have been made. The failures related to the ventilation system are the main cause responsible for the occurrence. To improve the system reliability some corrective actions were proposed: the use of UPS and the upgrade of damper opening devices. Furthermore, the Human Reliability Analysis identified some operating and management improvements: action procedure optimization, alert warnings and staff training. The proposed model integrates the existing analysis techniques by applying the results to an atypical work environment and there are useful suggestions for improving the system reliability. (author)

  11. Sealing efficiency of an argillite-bentonite plug subjected to gas pressure, in the context of deep underground nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    In France, the deep underground nuclear waste repository consists of a natural barrier (in an argillaceous rock named argillite), associated to artificial barriers, including plugs of swelling clay (bentonite)-sand for tunnel sealing purposes. The main objective of this thesis is to assess the sealing efficiency of the bentonite-sand plug in contact with argillite, in presence of both water and gas pressures. To assess the sealing ability of partially water-saturated bentonite/sand plugs, their gas permeability is measured under varying confining pressure (up to 12 MPa). It is observed that tightness to gas is achieved under confinement greater than 9 MPa for saturation levels of at least 86-91%. We than assess the sealing efficiency of the bentonite-sand plug placed in a tube of argillite or of Plexiglas-aluminium (with a smooth or a rough interface). The presence of pressurized gas affects the effective swelling pressure at values P gas from 4 MPa. Continuous gas breakthrough of fully water-saturated bentonite-sand plugs is obtained for gas pressures on the order of full swelling pressure (7-8 MPa), whenever the plug is applied along a smooth interface. Whenever a rough interface is used in contact with the bentonite-sand plug, a gas pressure significantly greater than its swelling pressure is needed for gas to pass continuously. Gas breakthrough tests show that the interface between plug/argillite or the argillite itself are two preferential pathways for gas migration, when the assembly is fully saturated. (author)

  12. System for remote control of underground device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics

  13. System for remote control of underground device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-10-21

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics.

  14. Approximating dose and risk for contaminants in groundwater from the underground nuclear test areas of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Jeffrey I. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Pohlmann, Karl F. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As part of the Environmental Management Program at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity investigates the potential impacts of radionuclides that were introduced into groundwater from the underground nuclear tests conducted near or below the NNSS water table between 1951 and 1992. Groundwater models are being used to simulate contaminant transport and forecast contaminant boundaries that encompass areas where the groundwater has a five percent or greater probability of containing contaminants above the Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Levels (SDWA MCLs) at any time during the next 1,000 years. Transport modeling conducted for the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) at the NNSS identified the beta/photon-emitting radionuclides tritium (3H), carbon-14 (14C), chlorine-36 (36Cl), technetium-99 (99Tc), and iodine-129 (129I) as having the greatest influence in defining the farthest extent of the modeled CAU contaminant boundary. These same radionuclides are assumed here as the contaminants of concern (COCs) for all underground nuclear tests at the NNSS because models are not yet complete for the other CAUs.Potential public exposure to the COCs will only occur and be of concern if the COCs migrate into the groundwater beneath public or private lands at levels that exceed either individual SDWA MCLs or dose and risk limits. Groundwater flow directions strongly suggest that any contaminant boundary predicted by contaminant fate and transport modeling to overlap public or private lands is more likely to occur to the west and/or southwest of the NNSS and the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Well-established, rural communities exist in these directions. Estimates of representative activity concentrations at the applicable SDWA MCL were developed for the five COCs. It is assumed that these COC concentrations may collectively occur at some public or private location in the future, but that situation

  15. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak

  16. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  17. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  18. Radionuclides in an arctic terrestrial ecosystem affected by atmospheric release from the Kraton-3 accidental underground nuclear explosion. 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, V.; Golikov, V.; Mishine, A.; Kaduka, M.; Burtcev, I.; Gedeonov, A.; Bulatenkov, Y.U.; Strand, P.; Brown, J.

    2004-01-01

    Current distributions of artificial radionuclides (ARN) were studied in the main compartments of a larch-tree forest lethally affected by a radioactive release from the Kraton-3 peaceful underground nuclear explosion (65.9 deg N, 112.3 deg E; Yakutia, Russia; 1978). Samples of soil, fungi, lichens, mosses, grasses, shrubs and trees were obtained at points belonging to four zones categorised by the severity of the ecosystem damage. Sampling was supplemented by dose rate measurements in air and mapping. The area of forest characterised by 100% lethality to adult larches (Larix gmelinii) and with partial, visually-detectable damage of other more radio-resistance species (e.g. lichens, mosses) covers a territory of approximately 1.2 km 2 . Elevated levels of long-lived ARN were found at all sampling sites. Maximum registered levels of the ground contamination with radionuclides of Cs, Sr and Pu were three orders of magnitude higher than those expected from global fallout. The ratios of 137 Cs to some other significant radionuclides in the ground contamination were as follows [mean (range)]: 90 Sr - 0.57(0.02-0.93); 239,240 Pu 44(25-72); 60 Co 470(220-760). Twenty-three years after a discrete contamination event, 90-95% of the total deposited radiocesium and plutonium has still remained in the lichen-moss on-ground cover and in the top 5 cm organic soil layer. At the same time, vertical and horizontal migrations of 90 Sr in soil were more pronounced. Strong surface contamination with 137 Cs, 90 Sr and plutonium was detected at the twigs and bark of the dead larches. The young larches that grew at the contaminated area following the initial destruction of the forest demonstrated a substantial ability to accumulate 137 Cs, 90 Sr and plutonium via roots, while the bushes selectively accumulated mainly radiostrontium. In contrast, some fungi concentrated mostly radiocesium. The levels of gamma dose rate in air and the environmental contamination with 137 Cs were found to

  19. Jose f Regional Underground Research Centre: a new and attractive location for interdisciplinary teaching, research and training in the field of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacovsky, J.; Vasicek, R.

    2010-10-01

    The Jose f Gallery, located in the central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic (not far from the capital, Prague), was first excavated in 1981 as an exploration complex for the potential mining of gold. In 2007, the gallery was substantially reconstructed to house the Jose f Underground Educational Facility (Jose f UEF), which subsequently became an autonomous workplace under the direction of the Czech Technical University in Prague. At the beginning of 2010, the UEF was renamed the Jose f Regional Underground Research Centre (Jose f URC) which, along with the extensive underground complex, features modern above-ground facilities. One of the most important roles of this research centre is to provide practical -in situ- instruction in the fields of geotechnical engineering, geology, geochemistry, radiochemistry and radioecology. The training of future experts in this authentic underground setting involves the participation of several other Czech universities and numerous experienced specialists from outside the academic sphere. The IAEA has recently added the Jose f URC to its prestigious list of international training centres involved in the Training in and demonstration of waste disposal technologies in underground research facilities - A network of centres of excellence project. In addition to teaching and training, the Jose f URC is heavily involved in a wide range of research and development activities. The Jose f URC underground facilities are currently being used for research purposes as part of several European Union International experimental projects addressing various issues related to deep repository radioactive waste disposal (TIMODAZ - FP6, Forge - FP7, PETRUS II - FP7) as well as for hosting domestic projects supported by the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Czech Science Foundation. The Jose f URC is also working in close cooperation with the private construction sector providing practical training in underground construction

  20. Jose f Regional Underground Research Centre: a new and attractive location for interdisciplinary teaching, research and training in the field of nuclear engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacovsky, J.; Vasicek, R., E-mail: Pacovsky@fsv.cvut.c [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Centre of Experimental Geotechnics, Thakurova 7, 166-29 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2010-10-15

    The Jose f Gallery, located in the central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic (not far from the capital, Prague), was first excavated in 1981 as an exploration complex for the potential mining of gold. In 2007, the gallery was substantially reconstructed to house the Jose f Underground Educational Facility (Jose f UEF), which subsequently became an autonomous workplace under the direction of the Czech Technical University in Prague. At the beginning of 2010, the UEF was renamed the Jose f Regional Underground Research Centre (Jose f URC) which, along with the extensive underground complex, features modern above-ground facilities. One of the most important roles of this research centre is to provide practical -in situ- instruction in the fields of geotechnical engineering, geology, geochemistry, radiochemistry and radioecology. The training of future experts in this authentic underground setting involves the participation of several other Czech universities and numerous experienced specialists from outside the academic sphere. The IAEA has recently added the Jose f URC to its prestigious list of international training centres involved in the Training in and demonstration of waste disposal technologies in underground research facilities - A network of centres of excellence project. In addition to teaching and training, the Jose f URC is heavily involved in a wide range of research and development activities. The Jose f URC underground facilities are currently being used for research purposes as part of several European Union International experimental projects addressing various issues related to deep repository radioactive waste disposal (TIMODAZ - FP6, Forge - FP7, PETRUS II - FP7) as well as for hosting domestic projects supported by the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Czech Science Foundation. The Jose f URC is also working in close cooperation with the private construction sector providing practical training in underground construction

  1. Calculation of the shock-wave in the region close to an underground nuclear explosion (method Cades); Calcul de l'onde de choc en zone proche d'une explosion nucleaire souterraine (methode cades)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supiot, F; Brugies, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The outline of a method is presented for calculating the characteristics of a shock wave produced by an underground nuclear explosion (pressure, wave velocity, velocity of the medium, energy left in the medium by the shock, etc.). By means of an application to a granitic medium and of a comparison with results obtained during French nuclear explosions, it has been possible to show the good agreement existing between the calculations and the experimental results. The advantages of such a method for studying the industrial applications of underground nuclear explosions are stressed. (authors) [French] On expose les grandes lignes d'une methode de calcul des caracteristiques de l'onde de choc issue d'une explosion nucleaire souterraine (pression, vitesse de l'onde, vitesse du milieu, energie deposee par le choc dans le milieu...). Une application a un milieu granitique et une comparaison aux resultats obtenus au cours d'explosions nucleaires francaises permet de montrer la bonne concordance entre le calcul et les resultats experimentaux. On souligne l'interet d'une telle, methode pour l'etude d'applications industrielles des explosions nucleaires souterraines. (auteurs)

  2. Current status of geoscientific studies being conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute in regard to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Pt. 2. Horonobe Underground Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eki, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting two Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Projects. 'The Long-term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Atomic Energy (Atomic Energy Commission, 2000)' states their technical and social importance for the Japan's program for the Geological Disposal (GD) of HLW and shows an expectation of earlier execution of the projects. One of the URL projects is Neogene argillaceous sedimentary formation hosted Horonobe URL Project. The aims of the Horonobe URL project are; Presenting concrete geological environment as an example of sedimentary formation, Confirming reliability of technologies for geological disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) by applying them to actual geological condition of sedimentary formation, Providing opportunities to experience the actual deep underground circumstance for the general public. The project is composed of six subjects; 1) development of site characterization methodology, 2) development of monitoring techniques, 3) development of engineering techniques for underground development, 4) neotectonic characterization of the area, 5) development of engineering techniques for designing, construction and operation of a repository, 6) development of safety assessment methodology. The project consists of three phases: investigations form the surface (Phase 1), investigations during construction of the underground facility (Phase 2) and researches using the facility (Phase 3). The total duration is about 20 years. From 2000, surface-based site investigations are going on. In course of the investigations, a series of geophysical surveys has been employed. Along with the town-wide investigation, an area for site-scale investigation was selected, a land for facilities construction was acquired in the area and the land preparation has started in 2003. Geological information gave more detailed and concrete figure of URL, which is composed of three shafts down to

  3. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  4. Underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strever, M.T.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.; McDaniel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design and installation of an underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This facility is designed to demonstrate safe underground disposal of U.S. defense generated transuranic nuclear waste. To improve the operability of the ventilation system, an underground remote monitoring and control system was designed and installed. The system consists of 15 air velocity sensors and 8 differential pressure sensors strategically located throughout the underground facility providing real-time data regarding the status of the ventilation system. In addition, a control system was installed on the main underground air regulators. The regulator control system gives indication of the regulator position and can be controlled either locally or remotely. The sensor output is displayed locally and at a central surface location through the site-wide Central Monitoring System (CMS). The CMS operator can review all sensor data and can remotely operate the main underground regulators. Furthermore, the Virtual Address Extension (VAX) network allows the ventilation engineer to retrieve real-time ventilation data on his personal computer located in his workstation. This paper describes the types of sensors selected, the installation of the instrumentation, and the initial operation of the remote monitoring system

  5. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.best@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Görres, Joachim [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Junker, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Kratz, Karl-Ludwig [Department for Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz (Germany); Laubenstein, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Long, Alexander [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nisi, Stefano [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of {sup 3}He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  6. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  7. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  8. Locating underground uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Underground uranium deposits are located by placing wires of dosimeters each about 5 to 18 mg/cm 2 thick underground in a grid pattern. Each dosimeter contains a phosphor which is capable of storing the energy of alpha particles. In each pair one dosimeter is shielded from alpha particles with more than 18 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material but not gamma and beta rays and the other dosimeter is shielded with less than 1 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material to exclude dust. After a period underground the dosimeters are heated which releases the stored energy as light. The amount of light produced from the heavily shielded dosimeter is subtracted from the amount of light produced from the thinly shielded dosimeter to give an indication of the location and quantity of uranium underground

  9. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  10. Development and testing of redundant optical fiber sensing systems with self-control, for underground nuclear waste disposal site monitoring. Vol. 1: Summary and evaluation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobmann, M.; Fischer, S.; Voet, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors have been developed or further developed, for specific tasks of the research project reported, as for instance detecting and signalling changes of geophysical or geochemical parameters in underground waste storage sites which are of relevance to operating safety. Such changes include e.g. materials dislocations, extensions, temperatures, humidity, pH value and presence of gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The measuring principle chosen is the fiber Bragg Grating method, as a particularly versatile method easy to integrate into fiber optic networks. After development and successful lab-scale testing of all sensors, except for the gas sensors, field test systems have been made for underground applications and have been tested in situ in the experimental Konrad mine of DBE. Most of the problems discovered with these tests could be resolved within the given project period, so that finally field-test proven sensing systems are available for further activities. The report explains the system performance with a concrete example which shows inter alia beneficial aspects of the system with respect to on-site operation, and the potentials offered in establishing more direct connections between numerical safety analyses and measured results. (orig./CB) [de

  11. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator providing {sup 1}H{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, and {sup 12}C{sup +} beams for underground nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, Stefan; Cowan, Thomas E.; Grieger, Marcel; Ludwig, Felix; Rath, Ferdinand; Roeder, Marko; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Bemmerer, Daniel; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan E.; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Accelerator-based experiments at the 0.4 MV LUNA underground accelerator at Gran Sasso have enabled great progress for studies of Big Bang and solar fusion reactions. However, to complete the picture of solar fusion reactions and open up helium and carbon burning reactions to study, higher beam energies are required. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator will be installed in the Felsenkeller underground laboratory in Dresden. It will allow both, tandem mode operations for {sup 12}C{sup +} beams and the use of a radio frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal for {sup 1}H{sup +} and {sup 4}He{sup +} beams. The beam from the RF ion source is fed in with a remotely controlled electrostatic deflector. In addition, a large, ultra-sensitive high-purity germanium detector for offline measurements will be installed at Felsenkeller. The final timeline of the project will be shown, as well as the science case for in-house research and the capabilities available to external scientific users.

  12. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  13. Prediction of Pseudo relative velocity response spectra at Yucca Mountain for underground nuclear explosions conducted in the Pahute Mesa testing area at the Nevada testing site; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), managed by the Office of Geologic Disposal of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for commercial, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This work, intended to extend our understanding of the ground motion at Yucca Mountain resulting from testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS, was funded by the Yucca Mountain project and the Military Applications Weapons Test Program. This report summarizes one aspect of the weapons test seismic investigations conducted in FY88. Pseudo relative velocity response spectra (PSRV) have been calculated for a large body of surface ground motions generated by underground nuclear explosions. These spectra have been analyzed and fit using multiple linear regression techniques to develop a credible prediction technique for surface PSRVs. In addition, a technique for estimating downhole PSRVs at specific stations is included. A data summary, data analysis, prediction development, prediction evaluation, software summary and FORTRAN listing of the prediction technique are included in this report.

  14. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  15. Design study of the underground facilities, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on the deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at the Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU consisted of surface and underground facilities excavated to a depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program, includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed in 1998, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  16. Design study of underground facility of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU is consisted of surface and underground facilities down to the depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program which includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed last year, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  17. Radioactive wastes: underground laboratories implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    This article studies the situation of radioactive waste management, more especially the possible storage in deep laboratories. In front of the reaction of public opinion relative to the nuclear waste question, it was essential to begin by a study on the notions of liability, transparence and democracy. At the beginning, it was a matter of underground researches with a view to doing an eventual storage of high level radioactive wastes. The Parliament had to define, through the law, a behaviour able to come to the fore for anybody. A behaviour which won recognition from authorities, from scientists, from industrial people, which guarantees the rights of populations confronted to a problem whom they were not informed, on which they received only few explanations. (N.C.)

  18. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  19. Underground gasification in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-08-29

    A report of the discussion held on the paper Underground Gasification in Britain, by C.A. Masterman (Iron and Coal Trades Rev., Vol. 165, Aug. 22, 1952, pp. 413-422). The water question, preheating the air, controlling the gas, using the product, choosing the site, thickness of seam and faulted areas are discussed.

  20. Underground neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-02-01

    A review is made of possible astronomical neutrino sources detectable with underground facilities. Comments are made about solar neutrinos and gravitational-collapse neutrinos, and particular emphasis is placed on ultra-high-energy astronomical neutrino sources. An appendix mentions the exotic possibility of monopolonium

  1. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  2. Underground laboratories: Cosmic silence, loud science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Eugenio, E-mail: coccia@lngs.infn.i [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' and INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (Italy)

    2010-01-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to host key experiments in the field of particle and astroparticle physics, nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines that can profit of their characteristics and of their infrastructures. The cosmic silence condition existing in these laboratories allows the search for extremely rare phenomena and the exploration of the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators. I briefly describe all the facilities that are presently in operation around the world.

  3. Physics of phenomena in the zone close to an underground nuclear explosion; Physique des phenomenes en zone proche des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, J; Levret, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a description of the phenomenology of underground explosions, the basic laws governing the propagation in the ground of the energy produced by the explosion are given. The reports considers hydrodynamics, the mechanics of solids, the equations of state for solids and gases in the case of very high and medium pressures, and the dynamical strength of solids. These various elements make it possible to draw up a system of equations which define completely the changes with time of the shock-wave produced in the ground by the explosion. (authors) [French] Apres une description de la phenomenologie des explosions souterraines, on expose les lois fondamentales regissant la propagation dans le sol de l'energie degagee par l'explosion. L'expose comprend des developpements sur l'hydrodynamique, la mecanique des solides, les equations d'etat des solides et des gaz, aux tres fortes et moyennes pressions, et sur la resistance dynamique des solides. Ces differents elements permettent d'ecrire un systeme d'equations qui definissent completement l'evolution dans le temps de l'onde de choc emise dans le sol par l'explosion. (auteurs)

  4. Could the landscape preserve traces of a deep underground nuclear waste repository over the very long term? What we can learn from the archaeology of ancient mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmand, Dominique; BRULHET, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Prof. Dominique Harmand presented a study conducted on behalf of Andra that focused on the archaeology of abandoned underground mines in order to illustrate how ancient human activities have left traces in the landscape. Old mines often have left some traces at surface such as slag heaps and parts of shafts over relatively long timescales, up to thousands of years. Geological disposal projects are equally likely to leave traces in the landscape over time. In the case of the French Cigeo project (Centre industriel de stockage geologique), research into the past and future geological evolution of the area shows that traces of heads of shafts and inclined tunnels, and filled excavations will likely still exist at surface in the distant future. However, as these traces could be confused with other human and natural traces of all ages, steps need to be taken to ensure that they are correctly interpreted. A suggested approach to facilitate the correct interpretation in the future consists in marking the site, and especially its long-lasting traces, with long-lived anthropological elements, such as small engraved ceramic pieces. These could be placed around the repository's surface buildings, but also in drill holes that would be a few metres deep. As a result of the natural erosion of the site, they would progressively reach the surface of the area in the long term

  5. Physics of phenomena in the zone close to an underground nuclear explosion; Physique des phenomenes en zone proche des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, J.; Levret, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a description of the phenomenology of underground explosions, the basic laws governing the propagation in the ground of the energy produced by the explosion are given. The reports considers hydrodynamics, the mechanics of solids, the equations of state for solids and gases in the case of very high and medium pressures, and the dynamical strength of solids. These various elements make it possible to draw up a system of equations which define completely the changes with time of the shock-wave produced in the ground by the explosion. (authors) [French] Apres une description de la phenomenologie des explosions souterraines, on expose les lois fondamentales regissant la propagation dans le sol de l'energie degagee par l'explosion. L'expose comprend des developpements sur l'hydrodynamique, la mecanique des solides, les equations d'etat des solides et des gaz, aux tres fortes et moyennes pressions, et sur la resistance dynamique des solides. Ces differents elements permettent d'ecrire un systeme d'equations qui definissent completement l'evolution dans le temps de l'onde de choc emise dans le sol par l'explosion. (auteurs)

  6. Solution of tasks concerning protection of underground waters and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.T.; Polyakov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Use of environment isotopes and indicators in solving problems concerning protection of underground waters and environment is discussed. The applied methods permit to study dynamics of underground waters and to estimate risk of their contamination; to follow the surface and underground waters interrelations using data on infiltration recharge estimation etc. Complex nuclear-geophysical and isotope studies may be applied to detect hindered water exchange zones where liquid industrial waste disposals could be placed with minimum damage to environment. 48 refs.; 74 figs.; 22 tabs

  7. Dimensional analysis for the mechanical effects of some underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, Francis [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1970-05-15

    The influence of the medium properties upon the effects of underground nuclear and high explosive explosions is studied by dimensional analysis methods. A comparison is made with the experimental data from the Hoggar contained nuclear shots, specially with the particle motion data and the cavity radii. Furthermore, for example, crater data from explosions in Nevada have been examined by statistical methods. (author)

  8. Scientific investigation in deep wells for nuclear waste disposal studies at the Meuse/Haute Marne underground research laboratory, Northeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Jacques; Rebours, Hervé; Vinsot, Agnès; Robin, Pierre

    Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, is constructing an underground test facility to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Jurassic-age Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. This paper describes the processes, the methods and results of a scientific characterization program carried out from the surface via deep boreholes with the aim to build a research facility for radioactive waste disposal. In particular this paper shows the evolution of the drilling programs and the borehole set up due to the refinement of the scientific objectives from 1994 to 2004. The pre-investigation phase on the Meuse/Haute-Marne site started in 1994. It consisted in drilling seven scientific boreholes. This phase, completed in 1996, led to the first regional geological cross-section showing the main geometrical characteristics of the host rock. Investigations on the laboratory site prior to the sinking of two shafts started in November 1999. The sinking of the shafts started in September 2000 with the auxiliary shaft completed in October 2004. The experimental gallery, at a depth of 445 m in the main shaft, was in operation by end 2004. During the construction of the laboratory, two major scientific programs were initiated to improve the existing knowledge of the regional hydrogeological characteristics and to accelerate the process of data acquisition on the shales. The aim of the 2003 hydrogeological drilling program was to determine, at regional scale, the properties of groundwater transport and to sample the water in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestones. The 2003-2004 programs consisted in drilling nine deep boreholes, four of which were slanted, to achieve an accurate definition of the structural features.

  9. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper

  10. The underground research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This educational booklet is a general presentation of the selected sites for the installation of underground research laboratories devoted to the feasibility studies of deep repositories for long-life radioactive wastes. It describes the different type of wastes and their management, the management of long life radioactive wastes, the site selection and the 4 sites retained, the preliminary research studies, and the other researches carried out in deep disposal facilities worldwide. (J.S.)

  11. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  12. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  13. The arrangement of the seismic design method of the underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanai, Kenji; Horita, Masakuni; Dewa, Katsuyuki; Gouke, Mitsuo

    2002-03-01

    Earthquake resistance for the underground structure is higher than the ground structure. Therefore, the case of examining the earthquake resistance of underground structure was little. However, it carries out the research on the aseismic designing method of underground structure, since the tunnel was struck by Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake, and it has obtained a much knowledge. However, an object of the most study was behavior at earthquake of the comparatively shallow underground structure in the alluvial plain board, and it not carry out the examination on behavior at earthquake of underground structure in the deep rock mass. In the meantime, underground disposal facility of the high level radioactive waste constructs in the deep underground, and it carries out the operation in these tunnels. In addition, it has made almost the general process of including from the construction start to the backfilling to be about 60 years (Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute, 1999). During these periods, it is necessary to also consider the earthquake resistance as underground structure from the viewpoint of the safety of facilities. Then, it extracted future problem as one of the improvement of the basis information for the decision of the safety standard and guideline of the country on earthquake-resistant design of the underground disposal facility, while it carried out investigation and arrangement of earthquake-resistant design cases, guidelines and analysis method on existing underground structure, etc. And, the research items for the earthquake resistance assessment of underground structure as case study of the underground research laboratory. (author)

  14. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sang

    1998-02-15

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  15. Underground reactor containments: An option for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Kress, T.

    1997-01-01

    Changing world conditions and changing technologies suggest that serious consideration should be given to siting of nuclear power plants underground. Underground siting is not a new concept. Multiple research reactors, several weapons production reactors, and one power reactor have been built underground. What is new are the technologies and incentives that may now make underground siting a preferred option. The conditions and technologies, along with their implications, are discussed herein. Underground containments can be constructed in mined cavities or pits that are then backfilled with thick layers of rock and soil. Conventional above-ground containments resist assaults and accidents because of the strength of their construction materials and the effectiveness of their safety features that are engineered to reduce loads. However, underground containments can provide even more resistance to assaults and accidents because of the inertia of the mass of materials over the reactor. High-technology weapons or some internal accidents can cause existing strong-material containments to fail, but only very-high energy releases can move large inertial masses associated with underground containments. New methods of isolation may provide a higher confidence in isolation that is independent of operator action

  16. The Sanford underground research facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    2014-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability

  17. The first underground low radioactivity bolometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Camin, D.V.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.

    1990-01-01

    A dilution refrigerator was installed in an underground location for the first time. The cryostat is made of as clean as possible material from the radioactivity point of view, with the aim to measure rare events like double beta decay or 'dark matter' interactions via coherent nuclear scattering. It is also planned to surround all the cryostat frame with lead and with a specially built Faraday cage. All the experimental apparatus involved have to be tested to obtain a very good background rejection. An 11g Ge bolometer, already tested on surface coupled with a 4.2 K GaAs preamplifier was built to measure the effective bolometer background in this new experimental area and to check the experimental set-up for double beta decay experiment. The present performance of the underground bolometric system is reported. (R.P.) 8 refs.; 7 figs

  18. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  19. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewes, H A [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  20. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewes, H.A.

    1969-01-01

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  1. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  2. RP delves underground

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  3. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  4. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  5. Calculational techniques for estimating population doses from radioactivity in natural gas from nuclearly stimulated wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.J.; Moore, R.E.; Rohwer, P.S.; Kaye, S.V.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for estimating radiation doses from exposure to combustion products of natural gas obtained from wells created by use of nuclear explosives were first developed in the Gasbuggy Project. These techniques were refined and extended by development of a number of computer codes in studies related to the Rulison Project, the second in the series of joint government-industry efforts to demonstrate the feasibility of increasing natural gas production from low-permeability rock formations by use of nuclear explosives. These techniques are described and dose estimates that illustrate their use are given. These dose estimation studies have been primarily theoretical, but we have tried to make our hypothetical exposure conditions correspond as closely as possible with conditions that could exist if nuclearly stimulated natural gas is used commercially. (author)

  6. Development and application of anti-washout special material for long distance. Remediation work of contaminated water at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant underground structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsu, Hitoshi; Nishikori, Kazumasa; Sato, Keita; Hibi, Yasuki; Yanai, Shuji; Deguchi, Amane

    2017-01-01

    The seawater piping trench of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station connects the screen pump room and turbine building. High concentration contaminated water stagnated in the trench due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, which caused a leakage accident. In order to solve the future leakage risk, a replacement work the liquid with cement was performed to remove contaminated water inside the trench. This paper explains the development of cement filler applied to the trench and the outline of its application work. Long-distance underwater fluid filler that can flow in the water throughout the longest 85 m long shafts was developed and its fluidity was confirmed in a laboratory and mockup device. In the field application, a cement manufacturing plant was set up in the power plant premises, and it took about a year to pour the cement into the trenches of No 2, 3, and 4 Units. To prevent the leakage of contaminated water in the trench, the cement pouring was performed while controlling the water level. Due to the high concentration of contaminated water, workers' radiation exposure management was conducted on a daily and monthly basis, and cumulative radiation exposure was strictly controlled. For radiation shielding, laying crushed stone and iron plate, installation of concrete protection wall and lead wool mat, and use of tungsten vest during work were practiced. Thanks to these measures, it was possible to reduce the exposure dose to about 27% of the originally predicted level. (A.O.)

  7. Parameter-sensitivity analysis of near-field radionuclide transport in buffer material and rock for an underground nuclear fuel waste vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, S.C.H.; Chan, T.

    1983-08-01

    An analytical model has been developed for radionuclide transport in the vicinity of a nuclear fuel waste container emplaced in a borehole. The model considers diffusion in the buffer surrounding the waste container, and both diffusion and groundwater convection in the rock around the borehole. A parameter-sensitivity analysis has been done to study the effects on radionuclide flux of (a) Darcian velocity of groundwater in the rock, (b) effective porosity of the buffer, (c) porosity of the rock, (d) radial buffer thickness, and (e) radius and length of the container. It is found that the radionuclide flux, Fsub(R), and the total integrated flux, Fsub(T), are greater for horizontal flow than for vertical flow; Fsub(R) decreases with increasing radial buffer thickness for all Darcian velocities, whereas Fsub(T) decreases at high velocities but increases at low velocities. The rate of change of Fsub(R) and of Fsub(T) decreases with decreasing flow velocity and increasing buffer thickness; Fsub(R) is greater for higher effective porosity of buffer or rock; and Fsub(R) increases and Fsub(T) decreases with decreasing container radius or length

  8. Regulating and Combating Underground Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In combating and regulating underground banking, a choice can be made of roughly two models, the risk model and the assimilation model. The risk model comes down to a complete prohibition of underground banking combined with an active investigation and prosecution policy. In the assimilation model,

  9. Underground population defense structures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, E.

    The design and construction ofunderground shelters to protect the Chinese population in the event of nuclear war are described. Built in the style of World War II air raid shelters and designed as neighborhood defense facilities, these are not judged to be adequate for nuclear defense needs, particularly the needs of urban populations. However, 80% of China's population is rural and 1/3 of this has lived underground for centuries in cliff dwellings and atrium houses. It is, therefore, concluded that China's rural population has a better chance the the population of any other country for long-term survival from the later consequences, as well as the immediate shock, of an urban nuclear attack. (LCL)

  10. Analysis of interactions of mechanical deformations and mass transfer on heat transfer from an underground nuclear-waste repository. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.G.; Hulbert, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    A review of existing models identified several effects that may need consideration in further model development. Most of these effects involved coupling equations through variable property values rather than through omission of any significant mechanism. However, it was also shown that more than one mechanism may adequately simulate a given set of experimental data and additional experimental data are needed to establish which (if any) of the possible mechanisms would actually control conditions in a nuclear waste repository. In particular, it is believed that mathematical modeling of major thermomechanical effects can be accomplished with finite element analysis computer programs, provided that adequate thermomechanical property data of salt and overburden are attained. An attempt was made to develop a general set of differential equations for simulating momentum, mass, and energy flows in geologic formations in order to illustrate the possible mechanisms and point out those included and not included in existing models. Most of the mechanisms are included in some manner in existing models although some approximations may not be adequate. More experimental data are required to assess the importance of most omitted mechanisms. Analysis of some data on brine migration in salt indicated that two mechanisms, acting simultaneously, could adequately explain the flow. These are Darcy flow and a combination of ordinary and thermal diffusion enhanced by temperature-dependent solubility. Equations based on this simultaneous action correlated the data very well and indicated the possible need to include both (and, maybe other) mechanisms in future models. A program is recommended for further study of brine mobility. An expected result of this program includes recommendations for further experimental work

  11. Analysis of interactions of mechanical deformations and mass transfer on heat transfer from an underground nuclear-waste repository. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, S.G.; Hulbert, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    A review of existing models identified several effects that may need consideration in further model development. Most of these effects involved coupling equations through variable property values rather than through omission of any significant mechanism. However, it was also shown that more than one mechanism may adequately simulate a given set of experimental data and additional experimental data are needed to establish which (if any) of the possible mechanisms would actually control conditions in a nuclear waste repository. In particular, it is believed that mathematical modeling of major thermomechanical effects can be accomplished with finite element analysis computer programs, provided that adequate thermomechanical property data of salt and overburden are attained. An attempt was made to develop a general set of differential equations for simulating momentum, mass, and energy flows in geologic formations in order to illustrate the possible mechanisms and point out those included and not included in existing models. Most of the mechanisms are included in some manner in existing models although some approximations may not be adequate. More experimental data are required to assess the importance of most omitted mechanisms. Analysis of some data on brine migration in salt indicated that two mechanisms, acting simultaneously, could adequately explain the flow. These are Darcy flow and a combination of ordinary and thermal diffusion enhanced by temperature-dependent solubility. Equations based on this simultaneous action correlated the data very well and indicated the possible need to include both (and, maybe other) mechanisms in future models. A program is recommended for further study of brine mobility. An expected result of this program includes recommendations for further experimental work.

  12. The underground economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica LITRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at covering issues related to the underground economy, activities that compound this phenomenon, its magnitude in Romania and reported to the European average. Underground economy in Romania consists of undeclared work (2/3 from the total and unreported income; it decreased from 33.6% of GDP in 2003 to 28% in 2014, but remained over EU-28 average with about 10 p.p. Among EU-28 countries, only Bulgaria exceeds the size of the underground economy of Romania. The underground economy is a challenge for the leadership of the state which must act simultaneously to stop illegal activities, and to discourage non-declaration of the legal activities. Corruption favours maintaining the underground economy, delays economic development, obstructs democratic processes and affects justice and the law state.

  13. Underground risk management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakai, T.

    2006-03-15

    JCOAL has conducted Joint Research on an Underground Communication and Risk Management Information System with CSIRO of Australia under a commissioned study project for the promotion of coal use starting in fiscal 2002. The goal of this research project is the establishment of a new Safety System focusing on the comprehensive risk management information system by the name of Nexsys. The main components of the system are the Ethernet type underground communication system that represents the data communication base, and the risk management information system that permits risk analysis in real-time and provides decision support based on the collected data. The Nexsys is an open system and is a core element of the underground monitoring system. Using a vast amount of underground data, it is capable of accommodating a wide range of functions that were not available in the past. Because of it, it is possible to construct an advanced underground safety system. 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    2015-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability

  15. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J

    2015-01-01

    The former Homestakegold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinolessdouble-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low- background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long- baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability. (paper)

  16. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  17. Underground gasification in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    A paper in Pravda by the Deputy Chief Engineer of the Underground Gasification Department indicates that there are at least three or four pilot plants in operation; one plant near Moscow has operated for 14 years and one in the Donbas for 8 years. The first plant has a daily output of gas corresponding to 400 tons of coal a day and produces a gas of low calorific value. A plant opened in 1956 in the Kuzbas to produce gas of a higher quality. A plant, being built near Moscow in conjunction with a gas turbine electrical power station, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 220,000 tons of coal a year. A larger plant, being built at Angren in central Asia, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 700,000 tons of coal a year.

  18. Underground transmission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geibka, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several underground tomographic transmission surveys have been carried out. Targets were cavities, ore veins and fault zones. Examples from measurements in a german heavy/fluor spar mine a lead/zinc mine and a rock laboratory of the Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive waste are presented. Measurements were carried out between boreholes and road ways. The recording equipment was the intrinsically safe SEAMEX85 system built and sold by WBK. Receivers were mounted in a chain of 6 two-component probes. Sources were an inhole hammer a sledge hammer a sparker and explosives from a single detonator to 180 g depending on the distance and absorption of the rock material. Cavities showed very distinct velocity reductions between 30 and 50%. Different vein material showed velocity reduction as well as velocity increase relative to the surrounding rock

  19. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  20. Study methods for the drillings around the underground nuclear explosions in the Sahara. Part 1. study of rock samples; Methodes d'etude des forages realises autour des explosions nucleaires souterraines au Sahara. Premiere partie: etude des echantillons de roche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyers-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An examination of the mechanical effects produced on rocks by an underground nuclear explosion calls for the use of particular means of exploration which are described in this report, special attention being paid to the equipment used in connection with the French nuclear tests in the Sahara. The drilling methods used (rotary and turbo-drilling) are adapted to the particular conditions of the sampling programme, to the radioactivity and to the temperature in the region of the explosion. A study of the samples makes it possible to obtain the new characteristics of the rock and to assess the chemical and mechanical transformations which it has undergone. An examination of the core obtained from the drilling, together with a knowledge of the drilling parameters (depth of the probe, sample recovery, etc...), makes it possible to study the extent and the characteristics of the zones which have been damaged to different degrees according to their distance from the zero point: cavity, strongly powdered zone, fractured zone, chimney, zones containing high stresses leading to a particular type of fracture of the cores. The problems connected with the interpretation of the results are also presented. (author) [French] L'examen des effets mecaniques provoques par une explosion nucleaire souterraine sur la roche necessite la mise en oeuvre de moyens d'exploration particuliers dont l'expose fait l'objet de ce rapport, essentiellement pour les moyens utilises autour des essais nucleaires francais au Sahara. Les methodes de forage (rotary et turboforage) sont adaptees aux conditions particulieres dues au programme d'echantillonnage, a la radioactivite et a la temperature regnant a proximite du point de tir. L'etude des echantillons permet la determination des nouveaux caracteres de la roche et de ses transformations chimique et mecanique. L'examen des carottes et l'utilisation des parametres de forage (cotes sondeurs, recuperation des echantillons, etc...) permettent d'etudier l

  1. Aims, organization and activities of the consortium for underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucky, G.

    1977-01-01

    The consortium of Swiss authorities interested in underground storage (the petroleum oil and gas industries, for fuel storage; the nuclear industry for radioactive waste disposal), was initiated in 1972. The author outlines the motives behind the formation of the consortium and outlines its structure and objectives. The envisaged projects are outlined. (F.Q.)

  2. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in granitic underground caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de; Carajilescov, P.

    1984-01-01

    To date, the disposal of radioactive wastes is one of the major problems faced by the nuclear industry. The utilization of granitic underground caves surrounded by a clay envelope is suggested as a safe alternative for such disposal. A preliminary analysis of the dimensions of those deposits is done. (Author) [pt

  3. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    underground nuclear explosion event in a composite media with faults and complex ... faults, in situ stresses and tectonic strains, location of the free surface with respect .... at the elastic radius are the local geological formations, porosity, water con- ... the problem for a longer duration Sommerfeld (1949) radiation boundary ...

  4. Dynamic response of underground openings in discontinuous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, H.W.

    1984-02-01

    This report examines the behaviour of underground openings in discontinuous rock in response to seismic waves associated with either earthquakes or rock bursts. A literature search revealed that well-constructed underground structures, such as would be expected for nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults, underground pumped-storage or nuclear plants, have an extremely high resistance to damage from seismic motion. To complement these qualitative results, it was necessary to examine the basic mechanisms of the entire progression of seismic motion, from wave generation and propagation, to wave interaction with the underground opening. From these investigations, it was found that unless a seismic event occurs very close to the installation, the stresses generated will be low with respect to the excavation stresses, because high stress waves are rapidly attenuated in travelling through rock. As well, an earthquake may generate extremely high accelerations, but is limited in the maximum amount of stress that it can create. The question, however, of the actual specific nature of underground seismic motions still remains essentially unanswered, although it is expected that there is a reduction in peak motions with depth due to the effect of the free surface of the earth

  5. A Global Survey of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D): A Guide to Interactive Global Map Layers, Table Database, References and Notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynan, Mark C.; Russell, Glenn P.; Perry, Frank V.; Kelley, Richard E.; Champenois, Sean T.

    2017-01-01

    These associated tables, references, notes, and report present a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information used to create four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies or disposal facilities 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding “deep underground” facilities, history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database provide each facility’s approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not comprehensive, it is representative of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  6. A Global Survey of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D): A Guide to Interactive Global Map Layers, Table Database, References and Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynan, Mark C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Russell, Glenn P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Perry, Frank V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Champenois, Sean T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-13

    These associated tables, references, notes, and report present a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information used to create four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies or disposal facilities 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding “deep underground” facilities, history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database provide each facility’s approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not comprehensive, it is representative of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  7. Geodynamic Zoning For Underground Isolation Of Radioctive Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, Vladislav; Kagan, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The problem of area selection for underground isolation of radioactive waste is important for all countries using nuclear power. The paper presents the results of modeling the stress-deformed state of Nizhnekanskiy granitoid massif and shows the possibility of using such simulations for the geodynamic zoning of areas. The calculation is given to the most probable directions of groundwater filtration, which is one of the main threats for the nuclear waste repository.

  8. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  9. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  10. FAST goes underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridlund, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The FAST-M Cost Estimating Model is a parametric model designed to determine the costs associated with mining and subterranean operations. It is part of the FAST (Freiman Analysis of Systems Techniques) series of parametric models developed by Freiman Parametric Systems, Inc. The rising cost of fossil fuels has created a need for a method which could be used to determine and control costs in mining and subterranean operations. FAST-M fills this need and also provides scheduling information. The model works equally well for a variety of situations including underground vaults for hazardous waste storage, highway tunnels, and mass transit tunnels. In addition, costs for above ground structures and equipment can be calculated. The input for the model may be on a macro or a micro level. This allows the model to be used at various stages in a project. On the macro level, only general conditions and specifications need to be known. On the micro level, the smallest details may be included. As with other FAST models, reference cases are used to more accurately predict costs and scheduling. This paper will address how the model can be used for a variety of subterranean purposes

  11. Underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, D.N.

    1977-01-01

    An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits

  12. Underground treatment of combustible minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapuu, E

    1954-10-14

    A process is described for treating oil underground, consisting in introducing several electrodes spaced one from the other in a bed of combustibles underground so that they come in electric contact with this bed of combustibles remaining insulated from the ground, and applying to the electrodes a voltage sufficient to produce an electric current across the bed of combustibles, so as to heat it and create an electric connection between the electrodes on traversing the bed of combustibles.

  13. Tritium in the underground waters of the Karazheera coal deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panin, M.S.; Artamonova, H.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Karazheera coal deposit is the unique geological object due to it's location on the Balapan site of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear polygon (SNP) with its wide range of underground nuclear tests fulfilled here (more than 130 explosions). That is why some radiological problems may appear with the geological ones which take place in the open mining work of the deposit. The radio-active pollution of SNP has been actively discussed in scientific literature for a long time. The present report evaluates the radio-active tritium pollution ( 3 H) of the deposit's underground waters. That very component of nature is subjected to radiation pollution in large extent after underground nuclear tests. 3 H radio-active isotope with 12-13 year period of half-decay. 3 H is generated in the result of nuclear reactions caused by cosmic radiation and nuclear reactions of explosions. The total number of 3 H on the globe comes to 12 kg. The content of 3 H has been studied in underground waters of self-pouring wells number 76, 82, springs and dipholes of the deposit. It has been fixed that concentration of 3 H in the deposit is fluctuating within 0.4-37.9 tritium units (TU) while the average content 10.3 TU (1 TU - 3.2x10 -12 Curie/liter). The analysis of 3 H decay shows that its maximum concenliaiion has been fixed in the deposit 82 (37.9 TU) and in diphole (32.3 TU). The background content of 3 H in water was evaluated on the level of 1-8 TU till 1945. In the result of nuclear weapon tests the background has been considerably increased and according to First data (1994) it is corresponded to 23 TU. The average content of the 3 H in underground waters of Karazheera is half the size of this index (10.3 TU). It comprises 3.3x10 -11 and it is more lower than quota 4x10 -6 Ci/l. It is considered that the content of more than 10 TU in waters is caused by thermal nuclear test. Precipitations fallen after 1961 are presented in subsoil waters containing of 20 TU or more

  14. Discrimination between underground explosions and earthquakes using discriminant functions: Examples for Eurasia and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowroozi, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Discriminant functions are extensively used as a technical tool in educational and psychological research as well as in some branches of geological sciences. The application of this technique to the problem of discrimination between underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes has been reported. Here we apply this technique to a known population of underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes for the determination of various statistical parameters needed for setting up the discriminant function equations for discrimination between unknown population of earthquakes, anomalous events, and underground explosions, then we classify earthquakes, explosions and anomalous events in Eurasia and North America

  15. Underground test area subproject waste management plan. Revision No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in southern Nevada, was the site of 928 underground nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. The tests were performed as part of the Atomic Energy Commission and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons testing program. The NTS is managed by the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Of the 928 tests conducted below ground surface at the NTS, approximately 200 were detonated below the water table. As an unavoidable consequence of these testing activities, radionuclides have been introduced into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. In the few instances of groundwater sampling, radionuclides have been detected in the groundwater; however, only a very limited investigation of the underground test sites and associated shot cavities has been conducted to date. The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject was established to fill this void and to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the NTS. One of its primary objectives is to gather data to characterize the deep aquifer underlying the NTS

  16. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  17. Systems management support for ERCDC study of undergrounding and berm containment. Interim report. Preliminary program assessment and follow-on program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Interim results of a study being conducted with respect to the technological aspects of the costs and benefits of underground nuclear power plant construction in direct support of the California Energy Commission's legislative mandate in this area are presented. The program was directed towards problem scoping, methodology evaluation, program definition and planning for subsequent, more detailed investigations of underground facility designs and their potential advantages and disadvantages. The material presented describes the results of (a) systems analyses which were conducted to determine logical requirements for determination of those elements of a nuclear power plant which should be constructed underground; (b) bounding estimates of incremental plant costs for a variety of underground concepts; (c) applicable prior experience in underground facility design and construction which could be used to identify potential sources of strength and weaknessees of underground nuclear power plants; (d) estimates of seismic environments for underground construction in California; (e) preliminary descriptions of underground reactor accident scenarios; (f) bounding estimates of the consequences of such accidents, in terms of comparisons of relative emissions of radioactivity with respect to similar accidents for surface-sited nuclear power plants and (g) results of analyses of several other important technological aspects of the problem. A description is also provided of the program development work performed to provide planning and criteria for subsequent investigations to determine: (a) definitive underground nuclear power plant designs and costs, and (b) estimates of accident consequences in underground nuclear power plants

  18. Systems management support for ERCDC study of undergrounding and berm containment. Interim report. Preliminary program assessment and follow-on program development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    Interim results of a study being conducted with respect to the technological aspects of the costs and benefits of underground nuclear power plant construction in direct support of the California Energy Commission's legislative mandate in this area are presented. The program was directed towards problem scoping, methodology evaluation, program definition and planning for subsequent, more detailed investigations of underground facility designs and their potential advantages and disadvantages. The material presented describes the results of (a) systems analyses which were conducted to determine logical requirements for determination of those elements of a nuclear power plant which should be constructed underground; (b) bounding estimates of incremental plant costs for a variety of underground concepts; (c) applicable prior experience in underground facility design and construction which could be used to identify potential sources of strength and weaknessees of underground nuclear power plants; (d) estimates of seismic environments for underground construction in California; (e) preliminary descriptions of underground reactor accident scenarios; (f) bounding estimates of the consequences of such accidents, in terms of comparisons of relative emissions of radioactivity with respect to similar accidents for surface-sited nuclear power plants and (g) results of analyses of several other important technological aspects of the problem. A description is also provided of the program development work performed to provide planning and criteria for subsequent investigations to determine: (a) definitive underground nuclear power plant designs and costs, and (b) estimates of accident consequences in underground nuclear power plants.

  19. Site selection under the underground geologic store plan. Procedures of selecting underground geologic stores as disputed by society, science, and politics. Site selection rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebersold, M.

    2008-01-01

    The new Nuclear Power Act and the Nuclear Power Ordinance of 2005 are used in Switzerland to select a site of an underground geologic store for radioactive waste in a substantive planning procedure. The ''Underground Geologic Store Substantive Plan'' is to ensure the possibility to build underground geologic stores in an independent, transparent and fair procedure. The Federal Office for Energy (BFE) is the agency responsible for this procedure. The ''Underground Geologic Store'' Substantive Plan comprises these principles: - The long term protection of people and the environment enjoys priority. Aspects of regional planning, economics and society are of secondary importance. - Site selection is based on the waste volumes arising from the five nuclear power plants currently existing in Switzerland. The Substantive Plan is no precedent for or against future nuclear power plants. - A transparent and fair procedure is an indispensable prerequisite for achieving the objectives of a Substantive Plan, i.e., finding accepted sites for underground geologic stores. The Underground Geologic Stores Substantive Plan is arranged in two parts, a conceptual part defining the rules of the selection process, and an implementation part documenting the selection process step by step and, in the end, naming specific sites of underground geologic stores in Switzerland. The objective is to be able to commission underground geologic stores in 25 or 35 years' time. In principle, 2 sites are envisaged, one for low and intermediate level waste, and one for high level waste. The Swiss Federal Council approved the conceptual part on April 2, 2008. This marks the beginning of the implementation phase and the site selection process proper. (orig.)

  20. Regulatory aspects on underground disposal of radioactive waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.

    1978-01-01

    The underground disposal of radioactive waste in Sweden is primarily governed by the Atomic Energy Act, the Radiation Protection Act, and to some extent by the Nuclear Liability Act. The regulatory authorities in question are the Nuclear Power Inspectorate, and the Radiation protection Institute. Application for a licence relating to waste management facilities are examined by the Inspectorate which presents its recommendations to the Government for decision. The Inspectorate is also called upon to impose conditions for the operation of the installation. The choice of site for the proposed nuclear waste facility is subject to the approval of the local authorities concerned. (NEA) [fr

  1. Construction experiences from underground works at Oskarshamn. Compilation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The main objective with this report is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Oskarshamn, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the cooling water tunnels of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units 1,2 and 3, from the underground excavations of Clab 1 and 2 (Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel), and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. In addition, an account is given of the operational experience of Clab 1 and 2 and of the Aespoe HRL on primarily scaling and rock support solutions. This report, as being a compilation report, is in its substance based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. Approximately 8,000 m of tunnels including three major rock caverns with a total volume of about 550,000 m3 have been excavated. The excavation works of the various tunnels and rock caverns were carried out during the period of 1966-2000. In addition, minor excavation works were carried out at the Aespoe HRL in 2003. The depth location of the underground structures varies from near surface down to 450 m. As an overall conclusion it may be said that the rock mass conditions in the area are well suited for underground construction. This conclusion is supported by the experiences from the rock excavation works in the Simpevarp and Aespoe area. These works have shown that no major problems occurred during the excavation works; nor have any stability or other rock engineering problems of significance been identified after the commissioning of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units O1, O2 and O3, BFA, Clab 1 and 2, and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The underground structures of these facilities were built according to plan, and since than been operated as planned. Thus, the quality of the rock mass within the construction area is such that it lends itself to excavation of large rock caverns with a minimum of rock support

  2. Construction experiences from underground works at Oskarshamn. Compilation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Anders; Christiansson, Rolf

    2007-12-01

    The main objective with this report is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Oskarshamn, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the cooling water tunnels of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units 1,2 and 3, from the underground excavations of Clab 1 and 2 (Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel), and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. In addition, an account is given of the operational experience of Clab 1 and 2 and of the Aespoe HRL on primarily scaling and rock support solutions. This report, as being a compilation report, is in its substance based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. Approximately 8,000 m of tunnels including three major rock caverns with a total volume of about 550,000 m 3 have been excavated. The excavation works of the various tunnels and rock caverns were carried out during the period of 1966-2000. In addition, minor excavation works were carried out at the Aespoe HRL in 2003. The depth location of the underground structures varies from near surface down to 450 m. As an overall conclusion it may be said that the rock mass conditions in the area are well suited for underground construction. This conclusion is supported by the experiences from the rock excavation works in the Simpevarp and Aespoe area. These works have shown that no major problems occurred during the excavation works; nor have any stability or other rock engineering problems of significance been identified after the commissioning of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units O1, O2 and O3, BFA, Clab 1 and 2, and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The underground structures of these facilities were built according to plan, and since than been operated as planned. Thus, the quality of the rock mass within the construction area is such that it lends itself to excavation of large rock caverns with a minimum of rock support

  3. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  4. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  5. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  6. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    /LIDAR), surveying instruments, and surveying benchmarks and optical survey points. Currently an array of single and multipoint extensometers monitors the Davis Campus. A facility-wide micro seismic monitoring system is anticipated to be deployed during the latter half of 2012. This system is designed to monitor minor events initiated within the historical mined out portions of the facility. The major science programs for the coming five years consist of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment; the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter search, the Center for Ultralow Background Experiments at DUSEL (CUBED), numerous geoscience installations, Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE), a nuclear astrophysics program involving a low energy underground particle accelerator, second and third generation dark matter experiments, and additional low background counting facilities. The Sanford Lab facility is an active, U.S. based, deep underground research facility dedicated to science, affording the science community the opportunity to conduct unprecedented scientific research in a broad range of physics, biology and geoscience fields at depth. SURF is actively interested in hosting additional research collaborations and provides resources for full facility design, cost estimation, excavation, construction and support management services.

  7. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  8. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  9. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  10. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  11. Stability of underground excavations in a repository system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calash, A.Y.; Greer, J.C.; Andrea, S.J.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Nguyen, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    The DOE is investigating the feasibility of constructing a deep geologic repository at the Hanford Site, Washington, for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. The underground openings associated with the repository design include shafts, tunnels, emplacement rooms and boreholes. The stability of these underground openings, the extent and characteristics of the disturbed zones due to excavation, and their effects on groundwater flow path and travel time have a primary influence on the performance assessment of the Hanford Site as a nuclear waste repository. This study is being done in accordance with the requirements of the NRC. Results of structural analyses of shafts and tunnels under in situ stresses and/or medium weight are presented in this paper. Four different analyses were carried out to analyze the shaft: a plane strain model, axisymmetric model, 3-D model of a single material medium, and 3-D model of a three material medium

  12. Mission of mediation on planting underground research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, C.

    1994-01-01

    France, who chose to have a strong nuclear industry, is confronted to the problem of management, treatment, storage and elimination of radioactive waste. The law defined an important research program with a study of underground storage in laboratories. Here is the report of this mission. A problem of people confidence arose; there is a difference between the great level of science or technology and the level of understanding of public opinion. The only answer brought by a democratic society is to develop information

  13. Numerical modeling of underground openings behavior with a viscoplastic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleine, A.

    2007-01-01

    Nature is complex and must be approached in total modesty by engineers seeking to predict the behavior of underground openings. The engineering of industrial projects in underground situations, with high economic and social stakes (Alpine mountain crossings, nuclear waste repository), mean striving to gain better understanding of the behavioral mechanisms of the openings to be designed. This improvement necessarily involves better physical representativeness of macroscopic mechanisms and the provision of prediction tools suited to the expectations and needs of the engineers. The calculation tools developed in this work is in step with this concern for satisfying industrial needs and developing knowledge related to the rheology of geo-materials. These developments led to the proposing of a mechanical constitutive model, suited to lightly fissured rocks, comparable to continuous media, while integrating more particularly the effect of time. Thread of this study, the problematics ensued from the subject of the thesis is precisely about the rock mass delayed behavior in numerical modeling and its consequences on underground openings design. Based on physical concepts of reference, defined in several scales (macro/meso/micro), the developed constitutive model is translated in a mathematical formalism in order to be numerically implemented. Numerical applications presented as illustrations fall mainly within the framework of nuclear waste repository problems. They concern two very different configurations of underground openings: the AECL's underground canadian laboratory, excavated in the Lac du Bonnet granite, and the GMR gallery of Bure's laboratory (Meuse/Haute-Marne), dug in argillaceous rock. In this two cases, this constitutive model use highlights the gains to be obtained from allowing for delayed behavior regarding the accuracy of numerical tunnel behavior predictions in the short, medium and long terms. (author)

  14. 8. Peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter deals with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Described are the development of the underground nuclear explosion, properties of radionuclides formed during the explosion, their distribution, the release of radioactive products of underground nuclear explosions into the air, their propagation in the atmosphere, and fallout in the landscape. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 8 figs., 19 refs

  15. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  16. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible.

  17. Development of excavation technologies at the Canadian underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyk, Gregory W.; Martino, Jason B.

    2008-01-01

    Several countries, Canada being among them, are developing concepts for disposal of used fuel from power generating nuclear reactors. As in underground mining operations, the disposal facilities will require excavation of many kilometres of shafts and tunnels through the host rock mass. The need to maintain the stability of excavations and safety of workers will be of paramount importance. Also, excavations required for many radioactive waste repositories will ultimately need to be backfilled and sealed to maintain stability and minimize any potential for migration of radionuclides, should they escape their disposal containers. The method used to excavate the tunnels and shafts, and the rock damage that occurs due to excavation, will greatly affect the performance characteristics of repository sealing systems. The underground rock mechanics and geotechnical engineering work performed at the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) has led to the development of excavation technologies that reduce rock damage in subsurface excavations. This paper discusses the excavation methods used to construct the URL and their application in planning for the construction of similar underground laboratories and repositories for radioactive wastes. (author)

  18. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Anders; Christiansson, Rolf

    2007-02-01

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible

  19. Background intercomparison with escape-suppressed germanium detectors in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuecs, Tamas; Bemmerer, Daniel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    A key requirement for underground nuclear astrophysics experiments is the very low background level in germanium detectors underground. The reference for these purposes is the world's so far only underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics, LUNA. LUNA is located deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, shielded from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. The background at LUNA was studied in detail using an escape-suppressed Clover-type HPGe detector. Exactly the same detector was subsequently transported to the Felsenkeller underground laboratory in Dresden, shielded by 45 m of rock, and the background was shown to be only a factor of three higher than at LUNA when comparing the escape-suppressed spectra, with interesting consequences for underground nuclear astrophysics. As the next step of a systematic study of the effects of a combination of active and passive shielding on the cosmic ray induced background, this detector is now being brought to the ''Reiche Zeche'' mine in Freiberg/Sachsen, shielded by 150 m of rock. The data from the Freiberg measurement are shown and discussed.

  20. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground...

  1. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  2. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  3. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  4. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  5. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  6. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, W.; Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  7. Remote inspection of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.L.; Martinson, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy. The ICPP's mission is to process government-owned spent nuclear fuel. The process involves dissolving the fuel, extracting off uranium, and calcining the waste to a solid form for storage, Prior to calcining, WINCO temporarily stores the liquid waste from this process in eleven 1,135,600-l(300,000-gal), 15,2-m (50-ft)-diam, high-level liquid waste tanks. Each of these stainless steel tanks is contained within an underground concrete vault. The only access to the interior of the tanks is through risers that extend from ground level to the dome of the tanks. WINCO is replacing these tanks because of their age and the fact that they do not meet all of the current design requirements. The tanks will be replaced in two phases. WINCO is now in the Title I design stage for four new tank and vault systems to replace five of the existing systems. The integrity of the six remaining tanks must be verified to continue their use until they can be replaced in the second phase. To perform any integrity analysis, the inner surface of the tanks must be inspected. The remote tank inspection (RTI) robotic system, designed by RedZone Robotics of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was developed to access the interior of the tanks and position various end effectors required to perform tank wall inspections

  8. Shaft extension design at the Underground Research Laboratory, Pinawa, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyk, G.W.; Ball, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    AECL Research has constructed an underground laboratory for the research and development required for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experimental program in the laboratory will contribute to the assessment of the feasibility and safety of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in stable plutonic rock. In 1988, AECL extended the shaft of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) from the existing 255 m depth to a depth of 443 m in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy. The project, which involved carrying out research activities while excavation and construction work was in progress, required careful planning. To accommodate the research programs, full-face blasting with a burn cut was used to advance the shaft. Existing facilities at the URL had to be modified to accommodate an expanded underground facility at a new depth. This paper discusses the design criteria, shaft-sinking methods and approaches used to accommodate the research work during this shaft extension project. (11 refs., 11 figs.)

  9. Nuclear Test Personnel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOIA Electronic Reading Room Privacy Impact Assessment DTRA No Fear Act Reporting Nuclear Test Personnel Review NTPR Fact Sheets NTPR Radiation Dose Assessment Documents US Atmospheric Nuclear Test History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak

  10. Stability of underground openings in the Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    The licensing of a repository for high level radioactive waste will require assurances that underground openings do not experience frequent major instabilities, which are defined here as sudden movements of blocks of rock that limit the functions of the openings. Although the design of nuclear power plant structure is controlled by strict adherence to building or professional- engineering codes, this approach is not practical for the structural design of underground facilities because the design must accommodate a varied and partially defined geologic setting. However, regulations require the reduction of the potential for deleterious rock movement and the design of openings to maintain the option to retrieve waste. The present plans for meeting these requirements for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, include a program of state-of-the- art analyses and modified forms of existing empirically based design methods. An extensive experimental program is required to provide confidence in the results of the design- analysis process

  11. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun H. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  12. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Several issues concerning nuclear energy in France during 1996 are presented: permission of a demand for installing underground laboratories in three sites (Marcoule, Bure and Chapelle-Baton); a report assessing the capacity of Superphenix plant to operate as a research tool; the project of merging between Framatome and Gec-Alsthom companies; the revision of a general report on nuclear energy in France; the issue of military plutonium management

  13. Summary of results of underground engineering experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzer, F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Results pertinent to the use of nuclear explosives in underground engineering applications have been accumulating for the past 10 years from the Plowshare and Weapons tests of the AEC. Thus, predictive and measurement techniques of shock effects and chimney formation were developed in the course of analyzing explosions in granite, salt, and dolomite. The ability to predict effects related specifically to safety has resulted from many measurements on detonations at the Nevada Test Site, where also many of the techniques for handling, emplacing, and firing the explosive have been developed. This gestation period culminated in the execution of Project Gasbuggy, jointly sponsored by industry and government, and the first nuclear explosion in a gasbearing formation. The Gasbuggy explosive had a nominal yield of 25 kt and was detonated 4240 ft below the surface in the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico on December 10, 1967. The shot point was 40 ft below the lower boundary of a 285-ft-thick gas-bearing sandstone formation of very low permeability. No radioactive venting occurred, and no damage to surrounding gas wells or structures resulted. Post-shot geophysical exploration and gas production tests have revealed that the nuclear explosion created a subsurface chimney approximately 160 ft in diameter and 335 ft high. Fractures appear to extend to about 400 ft symmetrically from the detonation point, with shifts or offsets along geological weaknesses extending out to perhaps 750 ft. Presently, radioactive constituents in the gas consist of tritium and krypton-85, with concentrations of approximately 10 {mu}Ci/ft{sup 3} and 1.5 {mu}Ci/ft{sup 3} respectively. These concentrations are decreasing a gas withdrawn from the chimney is replaced by formation gas. Tests to evaluate the increase in productivity and ultimate recovery are currently in progress. (author)

  14. Summary of results of underground engineering experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, F.

    1969-01-01

    Results pertinent to the use of nuclear explosives in underground engineering applications have been accumulating for the past 10 years from the Plowshare and Weapons tests of the AEC. Thus, predictive and measurement techniques of shock effects and chimney formation were developed in the course of analyzing explosions in granite, salt, and dolomite. The ability to predict effects related specifically to safety has resulted from many measurements on detonations at the Nevada Test Site, where also many of the techniques for handling, emplacing, and firing the explosive have been developed. This gestation period culminated in the execution of Project Gasbuggy, jointly sponsored by industry and government, and the first nuclear explosion in a gasbearing formation. The Gasbuggy explosive had a nominal yield of 25 kt and was detonated 4240 ft below the surface in the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico on December 10, 1967. The shot point was 40 ft below the lower boundary of a 285-ft-thick gas-bearing sandstone formation of very low permeability. No radioactive venting occurred, and no damage to surrounding gas wells or structures resulted. Post-shot geophysical exploration and gas production tests have revealed that the nuclear explosion created a subsurface chimney approximately 160 ft in diameter and 335 ft high. Fractures appear to extend to about 400 ft symmetrically from the detonation point, with shifts or offsets along geological weaknesses extending out to perhaps 750 ft. Presently, radioactive constituents in the gas consist of tritium and krypton-85, with concentrations of approximately 10 μCi/ft 3 and 1.5 μCi/ft 3 respectively. These concentrations are decreasing a gas withdrawn from the chimney is replaced by formation gas. Tests to evaluate the increase in productivity and ultimate recovery are currently in progress. (author)

  15. Process for fracturing underground formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, O M

    1974-01-25

    This invention concerns a process for fracturing underground formations and has as one object the mixing of viscous compositions. Through a borehole, a fluid is injected into the formation. This fluid contains a complex prepared by the reaction of an aliphatic quaternary ammonium compound with a water-soluble compound chosen from monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides, polysaccharides, and synthetic hydroxylated polymers with long chains. These complexes are formed at temperatures between 20/sup 0/ and 205/sup 0/C. The process also includes production of formation fluid into the borehole.

  16. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  17. Proposed underground gasification. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    An underground coal gasification experiment which could provide the key to recovering the energy in millions of tonnes of otherwise inaccessible undersea coal reserves is proposed by the NCB. The Board's Headquarters Technical Department hope to carry out a field trial in a six foot thick coal seam about 2000 feet beneath a former wartime airfield near the hamlet of Ossington near Newark, Notts, UK. This paper describes briefly the proposed project, which could cost up to 15 million pounds over five years. It has the backing and financial support of the European Economic Community.

  18. Intensive use of diesels underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, R W

    1980-07-01

    At a US mine, coal is extracted by room and pillar mining. Tyred diesel vehicles are used to transport men and materials, to spread gravel on the roadway, and to tow and provide hydraulic power to rock dusting machines. Hydraulic power take-offs from the vehicles are used to operate equipment such as drills and chain saws. A deisel ambulance is kept underground, and diesel lubrication units and maintenance tracks are used. A diesel generator provides electrical power when or where no permanent electricity supply is available e.g. for tramming continuous miners in to or out of the mine.

  19. Determination of radon and progeny concentrations in Brazilian underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraenkel, Mario O.; Gouvea, Vandir de Azevedo; Macacini, Jose F.; Cardozo, Katia; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A. de; Lima, Carlos E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the activities related to the determination of radon and progeny concentrations in underground mines in Brazil. Radon is originated from decay of radium-226 and radium-228 present in rocks. Radon and its short-lived progeny can be retained in the workers pulmonary alveoli, and this way they bring about cancer risk to these mining professionals. The occurrence of high radon concentrations in underground coal and copper mines and the lack of systematic survey motivated CNEN, the regulatory agency, to develop the Radon Project, aiming to aid the formulation of a specific regulation with occupational dose limits consistent with international standards recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Dozens of underground mines are currently in operation in the national. It had to be noted that about 50% of these mines are located in Minas Gerais province, and for this reason it was chosen to start the Project. In each underground mine it is installed in selected points passive nuclear track etch radon detectors, type LEXAN and Cr-39, for periods from three to five months. It was also made local measurements with Dose Man Pro detectors from SARAD. The points are chosen according to geological features, radiometric activity and characteristics of prospect development. The determination of radon present in mines has been made in IEN (Nuclear Engineering Institute)/Rio de Janeiro-RJ, LAPOC (Pocos de Caldas Laboratory)/Pocos de Caldas-MG e ESPOA (Porto Alegre Office)/Porto Alegre-RS. Until now it was visited about 35 mines in a universe of about 50 mines, from which 20% showed concentration values higher than international limits (ICRP 65), between 500 and 1500 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  20. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, GDP AND STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caus Vasile Aurel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is affected by the size and dynamics of underground economy. Determining this size is a subject of research for many authors. In this paper we present the relationship between underground economy dynamics and the dynamics of stock markets. The observations are based on regression used by Tanzi (1983 and the relationship between GDP and stock market presented in Tudor (2008. The conclusion of this paper is that the dynamics of underground economy is influenced by dynamic of financial markets. Thus, using specific stock market mathematical tools analysis, one can analyze the dynamic of underground economy

  1. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    In this paper we investigate the effects of different fiscal policies on the firm choice to produce underground. We consider a tax evading firm operating simultaneously both in the regular and in the underground economy. We suggest that such a kind of firm, referred to as moonlighting firm, is able...... allocation in the underground production. In fact, a strong and inverse relationship is found, and tax reduction is the best policy to reduce the convenience to produce underground. Wealso confirm the depressing effect on investment of taxation (see, for instance, Summers,1981), so that tax reduction has...

  2. Cathode protection for underground steel tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelovski, Zoran

    1998-01-01

    Cathodic protection of underground petroleum storage tanks and piping systems is acceptable for both economic and ecological reasons. With out the cathodic protection of underground steel reservoirs, short time after the exploitation, there was a bore as a result of underground corrosion. The bore causes ecological consequences and at the same time its repair needs big investments. Furthermore, there are great number of tanks placed near cities, so in the future this problem needs a special attention in order to preserve ecological surrounding. The topic of this paper is underground corrosion as well as cathodic protection of steel tanks for oil derivatives storage. (author)

  3. A design concept of underground facilities for the deep geologic disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo

    2005-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants can be disposed in the underground repository. In this paper, a concept of Korean Reference HLW disposal System (KRS-1) design is presented. Though no site for the underground repository has been specified in Korea, but a generic site with granitic rock is considered for reference spent fuel repository design. To implement the concept, design requirements such as spent fuel characteristics and capacity of the repository and design principles were established. Then, based on these requirements and principles, a concept of the disposal process, the facilities and the layout of the repository was developed

  4. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section...

  5. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  6. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  7. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  8. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  9. Underground Storage Alternative To Nigeria's Gas Flaring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, A.I

    2004-01-01

    Energy demands are increasing as the world's population of energy users grows. At the same time many nations want to decommission nuclear plants in support of a cleaner environment. Clean burning natural gas is the fuel most likely to meet society's complex requirements. Demand for natural gas will rise more strongly than for any fossil fuel. The utilization of the huge gas resources form the petroleum deposit in the Niger Delta area is the major problem confronting the oil/gas industry in Nigeria and the disposal of associated gas has been a major challenge for the barrel of oil; hence with oil production of about 2.0 million barrels per day, some 2.0 billion standard cubic feet of AG is producing everyday. An alarming proportion of the gas is wasted by flaring, while very small proportion is used by oil-producing companies and other most alarming rate of flaring in the world compared with other oil/gas producing countries. This paper highlights the numerous benefits accruing from proper utilization of natural gas using SASOL of South Africa as an example and recommends underground storage of natural gas as an industry that will help check flaring, meet fluctuating demand and create wealth for the nation

  10. Underground characterisation and research facility ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, Antti; Ylae-Mella, Mia; Aeikaes, Timo

    2006-01-01

    Posiva's repository for geological disposal of the spent fuel from Finnish nuclear reactors will be constructed at Olkiluoto. The selection of Olkiluoto was made based on site selection research programme conducted between 1987-2001. The next step is to carry out complementary investigations of the site and apply for the construction license for the disposal facility. The license application will be submitted in 2012. To collect detailed information of the geological environment at planned disposal depth an underground characterisation and research facility will be built at the site. This facility, named as ONKALO, will comprise a spiral access tunnel and two vertical shafts. The excavation of ONKALO is in progress and planned depth (400 m) will be reached in 2009. During the course of the excavation Posiva will conduct site characterisation activities to assess the structure and other properties of the site geology. The aim is that construction will not compromise the favourable conditions of the planned disposal depth or introduce harmful effects in the surrounding bedrock which could jeopardize the long-term safety of the geological disposal. (author)

  11. Researching radioactive waste disposal. [Underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feates, F; Keen, N [UKAEA Research Group, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1976-02-16

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared.

  12. Underground laboratories in Japan and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, Henry W

    2006-01-01

    There is a blossoming demand for deep underground laboratory space to satisfy the expanding interest in experiments that require significant cosmic-ray shielding. I'll briefly describe the existing deep facilities and their plans for expansion. I will also discuss the planning for a new major underground facility in the U.S

  13. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianping; Yue Qian; Wu Shiyong; Shen Manbin

    2011-01-01

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  14. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  15. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... toxic gases from a fire originating in an underground shop where maintenance work is routinely done on...

  16. AECL's underground research laboratory: technical achievements and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, M.M.; Chandler, N.A.

    1997-03-01

    During the development of the research program for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in the 1970's, the need for an underground facility was recognized. AECL constructed an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) for large-scale testing and in situ engineering and performance-assessment-related experiments on key aspects of deep geological disposal in a representative geological environment. Ale URL is a unique geotechnical research and development facility because it was constructed in a previously undisturbed portion of a granitic pluton that was well characterized before construction began, and because most of the shaft and experimental areas are below the water table. The specific areas of research, development and demonstration include surface and underground characterization; groundwater and solute transport; in situ rock stress conditions; temperature and time-dependent deformation and failure characteristics of rock; excavation techniques to minimize damage to surrounding rock and to ensure safe working conditions; and the performance of seals and backfills. This report traces the evolution of the URL and summarizes the technical achievements and lessons learned during its siting, design and construction, and operating phases over the last 18 years. (author)

  17. Effects of earthquakes on underground facilities. Literature review and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Chung, D.H.

    1986-06-01

    A review of literature concerning effects of ground motion on underground facilities has been completed, and an annotated bibliography has been prepared. This information provides useful background for the science and engineering of underground nuclear waste management facility development. While some conflicts are evident in the literature reviewed, the following tentative conclusions may be drawn from the available information: (1) damage is expectable if fault displacement occurs through a site, but damage from shaking alone is generally confined to facilities located within the epicentral region and may be less than to surface facilities at the same site. (2) Seismic data are mixed, but favors reduction of amplitude with depth; observations appear quite dependent upon station characteristics. (3) The frequency content of earthquake mitions is important to the stability of underground openings and the applicability of attenuation relationships developed in areas where geologic and tectonic characteristics favor high attenuation rates to mid-continental sites is questionable. (4) Model studies indicate problems for shafts and the potential for problems with waste-handling equipment in shafts. The results of the review indicate the need to assure that site-specific response spectra and attenuation relationships are developed for proposed sites, and that detailed assessments of seismic aspects of shaft designs, hoists and in-shaft waste-handling equipment are required

  18. Advantages of co-located spent fuel reprocessing, repository and underground reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, James M.; Kunze, Jay F.; Wes Myers, Carl; Loveland, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to extend the discussion of potential advantages of the underground nuclear park (UNP) concept by making specific concept design and cost estimate comparisons for both present Generation III types of reactors and for some of the modular Gen IV or the GNEP modular concept. For the present Gen III types, we propose co-locating reprocessing and (re)fabrication facilities along with disposal facilities in the underground park. The goal is to determine the site costs and facility construction costs of such a complex which incorporates the advantages of a closed fuel cycle, nuclear waste repository, and ultimate decommissioning activities all within the UNP. Modular power generation units are also well-suited for placement underground and have the added advantage of construction using current and future tunnel boring machine technology. (authors)

  19. An approach to underground characterization of a disposal vault in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, R.A.; Martin, C.D.; Thompson, P.M.

    1994-12-01

    The concept of disposing of nuclear fuel waste by sealing it in a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield is being investigated as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Engineered and natural barriers would isolate the waste from the biosphere. Underground characterization and testing have been under way since 1983 at the Underground Research Laboratory in support of this program. This report draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization to obtain information to optimize the design of the excavation and the engineered barriers, and to provide a baseline against which to monitor the performance of the facility during and following its operation. (author). 35 refs., 12 tabs., 49 figs

  20. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  1. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  2. Radiogenic cancer in underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple studies have yielded remarkably consistent results relating radon daughter exposure to lung cancer risk in underground mining populations. The U.S. uranium miner study appears to be at variance with the other results. The primary reason is that the doses in the U.S. miner study were systematically overestimated, resulting in a risk coefficient that is lower than all the others. The significance of these findings for radiogenic lung cancer goes well beyond mining populations, because one is now aware of the implications of radon daughters detected in homes. The highest cumulative levels from radon exposures within homes have been found in Sweden, evidently because of their unusual geology with uranium-bearing ores near the surface. The Swedish authorities view this as a major public health problem that needs to be addressed

  3. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  4. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  5. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  6. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  7. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project. A program on survey and research performed from earth surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project under planning at Horonobe-machi by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is a research facility on deep underground shown in the Long-term program on research, development and application of nuclear energy (June, 1994)' (LPNE), where some researches on the deep underground targeted at sedimentary rocks are carried out. The plan on The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory performed at Horonobe-machi' is an about 20 years plan ranging from beginning to finishing of its survey and research, which is carried out by three steps such as 'Survey and research performed from earth surface', 'Survey and research performed under excavation of road', and Survey and research performed by using the road'. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory is one of research facilities on deep underground shown its importance in LPNE, and carries out some researches on the deep underground at a target of the sedimentary rocks. And also The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory confirms some technical reliability and support on stratum disposal shown in the 'Technical reliability on stratum disposal of the high level radioactive wastes. The Second Progress Report of R and D on geological disposal' summarized on November, 1999 by JNC through actual tests and researches at the deep stratum. The obtained results are intended to reflect to disposal business of The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory and safety regulation and so on performed by the government, together with results of stratum science research, at the Tono Geoscience Center, of geological disposal R and D at the Tokai Works, or of international collaborations. For R and D at the The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory after 2000, following subjects are shown: 1) Survey technique on long-term stability of geological environment, 2) Survey technique on geological environment, 3) Engineering technique on engineered barrier and

  8. Seismic effects on underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.; Pratt, H.R.; Wahi, K.K.; Science Applications, Inc., La Jolla, CA; Science Applications, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Numerical modeling techniques were used to determine the conditions required for seismic waves generated by an earthquake to cause instability to an underground opening or create fracturing and joint movement that would lead to an increase in the permeability of the rock mass. Three different rock types (salt, granite, and shale) were considered as host media for the repository located at a depth of 600 m. Special material models were developed to account for the nonlinear material behavior of each rock type. The sensitivity analysis included variations in the in situ stress ratio, joint geometry, and pore pressures, and the presence or absence of large fractures. Three different sets of earthquake motions were used to excite the rock mass. The methodology applied was found to be suitable for studying the effects of earthquakes on underground openings. In general, the study showed that moderate earthquakes (up to 0.41 g) did not cause instability of the tunnel or major fracturing of the rock mass; however, a tremor with accelerations up to 0.95 g was amplified around the tunnel, and fracturing occurred as a result of the seismic loading in salt and granite. In situ stress is a critical parameter in determining the subsurface effects of earthquakes but is nonexistent in evaluating the cause for surface damage. In shale with the properties assumed, even the moderate seismic load resulted in tunnel instability. These studies are all generic in nature and do not abrogate the need for site and design studies for specific facilities. 30 references, 14 figures, 8 tables

  9. The underground research laboratory room 209 excavation response test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.

    1992-02-01

    The response of the rock mass to excavation is an important factor in the design and performance of underground excavations and installations. This is particularly true in the excavation of vaults for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste, where the conditions in the rock mass around the disposal areas may affect the performance of engineered sealing systems installed to isolate the waste. The factors influencing, and mechanisms controlling, rock mass response to excavation must be understood in order to accommodate excavation response effects in disposal vault design and construction

  10. Heat transfer in underground heating experiments in granite, Stipa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Javandel, I.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1980-04-01

    Electrical heater experiments have been conducted underground in granite at Stripa, Sweden, to investigate the effects of heating associated with nuclear waste storage. Temperature data from these experiments are compared with closed-form and finite-element solutions. Good agreement is found between measured temperatures and both types of models, but especially for a nonlinear finite-element heat conduction model incorporating convective boundary conditions, measured nonuniform initial rock temperature distribution, and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity. In situ thermal properties, determined by least-squares regression, are very close to laboratory values. A limited amount of sensitivity analysis is undertaken

  11. Radon Measurements in underground metro stations in Cairo City, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, A.F.; Hussein, A.S.; Rasheed, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    Radon activity concentration were measured continuously during the year 1998-1999 at two different underground MERTO stations, namely, Mubarak and El-Sadat. The measurements were performed using the diffusion cups equipped with CR-39 and LR-115 polymeric nuclear track detectors. Using the experimentally measured calibration coefficients of the used detectors and the measured track densities (bare and filtered), the yearly mean radon concentration C=23 Bq m -3 , equilibrium factor F= 0,10 and effective dose E=0,06 mSv y -1 for the employed personal as well as E=5 mu Sv y -1 for the commuter were obtained

  12. Simulation of Underground Muon Flux with Application to Muon Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Lintereur, A.; Kouzes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Muon tomography uses highly energetic muons, produced by cosmic rays interacting within the upper atmosphere, to image dense materials. Like x-rays, an image can be constructed from the negative of the absorbed (or scattered) muons. Unlike x-rays, these muons can penetrate thousands of meters of earth. Muon tomography has been shown to be useful across a wide range of applications (such as imaging of the interior of volcanoes and cargo containers). This work estimates the sensitivity of muon tomography for various underground applications. We use simulations to estimate the change in flux as well as the spatial resolution when imaging static objects, such as mine shafts, and dynamic objects, such as a CO2 reservoir filling over time. We present a framework where we import ground density data from other sources, such as wells, gravity and seismic data, to generate an expected muon flux distribution at specified underground locations. This information can further be fed into a detector simulation to estimate a final experimental sensitivity. There are many applications of this method. We explore its use to image underground nuclear test sites, both the deformation from the explosion as well as the supporting infrastructure (access tunnels and shafts). We also made estimates for imaging a CO2 sequestration site similar to Futuregen 2.0 in Illinois and for imaging magma chambers beneath the Cascade Range volcanoes. This work may also be useful to basic science, such as underground dark matter experiments, where increasing experimental sensitivity requires, amongst other factors, a precise knowledge of the muon background.

  13. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  14. Underground Research Laboratories for Crystalline Rock and Sedimentary Rock in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeta, N.; Takeda, S.; Matsui, H.; Yamasaki, S.

    2003-02-27

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started two off-site (generic) underground research laboratory (URL) projects, one for crystalline rock as a fractured media and the other for sedimentary rock as a porous media. This paper introduces an overview and current status of these projects.

  15. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  16. Underground science initiatives at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, L.M. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has proposed two major new initiatives in underground science. Following the dissolution of the original gallium solar neutrino collaboration, Los Alamos has formed a new North American collaboration. We briefly review the rationale for solar neutrino research, outline the proposal and new Monte Carlo simulations, and describe the candidate locations for the experiment. Because there is no dedicated deep underground site in North America suitable for a wide range of experiments, Los Alamos has conducted a survey of possible sites and developed a proposal to create a new National Underground Science Facility. This paper also reviews that proposal

  17. Age of underground waters: isotopes contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chery, L.; Olive, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Does water has an age? The age of underground waters can be the duration of their underground travel between their infiltration inside the ground and their captation at a spring or a drilled well. The isotopic geochemistry comes to the support of classical geochemistry to estimate these residence times. Radio-isotopes, like tritium for young waters or carbon 14 for old waters, are used as chronometers to interpret the recharge ways, the flow mechanisms and the residence times of underground waters. Their use is presented in this article with some theoretical recalls and some examples of application. (J.S.)

  18. Focused evaluation of selected remedial alternatives for the underground test area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in Nye County in southern Nevada, was the location of 928 nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. Of the total tests, 824 were nuclear tests performed underground. This report describes the approach taken to determine whether any specific, proven, cost-effective technologies currently exist to aid in the removal of the radioactive contaminants from the groundwater, in the stabilization of these contaminants, and in the removal of the source of the contaminants

  19. Character and levels of radioactive contamination of underground waters at Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbotin, S.; Lukashenko, S.; Turchenko, Y. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    According to the data of RK government commission, 470 explosions have been set off at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), inclusive of 26 surface, 90 in the air and 354 underground nuclear explosions (UNE), 103 of those have been conducted in tunnels and 251 - in boreholes. Underground nuclear explosions have been conducted at STS in horizontal mines, called - 'tunnels' ('Degelen' test site) and vertical mines called 'boreholes' ('Balapan' and 'Sary-Uzen' test sites). Gopher cavities of boreholes and tunnels are in different geotechnical conditions, that eventually specify migration of radioactive products with underground waters. Central cavities of UNE in holes are located significantly below the level of distribution of underground water. High temperature remains for a long time due to presence of overlying rock mass. High temperatures contribute to formation of thermal convection. When reaching the cavity, the water heat up, dissolve chemical elements and radionuclides and return with them to the water bearing formation. In the major part of 'Balapan' site for underground water of regional basin is characterized by low concentrations of radionuclides. High concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in underground water have been found only in immediate vicinity to 'warfare' boreholes. Formation of radiation situation in the 'Balapan' test site area is also affected by local area of underground water discharge. It is located in the valley of Shagan creek, where the concentration of {sup 3}H reaches 700 kBq/l. Enter of underground water contaminated with tritium into surface water well continue. In this case it is expected that tritium concentration in discharge zone can significantly change, because this migration process depends on hydro geological factors and the amount of atmospheric precipitation. Central cavities of nuclear explosions, made in tunnels, are above the level of underground

  20. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  1. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  2. Monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, G.S.; Chernis, P.J.; Bushman, A.T.; Spinney, M.H.; Backer, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a customer oriented monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba. The system is used to monitor instruments and manage, process, and distribute data. It consists of signal conditioners and remote loggers, central schedule and control systems, computer aided design and drafting work centres, and the communications linking them. The monitoring and communications elements are designed to meet the harsh demands of underground conditions while providing accurate monitoring of sensitive instruments to rigorous quality assured specifications. These instruments are used for testing of the concept for the deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Many of the tests are done in situ and at full-scale. The monitoring and information management system services engineering, research, and support staff working to design, develop, and demonstrate and present the concept. Experience gained during development of the monitoring and information management system at the URL, can be directly applied at the final disposal site. (author)

  3. Deep underground disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieson, J.

    1995-01-01

    The UK Government's radioactive waste disposal policy is for intermediate-level waste, and low-level waste as necessary, to be buried in a deep underground repository, and Nirex is the company, owned by the nuclear industry, charged with developing that deep facility. The Company's current focus is on surface-based geological investigations to determine the suitability of a potential repository site near Sellafield, Cumbria, in north-west England. Nirex's next step is to construct a deep underground laboratory (rock characterization facility, or RCF). Subject to a successful outcome from these investigations, Nirex will submit a planning application for the 650m deep repository at the end of this decade; this will be the subject of a further public inquiry. The timetable for the project assumes that a deep repository, capable of taking 400,000m 3 of waste, will be available by about 2010. In 1994, the UK Government began reviewing the future of the nuclear power industry and, as a separate exercise, radioactive waste management and disposal policy. Both reviews involved widespread consultations. The radwaste review has concentrated on three aspects: general policies; legal aspects of disposal (including safety requirements); and the principles of site selection and the protection of human health. Preliminary conclusions of the main radwaste review were published in August 1994. These confirmed that government continued to favor disposal rather than extended surface storage of waste. The final outcome of the review, including institutional aspects, is expected in the Spring of 1995

  4. Monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, G.S.; Chernis, P.J.; Bushman, A.T.; Spinney, M.H.; Backer, R.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a customer oriented monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba. The system is used to monitor instruments and manage, process, and distribute data. It consists of signal conditioners and remote loggers, central schedule and control systems, computer aided design and drafting work centres, and the communications linking them. The monitoring and communications elements are designed to meet the harsh demands of underground conditions while providing accurate monitoring of sensitive instruments to rigorous quality assured specifications. These instruments are used for testing of the concept for the deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Many of the tests are done in situ and at full-scale. The monitoring and information management system services engineering, research, and support staff working to design, develop, and demonstrate and present the concept. Experience gained during development of the monitoring and information management system at the URL, can be directly applied at the final disposal site. (author)

  5. Workshop on Seismic Performance of Underground Facilities: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1982-01-01

    A workshop entitled Seismic Performance of Underground Facilities was held in Augusta, GA, February 11-13, 1981. The Workshop was organized and conducted by The Savannah River Laboratory of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. and was sponsored by The Department of Energy and The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation of Battelle. The objective of the Workshop was to review and assess the state of the science of determining and predicting damage to underground facilities from earthquakes, with particular emphasis on the ultimate goal of developing criteria for siting and design of mined geologic nuclear waste repositories. The Workshop consisted of a day of presentations in the categories of Introduction, Data Collection and Analysis, Modeling, and Design. The second day consisted of assessments of the science by subgroups in the subjects of Seismology; Rock Mechanics and Hydrology; Modeling; Licensing, Siting, and Tectonics; and Design. Most Scientists in attendance believed that enough was known of the subsurface effects of earthquakes to proceed with site selection, design, and licensing of a waste repository. There was, however, recognition of several items of research that would enhance the understanding of the subsurface effects of seismicity

  6. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  7. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable... manholes and ducts in connection with construction work and the cost of permits and privileges for the...

  8. State Certification of Underground Storage Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... The audit was performed in response to a Senate Armed Services Committee inquiry about whether state environmental regulatory agencies would be able to certify that DoD underground storage tanks...

  9. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  10. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  11. Improving underground ventilation conditions in coal mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, CF

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available projects could be initiated by miningtek in co-operation with different mines. This report deals with the findings of this project and also deals with the future of research within Miningtek with regard to underground ventilation....

  12. Giant Magnet goes underground at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "At 5:00 am GMT, 28th February 2007, the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) particle detector began a momentous journey into its experimental cavern, 100 metres underground at CERN, Geneva

  13. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  14. GPS-deprived localisation for underground mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available robots. Opencast mines utilise the global positioning system (GPS) to obtain location information. The unavailability of this technology in underground mining has actuated numerous researchers to investigate possible alternatives. These attempts exploit...

  15. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  16. Robotic system for remote inspection of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.L.; Martinson, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). WINCO's mission is to process government owned spent nuclear fuel. The process involves dissolving the fuel and extracting off uranium. The waste from this process is temporarily stored at the ICPP in underground storage tanks. The tanks were put in service between 1953 and 1966 and are operating 10 to 15 years beyond their design life. Five of the tanks will be replaced by 1998. The integrity of the remaining six tanks must be verified to continue their use until they can be replaced at a later data. In order to verify the tank integrity, a complete corrosion analysis must be performed. This analysis will require a remote visual inspection of the tank surfaces

  17. Posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Page 1 of 8 25th International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future Conference, 13-16 July 2010, Pretoria, South Africa A POSTURE ESTIMATION SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND MINE VEHICLES Khonzumusa Hlophe1, Gideon Ferreira2... and the transmitter. The main difference between the three systems is their implementation. This paper describes an implementation of a posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, a brief...

  18. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs

  19. Physics of multiple muons in underground detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, T.

    1982-01-01

    We summarize results of Monte Carlo simulations of underground muons with a set of parametrizations for number and lateral distribution of muons at various detector depths. We also describe the size distributions of accompanying showers at the surface. We give some illustrations of the use of these results to study the surface-underground correlation and to interpret preliminary results of the Soudan-I detector presented at this conference

  20. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...