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Sample records for rough walls influence

  1. Boundary Behavior of Viscous Fluids: Influence of Wall Roughness and Friction-driven Boundary Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bucur, D.; Feireisl, Eduard; Nečasová, Šárka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 197, č. 1 (2010), s. 117-138 ISSN 0003-9527 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06052; GA ČR GA201/08/0315; GA AV ČR IAA100190804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Navier-Stokes system * wall roughness * Navier's slip Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.277, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00205-009-0268-z

  2. Turbulent flow velocity distribution at rough walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, W.

    1978-08-01

    Following extensive measurements of the velocity profile in a plate channel with artificial roughness geometries specific investigations were carried out to verify the results obtained. The wall geometry used was formed by high transverse square ribs having a large pitch. The measuring position relative to the ribs was varied as a parameter thus providing a statement on the local influence of roughness ribs on the values measured. As a fundamental result it was found that the gradient of the logarithmic rough wall velocity profiles, which differs widely from the value 2.5, depends but slightly on the measuring position relative to the ribs. The gradients of the smooth wall velocity profiles deviate from 2.5 near the ribs, only. This fact can be explained by the smooth wall shear stress varying with the pitch of the ribs. (orig.) 891 GL [de

  3. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben Adriaan; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander Gerard; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-01-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by

  4. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.

  5. Numerical simulation of wall roughness effects in cavitating flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echouchene, F.; Belmabrouk, H.; Le Penven, L.; Buffat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation has an important effect on the performance of Diesel injectors. It influences the nature of the fuel spray and the efficiency of the combustion process. In the present study, we investigate numerically the effect of wall roughness in the cavitating and turbulent flow developing inside a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid is adopted and the commercial Fluent software is used to solve the transport equations. The discharge coefficient C d is computed for different cavitation numbers and wall roughness heights. Profiles of density mixture, vapor volume fraction, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are reported. The effects of wall roughness and injection pressure are analyzed.

  6. Technical note: Influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. Coating surface roughness may potentially distort the laminar flow pattern, induce turbulence and introduce uncertainties in the calculated uptake coefficient based on molecular diffusion assumptions (e.g., Brown/Cooney–Kim–Davis (CKD/Knopf–Pöschl–Shiraiwa (KPS methods, which has not been fully resolved in earlier studies. Here, we investigate the influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies. According to laminar boundary theory and considering the specific flow conditions in a coated-wall flow tube, we derive and propose a critical height δc to evaluate turbulence effects in the design and analysis of coated-wall flow tube experiments. If a geometric coating thickness δg is larger than δc, the roughness elements of the coating may cause local turbulence and result in overestimation of the real uptake coefficient (γ. We further develop modified CKD/KPS methods (i.e., CKD-LT/KPS-LT to account for roughness-induced local turbulence effects. By combination of the original methods and their modified versions, the maximum error range of γCKD (derived with the CKD method or γKPS (derived with the KPS method can be quantified and finally γ can be constrained. When turbulence is generated, γCKD or γKPS can bear large difference compared to γ. Their difference becomes smaller for gas reactants with lower uptake (i.e., smaller γ and/or for a smaller ratio of the geometric coating thickness to the flow tube radius (δg ∕ R0. On the other hand, the critical height δc can also be adjusted by optimizing flow tube configurations and operating conditions (i.e., tube diameter, length, and flow velocity, to ensure not only unaffected laminar flow patterns but also other specific requirements for an

  7. Numerical simulation of wall roughness effects in cavitating flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echouchene, F. [Laboratoire d' electronique et de microelectronique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Belmabrouk, H., E-mail: frchouchene@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire d' electronique et de microelectronique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Le Penven, L.; Buffat, M. [LMFA UMR CNRS 5509, Universite de Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, INSA de Lyon (France)

    2011-10-15

    Hydrodynamic cavitation has an important effect on the performance of Diesel injectors. It influences the nature of the fuel spray and the efficiency of the combustion process. In the present study, we investigate numerically the effect of wall roughness in the cavitating and turbulent flow developing inside a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid is adopted and the commercial Fluent software is used to solve the transport equations. The discharge coefficient C{sub d} is computed for different cavitation numbers and wall roughness heights. Profiles of density mixture, vapor volume fraction, mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are reported. The effects of wall roughness and injection pressure are analyzed.

  8. Irregular wall roughness in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghout, Pieter; Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Stevens, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Many wall bounded flows in nature, engineering and transport are affected by surface roughness. Often, this has adverse effects, e.g. drag increase leading to higher energy costs. A major difficulty is the infinite number of roughness geometries, which makes it impossible to systematically investigate all possibilities. Here we present Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. We focus on the transitionally rough regime, in which both viscous and pressure forces contribute to the total wall stress. We investigate the effect of the mean roughness height and the effective slope on the roughness function, ΔU+ . Also, we present simulations of varying Ta (Re) numbers for a constant mean roughness height (kmean+). Alongside, we show the behavior of the large scale structures (e.g. plume ejection, Taylor rolls) and flow structures in the vicinity of the wall.

  9. Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt

    2015-11-01

    Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  10. Inner-outer interactions in a rough wall turbulent boundary layer over hemispherical roughness using PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathikonda, Gokul; Clark, Caitlyn; Christensen, Kenneth T.

    2017-11-01

    Inner-outer interactions over rough-wall boundary layer were investigated using high frame-rate, PIV measurements in a Refractive index-matched (RIM) facility. Flows over canonical smooth-wall and hexagonally-packed hemispherical roughness under transitionally rough flow conditions (and with Reτ 1500) were measured using a dual camera PIV system with different fields of view (FOVs) and operating simultaneously. The large FOV measures the large scales and boundary layer parameters, while the small FOV measures the small scales very close to the wall with high spatial ( 7y*) and temporal ( 2.5t*) resolutions. Conditional metrics were formulated to investigate these scale interactions in a spatio-temporal sense using the PIV data. It was found that the observations complement the interaction structure made via hotwire experiments and DNS in previous studies over both smooth and rough-wall flows, with a strong correlation between the large scales and small scale energies indicative of the amplitude modulation interactions. Additionally, frequency and scale modulations were also investigated with limited success. These experiments highlight the similarities and differences in these interactions between the smooth- and rough-wall flows.

  11. Surface roughness influences on the behaviour of flow inside microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, M. H.; Castro, C. S.; Garcia, D. A.; Henrique, J. S.

    2018-03-01

    This work discusses influence of the surface roughness on the behavior of liquids flowing inside microchannels. By measuring the flow profile using the micro-PIV technique, the flow of water inside two rectangular microchannels of different wall roughness and in a circular smooth microchannel was studied. Comparisons were made among the experimental results, showing that a metrological approach concerning surface characteristics of microdevices is required to ensure reliability of the measurements for flow analyses in microfluidic processes.

  12. Velocity distribution in a turbulent flow near a rough wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsun, A. S.; Pisarevsky, M. I.; Fedoseev, V. N.; Kreps, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    Velocity distribution in the zone of developed wall turbulence, regardless of the conditions on the wall, is described by the well-known Prandtl logarithmic profile. In this distribution, the constant, that determines the value of the velocity, is determined by the nature of the interaction of the flow with the wall and depends on the viscosity of the fluid, the dynamic velocity, and the parameters of the wall roughness.In extreme cases depending on the ratio between the thickness of the viscous sublayer and the size of the roughness the constant takes on a value that does not depend on viscosity, or leads to a ratio for a smooth wall.It is essential that this logarithmic profile is the result not only of the Prandtl theory, but can be derived from general considerations of the theory of dimensions, and also follows from the condition of local equilibrium of generation and dissipation of turbulent energy in the wall area. This allows us to consider the profile as a universal law of velocity distribution in the wall area of a turbulent flow.The profile approximation up to the maximum speed line with subsequent integration makes possible to obtain the resistance law for channels of simple shape. For channels of complex shape with rough walls, the universal profile can be used to formulate the boundary condition when applied to the calculation of turbulence models.This paper presents an empirical model for determining the constant of the universal logarithmic profile. The zone of roughness is described by a set of parameters and is considered as a porous structure with variable porosity.

  13. Diffusion of drag-reducing polymer solutions within a rough-walled turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2010-04-01

    The influence of surface roughness on diffusion of wall-injected, drag-reducing polymer solutions within a turbulent boundary layer was studied with a 0.94 m long flat-plate test model at speeds of up to 10.6 m s-1 and Reynolds numbers of up to 9×106. The surface was hydraulically smooth, transitionally rough, or fully rough. Mean concentration profiles were acquired with planar laser induced fluorescence, which was the primary flow diagnostic. Polymer concentration profiles with high injection concentrations (≥1000 wppm) had the peak concentration shifted away from the wall, which was partially attributed to a lifting phenomenon. The diffusion process was divided into three zones—initial, intermediate, and final. Studies of polymer injection into a polymer ocean at concentrations sufficient for maximum drag reduction indicated that the maximum initial zone length is of the order of 100 boundary layer thicknesses. The intermediate zone results indicate that friction velocity and roughness height are important scaling parameters in addition to flow and injection conditions. Lastly, the current results were combined with those in Petrie et al. ["Polymer drag reduction with surface roughness in flat-plate turbulent boundary layer flow," Exp. Fluids 35, 8 (2003)] to demonstrate that the influence of polymer degradation increases with increased surface roughness.

  14. Turbulence modifications in a turbulent boundary layer over a rough wall with spanwise-alternating roughness strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, H. L.; Kevin, Hutchins, N.; Monty, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    Turbulence modifications over a rough wall with spanwise-varying roughness are investigated at a moderate Reynolds number Reτ ≈ 2000 (or Reθ ≈ 6400), using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hotwire anemometry. The rough wall is comprised of spanwise-alternating longitudinal sandpaper strips of two different roughness heights. The ratio of high- and low-roughness heights is 8, and the ratio of high- and low-roughness strip width is 0.5. PIV measurements are conducted in a wall-parallel plane located in the logarithmic region, while hotwire measurements are made throughout the entire boundary layer in a cross-stream plane. In a time-average sense, large-scale counter-rotating roll-modes are observed in the cross-stream plane over the rough wall, with downwash and upwash common-flows displayed over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Meanwhile, elevated and reduced streamwise velocities occur over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Significant modifications in the distributions of mean vorticities and Reynolds stresses are observed, exhibiting features of spatial preference. Furthermore, spatial correlations and conditional average analyses are performed to examine the alterations of turbulence structures over the rough wall, revealing that the time-invariant structures observed are resultant from the time-average process of instantaneous turbulent events that occur mostly and preferentially in space.

  15. Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction

    KAUST Repository

    Sridhar, A.

    2017-03-28

    A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise

  16. Near Wall measurement in Turbulent Flow over Rough Wall using microscopic HPIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talapatra, Siddharth; Hong, Jiarong; Katz, Joseph

    2009-11-01

    Using holographic PIV, 3D velocity measurements are being performed in a turbulent rough wall channel flow. Our objective is to examine the contribution of coherent structures to the flow dynamics, momentum and energy fluxes in the roughness sublayer. The 0.45mm high, pyramid-shaped roughness is uniformly distributed on the top and bottom surfaces of a 5X20cm rectangular channel flow, where the Reτ is 3400. To facilitate recording of holograms through a rough plate, the working fluid is a concentrated solution of NaI in water, whose optical refractive index is matched with that of the acrylic rough plates. The test section is illuminated by a collimated laser beam from the top, and the sample volume extends from the bottom wall up to 7 roughness heights. After passing through the sample volume, the in-line hologram is magnified and recorded on a 4864X3248 pixels camera at a resolution of 0.74μm/pixel. The flow is locally seeded with 2μm particles. Reconstruction, spatial filtering and particle tracking provide the 3D velocity field. This approach has been successfully implemented recently, as preliminary data demonstrate.

  17. Factors influencing surface roughness of polyimide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hong; Zhang Zhanwen; Huang Yong; Li Bo; Li Sai

    2011-01-01

    The polyimide (PI) films of pyromellitic dianhydride-oxydiamiline (PMDA-ODA) were fabricated using vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) method under high vacuum pressure of 10-4 Pa level. The influence of equipment, substrate temperature, the process of heating and deposition ratio of monomers on the surface roughness of the PI films was investigated. The surface topography of films was measured by interferometer microscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and the surface roughness was probed with atomic force microscopy(AFM). The results show that consecutive films can be formed when the distance from steering flow pipe to substrate is 74 cm. The surface roughnesses are 291.2 nm and 61.9 nm respectively for one-step heating process and multi-step heating process, and using fine mesh can effectively avoid the splash of materials. The surface roughness can be 3.3 nm when the deposition rate ratio of PMDA to ODA is 0.9:1, and keeping the temperature of substrate around 30 degree C is advantageous to form a film with planar micro-surface topography. (authors)

  18. An analytical wall-function for turbulent flows and heat transfer over rough walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, K.; Craft, T.J.; Iacovides, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a refined wall-function strategy for the modelling of turbulent forced convection heat transfer over smooth and rough surfaces. In order to include the effects of fine-grain surface roughness, the present study extends a more fundamental work by Craft et al. [Craft, T.J., Gerasimov, A.V., Iacovides, H., Launder, B.E., 2002. Progress in the generalisation of wall-function treatment. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 23, 148-160] on the development of advanced wall-functions of general applicability. The presently proposed model is validated through comparisons with data available for internal flows through channels and for external flows over flat and curved plates with both smooth and rough surfaces. Then, its further validation in separating flows over a sand dune and a sand-roughened ramp is discussed. The validation results suggest that the presently proposed form can be successfully applied to a wide range of attached and separated turbulent flows with heat transfer over smooth and fine-grain rough surfaces

  19. Turbulence Intensity and the Friction Factor for Smooth- and Rough-Wall Pipe Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Nils T. Basse

    2017-01-01

    Turbulence intensity profiles are compared for smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow measurements made in the Princeton Superpipe. The profile development in the transition from hydraulically smooth to fully rough flow displays a propagating sequence from the pipe wall towards the pipe axis. The scaling of turbulence intensity with Reynolds number shows that the smooth- and rough wall level deviates with increasing Reynolds number. We quantify the correspondence between turbulence intensity and th...

  20. Euler–Lagrange simulation of gas–solid pipe flow with smooth and rough wall boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulation of upward turbulent particle-laden pipe flow is performed with the intention to reveal the influence of surface roughness on the velocity statistics of the particle phase. A rough wall collision model, which models the surface as being sinusoidal, is proposed to account...... for the wall boundary condition ranging for smooth surfaces to very rough surfaces. This model accounts for the entire range of possible surface roughness found in pipes and industrial pneumatic equipment from smooth plastic pipes over machined steel pipes to cast iron surfaces. The model is based...... on a geometric interpretation of the wall collision process where the particle restitution coefficient is based on the data presented by Sommerfeld and Huber [1]. Simulations are performed using the Eulerian–Lagrangian methodology for the dilute one-way coupling regime. Results are reported for 3 different sizes...

  1. Self-affine roughness influence on redox reaction charge admittance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine electrode roughness on the admittance of redox reactions during facile charge transfer kinetics. The self-affine roughness is characterized by the rms roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi and the roughness exponent H (0

  2. Influence of surface roughness of a desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Smith, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical simulation study, using the current GLAS climate GCM, was carried out to examine the influence of low bulk aerodynamic drag parameter in the deserts. The results illustrate the importance of yet another feedback effect of a desert on itself, that is produced by the reduction in surface roughness height of land once the vegetation dies and desert forms. Apart from affecting the moisture convergence, low bulk transport coefficients of a desert lead to enhanced longwave cooling and sinking which together reduce precipitation by Charney's (1975) mechanism. Thus, this effect, together with albedo and soil moisture influence, perpetuate a desert condition through its geophysical feedback effect. The study further suggests that man made deserts is a viable hypothesis.

  3. Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction

    KAUST Repository

    Sridhar, A.; Pullin, D. I.; Cheng, W.

    2017-01-01

    A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows

  4. Hydraulic properties of 3D rough-walled fractures during shearing: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qian; Ma, Guowei; Jing, Hongwen; Wang, Huidong; Su, Haijian; Wang, Yingchao; Liu, Richeng

    2017-12-01

    This study experimentally analyzed the influence of shear processes on nonlinear flow behavior through 3D rough-walled rock fractures. A high-precision apparatus was developed to perform stress-dependent fluid flow tests of fractured rocks. Then, water flow tests on rough-walled fractures with different mechanical displacements were conducted. At each shear level, the hydraulic pressure ranged from 0 to 0.6 MPa, and the normal load varied from 7 to 35 kN. The results show that (i) the relationship between the volumetric flow rate and hydraulic gradient of rough-walled fractures can be well fit using Forchheimer's law. Notably, both the linear and nonlinear coefficients in Forchheimer's law decrease during shearing; (ii) a sixth-order polynomial function is used to evaluate the transmissivity based on the Reynolds number of fractures during shearing. The transmissivity exhibits a decreasing trend as the Reynolds number increases and an increasing trend as the shear displacement increases; (iii) the critical hydraulic gradient, critical Reynolds number and equivalent hydraulic aperture of the rock fractures all increase as the shear displacement increases. When the shear displacement varies from 0 to 15 mm, the critical hydraulic gradient ranges from 0.3 to 2.2 for a normal load of 7 kN and increases to 1.8-8.6 for a normal load of 35 kN; and (iv) the Forchheimer law results are evaluated by plotting the normalized transmissivity of the fractures during shearing against the Reynolds number. An increase in the normal load shifts the fitted curves downward. Additionally, the Forchheimer coefficient β decreases with the shear displacement but increases with the applied normal load.

  5. Effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile in vertical bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study of upward air-water bubbly two-phase flow in an entry region was performed with various rough wall test tubes. The objective of the work is to clarify the effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile. The fluid flows in the vertical circular test tube of 25 mm I.D. under nearly atmospheric pressure, at room temperature. The void profile changes from a pattern similar in appearance to the saddle shape which has local void peaks near the wall, into the power law shape whose curve is approximated by a power law formula, with increasing wall roughness and/or entry length. That is, wall roughness and entry length have a similar effect upon void profile. There are two patterns in the power law shape, a pattern with sharp center peak and a pattern with obtuse center peak. As wall roughness and/or entry length increase, the void profile changes from the former pattern to the latter pattern. At enough long entry length (L/D ≅ 150), every void profile has almost the same power law shape independent of wall roughness. Some void profiles are asymmetric to the axis. (author)

  6. Modeling of Two-Phase Flow in Rough-Walled Fracture Using Level Set Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To describe accurately the flow characteristic of fracture scale displacements of immiscible fluids, an incompressible two-phase (crude oil and water flow model incorporating interfacial forces and nonzero contact angles is developed. The roughness of the two-dimensional synthetic rough-walled fractures is controlled with different fractal dimension parameters. Described by the Navier–Stokes equations, the moving interface between crude oil and water is tracked using level set method. The method accounts for differences in densities and viscosities of crude oil and water and includes the effect of interfacial force. The wettability of the rough fracture wall is taken into account by defining the contact angle and slip length. The curve of the invasion pressure-water volume fraction is generated by modeling two-phase flow during a sudden drainage. The volume fraction of water restricted in the rough-walled fracture is calculated by integrating the water volume and dividing by the total cavity volume of the fracture while the two-phase flow is quasistatic. The effect of invasion pressure of crude oil, roughness of fracture wall, and wettability of the wall on two-phase flow in rough-walled fracture is evaluated.

  7. Analysis of the coherent and turbulent stresses of a numerically simulated rough wall pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L.; MacDonald, M.; Chung, D.; Hutchins, N.; Ooi, A.

    2017-04-01

    A turbulent rough wall flow in a pipe is simulated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) where the roughness elements consist of explicitly gridded three-dimensional sinusoids. Two groups of simulations were conducted where the roughness semi-amplitude h+ and the roughness wavelength λ+ are systematically varied. The triple decomposition is applied to the velocity to separate the coherent and turbulent components. The coherent or dispersive component arises due to the roughness and depends on the topological features of the surface. The turbulent stress on the other hand, scales with the friction Reynolds number. For the case with the largest roughness wavelength, large secondary flows are observed which are similar to that of duct flows. The occurrence of these large secondary flows is due to the spanwise heterogeneity of the roughness which has a spacing approximately equal to the boundary layer thickness δ.

  8. Investigation of surface roughness influence on hyperbolic metamaterial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kozik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to introduce simple model of surface roughness which does not involve objects with complicated shapes and could help to reduce computational costs. We described and proved numerically that the influence of surface roughness at the interfaces in metal-dielectric composite materials could be described by proper selection of refractive index of dielectric layers. Our calculations show that this model works for roughness with RMS value about 1 nm and below.

  9. Roughness Effects on Organized Motions in a Wall Shear Layer Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigermoser, Christian; Vesely, Lukas; Lapolla, Massimillano; Onorato, Michele

    2006-11-01

    Turbulent boundary layer measurements on a zero-pressure gradient flat plate with two different roughness, a 2D and a 3D roughness, were carried out. The main object of the study was to investigate the impact of the wall roughness on the turbulent flow structures. The momentum thickness Reynolds number for the smooth wall was Reθ˜ 1900. PIV measurements were taken in the streamwise wall-normal plane. The PIV images covered the whole logarithmic region and the major part of the outer layer. The instant flow images for the two roughness show features similar to the one expected in a smooth wall turbulent boundary layer, as described by Adrian et al. (JFM 2000). Statistical analysis was performed to enlighten quantitative differences between the different flow fields. For instance, two point streamwise velocity correlations show that the major effect of the roughness is to tilt the inclination of the hairpin vortex packets towards the wall normal direction; being the 3D roughness more effective in producing this displacement. Full results will be shown and discussed during the presentation.

  10. Smooth- and rough-wall boundary layer structure from high spatial range particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, D. T.; Morrill-Winter, C.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I.; Schultz, M. P.; Klewicki, J. C.

    2016-10-01

    Two particle image velocimetry arrangements are used to make true spatial comparisons between smooth- and rough-wall boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers across a very wide range of streamwise scales. Together, the arrangements resolve scales ranging from motions on the order of the Kolmogorov microscale to those longer than twice the boundary layer thickness. The rough-wall experiments were obtained above a continuous sandpaper sheet, identical to that used by Squire et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 795, 210 (2016), 10.1017/jfm.2016.196], and cover a range of friction and equivalent sand-grain roughness Reynolds numbers (12 000 ≲δ+≲ 18000, 62 ≲ks+≲104 ). The smooth-wall experiments comprise new and previously published data spanning 6500 ≲δ+≲17 000 . Flow statistics from all experiments show similar Reynolds number trends and behaviors to recent, well-resolved hot-wire anemometry measurements above the same rough surface. Comparisons, at matched δ+, between smooth- and rough-wall two-point correlation maps and two-point magnitude-squared coherence maps demonstrate that spatially the outer region of the boundary layer is the same between the two flows. This is apparently true even at wall-normal locations where the total (inner-normalized) energy differs between the smooth and rough wall. Generally, the present results provide strong support for Townsend's [The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1956), Vol. 1] wall-similarity hypothesis in high Reynolds number fully rough boundary layer flows.

  11. Wall roughness effects on flow and scouring in curved channels with gravel bed

    OpenAIRE

    Hersberger, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    Wall roughness effects on flow and scouring in curved channels with gravel bed In the narrow valleys in Alpine regions, rivers frequently flow across constructed zones, passing through villages and cities. Due to limited space, the protection from high floods often needs to be ensured by protection walls. During floods, these protection walls may be endangered by scour phenomena, especially if they are located in bends. In the past, the potential danger of underscoured structures was reduced ...

  12. Influence of a k-type Roughness on the Behaviour of Turbulence in an Unsteady Channel Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddighi, Mehdi; He Shuisheng; Vardy, Alan E; Orlandi, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) have been carried out for a spatially fully developed turbulent channel flow with one smooth wall and one k-type rough-wall surface to study the influence of a square bar roughness on the behaviour of unsteady turbulent flow. The flow state under investigation is a uniform acceleration from an initially steady turbulent flow. Results are compared with simulations of flows in a smooth wall channel undergoing a similar acceleration, and with quasi-steady behaviour obtained using steady flow simulations. The turbulence in the wall region and the buffer layer of an accelerating flow with a rough wall shows strikingly different behaviour from that of corresponding flows with smooth walls. The characteristic long delays in the response of the streamwise turbulent velocity and the different behaviours of the three turbulent velocity components that are exhibited in smooth wall flows are not seen in the rough wall flow. This is attributed to different turbulent production mechanisms in the two types of flows. Important differences are also seen in the wall shear stress responses one wall is rough and when both walls are smooth.

  13. Optimization of Surface Roughness and Wall Thickness in Dieless Incremental Forming Of Aluminum Sheet Using Taguchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedon, Zamzuri; Kuang, Shea Cheng; Jaafar, Hasnulhadi; Azhari, Azmir

    2018-03-01

    Incremental sheet forming is a versatile sheet metal forming process where a sheet metal is formed into its final shape by a series of localized deformation without a specialised die. However, it still has many shortcomings that need to be overcome such as geometric accuracy, surface roughness, formability, forming speed, and so on. This project focus on minimising the surface roughness of aluminium sheet and improving its thickness uniformity in incremental sheet forming via optimisation of wall angle, feed rate, and step size. Besides, the effect of wall angle, feed rate, and step size to the surface roughness and thickness uniformity of aluminium sheet was investigated in this project. From the results, it was observed that surface roughness and thickness uniformity were inversely varied due to the formation of surface waviness. Increase in feed rate and decrease in step size will produce a lower surface roughness, while uniform thickness reduction was obtained by reducing the wall angle and step size. By using Taguchi analysis, the optimum parameters for minimum surface roughness and uniform thickness reduction of aluminium sheet were determined. The finding of this project helps to reduce the time in optimising the surface roughness and thickness uniformity in incremental sheet forming.

  14. The distribution of wall shear stress downstream of a change in roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J.B.R.; Sousa, F.B.C.C.; Zotin, J.L.Z.; Silva Freire, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, six different experimental techniques are used to characterize the non-equilibrium flow downstream of a rough-to-smooth step change in surface roughness. Over the rough surface, wall shear stress results obtained through the form drag and the Reynolds stress methods are shown to be mutually consistent. Over the smooth surface, reference wall shear stress data is obtained through two optical methods: linear velocity profiles obtained through laser-Doppler anemometry and a sensor surface, the diverging fringe Doppler sensor. The work shows that the two most commonly used methods to determine the wall shear stress, the log-law gradient method and the Reynolds shear stress method, are completely inappropriate in the developing flow region. Preston tubes, on the other hand, are shown to perform well in the region of a non-equilibrium flow.

  15. Time Resolved Tomographic PIV Measurements of Rough-Wall Turbulent Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miorini, Rinaldo; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Time resolved tomographic PIV is used to study flow structures in the outer region of a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer, focusing on imprints of the roughness on the outer layer. Measurements are performed in a transparent channel installed in the JHU optically index matched facility. The roughness consists of pyramids with height, k = 0.46 mm, and wavelength, λ = 3.2 mm, satisfying h/k = 55 (h = 25.4 mm is the channel half-height), k + = 64 and Re = 40000. The TPIV setup consists of four high-speed cameras operating at 3 kHz, which view the sample volume through acrylic prisms. The flow field is illuminated by an Nd:YLF laser. Following enhancement, calibration, and reconstruction, 643 voxels interrogation volumes with 0.75 overlap provide 3D velocity fields with spacing of 0.5883 mm3. Formation and transport of near-wall 3D U-shaped vortex structures, with base in front of the pyramids, and quasi-streamwise legs extending between pyramid crest lines are evident from the data. Extended streamwise regions of high wall-normal vorticity appear ``latched'' to the roughness elements close to the wall, but are transported downstream at higher elevations. Also evident are traveling streamwise low velocity streaks, which cover many roughness elements. Sponsored by NSF CBET and ONR.

  16. Capillary condensation in pores with rough walls: a density functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, P; Rzysko, W; Malijevsky, Al; Sokołowski, S

    2007-09-01

    The effect of surface roughness of slit-like pore walls on the capillary condensation of a spherical particles and short chains is studied. The gas molecules interact with the substrate by a Lennard-Jones (9,3) potential. The rough layer at each pore wall has a variable thickness and density and consists of a disordered quenched matrix of spherical particles. The system is described in the framework of a density functional approach and using computer simulations. The contribution due to attractive van der Waals interactions between adsorbate molecules is described by using first-order mean spherical approximation and mean-field approximation.

  17. Disentangling the origins of torque enhancement through wall roughness in Taylor-Couette turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are performed to analyse the global transport properties of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow with inner rough wall up to Taylor number Ta = 1010. The dimensionless torque Nuω shows an effective scaling of Nuω ∝ Ta0.42±0.01, which is steeper than the ultimate regime

  18. Rough wall skin friction measurements using a high resolution surface balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogstad, Per-Age; Efros, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a floating element friction balance which is based upon a commercially available micro force balance. The balance has a perfectly linear calibration function and was successfully applied to rough wall flows in a channel and a diffusor. Extrapolation of the turbulent shear stress measured by two component LDA to the wall matched very well the shear stress measured using the friction balance. Also, the wall shear stress obtained from the balance in the fully developed channel flow agreed with the stress that could be derived from the pressure gradient to within 3%.

  19. Adsorption isoterms and capillary condensation in a nanoslit with rough walls: a density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2012-08-07

    Adsorption isoterms and capillary condensation in an open slit with walls decorated with arrays of pillars are examined using the density functional theory. Compared with the main substrate, the pillars can have the same or different parameters in the Lennard-Jones interaction potential between them and the fluid in the slit. The roughness of the solid surface, defined as the ratio between the area of the actual surface and the area of the surface free of pillars, is controlled by the height of the pillars. It is shown that the capillary condensation pressure first increases with increasing roughness, passes through a maximum, and then decreases. The amount of adsorbed fluid at constant volume of the slit has, in general, a nonmonotonic dependence on roughness. These features of adsorption and capillary condensation are results of increased surface area and changes in the fluid-solid potential energy due to changes in roughness.

  20. The influence of roughness and obstacle on wind power map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Ab Wahab; Mohd Fadhil Abas; Mohd Hafiz Ismail

    2006-01-01

    In the development of wind energy in Malaysia, the need for wind power map of Peninsular Malaysia has aroused. The map is needed to help in determining the potential areas where low wind speed wind turbines could operate optimally. In establishing the wind power map the effects of roughness and obstacles have been investigated. Wind data from 24 meteorological stations around the country have been utilized in conjunction with the respective local roughness and obstacles. Two sets of wind power maps have been developed i.e. the wind power maps with and without roughness and obstacles. These two sets of wind power maps exhibit great significant amount of difference in the wind power values especially in the inland areas where the wind power map without roughness and obstacles gives much lower values than those with roughness and obstacles. This paper outlines the process of establishing the two sets of wind power map as well as discussing the influence of roughness and obstacles based on the results obtained

  1. A methodology for including wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, W.; Pucciarelli, A.; Borroni, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model for taking into account wall roughness in low-Reynolds k-ε models is presented. • The model is subjected to a first validation to show its potential in general applications. • The application of the model in predicting heat transfer to supercritical fluids is also discussed. - Abstract: A model accounting for wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models is described in the present paper. In particular, the introduction in the transport equations of k and ε of additional source terms related to roughness, based on simple assumptions and dimensional relationships, is proposed. An objective of the present paper, in addition to obtaining more realistic predictions of wall friction, is the application of the proposed model to the study of heat transfer to supercritical fluids. A first validation of the model is reported. The model shows the capability of predicting, at least qualitatively, some of the most important trends observed when dealing with rough pipes in very different flow conditions. Qualitative comparisons with some DNS data available in literature are also performed. Further analyses provided promising results concerning the ability of the model in reproducing the trend of friction factor when varying the flow conditions, though improvements are necessary for achieving better quantitative accuracy. First applications of the model in simulating heat transfer to supercritical fluids are also described, showing the capability of the model to affect the predictions of these heat transfer phenomena, in particular in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical conditions. A more extended application of the model to relevant deteriorated heat transfer conditions will clarify the usefulness of this modelling methodology in improving predictions of these difficult phenomena. Whatever the possible success in this particular application that motivated its development, this approach suggests a general methodology for accounting

  2. A novel approach for quantifying the zero-plane displacement of rough-wall boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lopez, Eduardo; Ganapathisubramani, Bharath; Aerodynamics; Flight Mechanics Team

    2017-11-01

    Indirect methods of wall shear stress (WSS) estimation are frequently used to characterise rough wall boundary-layer flows. The zero-plane displacement, hypothesised to be the vertical location where it acts, is often treated as a fitting parameter. However, it would be preferrable to measure both these quantities directly, especially for surfaces with large roughness elements where established scaling and similarity laws may not hold. In this talk we present a novel floating element balance that is able to measure not only the WSS but also the wall normal location at which it acts. While allowing compensation for mild static pressure gradients by means of a first-order analytical model. Its architecture is based on a parallel-shift linkage and it's fitted with custom built force transducers and a data acquisition system especially designed to achieve high Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNR). The smooth-wall boundary-layer flow is used as benchmark to assess the accuracy of this balance. The values of skin friction coefficient show an agreement with hot-wire anemometry to within 2 % at a local Reynolds number Reθ = 4 ×103 up to 104. A rough surface of regularly distributed large elements is used to investigate the ability to infer the zero-plane displacement.

  3. Influence of roughness parameters on coefficient of friction under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S¯adhan¯a Vol. 33, Part 3, June 2008, pp. ... Surface texture and thus roughness parameters influence coefficient of friction during sliding. ..... tural irregularities and complexities of the natural system, fractal is widely used to explain the natural ...

  4. The stochastic nature of the domain wall motion along high perpendicular anisotropy strips with surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The domain wall dynamics along thin ferromagnetic strips with high perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy driven by either magnetic fields or spin-polarized currents is theoretically analyzed by means of full micromagnetic simulations and a one-dimensional model, including both surface roughness and thermal effects. At finite temperature, the results show a field dependence of the domain wall velocity in good qualitative agreement with available experimental measurements, indicating a low field, low velocity creep regime, and a high field, linear regime separated by a smeared depinning region. Similar behaviors were also observed under applied currents. In the low current creep regime the velocity-current characteristic does not depend significantly on the non-adiabaticity. At high currents, where the domain wall velocity becomes insensitive to surface pinning, the domain wall shows a precessional behavior even when the non-adiabatic parameter is equal to the Gilbert damping. These analyses confirm the relevance of both thermal fluctuations and surface roughness for the domain wall dynamics, and that complete micromagnetic modeling and one-dimensional studies taking into account these effects are required to interpret the experimental measurements in order to get a better understanding of the origin, the role and the magnitude of the non-adiabaticity. (paper)

  5. High Reynolds number rough wall turbulent boundary layer experiments using Braille surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Monty, Jason; Nova, Todd; Allen, James; Chong, Min

    2007-11-01

    This paper details smooth, transitional and fully rough turbulent boundary layer experiments in the New Mexico State high Reynolds number rough wall wind tunnel. The initial surface tested was generated with a Braille printer and consisted of an uniform array of Braille points. The average point height being 0.5mm, the spacing between the points in the span was 0.5mm and the surface consisted of span wise rows separated by 4mm. The wavelength to peak ratio was 8:1. The boundary layer thickness at the measurement location was 190mm giving a large separation of roughness height to layer thickness. The maximum friction velocity was uτ=1.5m/s at Rex=3.8 x10^7. Results for the skin friction co-efficient show that this surface follows a Nikuradse type inflectional curve and that Townsends outer layer similarity hypothesis is valid for rough wall flows with a large separation of scales. Mean flow and turbulence statistics will be presented.

  6. Evolution of dispersion coefficient in the single rough-walled fracture before and after circulated flow near the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Yeo, I.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding detailed solute transport mechanism in a single fracture is required to expand it to the complex fractured medium. Dispersion in the variable-aperture fractures occurs by combined effects of molecular diffusion, macro dispersion and Taylor dispersion. It has been reported that Taylor dispersion which is proportional to the square of the velocity dominates for the high velocity, while macro dispersion is proportional to the velocity. Contributions of each scheme are different as the velocity changes. To investigate relationship between Reynolds number and dispersion coefficient, single acrylic rough-walled fracture which has 20 cm length and 1.03 mm average aperture was designed. In this experiment, dispersion coefficient was calculated at the middle of the fracture and at the edge of the fracture via moment analysis using breakthrough curve (BTC) of fluorescent solute under the Reynolds number 0.08, 0.28, 2.78, 8.2 and 16.4. In the results, distinct dispersion regime was observed at the highly rough-walled fracture, which is inconsistent with the model that was suggested by previous research. In the range of Re 2.78. The reason of this transition zone was related to the generation of circulated flow near the wall. It can flush the trapped contaminant out to the main flow channel, which makes tailing effect diminished. Also, these circulation zones were visualized using microscope, CCD camera and fluorescent particles.

  7. Experimental study of a turbulent boundary layer on a rough wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trijoulet, Alexandre

    1999-01-01

    This research thesis reports the definition and results of an experimental study of a two-dimensional incompressible turbulent boundary layer on a rough wall in presence of pressure gradients. This study is motivated by problems met on pump blades by EDF. The author first reports a detailed bibliographical study on the current knowledge regarding the structure of turbulent boundary layers on smooth and rough walls, while more particularly focusing on the notion of wall law. Based on an analysis of Navier-Stokes equations, the author discusses the elaboration of a local partial similitude between two-dimensional flows obtained in wind tunnel and three-dimensional flows in presence of a uniform rotation for flows present within pumps. Thus, the author reproduces the main characteristics of boundary layers on pump walls in a simplified experimental arrangement in which detailed and reliable measurements are possible. In the next part, the author addresses the case of helical-centrifugal pumps. Based on calculation performed by other authors, the above-mentioned similitude parameters are assessed. Results are used to define experimental arrangements suitable for this study. An experimental installation is then presented, as well as the data processing scheme. Experimental results are presented and discussed for flows without pressure gradient, slowed down or accelerated on different surface conditions [fr

  8. Roughness influence on human blood drop spreading and splashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fiona; Buntsma, Naomi; Brutin, David

    2017-11-01

    The impact behaviour of complex fluid droplets is a topic that has been extensively studied but with much debate. The Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) community is encountering this scientific problem with daily practical cases since they use bloodstains as evidence in crime scene reconstruction. We aim to provide fundamental explanations in the study of blood drip stains by investigating the influence of surface roughness and wettability on the splashing limit of droplets of blood, a non-Newtonian colloidal fluid. Droplets of blood impacting perpendicularly different surfaces at different velocities were recorded. The recordings were analysed as well as the surfaces characteristics in order to find an empirical solution since we found that roughness plays a major role in the threshold of the splashing/non-splashing behaviour of blood compared to the wettability. Moreover it appears that roughness alters the deformation of the drip stains. These observations are key in characterising features of drip stains with the impacting conditions, which would answer some forensic issues.

  9. Influence of interface roughness in quantum cascade lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivas, K. A.; Winge, D. O.; Franckié, M.; Wacker, A.

    2015-01-01

    We use a numerical model based on non-equilibrium Green's functions to investigate the influence of interface roughness (IFR) scattering in terahertz quantum cascade lasers. We confirm that IFR is an important phenomenon that affects both current and gain. The simulations indicate that IFR causes a leakage current that transfers electrons from the upper to the lower laser state. In certain cases, this current can greatly reduce gain. In addition, individual interfaces and their impact on the renormalized single particle energies are studied and shown to give both blue- and red-shifts of the gain spectrum

  10. Molecular dynamic simulation of Ar-Kr mixture across a rough walled nanochannel: Velocity and temperature profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooja,; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Pathania, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a molecular dynamics simulation of mixture of argon and krypton in the Poiseuille flow across a rough walled nanochannel. The roughness effect on liquid nanoflows has recently drawn attention The computational software used for carrying out the molecular dynamics simulations is LAMMPS. The fluid flow takes place between two parallel plates and is bounded by horizontal rough walls in one direction and periodic boundary conditions are imposed in the other two directions. Each fluid atom interacts with other fluid atoms and wall atoms through Leenard-Jones (LJ) potential with a cut off distance of 5.0. To derive the flow a constant force is applied whose value is varied from 0.1 to 0.3 and velocity profiles and temperature profiles are noted for these values of forces. The velocity profile and temperature profiles are also looked at different channel widths of nanochannel and at different densities of mixture. The velocity profile and temperature profile of rough walled nanochannel are compared with that of smooth walled nanochannel and it is concluded that mean velocity increases with increase in channel width, force applied and decrease in density also with introduction of roughness in the walls of nanochannel mean velocity again increases and results also agree with the analytical solution of a Poiseuille flow

  11. The Influence of Wall Binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report is an analysis of the thermal bridge effects that occur in wall binders in masonry buildings. The effects are analyzed using a numerical calculation programme.The results are compared to the values given in the danish standard, DS418....

  12. Diffusion of Drag-Reducing Polymers within a High-Reynolds-Number, Rough-Wall Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David; Solomon, Michael; Ceccio, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate polymer drag reduction (PDR) within high Reynolds number (to 200 million based on downstream distance), rough-wall turbulent boundary layers. The first experiment was conducted at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat-plate at speeds to 20 m/s with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough. Local skin-friction measurements on the smooth and rough surfaces had maximum PDR levels of 65 and 75 percent, respectively. However, PDR decreased with increasing downstream distance and flow speed more rapidly on the rough surface, and at the top speed no measureable level of PDR was observed. The roughness-induced increased diffusion was quantified with near-wall concentration measurements and the second experiment, which measured concentration profiles on a 0.94 m long flat-plate with three surface conditions: smooth, 240-grit, and 60-grit sandpaper. The increased diffusion does not fully explain the smooth-rough PDR differences observed in the first experiment. Rheological analysis of drawn samples from the first experiment indicates that polymer degradation (chain scission) could be responsible for the remaining loss of rough-wall PDR. These results have implications for the cost effectiveness of PDR for surface ships.

  13. Helium ion microscopy based wall thickness and surface roughness analysis of polymer foams obtained from high internal phase emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, C.; Viswanathan, P.; Jepson, M.A.E.; Liu, X.; Battaglia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their wide range of applications, porous polymers obtained from high internal phase emulsions have been widely studied using scanning electron microscopy. However, due to their lack of electrical conductivity, quantitative information of wall thicknesses and surface roughness, which are of particular interest to tissue engineering, has not been obtained. Here, Helium Ion Microscopy is used to examine uncoated polymer foams and some very strong but unexpected contrast is observed, the origin of which is established here. Based on this analysis, a method for the measurement of wall thickness variations and wall roughness measurements has been developed, based on the modeling of Helium ion transmission. The results presented here indicate that within the walls of the void structure there exist small features with height variations of ∼30 nm and wall thickness variations from ∼100 nm to larger 340 nm in regions surrounding interconnecting windows within the structure. The suggested imaging method is applicable to other porous carbon based structures with wall thicknesses in the range of 40–340 nm. - Highlights: • The first helium ion microscopy image of uncoated structures formed from HIPEs is presented. • Unusually high contrast features that change with accelerating voltage are observed. • The origin of the observed contrast is determined to be mass thickness contrast. • A new method for quantitative wall thickness variation/roughness measurements is demonstrated

  14. Helium ion microscopy based wall thickness and surface roughness analysis of polymer foams obtained from high internal phase emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenburg, C., E-mail: c.rodenburg@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Viswanathan, P. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2 TN (United Kingdom); Jepson, M.A.E. [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Liu, X. [Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 22, 73447 Oberkochen (Germany); Battaglia, G. [Department of Chemistry University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); The MRC/UCL Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Due to their wide range of applications, porous polymers obtained from high internal phase emulsions have been widely studied using scanning electron microscopy. However, due to their lack of electrical conductivity, quantitative information of wall thicknesses and surface roughness, which are of particular interest to tissue engineering, has not been obtained. Here, Helium Ion Microscopy is used to examine uncoated polymer foams and some very strong but unexpected contrast is observed, the origin of which is established here. Based on this analysis, a method for the measurement of wall thickness variations and wall roughness measurements has been developed, based on the modeling of Helium ion transmission. The results presented here indicate that within the walls of the void structure there exist small features with height variations of ∼30 nm and wall thickness variations from ∼100 nm to larger 340 nm in regions surrounding interconnecting windows within the structure. The suggested imaging method is applicable to other porous carbon based structures with wall thicknesses in the range of 40–340 nm. - Highlights: • The first helium ion microscopy image of uncoated structures formed from HIPEs is presented. • Unusually high contrast features that change with accelerating voltage are observed. • The origin of the observed contrast is determined to be mass thickness contrast. • A new method for quantitative wall thickness variation/roughness measurements is demonstrated.

  15. Influence of edge roughness on graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Gengchiau; Khalid, Sharjeel Bin; Lam, Kai-Tak

    2010-01-01

    The edge roughness effects of graphene nanoribbons on their application in resonant tunnelling diodes with different geometrical shapes (S, H and W) were investigated. Sixty samples for each 5%, 10% and 15% edge roughness conditions of these differently shaped graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes were randomly generated and studied. Firstly, it was observed that edge roughness in the barrier regions decreases the effective barrier height and thickness, which increases the broadening of the quantized states in the quantum well due to the enhanced penetration of the wave-function tail from the electrodes. Secondly, edge roughness increases the effective width of the quantum well and causes the lowering of the quantized states. Furthermore, the shape effects on carrier transport are modified by edge roughness due to different interfacial scattering. Finally, with the effects mentioned above, edge roughness has a considerable impact on the device performance in terms of varying the peak-current positions and degrading the peak-to-valley current ratio.

  16. Self-affine roughness influence on the friction coefficient for rubbers onto solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient mu(f) of a rubber body under incomplete contact onto a solid surface. The roughness is characterized by the rms amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent H. It is shown that with

  17. Influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient of rubber at high sliding velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2004-01-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient of a rubber body onto a solid surface at high speeds. The roughness is characterized by the rms amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent H. It is shown that the friction

  18. Electrotunable lubricity with ionic liquids: the influence of nanoscale roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Alessio; Fajardo, Oscar Y; Kornyshev, Alexei A; Urbakh, Michael; Bresme, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    The properties of ionic liquids can be modified by applying an external electrostatic potential, providing a route to control their performance in nanolubrication applications. Most computational studies to date have focused on the investigation of smooth surfaces. Real surfaces are generally inhomogeneous and feature roughness of different length scales. We report here a study of the possible effects that surface roughness may have on electrotunable lubricity with ionic liquids, performed here by means of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. In order to advance our understanding of the interplay of friction and substrate structure we investigate coarse grained models of ionic liquids confined in model surfaces with nanometer roughness. The friction is shown to depend on the roughness of the substrate and the direction of shear. For the investigated systems, the friction coefficient is found to increase with roughness. These results are in contrast with previous studies, where roughness induced reduction of friction was reported, and they highlight the strong sensitivity of the friction process to the structure of the surfaces. The friction force features a maximum at a specific surface charge density. This behaviour is reminiscent of the one reported in ionic liquids confined by flat surfaces, showing the generality of this physical effect in confined ionic liquids. We find that an increase of the substrate-liquid dispersion interactions shifts the maximum to lower surface charges. This effect opens a route to control electrotunable friction phenomena by tuning both the electrostatic potential and the composition of the confining surfaces.

  19. Echo signal from rough planar interfaces influence of roughness, angle, range and transducer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, P.C.; Jacobsen, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The received electrical signal from a pulse-echo system insonifying a planar acoustical interface was measured for varying degrees of rms roughness (0-0.16 mm), angle of incidence (typically +/-7°) and range to the transducer. A planar and a focused 5 MHz transducer was used. When insonifying...... a smooth interface, the normalized spectrum of the received signals for a planar transducer exhibits an increasing number of nulls with increased angle of insonification, as predicted from numerical modeling while the dependence on insonification angle for the focused transducer was smaller and the null...... pattern was much less distinct. For the planar transducer and for the focused transducer with the interface located at the geometrical point of focus, the energy of the received signal as a function of incident angle was approximately Gaussian with maximum at 0°. For the smooth interface, the -3 dB width...

  20. The influence of surface roughness and solution concentration on pool boiling process in Diethanolamine aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshechin, Mohsen; Salimi, Farhad; Jahangiri, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    roughness A heated surface area d departure ONB onset of nucleate boiling w surface wall s saturation v vapor l liquid θ groove angle (o) γ influence parameter of heating surface material σ surface tension, N/m.

  1. Influence of roughness on capillary forces between hydrophilic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the plate-sphere setup between gold, borosilicate glass, GeSbTe, titanium, and UV-irradiated amorphous titanium-dioxide surfaces. The force measurements were performed as a function contact time and surface roughness in the range

  2. Influence of Surface Roughness of Stainless steel on Microbial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, D.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Gram, L.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation is of growing interest in the food processing industry where bacteria can survive on surfaces and resist cleaning and disinfection. The condition of the surfaces (eg lack of cracks) and their general roughness is assumed to be important for the hygienic...

  3. Influence of polishing on surface roughness following toothbrushing wear of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Vecchia, Karine Battestin; Taborda, Talita Damas; Stona, Deborah; Pressi, Heloísa; Burnett Júnior, Luiz Henrique; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resins following procedures to simulate the effects of toothbrushing over time. Four currently available commercial composites were used to make 128 cylindrical specimens. The specimens were randomly allocated to polishing with a 1-step polisher or 1 of 3 multistep polishers (n = 8 per group). The baseline surface roughness was measured, and the specimens were submitted to 5000, 10,000, and 20,000 brushing cycles to represent toothbrushing throughout 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Results showed that surface roughness was influenced by the type of composite and polishing system and was not influenced by the simulated toothbrushing time. However, the surface roughness, as challenged by toothbrushing wear, was affected by the interaction among the composite, the polisher, and the toothbrushing time. The 1-step polisher produced the highest surface roughness and influenced toothbrushing wear resistance of some composites.

  4. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  5. Influence of Sea Surface Roughness on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Duct Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, X.; Huang, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with a study of the influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. The problem of electromagnetic wave propagation is modeled by using the parabolic equation method. The roughness of the sea surface is computed by modifying the smooth surface Fresnel reflection coefficient to account for the reduction in the specular reflection due to the roughness resulting from sea wind speed. The propagation model is solved by the mixed ...

  6. Effects of flow depth and wall roughness on turbulence in compound channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinos, P.; Townsend, R.; Tavoularis, S.

    1985-01-01

    Current methods for estimating discharge in compound channels often lead to large errors. The error is largely due to momentum transfer mechanism (MTM) generated in the junction regions of the flow field (between adjacent deep and shallow zones). The MTM adversely affects system conveyance, particularly when the velocity differential between the deep and shallow zones is large. Improved prediction methods, therefore, will necessarily reflect the MTM's presence and its effect on the compound flow field. The mechanism's influence on system hydraulics is best examined by analysing the related turbulence characteristics in the junction zones of the compound section. Townsend reported increased turbulence levels in the junction region between a main channel and its shallower flood plain zone and Elsawy, McKee and McKeogh found that observed normal turbulent stresses in a similar region were of the same order of magnitude as the apparent shear stress on the junction's vertical interface plane. The objective of the present study is to measure turbulent stresses in the junction region of a symmetrical compound open channel and examine their dependence on relative depth and relative boundary roughness. Further details of this phase of the larger study are presented elsewhere. (author)

  7. Surface roughness effect on ultracold neutron interaction with a wall and implications for computer simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S. S.; Desai, A. M.; Kaufman, C.

    2009-01-01

    We review the diffuse scattering and the loss coefficient in ultracold neutron reflection from slightly rough surfaces, report a surprising reduction in loss coefficient due to roughness, and discuss the possibility of transition from quantum treatment to ray optics. The results are used in a computer simulation of neutron storage in a recent neutron lifetime experiment that re-ported a large discrepancy of neutron lifetime with the current particle data value. Our partial re-analysis suggest...

  8. Non-Darcy Flow Experiments of Water Seepage through Rough-Walled Rock Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-dong Ni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of flow phenomena in fractured rocks is very important for groundwater-resources management in hydrogeological engineering. The most commonly used tool to approximate the non-Darcy behavior of the flow velocity is the well-known Forchheimer equation, deploying the “inertial” coefficient β that can be estimated experimentally. Unfortunately, the factor of roughness is imperfectly considered in the literature. In order to do this, we designed and manufactured a seepage apparatus that can provide different roughness and aperture in the test; the rough fracture surface is established combining JRC and 3D printing technology. A series of hydraulic tests covering various flows were performed. Experimental data suggest that Forchheimer coefficients are to some extent affected by roughness and aperture. At last, favorable semiempirical Forchheimer equation which can consider fracture aperture and roughness was firstly derived. It is believed that such studies will be quite useful in identifying the limits of applicability of the well-known “cubic law,” in further improving theoretical/numerical models associated with fluid flow through a rough fracture.

  9. Influence of surface roughness on the corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.; Kannan, M. Bobby

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Surface roughness of AZ91 magnesium alloy plays a critical role in the passivation behaviour of the alloy. → The passivation behaviour of the alloy influences the pitting tendency. → Increase in surface roughness of AZ91 magnesium alloy increases the pitting tendency of the alloy. -- Abstract: In this study, the influence of surface roughness on the passivation and pitting corrosion behaviour of AZ91 magnesium alloy in chloride-containing environment was examined using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests suggested that the passivation behaviour of the alloy was affected by increasing the surface roughness. Consequently, the corrosion current and the pitting tendency of the alloy also increased with increase in the surface roughness. Scanning electron micrographs of 24 h immersion test samples clearly revealed pitting corrosion in the highest surface roughness (Sa 430) alloy, whereas in the lowest surface roughness (Sa 80) alloy no evidence of pitting corrosion was observed. Interestingly, when the passivity of the alloy was disturbed by galvanostatically holding the sample at anodic current for 1 h, the alloy underwent high pitting corrosion irrespective of their surface roughness. Thus the study suggests that the surface roughness plays a critical role in the passivation behaviour of the alloy and hence the pitting tendency.

  10. Analysis of the premeability characteristics along rough-walled fractures using a homogenization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Byung Gon; Choi, Jung Hae; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Seo, Yong Seok

    2012-01-01

    To compute a permeability coefficient along a rough fracture that takes into account the fracture geometry, this study performed detailed measurements of fracture roughness using a confocal laser scanning microscope, a quantitative analysis of roughness using a spectral analysis, and a homogenization analysis to calculate the permeability coefficient on the microand macro-scale. The homogenization analysis is a type of perturbation theory that characterizes the behavior of microscopically inhomogeneous material with a periodic boundary condition in the microstructure. Therefore, it is possible to analyze accurate permeability characteristics that are represented by the local effect of the fracture geometry. The Cpermeability coefficients that are calculated using the homogenization analysis for each rough fracture model exhibit an irregular distribution and do not follow the relationship of the cubic law. This distribution suggests that the permeability characteristics strongly depend on the geometric conditions of the fractures, such as the roughness and the aperture variation. The homogenization analysis may allow us to produce more accurate results than are possible with the preexisting equations for calculating permeability.

  11. Influence of surface roughness on the friction property of textured surface

    OpenAIRE

    Yuankai Zhou; Hua Zhu; Wenqian Zhang; Xue Zuo; Yan Li; Jianhua Yang

    2015-01-01

    In contrast with dimple textures, surface roughness is a texture at the micro-scale, essentially which will influence the load-bearing capacity of lubricant film. The numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the influence of surface roughness on friction property of textured surface. The lubricant film pressure was obtained using the method of computational fluid dynamics according to geometric model of round dimple, and the renormalization-group k–ε turbulent model was adopted in ...

  12. Surface roughness effect on ultracold neutron interaction with a wall and implications for computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S. S.; Desai, A. M.; Kaufman, C.

    2010-01-01

    We review the diffuse scattering and the loss coefficient in ultracold neutron reflection from slightly rough surfaces, report a surprising reduction in loss coefficient due to roughness, and discuss the possibility of transition from quantum treatment to ray optics. The results are used in a computer simulation of neutron storage in a recent neutron lifetime experiment that reported a large discrepancy of neutron lifetime with the current particle data value. Our partial reanalysis suggests the possibility of systematic effects that were not included in this publication.

  13. THE IMPACT OF WALL ROUGHNESS OF THE UNDERGROUND AIRWAYS ON THE VALUE OF HYDRAULIC FRICTION FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rendulić

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies of turbulent flows in round pipes resulted in many hydraulic formulas up to these days, which can also serve in projecting to calculate the resistance to the air flow in underground openings. The report discusses the way of establishing the hydraulic friction factor of untimbered underground workings when the value of equivalent roughness is obtained by measuring the ventilation parameters in a similar working of some other mine. A double reticular nomogram has been constructed for the fast determination of friction coefficient from the known roughness of an underground working (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Multiscale Roughness Influencing on Transport Behavior of Passive Solute through a Single Self-affine Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the influence of multi-scale roughness on transport behavior of the passive solute through the self-affine fracture was investigated. The single self-affine fracture was constructed by the successive random additions (SRA) and the fracture roughness was decomposed into two different scales (i.e. large-scale primary roughness and small-scale secondary roughness) by the Wavelet analysis technique. The fluid flow in fractures, which was characterized by the Forchheimer's law, showed the non-linear flow behaviors such as eddies and tortuous streamlines. The results indicated that the small-scale secondary roughness was primarily responsible for the non-linear flow behaviors. The direct simulations of asymptotic passive solute transport represented the Non-Fickian transport characteristics (i.e. early arrivals and long tails) in breakthrough curves (BTCs) and residence time distributions (RTDs) with and without consideration of the secondary roughness. Analysis of multiscale BTCs and RTDs showed that the small-scale secondary roughness played a significant role in enhancing the Non-Fickian transport characteristics. We found that removing small-scale secondary roughness led to the lengthening arrival and shortening tail. The peak concentration in BTCs decreased as the secondary roughness was removed, implying that the secondary could also enhance the solute dilution. The estimated BTCs by the Fickian advection-dispersion equation (ADE) yielded errors which decreased with the small-scale secondary roughness being removed. The mobile-immobile model (MIM) was alternatively implemented to characterize the Non-Fickian transport. We found that the MIM was more capable of estimating Non-Fickian BTCs. The small-scale secondary roughness resulted in the decreasing mobile domain fraction and the increasing mass exchange rate between immobile and mobile domains. The estimated parameters from the MIM could provide insight into the inherent mechanism of roughness

  15. Influence of Mechanical and Chemical Degradation in the Surface Roughness, Gloss, and Color of Microhybrid Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Cleidiel Aa; Mauro, Silvio J; Dos Santos, Paulo H; Briso, Andre Lf; Fagundes, Ticiane C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of different degradations on the roughness, gloss, and color changes of microhybrid composites. Ten specimens were prepared for Charisma, Amelogen Plus, Point 4, and Opallis resins. Surfaces were polished and baseline measurements of roughness, gloss, and color were recorded. Specimens were then submitted to chemical and mechanical challenges, and the specimens were reevaluated. Roughness and gloss were analyzed by Kruskal -Wallis and Dunn's test (p one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (p gloss (p gloss, there was no difference between composites before challenges. However, all composites showed a significant increase of roughness after challenges, with highest values for Charisma. The gloss was influenced by challenges, evidencing the best gloss for Point 4. Charisma showed the highest value of color change. There was no correlation between surface roughness and gloss for the initial analysis, and after the challenges. Composites were influenced by association of challenges, and Charisma showed the highest changes for roughness, gloss, and color. The type of composite resin influenced the properties of materials, which are surface roughness, gloss, and color change. The dentist should be aware of the performance of different brands, to choose the correct required composite resin for each type of patient or region to be restored.

  16. The influence of roughness on tribological properties of nuclear grade graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaowei; Yu Suyuan; Sheng Xuanyu; He Shuyan

    2006-01-01

    The influence of surface roughness on tribological properties of graphite IG-11 was investigated on a standard SRV tester. The experimental condition was selected as: 30 N normal load, room temperature and a 10 Hz frequency with different strokes. The experiments environments included helium and air. Five types of roughness were studied in the experiments. The experiments revealed that the surface roughness greatly affected the graphite friction behavior. When the friction surface was smooth, the friction coefficient was high because of intensive adhesion accompanied by many pits at the friction surface. When the friction surface was rough, the adhesion was very poor, but the wear was excessive and generated many graphite particles at the friction surface. These particles can separate the friction surfaces, which reduced the friction action between them. For very rough specimens, the friction coefficient decreased with sliding velocity at about 0.004 m/s and then increases gradually

  17. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF HEAT EXCHANGE IN DIRECT FLAT CHANNELS AND DIRECT ROUND PIPES WITH ROUGH WALLS UNDER THE SYMMETRIC HEAT SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I E. Lobanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of present work was to carry out mathematical modelling of heat transfer with symmetrical heating in flat channels and round pipes with rough walls.Methods. The calculation was carried out using the L'Hôpital-Bernoulli's method. The solution of the problem of intensified heat transfer in a round tube with rough walls was obtained using the Lyon's integral.Results. Different from existing theories, a methodology of theoretical computational heat transfer determination for flat rough channels and round pipes with rough walls is developed on the basis of the principle of full viscosity superposition in a turbulent boundary layer. The analysis of the calculated heat transfer and hydroresistivity values for flat rough channels and round rough pipes shows that the increase in heat transfer is always less than the corresponding increase in hydraulic resistance, which is a disadvantage as compared to channels with turbulators, with all else being equal. The results of calculating the heat transfer for channels with rough walls in an extended range of determinant parameters, which differ significantly from the corresponding data for the channels with turbulators, determine the level of heat exchange intensification.Conclusion. An increase in the calculated values of the relative average heat transfer Nu/NuGL for flat rough channels and rough pipes with very high values of the relative roughness is significantly contributed by both an increase in the relative roughness height and an increase in the Reynolds number Re. In comparison with empirical dependencies, the main advantage of solutions for averaged heat transfer in rough flat channels and round pipes under symmetrical thermal load obtained according to the developed theory is that they allow the calculation of heat exchange in rough pipes to be made in the case of large and very large relative heights of roughness protrusions, including large Reynolds numbers, typical for pipes

  18. Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. (au)

  19. Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Tribological influence of tool surface roughness within microforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Weidel, S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    A comparative friction study of tooling dies with a simple internal cylindrical geometry has been performed. The purpose of the experiment consist of studying the influence of the surface characteristics of tooling dies on the frictional behaviour in a micro bulk forming operation. This research ...

  1. Lubrication theory analysis of the permeability of rough-walled fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Kumar, S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The flow of a fluid between the rough surfaces of a rock fracture is very complex, due to the tortuous paths followed by the fluid particles. Exact analytical modeling of these flows is made difficult by the irregular geometry of rock fracture surfaces, while full three-dimensional numerical simulations of these flows are as yet still impractical. To overcome the difficulties of working with the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, the simpler Reynolds lubrication equation has sometimes been used to model flow in fractures. This paper focuses on two aspects of lubrication theory. First, lubrication theory is applied to two simplified aperture profiles, sinusoidal and sawtooth, and analytical expressions are found for the permeabilities. These results are then compared with numerical results obtained by solving the lubrication equation for fractures with random surfaces. Secondly, the validity of the lubrication equations for modeling flow in rough fractures is studied by examining higher-order perturbation solutions, as well as numerical solutions, to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow in fractures with sinusoidally-varying apertures. 22 refs., 6 figs

  2. Influence of surface roughness on the friction property of textured surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuankai Zhou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast with dimple textures, surface roughness is a texture at the micro-scale, essentially which will influence the load-bearing capacity of lubricant film. The numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the influence of surface roughness on friction property of textured surface. The lubricant film pressure was obtained using the method of computational fluid dynamics according to geometric model of round dimple, and the renormalization-group k–ε turbulent model was adopted in the computation. The numerical simulation results suggest that there is an optimum dimensionless surface roughness, and near this value, the maximum load-bearing capacity can be achieved. The load-bearing capacity is determined by the surface texture, the surface roughness, and the interaction between them. To get information of friction coefficient, the experiments were conducted. This experiment was used to evaluate the simulation. The experimental results show that for the frequency of 4 and 6 Hz, friction coefficient decreases at first and then increases with decreasing surface roughness, which indicates that there exists the optimum region of surface roughness leading to the best friction reduction effect, and it becomes larger when area fractions increase from 2% to 10%. The experimental results agree well with the simulation results.

  3. Wall-Roughness Effects on Flow and Scouring in Curved Channels with Gravel Beds

    OpenAIRE

    Hersberger, D.; Franca, Mário J.; Schleiss, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Due to a complex three-dimensional flow pattern, the outer banks of river bends are predisposed to erosion. When endangering civil structures, preventing measures to mitigate this erosion are thus required. Vertical ribs at protection walls for scour reduction have been applied to several flood protection projects in mountain rivers; nevertheless, no systematic and intensive study has been presented so far to evaluate their effect. This paper investigates experimentally the effect of vertical...

  4. Influence of surface roughness on the reflective properties of snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravleva, Tatiana B.; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the influence of 3D effect on snow reflection function (SRF) and albedo is studied in the framework of the stochastic radiative transfer theory. In particular, the corresponding equations for the averaged intensity of reflected light are solved for the ensemble of realizations of the stochastic field κ(r), describing the distribution of 3D elements on the flat semi-infinite snow layer (SISL). The reflection from the underlying SISL is modeled using the solution of the 1D radiative transfer equation. The corresponding look-up tables were compiled beforehand and used in the simulation process. In accordance with the previous studies, it was found that the albedo of snow layer is reduced (in particular, in the infrared region), if 3D effects are taken into account. There is no such a reduction, if light absorption in snow is absent. The 3D effects may increase or decrease SRF depending on the sastrugi fraction and illumination/observation conditions.

  5. Influence of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Banu, Asfana; Abu Bakar, Mazilah

    2018-01-01

    In obtaining the best quality of engineering components, the quality of machined parts surface plays an important role. It improves the fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece. This paper investigates the effects of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness of stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The parameters selected are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical model was developed for the estimation of surface roughness. The analysis revealed that off time has a major influence on surface roughness. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness were found to be at a 10 V open voltage, 2.84 μs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  6. Influence of the wall on the droplet evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misyura S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporative influence of the wall material and its thickness has been investigated in the present study. The wall influence for heat exchangers is particularly important in the boiling transition regime and in the event of the Leidenfrost temperature. The experimental points significantly diverge in the transition area of the boiling crisis. This fact can be explained by a different residence time of droplet on the wall surface. The discrepancy between the experimental data also takes place at the Leidenfrost temperature. The lower the thermal diffusivity of the wall material (high thermal inertia, the more the wall is cooled under a droplet.

  7. Influence of the atomic force microscope tip on the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapetek, Petr; Ohlidal, Ivan; Bilek, Jindrich

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of atomic force microscope tip on the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces is discussed. This analysis is based on two methods, i.e. on the correlation function method and the wavelet transform modulus maxima method. The principles of both methods are briefly described. Both methods are applied to simulated rough surfaces (simulation is performed by the spectral synthesis method). It is shown that the finite dimensions of the microscope tip misrepresent the values of the quantities expressing the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces within both the methods. Thus, it was concretely shown that the influence of the finite dimensions of the microscope tip changed mono-fractal properties of simulated rough surface to multifractal ones. Further, it is shown that a surface reconstruction method developed for removing the negative influence of the microscope tip does not improve the results obtained in a substantial way. The theoretical procedures concerning both the methods, i.e. the correlation function method and the wavelet transform modulus maxima method, are illustrated for the multifractal analysis of randomly rough gallium arsenide surfaces prepared by means of the thermal oxidation of smooth gallium arsenide surfaces and subsequent dissolution of the oxide films

  8. Influence of Roughness-Induced Slip on Colloid Transport: Experimental and Modelling Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, J. A.; Johnson, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    A limitation of classic colloid filtration theory is that it applies only to smooth surfaces, yet most natural surfaces present some degree of nano- to micro-scale roughness. A large volume of research has been dedicated to understanding the effects of roughness on particle attachment at the nano-scale since these interactions dictate field scale transport behavior. It has been previously demonstrated that roughness imposes a finite slip vector at the surface that causes particles to experience higher near-surface velocities than would be expected over a smooth surface. Slip near a rough surface can affect two primary mechanisms of particle attenuation: 1) interception of the surface (finding a landing spot) and 2) arrest on the surface (sticking the landing). However, a clear designation on how slip affects particle transport near rough surfaces is missing. The goal of this study was to provide a guide for the height of the slip layer and contact surface in reference to the mean-plane for rough surfaces. Direct observation was used to measure near-surface velocities of particles translating near surfaces of varying roughness spanning three orders of magnitude. The influence of roughness on particle transport was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling with rough surfaces measured with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CFD and experimental results were used to calibrate a Lagrangian particle transport model that utilizes simple modifications to the flow field for a smooth surface using statistically based roughness parameters. Advantages of the Lagrangian model are significantly decreased computation times and applicability to a wide range of natural surfaces without explicitly simulating individual asperities. The results suggest that the no-slip boundary should be placed at the bottom of the maximum asperity valleys, and that the contact surface should be placed at the root mean square (RMS) roughness above the mean plane. Collector

  9. Local distribution of wall static pressure and heat transfer on a rough flat plate impinged by a slot air jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Adimurthy; Katti, Vadiraj V.

    2017-08-01

    The present work experimentally investigates the local distribution of wall static pressure and the heat transfer coefficient on a rough flat plate impinged by a slot air jet. The experimental parameters include, nozzle-to-plate spacing (Z /D h = 0.5-10.0), axial distance from stagnation point ( x/D h ), size of detached rib ( b = 4-12 mm) and Reynolds number ( Re = 2500-20,000). The wall static pressure on the surface is recorded using a Pitot tube and a differential pressure transmitter. Infrared thermal imaging technique is used to capture the temperature distribution on the target surface. It is observed that, the maximum wall static pressure occurs at the stagnation point ( x/D h = 0) for all nozzle-to-plate spacing ( Z/D h ) and rib dimensions studied. Coefficient of wall static pressure ( C p ) decreases monotonically with x/D h . Sub atmospheric pressure is evident in the detached rib configurations for jet to plate spacing up to 6.0 for all ribs studied. Sub atmospheric region is stronger at Z/D h = 0.5 due to the fluid accelerating under the rib. As nozzle to plate spacing ( Z/D h ) increases, the sub-atmospheric region becomes weak and vanishes gradually. Reasonable enhancement in both C p as well as Nu is observed for the detached rib configuration. Enhancement is found to decrease with the increase in the rib width. The results of the study can be used in optimizing the cooling system design.

  10. The influence of heat accumulation on the surface roughness in powder-bed additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamshidinia, Mahdi; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of heat accumulation on surface roughness during powder-bed additive manufacturing was investigated. A series of Ti-6Al-4V thin plates were produced by using an identical heat input by electron beam melting® (EBM). Spacing distances of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm were used. The surface roughness of as-built thin plates was measured using a two-axis profilometer. A numerical model was developed to study the influence of spacing distance on heat accumulation. An inverse relationship between the spacing distance and surface roughness was revealed. The experimental and numerical results showed that the surface quality of buildups could be controlled not only by process parameters, but also by the arrangement of components in the buildup chamber. At a constant spacing distance, an increase in the number of powder layers resulted in the accumulation of more heat between the thin plates. An increase in the spacing distance resulted in an upward translation of the Bearing Area Curve (BAC) toward shallower depths, with a reduced core roughness depth (R k ) and peak height (R pk ). A logarithmic regression equation was established from the experimental data. This equation could be used to predict the surface roughness of parts fabricated by EBM® in the studied range of spacing distances. (paper)

  11. Effect of radurization on the bacterial flora, safety and keeping quality of rough washed bovine ruminal wall (offal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Heever, L W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Div. Food Hygiene and Public Health

    1977-01-01

    Rough washed bovine ruminal wall is available at low cost in many African countries to traditional consumers of such offal. The consumers consistently oppose any further cleaning or processing which would alter its appearance or elevate its cost. Such offal undoubtedly possesses high nutritional value but is highly perishable product contaminated with numerous bacteria some of which are potential pathogens or toxigens. A preliminary investigation showed that the bacterial counts could be reduced by more that 90% by gamma radiation of such offal with doses of 100-200 krad. Such radiation doubled or trebled the keeping quality of the offal at 4/sup 0/C. Some of the organisms present in offal survive low doses of radiation. They were mainly species of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium, some of which survived 600 krad. Irradiation doses of 600 krad were in any event necessary to numerically reduce experimental contamination of minced ruminal wall with Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella dublin and Clostridium perfringens to a level where these organisms could not be recovered by ordinary cultural procedures (the two strains of S. aureus tested varied in their radiation resistance).

  12. The effect of radurization on the bacterial flora, safety and keeping quality of rough washed bovine ruminal wall (offal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heever, L.W. van den

    1977-01-01

    Rough washed bovine ruminal wall is available at low cost in many African countries to traditional consumers of such offal. The consumers consistently oppose any further cleaning or processing which would alter its appearance or elevate its cost. Such offal undoubtedly possesses high nutritional value but is highly perishable product contaminated with numerous bacteria some of which are potential pathogens or toxigens. A preliminary investigation showed that the bacterial counts could be reduced by more that 90% by gamma radiation of such offal with doses of 100-200 krad. Such radiation doubled or trebled the keeping quality of the offal at 4 0 C. Some of the organisms present in offal survive low doses of radiation. They were mainly species of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium, some of which survived 600 krad. Irradiation doses of 600 krad were in any event necessary to numerically reduce experimental contamination of minced ruminal wall with Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella dublin and Clostridium perfringens to a level where these organisms could not be recovered by ordinary cultural procedures (the two strains of S. aureus tested varied in their radiation resistance). (orig.) [de

  13. Wavelet theory and belt finishing process, influence of wavelet shape on the surface roughness parameter values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, Z; Mazeran, P-E; Bigerelle, M; Guillemot, G; Mansori, M El

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a multi-scale theory based on wavelet decomposition to characterize the evolution of roughness in relation with a finishing process or an observed surface property. To verify this approach in production conditions, analyses were developed for the finishing process of the hardened steel by abrasive belts. These conditions are described by seven parameters considered in the Tagushi experimental design. The main objective of this work is to identify the most relevant roughness parameter and characteristic length allowing to assess the influence of finishing process, and to test the relevance of the measurement scale. Results show that wavelet approach allows finding this scale.

  14. Experimental investigations on frictional resistance and velocity distribution of rough wall with regularly distributed triangular ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motozawa, Masaaki; Ito, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Kaoru; Kawashima, Hideki; Ando, Hirotomo; Senda, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow over the regularly distributed triangular ribs was investigated. • Simultaneous measurement of flow resistance and velocity profile was performed. • Flow resistance was measured directly and velocity profile was measured by LDV. • Flow resistance was estimated by the information of the velocity field. • Estimated flow resistance has good agreement with the measured flow resistance. -- Abstract: The relationship between the flow resistance of a turbulent flow over triangular ribs regularly distributed on a wall surface and the velocity distribution around the ribs was investigated experimentally. A concentric cylinder device composed of an inner test cylinder and an outer cylinder was employed to measure the flow resistance using the torque of the shaft of the inner cylinder and the velocity distribution of the flow around a rib by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) simultaneously. We prepared four inner test cylinders having 4, 8, 12 and 16 triangular ribs on the surface with the same interval between them. Each rib had an isosceles right triangle V-shape and a height of 2 mm. To investigate the relationship between flow resistance and velocity distribution, we estimated the frictional drag and pressure drag acting on the surface of the ribs separately using the velocity distribution. Therefore, we could also estimate the total flow resistance using the velocity distribution. As a result of the experiment, the flow resistance and the attachment point downstream of the rib were shown to depend on the distance between ribs. Moreover, the flow resistance estimated using the velocity distribution had good agreement with the flow resistance measured using the torque of the inner cylinder

  15. Influence of Sea Surface Roughness on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Duct Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a study of the influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. The problem of electromagnetic wave propagation is modeled by using the parabolic equation method. The roughness of the sea surface is computed by modifying the smooth surface Fresnel reflection coefficient to account for the reduction in the specular reflection due to the roughness resulting from sea wind speed. The propagation model is solved by the mixed Fourier split-step algorithm. Numerical experiments indicate that wind-driven roughened sea surface has an impact on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment, and the strength is intensified along with the increment of sea wind speeds and/or the operating frequencies. In a fixed duct environment, however, proper disposition of the transmitter could reduce these impacts.

  16. Influence of bounce mode on surface roughness of CH coating on microshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baoling; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; He Zhibing; Wu Weidong; Liu Xinghua; Ma Xiaojun; Yang Mengsheng; Lin Huaping; Yang Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    The CH coating on microshells was fabricated by low-pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition (LPPCVD) with a bounce pan system. The influence of bounce modes on the surface topography of the CH coating was discussed. The surface topography was probed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Roughness and sphericity were measured with an atomic force microscopy(AFM). X-radiography was used to obtain the concentricity. The results show that the surface topography of the coating is improved significantly by the intermittent bounce mode, and the roughness of medium high mode is reduced. The surface finish is improved ulteriorly by the intermittent bounce mode as the duty ratio is reduced. The RMS roughness of 30 μm CH coating is less than 30 nm. The spericity and concentricity of hydrocarbon-polystyrene (CH-PS) microshell are all better than 99% when the duty ratio is 1/4. (authors)

  17. Influence of surface roughness of stainless steel on microbial adhesion and corrosion resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Bagge-Ravn, Dorthe; Kold, John

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate if hygienic characteristics of stainless steel used in the food industry could be improved by smoothing surface roughness from an Ra of 0.9 to 0.01 ƒÝm. The adherence of Pseudomonas sp., Listeria monocytogenes and Candida lipolytica to stainless steel...... was not affected by surface roughness (Ra) ranging from grit 4000 polished stainless steel (Ra steel (Ra 0.9). Neither adhesion of Ps. aeruginosa nor its removal by an alkaline commercial cleaner in a flow system was affected by surface roughness. Pitting corrosion resistance...... was evaluated in a commercial disinfectant and in 1 M NaCl. Electropolished and grit 4000 polished steel proved more corrosion resistant as opposed to grit 80 and 120 polished surfaces. In conclusion, the surface finish did not influence bacterial attachment, colonisation, or removal, but is an important...

  18. Roughness Influence on Initiation of Fretting Fatigue Scar of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanu, L.; Badita, L. L.; Florescu, V.; Tiganesteanu, C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on the experimental studies undertaken to detect the early stage when appears the fretting wear of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy used for the hip prostheses. Wear is a critical aspect for estimating the fretting fatigue. Studies were performed on samples of special shape, in order to be able to study the influence of in contact surfaces roughness on the durability to fretting. Fretting buffers, with roughnesses Ra of the contact surface of 0.015 and 0.045 μm, and Ti-6Al-4V samples with roughnesses Ra = 0.045 μm, Ra = 0.075 μm and Ra = 0.19 μm, were used. Testing periods of 3 seconds, 1 minute and 5 minutes were selected to capture the moment of the fretting scar appearance, long before these initiate the eventual fretting cracking. Simultaneously with fretting wear of the surface, the friction coefficient was also measured. From the in time evolution determinations of the fretting wear, it resulted that, under the experimental conditions used, the minimum wear occurs at a certain value of the roughness and not at the minimum roughness. Surprisingly, the minimum friction coefficient does not coincide with the minimum fretting wear.

  19. Surface roughness and hardness of a composite resin: influence of finishing and polishing and immersion methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Botta Martins de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the finishing and polishing effect on the surface roughness and hardness of the Filtek Supreme XT, in fluoride solutions. Specimens were prepared (n = 140 with half of the samples finished and polished with Super-Snap® disks. The experimental groups were divided according to the presence or absence of finishing and polishing and immersion solutions (artificial saliva, sodium fluoride solution at 0.05% - manipulated, Fluordent Reach, Oral B, Fluorgard. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva for 24 hours and were then subjected to initial analysis (baseline of surface roughness and Vickers microhardness. Next, they were immersed in different fluoride solutions for 1 min/day, for 60 days. Afterwards, a new surface roughness and microhardness reading was conducted. The data were submitted to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5% significance level. For the comparison of mean roughness and hardness at baseline and after 60 days, the paired Student t test was used. The results showed that the surface roughness and microhardness of the Filtek Supreme XT were influenced by the finishing and polishing procedure, independently of the immersion methods.

  20. Influence of roughness bottom on the dynamics of a buoyant cloud : application to a powder avalanche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, D.; Naaim-Bouvet, F.; Naaim, M.; Caccamo, P.

    2009-04-01

    A powder avalanche is referred to as a turbulent flow of snow particles in air. In the past such avalanches have been modelled by buoyant cloud in a watertank: buoyant clouds flow along an inclined plane from a small immersed tank with a release gate (injection is of short duration). The powder avalanches are simulated by a heavy fluid (salt water + colorant or kaolin) which is dispersing in a lighter one. Such experiments allow studies for the influence of roughness bottoms on the dynamics of a buoyant clouds. The authors studied the flows of buoyant clouds on an uniform slope of 20° with different roughness: smooth PVC, abrasive paper, bottom covered with glued particles of PMMA or with glued glass beads of different sizes arranged in a compact way. The released volume varies between 2 to 4 liters and the density of salted water is 1.2. Two cameras are used to obtain the height together with the front velocity. Inside the study area the front velocity is approximately constant and the height of the clouds varies linearly with the distance from the released gate as usually observed in previous experiments. So for each roughness a front velocity and height growth can be defined. It was shown from the experiments that: As the bottom increases in roughness, the front speed increases and the height growth decreases. Nevertheless the height of glued elements does not seem to be the most appropriate parameter to characterize the roughness.

  1. Influence of packing density and surface roughness of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes on adhesive properties of gecko-inspired mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhong, Guofang; Oppenheimer, Pola Goldberg; Zhang, Can; Tornatzky, Hans; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John

    2015-02-18

    We have systematically studied the macroscopic adhesive properties of vertically aligned nanotube arrays with various packing density and roughness. Using a tensile setup in shear and normal adhesion, we find that there exists a maximum packing density for nanotube arrays to have adhesive properties. Too highly packed tubes do not offer intertube space for tube bending and side-wall contact to surfaces, thus exhibiting no adhesive properties. Likewise, we also show that the surface roughness of the arrays strongly influences the adhesion properties and the reusability of the tubes. Increasing the surface roughness of the array strengthens the adhesion in the normal direction, but weakens it in the shear direction. Altogether, these results allow progress toward mimicking the gecko's vertical mobility.

  2. Influence of facing vertical stiffness on reinforced soil wall design

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Damians, Ivan; Bathurst, Richard; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro; Lloret Morancho, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Current design practices for reinforced soil walls typically ignore the influence of facing type and foundation compressibility on the magnitude and distribution of reinforcement loads in steel reinforced soil walls under operational conditions. In this paper, the effect of the facing vertical stiffness (due to elastomeric bearing pads placed in the horizontal joints between panels) on load capacity of steel reinforced soil walls is examined in a systematic manner using a numerical modelli...

  3. Prediction of an internal boundary layer on a flat plate after a step change in roughness using a near-wall RANS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Minghan; Meng, Fanxiao; Bergstrom, Donald J.

    2017-11-01

    An in-house computational fluid dynamics code was used to simulate turbulent flow over a flat plate with a step change in roughness, exhibiting a smooth-rough-smooth configuration. An internal boundary layer (IBL) is formed at the transition from the smooth to rough (SR) and then the rough to smooth (RS) surfaces. For an IBL the flow far above the surface has experienced a wall shear stress that is different from the local value. Within a Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation, the two-layer k- ɛ model of Durbin et al. (2001) was implemented to analyze the response of the flow to the change in surface condition. The numerical results are compared to experimental data, including some in-house measurements and the seminal work of Antonia and Luxton (1971,72). This problem captures some aspects of roughness in industrial and environmental applications, such as corrosion and the earth's surface heterogeneity, where the roughness is often encountered as discrete distributions. It illustrates the challenge of incorporating roughness models in RANS that are capable of responding to complex surface roughness profiles.

  4. The influence of mouthrinses and simulated toothbrushing on the surface roughness of a nanofilled composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keico Graciela Sano Trauth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of mouthrinses on the surface roughness of a nanofilled composite resin after toothbrushing. One hundred nanofilled composite resin specimens were prepared and randomly distributed into two groups-brushed and non-brushed-and then assigned to five subgroups, according to the mouthrinse solutions (n = 10: Colgate Plax Fresh Mint, Oral B, Cepacol, Colgate Plax, and artificial saliva. Each sample was immersed in 20 mL of the mouthrinses for 1 minute, 5 days per week, twice a day, for a 3-week period. The control group used in the study was one in which the specimens were not subjected to brushing and remained only in artificial saliva. Toothbrushing was performed once a week for 1 minute, for 3 weeks. Surface roughness measurements (Ra were performed after the immersion period and toothbrushing, by means of a profilometer. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Analysis revealed that the association between toothbrushing and Colgate Plax Fresh Mint produced the lowest surface roughness (p < 0.05. All other groups tested (Oral B, Cepacol, Colgate Plax, artificial saliva exhibited no statistically significant differences between surfaces, whether subjected to toothbrushing or not (p < 0.05. It was concluded that the surface roughness of the nanofilled composite resin tested can be influenced by the mouthrinse associated with toothbrushing.

  5. Mixed convection heat transfer enhancement in a cubic lid-driven cavity containing a rotating cylinder through the introduction of artificial roughness on the heated wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, Ali Khaleel; Gao, Shian

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present numerical investigation is to comprehensively analyse and understand the heat transfer enhancement process using a roughened, heated bottom wall with two artificial rib types (R-s and R-c) due to unsteady mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D moving top wall enclosure that has a central rotating cylinder, and to compare these cases with the smooth bottom wall case. These different cases (roughened and smooth bottom walls) are considered at various clockwise and anticlockwise rotational speeds, -5 ≤ Ω ≤ 5, and Reynolds numbers of 5000 and 10 000. The top and bottom walls of the lid-driven cavity are differentially heated, whilst the remaining cavity walls are assumed to be stationary and adiabatic. A standard k-ɛ model for the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to deal with the turbulent flow. The heat transfer improvement is carefully considered and analysed through the detailed examinations of the flow and thermal fields, the turbulent kinetic energy, the mean velocity profiles, the wall shear stresses, and the local and average Nusselt numbers. It has been concluded that artificial roughness can strongly affect the thermal fields and fluid flow patterns. Ultimately, the heat transfer rate has been dramatically increased by involving the introduced artificial rips. Increasing the cylinder rotational speed or Reynolds number can enhance the heat transfer process, especially when the wall roughness exists.

  6. An integral wall model for Large Eddy Simulation (iWMLES) and applications to developing boundary layers over smooth and rough plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Sadique, Jasim; Mittal, Rajat; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    A new wall model for Large-Eddy-Simulations is proposed. It is based on an integral boundary layer method that assumes a functional form for the local mean velocity profile. The method, iWMLES, evaluates required unsteady and advective terms in the vertically integrated boundary layer equations analytically. The assumed profile contains a viscous or roughness sublayer, and a logarithmic layer with an additional linear term accounting for inertial and pressure gradient effects. The iWMLES method is tested in the context of a finite difference LES code. Test cases include developing turbulent boundary layers on a smooth flat plate at various Reynolds numbers, over flat plates with unresolved roughness, and a sample application to boundary layer flow over a plate that includes resolved roughness elements. The elements are truncated cones acting as idealized barnacle-like roughness elements that often occur in biofouling of marine surfaces. Comparisons with data show that iWMLES provides accurate predictions of near-wall velocity profiles in LES while, similarly to equilibrium wall models, its cost remains independent of Reynolds number and is thus significantly lower compared to standard zonal or hybrid wall models. This work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0582 (Dr. R. Joslin, program manager).

  7. Influence of Roughness on Quality Molybdenum Deposit Layer by Thermal Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Bujna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we deal with the impact of roughness on the quality of molybdenum layer. Insufficient cleaning may result in a poor quality of the sprayed layer. Our aim is to analyze the influence of surface roughness on the quality of molybdenum layer thickness applied by thermal spraying. Thermal spraying influence several physical and chemical properties of the coating surface. The most important ones include: hardness, density, porosity, corrosion resistance and adhesion. This technology of surface treatment of material is often used for its high degree of hardness. Hardness and erosion resistance are the parameters that need to be achieved particularly in working conditions where there is excessive depreciation of a component.

  8. Stent implantation influence wall shear stress evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad, S. I.; Totorean, A. F.; Bosioc, A. I.; Petre, I.; Bernad, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Local hemodynamic factors are known affect the natural history of the restenosis critically after coronary stenting of atherosclerosis. Stent-induced flows disturbance magnitude dependent directly on the strut design. The impact of flow alterations around struts vary as the strut geometrical parameters change. Our results provide data regarding the hemodynamic parameters for the blood flow in both stenosed and stented coronary artery under physiological conditions, namely wall shear stress and pressure drop.

  9. Influence of skin surface roughness degree on energy characteristics of light scattered by a biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    We present the results of modelling of photometric characteristics of light in soft tissues illuminated by a parallel beam along the normal to the surface, obtained with allowance for the skin roughness parameters and the angular structure of radiation approaching the surface from within the tissue. The depth structure of the fluence rate and the spectra of the diffuse reflection of light by the tissue in the interval of wavelengths 300 - 1000 nm are considered. We discuss the influence of the tilt angle variance of rough surface microelements and light refraction on the studied characteristics. It is shown that these factors lead to the reduction of the radiation flux only in the near-surface tissue layer and practically do not affect the depth of light penetration into the tissue. On the other hand, the degree of the surface roughness and the conditions of its illumination from within the tissue essentially affect the coefficient of diffuse reflection of light and lead to its considerable growth compared to the cases of a smooth interface and completely diffuse illumination, often considered to simplify the theoretical problem solution. The role of the roughness of skin surface is assessed in application to the solution of different direct and inverse problems of biomedical optics.

  10. Influence of bleaching agents on surface roughness of sound or eroded dental enamel specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrak, Birgül; Callaway, Angelika; Kurth, Petra; Willershausen, Brita

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the effect of bleaching agents on eroded and sound enamel specimens. Enamel specimens prepared from human permanent anterior teeth were incubated with different bleaching agents containing active ingredients as 7.5 or 13.5% hydrogen peroxide or 35% carbamide peroxide, ranging in pH from 4.9 to 10.8. The effect of the tooth whitening agents on surface roughness was tested for sound enamel surfaces as well as for eroded enamel specimens. To provoke erosive damage, the enamel specimens were incubated for 10 hours with apple juice (pH = 3.4). Afterwards, pretreated and untreated dental slices were incubated with one of the bleaching agents for 10 hours. The surface roughness (R(a)) of all enamel specimens (N = 80) was measured using an optical profilometric device. A descriptive statistical analysis of the R(a) values was performed. The study demonstrated that exposure to an acidic bleaching agent (pH = 4.9) resulted in a higher surface roughness (p = 0.043) than treatment with a high peroxide concentration (pH = 6.15). If the enamel surface was previously exposed to erosive beverages, subsequent bleaching may enhance damage to the dental hard tissue. Bleaching agents with a high concentration of peroxide or an acidic pH can influence the surface roughness of sound or eroded enamel. © 2010, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. Anthocyanins influence tannin-cell wall interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Martínez-Hernández, Alejandro; Ruiz-García, Yolanda; Gil-Muñoz, Rocío; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

    2016-09-01

    The rate of tannin extraction was studied in a vinification of red grapes and the results compared with another vinification made with white grapes fermented as for typical red wine, in the presence of skins and seeds. Even though the grapes presented a quite similar skin and seed tannin content, the differences in tannin concentration between both vinifications was very large, despite the fact that the only apparent difference between the phenolic composition of both wines was the anthocyanin content. This suggests that anthocyanins play an important role in tannin extractability, perhaps because they affect the extent of the tannin-cell wall interaction, a factor that largely controls the resulting quantity of tannins in wines. To confirm this observation, the effect of anthocyanins on the tannin extractability from grape seeds and skin and on the interaction between tannins and grape cell walls suspended in model solutions were studied. The results indicated that anthocyanins favored skin and seed tannin extraction and that there is a competition for the adsorption sites between anthocyanins and tannins that increases the tannin content when anthocyanins are present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison RSM and ANN surface roughness models in thin-wall machining of Ti6Al4V using vegetable oils under MQL-condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohruni, Amrifan Saladin; Yanis, Muhammad; Sharif, Safian; Yani, Irsyadi; Yuliwati, Erna; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Shayfull, Zamree

    2017-09-01

    Thin-wall components as usually applied in the structural parts of aeronautical industry require significant challenges in machining. Unacceptable surface roughness can occur during machining of thin-wall. Titanium product such Ti6Al4V is mostly applied to get the appropriate surface texture in thin wall designed requirements. In this study, the comparison of the accuracy between Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in the prediction of surface roughness was conducted. Furthermore, the machining tests were carried out under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) using AlCrN-coated carbide tools. The use of Coconut oil as cutting fluids was also chosen in order to evaluate its performance when involved in end milling. This selection of cutting fluids is based on the better performance of oxidative stability than that of other vegetable based cutting fluids. The cutting speed, feed rate, radial and axial depth of cut were used as independent variables, while surface roughness is evaluated as the dependent variable or output. The results showed that the feed rate is the most significant factors in increasing the surface roughness value followed by the radial depth of cut and lastly the axial depth of cut. In contrary, the surface becomes smoother with increasing the cutting speed. From a comparison of both methods, the ANN model delivered a better accuracy than the RSM model.

  13. The influence of surface roughness on cloud cavitation flow around hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiafeng; Zhang, Mindi; Huang, Xu

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the effect of surface roughness on cloud cavitation around Clark-Y hydrofoils. High-speed video and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to obtain cavitation patterns images (Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 37: 551-581, 2001), as well as velocity and vorticity fields. Results are presented for cloud cavitating conditions around a Clark-Y hydrofoil fixed at angle of attack of α =8{°} for moderate Reynolds number of Re=5.6 × 105. The results show that roughness had a great influence on the pattern, velocity and vorticity distribution of cloud cavitation. For cavitating flow around a smooth hydrofoil (A) and a rough hydrofoil (B), cloud cavitation occurred in the form of finger-like cavities and attached subulate cavities, respectively. The period of cloud cavitation around hydrofoil A was shorter than for hydrofoil B. Surface roughness had a great influence on the process of cloud cavitation. The development of cloud cavitation around hydrofoil A consisted of two stages: (1) Attached cavities developed along the surface to the trailing edge; (2) A reentrant jet developed, resulting in shedding and collapse of cluster bubbles or vortex structure. Meanwhile, its development for hydrofoil B included three stages: (1) Attached cavities developed along the surface to the trailing edge, with accumulation and rotation of bubbles at the trailing edge of the hydrofoil affecting the flow field; (2) Development of a reentrant jet resulted in the first shedding of cavities. Interaction and movement of flows from the pressure side and suction side brought liquid water from the pressure side to the suction side of the hydrofoil, finally forming a reentrant jet. The jet kept moving along the surface to the leading edge of the hydrofoil, resulting in large-scale shedding of cloud bubbles. Several vortices appeared and dissipated during the process; (3) Cavities grew and shed again.

  14. Influence of Finishing and Polishing Techniques and Abrasion on Transmittance and Roughness of Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Pma; Ramos, T M; de Azevedo, C S; de Lima, E; de Souza, Shj; Turbino, M L; Cesar, P F; Matos, A B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of finishing and polishing systems and toothbrush abrasion on transmittance (T) and surface roughness (Ra) of three composite resins (Filtek Z350 XT, Tetric N-Ceram, and IPS Empress Direct). Eighteen resin disks (10 mm diameter × 2 mm thick) finished by polyester strips had initial surface smoothness recorded, representing phase 1 (P1). Specimens were divided into three groups (n=6) according to the finishing/polishing instrument used (OneGloss, TopGloss, and Sof-Lex) to compose phase 2 samples (P2). Then specimens were subjected to 514 cycles of toothbrush simulation using a toothpaste slurry, with a constant load applied to soft bristles, and were then washed (phase 3=P3). After each phase, the specimens were examined by an optical profiler and spectrophotometer to measure Ra and T. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey and Pearson tests. T values were statistically influenced by composite resin ( p=0.000) and phase of measurement ( p=0.000) factors, while the finishing/polishing system used ( p=0.741) did not affect T. On the other hand, Ra values were statistically affected by the factor finishing/polishing system ( p=0.000), but not by composite resin ( p=0.100) and phase of measurement ( p=0.451). Tetric N-Ceram and Empress Direct presented higher values of roughness when polished by OneGloss, while TopGloss and Sof-Lex showed a lower roughness. It can be concluded that composite resins transmitted more light after dental abrasion. Transmittance of composite resins was not modified by the distinct roughness created by finishing/polishing instruments.

  15. The Influence of Surface Roughness on Biocompatibility and Fatigue Life of Titanium Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, S.; Cyrus, P.; Hubálovská, M.

    2017-02-01

    This article deals with the effect of treatment on the mechanical properties ofbiocompatible alloys. In the case of implants, it is desirable to ensure good biocompatibility. Generally, the environment in the body is very aggressive and implants can quickly degrade due the corrosion. The process of corrosion leads to the release of harmful particles into the body. Other reasons for rejection of the implants, is their coverage bacterial plaque. Another reason for the rejection of the implant may be a smooth surface. In some cases, the tissue does not adhere to the smooth surface of the implant, in this regionsoccurs an accumulation of body fluids. This problem can be solved with a rough surface. From the viewpoint of fatigue resistance, the rough surface containing grooves and holes has a negative influence on the fatigue resistance against mechanical loading. The rough surface can be produced by machining or asymmetric deposition of particles of oxides, nitrides or other particles on surface. In this work the formation and propagation of fatigue cracks in the material with granular surface is analysed. The formation and growth of fatigue crack originated from granular surface is simulated. Also, experimental studies were carried out.

  16. Analysis of the influence of chemical treatment to the strength and surface roughness of FDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, R. H.; Cheong, K. M.; Azizan, N.

    2017-06-01

    The applications of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology have a greater functionality and wider range of application beyond an intention of prototyping. AM is the process of joining materials to form objects from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) models via layer upon layer process. One of AM technologies is the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), which use an extrusion method to create a part. FDM has been applied in many manufacturing applications includes an end-used parts. However, FDM tends to have bad surface quality due to staircase effect and post treatment is required. This chemical treatment is one of a way to improve the surface roughness of FDM fabricated parts. This method is one of economical and faster method. In order to enhance the surface finish of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) FDM parts by performing chemical treatment in an acetone solution as acetone has very low toxicity, high diffusion and low cost chemical solution. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the influence of chemical treatment to the FDM used part in terms of surface roughness as well as the strength. In this project, ten specimens of standard ASTM D638 dogbone specimens have been fabricated using MOJO 3D printer. Five specimens from the dogbone were tested for surface roughness and tensile testing while another five were immersed in the chemical solution before the same testing. Based on results, the surface roughness of chemically treated dogbone has dramatically improved, compared to untreated dogbone with 97.2% of improvement. However, in term of strength, the tensile strength of dogbone is reduced 42.58% due to the rearrange of material properties and chemical effects to the joining of the filaments. In conclusion, chemical treatment is an economical and sustainable approach to enhance the surface quality of AM parts.

  17. The influence of surface roughness on volatile transport on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem, P.; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.

    2018-01-01

    The Moon and other virtually airless bodies provide distinctive environments for the transport and sequestration of water and other volatiles delivered to their surfaces by various sources. In this work, we conduct Monte Carlo simulations of water vapor transport on the Moon to investigate the role of small-scale roughness (unresolved by orbital measurements) in the migration and cold-trapping of volatiles. Observations indicate that surface roughness, combined with the insulating nature of lunar regolith and the absence of significant exospheric heat flow, can cause large variations in temperature over very small scales. Surface temperature has a strong influence on the residence time of migrating water molecules on the lunar surface, which in turn affects the rate and magnitude of volatile transport to permanently shadowed craters (cold traps) near the lunar poles, as well as exospheric structure and the susceptibility of migrating molecules to photodestruction. Here, we develop a stochastic rough surface temperature model suitable for simulations of volatile transport on a global scale, and compare the results of Monte Carlo simulations of volatile transport with and without the surface roughness model. We find that including small-scale temperature variations and shadowing leads to a slight increase in cold-trapping at the lunar poles, accompanied by a slight decrease in photodestruction. Exospheric structure is altered only slightly, primarily at the dawn terminator. We also examine the sensitivity of our results to the temperature of small-scale shadows, and the energetics of water molecule desorption from the lunar regolith - two factors that remain to be definitively constrained by other methods - and find that both these factors affect the rate at which cold trap capture and photodissociation occur, as well as exospheric density and longevity.

  18. Influence of the surface roughness of coated and uncoated papers on the digital print mottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jurič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors influence the occurrence of print mottle in prints. In printing process three main components are involved: printing press, substrate and toner. They can be considered as separate components, but in most cases their interaction influences the quality of the print. The goal of this work was to examine the influence of surface roughness of different types of paper (coated and uncoated on print mottle of electrophotographic digital prints. We set up a hypothesis that print mottle will be more apparent on rougher surfaces. In the experimental part we printed four different substrates with different surface properties on electrophotographic printing press. Morphology of the papers surface was analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM from which surface properties were calculated. For print mottle characterization Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM method was used. Based on the measurements and results we can conclude, contrary to the initial hypothesis, that uncoated papers with rougher surfaces produce smaller print mottle values.

  19. The Influence of Surface Roughness on the Displacement of Osteogenic Bone Particles during Placement of Titanium Screw-Type Implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabassum, A.; Walboomers, F.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Meijer, G.J.; Jansen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previously, we demonstrated that bone debris, which is translocated during dental implant placement, has osteogenic potential. Therefore, it was hypothesized that implant surface roughness can influence the amount of translocated bone debris/particles and thereby the osteogenic response.

  20. Influence of surface roughness on streptococcal adhesion forces to composite resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, Li; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Ren, Yijin

    OBJECTIVE: To determine streptococcal adhesion forces with composite resins with different surface roughness. METHODS: Polishing and grinding were applied to obtain smooth (roughness 20 nm), moderately rough (150 nm) and rough (350 nm) surfaces of two orthodontic, light-cured composites. Adhesion

  1. Influence of furnishing on indoor airflow near external walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of indoor environments in buildings are usually performed assuming uniform distribution of temperature and humidity of the indoor air, such as it would be in an idealised unfurnished room. The flow patterns near external walls may however be very different from the undisturbed airflow...... distributions, as the walls behind furniture may be colder than the other surroundings of the room, and the furniture to some extent obstructs the airflow. This paper describes an investigation of a room with a piece of furniture placed near an external wall. This was investigated using Particle Image...... Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. It was found how the pattern of airflow behind furniture placed near cold walls was influenced by the thickness of air gaps behind and below the furniture. But it was also found that even if the furniture was placed directly on the floor, there would be a considerable flow...

  2. Effect of counterface roughness on the friction of bionic wall-shaped microstructures for gecko-like attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasem, Haytam; Cohen, Yossi

    2017-08-04

    Hairy adhesive systems involved in gecko locomotion have drawn the interest of many researchers regarding the development of bionic solutions for fast and reversible adhesive technologies. To date, despite extensive efforts to design gecko-inspired adhesive surfaces, adhesion and friction capacities are often evaluated using smooth and rigid counterfaces, in general glass, whereas most natural and artificial surfaces inevitably have a certain level of roughness. For that reason, in this study experiments tested the effects of the substrate roughness on the friction of bionic wale-shaped microstructures for gecko-like attachments. To this end, 12 substrates with different isotropic roughness were prepared using the same Epoxy material. Friction force was measured under various normal loads. It was concluded that classical roughness parameters, considered separately, are not appropriate to explain roughness-related variations in friction force. This has led us to develop a new integrative roughness parameter that combines characteristics of the surface. The parameter is capable of classifying the obtained experimental results in a readable way. An analytical model based on the experimental results has been developed to predict the variation of the friction force as a function of counterface roughness and applied normal load.

  3. Large-scale influences in near-wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan

    2007-03-15

    Hot-wire data acquired in a high Reynolds number facility are used to illustrate the need for adequate scale separation when considering the coherent structure in wall-bounded turbulence. It is found that a large-scale motion in the log region becomes increasingly comparable in energy to the near-wall cycle as the Reynolds number increases. Through decomposition of fluctuating velocity signals, it is shown that this large-scale motion has a distinct modulating influence on the small-scale energy (akin to amplitude modulation). Reassessment of DNS data, in light of these results, shows similar trends, with the rate and intensity of production due to the near-wall cycle subject to a modulating influence from the largest-scale motions.

  4. The interaction between non-metallic inclusions and surface roughness in fatigue failure and their influence on fatigue strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberifar, S.; Mashreghi, A.R.; Mosalaeepur, M.; Ghasemi, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The fatigue strength of a tested steel was affected by inclusions and surface notches. ► Inclusions were the main fatigue crack sources even in rough specimens. ► The stress intensity factor represented the behavior of inclusions properly. ► In rough steels the effect of inclusions was intensified by surface roughness. ► The critical inclusion size increased when surface roughness was removed. -- Abstract: In this study, the influence of non-metallic inclusions on the fatigue behavior of 30MnVS6 steel containing different inclusion sizes and surface roughness has been investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine fatigue fracture origins. It was concluded that the non-metallic inclusions were dominant fatigue crack initiation sites in both smooth and rough specimens. This was justified by the calculation of stress intensity factor generated by both surface roughness and non-metallic inclusions, based on Murakami’s model. In addition, it was found that for a given stress, the critical inclusion size could be increased by eliminating the surface roughness.

  5. Influence of Gloss and Surface Roughness of Coated Ink Jet Papers on Print Uniformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jurič

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The final print quality depends on the quality of the digital image as well as the properties of the printing system, the inks and the paper used. One of the most widely used digital printing technologies is ink jet, where ink is ejected directly onto a substrate from a jet device driven by an electronic signal. Most ink jet inks have low viscosity and low surface tension, which pose high demands upon the surface properties of the paper. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of paper properties of commercially available papers suitable for ink jet printing on print mottle, non-uniformity. We used two high glossy, one glossy, one semi-glossy and two matte papers. For the assessment of the surface properties, we measured surface roughness with the portable Roughness Tester TR 200. We also measured surface gloss with QIP Glossmaster. To characterise the print mottle we used the image analysis method – Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM. Print mottle was estimated according to five GLCM parameters: Contrast, Correlation, Entropy, Energy and Homogeneity. Results obtained in this paper showed that the surface properties of paper are not in any direct relation with print uniformity.

  6. Influence of Surface Roughness Spatial Variability and Temporal Dynamics on the Retrieval of Soil Moisture from SAR Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Álvarez-Mozos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar-based surface soil moisture retrieval has been subject of intense research during the last decades. However, several difficulties hamper the operational estimation of soil moisture based on currently available spaceborne sensors. The main difficulty experienced so far results from the strong influence of other surface characteristics, mainly roughness, on the backscattering coefficient, which hinders the soil moisture inversion. This is especially true for single configuration observations where the solution to the surface backscattering problem is ill-posed. Over agricultural areas cultivated with winter cereal crops, roughness can be assumed to remain constant along the growing cycle allowing the use of simplified approaches that facilitate the estimation of the moisture content of soils. However, the field scale spatial variability and temporal variations of roughness can introduce errors in the estimation of soil moisture that are difficult to evaluate. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of roughness spatial variability and roughness temporal variations on the retrieval of soil moisture from radar observations. A series of laser profilometer measurements were performed over several fields in an experimental watershed from September 2004 to March 2005. The influence of the observed roughness variability and its temporal variations on the retrieval of soil moisture is studied using simulations performed with the Integral Equation Model, considering different sensor configurations. Results show that both field scale roughness spatial variability and its temporal variations are aspects that need to be taken into account, since they can introduce large errors on the retrieved soil moisture values.

  7. Influence of Surface Roughness on Optical Characteristics of Multilayer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomir Scholtz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing efficiency of solar cells is still a discussed problem. Even if it is well-known that specially formed substrates as Asahi U-type for solar cells are produced, there is still a continuing attention given to the applications of surface roughness to achieve better light trapping and absorptance in solar cells. It was found out the even an exact interface morphology can play an important role in light trapping. In this paper we focused on the issue how final absorptance of a solar cell structure could be affected and possibly increased. The goal of this article is to show which of interfaces has the greatest influence on specular absorptance of the whole structure.

  8. Influence of strong perturbations on wall-bounded flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, O. R. H.; Ewenz Rocher, M.; Rodríguez-López, E.

    2018-01-01

    Single-point hot-wire measurements are made downstream of a series of spanwise repeating obstacles that are used to generate an artificially thick turbulent boundary layer. The measurements are made in the near field, in which the turbulent boundary layer is beginning to develop from the wall-bounded wakes of the obstacles. The recent paper of Rodríguez-López et al. [E. Rodríguez-López et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 1, 074401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.1.074401] broadly categorized the mechanisms by which canonical turbulent boundary layers eventually develop from wall-bounded wakes into two distinct mechanisms, the wall-driven and wake-driven mechanisms. In the present work we attempt to identify the geometric parameters of tripping arrays that trigger these two mechanisms by examining the spectra of the streamwise velocity fluctuations and the intermittent outer region of the flow. Using a definition reliant upon the magnitude of the velocity fluctuations, an intermittency function is devised that can discriminate between turbulent and nonturbulent flow. These results are presented along with the spectra in order to try to ascertain which aspects of a trip's geometry are more likely to favor the wall-driven or wake-driven mechanism. The geometrical aspects of the trips tested are the aspect ratio, the total blockage, and the blockage at the wall. The results indicate that the presence, or not, of perforations is the most significant factor in affecting the flow downstream. The bleed of fluid through the perforations reenergizes the mean recirculation and leads to a narrower intermittent region with a more regular turbulent-nonturbulent interface. The near-wall turbulent motions are found to recover quickly downstream of all of the trips with a wall blockage of 50%, but a clear influence of the outer fluctuations, generated by the tip vortices of the trips, is observed in the near-wall region for the high total blockage trips. The trip with 100% wall blockage is

  9. Influence of Surface Roughness and Agitation on the Morphology of Magnetite Films Electrodeposited on Carbon Steel Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Hyeok Jeon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the effects of surface roughness and agitation on the morphology of magnetite films electrodeposited from alkaline Fe(III-triethanolamine (TEA solutions on carbon steel substrates. The surface roughness of the carbon steel substrates was maintained in the range of 1.64–0.06 μm by using mechanical grinding and polishing methods. The agitation speed was set at 0 and 900 rpm during the electrodeposition process. The particle size and surface roughness value of the magnetite films gradually decreased with decreasing substrate roughness. However, the influence of the substrate roughness on the thickness of the magnetite film was negligible. The morphology of the magnetite film fabricated at 900 rpm appeared to be highly faceted compared to that of the magnetite film produced at 0 rpm. The thickness and surface roughness of the magnetite film significantly increased with the agitation speed, which also significantly affected the electrodeposition efficiency. The effects of substrate surface roughness and agitation on the morphology of magnetite films electrodeposited on carbon steel substrates were also discussed. The obtained results provide critical information for the simulation of magnetite deposits on carbon steel pipes in the secondary systems of nuclear power plants.

  10. Influence of full-contour zirconia surface roughness on wear of glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangruangrong, Palika; Cook, N Blaine; Sabrah, Alaa H; Hara, Anderson T; Bottino, Marco C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of full-contour (Y-TZP) zirconia surface roughness (glazed vs. as-machined) on the wear behavior of glass-ceramics. Thirty-two full contour Y-TZP (Diazir®) specimens (hereafter referred to as zirconia sliders) (ϕ = 2 mm, 1.5 mm in height) were fabricated using CAD/CAM and sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions. Zirconia sliders were embedded in brass holders using acrylic resin and then randomly assigned (n = 16) according to the surface treatment received, that is, as-machined or glazed. Glass-ceramic antagonists, Empress/EMP and e.max/EX, were cut into tabs (13 × 13 × 2 mm(3) ), wet-finished, and similarly embedded in brass holders. Two-body pin-on-disk wear testing was performed at 1.2 Hz for 25,000 cycles under a 3 kg load. Noncontact profilometry was used to measure antagonist height (μm) and volume loss (mm(3) ). Qualitative data of the zirconia testing surfaces and wear tracks were obtained using SEM. Statistics were performed using ANOVA with a significance level of 0.05. As-machined yielded significantly higher mean roughness values (Ra = 0.83 μm, Rq = 1.09 μm) than glazed zirconia (Ra = 0.53 μm, Rq = 0.78 μm). Regarding glass-ceramic antagonist loss, as-machined zirconia caused significantly less mean height and volume loss (68.4 μm, 7.6 mm(3) ) for EMP than the glazed group (84.9 μm, 9.9 mm(3) ), while no significant differences were found for EX. Moreover, EMP showed significantly lower mean height and volume loss than EX (p glass-ceramics tested. e.max wear was not affected by zirconia surface roughness; however, Empress wear was greater when opposing glazed zirconia. Overall, surface glazing on full-contour zirconia did not minimize glass-ceramic wear when compared with as-machined zirconia. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. An Investigation of the Influence of Initial Roughness on the Friction and Wear Behavior of Ground Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guoxing; Schmauder, Siegfried; Lyu, Ming; Schneider, Yanling; Zhang, Cheng; Han, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Friction and wear tests were performed on AISI 1045 steel specimens with different initial roughness parameters, machined by a creep-feed dry grinding process, to study the friction and wear behavior on a pin-on-disc tester in dry sliding conditions. Average surface roughness (Ra), root mean square (Rq), skewness (Rsk) and kurtosis (Rku) were involved in order to analyse the influence of the friction and wear behavior. The observations reveal that a surface with initial roughness parameters of higher Ra, Rq and Rku will lead to a longer initial-steady transition period in the sliding tests. The plastic deformation mainly concentrates in the depth of 20–50 μm under the worn surface and the critical plastic deformation is generated on the rough surface. For surfaces with large Ra, Rq, low Rsk and high Rku values, it is easy to lose the C element in, the reciprocating extrusion. PMID:29401703

  12. Influence of Cooling Lubricants on the Surface Roughness and Energy Efficiency of the Cutting Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jersák J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Technical University of Liberec and Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg investigated the influence of cooling lubricants on the surface roughness and energy efficiency of cutting machine tools. After summarizing the achieved experimental results, the authors conclude that cooling lubricants extensively influence the cutting temperature, cutting forces and energy consumption. Also, it is recognizable that cooling lubricants affect the cutting tools lifetime and the workpiece surface quality as well. Furthermore, costs of these cooling lubricants and the related environmental burden need to be considered. A current trend is to reduce the amount of lubricants that are used, e.g., when the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL technique is applied. The lubricant or process liquid is thereby transported by the compressed air in the form of an aerosol to the contact area between the tool and workpiece. The cutting process was monitored during testing by the three following techniques: lubricant-free cutting, cutting with the use of a lubricant with the MQL technique, and only utilizing finish-turning and finish-face milling. The research allowed the authors to monitor the cutting power and mark the achieved surface quality in relation to the electrical power consumption of the cutting machine. In conclusions, the coherence between energy efficiency of the cutting machine and the workpiece surface quality regarding the used cooling lubricant is described.

  13. Influence of compound bedforms on hydraulic roughness in a tidal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Winter, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The effect exerted by the seabed morphology on the flow is commonly expressed by the hydraulic roughness, a fundamental parameter in the understanding and simulation of hydro- and sediment dynamics in coastal areas. This study quantifies the hydraulic roughness of large compound bedforms throughout...... bedforms with superimposed smaller secondary bedforms. Spatially averaged velocity profiles produced log-linear relationships which were used to calculate roughness lengths. During the flood phase, the velocity profiles were best described by a single log-linear fit related to the roughness created...

  14. The influence of surface roughness and turbulence on heat fluxes from an oil palm plantation in Jambi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Tania; Meijide, Ana; Stiegler, Christian; Purba Kusuma, Alan; Knohl, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    Oil palm plantations are expanding vastly in Jambi, resulted in altered surface roughness and turbulence characteristics, which may influence exchange of heat and mass. Micrometeorological measurements above oil palm canopy were conducted for the period 2013–2015. The oil palms were 12.5 years old, canopy height 13 meters and 1.5 years old canopy height 2.5 m. We analyzed the influence of surface roughness and turbulence strenght on heat (sensible and latent) fluxes by investigating the profiles and gradient of wind speed, and temperature, surface roughness (roughness length, zo, and zero plane displacement, d), and friction velocity u*. Fluxes of heat were calculated using profile similarity methods taking into account atmospheric stability calculated using Richardson number Ri and the generalized stability factor ζ. We found that roughness parameters (zo, d, and u*) directly affect turbulence in oil palm canopy and hence heat fluxes; they are affected by canopy height, wind speed and atmospheric stability. There is a negative trend of d towards air temperature above the oil palm canopy, indicating the effect of plant volume and height in lowering air temperature. We propose studying the relation between zero plane displacement d with a remote sensing vegetation index for scaling up this point based analysis.

  15. Influence of Surface Roughness on the Fatigue Life of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Elias, Carlos N; Vieira, Márcia V B; Vieira, Victor T L; de Souza, Letícia Chaves; Dos Santos, Alexander Lopes

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of surface grooves (peaks and valleys) resulting from machining during the manufacturing process of polished and unpolished nickel-titanium BR4C endodontic files on the fatigue life of the instruments. Ten electropolished and 10 unpolished endodontic files were provided by the manufacturer. Specimens were from the same batch, but the unpolished instruments were removed from the production line before surface treatment. The instruments were evaluated with a profilometer to quantify the surface roughness on the working part of the instruments. Then the files were subjected to rotating bending fatigue tests. Analysis with the profilometer showed that surface grooves were deeper on the unpolished instruments compared with their electropolished counterparts. In the rotating bending fatigue test, the mean and standard deviation for the number of cycles until fracture (NCF) were greater for instruments with less pronounced grooves. Student t test revealed significant differences in all tests (P instruments tested; the smaller the groove depth, the greater the NCF. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of hardness and roughness on the tribological performance of TiC/a-C nanocomposite coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaha, K. P.; Pei, Y. T.; Martinez Martinez, D.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the hardness of counterface materials on the tribological behavior of TiC/a-C nanocomposite coatings exhibiting various surface roughness was examined by using a ball on a disc configuration in humid air. While sliding against 100Cr6 steel balls, the steady state coefficient of

  17. Influence of Coherent Structures on the Wall Shear Stress in Axial Flow Between a Cylinder and a Plane Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabbouchi, Imed; Guellouz, Mohamed Sadok; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    Synchronised hot-film and hot-wire measurements were made in the narrower region of a rectangular channel containing a cylindrical rod. The hot-film probe was mounted flush with the channel bottom wall to measure the wall shear stress, while the hot-wire probe was placed at a fixed position, selected in order to easily detect the passage of coherent structures. Mean and rms profiles of the wall shear stress show the influence of the gap to diameter ratio on their respective distributions. The latter presented peculiarities that could only be explained by the presence of coherent structures in the flow between the rod and the wall. Evidence of this presence is seen in the velocity power spectra. The strong influence of the coherent structures on the wall shear stress spatial and temporal distributions is established through velocity-wall shear stress cross-correlations functions and through conditionally sampled measurements

  18. Roughness Influence On Macro- And Micro-Tribology Of Multi-Layered Hard Coatings On Carbon Fibre Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackner J.M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal of this work is the investigation of roughness influences on the abrasive wear behaviour of magnetron sputtered multi-layered, low-friction coatings on carbon-fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP. Higher coating roughness at similar CFRP quality was realized by higher deposition rates, leading to increased heat flux to the substrates during deposition. Thermal expansion of the epoxy matrix on the micro scale results in a wavy, wrinkled surface topography. Both in scratch and reciprocal sliding testing against alumina, the friction coefficients are lower for the smooth coatings, but their wear rate is higher due to low-cycle fatigue caused abrasion.

  19. Influence of structured sidewalls on the wetting states and superhydrophobic stability of surfaces with dual-scale roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huaping, E-mail: wuhuaping@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of E& M (Zhejiang University of Technology), Ministry of Education & Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhu, Kai; Wu, Bingbing [Key Laboratory of E& M (Zhejiang University of Technology), Ministry of Education & Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Lou, Jia [Piezoelectric Device Laboratory, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Zhang, Zheng [Key Laboratory of E& M (Zhejiang University of Technology), Ministry of Education & Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Chai, Guozhong, E-mail: chaigz@zjut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of E& M (Zhejiang University of Technology), Ministry of Education & Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Apparent contact angle equation of all wetting states on dual-scale rough surfaces is derived. • Structured sidewalls can improve superhydrophobicity than smooth sidewalls. • Structured sidewalls can enlarge ACA than smooth sidewalls. • Structured sidewalls present an advantage over smooth sidewalls in terms of enhancing superhydrophobic stability. - Abstract: The superhydrophobicity of biological surfaces with dual-scale roughness has recently received considerable attention because of the unique wettability of such surfaces. Based on this, artificial micro/nano hierarchical structures with structured sidewalls and smooth sidewalls were designed and the influences of sidewall configurations (i.e., structured and smooth) on the wetting state of micro/nano hierarchical structures were systematically investigated based on thermodynamics and the principle of minimum free energy. Wetting transition and superhydrophobic stability were then analyzed for a droplet on dual-scale rough surfaces with structured and smooth sidewalls. Theoretical analysis results show that dual-scale rough surfaces with structured sidewalls have a larger “stable superhydrophobic region” than those with smooth sidewalls. The dual-scale rough surfaces with smooth sidewalls can enlarge the apparent contact angle (ACA) without improvement in the superhydrophobic stability. By contrast, dual-scale rough surfaces with structured sidewalls present an advantage over those with smooth sidewalls in terms of enlarging ACA and enhancing superhydrophobic stability. The proposed thermodynamic model is valid when compared with previous experimental data and numerical analysis results, which is helpful for designing and understanding the wetting states and superhydrophobic stability of surfaces with dual-scale roughness.

  20. Factors influencing the perception of roughness in manual exploration: Do medical gloves reduce cutaneous sensibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Mylon, P.T.; Buckley-Johnstone, L.; Lewis, R.; Carre, M.J.; Martin, N.

    2015-01-01

    A new roughness perception test was designed to evaluate cutaneous sensibility. Blindfolded subjects explored a sample of sandpaper using one of two methods: stroking the sample (dynamic method) or applying pressure (static method). A range of samples of various grades were presented in a random order, and subjects scored each one in terms of perceived roughness. Each subject performed the test in three conditions – wearing latex and nitrile examination gloves and bare-handed. Mean normalised...

  1. Influence of random roughness on the adhesion between metal surfaces due to capillary condensation

    OpenAIRE

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2007-01-01

    The capillary force was measured by atomic force microscopy between a gold coated sphere mounted on a cantilever and gold surfaces with different roughnesses. For smooth surfaces the capillary adhesive force surpasses in magnitude any dispersion, e.g., van der Waals/Casimir and/or electrostatic forces. A substantial decrease in the capillary force was observed by increasing the roughness ampltitude a few nanometers in the range of 1-10 nm. From these measurements two limits can be defined: a ...

  2. Influence of different light-curing units on the surface roughness of restorative materials: in situ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Cristina Ciccone-Nogueira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different light sources (LED and Halogen lamp on the roughness (superficial of composite resin (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Charisma and Durafill varying post-irradiation times, in an in situ experiment. For this purpose, 80 specimens were made in polyurethane moulds. Ten volunteers without medicament use and good oral condition were selected and from them study moulds were obtained. A palatal intra-oral acrylic resin appliance was made for each of the subjects of the experiment. In each appliance, two specimens of each material were fixed (LED/Halogen lamp - control group. Roughness tests were performed immediately and 30 days after initial light-curing. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Statistically significant difference was observed only between post-irradiation times, where the 30th day showed the highest roughness values. It be concluded that roughness was influenced only by post-irradiation times, presenting the 30- days period inferior behavior.

  3. Influence of surface mechanical activation of the X40Cr13 steel on roughness after ion and gas nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinski, J.; Wojtal, A.; Jeziorski, L.; Radecki, A.; Ucieklak, S.

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the problem of the thermal and mechanical activation of the surface of the X40Cr13 steel on the state of the ion and gas nitriding. in order to determine the nitriding influence and make the analysis of results, the steel was subjected to: soft annealing, hardening with subsequent tempering at T = 550 o C and also mechanical activation of the surface consisting in peripheral grinding with abrasive papers of the grain size 60, 360, 1000 and mechanical polishing. The main aim of this work was to establish the influence of different surface geometrical structure, depending on X40Cr13 steel structure, on the roughness profile after ion and gas nitriding. With regard to the above, the examinations of basic roughness parameters prior to and after thermochemical processes and the analysis of utilitarian usefulness of activations applied were carried out. (author)

  4. The influence of cooling techniques on cutting forces and surface roughness during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wstawska Iwona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are one of the materials extensively used in the aerospace industry due to its excellent properties of high specific strength and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, they also present problems wherein titanium alloys are extremely difficult materials to machine. In addition, the cost associated with titanium machining is also high due to lower cutting velocities and shorter tool life. The main objective of this work is a comparison of different cooling techniques during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys. The analysis revealed that applied cooling technique has a significant influence on cutting force and surface roughness (Ra parameter values. Furthermore, in all cases observed a positive influence of cryogenic machining on selected aspects after turning and milling of titanium alloys. This work can be also the starting point to the further research, related to the analysis of cutting forces and surface roughness during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys.

  5. Simulation of the influence of line edge roughness on the performance of deep ultraviolet wire grid polarizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefke, Thomas; Rojas Hurtado, Carol B.; Dickmann, Johannes; Heusinger, Martin; Kroker, Stefanie

    2017-06-01

    Controlling the polarization of light is crucial in numerous applications such as spectroscopy, ellipsometry, photo lithography or industrial vision. Polarization control can be realized by wire grid polarizers (WGPs), which are large aspect ratio, zero order gratings. These elements provide an anisotropic transmittance depending on the polarization direction of the incident light. WGPs' high attractiveness originates from their large free aperture, while simultaneously being extremely thin. Furthermore, these elements can be easily integrated into other nano-optical devices. Recently, such elements were successfully developed for applications down to the deep ultra violet spectral range. However, at shorter wavelengths the influence of roughness of the structures poses a severe limitation on the feasible optical performance. To tackle this problem, we numerically simulated the impact of line edge roughness on the polarization properties of WPGs. Therefore, we generated edge position data of rough grating lines by means of the Thorsos method and calculated the resulting optical response by finite difference time domain method. With this procedure the influence of standard deviation, correlation length, Hurst exponents and wavelength was investigated. We find that for standard deviations of 2.5 nm and 5.0 nm the polarization contrast is reduced by a factor of 3 and 7, respectively. The polarization contrast shows a minimum for intermediate correlation lengths, while virtually no impact of the Hurst exponent is observed. This is explained by several mechanisms occurring for different ratios between the spatial frequency of the roughness and the frequency of incident light. Our theoretical findings correlate well with experimental results we retrieved with measured roughness parameters of fabricated elements.

  6. Investigation into the influence of laser energy input on selective laser melted thin-walled parts by response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Zhicong; Wu, Weihui

    2018-04-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) provides a feasible way for manufacturing of complex thin-walled parts directly, however, the energy input during SLM process, namely derived from the laser power, scanning speed, layer thickness and scanning space, etc. has great influence on the thin wall's qualities. The aim of this work is to relate the thin wall's parameters (responses), namely track width, surface roughness and hardness to the process parameters considered in this research (laser power, scanning speed and layer thickness) and to find out the optimal manufacturing conditions. Design of experiment (DoE) was used by implementing composite central design to achieve better manufacturing qualities. Mathematical models derived from the statistical analysis were used to establish the relationships between the process parameters and the responses. Also, the effects of process parameters on each response were determined. Then, a numerical optimization was performed to find out the optimal process set at which the quality features are at their desired values. Based on this study, the relationship between process parameters and SLMed thin-walled structure was revealed and thus, the corresponding optimal process parameters can be used to manufactured thin-walled parts with high quality.

  7. Does surface roughness influence the primary stability of acetabular cups? A numerical and experimental biomechanical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Sophie; Galland, Alexandre; Rosa, Benoît; Le Corroller, Thomas; Pithioux, Martine; Argenson, Jean-Noël; Chabrand, Patrick; Parratte, Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    Most acetabular cups implanted today are press-fit impacted cementless. Anchorage begins with the primary stability given by insertion of a slightly oversized cup. This primary stability is key to obtaining bone ingrowth and secondary stability. We tested the hypothesis that primary stability of the cup is related to surface roughness of the implant, using both an experimental and a numerical models to analyze how three levels of surface roughness (micro, macro and combined) affect the primary stability of the cup. We also investigated the effect of differences in diameter between the cup and its substrate, and of insertion force, on the cups' primary stability. The results of our study show that primary stability depends on the surface roughness of the cup. The presence of macro-roughness on the peripheral ring is found to decrease primary stability; there was excessive abrasion of the substrate, damaging it and leading to poor primary stability. Numerical modeling indicates that oversizing the cup compared to its substrate has an impact on primary stability, as has insertion force. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Roughness Length of Water Vapor over Land Surfaces and Its Influence on Latent Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Jong Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat flux at the surface is largely dependent on the roughness length for water vapor (z0q. The determination of z0q is still uncertain because of its multifaceted characteristics of surface properties, atmospheric conditions and insufficient observations. In this study, observed values from the Fluxes Over Snow Surface II field experiment (FLOSS-II from November 2002 to March 2003 were utilized to estimate z0q over various land surfaces: bare soil, snow, and senescent grass. The present results indicate that the estimated z0q over bare soil is much smaller than the roughness length of momentum (z0m; thus, the ratio z0m/z0q is larger than those of previous studies by a factor of 20 - 150 for the available flow regime of the roughness Reynolds number, Re* > 0.1. On the snow surface, the ratio is comparable to a previous estimation for the rough flow (Re* > 1, but smaller by a factor of 10 - 50 as the flow became smooth (Re* < 1. Using the estimated ratio, an optimal regression equation of z0m/z0q is determined as a function of Re* for each surface type. The present parameterization of the ratio is found to greatly reduce biases of latent heat flux estimation compared with that estimated by the conventional method, suggesting the usefulness of current parameterization for numerical modeling.

  9. Physicochernical factors influencing bacterial transfer from contact lenses to surfaces with different roughness and Wettability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeltfoort, PBJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Hooymans, JMM; Bruinsma, GM

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transfer of Pseudomonas aeruginosa No. 3 and Staphylococcus aureus 835 from contact lenses to surfaces with different hydrophobicity and roughness. Bacteria were allowed to adhere to contact lenses (Surevue, PureVision, or Focus Night & Day) by incubating

  10. Influence of random roughness on the adhesion between metal surfaces due to capillary condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2007-01-01

    The capillary force was measured by atomic force microscopy between a gold coated sphere mounted on a cantilever and gold surfaces with different roughnesses. For smooth surfaces the capillary adhesive force surpasses in magnitude any dispersion, e.g., van der Waals/Casimir and/or electrostatic

  11. The influence of lumber grade on machine productivity in the rough mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Jan Wiedenbeck; Rubin Shmulsky; Anura Perera; Anura Perera

    1999-01-01

    Lumber grade effect on hardwood-part processing time was investigated with a digitally described lumber database in conjunction with a crosscut-first rough mill yield optimization simulator. In this study, the digital lumber sample was subdivided into five hardwood lumber grades. Three cutting bills with varying degrees of difficulty were Cut." The three cutting...

  12. Influence of different staining beverages on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Emel; Tuncer, Duygu; Firat, Esra; Ozdemir, Oguz Suleyman; Karahan, Sevilay

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the influence of different staining beverages on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins. Three different composite resins (Filtek Silorane, Filtek P60, Filtek Supreme XT) were tested. Thirty cylindrical specimens (10 × 2 mm) per material were prepared and polished with a series of aluminum-oxide polishing disks. Each group was then randomly subdivided into three groups according to the test beverages: distilled water (control), cola and coffee. The samples were immersed into different beverages for 15 days. Color, surface roughness and microhardness values were measured by a spectrophotometer, prophylometer and Vickers hardness device respectively, at baseline and after 15 days. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Immersion in coffee resulted in a significant discoloration for all the composites tested, although the color change was lower in Filtek Silorane than that of MBCs (p composites tested showed similar surface roughness changes after immersion in different beverages (p > 0.05). Besides coffee caused more roughness change than others. Immersion in coffee caused highest microhardness change in Filtek Supreme XT (p resin composites, depending on the characteristics of the materials.

  13. The influence of wall stress on AAA growth and biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, L.; Hellenthal, F.A.M.V.I.; Pulinx, B.; Bosboom, E.M.H.; Breeuwer, M.; Sambeek, M.R.; Vosse, van de F.N.; Jacobs, M.J.H.M.; Wodzig, W.K.W.H.; Schurink, G.W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relation between abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall stress, AAA growth rate and biomarker concentrations. With increasing wall stress, more damage may be caused to the AAA wall, possibly leading to progression of the aneurysm and reflection in up- or

  14. Research on the dynamic response of high-contact-ratio spur gears influenced by surface roughness under EHL condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huang; Xiong, Yangshou; Wang, Tao; Chen, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Employing high-contact-ratio (HCR) gear is an effective method of decreasing the load on a single tooth, as well as reducing vibration and noise. While the spindlier tooth leads to greater relative sliding, having more teeth participate in contact at the same time makes the HCR gear more sensitive to the surface quality. Available literature regarding HCR gear primarily investigates the geometrical optimization, load distribution, or efficiency calculation. Limited work has been conducted on the effect of rough surfaces on the dynamic performance of HCR gear. For this reason, a multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) model is presented mathematically to characterize the static transmission error based on fractal theory, investigate the relative sliding friction using an EHL-based friction coefficient formula, and detail the time-varying friction coefficient suitable for HCR gear. Based on numerical results, the surface roughness has little influence on system response in terms of the dynamic transmission error but has a large effect on the motion in off-line-of-action (OLOA) direction and friction force. The impact of shaft-bearing stiffness and damping ratio is also explored with results revealing that a greater shaft-bearing stiffness is beneficial in obtaining a more stable motion in OLOA direction, and a larger damping ratio results in a smaller effective friction force. The theory presented in this report outlines a new method of analyzing the dynamics of HCR gear in respect of introducing surface roughness into MDOF model directly, as well as establishing an indirect relationship between dynamic responses and surface roughness. This method is expected to guide surface roughness design and manufacturing in the future.

  15. Influence of nanocrystal growth kinetics on interface roughness in nickel-aluminum multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurongzeb, D.; Holtz, M.; Daugherty, M.; Berg, J.M.; Chandolu, A.; Yun, J.; Temkin, H.

    2003-01-01

    We study the layer morphology of Ni/Al multilayer structures, with 50 nm period, as deposited and following 10 min anneals up through the melting temperature of Al. X-ray reflectivity measurement of the as-deposited film shows interference fringes, characteristic of a well-defined multilayer stack, with ∼1 nm interface roughness. Over a narrow anneal range of 360-500 deg. C these fringes diminish in amplitude and disappear, indicating elevated interface roughening. However, fringes are observed for anneal temperatures both below and above this range, indicating the presence of well-defined layers with smooth interfaces. A model, in which nanocrystal domains of intermetallic nickel aluminides form at the interfaces, is developed to quantify the annealing induced interface roughness. This model agrees well with the experimental results

  16. Research of influence of mobile cathodic stains of the vacuum arc for reception of the adjustable roughness of metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikeev, V. N.; Dokukin, M. Yu

    2017-05-01

    In the modern technics there is a requirement in micro- and macrorough surfaces of products for improvement of their operational characteristics (improvement of adhesive properties of various coverings, decrease in deterioration of rubbing details because of the best deduction of greasing, increase of the heat exchanging coefficient from a surface, stimulation of adhesive processes on sites of contact to a bone fabric of medical implants in stomatology and orthopedy etc.). In the given work the modes of reception regulated micro- and macrorough surfaces on samples from a titanic alloy and stainless steel by electrothermal influence of moving cathodic stains in the vacuum arc discharge are investigated. Chaotically moving stains, possessing high specific power allocation (∼ 107 W/cm2), “scan” the difficult design of a product, including “shadow” sites, doing rough its blanket. The sizes of roughnesses are regulated by a current and time of influence of the discharge, pressure in the vacuum chamber and a number of other parameters. The scheme of experimental device, photo and the characteristic of rough surfaces and technological modes of their reception are resulted.

  17. The influence of roughness, angle, range, and transducer type on the echo signal from planar interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, Peter C.; Jacobsen, Søren Mehl

    2001-01-01

    B width for a 25.4 mm diameter 5-MHz planar and focused transducer was approximately 0.5/spl deg/ and 4/spl deg/ (at the focal point), respectively. E(0/spl deg/) as a function of surface roughness, R/sub q/, was nearly linear on a decibel scale, with a slope of -109 dB/(R/sub q///spl lambda/) and -61 d...

  18. Influence of surface roughness of carbon materials on human osteoblast-like cell growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, V.; Douděrová, M.; Bačáková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 6 (2014), s. 1859-1879 ISSN 1549-3296 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/1858; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1168; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN101120701 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : carbon materials * roughness * biocompatibility * MG63 cells Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.369, year: 2014

  19. Influence of Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Hole Diameter of Drilling Making Parts of Alluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Stasiūnas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the drilling process of an aluminium alloy. The paper is aimed at analyzing the influence of cutting speed, feed and hole depth considering hole diameter and hole surface roughness of aluminum alloy 6082 in the dry drilling process and at making empirical formulas for cutting parameters. The article also describes experimental techniques and equipment, tools and measuring devices. Experimental studies have been carried out using different cutting parameters. The obtained results have been analyzed using computer software. According to the existing techniques for measuring, surface roughness and hole diameters have been measured, empirical models have been created and the results of the conducted experiments have been inspected. The findings and recommendations are presented at the end of the work.Artcile in Lithuanian

  20. The influence of collapse wall on self-excited oscillation pulsed jet nozzle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z L; Kang, Y; Yang, X F; Yuan, B; Li, D

    2012-01-01

    The self-excited oscillation pulsed jet (SOPJ) is widely used owing to its simple structure and good separation of pressure source and system. The structure of nozzle is one of the main factors that influence the performance of the SOPJ nozzle. Upper collapse wall and lower collapse wall is important to the formation and transmission of eddy in oscillation cavity. In this paper, the influence of collapse wall on SOPJ nozzle was analyzed by numerical simulation. The LES algorithm was used to simulate the flow of different combinations of collapse wall. The result showed that when both collapse walls are of the same type, the SOPJ nozzle will have a good performance; the influence of upper collapse wall is more obvious than lower one; model of two-semi-circle upper collapse wall is the first choice when we design SOPJ nozzle.

  1. Rough horizontal plates: heat transfer and hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisserand, J-C; Gasteuil, Y; Pabiou, H; Castaing, B; Chilla, F [Universite de Lyon, ENS Lyon, CNRS, 46 Allee d' ltalie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 7 (France); Creyssels, M [LMFA, CNRS, Ecole Centrale Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Gibert, M, E-mail: mathieu.creyssels@ec-lyon.fr [Also at MPI-DS (LFPN) Gottingen (Germany)

    2011-12-22

    To investigate the influence of a rough-wall boundary layer on turbulent heat transport, an experiment of high-Rayleigh convection in water is carried out in a Rayleigh-Benard cell with a rough lower plate and a smooth upper plate. A transition in the heat transport is observed when the thermal boundary layer thickness becomes comparable to or smaller than the roughness height. Besides, at larger Rayleigh numbers than the threshold value, heat transport is found to be increased up to 60%. This enhancement cannot be explained simply by an increase in the contact area of the rough surface since the contact area is increased only by a factor of 40%. Finally, a simple model is proposed to explain the enhanced heat transport.

  2. The influence of surface roughness on the hydrogen permeation of type API 5L-X52 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requiz, R.; Vera, N.; Camero, S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of surface roughness on the corrosion and hydrogen permeation behaviour was evaluated on a type API 5L-52 steel in dearated 0.1M NaSO 4 at pH=2. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were employed to determine the electrochemical behaviour of the steel, while the Devanathan-Stachurski technique was used to estimate the hydrogen permeation rate. Additionally, the surface roughness profiles were obtained in order to correlate the changes in the hydrogen perkeation rate with different metal surface finishings. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that when the roughness parameters have larger values, the cathodic current of hydrogen evolution increases while the hydrogen entry rate decreases. This effect can be attributed to the microstructural defects induced at the steel surface, such as dislocations, which increase the catalytic activity of the atomic hydrogen favouring its recombination. Also, these defects could allow the atomic hydrogen to remain adsorbed on the steel surface. Both effects could hinder the hydrogen diffusion into the metal since the possibility for this atom of becoming absorbed has been reduced. (Author) 16 refs

  3. Influence of Selective Laser Melting Processing Parameters of Co-Cr-W Powders on the Roughness of Exterior Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, M. A.; Baciu, E. R.; Bejinariu, C.; Toma, S. L.; Danila, A.; Baciu, C.

    2018-06-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) represents an Additive Manufacturing method widely used in medical practice, mainly in dental medicine. The powder of 59% Co, 25% Cr, 2.5% W alloy (Starbond CoS Powder 55, S&S Scheftner C, Germany) was processed (SLM) on a Realizer SLM 50 device (SLM Solution, Germany). After laser processing and simple sanding with Al2O3 or two-phase sanding (Al2O3 and glass balls), measurements of surface roughness were conducted. This paper presents the influences exercised by laser power (P = 60 W, 80 W and 100 W), the scanning speed (vscan = 333 mm/s, 500 mm/s and 1000 mm/s) and exposure time (te = 20 µs, 40 µs and 60 µs) on the roughness of surfaces obtained by SLM processing. Based on the experimental results obtained for roughness (Ra), some recommendations regarding the choice of favorable combinations among the values of technological parameters under study in order to obtain the surface quality necessary for subsequent applications of the processed parts (SLM) have been made.

  4. Influence of different manipulation methods on surface roughness of auto polymerized acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Borges Retamoso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness of acrylic resin according to the manipulation method.Methods: Sixty specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n=15 according to the manipulation method: G1 - addition with pressure, G2 - addition without pressure, G3 - mass with pressure and G4 - mass without pressure. After resin polymerization, all specimens were submitted to finishing with abrasive paper and mechanical polishing. Topographical surface analysis surfaces was performed twice on each sample using the rugosimeter. Results: The results were statistically analyzed and means were: G1 - 0,130μm; G2 - 0,120μm, G3 - 0,218μm e G4 - 0,192μm. ANOVA for one criterion and the Tukey test showed significant difference between G1 and G3, G2 and G3, G2 and G4. Conclusion: The manipulation method seems to affect the physical characteristics of auto polymerized acrylic resin. The addition manipulation method decreased the surface roughness.

  5. Influence of annealing and interfacial roughness on the performance of bilayer donor/acceptor polymer photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hongping; Swaraj, Sufal; Wang, Cheng; Ade, Harald [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Hwang, Inchan; Greenham, Neil C.; McNeill, Christopher R. [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Ave, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Groves, Chris [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-21

    Through controlled annealing of planar heterojunction (bilayer) devices based on the polyfluorene copolymers poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bis(N,N'-(4,butylphenyl))bis(N,N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylene)diamine) (PFB) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) we study the influence of interface roughness on the generation and separation of electron-hole pairs at the donor/acceptor interface. Interface structure is independently characterized by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity with the interfacial width of the PFB/F8BT heterojunction observed to systematically increase with annealing temperature from 1.6 nm for unannealed films to 16 nm with annealing at 200 C for ten minutes. Photoluminescence quenching measurements confirm the increase in interface area by the three-fold increase in the number of excitons dissociated. Under short-circuit conditions, however, unannealed devices with the sharpest interface are found to give the best device performance, despite the increase in interfacial area (and hence the number of excitons dissociated) in annealed devices. The decrease in device efficiency with annealing is attributed to decreased interfacial charge separation efficiency, partly due to a decrease in the bulk mobility of the constituent materials upon annealing but also (and significantly) due to the increased interface roughness. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations that demonstrate that increased interface roughness leads to lower charge separation efficiency, and are able to reproduce the experimental current-voltage curves taking both increased interfacial roughness and decreased carrier mobility into account. Our results show that organic photovoltaic performance can be sensitive to interfacial order, and heterojunction sharpness should be considered a requirement for high performance devices. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. CONSTRUCTIVE ASPECTS INFLUENCE ON STIFFNESS OF DIAPHRAGM WALLS IN FRAME CONSTRUCTIONS WITH (LIGHT STEEL THIN –WALLED STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Savytskyi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dependences of influence of structural features of diaphragms of lightweight steel framing braced wall structures on their stiffness are determined. On the basis of dependences the procedure for estimation of stiffness of a diaphragm of any configuration that allows making decisions for maintenance of building stiffness is developed.

  7. Influence of edge radius of sintered-carbide tip on roughness of machined surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Votava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of cutting speed and thus increasing labour productivity is observed as a current trend in engineering production. This effort results to development of new cutting materials which are more capable to resist increased requirements on machined surface as well as operating life of the instrument. Nowadays, the most widely used materials used for cutting instruments are sintered carbides which are alloyed by other metals. The goal of this paper is to analyse change in quality of machined surface depending on the change of cutting conditions. For cutting operation, there were used a milling cutter high-speed steel 90 (HSS and removable sintered-carbide tips with different radius. Steel 12 050 hardened for 17 HRC was used as a machined material. Firstly, hardness of machined as well as machining materials was analysed. Further, metallographic analysis and measurement of microhardness of the individual structure phases was processed. Cutting conditions of both instruments were selected depending on the machined material. Surface roughness indicates the quality of machined surface.

  8. Influence of material ductility and crack surface roughness on fracture instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khezrzadeh, Hamed; Wnuk, Michael P; Yavari, Arash

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a stability analysis for fractal cracks. First, the Westergaard stress functions are proposed for semi-infinite and finite smooth cracks embedded in the stress fields associated with the corresponding self-affine fractal cracks. These new stress functions satisfy all the required boundary conditions and according to Wnuk and Yavari's (2003 Eng. Fract. Mech. 70 1659-74) embedded crack model they are used to derive the stress and displacement fields generated around a fractal crack. These results are then used in conjunction with the final stretch criterion to study the quasi-static stable crack extension, which in ductile materials precedes the global failure. The material resistance curves are determined by solving certain nonlinear differential equations and then employed in predicting the stress levels at the onset of stable crack growth and at the critical point, where a transition to the catastrophic failure occurs. It is shown that the incorporation of the fractal geometry into the crack model, i.e. accounting for the roughness of the crack surfaces, results in (1) higher threshold levels of the material resistance to crack propagation and (2) higher levels of the critical stresses associated with the onset of catastrophic fracture. While the process of quasi-static stable crack growth (SCG) is viewed as a sequence of local instability states, the terminal instability attained at the end of this process is identified with the global instability. The phenomenon of SCG can be used as an early warning sign in fracture detection and prevention.

  9. Physicochemical factors influencing bacterial transfer from contact lenses to surfaces with different roughness and wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeltfoort, Pit B J; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Bruinsma, Gerda M

    2004-11-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the transfer of Pseudomonas aeruginosa No. 3 and Staphylococcus aureus 835 from contact lenses to surfaces with different hydrophobicity and roughness. Bacteria were allowed to adhere to contact lenses (Surevue, PureVision, or Focus Night & Day) by incubating the lenses in a bacterial suspension for 30 min. The contaminated lenses were put on a glass, poly(methylmethacrylate), or silicone rubber substratum, shaped to mimic the eye. After 2 and 16 h, lenses were separated from the substrata and bacteria were swabbed off from the respective surfaces and resuspended in saline. Appropriate serial dilutions of these suspensions were made, from which aliquots were plated on agar for enumeration. Bacterial transfer varied between 4 and 60%, depending on the combination of strain, contact time, contact lens, and substratum surface. For P. aeruginosa No. 3, transfer was significantly higher after 16 h than after 2 h, whereas less increase with time was seen for S. aureus 835. Bacterial transfer from all tested contact lenses was least to silicone rubber, the most hydrophobic and roughest substratum surface included. (c) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Influence of the surface roughness on the fatigue properties in ausferritic ductile irons (ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenningsson Roger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment of cast ductile iron (DI to ausferritic ductile iron (ADI is known to increase fatigue properties. However, the surface roughness of the cast material is also of significant importance. In this investigation, test rods with seven different surface qualities were cast from the same melt i.e. with same chemical composition. The surfaces of the test rods were varied by a number of parameters; grain size of the moulding sand, coated or non-coated mould surfaces, as-cast or machined and polished, shot peened or not. In addition, a reference material in conventional DI was cast and tested. All eight series were subjected to high-cycle fatigue bending tests. The results show that surface defects, such as micro porosity and minor inclusions drastically decrease the fatigue properties. For some ADI materials the stress amplitude limit was actually lower compared to the non-heat treated DI. The machined, polished and shot-peened material demonstrated the best fatigue properties, which is as expected.

  11. Direct electrodeposition of gold nanotube arrays of rough and porous wall by cyclic voltammetry and its applications of simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guangming; Li Ling; Jiang Jinhe; Yang Yunhui

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanotube arrays of rough and porous wall has been synthesized by direct electrodeposition with cyclic voltammetry utilizing anodic aluminum oxide template (AAO) and polycarbonate membrane (PC) during short time (only 3 min and 2 min, respectively). The mechanism of the direct electrodeposition of gold nanotube arrays by cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been discussed. The morphological characterizations of the gold nanotube arrays have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was constructed by attaching gold nanotube arrays (using AAO) onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behavior of AA and UA at this modified electrode has been studied by CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The sensor offers an excellent response for AA and UA and the linear response range for AA and UA were 1.02 × 10 −7 –5.23 × 10 −4 mol L −1 and 1.43 × 10 −7 –4.64 × 10 −4 mol L −1 , the detection limits were 1.12 × 10 −8 mol L −1 and 2.24 × 10 −8 mol L −1 , respectively. This sensor shows good regeneration, stability and selectivity and has been used for the determination of AA and UA in real human urine and serum samples with satisfied results. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram of formation of Au nanotube arrays (a) and the stepwise procedure of the sensor (b). Highlights: ► Gold nanotubes array has been synthesized by cyclic voltammetry. ► The mechanism of deposition of gold nanotube has been discussed. ► A determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid was constructed by gold array. ► A satisfied determination of samples can be obtained by this sensor.

  12. Thermal cycling damage evolution of a thermal barrier coating and the influence of substrate creep, interface roughness and pre-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweda, Mario; Beck, Tilmann; Singheiser, Lorenz [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung (IEK), Werkstoffstruktur und Eigenschaften (IEK-2)

    2012-01-15

    The influence of roughness profile shape, roughness depth, bond coat creep strength and pre-oxidation on the thermal cycling damage evolution and lifetime of a plasma-sprayed ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier coating system was investigated. A simplified model system was used where FeCrAlY substrates simulated the bond coat. Substrate creep was varied by using the oxide dispersoid strengthened alloy MA956 and the conventional material Fecralloy. Stochastic 3- and periodic 2-dimensional roughness profiles were produced by sand blasting and high speed turning. Damage evolution is significantly influenced by substrate creep with a trend to higher lifetimes for the fast creeping substrate. Pre-oxidation has no influence. Lifetimes of the periodically profiled samples are up to 100 times lower than these of stochastically profiled samples. In the case of periodically profiled samples, the highest lifetime was reached for the highest roughness depth combined with local undercuttings in the roughness profile. For stochastically profiled samples the influence of roughness depth could not be determined due to the wide lifetime scatter. (orig.)

  13. Near-field optical microscopy of localized excitations on rough surfaces: influence of a probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Starting from the general principles of near-field optical microscopy. I consider the influence of a probe when being used to image localized dipolar excitations and suggest a way of evaluating the perturbation thus introduced. Using the rigorous microscopic (electric) point-dipole description, I...

  14. The influence of wall permeability on laminar and turbulent flows : Theory and simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugem, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    The study of flows over permeable walls is relevant to many applications. Examples are flows over and through porous river beds, vegetation, snow, heat exchangers of foam metal, and oil wells. The main objectives of this thesis are to gain insight in the influence of wall permeability on both

  15. Investigation of the influence of wall stiffness on the stress ratio in mammoth silos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwenstijn, P.L.L.; van Leeuwenstijn, P.L.L.; van Wijk, L.A.; van Wijk, L.A.; Haaker, G.

    1994-01-01

    To calculate the stresses on the walls of silos, it is necessary to have a good estimate of the ratio of horizontal to vertical stress. This ratio however is not known precisely, especially in cases of static stress as found in a mammoth silo. In this paper the influence of the wall stiffness on the

  16. Influence of foundation mass and surface roughness on dynamic response of beam on dynamic foundation subjected to the moving load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Quoc, Tinh; Khong Trong, Toan; Luong Van, Hai

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, Improved Moving Element Method (IMEM) is used to analyze the dynamic response of Euler-Bernoulli beam structures on the dynamic foundation model subjected to the moving load. The effects of characteristic foundation model parameters such as Winkler stiffness, shear layer based on the Pasternak model, viscoelastic dashpot and characteristic parameter of mass on foundation. Beams are modeled by moving elements while the load is fixed. Based on the principle of the publicly virtual balancing and the theory of moving element method, the motion differential equation of the system is established and solved by means of the numerical integration based on the Newmark algorithm. The influence of mass on foundation and the roughness of the beam surface on the dynamic response of beam are examined in details.

  17. The influence of surface roughness and high pressure torsion on the growth of anodic titania nanotubes on pure titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Nan; Gao, Nong, E-mail: N.Gao@soton.ac.uk; Starink, Marco J.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • HPT has substantially improved the UTS and Hv of pure Ti. • TNT layers was fabricated on UFG Ti made by HPT. • Influence of sample preparation on TNT layers was systematically studied. • Oxide dissolution was accelerated when TNTs formed on the HPT sample. - Abstract: Anodic titanium dioxide nanotube (TNT) arrays have wide applications in photocatalytic, catalysis, electronics, solar cells and biomedical implants. When TNT coatings are combined with severe plastic deformation (SPD), metal processing techniques which efficiently improve the strength of metals, a new generation of biomedical implant is made possible with both improved bulk and surface properties. This work investigated the effect of processing by high pressure torsion (HPT) and different mechanical preparations on the substrate and subsequently on the morphology of TNT layers. HPT processing was applied to refine the grain size of commercially pure titanium samples and substantially improved their strength and hardness. Subsequent anodization at 30 V in 0.25 wt.% NH{sub 4}F for 2 h to form TNT layers on sample surfaces prepared with different mechanical preparation methods was carried out. It appeared that the local roughness of the titanium surface on a microscopic level affected the TNT morphology more than the macroscopic surface roughness. For HPT-processed sample, the substrate has to be pre-treated by a mechanical preparation finer than 4000 grit for HPT to have a significant influence on TNTs. During the formation of TNT layers the oxide dissolution rate was increased for the ultrafine-grained microstructure formed due to HPT processing.

  18. Modeling of surface roughness effects on Stokes flow in circular pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Siyuan; Yang, Xiaohu; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid flow and pressure drop across a channel are significantly influenced by surface roughness on a channel wall. The present study investigates the effects of periodically structured surface roughness upon flow field and pressure drop in a circular pipe at low Reynolds numbers. The periodic roughness considered exhibits sinusoidal, triangular, and rectangular morphologies, with the relative roughness (i.e., ratio of the amplitude of surface roughness to hydraulic diameter of the pipe) no more than 0.2. Based upon a revised perturbation theory, a theoretical model is developed to quantify the effect of roughness on fully developed Stokes flow in the pipe. The ratio of static flow resistivity and the ratio of the Darcy friction factor between rough and smooth pipes are expressed in four-order approximate formulations, which are validated against numerical simulation results. The relative roughness and the wave number are identified as the two key parameters affecting the static flow resistivity and the Darcy friction factor.

  19. Direct electrodeposition of gold nanotube arrays of rough and porous wall by cyclic voltammetry and its applications of simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Guangming, E-mail: yangguangmingbs@126.com [Department of Resources and Environment, Baoshan University, Baoshan 678000 (China); Ling, Li [Department of Resources and Environment, Baoshan University, Baoshan 678000 (China); Jinhe, Jiang; Yunhui, Yang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Gold nanotube arrays of rough and porous wall has been synthesized by direct electrodeposition with cyclic voltammetry utilizing anodic aluminum oxide template (AAO) and polycarbonate membrane (PC) during short time (only 3 min and 2 min, respectively). The mechanism of the direct electrodeposition of gold nanotube arrays by cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been discussed. The morphological characterizations of the gold nanotube arrays have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was constructed by attaching gold nanotube arrays (using AAO) onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behavior of AA and UA at this modified electrode has been studied by CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The sensor offers an excellent response for AA and UA and the linear response range for AA and UA were 1.02 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}-5.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1} and 1.43 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}-4.64 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, the detection limits were 1.12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} and 2.24 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}, respectively. This sensor shows good regeneration, stability and selectivity and has been used for the determination of AA and UA in real human urine and serum samples with satisfied results. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram of formation of Au nanotube arrays (a) and the stepwise procedure of the sensor (b). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gold nanotubes array has been synthesized by cyclic voltammetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of deposition of gold nanotube has been discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid was constructed by gold array. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A satisfied determination of samples can be obtained by this sensor.

  20. Influence of temperature on current-induced domain wall motion and its Walker breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lvchao; Hu, Jingguo; Su, Yuanchang; Zhu, Jinrong

    2016-01-01

    The current-driven domain wall propagation along a thin ferromagnetic strip with thermal field is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. The results show that the velocity of domain wall is almost independent of temperature until Walker breakdown happened. However the thermal field can suppress Walker breakdown and makes domain wall move faster. Further analysis indicates that the thermal field tends to keep the out-of-plane magnetic moment of the domain wall stay in high value, which can promote domain wall motion and suppress the Walker breakdown by breaking the period of domain wall transformation. - Highlights: • Influences of temperature on the displacement and the velocity of DW are shown. • The suppression of Walker breakdown by temperature is given. • The reason for suppressing Walker breakdown is analyzed. • The breaking transformation period of Walker breakdown by temperature is given.

  1. The influence of glancing angle deposited nano-rough platinum surfaces on the adsorption of fibrinogen and the proliferation of primary human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Foss, M; Chevallier, J; Besenbacher, F; Pennisi, C P; Yoshida, K; Skeldal, S; Andreasen, P; Zachar, V

    2009-01-01

    We have used the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method as a simple and fast method to generate nano-rough surfaces for protein adsorption experiments and cell assays. The surface roughness and the detailed geometrical surface morphology of the thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the GLAD deposition angle approaches grazing incidence, sharp and whisker-like columnar protrusions are formed. Smaller and less sharp surface features appear for the thin films synthesized at higher deposition angles. By changing the GLAD deposition angle together with the total amount of mass deposited per area on the respective surfaces, the size of the surface features can be varied on the nanoscale. Using the GLAD topographies as model surfaces, we have investigated the influence of the nano-roughness on fibrinogen adsorption and on the proliferation of primary human fibroblasts. It is found that fibrinogen, an important blood protein, preferentially adheres on the whisker-like nano-rough substrates in comparison to a flat surface. Furthermore, the proliferation of the human fibroblasts is significantly reduced on the nano-rough substrates. These results demonstrate that the GLAD technique can be used to fabricate nano-rough surface morphologies that significantly influence both protein and cellular adhesion to surfaces and are therefore well suited for biological assays.

  2. Influence of finishing/polishing on color stability and surface roughness of composites submitted to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Da Col dos Santos Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the influence of finishing/polishing procedure on color stability (ΔE and surface roughness (Ra of composites (Heliomolar and Tetric - color A2 submitted to accelerated artificial aging (AAA. Materials and Methods : Sixty test specimens were made of each composite (12 mm × 2 mm and separated into six groups (n = 10, according to the type of finishing/polishing to which they were submitted: C, control; F, tip 3195 F; FF, tip 3195 FF; FP, tip 3195 F + diamond paste; FFP, tip 3195 FF + diamond paste; SF, Sof-Lex discs. After polishing, controlled by an electromechanical system, initial color (spectrophotometer PCB 6807 BYK GARDNER and Ra (roughness meter Surfcorder SE 1700, cut-off 0.25 mm readings were taken. Next, the test specimens were submitted to the AAA procedure (C-UV Comexim for 384 hours, and at the end of this period, new color readings and R a were taken. Results: Statistical analysis [2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Bonferroni, P < 0.05] showed that all composites demonstrated ΔE alteration above the clinically acceptable limits, with the exception of Heliomolar composite in FP. The greatest ΔE alteration occurred for Tetric composite in SF (13.38 ± 2.10 statistically different from F and FF (P < 0.05. For Ra , Group F showed rougher samples than FF with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. Conclusion: In spite of the surface differences, the different finishing/polishing procedures were not capable of providing color stability within the clinically acceptable limits.

  3. Influence of finishing/polishing on color stability and surface roughness of composites submitted to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gustavo Da Col dos Santos; Dias, Kleber Campioni; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Consani, Simonides; Pires-De-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2013-01-01

    To assess the influence of finishing/polishing procedure on color stability (ΔE ) and surface roughness (R(a)) of composites (Heliomolar and Tetric - color A2) submitted to accelerated artificial aging (AAA). Sixty test specimens were made of each composite (12 mm × 2 mm) and separated into six groups (n = 10), according to the type of finishing/polishing to which they were submitted: C, control; F, tip 3195 F; FF, tip 3195 FF; FP, tip 3195 F + diamond paste; FFP, tip 3195 FF + diamond paste; SF, Sof-Lex discs. After polishing, controlled by an electromechanical system, initial color (spectrophotometer PCB 6807 BYK GARDNER) and R(a) (roughness meter Surfcorder SE 1700, cut-off 0.25 mm) readings were taken. Next, the test specimens were submitted to the AAA procedure (C-UV Comexim) for 384 hours, and at the end of this period, new color readings and R(a) were taken. Statistical analysis [2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Bonferroni, P < 0.05] showed that all composites demonstrated ΔE alteration above the clinically acceptable limits, with the exception of Heliomolar composite in FP. The greatest ΔE alteration occurred for Tetric composite in SF (13.38 ± 2.10) statistically different from F and FF (P < 0.05). For R(a), Group F showed rougher samples than FF with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). In spite of the surface differences, the different finishing/polishing procedures were not capable of providing color stability within the clinically acceptable limits.

  4. The cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana influences actin network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmie, Frances; Poulet, Axel; McKenna, Joseph; Sassmann, Stefan; Graumann, Katja; Deeks, Michael; Runions, John

    2017-07-20

    In plant cells, molecular connections link the cell wall-plasma membrane-actin cytoskeleton to form a continuum. It is hypothesized that the cell wall provides stable anchor points around which the actin cytoskeleton remodels. Here we use live cell imaging of fluorescently labelled marker proteins to quantify the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton and to determine the impact of disrupting connections within the continuum. Labelling of the actin cytoskeleton with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fimbrin actin-binding domain 2 (FABD2) resulted in a network composed of fine filaments and thicker bundles that appeared as a highly dynamic remodelling meshwork. This differed substantially from the GFP-Lifeact-labelled network that appeared much more sparse with thick bundles that underwent 'simple movement', in which the bundles slightly change position, but in such a manner that the structure of the network was not substantially altered during the time of observation. Label-dependent differences in actin network morphology and remodelling necessitated development of two new image analysis techniques. The first of these, 'pairwise image subtraction', was applied to measurement of the more rapidly remodelling actin network labelled with GFP-FABD2, while the second, 'cumulative fluorescence intensity', was used to measure bulk remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton when labelled with GFP-Lifeact. In each case, these analysis techniques show that the actin cytoskeleton has a decreased rate of bulk remodelling when the cell wall-plasma membrane-actin continuum is disrupted either by plasmolysis or with isoxaben, a drug that specifically inhibits cellulose deposition. Changes in the rate of actin remodelling also affect its functionality, as observed by alteration in Golgi body motility. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The surface roughness effect on the performance of supersonic ejectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, D. V.; Aronson, K. E.; Mazzelli, F.; Milazzo, A.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the numerical simulation results of the surface roughness influence on gas-dynamic processes inside flow parts of a supersonic ejector. These simulations are performed using two commercial CFD solvers (Star- CCM+ and Fluent). The results are compared to each other and verified by a full-scale experiment in terms of global flow parameters (the entrainment ratio: the ratio between secondary to primary mass flow rate - ER hereafter) and local flow parameters distribution (the static pressure distribution along the mixing chamber and diffuser walls). A detailed comparative study of the employed methods and approaches in both CFD packages is carried out in order to estimate the roughness effect on the logarithmic law velocity distribution inside the boundary layer. Influence of the surface roughness is compared with the influence of the backpressure (static pressure at the ejector outlet). It has been found out that increasing either the ejector backpressure or the surface roughness height, the shock position displaces upstream. Moreover, the numerical simulation results of an ejector with rough walls in the both CFD solvers are well quantitatively agreed with each other in terms of the mean ER and well qualitatively agree in terms of the local flow parameters distribution. It is found out that in the case of exceeding the "critical roughness height" for the given boundary conditions and ejector's geometry, the ejector switches to the "off-design" mode and its performance decreases considerably.

  6. Influence of surface roughness and melt superheat on HDA process to form a tritium permeation barrier on RAFM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purushothaman, J. [B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai 600048 (India); MTD, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Ramaseshan, R., E-mail: seshan@igcar.gov.in [TFCS, SND, MSG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Albert, S.K. [MTD, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Rajendran, R. [B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai 600048 (India); Gowrishankar, N. [IP Rings Ltd., Maraimalainagar, Chennai 603209 (India); Ramasubbu, V. [MTD, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Murugesan, S.; Dasgupta, Arup [PMG, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Jayakumar, T. [MTD, MMG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface modified RAFMS samples were subjected to HDA and thermal oxidation. • Sample modified by SB process showed better coating and interface morphology. • Aluminized samples at 740 °C for 2 min showed Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 9}Si{sub 2} intermetallic phase. • Oxidized samples showed Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 8}Si, Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3} intermetallic phases. • A uniform permeation barrier Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was formed on the coating of oxidized HDA samples. - Abstract: The most optimal candidate material for fabrication of Test Blanket Module (TBM) in the installation of ITER and future fusion reactors is Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel, yet one of the major challenges that need to be addressed with RAFM is minimizing the loss of tritium in a reactor environment through the formation of tritium permeation barrier. One of the most promising methods for the tritium permeation barrier is through duplex coating with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe–Al which is well known to reduce tritium permeation rate by several orders of magnitude. The present work aims to form an alumina layer on RAFM steel by a two-step method, which consists of (i) Hot Dip Aluminizing (HDA) and (ii) conversion of Al into alumina by a subsequent oxidation process. In addition, the influence of surface roughness of the substrate, superheat condition of the Al alloy melt and its composition on microstructural properties of coating before and after oxidation were investigated using OM, SEM–EDS, XRD, indentation micro hardness and scratch test. The experimental results confirmed the formation of alumina layer on RAFM steel after the HDA and oxidation process. Moreover, the surface roughness of the substrate, melt superheat of Al alloy and its composition are found to have a significant influence on the microstructure, thickness, micro-hardness, nature of intermetallic compounds formed and adhesion strength of the coating.

  7. Influence of Slip Condition on Unsteady Free Convection Flow of Viscous Fluid with Ramped Wall Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ul Haq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore the influence of wall slip condition on a free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid with heat transfer and ramped wall temperature. Exact solution of the problem is obtained by using Laplace transform technique. Graphical results to see the effects of Prandtl number Pr, time t, and slip parameter η on velocity and skin friction for the case of ramped and constant temperature of the plate are provided and discussed.

  8. Influence of the wall material on the H-mode performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.

    1994-06-01

    Theory on the influence of the wall material on the level of the enhanced confinement in H-mode is discussed. When the high-Z material is employed as the wall, the reflection of the neutral particles causes the higher neutral particle density in the plasma. The increased neutral particles lead to the loss of the ion momentum, decrease the radial electric field and degrade the confinement improvement. (author)

  9. Influence of Structural Features and Fracture Processes on Surface Roughness: A Case Study from the Krosno Sandstones of the Górka–Mucharz Quarry (Little Beskids, Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieczara Łukasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analysis of surface roughness parameters in the Krosno Sandstones of Mucharz, southern Poland. It was aimed at determining whether these parameters are influenced by structural features (mainly the laminar distribution of mineral components and directional distribution of non-isometric grains and fracture processes. The tests applied in the analysis enabled us to determine and describe the primary statistical parameters used in the quantitative description of surface roughness, as well as specify the usefulness of contact profilometry as a method of visualizing spatial differentiation of fracture processes in rocks. These aims were achieved by selecting a model material (Krosno Sandstones from the Górka-Mucharz Quarry and an appropriate research methodology. The schedule of laboratory analyses included: identification analyses connected with non-destructive ultrasonic tests, aimed at the preliminary determination of rock anisotropy, strength point load tests (cleaved surfaces were obtained due to destruction of rock samples, microscopic analysis (observation of thin sections in order to determine the mechanism of inducing fracture processes and a test method of measuring surface roughness (two- and three-dimensional diagrams, topographic and contour maps, and statistical parameters of surface roughness. The highest values of roughness indicators were achieved for surfaces formed under the influence of intragranular fracture processes (cracks propagating directly through grains. This is related to the structural features of the Krosno Sandstones (distribution of lamination and bedding.

  10. Influence of normal loads and sliding velocities on friction properties of engineering plastics sliding against rough counterfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuruzzaman, D M; Chowdhury, M A; Rahaman, M L; Oumer, A N

    2016-01-01

    Friction properties of plastic materials are very important under dry sliding contact conditions for bearing applications. In the present research, friction properties of engineering plastics such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and nylon are investigated under dry sliding contact conditions. In the experiments, PTFE and nylon slide against different rough counterfaces such as mild steel and stainless steel 316 (SS 316). Frictional tests are carried out at low loads 5, 7.5 and 10 N, low sliding velocities 0.5, 0.75 and 1 m/s and relative humidity 70%. The obtained results reveal that friction coefficient of PTFE increases with the increase in normal loads and sliding velocities within the observed range. On the other hand, frictional values of nylon decrease with the increase in normal loads and sliding velocities. It is observed that in general, these polymers show higher frictional values when sliding against SS 316 rather than mild steel. During running-in process, friction coefficient of PTFE and nylon steadily increases with the increase in rubbing time and after certain duration of rubbing, it remains at steady level. At identical operating conditions, the frictional values are significantly different depending on normal load, sliding velocity and material pair. It is also observed that in general, the influence of normal load on the friction properties of PTFE and nylon is greater than that of sliding velocity. (paper)

  11. A Study on the Influence of Speed on Road Roughness Sensing: The SmartRoadSense Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Alessandroni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available SmartRoadSense is a crowdsensing project aimed at monitoring the conditions of the road surface. Using the sensors of a smartphone, SmartRoadSense monitors the vertical accelerations inside a vehicle traveling the road and extracts a roughness index conveying information about the road conditions. The roughness index and the smartphone GPS data are periodically sent to a central server where they are processed, associated with the specific road, and aggregated with data measured by other smartphones. This paper studies how the smartphone vertical accelerations and the roughness index are related to the vehicle speed. It is shown that the dependence can be locally approximated with a gamma (power law. Extensive experimental results using data extracted from SmartRoadSense database confirm the gamma law relationship between the roughness index and the vehicle speed. The gamma law is then used for improving the SmartRoadSense data aggregation accounting for the effect of vehicle speed.

  12. Rough Finite State Automata and Rough Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulprakasam, R.; Perumal, R.; Radhakrishnan, M.; Dare, V. R.

    2018-04-01

    Sumita Basu [1, 2] recently introduced the concept of a rough finite state (semi)automaton, rough grammar and rough languages. Motivated by the work of [1, 2], in this paper, we investigate some closure properties of rough regular languages and establish the equivalence between the classes of rough languages generated by rough grammar and the classes of rough regular languages accepted by rough finite automaton.

  13. Application of a soft computing technique in predicting the percentage of shear force carried by walls in a rectangular channel with non-homogeneous roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozani, Zohreh Sheikh; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zaji, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Two new soft computing models, namely genetic programming (GP) and genetic artificial algorithm (GAA) neural network (a combination of modified genetic algorithm and artificial neural network methods) were developed in order to predict the percentage of shear force in a rectangular channel with non-homogeneous roughness. The ability of these methods to estimate the percentage of shear force was investigated. Moreover, the independent parameters' effectiveness in predicting the percentage of shear force was determined using sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the GP model demonstrated superior performance to the GAA model. A comparison was also made between the GP program determined as the best model and five equations obtained in prior research. The GP model with the lowest error values (root mean square error ((RMSE) of 0.0515) had the best function compared with the other equations presented for rough and smooth channels as well as smooth ducts. The equation proposed for rectangular channels with rough boundaries (RMSE of 0.0642) outperformed the prior equations for smooth boundaries.

  14. Influence of diaphragm wall installation in overconsolidated sandy clays on in situ stress disturbance and resulting wall deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truty Andrzej Adam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modeling of deep excavations becomes a standard practice in modern geotechnical engineering. A detailed numerical model for a given case is able to reproduce major effects of soil-structure interaction by taking into account any kind of drainage conditions, strong stiffness variation due to effective stress and strain changes, creep and cracking, when reinforced concrete is used as a structural material, but also interface effects between subsoil and structure. Calibrating soil constitutive models is one of the most difficult tasks and due to several sources of uncertainty there is no one unique set of the data that should be used in numerical predictions. Lack or incompleteness of experimental data, significant mismatch between laboratory and field tests is an another source of difficulty. Contrary to several simplified methods, that are usually limited to two dimensions, numerical models allow a full 3D analysis in which many simplifications can be eliminated. This paper is devoted to the problem of in situ stress disturbance caused by diaphragm wall installation in overconsolidated quaternary sandy clays and its influence on final wall deformations.

  15. Influence of masonry infill walls on longitudinal forces in columns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the result of conducted numerical studies based on space calculation models are presented. It presents the results of a conducted numerical assessment of the influence of masonry infill walls on variation and redistribution of efforts arising in columns of a cast-in-situ framed building. The quantitative data of the ...

  16. Influence of the orographic roughness of glacier valleys across the Transantarctic Mountains in an atmospheric regional model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Gallee, Hubert [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2011-03-15

    Glacier valleys across the Transantarctic Mountains are not properly taken into account in climate models, because of their coarse resolution. Nonetheless, glacier valleys control katabatic winds in this region, and the latter are thought to affect the climate of the Ross Sea sector, frsater formation to snow mass balance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of the production of turbulent kinetic energy by the subgrid-scale orography in the Transantarctic Mountains using a 20-km atmospheric regional model. A classical orographic roughness length parametrization is modified to produce either smooth or rough valleys. A one-year simulation shows that katabatic winds in the Transantarctic Mountains are strongly improved using smooth valleys rather than rough valleys. Pressure and temperature fields are affected by the representation of the orographic roughness, specifically in the Transantarctic Mountains and over the Ross Ice Shelf. A smooth representation of escarpment regions shows better agreement with automatic weather station observations than a rough representation. This work stresses the need to improve the representation of subgrid-scale orography to simulate realistic katabatic flows. This paper also provides a way of improving surface winds in an atmospheric model without increasing its resolution. (orig.)

  17. The Influence of Large-scale Bank Roughness and Floodplain Composition on Spatial and Temporal Variations in Bank Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, C. R.; Darby, S. E.; Leyland, J.; Aalto, R. E.; Best, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Nicholas, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of bank erosion processes and rates along the world's largest rivers remains incomplete, primarily due to the difficulties of obtaining data pertaining to the key driving processes (i.e., during the floods that drive most bank retreat). Recently, larger scale bank roughness elements (slump blocks and embayments) have been shown to impact upon rates and locations of bank erosion. However, a complete understanding of the way such features affect rates of bank erosion is currently hindered by the lack of detailed concurrent observations of slump block geometry, embayment geometry and flow at formative discharges in natural environments. Here, we report on high spatial resolution topographic (Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Multibeam Echo Souder) and flow (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) surveys undertaken on the Mekong River, Cambodia, from which we extract the geometric properties of roughness elements across a range of scales. We combine this data with sub-bottom profile data, revealing the composition of the surrounding floodplain, to link, for the first time, scales of bank roughness to bank material composition. Through the categorisation of a series of cut river banks by roughness geometry, we show how rates and locations of bank erosion are dependent on that roughness and associated bank material changes. We test how observed patterns of bank erosion conform to previously detailed models of embayment development, and provide new insight into processes affecting the retreat of large river banks.

  18. Influence of titanium-substrate roughness on Ca–P–O thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananda Sagari, A.R., E-mail: arsagari@gmail.com [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Malm, Jari [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, Mikko [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Rahkila, Paavo [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Hongqiang, Ma [Department of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 35 (L), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Putkonen, Matti [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, FI-01511 Vantaa (Finland); Karppinen, Maarit [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Whitlow, Harry J.; Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-03-01

    Amorphous Ca–P–O films were deposited on titanium substrates using atomic layer deposition, while maintaining a uniform Ca/P pulsing ratio of 6/1 with varying number of atomic layer deposition cycles starting from 10 up to 208. Prior to film deposition the titanium substrates were mechanically abraded using SiC abrasive paper of 600, 1200, 2000 grit size and polished with 3 μm diamond paste to obtain surface roughness R{sub rms} values of 0.31 μm, 0.26 μm, 0.16 μm, and 0.10 μm, respectively. The composition and film thickness of as-deposited amorphous films were studied using Time-Of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. The results showed that uniform films could be deposited on rough metal surfaces with a clear dependence of substrate roughness on the Ca/P atomic ratio of thin films. The in vitro cell-culture studies using MC3T3 mouse osteoblast showed a greater coverage of cells on the surface polished with diamond paste in comparison to rougher surfaces after 24 h culture. No statistically significant difference was observed between Ca–P–O coated and un-coated Ti surfaces for the measured roughness value. The deposited 50 nm thick films did not dissolve during the cell culture experiment. - Highlights: ► Atomic layer deposition of Ca–P–O films on abraded Ti substrate ► Surface analysis using Time-Of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis ► Dependence of substrate roughness on the Ca/P atomic ratio of thin films ► An increase in Ca/P atomic ratio with decreasing roughness ► Mouse osteoblast showed greater coverage of cells in polished surface.

  19. Influence of cold walls on PET image quantification and volume segmentation: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon, B.; Marshall, C.; Edwards, A.; Spezi, E.; Evans, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Commercially available fillable plastic inserts used in positron emission tomography phantoms usually have thick plastic walls, separating their content from the background activity. These “cold” walls can modify the intensity values of neighboring active regions due to the partial volume effect, resulting in errors in the estimation of standardized uptake values. Numerous papers suggest that this is an issue for phantom work simulating tumor tissue, quality control, and calibration work. This study aims to investigate the influence of the cold plastic wall thickness on the quantification of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose on the image activity recovery and on the performance of advanced automatic segmentation algorithms for the delineation of active regions delimited by plastic walls.Methods: A commercial set of six spheres of different diameters was replicated using a manufacturing technique which achieves a reduction in plastic walls thickness of up to 90%, while keeping the same internal volume. Both sets of thin- and thick-wall inserts were imaged simultaneously in a custom phantom for six different tumor-to-background ratios. Intensity values were compared in terms of mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) in the spheres and mean SUV of the hottest 1 ml region (SUV max , SUV mean , and SUV peak ). The recovery coefficient (RC) was also derived for each sphere. The results were compared against the values predicted by a theoretical model of the PET-intensity profiles for the same tumor-to-background ratios (TBRs), sphere sizes, and wall thicknesses. In addition, ten automatic segmentation methods, written in house, were applied to both thin- and thick-wall inserts. The contours obtained were compared to computed tomography derived gold standard (“ground truth”), using five different accuracy metrics.Results: The authors' results showed that thin-wall inserts achieved significantly higher SUV mean , SUV max , and RC values (up to 25%, 16

  20. Influence of Dissipative Particle Dynamics parameters and wall models on planar micro-channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuyi; She, Jiangwei; Zhou, Zhe-Wei; microflow Group Team

    2017-11-01

    Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is a very effective approach in simulating mesoscale hydrodynamics. The influence of solid boundaries and DPD parameters are typically very strong in DPD simulations. The present work studies a micro-channel Poisseuille flow. Taking the neutron scattering experiment and molecular dynamics simulation result as bench mark, the DPD results of density distribution and velocity profile are systematically studied. The influence of different levels of coarse-graining, the number densities of wall and fluid, conservative force coefficients, random and dissipative force coefficients, different wall model and reflective boundary conditions are discussed. Some mechanisms behind such influences are discussed and the artifacts in the simulation are identified with the bench mark. Chinese natural science foundation (A020405).

  1. Modelling of Eutectic Saturation Influence on Microstructure in Thin Wall Ductile Iron Casting Using Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbelko A.A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grains growth during the ductile iron solidification in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniform temperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibrium nature of the interphase boundary migration. Calculation of eutectic saturation influence (Sc = 0.9 - 1.1 on microstructure (austenite and graphite fraction, density of austenite and graphite grains and temperature curves in 2 mm wall ductile iron casting has been done.

  2. Domain Wall Motion in Magnetic Nanostrips under the Influence of Rashba Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Puliafito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin-orbit Rashba effect applies a torque on the magnetization of a ferromagnetic nanostrip in the case of structural inversion asymmetry, also affecting the steady domain wall motion induced by a spin-polarized current. This influence is here analytically studied in the framework of the extended Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, including the Rashba effect as an additive term of the effective field. Results of previous micromagnetic simulations and experiments have shown that this field yields an increased value of the Walker breakdown current together with an enlargement of the domain wall width. In order to analytically describe these results, the standard travelling wave ansatz for the steady domain wall motion is here adopted. Results of our investigations reveal the impossibility to reproduce, at the same time, the previous features and suggest the need of a more sophisticated model whose development requires, in turn, additional information to be extracted from ad hoc micromagnetic simulations.

  3. Wall-shaped hohlraum influence on symmetry and energetics in gas-filled hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassin, Veronique; Philippe, Franck; Laffite, Stephane; Videau, Laurent; Monteil, Marie-Christine; Villette, Bruno; Stemmler, Philippe; Bednarczyk, Sophie; Peche, Emilie; Reneaume, Benoit; Thessieux, Christian

    2008-11-01

    On the way to the LMJ completion, achieving ignition with 40 quads in a 2-cone configuration will be attempted as a first step. Theoretical investigation of a rugby-shaped hohlraum shows energetics optimization and a better symmetry control compared to a cylindrical hohlraum [1]. We recently conducted experiments on the Omega laser facility with 3 different wall-shaped methane-filled hohlraum configurations. We present here the experimental results. Energetics benefits are shown for reduced wall area hohlraums. The wall-shaped hohlraum influence on time-dependent radiation symmetry is also discussed. For the 3 gas-filled hohlraums configurations, we compare the foamball early-time radiographs, the D2Ar-filled capsule time-integrated images and the core self-emission images. [1] M. Vandenboomgaerde, Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 065004 (2007).

  4. Generation of plastic influence functions for J-integral and crack opening displacement of thin-walled pipes with a short circumferential through-wall crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Im, Seyoung

    2014-01-01

    Fracture mechanics parameters such as the J-integral and crack opening displacement (COD), are necessary for Leak-Before-Break (LBB) evaluation. The famous two estimation methods, the GE/EPRI and the Reference Stress Method (RSM), have their applicability limit with regard to the ratio of a pipe mean radius to thickness (R m /t). In order to extend their applicability limit to a thin walled pipe, several finite element analyses are performed for the J-integral and COD, and then new plastic influence functions are developed for thin-walled pipes with a short circumferential through-wall crack. With the newly generated plastic influence functions, the GE/EPRI and the RSM give closer results with those obtained from detailed finite element analyses. In addition, C*-integral and COD rate are estimated by using the new plastic influence functions and they are well matched with elastic–creep finite element analysis results under the power-law creep condition. Since the LBB concept can be applied to a piping system in a Korean Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) which is designed to have thin-walled pipes and to operate in high temperature enough to cause creep, this paper can be applied for the LBB assessment of thin-walled pipes with a short through-wall crack in the SFR

  5. Influence of stability classification on atmospheric diffusion calculations for elevated releases over a terrain of major roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang

    1988-01-01

    A series (22) of atmospheric tracer experiments with 100m release height have been performed at the kernforschungszentrum karlsruhe (KfK) of West Germany over a terrain of major roughness (Z 0 = 1.5 m). The concentration data of the tracers are statistically analysed in which 5 methods of stability classification are used. The results show that the normalized diffusion factors predicted by Gaussian plume dispersion model is in good agreement with the observed ones for elevated releases over a terrain of major roughness. Differnent sets of dispersion parameters could be obtained for the same series of atmospheric tracer experiments if different methods of classification are applied. The same method of stability classification should be used for the application of these dispersion parameters to evaluate the environment impact

  6. Influence of interfacial scattering and surface roughness on giant magnetoresistance in Fe/Cr trilayers using ab initio layer potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereiro, M.; Botana, J.; Baldomir, D.; Warda, K.; Wojtczak, L.; Man'kovsky, S.V.; Iglesias, M.; Pardo, V.; Arias, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Ab initio full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method combined with the semiclassical Boltzmann formalism was employed to calculate the giant magnetoresistance ratio in the trilayers nFe/3Cr/nFe (1=< n=<8). The present results emphasize the very important role of the ferromagnetic layer as well as the interfacial scattering and surface roughness on the giant magnetoresistance effect

  7. Insertion torques influenced by bone density and surface roughness of HA–TiO{sub 2} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, T.; Chen, Y.; Nie, X., E-mail: xnie@uwindsor.ca

    2013-12-31

    Bio-ceramic TiO{sub 2} coatings containing calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were deposited onto Ti–6Al–4V alloy screws using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) processes in an alkaline electrolyte with hydroxyapatite (HA) suspension. Coating on each screw had different surface roughness and morphology. Insertion torque (IT) of the coated screws in low (10 pcf, pounds per cubic feet), medium–high (20 pcf), and high (40 pcf) density of artificial bones was measured in comparison with that of the uncoated and sandblasted screws having similar surface roughness. Higher insertion torques and final seating torques were obtained in the coated screws which may result in less micro-movement during the primary implantation stage and thus lower the risk of implant failure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that all coatings still adhesively remained on the screw surfaces after inserted into the bones with different densities. The relationship between coefficient of friction and surface roughness was also addressed to better understand the results of insertion torque. It was found that a lower density bone (similar to aged bone) would need a surface-rougher coated screw to achieve a high torque while a high density bone can have a wide range of selections for surface roughness of the screw. - Highlights: • The insertion torque of PEO-coated screws is higher than machined and sandblasting implants. • Lower density bone needs a rougher coated implant to increase the insertion torque. • The composite HA–TiO{sub 2} coating could benefit dental implants in both primary and secondary stability stages.

  8. The influence of ventilated façade on sound insulation properties of envelope walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišarová Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented article deals with sound insulation properties of timber structures’ envelope walls. Particularly, the influence of heavy board ventilated façade on laboratory airborne sound insulation R and Rw in dB was studied. The installation method and gaps between façade boards can cause building defects originating in overrating the influence of ventilated cladding on envelope wall acoustic parameters. Real constructions were built for the experimental purposes and measurements, one with gaps between boards and one with simply eliminated gaps for mutual comparison. The results obtained were processed to make tables and graphs and to derive recommendations for the design of this type of constructions involving the general installation method of façade boards. Detailed results are depicted in conclusions.

  9. Numerical investigation of the influence of particle-particle and particle-wall collisions in turbulent wall-bounded flows at high mass loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alletto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with the simulation of turbulent particle-laden flows at high mass loadings. In order to achieve this goal, the fluid flow is described by means of the eddy-resolving concept known as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and the particles are described in a Lagrangian frame of reference. Special emphasis is placed on the interparticle collisions and the impact of solid particles on rough walls. Both mechanisms are shown to be crucial for the correct description of the particle dynamics in wall-bounded flows. In order to distinguish the present methodology from the variety of methods available in the literature to treat turbulent flows laden with solid particles, the thesis starts with an overview of different simulation techniques to calculate this class of flows. In this overview special care is taken to underline the parameter space, where the different simulation methods are valid. After that, the governing equations and the boundary conditions applied for the continuous phase of the Euler-Lagrange approach used in the present thesis are given. In the subsequent section the governing equations for the solid particles and their interaction with smooth and rough walls are discussed. Here a new wall roughness model for the particles which incorporates an amplitude parameter used in technical applications such as the mean roughness height or the root-mean-squared roughness is presented. After that, the coupling mechanisms between the phases and the algorithmic realization are discussed. Furthermore, a new agglomeration model capable to treat interparticle collisions with friction is presented. However, the agglomeration model is not evaluated in such a detail as the interparticle collisions and the particle-wall collisions. The reason is that it does not represent a central aspect of this thesis. The numerical methods for the continuous and the disperse phase are presented in the subsequent section. The efficient algorithm to detect the interparticle

  10. Numerical investigation of the influence of particle-particle and particle-wall collisions in turbulent wall-bounded flows at high mass loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alletto, Michael

    2014-05-16

    The present work deals with the simulation of turbulent particle-laden flows at high mass loadings. In order to achieve this goal, the fluid flow is described by means of the eddy-resolving concept known as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and the particles are described in a Lagrangian frame of reference. Special emphasis is placed on the interparticle collisions and the impact of solid particles on rough walls. Both mechanisms are shown to be crucial for the correct description of the particle dynamics in wall-bounded flows. In order to distinguish the present methodology from the variety of methods available in the literature to treat turbulent flows laden with solid particles, the thesis starts with an overview of different simulation techniques to calculate this class of flows. In this overview special care is taken to underline the parameter space, where the different simulation methods are valid. After that, the governing equations and the boundary conditions applied for the continuous phase of the Euler-Lagrange approach used in the present thesis are given. In the subsequent section the governing equations for the solid particles and their interaction with smooth and rough walls are discussed. Here a new wall roughness model for the particles which incorporates an amplitude parameter used in technical applications such as the mean roughness height or the root-mean-squared roughness is presented. After that, the coupling mechanisms between the phases and the algorithmic realization are discussed. Furthermore, a new agglomeration model capable to treat interparticle collisions with friction is presented. However, the agglomeration model is not evaluated in such a detail as the interparticle collisions and the particle-wall collisions. The reason is that it does not represent a central aspect of this thesis. The numerical methods for the continuous and the disperse phase are presented in the subsequent section. The efficient algorithm to detect the interparticle

  11. Assessing the influence of surface roughness on the epilithic colonisation of limestones by non-contact techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller, A. Z.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of stone colonisation by microorganisms has led to an extensive literature on mechanisms and rates of physicochemical degradation of stone surface, both in laboratory and field contexts. Biological colonisation of a stone surface depends on intrinsic stone parameters like mineral composition, texture, porosity, and permeability, as well as on environmental parameters. In the present study, quantification of stone surface roughness and its relationship to epilithic colonisation was demonstrated for three types of limestones throughout non-destructive techniques, namely optical surface roughness instrument and digital image analysis. According to the roughness average (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz determined for Ançã limestone, Lioz limestone and Lecce stone, it can be concluded that great surface roughness stones render them prone to microbial colonisation.La colonización de la piedra por microorganismos ha generado una extensa literatura sobre los mecanismos y tasas de degradación fisicoquímica de las superficies pétreas, tanto en laboratorio como en estudios de campo. La colonización biológica de piedra de construcción depende de parámetros intrínsecos como son su composición mineral, textura, porosidad y permeabilidad, así como de parámetros ambientales. Este estudio demuestra la relación entre la rugosidad superficial de la piedra y la colonización epilítica, cuantificada en tres tipos de caliza mediante técnicas no destructivas: medida de la rugosidad superficial usando un perfilómetro óptico y análisis digital de imágenes. De acuerdo con la rugosidad media aritmética (Ra y la amplitud media de rugosidad (Rz, determinadas para la caliza de Ançã, la caliza de Lioz y la piedra de Lecce, puede concluirse que las piedras con alta rugosidad superficial son más propensas a la colonización microbiana.

  12. The influence of the surface roughness parameterization on remote sensing-based estimates of evapotranspiration from vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, J. G.; Kustas, W. P.; Gao, F.; Nieto, H.; Prueger, J. H.; Hipps, L.

    2017-12-01

    Because the judicious application of water is key to ensuring berry quality, information regarding evapotranspiration (ET) is critical when making irrigation and other crop management decisions for vineyards. Increasingly, wine grape producers seek to use remote sensing-based models to monitor ET and inform management decisions. However, the parameterization schemes used by these models do not fully account for the effects of the highly-structured canopy architecture on either the roughness characteristics of the vineyard or the turbulent transport and exchange within and above the vines. To investigate the effects of vineyard structure on the roughness length (zo) and displacement height (do) of vineyards, data collected from 2013 to 2016 as a part of the Grape Remote Sensing Atmospheric Profiling and Evapotranspiration Experiment (GRAPEX), an ongoing multi-agency field campaign conducted in the Central Valley of California, was used. Specifically, vertical profiles (2.5 m, 3.75 m, 5 m, and 8 m, agl) of wind velocity collected under near-neutral conditions were used to estimate do and zo and characterize how these roughness parameters vary in response changing environmental conditions. The roughness length was found to vary as a function of wind direction. It increased sigmoidally from a minimum near 0.15 m when the wind direction was parallel to the vine rows to a maximum between 0.3 m and 0.4 m when the winds were perpendicularly to the rows. Similarly, do was found responds strongly to changes in vegetation density as measured via leaf area index (LAI). Although the maximum varied from year-to-year, do increased rapidly after bud break in all cases and then remained constant for the remainder of the growing season. A comparison of the model output from the remote sensing-based two-source energy balance (TSEB) model using the standard roughness parameterization scheme and the empirical relationships derived from observations indicates a that the modeled ET

  13. Simulation of Co-Seismic Off-Fault Stress Effects: Influence of Fault Roughness and Pore Pressure Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fälth, B.; Lund, B.; Hökmark, H.

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at improved safety assessment of geological nuclear waste repositories, we use dynamic 3D earthquake simulations to estimate the potential for co-seismic off-fault distributed fracture slip. Our model comprises a 12.5 x 8.5 km strike-slip fault embedded in a full space continuum where we apply a homogeneous initial stress field. In the reference case (Case 1) the fault is planar and oriented optimally for slip, given the assumed stress field. To examine the potential impact of fault roughness, we also study cases where the fault surface has undulations with self-similar fractal properties. In both the planar and the undulated cases the fault has homogeneous frictional properties. In a set of ten rough fault models (Case 2), the fault friction is equal to that of Case 1, meaning that these models generate lower seismic moments than Case 1. In another set of ten rough fault models (Case 3), the fault dynamic friction is adjusted such that seismic moments on par with that of Case 1 are generated. For the propagation of the earthquake rupture we adopt the linear slip-weakening law and obtain Mw 6.4 in Case 1 and Case 3, and Mw 6.3 in Case 2 (35 % lower moment than Case 1). During rupture we monitor the off-fault stress evolution along the fault plane at 250 m distance and calculate the corresponding evolution of the Coulomb Failure Stress (CFS) on optimally oriented hypothetical fracture planes. For the stress-pore pressure coupling, we assume Skempton's coefficient B = 0.5 as a base case value, but also examine the sensitivity to variations of B. We observe the following: (I) The CFS values, and thus the potential for fracture slip, tend to increase with the distance from the hypocenter. This is in accordance with results by other authors. (II) The highest CFS values are generated by quasi-static stress concentrations around fault edges and around large scale fault bends, where we obtain values of the order of 10 MPa. (III) Locally, fault roughness may have a

  14. Towards predictive models for transitionally rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahaman-Elena, Nabil; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    We analyze and model the previously presented decomposition for flow variables in DNS of turbulence over transitionally rough surfaces. The flow is decomposed into two contributions: one produced by the overlying turbulence, which has no footprint of the surface texture, and one induced by the roughness, which is essentially the time-averaged flow around the surface obstacles, but modulated in amplitude by the first component. The roughness-induced component closely resembles the laminar steady flow around the roughness elements at the same non-dimensional roughness size. For small - yet transitionally rough - textures, the roughness-free component is essentially the same as over a smooth wall. Based on these findings, we propose predictive models for the onset of the transitionally rough regime. Project supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

  15. Effect of surface roughness on ultrasonic echo amplitude in aluminium-copper alloy castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardar, R.; Pathak, S.D.; Prabhakar, O.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the influence of test surface roughness on ultrasonic back-wall echo (BWE) amplitude in Al-4.5%Cu alloy cast specimens has been studied. The results indicate that as the value of surface roughness of the specimen increases, the value of relating BWE amplitude at a given probe frequency decreases. However, under the present set of experimental conditions, the decrease in BWE amplitude with the increase in surface roughness of the test specimen is found to be appreciable at 10 MHz probe frequency. (author)

  16. Influence of epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium surface coatings on surface roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Moshabab A.; AlShahrani, Ibrahim; Almoammar, Salem; Durgesh, Bangalore H.; Kheraif, Abdulaziz A. Al; Hashem, Mohamed I.

    2018-02-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium surface coatings on surface roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires Methods. Three different coated (Epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium) and one uncoated Ni-Ti archwires were evaluated in the present study. Surface roughness (Ra) was assessed using a non-contact surface profilometer. The mechanical properties (nano-hardness and elastic modulus) were measured using a nanoindenter. Bacterial adhesion assays were performed using Streptococcus mutans (MS) and streptococcus sobrinus (SS) in an in-vitro set up. The data obtained were analyzed using analyses of variance, Tukey’s post hoc test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Result. The highest Ra values (1.29 ± 0.49) were obtained for epoxy coated wires and lowest Ra values (0.29 ± 0.16) were obtained for the uncoated wires. No significant differences in the Ra values were observed between the rhodium coated and uncoated archwires (P > 0.05). The highest nano-hardness (3.72 ± 0.24) and elastic modulus values (61.15 ± 2.59) were obtained for uncoated archwires and the lowest nano-hardness (0.18 ± 0.10) and elastic modulus values (4.84 ± 0.65) were observed for epoxy coated archwires. No significant differences in nano-hardness and elastic modulus values were observed between the coated archwires (P > 0.05). The adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (MS) to the wires was significantly greater than that of streptococcus sobrinus (SS). The epoxy coated wires demonstrated an increased adhesion of MS and SS and the uncoated wires demonstrated decreased biofilm adhesion. The Spearman correlation test showed that MS and SS adhesion was positively correlated with the surface roughness of the wires. Conclusion. The different surface coatings significantly influence the roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion parameters of the archwires. The

  17. Bacterial cell wall composition and the influence of antibiotics by cell-wall and whole-cell NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Joseph A. H.; Cegelski, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    The ability to characterize bacterial cell-wall composition and structure is crucial to understanding the function of the bacterial cell wall, determining drug modes of action and developing new-generation therapeutics. Solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool to quantify chemical composition and to map cell-wall architecture in bacteria and plants, even in the context of unperturbed intact whole cells. In this review, we discuss solid-state NMR approaches to define peptidoglycan composition and to characterize the modes of action of old and new antibiotics, focusing on examples in Staphylococcus aureus. We provide perspectives regarding the selected NMR strategies as we describe the exciting and still-developing cell-wall and whole-cell NMR toolkit. We also discuss specific discoveries regarding the modes of action of vancomycin analogues, including oritavancin, and briefly address the reconsideration of the killing action of β-lactam antibiotics. In such chemical genetics approaches, there is still much to be learned from perturbations enacted by cell-wall assembly inhibitors, and solid-state NMR approaches are poised to address questions of cell-wall composition and assembly in S. aureus and other organisms. PMID:26370936

  18. Lubricant influence on the ejection and roughness of in-die electro sinter forged Ti-discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, Emanuele; Nielsen, Chris Valentin

    2018-01-01

    Electro Sinter Forging (ESF) is a new sintering process based on Joule heating by high electrical current flowing through compacted metal powder under mechanical pressure. The whole process takes about three seconds and is based on a closed-die setup, where the sample is sintered inside a die....... A near-net shape component is therefore manufactured. One of the challenges associated with this process is the ejection of the sample after sintering. Due to powder compaction and axial loading during sintering, a radial pressure is generated at the die/sample interface. Consequently, the ejection can...... of commercially pure titanium powder. The force was measured while ejecting the samples by using a speed-controlled press. The surface roughness parameter Sa was measured by using a laser confocal microscope....

  19. Influence of surface roughness on the elastic-light scattering patterns of micron-sized aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, J.-C.; Fernandes, G. E.; Aptowicz, K. B.; Pan, Y.-L.; Chang, R. K.

    2010-04-01

    The relation between the surface roughness of aerosol particles and the appearance of island-like features in their angle-resolved elastic-light scattering patterns is investigated both experimentally and with numerical simulation. Elastic scattering patterns of polystyrene spheres, Bacillus subtilis spores and cells, and NaCl crystals are measured and statistical properties of the island-like intensity features in their patterns are presented. The island-like features for each class of particle are found to be similar; however, principal-component analysis applied to extracted features is able to differentiate between some of the particle classes. Numerically calculated scattering patterns of Chebyshev particles and aggregates of spheres are analyzed and show qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  20. Surface roughness effects on turbulent Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mo; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent Couette flow with two-dimensional (2-D) rod roughness is performed to examine the effects of the surface roughness. The Reynolds number based on the channel centerline laminar velocity (Uco) and channel half height (h) is Re =7200. The 2-D rods are periodically arranged with a streamwise pitch of λ = 8 k on the bottom wall, and the roughness height is k = 0.12 h. It is shown that the wall-normal extent for the logarithmic layer is significantly shortened in the rough-wall turbulent Couette flow, compared to a turbulent Couette flow with smooth wall. Although the Reynolds stresses are increased in a turbulent channel flow with surface roughness in the outer layer due to large-scale ejection motions produced by the 2-D rods, those of the rough-wall Couette flow are decreased. Isosurfaces of the u-structures averaged in time suggest that the decrease of the turbulent activity near the centerline is associated with weakened large-scale counter-rotating roll modes by the surface roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).

  1. Influence of PCMs on thermal behavior of building walls: experimental study using the walls of a reduced scale room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gounni Ayoub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Phase-Change Materials (PCM for lightweight building applications can increase equivalent thermal mass and provide energy savings. In the present experimental work, the heat transfer performance testing of some building walls, with or without PCM, is carried out using a reduced-scale cubic room (the test-cell. The cubic cell is heated by an incandescent bulb placed on its centre, and it is housed in an air-conditioned large-scale room that allows to control the ambient air temperature. The effect of the double PCM layer and of its location relatively to the outside surface of the wall is tested and discussed in terms of overall transmitted heat flux and in terms of reduction of the inside and outside surface temperatures. Findings shows that the additional inertia introduced by the PCM leads to a reduced overall heat flux transmission by the wall and to a lesser daily temperature amplitude on the surface of the wall that enhances the thermal comfort inside the building. In the next step of this work, the case of sandwich walls with air gap, and with wood and PCM layers will be considered.

  2. Influence of PCMs on thermal behavior of building walls: experimental study using the walls of a reduced scale room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounni, Ayoub; Tahar Mabrouk, Mohamed; Kheiri, Abdelhamid; El alami, Mustapha

    2017-11-01

    Using Phase-Change Materials (PCM) for lightweight building applications can increase equivalent thermal mass and provide energy savings. In the present experimental work, the heat transfer performance testing of some building walls, with or without PCM, is carried out using a reduced-scale cubic room (the test-cell). The cubic cell is heated by an incandescent bulb placed on its centre, and it is housed in an air-conditioned large-scale room that allows to control the ambient air temperature. The effect of the double PCM layer and of its location relatively to the outside surface of the wall is tested and discussed in terms of overall transmitted heat flux and in terms of reduction of the inside and outside surface temperatures. Findings shows that the additional inertia introduced by the PCM leads to a reduced overall heat flux transmission by the wall and to a lesser daily temperature amplitude on the surface of the wall that enhances the thermal comfort inside the building. In the next step of this work, the case of sandwich walls with air gap, and with wood and PCM layers will be considered.

  3. Influence of Joule heating on current-induced domain wall depinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, Simone, E-mail: simone.moretti@usal.es; Raposo, Victor; Martinez, Eduardo [University of Salamanca, Plaza de los Caidos, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-06-07

    The domain wall depinning from a notch in a Permalloy nanostrip on top of a SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate is studied theoretically under application of static magnetic fields and the injection of short current pulses. The influence of Joule heating on current-induced domain wall depinning is explored self-consistently by coupling the magnetization dynamics in the ferromagnetic strip to the heat transport throughout the system. Our results indicate that Joule heating plays a remarkable role in these processes, resulting in a reduction in the critical depinning field and/or in a temporary destruction of the ferromagnetic order for typically injected current pulses. In agreement with experimental observations, similar pinning-depinning phase diagrams can be deduced for both current polarities when the Joule heating is taken into account. These observations, which are incompatible with the sole contribution of spin transfer torques, provide a deeper understanding of the physics underlying these processes and establish the real scope of the spin transfer torque. They are also relevant for technological applications based on current-induced domain-wall motion along soft strips.

  4. Influence of the microstructure on the supercapacitive behavior of polyaniline/single-wall carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinay; Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Environment and Energy, KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2006-06-19

    Polyaniline/single-wall carbon nanotube (PANI/SWCNT) composites were prepared by in situ potentiostatic deposition of PANI onto SWCNTs at the potential of 0.75V versus SCE, with the aim to investigate the influence of microstructure on the specific capacitance of PANI/SWCNT composites. It was found that the specific capacitance of the PANI/SWCNT composites is strongly influenced by their microstructure, which is correlated to the wt.% of the PANI deposited onto the SWCNTs. The optimum condition, corresponding to the highest specific capacitance, 463Fg{sup -1} (at 10mAcm{sup -2}), was obtained for 73wt.% PANI deposited onto SWCNTs. The specific capacitance of the PANI/SWCNT composite electrode was highly stable, with a capacitive decrease of 5% during the first 500 cycles and just 1% during the next 1000 cycles, indicative of the excellent cyclic stability of the composite for supercapacitor applications. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the Influence of Wind-Driven Rain on Moisture in Cellular Concrete Wall Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsabry A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The non-stationary moisture level of a cellular concrete wall board in a heated utility building located in the northern part of the town of Brest (Belarus, depending on the climatic influence, was assessed in this work. The results were obtained both in a calculation experiment and a physical test. It was observed that the main reason for the high moisture levels in cellular concrete is wind-driven rain intensifying the process of free capillary moisture transfer. A comparative analysis of the results of the physical test and the calculation experiment showed that the THSS software elaborated by the authors was able to predict the actual moisture levels of the shielding structure under study accurately enough when precise data concerning the thermal and physical characteristics of the materials as well as the occurring climatic influences were submitted.

  6. Evaluation of the Influence of Wind-Driven Rain on Moisture in Cellular Concrete Wall Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabry, A.; Nikitsin, V. I.; Kofanov, V. A.; Backiel-Brzozowska, B.

    2017-08-01

    The non-stationary moisture level of a cellular concrete wall board in a heated utility building located in the northern part of the town of Brest (Belarus), depending on the climatic influence, was assessed in this work. The results were obtained both in a calculation experiment and a physical test. It was observed that the main reason for the high moisture levels in cellular concrete is wind-driven rain intensifying the process of free capillary moisture transfer. A comparative analysis of the results of the physical test and the calculation experiment showed that the THSS software elaborated by the authors was able to predict the actual moisture levels of the shielding structure under study accurately enough when precise data concerning the thermal and physical characteristics of the materials as well as the occurring climatic influences were submitted.

  7. Influence of composition and roughness on the pigment mapping of paintings using mid-infrared fiberoptics reflectance spectroscopy (mid-IR FORS) and multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Clarimma; Bagán, Héctor; García, Jose Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Mid-infrared fiberoptics reflectance spectroscopy (mid-IR FORS) is a very interesting technique for artwork characterization purposes. However, the fact that the spectra obtained are a mixture of surface (specular) and volume (diffuse) reflection is a significant drawback. The physical and chemical features of the artwork surface may produce distortions in the spectra that hinder comparison with reference databases acquired in transmission mode. Several studies attempted to understand the influence of the different variables and propose procedures to improve the interpretation of the spectra. This article is focused on the application of mid-IR FORS and multivariate calibration to the analysis of easel paintings. The objectives are the evaluation of the influence of the surface roughness on the spectra, the influence of the matrix composition for the classification of unknown spectra, and the capability of obtaining pigment composition mappings. A first evaluation of a fast procedure for spectra management and pigment discrimination is discussed. The results demonstrate the capability of multivariate methods, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA), to model the distortions of the reflectance spectra and to delimitate and discriminate areas of uniform composition. The roughness of the painting surface is found to be an important factor affecting the shape and relative intensity of the spectra. A mapping of the major pigments of a painting is possible using mid-IR FORS and PLS-DA when the calibration set is a palette that includes the potential pigments present in the artwork mixed with the appropriate binder and that shows the different paint textures.

  8. Analysis of accuracy in photogrammetric roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowicz, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Marcin; Pluymakers, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Regarding permeability, one of the most important features of shale gas reservoirs is the effective aperture of cracks opened during hydraulic fracturing, both propped and unpropped. In a propped fracture, the aperture is controlled mostly by proppant size and its embedment, and fracture surface roughness only has a minor influence. In contrast, in an unpropped fracture aperture is controlled by the fracture roughness and the wall displacement. To measure fracture surface roughness, we have used the photogrammetric method since it is time- and cost-efficient. To estimate the accuracy of this method we compare the photogrammetric measurements with reference measurements taken with a White Light Interferometer (WLI). Our photogrammetric setup is based on high resolution 50 Mpx camera combined with a focus stacking technique. The first step for photogrammetric measurements is to determine the optimal camera positions and lighting. We compare multiple scans of one sample, taken with different settings of lighting and camera positions, with the reference WLI measurement. The second step is to perform measurements of all studied fractures with the parameters that produced the best results in the first step. To compare photogrammetric and WLI measurements we regrid both data sets onto a regular 10 μm grid and determined the best fit, followed by a calculation of the difference between the measurements. The first results of the comparison show that for 90 % of measured points the absolute vertical distance between WLI and photogrammetry is less than 10 μm, while the mean absolute vertical distance is 5 μm. This proves that our setup can be used for fracture roughness measurements in shales.

  9. Capillary Condensation in Pores with Rough Walls:

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryk, P.; Rżysko, W.; Malijevský, Alexandr; Sokołowski, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 313, č. 1 (2007), s. 41-52 ISSN 0021-9797 Grant - others:TOK(XE) 509249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : adsorption * pore * capillary condensation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2007

  10. Influence of the structural properties on the pseudocritical magnetic behavior of single-wall ferromagnetic nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-Enriquez, C.D. [PCM Computational Applications, Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Manizales, A.A. 127 Manizales (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [PCM Computational Applications, Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Manizales, A.A. 127 Manizales (Colombia); Restrepo, J. [Grupo de Magnetismo y Simulacion Gplus, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2012-04-15

    In this work we address the influence of the crystalline structure, concretely when the system under study is formed by square or hexagonal unit cells, upon the magnetic properties and pseudocritical behavior of single-wall ferromagnetic nanotubes. We focus not only on the effect of the geometrical shape of the unit cell but also on their dimensions. The model employed is based on the Monte Carlo method, the Metropolis dynamics and a nearest neighbors classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian. Magnetization per magnetic site, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and magnetic energy were computed. These properties were computed varying the system size, unit cell dimension and temperature. The dependence of the nearest neighbor exchange integral on the nanotubes geometrical characteristics is also discussed. Results revealed a strong influence of the system topology on the magnetic properties caused by the difference in the coordination number between square and hexagonal unit cell. Moreover, the nanotubes diameter influence on magnetic properties is only observed at very low values, when the distance between atoms is less than it, presented by the 2D sheet. On the other hand, it was concluded that the surface-related finite-size effects do not influence the magnetic nanotubes properties, contrary to the case of other nano-systems as thin films and nanoparticles among others. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unit cell geometry has strong influence on the magnetic properties in ferromagnetic nanotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanotube diameter increase produces a decrease of interaction between nearest neighbor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface-related finite-size effects do not influence the magnetic nanotubes properties.

  11. Influence of the structural properties on the pseudocritical magnetic behavior of single-wall ferromagnetic nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Enríquez, C.D.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; Restrepo, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we address the influence of the crystalline structure, concretely when the system under study is formed by square or hexagonal unit cells, upon the magnetic properties and pseudocritical behavior of single-wall ferromagnetic nanotubes. We focus not only on the effect of the geometrical shape of the unit cell but also on their dimensions. The model employed is based on the Monte Carlo method, the Metropolis dynamics and a nearest neighbors classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian. Magnetization per magnetic site, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and magnetic energy were computed. These properties were computed varying the system size, unit cell dimension and temperature. The dependence of the nearest neighbor exchange integral on the nanotubes geometrical characteristics is also discussed. Results revealed a strong influence of the system topology on the magnetic properties caused by the difference in the coordination number between square and hexagonal unit cell. Moreover, the nanotubes diameter influence on magnetic properties is only observed at very low values, when the distance between atoms is less than it, presented by the 2D sheet. On the other hand, it was concluded that the surface-related finite-size effects do not influence the magnetic nanotubes properties, contrary to the case of other nano-systems as thin films and nanoparticles among others. - Highlights: ► Unit cell geometry has strong influence on the magnetic properties in ferromagnetic nanotubes. ► The nanotube diameter increase produces a decrease of interaction between nearest neighbor. ► Surface-related finite-size effects do not influence the magnetic nanotubes properties.

  12. Influence of heat-treatment on lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Fanyan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hou, Zhaohui, E-mail: zhqh96@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); He, Binhong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Ge, Chongyong; Cao, Jianguo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Kuang, Yafei, E-mail: yafeik@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Mesoporous carbons possess unique nanosheet-like pore walls which can be changed by heat treatment. ► Lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons could be influenced by the nanosheet-like walls. ► Mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties LIBs. -- Abstract: Mesoporous carbons (MCs) with nanosheet-like walls have been prepared as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries by a simple one-step infiltrating method under the action of capillary flow. The influence of heat treatment temperature on the surface topography, pore/phase structure and anode performances of as-prepared materials has been investigated. The results reveal that melted liquid-crystal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be anchored on liquid/silica interfaces by molecule engineering. After carbonization, the nanosheets are formed as the pore walls of MCs and are perpendicular to the long axis of pores. The anode properties demonstrate that C-1200 displays higher reversible capacitance than those treated in higher temperature. The rate performances of C-1200 and C-1800 are similar and more excellent than that of C-2400. These improved lithium ion anode properties could be attributed to the nanosheet-like walls of MCs which can be influenced by the heat treatment temperature.

  13. The influence of wall materials on Cs depositions in HTR coolant loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herion, J.

    1975-01-01

    The basic concepts on the effect of the wall material on the deposition of fission products in high temperature reactor (HTR) coolant loops are developed which include the mechanisms of adsorption, solubility and diffusion. General mathematical interrelations of the Cs-adsorption on technical metals are presented and discussed using experimental data from the literature. Desorption energies and frequency factors are determined from measurements of the electrons' work function of metals in Cs atmosphere from R.G. Wilson using these mathematical interrelations. The solubilities and the diffusion constants of Cs are so small in the few investigated cases (Mo, Ta) that high diffusivity paths must be taken into account. Thermochemical considerations on the influence of gaseous impurities on the deposition behaviour are lacking in reliable data. (orig./LH) [de

  14. THIN-WALLED CROSS SECTION SHAPE INFLUENCE ON STEEL MEMBER RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Urbańska-Galewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes why trending thin-walled technology is achieving popularity in steel construction sector. A purpose of this article is to present the influence of the cold-formed element cross-section shape on an axial compression and a bending moment resistance. The authors have considered four different shapes assuming constant section area and thickness. Calculations were based on three different steel grades taking into account local, distortional and overall buckling. The results are presented in a tabular and a graphical way and clearly confirm that cross-section forming distinctly impact the cold-formed member resistance. The authors choose these cross-sections that work better in compression state and the other (those slender and high that function more efficiently are subjected to bending.

  15. Floors number influence on the instability parameter of reinforced concrete wall- or core-braced buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Ellwanger

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the floors number influence on the instability parameter limit α1 of buildings braced by reinforced concrete walls and/or cores. Initially, it is showed how the Beck and König discrete and continuous models are utilized in order to define when a second order analysis is needed. The treatment given to this subject by the Brazilian code for concrete structures design (NBR 6118 is also presented. It follows a detailed analytical study that led to the derivation of equations for the limit α1 as functions of the floors number; a series of examples is presented to check their accuracy. Results are analyzed, showing the precision degree achieved and topics for continuity of research in this field are indicated.

  16. External mean flow influence on sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Catalan, Jean-Cédric

    2017-09-01

    This paper studies the influence of an external mean flow on the sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials and various configurations of coupling the poroelastic layer to the facing plates are considered. The clamped boundary of finite panels are dealt with by the modal superposition theory and the weighted residual (Garlekin) method, leading to a matrix equation solution for the sound transmission loss (STL) through the structure. The theoretical model is validated against existing theories of infinite sandwich panels with and without an external flow. The numerical results of a single incident wave show that the external mean flow has significant effects on the STL which are coupled with the clamped boundary effect dominating in the low-frequency range. The external mean flow also influences considerably the limiting incidence angle of the panel system and the effect of the incidence angle on the STL. However, the influences of the azimuthal angle and the external flow orientation are negligible.

  17. Turbulent flow with suction in smooth and rough pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, Andre.

    1977-11-01

    It concerns an experimental study of turbulent flow inside a pipe with rough and porous wall and suction applied through it. The first part recall the basic knowledge concerning the turbulent flow with roughness. In second part statistical equations of fluid wall stress are written in the case of a permeable rough wall, in order to underline the respective role played by viscosity and pressure terms. In the third part the dynamic equilibrium of the flow is experimentally undertaken in the smooth and rough range with and without wall suction. Some empirical formulae are proposed for the mean velocity profiles in the inertial range and for friction velocity with suction. In the case of the sand roughness used, it does not seem that critical Reynolds number of transition from smooth to rough range is varied [fr

  18. Friction and lubrication modelling in sheet metal forming: Influence of lubrication amount, tool roughness and sheet coating on product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, J.; Wiebenga, J. H.; Carleer, B.

    2017-09-01

    In the stamping of automotive parts, friction and lubrication play a key role in achieving high quality products. In the development process of new automotive parts, it is therefore crucial to accurately account for these effects in sheet metal forming simulations. This paper presents a selection of results considering friction and lubrication modelling in sheet metal forming simulations of a front fender product. For varying lubrication conditions, the front fender can either show wrinkling or fractures. The front fender is modelled using different lubrication amounts, tool roughness’s and sheet coatings to show the strong influence of friction on both part quality and the overall production stability. For this purpose, the TriboForm software is used in combination with the AutoForm software. The results demonstrate that the TriboForm software enables the simulation of friction behaviour for varying lubrication conditions, i.e. resulting in a generally applicable approach for friction characterization under industrial sheet metal forming process conditions.

  19. Influence of Cutting Fluid Flow Rate and Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Flank Wear of TiAlN Coated Tool In Turning AISI 1015 Steel Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moganapriya C.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters (Depth of cut, feed rate, spindle speed and cutting fluid flow rate on the surface roughness and flank wear of physical vapor deposition (PVD Cathodic arc evaporation coated TiAlN tungsten carbide cutting tool insert during CNC turning of AISI 1015 mild steel. Analysis of Variance has been applied to determine the critical influence of cutting parameters. Taguchi orthogonal test design has been employed to optimize the process parameters affecting surface roughness and tool wear. Depth of cut was found to be the most dominant factor contributing to high surface roughness (67.5% of the inserts. However, cutting speed, feed rate and flow rate of cutting fluid showed minimal contribution to surface roughness. On the other hand, cutting speed (45.6% and flow rate of cutting fluid (23% were the dominant factors influencing tool wear. The optimum cutting conditions for desired surface roughness constitutes the following parameters such as medium cutting speed, low feed rate, low depth of cut and high cutting fluid flow rate. Minimal tool wear was achieved for the following process parameters such as low cutting speed, low feed rate, medium depth of cut and high cutting fluid flow rate.

  20. The removal of the deep lateral wall in orbital decompression: Its contribution to exophthalmos reduction and influence on consecutive diplopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldeschi, Lelio; Macandie, Kerr; Hintschich, Christoph; Wakelkamp, Iris M. M. J.; Prummel, Mark F.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the contribution of maximal removal of the deep lateral wall of the orbit to exophthalmos reduction in Graves' orbitopathy and its influence on the onset of consecutive diplopia. DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: The medical records of two cohorts of patients affected by

  1. Computer simulations of a rough sphere fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyklema, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer simulation is described on rough hard spheres with a continuously variable roughness parameter, including the limits of smooth and completely rough spheres. A system of 500 particles is simulated with a homogeneous mass distribution at 8 different densities and for 5 different values of the roughness parameter. For these 40 physically different situations the intermediate scattering function for 6 values of the wave number, the orientational correlation functions and the velocity autocorrelation functions have been calculated. A comparison has been made with a neutron scattering experiment on neopentane and agreement was good for an intermediate value of the roughness parameter. Some often made approximations in neutron scattering experiments are also checked. The influence of the variable roughness parameter on the correlation functions has been investigated and three simple stochastic models studied to describe the orientational correlation function which shows the most pronounced dependence on the roughness. (Auth.)

  2. Influence of boundary geometry in domain wall propagation in magnetic films with asymmetric holes: Micromagnetic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alija, A; Sobrado, I; Rodriguez-RodrIguez, G; Velez, M; Alameda, J M; MartIn, J I; Parrondo, J M R

    2010-01-01

    Micromagnetic simulations have been performed in uniaxial magnetic films with 2D array of asymmetric arrow shape holes. In order to understand the asymmetric pinning potential created by the holes, different boundary geometries conditions are used on the simulations. The depinning fields for forward and backward domain wall propagation have been calculated by the analysis of the energy landscapes as a function of the domain wall position. Domain wall depinning occurs preferentially at the free ends of the domain wall at the film boundaries. We have found that the domain wall propagation is different at the top/bottom boundaries of the simulated film which can be understood in terms of the magnetostatic energy and the chirality of the domain wall.

  3. Skin friction measurements of systematically-varied roughness: Probing the role of roughness amplitude and skewness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Julio; Flack, Karen; Schultz, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Real-world engineering systems which feature either external or internal wall-bounded turbulent flow are routinely affected by surface roughness. This gives rise to performance degradation in the form of increased drag or head loss. However, at present there is no reliable means to predict these performance losses based upon the roughness topography alone. This work takes a systematic approach by generating random surface roughness in which the surface statistics are closely controlled. Skin friction and roughness function results will be presented for two groups of these rough surfaces. The first group is Gaussian (i.e. zero skewness) in which the root-mean-square roughness height (krms) is varied. The second group has a fixed krms, and the skewness is varied from approximately -1 to +1. The effect of the roughness amplitude and skewness on the skin friction will be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the effect of these parameters on the roughness function in the transitionally-rough flow regime. For example, the role these parameters play in the monotonic or inflectional nature of the roughness function will be addressed. Future research into the details of the turbulence structure over these rough surfaces will also be outlined. Research funded by U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  4. Influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the cognitive abilities of Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayapina, Nina V.; Sergievich, Alexander A.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Lisitskaya, Irina G.; Khoroshikh, Pavel P.; Batalova, Tatyana A.; Tsarouhas, Kostas; Spandidos, Demetrios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.; Fenga, Concettina; Golokhvast, Kirill S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the neurobehavioral effects of carbon nanomaterials, particularly those of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), have concentrated on cognitive effects, but data are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of MWCNTs on a number of higher nervous system functions of Wistar rats. For a period of 10 days, two experimental groups were fed with MWCNTs of different diameters (MWCNT-1 group, 8–10 nm; MWCNT-2 group, 18–20 nm) once a day at a dosage of 500 mg/kg. In the open-field test, reductions of integral indications of researching activity were observed for the two MWCNT-treated groups, with a parallel significant (Ptest, integral indices of researching activity in the MWCNT-1 and MWCNT-2 groups reduced by day 10 by 51 and 62%, respectively, while rat stress levels remained relatively unchanged. In the universal problem solving box test, reductions in motivation and energy indices of researching activity were observed in the two experimental groups. Searching activity in the MWCNT-1 group by day 3 was reduced by 50% (Ptests demonstrated that MWCNT-treated rats experienced a significant reduction of some of their cognitive abilities, a disturbing and worrying finding, taking into consideration the continuing and accelerating use of carbon nanotubes in medicine and science. PMID:27588053

  5. The influence of triggers geometry upon the stiffness of cylindrical thin walled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soica, Adrian; Radu, Gheorghe N.

    2014-06-01

    Today's automobile manufacturers are increasingly using lightweight materials to reduce weight; these include plastics, composites, aluminium, magnesium alloys, and also new types of high strength steels. Many of these materials have limited strength or ductility, therefore in many cases the rupture being serious consequences during crashes, underscore Picketta et al. in their studies. Automotive structures must deform plastically in a short period of time, a few milliseconds, to absorb the crash energy in a controllable manner. It must be light and enable economically mass-production [1]. FE models rapidly gained acceptance among engineers. Many other factors facilitated the development of vehicle models by shell finite elements since most of the geometry of the structural surfaces was already on computer graphic files. Kee Poong Kim and Hoon Huh emphasize that the crashworthiness of each vehicle part needs to be evaluated at the initial stage of design for good performance of an assembled vehicle. As the dynamic behaviour of structural members is different from the static one, the crashworthiness of the vehicle structures has to be assessed by impact analysis. The paper analyzes the influence of trigger geometry upon the compression of thin-walled cylindrical tubes. Simulations performed on a simple model showed the dependence between triggers area and deformation times as well as the maximum deformations obtained for various speeds at which the simulations ware carried out. Likewise, the geometry of trigger leads to different results.

  6. Remarkable influence of slack on the vibration of a single-walled carbon nanotube resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhiyuan; Fu, Mengqi; Wu, Gongtao; Qiu, Chenguang; Shu, Jiapei; Guo, Yao; Wei, Xianlong; Gao, Song; Chen, Qing

    2016-04-01

    We for the first time quantitatively investigate experimentally the remarkable influence of slack on the vibration of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) resonator with a changeable channel length fabricated in situ inside a scanning electron microscope, compare the experimental results with the theoretical predictions calculated from the measured geometric and mechanical parameters of the same SWCNT, and find the following novel points. We demonstrate experimentally that as the slack s is increased from about zero to 1.8%, the detected vibration transforms from single-mode to multimode vibration, and the gate-tuning ability gradually attenuates for all the vibration modes. The quadratic tuning coefficient α decreases linearly with when the gate voltage Vdcg is small and the nanotube resonator operates in the beam regime. The linear tuning coefficient γ decreases linearly with when Vdcg has an intermediate value and the nanotube resonator operates in the catenary regime. The calculated α and γ fit the experimental values of the even in-plane mode reasonably well. As the slack is increased, the quality factor Q of the resonator linearly goes up, but the increase is far less steep than that predicted by the previous theoretical study. Our results are important to understand and design resonators based on CNT and other nanomaterials.

  7. Influence of radial magnetic field on the peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in a curved complaint walls channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available Peristaltic transport of Williamson fluid in a curved geometry is modeled. Problem formulation is completed by complaint walls of channel. Radial magnetic field in the analysis is taken into account. Resulting problem formulation is simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Series solution is obtained for small Weissenberg number. Influences of different embedded parameters on the axial velocity and stream function are examined. As expected the velocity in curved channel is not symmetric. Axial velocity is noticed decreasing for Hartman number. Trapped bolus increases for Hartman and curvature parameters. Keywords: Williamson fluid, Curved channel, Radial magnetic field, Complaint walls

  8. Experimental Investigation on the Influence of a Double-Walled Confined Width on the Velocity Field of a Submerged Waterjet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Ding

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current research on confined submerged waterjets mainly focuses on the flow field of the impinging jet and wall jet. The double-sided wall vertically confined waterjet, which is widely used in many fields such as mining, cleaning and surface strengthening, has rarely been studied so far. In order to explore the influence of a double-sided wall confined width on the velocity field of submerged waterjet, an experiment was conducted with the application of 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV technology. The distribution of mean velocity and turbulent velocity in both horizontal and vertical planes was used to characterize the flow field under various confined widths. The results show that the vertical confinement has an obvious effect on the decay rate of the mean centerline velocity. When the confined width changes from 15 to 5, the velocity is reduced by 20%. In addition, with the decrease of the confined width, the jet has a tendency to spread horizontally. The vertically confined region induces a space hysteresis effect which changes the location of the transition region moving downstream. There are local negative pressure zones separating the fluid and the wall. This study of a double-walled confined jet provides some valuable information with respect to its mechanism and industrial application.

  9. A Clostridium difficile Cell Wall Glycopolymer Locus Influences Bacterial Shape, Polysaccharide Production and Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Chu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a diarrheagenic pathogen associated with significant mortality and morbidity. While its glucosylating toxins are primary virulence determinants, there is increasing appreciation of important roles for non-toxin factors in C. difficile pathogenesis. Cell wall glycopolymers (CWGs influence the virulence of various pathogens. Five C. difficile CWGs, including PSII, have been structurally characterized, but their biosynthesis and significance in C. difficile infection is unknown. We explored the contribution of a conserved CWG locus to C. difficile cell-surface integrity and virulence. Attempts at disrupting multiple genes in the locus, including one encoding a predicted CWG exporter mviN, were unsuccessful, suggesting essentiality of the respective gene products. However, antisense RNA-mediated mviN downregulation resulted in slight morphology defects, retarded growth, and decreased surface PSII deposition. Two other genes, lcpA and lcpB, with putative roles in CWG anchoring, could be disrupted by insertional inactivation. lcpA- and lcpB- mutants had distinct phenotypes, implying non-redundant roles for the respective proteins. The lcpB- mutant was defective in surface PSII deposition and shedding, and exhibited a remodeled cell surface characterized by elongated and helical morphology, aberrantly-localized cell septae, and an altered surface-anchored protein profile. Both lcpA- and lcpB- strains also displayed heightened virulence in a hamster model of C. difficile disease. We propose that gene products of the C. difficile CWG locus are essential, that they direct the production/assembly of key antigenic surface polysaccharides, and thereby have complex roles in virulence.

  10. Nanoscale roughness effect on Maxwell-like boundary conditions for the Boltzmann equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brull, S., E-mail: Stephane.Brull@math.u-bordeaux.fr; Charrier, P., E-mail: Pierre.Charrier@math.u-bordeaux.fr; Mieussens, L., E-mail: Luc.Mieussens@math.u-bordeaux.fr [University of Bordeaux, CNRS, Bordeaux INP, IMB, UMR 5251, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2016-08-15

    It is well known that the roughness of the wall has an effect on microscale gas flows. This effect can be shown for large Knudsen numbers by using a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation. However, when the wall is rough at a nanometric scale, it is necessary to use a very small mesh size which is much too expansive. An alternative approach is to incorporate the roughness effect in the scattering kernel of the boundary condition, such as the Maxwell-like kernel introduced by the authors in a previous paper. Here, we explain how this boundary condition can be implemented in a discrete velocity approximation of the Boltzmann equation. Moreover, the influence of the roughness is shown by computing the structure scattering pattern of mono-energetic beams of the incident gas molecules. The effect of the angle of incidence of these molecules, of their mass, and of the morphology of the wall is investigated and discussed in a simplified two-dimensional configuration. The effect of the azimuthal angle of the incident beams is shown for a three-dimensional configuration. Finally, the case of non-elastic scattering is considered. All these results suggest that our approach is a promising way to incorporate enough physics of gas-surface interaction, at a reasonable computing cost, to improve kinetic simulations of micro- and nano-flows.

  11. Influences of overload on low cycle fatigue behaviors of elbow pipe with local wall thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kyohei; Ogino, Kanako; Takahashi, Koji; Ando, Kotoji; Urabe, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue tests were conducted using 100A elbow pipe specimens with or without local wall thinning. Local wall thinning was machined on the inside of the extrados of test elbows to simulate metal loss due to flow-accelerated corrosion or liquid droplet impingement erosion. Low cycle fatigue tests were carried out under displacement control with an inner pressure of 9 MPa. To simulate seismic events, low cycle fatigue tests were carried out on elbow pipe subjected to cyclic overloads. Regardless of local wall thinning, fatigue life of overload pipe was not so different from that of the non-overload pipe in appearance. Miner's rule can be applied to evaluate fatigue life of the elbow pipes with and without wall thinning, even if overload is applied. (author)

  12. Influence of Housing Wall Compliance on Shock Absorbers in the Context of Vehicle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvirenti, G.; Faria, C.

    2017-10-01

    Shock absorbers play a key role in vehicle dynamics. Researchers have spent significant effort in order to understand phenomena associated with this component, but there are still several issues to address, in part because new technology development and design trends continually lead to new challenges, among which weight reduction is crucial. For shock absorbers, weight reduction is related to the use of new materials (e.g. composite) or new design paradigms (e.g. more complex geometry, wall thickness, etc.). All of them are directly linked to wall compliance values higher than the actual ones. The present article proposes a first analysis of the phenomena introduced by a high wall compliance, through a modelling approach and various simulations in order to understand the vehicle behaviour changes. It is shown that high values of wall compliance lead to increased hysteresis in the force-velocity curve. However, comfort, handling and ride performances are not significantly affected by this designing parameter.

  13. Microscopic Holography for flow over rough plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talapatra, Siddharth; Hong, Jiarong; Lu, Yuan; Katz, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    Our objective is to measure the near wall flow structures in a turbulent channel flow over a rough wall. In-line microscopic holographic PIV can resolve the 3-D flow field in a small sample volume, but recording holograms through a rough surface is a challenge. To solve this problem, we match the refractive indices of the fluid with that of the wall. Proof of concept tests involve an acrylic plate containing uniformly distributed, closely packed 0.45mm high pyramids with slope angle of 22^^o located within a concentrated sodium iodide solution. Holograms recorded by a 4864 x 3248 pixel digital camera at 10X magnification provide a field of view of 3.47mm x 2.32mm and pixel resolution of 0.714 μm. Due to index matching, reconstructed seed particles can be clearly seen over the entire volume, with only faint traces with the rough wall that can be removed. Planned experiments will be performed in a 20 x 5 cm rectangular channel with the top and bottom plates having the same roughness as the sample plate.

  14. Insights into cell wall structure of Sida hermaphrodita and its influence on recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Tatjana; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Günl, Markus; Jablonowski, Nicolai David; O'Neill, Malcolm; Grün, Katharina Susanne; Grande, Philipp Michael; Leitner, Walter; Schurr, Ulrich; Usadel, Björn; Klose, Holger

    2017-07-15

    The perennial plant Sida hermaphrodita (Sida) is attracting attention as potential energy crop. Here, the first detailed view on non-cellulosic Sida cell wall polysaccharide composition, structure and architecture is given. Cell walls were prepared from Sida stems and sequentially extracted with aqueous buffers and alkali. The structures of the quantitatively predominant polysaccharides present in each fraction were determined by biochemical characterization, glycome profiling and mass spectrometry. The amounts of glucose released by Accellerase-1500 ® treatment of the cell wall and the cell wall residue remaining after each extraction were used to assess the roles of pectin and hemicellulose in the recalcitrance of Sida biomass. 4-O-Methyl glucuronoxylan with a low proportion of side substitutions was identified as the major non-cellulosic glycan component of Sida stem cell walls. Pectic polysaccharides and xylans were found to be associated with lignin, suggesting that these polysaccharides have roles in Sida cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of a conducting wall on disruptions in HBT-EP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kombargi, R.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of long wavelength magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) disruptive instabilities have been studied in a tokamak device with segmented and movable conducting walls. Coupling between the wall and the plasma was varied by systematically adjusting the radial position, b, of the conducting plates relative to the plasma surface of minor radius a. By pre-selecting the total plasma current ramp rate (dI p /dt), disruptive instabilities driven either by large edge currents or high plasma pressure were studied. Specifically, three types of disruptions caused by both external (to the plasma) and internal instabilities were obtained by changing the plasma-wall separation (b/a) and the temporal evolution of the total plasma current. The properties of these disruptions were examined using a variety of magnetic pickup coils and arrays of soft x-ray detectors. Experiments demonstrated that rapidly developing, low-n kink instabilities were suppressed if the conducting wall was positioned sufficiently near the plasma (b/a p /dt > 0) was maintained. Conducting wall stabilization of fast growing external instabilities was observed in discharges with high edge current and in plasmas with β-values near the ideal MED stability boundary. When the conducting wall was near the plasma surface and as the current profile evolved in time (dI p /dt < 0), slowly growing internal instabilities would also lead to disruptions. Disruption mechanisms for plasmas with b/a=1.52 and b/a=1.07 were compared. Differences in the precursor modes, the speed of the thermal collapse and the chronological sequence of events were found. In summary, the disruptions with an external character were eliminated when the conducting wall was moved from b/a=1.52 to b/a<1.2. Internal disruptions could not be averted even with b/a=1.07

  16. Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat extensin (LRX) proteins modify cell wall composition and influence plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, Christian; Ndinyanka Fabrice, Tohnyui; Gineau, Emilie; Mouille, Grégory; Kuhn, Benjamin M; Moller, Isabel; Abdou, Marie-Therese; Frey, Beat; Pauly, Markus; Bacic, Antony; Ringli, Christoph

    2015-06-24

    Leucine-rich repeat extensins (LRXs) are extracellular proteins consisting of an N-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and a C-terminal extensin domain containing the typical features of this class of structural hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). The LRR domain is likely to bind an interaction partner, whereas the extensin domain has an anchoring function to insolubilize the protein in the cell wall. Based on the analysis of the root hair-expressed LRX1 and LRX2 of Arabidopsis thaliana, LRX proteins are important for cell wall development. The importance of LRX proteins in non-root hair cells and on the structural changes induced by mutations in LRX genes remains elusive. The LRX gene family of Arabidopsis consists of eleven members, of which LRX3, LRX4, and LRX5 are expressed in aerial organs, such as leaves and stem. The importance of these LRX genes for plant development and particularly cell wall formation was investigated. Synergistic effects of mutations with gradually more severe growth retardation phenotypes in double and triple mutants suggest a similar function of the three genes. Analysis of cell wall composition revealed a number of changes to cell wall polysaccharides in the mutants. LRX3, LRX4, and LRX5, and most likely LRX proteins in general, are important for cell wall development. Due to the complexity of changes in cell wall structures in the lrx mutants, the exact function of LRX proteins remains to be determined. The increasingly strong growth-defect phenotypes in double and triple mutants suggests that the LRX proteins have similar functions and that they are important for proper plant development.

  17. Influence of Nitrogen Flow Rate on Friction Coefficient and Surface Roughness of TiN Coatings Deposited on Tool Steel Using Arc Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Esah; Ourdjini, Ali; Ali, Mubarak; Akhter, Parvez; Hj. Mohd Toff, Mohd Radzi; Abdul Hamid, Mansor

    In the present study, the effect of various N2 gas flow rates on friction coefficient and surface roughness of TiN-coated D2 tool steel was examined by a commercially available cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CAPVD) technique. A Pin-on-Disc test was carried out to study the Coefficient of friction (COF) versus sliding distance. A surface roughness tester measured the surface roughness parameters. The minimum values for the COF and surface roughness were recorded at a N2 gas flow rate of 200 sccm. The increase in the COF and surface roughness at a N2 gas flow rate of 100 sccm was mainly attributed to an increase in both size and number of titanium particles, whereas the increase at 300 sccm was attributed to a larger number of growth defects generated during the coating process. These ideas make it possible to optimize the coating properties as a function of N2 gas flow rate for specific applications, e.g. cutting tools for automobiles, aircraft, and various mechanical parts.

  18. The effect of surface roughness on the heat exchange and pressure-drop coefficients; Influence des rugosites de paroi sur les coefficients d'echange thermique et de perte de charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malherbe, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-02-15

    The effect of various types of roughness on the wall of an axial tube in an annular space of 15-25 mm cooled by an air-flow has been studied in the case of steady turbulence. Roughness of the type 'disrupter of the boundary layer' was set up using triangular threads of 0.2 to 0.4 mm thickness machined in the tube itself, or brass or glass wire wound on a smooth tube. Tests were also carried out using the roughness provided by regularly spaced pyramids 0.4 mm high. The results obtained showed that the heat exchange increased because of the presence of this roughness. A maximum in the heat exchange and pressure-drop coefficients was observed when the pitch equals about eight times the height of the thread. An analytical method has been developed and experiments have been carried out in which the two walls of the annular space were heated in such a way as to transmit unequal heat flows. The region considered is limited to Reynolds's numbers of between 5 X 10{sup 3} and 5 x 10{sup 4} and wall temperatures of under 250 deg C. (author) [French] L'effet de diverses rugosites sur la paroi du tube central d'un espace annulaire de diametre 15-25 mm refroidi par un ecoulement d'air a ete etudie en regime turbulent etabli. Des rugosites du type 'interrupteur de couche limite' etaient realisees au moyen de filets triangulaires, de 0,2 a 0,4 mm de hauteur usines dans l'epaisseur du tube ou de fils de laiton, ou de verre, enroules sur un tube lisse. Les essais ont porte egalement sur des rugosites constituees par des pyramides de 0,4 mm de hauteur et regulierement espacees. Les resultats obtenus ont mis en evidence une augmentation de transfert de chaleur due a la presence des elements rugueux. L'existence d'un maximum pour les coefficients d'echange thermique et de perte de charge a ete constate lorsque le pas atteint huit fois la hauteur des rugosites. Une methode analytique a ete etablie et des experiences ont ete realisees au cours desquelles les deux parois de l

  19. The defects influence on domain wall propagation in bistable glass-coated microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, V.; Zhukova, V.; Ilyn, M.; Ipatov, M.; Perov, N.; Zhukov, A.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the domain wall (DW) dynamics of magnetically bistable amorphous glass-coated Fe 74 B 13 Si 11 C 2 microwires. In according to our experimental results magnetic field dependences of DW velocity of studied microwires can be divided into two groups: with uniform or uniformly accelerated DW propagation along the microwire. Strong correlation between the type of the magnetic field dependence of domain wall velocity, v(H), and the distribution of the local nucleation fields has been observed. Moreover, we observed abrupt increasing of DW velocity (jump) on the magnetic field dependences of the domain wall velocity, v(H), for the both types of the v(H) dependences. At the same time usual linear increasing of the domain wall velocity with magnetic field persists below these jumps. It was found that the jump height correlates with the location of nucleation place of the new domain wall. We have measured local nucleation field distribution in all the microwires. From local nucleation field distribution we have obtained the DW nucleation locations and estimated the jump height

  20. The defects influence on domain wall propagation in bistable glass-coated microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, V. [Magnetism Division, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Zhukova, V., E-mail: valentina.zhukova@ehu.es [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Ilyn, M.; Ipatov, M. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Perov, N. [Magnetism Division, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao 48011 (Spain)

    2012-05-01

    We studied the domain wall (DW) dynamics of magnetically bistable amorphous glass-coated Fe{sub 74}B{sub 13}Si{sub 11}C{sub 2} microwires. In according to our experimental results magnetic field dependences of DW velocity of studied microwires can be divided into two groups: with uniform or uniformly accelerated DW propagation along the microwire. Strong correlation between the type of the magnetic field dependence of domain wall velocity, v(H), and the distribution of the local nucleation fields has been observed. Moreover, we observed abrupt increasing of DW velocity (jump) on the magnetic field dependences of the domain wall velocity, v(H), for the both types of the v(H) dependences. At the same time usual linear increasing of the domain wall velocity with magnetic field persists below these jumps. It was found that the jump height correlates with the location of nucleation place of the new domain wall. We have measured local nucleation field distribution in all the microwires. From local nucleation field distribution we have obtained the DW nucleation locations and estimated the jump height.

  1. Influence of acquired obesity on coronary vessel wall late gadolinium enhancement in discordant monozygote twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowski, Marcus R. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Centre, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, BHF Centre of Excellence, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Christian H.P. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Ebersberger, Ullrich; Spector, Tim D. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Centre, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, BHF Centre of Excellence, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Mangino, Massimo [King' s College London, Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, London (United Kingdom); National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at Guy' s and St. Thomas' Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Botnar, Rene M. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Centre, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, BHF Centre of Excellence, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Greil, Gerald F. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Centre, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, BHF Centre of Excellence, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of BMI on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the coronary artery wall in identical monozygous twins discordant for BMI. Coronary LGE represents a useful parameter for the detection and quantification of atherosclerotic coronary vessel wall disease. Thirteen monozygote female twin pairs (n = 26) with significantly different BMIs (>1.6 kg/m2) were recruited out of >10,000 twin pairs (TwinsUK Registry). A coronary 3D-T2prep-TFE MR angiogram and 3D-IR-TFE vessel wall scan were performed prior to and following the administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA on a 1.5 T MR scanner. The number of enhancing coronary segments and contrast to noise ratios (CNRs) of the coronary wall were quantified. An increase in BMI was associated with an increased number of enhancing coronary segments (5.3 ± 1.5 vs. 3.5 ± 1.6, p < 0.0001) and increased coronary wall enhancement (6.1 ± 1.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9, p = 0.0027) compared to matched twins with lower BMI. This study in monozygous twins indicates that acquired factors predisposing to obesity, including lifestyle and environmental factors, result in increased LGE of the coronary arteries, potentially reflecting an increase in coronary atherosclerosis in this female study population. (orig.)

  2. Influence of acquired obesity on coronary vessel wall late gadolinium enhancement in discordant monozygote twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, Marcus R.; Jansen, Christian H.P.; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Spector, Tim D.; Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza; Mangino, Massimo; Botnar, Rene M.; Greil, Gerald F.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of BMI on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the coronary artery wall in identical monozygous twins discordant for BMI. Coronary LGE represents a useful parameter for the detection and quantification of atherosclerotic coronary vessel wall disease. Thirteen monozygote female twin pairs (n = 26) with significantly different BMIs (>1.6 kg/m2) were recruited out of >10,000 twin pairs (TwinsUK Registry). A coronary 3D-T2prep-TFE MR angiogram and 3D-IR-TFE vessel wall scan were performed prior to and following the administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA on a 1.5 T MR scanner. The number of enhancing coronary segments and contrast to noise ratios (CNRs) of the coronary wall were quantified. An increase in BMI was associated with an increased number of enhancing coronary segments (5.3 ± 1.5 vs. 3.5 ± 1.6, p < 0.0001) and increased coronary wall enhancement (6.1 ± 1.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9, p = 0.0027) compared to matched twins with lower BMI. This study in monozygous twins indicates that acquired factors predisposing to obesity, including lifestyle and environmental factors, result in increased LGE of the coronary arteries, potentially reflecting an increase in coronary atherosclerosis in this female study population. (orig.)

  3. Surface correlations of hydrodynamic drag for transitionally rough engineering surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Manan; Busse, Angela; Sandham, Neil

    2017-02-01

    Rough surfaces are usually characterised by a single equivalent sand-grain roughness height scale that typically needs to be determined from laboratory experiments. Recently, this method has been complemented by a direct numerical simulation approach, whereby representative surfaces can be scanned and the roughness effects computed over a range of Reynolds number. This development raises the prospect over the coming years of having enough data for different types of rough surfaces to be able to relate surface characteristics to roughness effects, such as the roughness function that quantifies the downward displacement of the logarithmic law of the wall. In the present contribution, we use simulation data for 17 irregular surfaces at the same friction Reynolds number, for which they are in the transitionally rough regime. All surfaces are scaled to the same physical roughness height. Mean streamwise velocity profiles show a wide range of roughness function values, while the velocity defect profiles show a good collapse. Profile peaks of the turbulent kinetic energy also vary depending on the surface. We then consider which surface properties are important and how new properties can be incorporated into an empirical model, the accuracy of which can then be tested. Optimised models with several roughness parameters are systematically developed for the roughness function and profile peak turbulent kinetic energy. In determining the roughness function, besides the known parameters of solidity (or frontal area ratio) and skewness, it is shown that the streamwise correlation length and the root-mean-square roughness height are also significant. The peak turbulent kinetic energy is determined by the skewness and root-mean-square roughness height, along with the mean forward-facing surface angle and spanwise effective slope. The results suggest feasibility of relating rough-wall flow properties (throughout the range from hydrodynamically smooth to fully rough) to surface

  4. The influence of wall orientation and exterior surface solar absorptivity on time lag and decrement factor in the Greek region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontoleon, K.J.; Eumorfopoulou, E.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Laboratory of Building Construction and Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (A.U.Th.), Gr-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study is to determine how time lag and decrement factor are affected by wall orientation and exterior surface solar absorptivity, for specific climatic conditions. Their influence forms a non-sinusoidal periodical forcing function that simulates suitably the outdoor temperature fluctuations. This novel approach, allows the predictability of building's thermal response in an efficient way. The investigation is carried out for various insulated opaque wall formations comprising typical material elements, during the summer period in the mild Greek region. This study that allows proper building planning procedures, at the very early stages of the envelope design, presents great importance. The analysed configurations are assumed to have an orientation that corresponds to each compass point. In addition, the solar absorptivity of surface coatings is assumed to be varying from 0 to 1. The transient thermal analysis is obtained via a thermal circuit that models accurately the fundamental heat transfer mechanisms on both boundaries and through the multi-layered wall configurations. Moreover, the mathematical formulation and solution of this lumped model is achieved in discrete time steps by adopting the non-linear nodal method. The simulation results are focused on the single and combined effects of orientation and solar absorptivity on the dynamic thermal characteristics of various wall configurations. (author)

  5. Influence of exchange coupling on current-driven domain wall motion in a nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Takashi; Takahashi, Kota; Murakami, Hiroshi; Sugita, Ryuji

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of exchange stiffness constant on current-driven domain wall motion in nanowires with in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA) and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) has been investigated using micromagnetic simulation. The critical current density in a nanowire with IMA decreases as the exchange stiffness constant decreases because the domain wall width at the upper edge of the nanowire narrows according to the decrease of the exchange stiffness constant. On the other hand, the critical current density in a nanowire with PMA slightly decreases contrary to that of IMA although the domain wall width reasonably decreases as the exchange stiffness constant decreases. The slight reduction rate of the critical current density is due to the increase of the effective hard-axis anisotropy of PMA nanowire.

  6. Theoretical analysis of the influence of flexoelectric effect on the defect site in nematic inversion walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Gui-Li; Xuan Li; Zhang Hui; Ye Wen-Jiang; Zhang Zhi-Dong; Song Hong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Based on the experimental phenomena of flexoelectric response at defect sites in nematic inversion walls conducted by Kumar et al., we gave the theoretical analysis using the Frank elastic theory. When a direct-current electric field normal to the plane of the substrate is applied to the parallel aligned nematic liquid crystal cell with weak anchoring, the rotation of ±1 defects in the narrow inversion walls can be exhibited. The free energy of liquid crystal molecules around the +1 and –1 defect sites in the nematic inversion walls under the electric field was formulated and the electric-field-driven structural changes at the defect site characterized by polar and azimuthal angles of the local director were simulated. The results reveal that the deviation of azimuthal angle induced by flexoelectric effect are consistent with the switching of extinction brushes at the +1 and −1 defects obtained in the experiment conducted by Kumar et al. (paper)

  7. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  8. Rim Pathway-Mediated Alterations in the Fungal Cell Wall Influence Immune Recognition and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, Kyla S; Esher, Shannon K; Leopold Wager, Chrissy M; Walker, Louise; Wagener, Jeanette; Munro, Carol; Wormley, Floyd L; Alspaugh, J Andrew

    2017-01-31

    Compared to other fungal pathogens, Cryptococcus neoformans is particularly adept at avoiding detection by innate immune cells. To explore fungal cellular features involved in immune avoidance, we characterized cell surface changes of the C. neoformans rim101Δ mutant, a strain that fails to organize and shield immunogenic epitopes from host detection. These cell surface changes are associated with an exaggerated, detrimental inflammatory response in mouse models of infection. We determined that the disorganized strain rim101Δ cell wall increases macrophage detection in a contact-dependent manner. Using biochemical and microscopy methods, we demonstrated that the rim101Δ strain shows a modest increase in the levels of both cell wall chitin and chitosan but that it shows a more dramatic increase in chito-oligomer exposure, as measured by wheat germ agglutinin staining. We also created a series of mutants with various levels of cell wall wheat germ agglutinin staining, and we demonstrated that the staining intensity correlates with the degree of macrophage activation in response to each strain. To explore the host receptors responsible for recognizing the rim101Δ mutant, we determined that both the MyD88 and CARD9 innate immune signaling proteins are involved. Finally, we characterized the immune response to the rim101Δ mutant in vivo, documenting a dramatic and sustained increase in Th1 and Th17 cytokine responses. These results suggest that the Rim101 transcription factor actively regulates the C. neoformans cell wall to prevent the exposure of immune stimulatory molecules within the host. These studies further explored the ways in which immune cells detect C. neoformans and other fungal pathogens by mechanisms that include sensing N-acetylglucosamine-containing structures, such as chitin and chitosan. Infectious microorganisms have developed many ways to avoid recognition by the host immune system. For example, pathogenic fungi alter their cell surfaces to

  9. The influence of geometric factors on the wall shear stress distribution in realistic human coronary arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Jorge André Piedade Pinhal dos

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada na Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Engenharia Biomédica. A presente dissertação foi desenvolvida no Erasmus Medical Center em Roterdão, Holanda Background: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of death in the Western society. It is a geometrically focal disease, affecting preferentially vessel areas of low wall shear stress (SS), which induces the expression of atherogenic genes. To predict wall ...

  10. Influence of the surgical technique and surface roughness on the primary stability of an implant in artificial bone with a density equivalent to maxillary bone: a laboratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabassum, A.; Meijer, G.J.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this biomechanical study was to assess the effect of surgical technique and surface roughness on primary implant stability in low-density bone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty screw-shaped (Biocomp) implants with machined or etched surface topography were inserted into a

  11. Influence of surgical technique and surface roughness on the primary stability of an implant in artificial bone with different cortical thickness: a laboratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabassum, A.; Meijer, G.J.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this biomechanical study was to assess the interrelated effect of both surface roughness and surgical technique on the primary stability of dental implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the experiment, 160 screw-designed implants (Biocomp), with either a machined or an etched

  12. The influence of geopolitical change on the well-being of a population: the Berlin Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héon-Klin, V; Sieber, E; Huebner, J; Fullilove, M T

    2001-03-01

    Social cohesion is recognized as a fundamental condition for healthy populations, but social cohesion itself arises from political unity. The history of the Berlin Wall provides a unique opportunity to examine the effects of partition on social cohesion and, by inference, on health. This ethnographic study consisted of examination of the territory formerly occupied by the Wall, formal and informal interviews with Berlin residents, and collection of cultural documents related to the Wall. Transcripts, field notes, and documents were examined by means of a keyword-in-context analysis. The separation of Berlin into 2 parts was a traumatic experience for the city's residents. After partition, East and West Germany had divergent social, cultural, and political experiences and gradually grew apart. The demolition of the Wall--the symbol and the instrument of partition--makes possible but does not ensure the reintegration of 2 populations that were separated for 40 years. The evolution of a new common culture might be accelerated by active attempts at cultural and social exchange.

  13. Wall heat flux influence on the thermodynamic optimisation of irreversibilities of a circulating fluidised bed combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available . The irreversibilities generated were arrived at by computing the entropy generation rates due to the combustion and frictional pressure drop processes. For the combustor where the wall condition was changed from adiabatic to negative heat flux (that is heat leaving...

  14. Cell wall domain and moisture content influence southern pine electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Leandro Passarini; José L. Colon Quintana; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted the importance of movement of chemicals and ions through the wood cell wall. This movement depends strongly on moisture content and is necessary for structural damage mechanisms such as fastener corrosion and wood decay. Here, we present the first measurements of electrical resistance of southern pine at the subcellular level as a function...

  15. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of sputtering induced surface roughness and its influence on AES depth profiles of polycrystalline Ni/Cu multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X.L.; Coetsee, E. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P O Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa); Wang, J.Y., E-mail: wangjy@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shantou University, 243 Daxue Road, Shantou, 515063, Guangdong (China); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swartHC@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P O Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa); Terblans, J.J., E-mail: terblansjj@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P O Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Linear Least Square (LLS) method used to separate Ni and Cu Auger spectra. • The depth-dependent ion sputtering induced roughness was quantitatively evaluated. • The depth resolution better when profiling with dual-ion beam vs. a single-ion beam. • AES depth profiling with a lower ion energy results in a better depth resolution. - Abstract: The polycrystalline Ni/Cu multilayer thin films consisting of 8 alternating layers of Ni and Cu were deposited on a SiO{sub 2} substrate by means of electron beam evaporation in a high vacuum. Concentration-depth profiles of the as-deposited multilayered Ni/Cu thin films were determined with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) in combination with Ar{sup +} ion sputtering, under various bombardment conditions with the samples been stationary as well as rotating in some cases. The Mixing-Roughness-Information depth (MRI) model used for the fittings of the concentration-depth profiles accounts for the interface broadening of the experimental depth profiling. The interface broadening incorporates the effects of atomic mixing, surface roughness and information depth of the Auger electrons. The roughness values extracted from the MRI model fitting of the depth profiling data agrees well with those measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ion sputtering induced surface roughness during the depth profiling was accordingly quantitatively evaluated from the fitted MRI parameters with sample rotation and stationary conditions. The depth resolutions of the AES depth profiles were derived directly from the values determined by the fitting parameters in the MRI model.

  17. An example of the influence of the gospel lectionary on the iconography of medieval wall painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the Gospel lectionary (evangelistarion on the iconography of medieval wall painting was rather sporadic. One of the rare testimonies that it did exist, nevertheless, is the specific iconographic formula for the scene of Christ in the house of Martha and Mary, preserved in a number of King Milutin's foundations - Gračanica (ca. 1320, Chilandar katholikon (1321 and St. Nicetas near Skopje (ca. 1324. In all three churches, the iconographic formula corresponds for the most part to the description in the Gospel (Lk 10, 38-42. A large number of figures were painted against an architectural background, intimating that the action in the event was taking place indoors (draw. 1, figs. 1, 2. Among the figures, only Christ is marked by a halo. He is sitting on a small wooden bench, and addressing a woman, who is standing in front of him. This is certainly Martha. Her sister Mary is sitting at the feet of Christ. Next to Christ is Peter, and one or two more disciples, while numerous onlookers, men and women, are depicted behind Martha. There is no mention of either them or the apostles in the Gospel of Luke. The appearance of the disciples' figures, however, is easy to explain because they appear usually in greater or lesser numbers with Christ, in the scenes from the cycle of Christ's Public Ministry. In addition to this, this passage from the Gospel intimates that Christ entered the village in the company of his disciples. As for the figures behind Martha, at a first glimpse, one would assume that they are Judeans, the same ones that sometimes, according to the Gospel of John (11:19-31, appear in the house of Martha and Mary in the episodes painted next to the Raising of Lazarus. Still, such an assumption is not plausible because among the mentioned figures in the depictions in Gračanica, Chilandar and St. Nicetas, one can distinguish a woman above the other figures, her right arm raised, addressing Christ. This figure enables an

  18. Simulating secondary organic aerosol in a regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model – Part 2: Assessing the influence of vapor wall losses

    OpenAIRE

    Cappa, Christopher D.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Seinfeld, John H.; Wexler, Anthony S.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of losses of organic vapors to chamber walls during secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation experiments has recently been established. Here, the influence of such losses on simulated ambient SOA concentrations and properties is assessed in the UCD/CIT regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model (SOM) for SOA. The SOM was fit to laboratory chamber data both with and without accounting for vapor wall losses following the approa...

  19. Influence of α sex factor on the biosynthesis of the cell wall from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, S.; Zinker, S.; Ruiz-Herrera, J.

    1984-01-01

    Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce peptide hormones (a and α) which dramatically affect the physiology, structure, and behavior of cells from the opposite mating type, presumably in preparation for conjugation. Some cell division cycle mutants mimick several of the changes induced by α factor. Accordingly, conditional mutants cdc 28, cdc 36, cdc 37, and cdc 39 undergo arrest in G1, exhibit shmoo morphology and are able to mate when they are transferred to the restrictive temperature. Formation of shmoo cells would require increased synthesis of glycosyl transferases involved in the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Accordingly, the authors investigated the effect of G1 arrest on the chemical composition of the cell wall and on the levels of glycosyl transferases. Arrest in G1 was obtained by two methods: addition of α factor, and transfer of a cdc 28 mutant to the restrictive temperature

  20. Effects of irregular two-dimensional and three-dimensional surface roughness in turbulent channel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marchis, M.; Napoli, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 3D irregular rough surfaces produce higher effects than those observed over 2D. ► Effective slope is a geometrical parameter representative of the roughness effects. ► 3D rough surfaces enhance the turbulence isotropization. ► 2D and 3D irregular roughness partially support the wall similarity. ► Irregular rough surfaces shear some features with regular rough walls. - Abstract: Wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulation of fully developed turbulent channel flows over two different rough surfaces is performed to investigate on the effects of irregular 2D and 3D roughness on the turbulence. The two geometries are obtained through the superimposition of sinusoidal functions having random amplitudes and different wave lengths. In the 2D configuration the irregular shape in the longitudinal direction is replicated in the transverse one, while in the 3D case the sinusoidal functions are generated both in streamwise and spanwise directions. Both channel walls are roughened in such a way as to obtain surfaces with statistically equivalent roughness height, but different shapes. In order to compare the turbulence properties over the two rough walls and to analyse the differences with a smooth wall, the simulations are performed at the same Reynolds number Re τ = 395. The same mean roughness height h = 0.05δ (δ the half channel height) is used for the rough walls. The roughness function obtained with the 3D roughness is larger than in the 2D case, although the two walls share the same mean height. Thus, the considered irregular 3D roughness is more effective in reducing the flow velocity with respect to the 2D roughness, coherently with the literature results that identified a clear dependence of the roughness function on the effective slope (see ), higher in the generated 3D rough wall. The analysis of higher-order statistics shows that the effects of the roughness, independently on its two- or three-dimensional shape, are mainly confined in the inner

  1. Theoretical analysis of the influence of flexoelectric effect on the defect site in nematic inversion walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui-Li, Zheng; Hui, Zhang; Wen-Jiang, Ye; Zhi-Dong, Zhang; Hong-Wei, Song; Li, Xuan

    2016-03-01

    Based on the experimental phenomena of flexoelectric response at defect sites in nematic inversion walls conducted by Kumar et al., we gave the theoretical analysis using the Frank elastic theory. When a direct-current electric field normal to the plane of the substrate is applied to the parallel aligned nematic liquid crystal cell with weak anchoring, the rotation of ±1 defects in the narrow inversion walls can be exhibited. The free energy of liquid crystal molecules around the +1 and -1 defect sites in the nematic inversion walls under the electric field was formulated and the electric-field-driven structural changes at the defect site characterized by polar and azimuthal angles of the local director were simulated. The results reveal that the deviation of azimuthal angle induced by flexoelectric effect are consistent with the switching of extinction brushes at the +1 and -1 defects obtained in the experiment conducted by Kumar et al. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374087, 11274088, and 11304074), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2014202123 and A2016202282), the Research Project of Hebei Education Department, China (Grant Nos. QN2014130 and QN2015260), and the Key Subject Construction Project of Hebei Province University, China.

  2. Buckling of ZnS-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes – The influence of aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.

    2014-08-16

    The mechanical response of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) filled with crystalline zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanowires under uniaxial compression is studied using classical molecular dynamics. These simulations were used to analyse the behaviour of SWCNT, with and without ZnS filling, in terms of critical force and critical strain. Force versus strain curves have been computed for hollow and filled systems, the latter clearly showing an improvement of the mechanical behaviour caused by the ZnS nanowire. The same simulations were repeated for a large range of dimensions in order to evaluate the influence of the aspect ratio on the mechanical response of the tubes.

  3. Influence of rotating in-plane field on vertical Bloch lines in the walls of second kind of dumbbell domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.Y.; Hu, H.N.; Sun, Y.P.; Nie, X.F.

    2004-01-01

    Influence of rotating in-plane field on vertical Bloch lines in the walls of second kind of dumbbell domains (IIDs) was investigated, and a critical in-plane field range [H ip 1 ,H ip 2 ] of which vertical-Bloch lines (VBLs) annihilated in IIDs is found under rotating in-plane field (H ip 1 is the maximal critical in-plane-field of which hard domains remain stable, H ip 2 is the minimal critical in-plane-field of which all of the hard domains convert to soft bubbles (SBs, without VBLs)). It shows that the in-plane field range [H ip 1 , H ip 2 ] changes with the change of the rotating angle Δφ H ip 1 maintains stable, while H ip 2 decreases with the decreasing of rotating angle Δφ. Comparing it with the spontaneous shrinking experiment of IIDs under both bias field and in-plane field, we presume that under the application of in-plane field there exists a direction along which the VBLs in the domain walls annihilate most easily, and it is in the direction that domain walls are perpendicular to the in-plane field

  4. Study on influence of Surface roughness of Ni-Al2O3 nano composite coating and evaluation of wear characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, C. R.; Basavarajappa, S.; Sogalad, Irappa

    2018-02-01

    Electrodeposition is one of the most technologically feasible and economically superior techniques for producing metallic coating. The advancement in the application of nano particles has grabbed the attention in all fields of engineering. In this present study an attempt has been made on the Ni-Al2O3nano particle composite coating on aluminium substrate by electrodeposition process. The aluminium surface requires a specific pre-treatment for better adherence of coating. In light of this a thin zinc layer is coated on the aluminium substrate by electroless process. In addition to this surface roughness is an important parameter for any coating method and material. In this work Ni-Al2O3 composite coating were successfully coated by varying the process parameters such as bath temperature, current density and particle loading. The experimentation was performed using central composite design based 20 trials of experiments. The effect of process parameters and surface roughness before and after coating is analyzed on wear rate and coating thickness. The results shown a better wear resistance of Ni-Al2O3 composite electrodeposited coating compared to Ni coating. The particle loading and interaction effect of current density with temperature has greater significant effect on wear rate. The surface roughness is significantly affected the wear behaviour and thickness of coating.

  5. Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles

  6. Rock discontinuity surface roughness variation with scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitenc, Maja; Kieffer, D. Scott; Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: Rock discontinuity surface roughness refers to local departures of the discontinuity surface from planarity and is an important factor influencing the shear resistance. In practice, the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) roughness parameter is commonly relied upon and input to a shear strength criterion such as developed by Barton and Choubey [1977]. The estimation of roughness by JRC is hindered firstly by the subjective nature of visually comparing the joint profile to the ten standard profiles. Secondly, when correlating the standard JRC values and other objective measures of roughness, the roughness idealization is limited to a 2D profile of 10 cm length. With the advance of measuring technologies that provide accurate and high resolution 3D data of surface topography on different scales, new 3D roughness parameters have been developed. A desirable parameter is one that describes rock surface geometry as well as the direction and scale dependency of roughness. In this research a 3D roughness parameter developed by Grasselli [2001] and adapted by Tatone and Grasselli [2009] is adopted. It characterizes surface topography as the cumulative distribution of local apparent inclination of asperities with respect to the shear strength (analysis) direction. Thus, the 3D roughness parameter describes the roughness amplitude and anisotropy (direction dependency), but does not capture the scale properties. In different studies the roughness scale-dependency has been attributed to data resolution or size of the surface joint (see a summary of researches in [Tatone and Grasselli, 2012]). Clearly, the lower resolution results in lower roughness. On the other hand, have the investigations of surface size effect produced conflicting results. While some studies have shown a decrease in roughness with increasing discontinuity size (negative scale effect), others have shown the existence of positive scale effects, or both positive and negative scale effects. We

  7. Influence of capillary die geometry on wall slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanétrník, D.; Hausnerová, B.; Filip, Petr; Hnátková, E.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 325, February (2018), s. 615-619 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-26808S Grant - others:Ministerstvo školství, mládeže a tělovýchovy (MŠMT)(CZ) LO1504 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : powder injection molding * highly filled polymer * wall slip * capillary entrance angle Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  8. Influence of circumferential flaw length on internal burst pressure of a wall-thinned pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Masataka, E-mail: tsuji-m@u-fukui.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Meshii, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The effect of θ on p{sub f} was examined by experimental analysis and FEA. ► Here θ is the circumferential angle of a flaw, p{sub f} is the internal burst pressure. ► p{sub f} decreased as θ increased in some cases. ► The effect of θ on p{sub f} should be taken into consideration in evaluating p{sub f}. -- Abstract: This paper examines the effect of the circumferential angle of a flaw θ on the internal burst pressure p{sub f} of pipes with artificial wall-thinned flaws. The effect of θ has conventionally been regarded as unimportant in the evaluation of the p{sub f} of wall-thinned straight pipes. Therefore, a burst pressure equation for an axial crack inside a cylinder (Fig. 1, left), such as Kiefner's equation (Kiefner et al., 1973), has been widely applied (ANSI/ASME B31.G., 1991; Hasegawa et al., 2011). However, the following implicit assumptions notably exist when applying the equation to planar flaws in situations with non-planar flaws. 1)The fracture mode of the non-planar flaw under consideration is identical to that of the crack. 2)The effect of θ on p{sub f}, which is not considered for an axial crack, is small or negligible. However, the experimental results from the systematic burst tests for carbon steel pipes with artificial wall-thinned flaws examined in this paper showed that these implicit assumptions may be incorrect. In this paper the experimental results are evaluated in further detail. The purpose of the evaluation was to clarify the effect of θ on p{sub f}. Specifically, the significance of the flaw configuration (axial length δ{sub z} and wall-thinning ratio t{sub 1}/t) was studied for its effects on θ and p{sub f}. In addition, a simulation of this effect was conducted using a large strain elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model. As observed from the experimental results, θ tended to affect p{sub f} in cases with large δ{sub z}, and t{sub 1}/t was also correlated with a decrease in p{sub f

  9. An intermittency model for predicting roughness induced transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xuan; Durbin, Paul

    2014-11-01

    An extended model for roughness-induced transition is proposed based on an intermittency transport equation for RANS modeling formulated in local variables. To predict roughness effects in the fully turbulent boundary layer, published boundary conditions for k and ω are used, which depend on the equivalent sand grain roughness height, and account for the effective displacement of wall distance origin. Similarly in our approach, wall distance in the transition model for smooth surfaces is modified by an effective origin, which depends on roughness. Flat plate test cases are computed to show that the proposed model is able to predict the transition onset in agreement with a data correlation of transition location versus roughness height, Reynolds number, and inlet turbulence intensity. Experimental data for a turbine cascade are compared with the predicted results to validate the applicability of the proposed model. Supported by NSF Award Number 1228195.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF WALL COLOR AND LAMP COLOR TEMPERATURE TO STUDENT’S CONCENTRATION AND COGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRISTANTO Luciana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentration has an important role in our life, especially in order to get a quality and productivity in working. With concentration we can achieve the maximum and faster result in our work. Some ways to improve concentration that being researched here is by arranging the wall color and the lamp color temperature of the room. The color used as wall color in this research was the blue 9.8B, 7.4/5.6; and the orange 8.1YR, 8.7/3.7 of the Munsell color palette. Whereas the room lighting was the fluorescent lamp in 6500K (cool daylight and 2700K (warm white color temperature. Respondents of this research were 117 undergraduate students, the average GPA was 3.28; and 20,26 years as the mean age. The concentration and cognition tests are the Army Alfa test and IST subtest 9 that conducted in the room with different condition. Found in this research that the blue with cool daylight lamp has significant impact to concentration in 2,526 Lickert scale; and that orange with cool daylight lamp has correlation 0.781 to cognition result; but the other conditions have no significancy toward concentration and cognition

  11. Fingerprinting the type of line edge roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Herrero, A.; Pflüger, M.; Scholze, F.; Soltwisch, V.

    2017-06-01

    Lamellar gratings are widely used diffractive optical elements and are prototypes of structural elements in integrated electronic circuits. EUV scatterometry is very sensitive to structure details and imperfections, which makes it suitable for the characterization of nanostructured surfaces. As compared to X-ray methods, EUV scattering allows for steeper angles of incidence, which is highly preferable for the investigation of small measurement fields on semiconductor wafers. For the control of the lithographic manufacturing process, a rapid in-line characterization of nanostructures is indispensable. Numerous studies on the determination of regular geometry parameters of lamellar gratings from optical and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) scattering also investigated the impact of roughness on the respective results. The challenge is to appropriately model the influence of structure roughness on the diffraction intensities used for the reconstruction of the surface profile. The impact of roughness was already studied analytically but for gratings with a periodic pseudoroughness, because of practical restrictions of the computational domain. Our investigation aims at a better understanding of the scattering caused by line roughness. We designed a set of nine lamellar Si-gratings to be studied by EUV scatterometry. It includes one reference grating with no artificial roughness added, four gratings with a periodic roughness distribution, two with a prevailing line edge roughness (LER) and another two with line width roughness (LWR), and four gratings with a stochastic roughness distribution (two with LER and two with LWR). We show that the type of line roughness has a strong impact on the diffuse scatter angular distribution. Our experimental results are not described well by the present modelling approach based on small, periodically repeated domains.

  12. The influence of anatomic variance in the coronary artery on cardiac function with PCI after acute inferior wall myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hongming; Feng Jue; Fang Fengning; Wu Heping; Wang Fengqin; Ma Huili

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the influence in anatomic variance of coronary artery on function of left and right ventricles after acute inferior myocardial infarction (AIMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention therapy (PCI). Methods: Forty-seven inferior AIMI patients were divided into 2 groups: 12 left dominant group [including equipollent case, i.e. inferior wall of left ventricle supplied by left circumflex coronary artery (LCX), right ventricle by right coronary artery (RCA)] and 35 right dominant group (both inferior wall and right ventricle were supplied by RCA). Equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (ERNA) and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) were used for comparing the influence between different coronary artery flow patterns on biventricular hemodynamics, blood supply and prognosis of PCI after 3 months. Results: Comparison of ventricular function in left and right dominant coronal artery type groups discharged 7- 10 d after PCI, there were differences in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) [(63.03 ± 5.64)% vs (57.67 ± 7.35)%, P=0.012], peak ejection rate (PER) [(3.52 ± 0.66) end-diastolic volume (EDV)/s vs (2.93 ± 0.73) EDV/s, P =0.011], peak filling rate (PFR) [(2.71 ± 0.88) EDV/s vs (2.11 ± 0.45 ) EDV/s, P=0.004], left free-wall regional ejection fraction [(81.94 ± 20.75)% vs (67.25 ± 16.54)%, P = O.032], and right free-wall regional ejection fraction [(57.86 ± 11.77)% vs (67.83 ± 10.38)%, P=0.012], right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) [(37.89 ± 3.86)% vs (41.67 ± 4.81)%, P=0.09]. After 3 months,there was difference only in RVEF [(44.60 ± 5.29)% vs (48.00 ± 3.30)%, P=0.043], but no difference in myocardial perfusion of left ventricle (P=0.357). Conclusions: In acute stage of AIMI right dominant group, there was more severe injury of right ventricle, in convalescent stage most of the right ventricular function resumed. The sustained right ventricular function in part of the patients can be demonstrated by ERNA

  13. Influence of the contact geometry on single-walled carbon nanotube/Si photodetector response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliotti, Mattia; Salvato, Matteo; De Crescenzi, Maurizio; Boscardin, Maurizio; Castrucci, Paola

    2018-03-01

    A systematic study of the optical response of photodetectors based on carbon nanotube/Si heterojunctions is performed by measuring the responsivity, the detectivity and the time response of the devices with different contact configurations. The sensors are obtained by dry transferring single-walled carbon nanotube films on the surface of n-doped Si substrate provided with a multifinger contact geometry. The experimental data show a consistent improvement of the photodetector parameters with the increase of the number of fingers without affecting the carbon nanotube film thickness for increase its optical transmittance as in previous experiments. The role of the electrical resistance of the carbon nanotube film is discussed. The obtained results confirm the method and suggest new perspectives in the use of nanostructured materials as part of semiconducting optical devices.

  14. The influence of the lateral pharyngeal wall anatomy on snoring and sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Ibrahim; Gode, Sercan; Midilli, Rasit; Basoglu, Ozen Kacmaz

    2015-02-01

    To elucidate the variations of the lateral pharyngeal wall anatomy on physical examination and to assess the clinical importance of the examination of the lateral pharyngeal wall on the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Ege University Medical School, Izmir, Turkey, between May 2010 and April 2011. The patients were divided into four equal groups: Group 1--snoring without apnoea (age 20-40); Group 2--snoring without apnoea (age 40-60); Group 3--apnoea-hypopnoea index 30/hr. Calibrated oropharynx pictures were taken. Distance between palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches, height of palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches, uvula width, uvula length and distance between tonsils were measured. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 80 patients in the study, 44 (55%) were men. Mean distance between palatopharyngeal and palatoglossal arches were 1.55 ± 0.34 cm and 2.70 ± 0.43 cm respectively. Mean height of palatopharyngeal and palatoglossal arches were 0.60 ± 0.21 cm and 1.37 ± 0.36 cm respectively (p > 0.05). Mean uvula width and uvula length were 0.80 ± 0.12cm and 1.25 ± 0.27 cm respectively (p > 0.05). Mean distance between tonsils was 2.24 ± 0.56 cm (p > 0.05). Distance between palatopharyngeal arches was significantly different between groups 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). Palatopharyngeal arch anatomy was found to be significantly associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome severity, especially in patients with normal or small tonsil size. Patients with the palatopharyngeal arches, which narrow the oropharyngeal inlet more than the tonsils, should further be investigated with polysomnography.

  15. Influence of non-edible vegetable based oil as cutting fluid on chip, surface roughness and cutting force during drilling operation of Mild Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.; Jyothi, P. N.

    2016-09-01

    Friction between work piece-cutting tool-chip generates heat in the machining zone. The heat generated reduces the tool life, increases surface roughness and decreases the dimensional sensitiveness of work material. This can be overcome by using cutting fluids during machining. They are used to provide lubrication and cooling effects between cutting tool and work piece and cutting tool and chip during machining operation. As a result, important benefits would be achieved such longer tool life, easy chip flow and higher machining quality in the machining processes. Non-edible vegetable oils have received considerable research attention in the last decades owing to their remarkable improved tribological characteristics and due to increasing attention to environmental issues, have driven the lubricant industry toward eco friendly products from renewable sources. In the present work, different non-edible vegetable oils are used as cutting fluid during drilling of Mild steel work piece. Non-edible vegetable oils, used are Karanja oil (Honge), Neem oil and blend of these two oils. The effect of these cutting fluids on chip formation, surface roughness and cutting force are investigated and the results obtained are compared with results obtained with petroleum based cutting fluids and dry conditions.

  16. Influence of a roughness length error on vertical wind speed extrapolation for 2D ideal hills using an OpenFOAM® RANS simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einav-Levy Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modelling wind flow over a flat and complex terrain, the choice of roughness-length-distribution is critical for accurate wind speed predications. This choice is often made based on the Davenport scale [1]. A satellite or aerial image of the location is used [2–4] and subjective or objective measures are used for translating the image into roughness length - z0 - based on the Davenport scale. The choice of a Davenport table value is generally regarded as within an error of plus or minus one table value, leading to a ±6% error in wind speed predictions for a flat terrain in neutral conditions [5]. In the paper this error is studied for a non-flat terrain, using a series of CFD simulations for 2D hills of various combinations of aspect ratio and steepness. Results show that the wind speed prediction error as a result of a “wrong” parameterization decreases with hill steepness until separation occurs. As a result of separation the error increases slightly, and then decreases again with a further increase in hill steepness.

  17. INFLUENCE OF PIT WALL ANCHORAGE ONTO ADDITIONAL DEFORMATIONS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of additional projected deformations of buildings located in close proximity to pits is exemplified by the specific structure of the pit support system that has active PIT [1] anchors. The authors also consider the influence produced by the structure of anchors onto the two buildings located within the area of influence of the excavation works and protected by the anchors installed underneath the foundations of the two adjacent buildings.

  18. Load assumptions and structural durability proof for suspension components. Influencing variables and optimization potential while braking on rough roads; Lastannahmen und Betriebsfestigkeitsnachweis fuer Fahrwerksbauteile. Einflussgroessen und Optimierungspotenziale bei Bremsvorgaengen auf unebenen Strecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegele, Nora [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Betriebslastensimulation; Poetter, Kurt; Brune, Martin [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Betriebsfestigkeit und Werkstoffe; Sonsino, Cetin Morris [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Geschaeftsfeld Industrie und Verbaende

    2011-07-01

    Vehicle braking on rough roads and especially vibration phenomena induced by braking over road bumps can cause extremely high component loads in longitudinal direction. Especially during the development process an early knowledge of the expected loads is meaningful for a secure evidence of fatigue strength. The significant influencing parameters on longitudinal loads induced by vibration phenomena in longitudinal and vertical direction will be shown by braking over road bumps. In order to exemplify this analysis, the fatigue strength of a tension strut is calculated for several parameter variations and consequential loads in order to show the optimization potential. (orig.)

  19. Experimental Investigation of Average Heat-Transfer and Friction Coefficients for Air Flowing in Circular Tubes Having Square-Thread-Type Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, E. W.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through electrically heated Inconel tubes having various degrees of square-thread-type roughness, an inside diameter of 1/2 inch, and a length of 24 inches. were obtained for tubes having conventional roughness ratios (height of thread/radius of tube) of 0 (smooth tube), 0.016, 0.025, and 0.037 over ranges of bulk Reynolds numbers up to 350,000, average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 1950deg R, and heat-flux densities up to 115,000 Btu per hour per square foot. Data The experimental data showed that both heat transfer and friction increased with increase in surface roughness, becoming more pronounced with increase in Reynolds number; for a given roughness, both heat transfer and friction were also influenced by the tube wall-to-bulk temperature ratio. Good correlation of the heat-transfer data for all the tubes investigated was obtained by use of a modification of the conventional Nusselt correlation parameters wherein the mass velocity in the Reynolds number was replaced by the product of air density evaluated at the average film temperature and the so-called friction velocity; in addition, the physical properties of air were evaluated at the average film temperature. The isothermal friction data for the rough tubes, when plotted in the conventional manner, resulted in curves similar to those obtained by other investigators; that is, the curve for a given roughness breaks away from the Blasius line (representing turbulent flow in smooth tubes) at some value of Reynolds number, which decreases with increase in surface roughness, and then becomes a horizontal line (friction coefficient independent of Reynolds number). A comparison of the friction data for the rough tubes used herein indicated that the conventional roughness ratio is not an adequate measure of relative roughness for tubes having a square-thread-type element. The present data, as well

  20. Effect of truncated cone roughness element density on hydrodynamic drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Kristofer; Schultz, Michael; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-11-01

    An experimental study was conducted on rough-wall, turbulent boundary layer flow with roughness elements whose idealized shape model barnacles that cause hydrodynamic drag in many applications. Varying planform densities of truncated cone roughness elements were investigated. Element densities studied ranged from 10% to 79%. Detailed turbulent boundary layer velocity statistics were recorded with a two-component LDV system on a three-axis traverse. Hydrodynamic roughness length (z0) and skin-friction coefficient (Cf) were determined and compared with the estimates from existing roughness element drag prediction models including Macdonald et al. (1998) and other recent models. The roughness elements used in this work model idealized barnacles, so implications of this data set for ship powering are considered. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  1. Oxygen-promoted catalyst sintering influences number density, alignment, and wall number of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenbo; Li, Jinjing; Polsen, Erik S; Oliver, C Ryan; Zhao, Yikun; Meshot, Eric R; Barclay, Michael; Fairbrother, D Howard; Hart, A John; Plata, Desiree L

    2017-04-20

    A lack of synthetic control and reproducibility during vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis has stifled many promising applications of organic nanomaterials. Oxygen-containing species are particularly precarious in that they have both beneficial and deleterious effects and are notoriously difficult to control. Here, we demonstrated diatomic oxygen's ability, independent of water, to tune oxide-supported catalyst thin film dewetting and influence nanoscale (diameter and wall number) and macro-scale (alignment and density) properties for as-grown vertically aligned CNTs. In particular, single- or few-walled CNT forests were achieved at very low oxygen loading, with single-to-multi-walled CNT diameters ranging from 4.8 ± 1.3 nm to 6.4 ± 1.1 nm over 0-800 ppm O 2 , and an expected variation in alignment, where both were related to the annealed catalyst morphology. Morphological differences were not the result of subsurface diffusion, but instead occurred via Ostwald ripening under several hundred ppm O 2 , and this effect was mitigated by high H 2 concentrations and not due to water vapor (as confirmed in O 2 -free water addition experiments), supporting the importance of O 2 specifically. Further characterization of the interface between the Fe catalyst and Al 2 O 3 support revealed that either oxygen-deficit metal oxide or oxygen-adsorption on metals could be functional mechanisms for the observed catalyst nanoparticle evolution. Taken as a whole, our results suggest that the impacts of O 2 and H 2 on the catalyst evolution have been underappreciated and underleveraged in CNT synthesis, and these could present a route toward facile manipulation of CNT forest morphology through control of the reactive gaseous atmosphere alone.

  2. Generalized rough sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, E.A.; Kozae, A.M.; Abd El-Monsef, M.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The process of analyzing data under uncertainty is a main goal for many real life problems. Statistical analysis for such data is an interested area for research. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new method concerning the generalization and modification of the rough set theory introduced early by Pawlak [Int. J. Comput. Inform. Sci. 11 (1982) 314

  3. Influence of temperature on the critical in-plane field range for VBLs in the walls of hard domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, X.F.; Guo, G.X.; Xu, J.P.; Liu, S.P.; Wang, L.N.; Huo, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the critical in-plane field range for vertical Bloch lines in the walls of three kinds of hard domains is investigated experimentally. It is found that for each kind of three hard domains, there exists a critical in-plane field range, i. e. [H ip (1) (T),H ip (2) (T)], which depends on temperatures and in which vertical Bloch lines are unstable. Here, H ip (1) (T) is the initial critical in-plane field where VBLs in the walls of three kinds of hard domains are annihilated, and H ip (2) (T) is the lowest in-plane field where VBLs in their corresponding hard domains are annihilated completely. H ip (1) (T), H ip (2) (T) and [H ip (1) (T),H ip (2) (T)], all decrease as the temperature increase. Furthermore, H ip (1) (T) and H ip (2) (T) reach zero at T 0 1 and T 0 , respectively. In addition, there exists a relationship among them, when T is unchanged, H ip (1) (T) of the three kinds of hard domains (ordinary hard bubbles (OHB), first kind of dumbbell domain (ID) and second kind of dumbbell domains (IID)) decrease successively, and theirH ip (2) (T) are the same

  4. Influence of substrate material on the microstructure and optical properties of hot wall deposited SnS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkirov, S.A.; Gremenok, V.F.; Ivanov, V.A.; Shevtsova, V.V.; Gladyshev, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Tin monosulfide SnS raises an interest as a promising material for photovoltaics. The influence of the substrate material on the microstructure and optical properties of SnS thin films with [111] texture obtained by hot wall vacuum deposition on glass, molybdenum and indium tin oxide substrates is reported. The lattice parameters for layers grown on different substrates were determined by X-ray diffraction and their deviations from the data reported in the literature for single α-SnS crystals were discussed. The change in the degree of preferred orientation of the films depending on the substrate material is observed. The direct nature of the optical transitions with the optical band gap of 1.15 ± 0.01 eV is reported. - Highlights: • SnS thin films were hot wall deposited on glass, molybdenum and indium tin oxide. • Physical properties of the films were studied with respect to the substrate type. • The SnS lattice parameter deviations were observed and the explanation was given. • The direct optical transitions with the band gap of 1.15 ± 0.01 eV were observed

  5. Investigation on Surface Roughness in Cylindrical Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrapati, Ramesh; Bandyopadhyay, Asish; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrical grinding is a complex machining process. And surface roughness is often a key factor in any machining process while considering the machine tool or machining performance. Further, surface roughness is one of the measures of the technological quality of the product and is a factor that greatly influences cost and quality. The present work is related to some aspects of surface finish in the context of traverse-cut cylindrical grinding. The parameters considered have been: infeed, longitudinal feed and work speed. Taguchi quality design is used to design the experiments and to identify the significantly import parameter(s) affecting the surface roughness. By utilization of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), second order differential equation has been developed and attempts have also been made for optimization of the process in the context of surface roughness by using C- programming.

  6. Influence of stainless steel Internals on Corrosion of tower wall materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Ren, Ke

    2017-12-01

    In view of the galvanic corrosion of the tower wall material in the tower of a refinery atmospheric vacuum distillation unit, the electrochemical behavior of Q345R steel, stainless steel (201, 304 cold-rolled plate, 304 hot rolled plate and 316L) in 3.5%NaCl solution was studied by electrochemical method. The results show that the corrosion potential of Q345R is much lower than that of stainless steel, and the corrosion rate of Q345R is higher than that of stainless steel. As the anode is etched as the anode corrosion, the anode polarizability of stainless steel shows strong polarization ability, which is anodic polarization control, and Q345R is anode Active polarization control; Q345R / 201 galvanic pair may be the most serious corrosion, and Q345R/316L galvanic couple may be relatively slight. Therefore, in the actual production of tower equipment, material design or tower to upgrade the replacement, it are recommended to use the preferred anode and cathode potential difference with the use of materials.

  7. Age and cellular context influence rectal prolapse formation in mice with caecal wall colorectal cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommelein, Joke; Gremonprez, Félix; Verset, Laurine; De Vlieghere, Elly; Wagemans, Glenn; Gespach, Christian; Boterberg, Tom; Demetter, Pieter; Ceelen, Wim; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2016-11-15

    In patients with rectal prolapse is the prevalence of colorectal cancer increased, suggesting that a colorectal tumor may induce rectal prolapse. Establishment of tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice after orthotopic inoculations of human colorectal cancer cells into the caecal wall is a widely used approach for the study of human colorectal cancer progression and preclinical evaluation of therapeutics. Remarkably, 70% of young mice carrying a COLO320DM caecal tumor showed symptoms of intussusception of the large bowel associated with intestinal lumen obstruction and rectal prolapse. The quantity of the COLO320DM bioluminescent signal of the first three weeks post-inoculation predicts prolapse in young mice. Rectal prolapse was not observed in adult mice carrying a COLO320DM caecal tumor or young mice carrying a HT29 caecal tumor. In contrast to HT29 tumors, which showed local invasion and metastasis, COLO320DM tumors demonstrated a non-invasive tumor with pushing borders without presence of metastasis. In conclusion, rectal prolapse can be linked to a non-invasive, space-occupying COLO320DM tumor in the gastrointestinal tract of young immunodeficient mice. These data reveal a model that can clarify the association of patients showing rectal prolapse with colorectal cancer.

  8. Influence of rare earths on shrinkage porosity in thin walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2009-01-01

    Ductile cast iron has been cast in test bars with thickness from 2 to 10 mm. The rare earth elements La and Ce have been added to some of the castings to evaluate their influence on microstructure and shrinkage tendency. Both La and Ce increased the graphite nodule count, especially for thickness...

  9. Precipitation of calcium sulphate on hot walls - influence of impurities, thermal and hydraulic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, Roger

    1973-01-01

    After some generalities on desalination by distillation processes and on problems due to scaling, this research thesis aims at a better understanding of the formation of deposits and their effects in the case of precipitation of calcium sulphate hemihydrate which precipitates above 100 C in pure solution and between 100 and 300 C in brine. Deposit growth, influence of impurities, and influence of the deposit on heat exchange and loss of load are the main issues of this research. The author addresses general principles of salt crystallization and the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of calcium sulphate precipitation, studies the growth kinetics of the calcium sulphate hemihydrate in a transient concentration regime, reports the study of thermal and hydraulic effects of the formation of a hemihydrate deposit, notably by discussing the different phases involved in the covering of a metallic surface

  10. Surface roughness effects on heat transfer in Couette flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    A cell theory for viscous flow with rough surfaces is applied to two basic illustrative heat transfer problems which occur in Couette flow. Couette flow between one adiabatic surface and one isothermal surface exhibits roughness effects on the adiabatic wall temperature. Two types of rough cell adiabatic surfaces are studied: (1) perfectly insulating (the temperature gradient vanishes at the boundary of each cell); (2) average insulating (each cell may gain or lose heat but the total heat flow at the wall is zero). The results for the roughness on a surface in motion are postulated to occur because of fluid entrainment in the asperities on the moving surface. The symmetry of the roughness effects on thermal-viscous dissipation is discussed in detail. Explicit effects of the roughness on each surface, including combinations of roughness values, are presented to enable the case where the two surfaces may be from different materials to be studied. The fluid bulk temperature rise is also calculated for Couette flow with two ideal adiabatic surfaces. The effect of roughness on thermal-viscous dissipation concurs with the viscous hydrodynamic effect. The results are illustrated by an application to lubrication. (Auth.)

  11. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    -section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  12. Influence of ionizing radiation, photoperiod, and environmental temperature on cell proliferation in the intestinal epithelium of the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Kinetics of cell division in the intestinal epithelial proliferative cells (cell nests) of the rough-skinned newt, Taricha granulosa, were studied using tritiated thymidine autoradiography and the mitotic arresting properties of colcemid. Percent labeled mitoses (PLM) curves were drawn from the autoradiographic data from two separate experiments in which the newts were maintained at room temperature (22 to 23 0 C). In those experiments, groups of newts were intraperitoneally injected with tritiated thymidine at times ranging between 5 and 58 hours before they were killed. Each newt in both experiments was intraperitoneally injected with colcemid five hours before it was killed. Data from both experiments were very similar and the PLM curves were used to estimate cell cycle phase durations in the cell nests. The DNA synthetic phase was estimated to be 41 hours long and the sum of the G 2 phase duration and one-half the duration of mitosis was approximately seven hours. The duration of the entire cell cycle was considered to be longer than 100 hours and the duration of the G 1 phase longer than 50 hours. Whole-body exposure of newts to 100 R x irradiation essentially stopped mitotic activity in the intestinal cell nests for 32 hours and exposure to 200 R stopped the mitotic activity for 56 hours. Recovery of mitotic activity in the cell nests was in evidence in data from both groups of animals after both those time periods. Whole-body exposure of newts to 1000 R x irradiation severely depressed mitotic activity in the intestinal cell nests for at least 78 hours and resulted in diminished numbers of the cell nests although the mature cells of the intestinal cells appeared to be relatively radioresistant

  13. Influence of light masonry mortar on the thermal insulation of a solid brick wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupke, C

    1980-12-01

    For calculations of the thermal insulation of structural components according to DIN 4108 and to the Thermal Insulation Ordinance, characteristic data of thermal conductivity are used which are contained in DIN 4108 and in the Bundesanzeiger in Supplements to the publication of material characteristics for the calculation of thermal insulation according to the Thermal Insulation Ordinance. For masonry, this value is equivalent to the thermal conductivity of the bricks, including mortar joints. The mortar considered is standard mortar, group II, according to DIN 1053. In the last few years, in order to improve the thermal insulation, mortars of low thermal conductivity and low volume weight - so-called light masonry mortars - have been used to an increasing extent. The improvement in thermal conductivity as compared with standard mortar is referred to as ..delta..lambda; it depends mostly on the thermal conductivity of the light mortar and the bricks. In the article, the laws governing the influence of light masonry mortar on the thermal insulation of masonry of solid bricks and solid blocks are reviewed.

  14. The influence of surface roughness on the hydrogen permeation of type API 5L-X52 steel; Influencia del acabado superficial en la permeacion de hidrogeno del acero API 5L-X52 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Requiz, R; Vera, N; Camero, S

    2004-07-01

    The influence of surface reoughness on the corrosion and hydrogen permeation behaviour was evaluated on a type API 5L-52 steel in dearated 0.1M NaSO{sub 4} at pH=2. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were emplyed to determine the electrochemical behaviour of the steel, while the Devanathan-Stachurski technique was used to estimate the hydrogen permeation rate. Additionally, the surface roughness profiles were obtained in order to correlate the changes in the hydrogen perkeation rate with different metal surface finishings. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that when the roughness parameters have larger values, the cathodic current of hydrogen evolution increases while the hydrogen entry rate decreases. This effect can be attributed to the microstructural defects induced at the steel surface, such as dislocations, which increase the catalytic activity of the atomic hydrogen favouring its recombination. Also, these defects could allow the atomic hydrogen to remain adsorbed on the steel surface. Both effects could hinder the hydrogen diffusion into the metal since the possibility for this atom of becoming absorbed has been reduced. (Author) 16 refs.

  15. Bifurcation parameters of a reflected shock wave in cylindrical channels of different roughnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penyazkov, O.; Skilandz, A.

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effect of bifurcation on the induction time in cylindrical shock tubes used for chemical kinetic experiments, one should know the parameters of the bifurcation structure of a reflected shock wave. The dynamics and parameters of the shock wave bifurcation, which are caused by reflected shock wave-boundary layer interactions, are studied experimentally in argon, in air, and in a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture for Mach numbers M = 1.3-3.5 in a 76-mm-diameter shock tube without any ramp. Measurements were taken at a constant gas density behind the reflected shock wave. Over a wide range of experimental conditions, we studied the axial projection of the oblique shock wave and the pressure distribution in the vicinity of the triple Mach configuration at 50, 150, and 250 mm from the endwall, using side-wall schlieren and pressure measurements. Experiments on a polished shock tube and a shock tube with a surface roughness of 20 {μ }m Ra were carried out. The surface roughness was used for initiating small-scale turbulence in the boundary layer behind the incident shock wave. The effect of small-scale turbulence on the homogenization of the transition zone from the laminar to turbulent boundary layer along the shock tube perimeter was assessed, assuming its influence on a subsequent stabilization of the bifurcation structure size versus incident shock wave Mach number, as well as local flow parameters behind the reflected shock wave. The influence of surface roughness on the bifurcation development and pressure fluctuations near the wall, as well as on the Mach number, at which the bifurcation first develops, was analyzed. It was found that even small additional surface roughness can lead to an overshoot in pressure growth by a factor of two, but it can stabilize the bifurcation structure along the shock tube perimeter.

  16. Influence of different yeast cell wall preparations and their components on performance and immune and metabolic pathways in Clostridium perfringens-challenged broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of purification of yeast cell wall (YCW) preparations on broiler performance, and immunogenic and metabolic pathways under microbial challenge. A total of 240 day-of-hatch chicks were distributed among two battery brooder units (48 pens; 5 birds/pen; ...

  17. Modelling dynamic roughness during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most

  18. Roughness transitions of diamond(100) induced by hydrogen-plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslowski, B.; Strobel, S.; Wenig, M. J.; Ziemann, P.

    To investigate the influence of hydrogen-plasma treatment on diamond(100) surfaces, heavily boron (B)-doped HPHT diamond crystals were mechanically and chemo-mechanically polished, and exposed to a microwave-assisted hydrogen plasma on a time scale of several minutes. The resulting surface morphology was analyzed on macroscopic scales by stylus profilometry (PFM) and on microscopic scales by STM and AFM. The polished samples have a roughness of typically 100 pmrms (PFM), with no obvious anisotropic structures at the surface. After exposure of the B-doped diamond(100) to the H-plasma, the roughness increases dramatically, and pronounced anisotropic structures appear, these being closely aligned with the crystallographic axis' and planes. An exposure for 3 minutes to the plasma leads to an increase of the roughness to 2-4 nmrms (STM), and a `brick-wall' pattern appears, formed by weak cusps running along . Very frequently, the cusps are replaced by `negative' pyramids that are bordered by {11X} facets. After an exposure of an additional 5 minutes, the surface roughness of the B-doped samples increases further to 20-40 nmrms (STM), and frequently exhibits a regular pattern with structures at a characteristic length scale of about 100 nm. Those structures are aligned approximately with and they are faceted with faces of approximately {XX1}. These results will be discussed in terms of strain relaxation, similar to the surface roughening observed on SiGe/Si and anisotropic etching.

  19. Roughness Length Variability over Heterogeneous Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    2004), the influence of variable roughness reaches its maximum at the height of local 0z and vanishes at the so- called blending height (Wieringa...the distribution of visibility restrictors such as low clouds, fog, haze, dust, and pollutants . An improved understanding of ABL structure...R. D., B. H. Lynn, A. Boone, W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, 2001: The influence of soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land-breeze circulations on

  20. A Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Influence of Solar-Induced Wall-Heating on the Flow Regime within a Simulated Urban Street Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar-Panskus, A.; Moulinneuf, L.; Savory, E.; Abdelqari, A.; Sini, J.-F.; Rosant, J.-M.; Robins, A.; Toy, N.

    2002-01-01

    A wind tunnel study has been undertaken to assess the influence of solar-induced wall heating on the airflow pattern within a street canyon under low-speed wind conditions. This flow is normally dominated by large-scale vortical motion, such that the wind moves downwards at the downstream wall. In the present work the aim has been to examine whether the buoyancy forces generated at this wall by solar-induced heating are of sufficient strength to oppose the downward inertial forces and, thereby, change the canyon flow pattern. Such changes will also influence the dispersion of pollutants within the street. In the experiments the windward-facing wall of a canyon has been uniformly heated to simulate the effect of solar radiation.Four different test cases, representing different degrees of buoyancy (defined by a test Froude number, Fr), have been examined using a simple, 2-D, square-section canyon model in a wind tunnel. For reference purposes, the neutral case (no wall heating), has also been studied. The approach flow boundary layer conditions have been well defined, with the wind normal to the main canyon axis, and measurements have been taken of canyon wall and air temperatures and profiles of mean velocities and turbulence intensities.Analysis of the results shows clear differences in the flow patterns. As Fr decreases from the neutral case there are reductions of up to 50% in the magnitudes of the reverseflow velocities near the ground and in the upward motion near the upstream wall. A marked transition occurs at Fr ∼ 1, where the single dominant vortex, existing at higher Fr values, weakens and moves upwards whilst a lower region of relatively stagnant flow appears. This transition had previously been observed in numerical model predictions but at a Fr at least an order of magnitude higher

  1. Turbulent boundary layer over roughness transition with variation in spanwise roughness length scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerweel, Jerry; Tomas, Jasper; Eisma, Jerke; Pourquie, Mathieu; Elsinga, Gerrit; Jonker, Harm

    2016-11-01

    Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic PIV and LIF were done to investigate pollutant dispersion in a region where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. This consists of rectangular obstacles where we vary the spanwise aspect ratio of the obstacles. A line source of passive tracer was placed upstream of the roughness transition. The objectives of the study are: (i) to determine the influence of the aspect ratio on the roughness-transition flow, and (ii) to determine the dominant mechanisms of pollutant removal from street canyons in the transition region. It is found that for a spanwise aspect ratio of 2 the drag induced by the roughness is largest of all considered cases, which is caused by a large-scale secondary flow. In the roughness transition the vertical advective pollutant flux is the main ventilation mechanism in the first three streets. Furthermore, by means of linear stochastic estimation the mean flow structure is identied that is responsible for exchange of the fluid between the roughness obstacles and the outer part of the boundary layer. Furthermore, it is found that the vertical length scale of this structure increases with increasing aspect ratio of the obstacles in the roughness region.

  2. Notions of Rough Neutrosophic Digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Ishfaq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [-3]Graph theory has numerous applications in various disciplines, including computer networks, neural networks, expert systems, cluster analysis, and image capturing. Rough neutrosophic set (NS theory is a hybrid tool for handling uncertain information that exists in real life. In this research paper, we apply the concept of rough NS theory to graphs and present a new kind of graph structure, rough neutrosophic digraphs. We present certain operations, including lexicographic products, strong products, rejection and tensor products on rough neutrosophic digraphs. We investigate some of their properties. We also present an application of a rough neutrosophic digraph in decision-making.

  3. The adsorption of biomolecules to multi-walled carbon nanotubes is influenced by both pulmonary surfactant lipids and surface chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bing

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During production and processing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, they may be inhaled and may enter the pulmonary circulation. It is essential that interactions with involved body fluids like the pulmonary surfactant, the blood and others are investigated, particularly as these interactions could lead to coating of the tubes and may affect their chemical and physical characteristics. The aim of this study was to characterize the possible coatings of different functionalized MWCNTs in a cell free environment. Results To simulate the first contact in the lung, the tubes were coated with pulmonary surfactant and subsequently bound lipids were characterized. The further coating in the blood circulation was simulated by incubating the tubes in blood plasma. MWCNTs were amino (NH2- and carboxyl (-COOH-modified, in order to investigate the influence on the bound lipid and protein patterns. It was shown that surfactant lipids bind unspecifically to different functionalized MWCNTs, in contrast to the blood plasma proteins which showed characteristic binding patterns. Patterns of bound surfactant lipids were altered after a subsequent incubation in blood plasma. In addition, it was found that bound plasma protein patterns were altered when MWCNTs were previously coated with pulmonary surfactant. Conclusions A pulmonary surfactant coating and the functionalization of MWCNTs have both the potential to alter the MWCNTs blood plasma protein coating and to determine their properties and behaviour in biological systems.

  4. Influence of internal and external boundary conditions on the decrement factor and time lag heat flux of building walls in steady periodic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzeo, D.; Oliveti, G.; Arcuri, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic behaviour of building walls subjected to sinusoidal and actual loadings. • The joint action of more temperature and heat flux loadings has been considered. • Dynamic parameters were defined by the internal and external fluctuating heat flux. • Use of the Total Harmonic Distortion to determine the number of harmonics required. • Study of the influence of external and internal loadings on dynamic parameters. - Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of opaque components of the building envelope in steady periodic regime is investigated using parameters defined by the fluctuating heat flux that is transferred in the wall. The use of the heat flux allows for the joint action of the loadings that characterise both the outdoor environment and the indoor air-conditioned environment to be taken into account. The analysis was developed in sinusoidal conditions to determine the frequency response of the wall and in non-sinusoidal conditions to identify the actual dynamic behaviour of the wall. The use of non-dimensional periodic thermal transmittance is proposed for the sinusoidal analysis in order to evaluate the decrement factor and the time lag that the heat flux undergoes in crossing the wall as well as the efficiency of heat storage. In the presence of non-sinusoidal loadings, the identification of the dynamic behaviour of the wall is obtained using several dynamic parameters: the decrement factor in terms of energy, defined as the ratio between the energy in a semi-period entering and exiting the wall; the decrement factor and the time lag in terms of heat flux, considering the maximum peak and the minimum peak. These parameters allow for the identification of how the form of the heat flux trend crossing the wall is modified. The number of harmonics to be considered for an accurate representation of heat fluxes is determined by means of the introduction of the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), which quantifies the distortion of a non

  5. Rough Surface Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the contact of general rough curved surfaces having nearly identical geometries, assuming the contact at each differential area obeys the model proposed by Greenwood and Williamson. In order to account for the most general gross geometry, principles of differential geometry of surface are applied. This method while requires more rigorous mathematical manipulations, the fact that it preserves the original surface geometries thus makes the modeling procedure much more intuitive. For subsequent use, differential geometry of axis-symmetric surface is considered instead of general surface (although this “general case” can be done as well in Chapter 3.1. The final formulas for contact area, load, and frictional torque are derived in Chapter 3.2.

  6. The influence of wall resonances on the levitation of objects in a single-axis acoustic processing chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B. B.

    1980-01-01

    Instabilities were observed in high temperature, single axis acoustic processing chambers. At certain temperatures, strong wall resonances were generated within the processing chamber itself and these transverse resonances were thought sufficient to disrupt the levitation well. These wall resonances are apparently not strong enough to cause instabilities in the levitation well.

  7. Shadows on the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, Diana.

    1984-01-01

    Canadian antinuclear groups, because of their shifting stances and fluid overlapping membership, are compared with shadows on a wall. They can be roughly classified as environmental, pacifist, concerned with energy, religious, or dedicated to nuclear responsibility. The author considers that such groups, despite their arguably unrealistic attitudes, have raised public awareness of the ethical, practical and financial aspects of power development in Canada and the world

  8. A new fiber optic sensor for inner surface roughness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Liu, Shoubin; Hu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    In order to measure inner surface roughness of small holes nondestructively, a new fiber optic sensor is researched and developed. Firstly, a new model for surface roughness measurement is proposed, which is based on intensity-modulated fiber optic sensors and scattering modeling of rough surfaces. Secondly, a fiber optical measurement system is designed and set up. Under the help of new techniques, the fiber optic sensor can be miniaturized. Furthermore, the use of micro prism makes the light turn 90 degree, so the inner side surface roughness of small holes can be measured. Thirdly, the fiber optic sensor is gauged by standard surface roughness specimens, and a series of measurement experiments have been done. The measurement results are compared with those obtained by TR220 Surface Roughness Instrument and Form Talysurf Laser 635, and validity of the developed fiber optic sensor is verified. Finally, precision and influence factors of the fiber optic sensor are analyzed.

  9. Numerical simulations of seepage flow in rough single rock fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the structural characteristics and seepage flow behavior of rough single rock fractures, a set of single fracture physical models were produced using the Weierstrass–Mandelbrot functions to test the seepage flow performance. Six single fractures, with various surface roughnesses characterized by fractal dimensions, were built using COMSOL multiphysics software. The fluid flow behavior through the rough fractures and the influences of the rough surfaces on the fluid flow behavior was then monitored. The numerical simulation indicates that there is a linear relationship between the average flow velocity over the entire flow path and the fractal dimension of the rough surface. It is shown that there is good a agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data in terms of the properties of the fluid flowing through the rough single rock fractures.

  10. Roughness Effects on Fretting Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tongyan; Abdel Wahab, Magd

    2017-05-01

    Fretting is a small oscillatory relative motion between two normal loaded contact surfaces. It may cause fretting fatigue, fretting wear and/or fretting corrosion damage depending on various fretting couples and working conditions. Fretting fatigue usually occurs at partial slip condition, and results in catastrophic failure at the stress levels below the fatigue limit of the material. Many parameters may affect fretting behaviour, including the applied normal load and displacement, material properties, roughness of the contact surfaces, frequency, etc. Since fretting damage is undesirable due to contacting, the effect of rough contact surfaces on fretting damage has been studied by many researchers. Experimental method on this topic is usually focusing on rough surface effects by finishing treatment and random rough surface effects in order to increase fretting fatigue life. However, most of numerical models on roughness are based on random surface. This paper reviewed both experimental and numerical methodology on the rough surface effects on fretting fatigue.

  11. Roughing in Human Replumbing of the Water Cycle: Challenges, Opportunities, and Progress in Capturing the Influence of Water Management in Regional Models of Hydrology and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A. N.; Kaiser, K. E.; Steimke, A.; Leonard, A.; FitzGerald, K.; Benner, S. G.; Vache, K. B.; Hillis, V.; Bolte, J.; Han, B.

    2017-12-01

    Humans exert tremendous influence on the redistribution of water in space and time. Humans have developed substantial infrastructure to provide water in adequate quantity and quality for production of food and energy, while seeking to maintain landscape processes and properties giving rise to ecosystem services on which humans rely (even when and if they are not well understood). Cyber-physical infrastructure includes dams, distributary canal networks, ditches to manage return flow, and networks of sensors to monitor environmental conditions. Social infrastructure includes legal frameworks for water rights, governance networks, and land management policies aimed at maintaining water quality. Changes in regional climate, land use and its intensity, and land cover in source areas exert pressures on this infrastructure, requiring models to characterize system-wide vulnerability and resilience. Here we present a synthesis of several ongoing and completed studies aimed at advancing our fundamental understanding of and ability to numerically model a system in which biophysical and human components cannot be separated. These studies are set within the Boise and Snake River Basin in the US Pacific Northwest and are organized around the aims of: (1) developing improved understanding and models of the ways that humans interact with each other and with biophysical processes at a range of spatiotemporal scales, and (2) using those models to predict how changes in climate and societal drivers, including in-migration and shifts in agricultural practices, will impact regional hydroclimate and associated ecosystem services. Key findings indicate differential pressures on water availability based on water rights seniority within the Lower Boise River basin under historical conditions, the potential for significantly earlier curtailment of water rights in future decades, and potential changes in agricultural practices in anticipation of future climate changes. This ongoing suite of

  12. The Influence of Infill Wall Topology and Seismic Characteristics on the Response and Damage Distribution in Frame Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Nanos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the effects of infill wall existence and arrangement in the seismic response of frame structures utilising the global structural damage index after Park/Ang (GDIPA and the maximum interstorey drift ratio (MISDR to express structural seismic response. Five different infill wall topologies of a 10-storey frame structure have been selected and analysed presenting an improved damage distribution model for infill wall bearing frames, hence promoting the use of nonstructural elements as a means of improving frame structural seismic behaviour and highlighting important aspects of structural response, demonstrating the suitability of such element implementation beyond their intended architectural scope.

  13. Simulating secondary organic aerosol in a regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model – Part 2: Assessing the influence of vapor wall losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Cappa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of losses of organic vapors to chamber walls during secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation experiments has recently been established. Here, the influence of such losses on simulated ambient SOA concentrations and properties is assessed in the University of California at Davis / California Institute of Technology (UCD/CIT regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model (SOM for SOA. The SOM was fit to laboratory chamber data both with and without accounting for vapor wall losses following the approach of Zhang et al. (2014. Two vapor wall-loss scenarios are considered when fitting of SOM to chamber data to determine best-fit SOM parameters, one with “low” and one with “high” vapor wall-loss rates to approximately account for the current range of uncertainty in this process. Simulations were run using these different parameterizations (scenarios for both the southern California/South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB and the eastern United States (US. Accounting for vapor wall losses leads to substantial increases in the simulated SOA concentrations from volatile organic compounds (VOCs in both domains, by factors of  ∼  2–5 for the low and  ∼  5–10 for the high scenarios. The magnitude of the increase scales approximately inversely with the absolute SOA concentration of the no loss scenario. In SoCAB, the predicted SOA fraction of total organic aerosol (OA increases from  ∼  0.2 (no to  ∼  0.5 (low and to  ∼  0.7 (high, with the high vapor wall-loss simulations providing best general agreement with observations. In the eastern US, the SOA fraction is large in all cases but increases further when vapor wall losses are accounted for. The total OA ∕ ΔCO ratio captures the influence of dilution on SOA concentrations. The simulated OA ∕ ΔCO in SoCAB (specifically, at Riverside, CA is found to increase substantially during the day only for the high vapor wall

  14. Buckling of ZnS-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes – The influence of aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Cachim, Paulo B.; Holec, David

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical response of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) filled with crystalline zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanowires under uniaxial compression is studied using classical molecular dynamics. These simulations were used to analyse the behaviour

  15. Surface-subsurface turbulent interaction at the interface of a permeable bed: influence of the wall permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Blois, G.; Best, J.; Christensen, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    Coarse-gravel river beds possess a high degree of permeability. Flow interactions between surface and subsurface flow across the bed interface is key to a number of natural processes occurring in the hyporheic zone. In fact, it is increasingly recognized that these interactions drive mass, momentum and energy transport across the interface, and consequently control biochemical processes as well as stability of sediments. The current study explores the role of the wall permeability in surface and subsurface flow interaction under controlled experimental conditions on a physical model of a gravel bed. The present wall model was constructed by five layers of cubically arranged spheres (d=25.4mm, where d is a diameter) providing 48% of porosity. Surface topography was removed by cutting half of a diameter on the top layer of spheres to render the flow surface smooth and highlight the impact of the permeability on the overlying flow. An impermeable smooth wall was also considered as a baseline of comparison for the permeable wall flow. To obtain basic flow statistics, low-frame-rate high-resolution PIV measurements were performed first in the streamwise-wall-normal (x-y) plane and refractive-index matching was employed to optically access the flow within the permeable wall. Time-resolved PIV experiments in the same facility were followed to investigate the flow interaction across the wall interface in sptaio-temporal domain. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the first and second order velocity statistics as well as the amplitude modulation for the flow overlying the permeable smooth wall will be presented.

  16. Ceramic inlays and partial ceramic crowns: influence of remaining cusp wall thickness on the marginal integrity and enamel crack formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krifka, Stephanie; Anthofer, Thomas; Fritzsch, Marcus; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Federlin, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    No information is currently available about what the critical cavity wall thickness is and its influence upon 1) the marginal integrity of ceramic inlays (CI) and partial ceramic crowns (PCC) and 2) the crack formation of dental tissues. This in vitro study of CI and PCC tested the effects of different remaining cusp wall thicknesses on marginal integrity and enamel crack formation. CI (n = 25) and PCC (n = 26) preparations were performed in extracted human molars. Functional cusps of CI and PCC were adjusted to a 2.5 mm thickness; for PCC, the functional cusps were reduced to a thickness of 2.0 mm. Non-functional cusps were adjusted to wall thicknesses of 1) 1.0 mm and 2) 2.0 mm. Ceramic restorations (Vita Mark II, Cerec3 System) were fabricated and adhesively luted to the cavities with Excite/Variolink II. The specimens were exposed to thermocycling and central mechanical loading (TCML: 5000 x 5 degrees C-55 degrees C; 30 seconds/cycle; 500000 x 72.5N, 1.6Hz). Marginal integrity was assessed by evaluating a) dye penetration (fuchsin) on multiple sections after TCML and by using b) quantitative margin analysis in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after TCML. Ceramic- and tooth-luting agent interfaces (LA) were evaluated separately. Enamel cracks were documented under a reflective light microscope. The data were statistically analyzed with the Mann Whitney U-test (alpha = 0.05) and the Error Rates Method (ERM). Crack formation was analyzed with the Chi-Square-test (alpha = 0.05) and ERM. In general, the remaining cusp wall thickness, interface, cavity design and TCML had no statistically significant influence on marginal integrity for both CI and PCC (ERM). Single pairwise comparisons showed that the CI and PCC of Group 2 had a tendency towards less microleakage along the dentin/LA interface than Group 1. Cavity design and location had no statistically significant influence on crack formation, but the specimens with 1.0 mm of remaining wall

  17. Variations in roughness predictions (flume experiments)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, Daniëlle; Blom, Astrid; van der Klis, H.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Makaske, A.; Wolfert, H.P.; van Os, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Data of flume experiments with bed forms are used to analyze and compare different roughness predictors. In this study, the hydraulic roughness consists of grain roughness and form roughness. We predict the grain roughness by means of the size of the sediment. The form roughness is predicted by

  18. Influence of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithm in MDCT assessment of airway wall thickness: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Nagle, Scott K.; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong; Robinson, Terry E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Wall thickness (WT) is an airway feature of great interest for the assessment of morphological changes in the lung parenchyma. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has recently been used to evaluate airway WT, but the potential risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis—particularly in younger patients—might limit a wider use of this imaging method in clinical practice. The recent commercial implementation of the statistical model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm, instead of the conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm, has enabled considerable radiation dose reduction in many other clinical applications of MDCT. The purpose of this work was to study the impact of radiation dose and MBIR in the MDCT assessment of airway WT. Methods: An airway phantom was scanned using a clinical MDCT system (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare) at 4 kV levels and 5 mAs levels. Both FBP and a commercial implementation of MBIR (Veo TM , GE Healthcare) were used to reconstruct CT images of the airways. For each kV–mAs combination and each reconstruction algorithm, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the airways was measured, and the WT of each airway was measured and compared with the nominal value; the relative bias and the angular standard deviation in the measured WT were calculated. For each airway and reconstruction algorithm, the overall performance of WT quantification across all of the 20 kV–mAs combinations was quantified by the sum of squares (SSQs) of the difference between the measured and nominal WT values. Finally, the particular kV–mAs combination and reconstruction algorithm that minimized radiation dose while still achieving a reference WT quantification accuracy level was chosen as the optimal acquisition and reconstruction settings. Results: The wall thicknesses of seven airways of different sizes were analyzed in the study. Compared with FBP, MBIR improved the CNR of the airways, particularly at low radiation dose

  19. Influence of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithm in MDCT assessment of airway wall thickness: A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cardona, Daniel [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Nagle, Scott K. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong, E-mail: gchen7@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Robinson, Terry E. [Department of Pediatrics, Stanford School of Medicine, 770 Welch Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Wall thickness (WT) is an airway feature of great interest for the assessment of morphological changes in the lung parenchyma. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has recently been used to evaluate airway WT, but the potential risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis—particularly in younger patients—might limit a wider use of this imaging method in clinical practice. The recent commercial implementation of the statistical model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm, instead of the conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm, has enabled considerable radiation dose reduction in many other clinical applications of MDCT. The purpose of this work was to study the impact of radiation dose and MBIR in the MDCT assessment of airway WT. Methods: An airway phantom was scanned using a clinical MDCT system (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare) at 4 kV levels and 5 mAs levels. Both FBP and a commercial implementation of MBIR (Veo{sup TM}, GE Healthcare) were used to reconstruct CT images of the airways. For each kV–mAs combination and each reconstruction algorithm, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the airways was measured, and the WT of each airway was measured and compared with the nominal value; the relative bias and the angular standard deviation in the measured WT were calculated. For each airway and reconstruction algorithm, the overall performance of WT quantification across all of the 20 kV–mAs combinations was quantified by the sum of squares (SSQs) of the difference between the measured and nominal WT values. Finally, the particular kV–mAs combination and reconstruction algorithm that minimized radiation dose while still achieving a reference WT quantification accuracy level was chosen as the optimal acquisition and reconstruction settings. Results: The wall thicknesses of seven airways of different sizes were analyzed in the study. Compared with FBP, MBIR improved the CNR of the airways, particularly at low radiation dose

  20. Study on the related factors influencing the formation of intra-aneurysmal thrombosis in the established side-wall aneurysmal model in canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bing; Li Minghua; Wang Jianbo; Zhu Yueqi; Yuan Jianhua; Yu Wenqiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the related factors influencing the formation of intra-aneurysmal thrombosis (IAT) in the established side-wall aneurysmal model in canine, and to discuss the measures to prevent the occurrence of IAT. Methods: Twenty canines were randomly divided into 4 groups for building side-wall aneurysmal model: group A, vertical aneurysm without use of postoperative anticoagulation medication; group B, vertical aneurysm with use of postoperative anticoagulation medication; group C, oblique aneurysm without use of postoperative anticoagulation medication; and group D, oblique aneurysm with use of postoperative anticoagulation medication. Angiography was performed to evaluate the IAT. The potential related factors influencing the formation of IAT, including sex, age, operative time, aneurysmal morphology, postoperative anticoagulation medication and cervical hematoma, were statistically analysed with emphasis on aneurysmal morphology and the use of postoperative anticoagulation medication. The statistical software SPSS 12.0 was employed. Results: A total of 40 aneurysms were successfully established in 20 canines. Cervical hematoma occurred in 7 canines and IAT developed in 8 aneurysms. The univariate analysis showed that the formation of IAT was significantly influenced by the aneurysmal morphology and cervical hematoma. Surprisingly, the formation of IAT bore no relation to the postoperative anticoagulation, whether the medication was employed or not, which was further confirmed by stratified analysis. Conclusion: To establish oblique aneurysm and to reduce the occurrence of cervical hematoma can effectively decrease the incidence of IAT in established side-wall aneurysmal model in canine. The postoperative anticoagulation medication can not decrease the incidence of IAT. (authors)

  1. Comparison of vegetation roughness descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Huthoff, Freek; van Velzen, E.H.; Altinakar, M.S.; Kokpinar, M.A.; Aydin, I.; Cokgor, S.; Kirkgoz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation roughness is an important parameter in describing flow through river systems. Vegetation impedes the flow, which affects the stage-discharge curve and may increase flood risks. Roughness is often used as a calibration parameter in river models, however when vegetation is allowed to

  2. Bankruptcy Prediction with Rough Sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); V. Popova (Viara)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe bankruptcy prediction problem can be considered an or dinal classification problem. The classical theory of Rough Sets describes objects by discrete attributes, and does not take into account the order- ing of the attributes values. This paper proposes a modification of the Rough Set

  3. Generalizing roughness: experiments with flow-oriented roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano

    2015-04-01

    Surface texture analysis applied to High Resolution Digital Terrain Models (HRDTMs) improves the capability to characterize fine-scale morphology and permits the derivation of useful morphometric indexes. An important indicator to be taken into account in surface texture analysis is surface roughness, which can have a discriminant role in the detection of different geomorphic processes and factors. The evaluation of surface roughness is generally performed considering it as an isotropic surface parameter (e.g., Cavalli, 2008; Grohmann, 2011). However, surface texture has often an anisotropic character, which means that surface roughness could change according to the considered direction. In some applications, for example involving surface flow processes, the anisotropy of roughness should be taken into account (e.g., Trevisani, 2012; Smith, 2014). Accordingly, we test the application of a flow-oriented directional measure of roughness, computed considering surface gravity-driven flow. For the calculation of flow-oriented roughness we use both classical variogram-based roughness (e.g., Herzfeld,1996; Atkinson, 2000) as well as an ad-hoc developed robust modification of variogram (i.e. MAD, Trevisani, 2014). The presented approach, based on a D8 algorithm, shows the potential impact of considering directionality in the calculation of roughness indexes. The use of flow-oriented roughness could improve the definition of effective proxies of impedance to flow. Preliminary results on the integration of directional roughness operators with morphometric-based models, are promising and can be extended to more complex approaches. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Cavalli, M. & Marchi, L. 2008, "Characterization of the surface morphology of an alpine alluvial fan using airborne LiDAR", Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 323-333. Grohmann, C

  4. Micro-encapsulation of refined olive oil: influence of capsule wall components and the addition of antioxidant additives on the shelf life and chemical alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Patricia; Castaño, Angel Luís; Lozano, Mercedes; González-Gómez, David

    2012-10-01

    Although refined olive oils (ROOs) exhibit lower quality and less stability toward thermal stress than extra-virgin olive oils, these types of oil are gaining importance in the food industry. The inclusion of ROOs in processed food may alter the oxidative stability of the manufactured products, and therefore having technological alternatives to increase oil stability will be an important achievement. For this reason the main goal of this study was to assess the influence of the micro-encapsulation process on the ROO chemical composition and its oxidative stability. Factors such as microcapsule wall constituents and the addition of the antioxidant butyl hydroxytoluene were investigated in order to establish the most appropriate conditions to ensure no alteration of the refined olive oil chemical characteristics. The optimised methodology exhibited high encapsulation yield (>98%), with micro-encapsulation efficiency ranging from 35 to 69% according to the nature of the wall components. The encapsulation process slightly altered the chemical composition of the olive oil and protected the oxidative stability for at least 11 months when protein components were included as wall components. It was concluded that the presence of proteins constituents in the microcapsule wall material extended the shelf life of the micro-encapsulated olive oil regardless the use of antioxidant additives. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Influence of thermal gradient on gas turbine combustor wall using impingement/effusion cooling techniques: CHT CFD predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. El-jummah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Internal wall heat transfer relevant to impingement/effusion cooling techniques was investigated using conjugate heat transfer (CHT computational fluid dynamics (CFD with ANSYS Fluent and ICEM commercial software. This work concentrates on the development of CHT CFD design procedures that are applicable to combustor wall and turbine blade heat transfer optimisation in gas turbine (GT. It specifically modelled and compares two configuration which are specifically relevant to the impingement and effusion holes density n (m-2 and is the ratio of the hole pitch X2. The configurations investigated are equal and unequal impingement and effusion holes density n (m-2, respectively, whereby in each case the variation in the number of cooling holes were carried out. The ratio of impingement and effusion number of holes/m2 (or hole density n, investigated were impingement/effusion: 4306/4306 and 1076/4306, respectively. The geometries were for impingement wall, hole pitch X to diameter D, X/D ratio of ~ 11 but different number of holes N for both n geometries, at a constant offset effusion wall, hole X/D of 4.7 of the same N for both the two configurations. The model geometries have a constant impingement gap of 8 mm with both impingement and effusion walls at 6.35 mm thick Nimonic - 75 material and were computed for varied air mass flux G from 0.1 - 0.94 kg/sm2. Symmetrical applications were employed in modelling each of the geometry, whereby for the impingement hole, only quarter of one hole was modelled, while for the effusion side the holes were either quarter or half modelled. The two n geometries were computed with k - ɛ turbulence model using standard wall functions, which also applies to all G. The predicted locally surface X2 (or hole square area average heat transfer coefficient (HTC h values compared with with previously published experimental data showed good agreement. The reduced internal gap flow recirculation with reduced heat transfer to

  6. The influence of botulinum toxin type A (BTX) on the immunohistochemical characteristics of noradrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibers supplying the porcine urinary bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepiarczyk, E; Bossowska, A; Kaleczyc, J; Majewski, M

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) belongs to a family of neurotoxins which strongly influence the function of autonomic neurons supplying the urinary bladder. Accordingly, BTX has been used as an effective drug in experimental therapies of a range of neurogenic bladder disorders. However, there is no detailed information dealing with the influence of BTX on the morphological and chemical properties of nerve fibres supplying the urinary bladder wall. Therefore, the present study investigated, using double-labeling immunohistochemistry, the distribution, relative frequency and chemical coding of cholinergic and noradrenergic nerve fibers supplying the wall of the urinary bladder in normal female pigs (n = 6) and in the pigs (n = 6) after intravesical BTX injections. In the pigs injected with BTX, the number of adrenergic (DbetaH-positive) nerve fibers distributed in the bladder wall (urothelium, submucosa and muscle coat) was distinctly higher while the number of cholinergic (VAChT-positive) nerve terminals was lower than that found in the control animals. Moreover, the injections of BTX resulted in some changes dealing with the chemical coding of the adrenergic nerve fibers. In contrast to the normal pigs, in BTX injected animals the number of DbetaH/NPY- or DbetaH/CGRP-positive axons was higher in the muscle coat, and some fibres distributed in the urothelium and submucosa expressed immunoreactivity to CGRP. The results obtained suggest that the therapeutic effects of BTX on the urinary bladder might be dependent on changes in the distribution and chemical coding of nerve fibers supplying this organ.

  7. Friction factor in smooth and rough gas pipelines. An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sletfjerding, Elling

    1999-01-01

    Flow of high pressure natural gas in pipelines has been studied experimentally. Pipeline flow of natural gas is characterized by high Reynolds numbers due to the low viscosity and relatively high density of pressurized gas. Friction factor correlations for high Reynolds number flow in smooth and rough pipes were developed. To study the effect of wall roughness on pipe flow at high Reynolds numbers 8 test pipes with different wall roughness were fabricated. The wall roughness in 6 of the test pipes was varied by adding glass beads in an epoxy coating applied on the pipe wall. One test pipe was treated with a smooth epoxy coating and one was left untreated. The inner diameter of the test pipes was 150 mm. Measurements of the pressure drop in the pipes were made in a closed flow loop at line pressures of 25, 70, 95 and 120 bar. The Reynolds number of the flow was varied in the range 2-30 million. The wall roughness of the test pipes was measured with a stylus instrument. Correlations between the directly measured wall roughness and the friction factor at fully rough flow conditions were presented. To characterize the wall roughness of the test pipes a parameter combining a measure of the roughness height (R{sub q}) and the texture of the wall roughness was used. Due to the high Reynolds number of the flow, minute irregularities of the pipe wall had significant effect on the friction factor in the pipe. The measured wall roughness of the test pipes was in the range 1.4 < R{sub q} <31 (my)m. The flow experiments in test pipes was compared with data from operating pipelines in the North Sea. The offshore pipelines are coated with the same epoxy coating as used in the test pipes. The friction factor in coated offshore gas pipelines showed smooth behavior when the additional pressure drop due to welds were accounted for. The study of coated gas pipelines showed that the friction factor was significantly lower than predicted by standard correlations.

  8. The influence of fiber thickness, wall thickness and gap distance on the spiral nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junping; Shah, Ami; Yu Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a 3D nanofibrous spiral scaffold for bone tissue engineering which has shown enhanced cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation compared to traditional cylindrical scaffolds due to the spiral structures and the nanofiber incorporation. Some important parameters of these spiral scaffolds including gap distance, wall thickness and especially fiber thickness are crucial to the performance of the spiral structured scaffolds. In this study, we investigated the fiber thickness, gap distance and wall thickness of the spiral structure on the behavior of osteoblast cells. The human osteoblast cells are seeded on spiral structured scaffolds with various fiber thickness, gap distance and wall thickness and cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and mineralized matrix deposition on the scaffolds are evaluated. It was found that increasing the thickness of nanofiber layer not only limited the cell infiltration into the scaffolds, but also restrained the osteoblastic cell phenotype development. Moreover, the geometric effect studies indicated that scaffolds with the thinner wall and gap distance 0.2 mm show the best bioactivity for osteoblasts.

  9. Influence of cultivar, cooking, and storage on cell-wall polysaccharide composition of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R M Sunil; Melton, Laurence D; Hurst, Paul L

    2003-03-26

    Changes in the cell-wall polysaccharides (CWP) of the edible tissues of four winter squash cultivars during storage and after cooking were investigated. A procedure for isolating cell walls of tissues containing high levels of starch was used. The starch-free CWP were sequentially fractionated using CDTA, dilute Na(2)CO(3), and 4 M KOH. Cellulose made up 40-42% of the total CWP for three cultivars (Delica, CF 2, and CF 4) at harvest but was 35% in the softer Red Warren. The pectic polysaccharides of Delica, CF 2, and CF 4 cell walls are more branched than those from Red Warren squash. The higher proportion of uronic acid in the pectic polysaccharides of Red Warren squash correlates with its lower firmness. Cooking resulted in an increase in the water-soluble pectins and a decrease in the pectins associated with cellulose. The total CWP content of the squash cultivars remained unchanged for up to 2 months of storage and then markedly decreased between 2 and 3 months of storage. The galactose content of Delica and Red Warren cell walls remained relatively constant from harvest to 2 months of storage and then decreased markedly during 2-3 months of storage.

  10. Influence of slice thickness on the determination of left ventricular wall thickness and dimension by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Shusaku; Fukui, Sugao; Atsumi, Chisato and others

    1989-02-01

    Wall thickness of the ventricular septum and left ventricle, and left ventricular cavity dimension were determined on magnetic resonance (MR) images with slices 5 mm and 10 mm in thickness. Subjects were 3 healthy volunteers and 7 patients with hypertension (4), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (one) or valvular heart disease (2). In visualizing the cardiac structures such as left ventricular papillary muscle and right and left ventricles, 5 mm-thick images were better than 10 mm-thick images. Edges of ventricular septum and left ventricular wall were more clearly visualized on 5 mm-thick images than 10 mm-thick images. Two mm-thick MR images obtained from 2 patients yielded the most excellent visualization in end-systole, but failed to reveal cardiac structures in detail in end-diastole. Phantom studies revealed no significant differences in image quality of 10 mm and 5 mm in thickness in the axial view 80 degree to the long axis. In the axial view 45 degree to the long axis, 10 mm-thick images were inferior to 5 mm-thick images in detecting the edge of the septum and the left ventricular wall. These results indicate that the selection of slice thickness is one of the most important determinant factors in the measurement of left ventricular wall thickness and cavity dimension. (Namekawa, K).

  11. Influence of slice thickness on the determination of left ventricular wall thickness and dimension by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Shusaku; Fukui, Sugao; Atsumi, Chisato

    1989-01-01

    Wall thickness of the ventricular septum and left ventricle, and left ventricular cavity dimension were determined on magnetic resonance (MR) images with slices 5 mm and 10 mm in thickness. Subjects were 3 healthy volunteers and 7 patients with hypertension (4), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (one) or valvular heart disease (2). In visualizing the cardiac structures such as left ventricular papillary muscle and right and left ventricles, 5 mm-thick images were better than 10 mm-thick images. Edges of ventricular septum and left ventricular wall were more clearly visualized on 5 mm-thick images than 10 mm-thick images. Two mm-thick MR images obtained from 2 patients yielded the most excellent visualization in end-systole, but failed to reveal cardiac structures in detail in end-diastole. Phantom studies revealed no significant differences in image quality of 10 mm and 5 mm in thickness in the axial view 80 degree to the long axis. In the axial view 45 degree to the long axis, 10 mm-thick images were inferior to 5 mm-thick images in detecting the edge of the septum and the left ventricular wall. These results indicate that the selection of slice thickness is one of the most important determinant factors in the measurement of left ventricular wall thickness and cavity dimension. (Namekawa, K)

  12. Investigation of the influence of divertor recycling on global plasma confinement in JET ITER-like wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamain, P.; Joffrin, E.; Bufferand, H.; Jarvinen, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Ciraolo, G.; Delabie, E.; Frassinetti, L.; Giroud, C.; Groth, M.; Lipschultz, B.; Lomas, P.; Marsen, S.; Menmuir, S.; Oberkofler, M.; Stamp, M.; Wiesen, S.; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The impact of the divertor geometry on global plasma confinement in type I ELMy H-mode has been investigated in the JET tokamak equipped with ITER-Like Wall. Discharges have been performed in which the position of the strike-points was changed while keeping the bulk plasma equilibrium

  13. Yeast-assisted synthesis of polypyrrole: Quantification and influence on the mechanical properties of the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriukonis, Eivydas; Stirke, Arunas; Garbaras, Andrius; Mikoliunaite, Lina; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Thornton, Barry; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the metabolism of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was utilized for the synthesis of the conducting polymer - polypyrrole (Ppy).Yeast cells were modified in situ by synthesized Ppy. The Ppy was formed in the cell wall by redox-cycling of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3-/4- , performed by the yeast cells. Fluorescence microscopy, enzymatic digestions, atomic force microscopy and isotope ratio mass spectroscopy were applied to determine both the polymerization reaction itself and the polymer location in yeast cells. Ppy formation resulted in enhanced resistance to lytic enzymes, significant increase of elasticity and alteration of other mechanical cell wall properties evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The suggested method of polymer synthesis allows the introduction of polypyrrole structures within the cell wall, which is build up from polymers consisting of carbohydrates. This cell wall modification strategy could increase the usefulness of yeast as an alternative energy source in biofuel cells, and in cell based biosensors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Introduction: Scaling and structure in high Reynolds number wall-bounded flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, B.J.; Sreenivasan, K.R.

    2007-05-01

    The papers discussed in this report are dealing with the following aspects: Fundamental scaling relations for canonical flows and asymptotic approach to infinite Reynolds numbers; large and very large scales in near-wall turbulences; the influence of roughness and finite Reynolds number effects; comparison between internal and external flows and the universality of the near-wall region; qualitative and quantitative models of the turbulent boundary layer; the neutrally stable atmospheric surface layer as a model for a canonical zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer (author)

  15. Investigating the influence of photocatalytic cool wall adoption on meteorology and air quality in the Los Angeles basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Tang, X.; Levinson, R.; Destaillats, H.; Mohegh, A.; Li, Y.; Tao, W.; Liu, J.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Solar reflective "cool materials" can be used to lower urban temperatures, useful for mitigating the urban heat island effect and adapting to the local impacts of climate change. While numerous past studies have investigated the climate impacts of cool surfaces, few studies have investigated their effects on air pollution. Meteorological changes from increases in surface albedo can lead to temperature and transport induced modifications in air pollutant concentrations. In an effort to maintain high albedos in polluted environments, cool surfaces can also be made using photocatalytic "self-cleaning" materials. These photocatalytic materials can also remove NOx from ambient air, with possible consequences on ambient gas and particle phase pollutant concentrations. In this research, we investigate the impact of widespread deployment of cool walls on urban meteorology and air pollutant concentrations in the Los Angeles basin. Both photocatalytic and standard (not photocatalytic) high albedo wall materials are investigated. Simulations using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem) show that cool walls could effectively decrease urban temperatures in the Los Angeles basin. Preliminary results indicate that meteorology-induced changes from adopting standard cool walls could lead to ozone concentration reductions of up to 0.5 ppb. NOx removal induced by photocatalytic materials was modeled by modifying the WRF-Chem dry deposition scheme, with deposition rates informed by laboratory measurements of various commercially available materials. Simulation results indicate that increased deposition of NOx by photocatalytic materials could increase ozone concentrations, analogous to the ozone "weekend effect" in which reduced weekend NOx emissions can lead to increases in ozone. The impacts of cool walls on particulate matter concentrations are also discussed. Changes in particulate matter concentrations are found to be driven by albedo-induced changes in air pollutant

  16. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  17. Slug flow in horizontal pipes with transpiration at the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, J. B. R.; Silva Freire, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    The present work investigates the behaviour of slug flows in horizontal pipes with a permeable wall. Measurements of pressure drop and of local velocity are given for nine different flow conditions. The liquid phase velocity was measured with laser Doppler anemometry. Single-phase data are compared with the results of other authors. The influence of flow transpiration and of roughness on the features of slug flows is shown to be pronounced. A Shadow Sizer system coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry is used to account for the properties of the slug cell.

  18. Slug flow in horizontal pipes with transpiration at the wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: jbrloureiro@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work investigates the behaviour of slug flows in horizontal pipes with a permeable wall. Measurements of pressure drop and of local velocity are given for nine different flow conditions. The liquid phase velocity was measured with laser Doppler anemometry. Single-phase data are compared with the results of other authors. The influence of flow transpiration and of roughness on the features of slug flows is shown to be pronounced. A Shadow Sizer system coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry is used to account for the properties of the slug cell.

  19. Slug flow in horizontal pipes with transpiration at the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the behaviour of slug flows in horizontal pipes with a permeable wall. Measurements of pressure drop and of local velocity are given for nine different flow conditions. The liquid phase velocity was measured with laser Doppler anemometry. Single-phase data are compared with the results of other authors. The influence of flow transpiration and of roughness on the features of slug flows is shown to be pronounced. A Shadow Sizer system coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry is used to account for the properties of the slug cell.

  20. Contact area calculation between elastic solids bounded by mound rough surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    In this work, we investigate the influence of mound roughness on the contact area between elastic bodies. The mound roughness is described by the r.m.s. roughness amplitude w, the average mound separation Lambda, and the system correlation length xi. In general, the real contact area has a complex

  1. Quality factor due to roughness scattering of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves in nanoresonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we study the quality factor associated with dissipation due to scattering of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves by random self-affine roughness. It is shown that the quality factor is strongly influenced by both the surface roughness exponent H and the roughness amplitude w to

  2. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barchiesi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric roughness on the efficiency of a dimer nano-biosensor (two levels of roughness are considered. Therefore, we propose a general numerical method, that can be applied to any other nanometric shape, to take into account the roughness in a three dimensional model. The study focuses on both the far-field, which corresponds to the experimental detected data, and the near-field, responsible for exciting and then detecting biological molecules. The results suggest that the biosensor efficiency is highly sensitive to the surface roughness. The roughness can produce important shifts of the extinction efficiency peak and a decrease of its amplitude resulting from changes in the distribution of near-field and absorbed electric field intensities.

  3. High-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA) of quasistatic contact angles on silanized silicon wafers with different surface topographies during inclining-plate measurements: Influence of the surface roughness on the contact line dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heib, F.; Hempelmann, R.; Munief, W.M.; Ingebrandt, S.; Fug, F.; Possart, W.; Groß, K.; Schmitt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the triple line motion on surfaces with nanoscale surface topographies. • Analysis of the triple line motion is performed in sub-pixel resolution. • A special fitting and statistical approach for contact angle analysis is applied. • The analyses result set of contact angle data which is independent of “user-skills”. • Characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. - Abstract: Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θ a and the receding θ r contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple line dis

  4. High-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA) of quasistatic contact angles on silanized silicon wafers with different surface topographies during inclining-plate measurements: Influence of the surface roughness on the contact line dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heib, F., E-mail: f.heib@mx.uni-saarland.de [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Hempelmann, R. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Munief, W.M.; Ingebrandt, S. [Department of Informatics and Microsystem Technology, University of Applied Sciences, Kaiserslautern, 66482 Zweibrücken (Germany); Fug, F.; Possart, W. [Department of Adhesion and Interphases in Polymers, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Groß, K.; Schmitt, M. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the triple line motion on surfaces with nanoscale surface topographies. • Analysis of the triple line motion is performed in sub-pixel resolution. • A special fitting and statistical approach for contact angle analysis is applied. • The analyses result set of contact angle data which is independent of “user-skills”. • Characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. - Abstract: Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θ{sub a} and the receding θ{sub r} contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple

  5. Influence of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the chemical composition of the walls of Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Dargent, R

    1997-07-01

    The cell walls of the growing hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenius) cultured in the presence or absence of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis were isolated and their chemical composition analysed. The presence of the essential oil led to a reduction in levels of neutral sugars, uronic acid and proteins, whereas amino sugars, lipids and phosphorus levels were increased. HPLC analysis of the neutral sugars showed that they consisted mainly of glucose, mannose and galactose, while the amino sugars consisted of glucosamine and galactosamine. The presence of the essential oil in the culture medium induced marked changes in the content of galactose and galactosamine. Cell walls were fractionated by treatment with alkali and acid. The essential oil induced similar alterations in the various fractions with a more marked effect on the major constituents. The alterations were related to changes in the structure of the cells.

  6. Influence of light-weight masonry mortar on the thermal insulation of walling made from hollow blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupke, C; Schuele, M

    1984-10-01

    The thermal conductivity equivalent of hollow-block masonry with different types of mortar is calculated for ten different types of blocks as a function of the thermal conductivity of the brick material. A measure is derived for determining the improved thermal conductivity of hollow-block masonry with light mortar as compared to walls with normal mortar. The findings supplement the findings already obtained for solid bricks.

  7. Basic Principles of Thin-Walled Open Bars Taking into Account Where Influence Shifts of Cross Sections are Concerned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenko, N. N.; Sinelschikov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The finite element method is considered to be the most effective in relation to the calculation of strength and stability of buildings and engineering constructions. As a rule, for the modelling of supporting 3-D frameworks, finite elements with six degrees of freedom are used in each of the nodes. In practice, such supporting frameworks represent the thin-walled welded bars and hot-rolled bars of open and closed profiles in which cross-sectional deplanation must be taken into account. This idea was first introduced by L N Vorobjev and brought to one of the easiest variants of the thin-walled bar theory. The development of this approach is based on taking into account the middle surface shear deformation and adding the deformations of a thin-walled open bar to the formulas for potential and kinetic energy; these deformations depend on shearing stress and result in decreasing the frequency of the first tone of fluctuations to 13%. The authors of the article recommend taking into account this fact when calculating fail-proof dynamic systems.

  8. Numerical analysis of heat transfer in the first wall of CFETR WCSB blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pinghui, E-mail: phzhao@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Deng, Weiping; Ge, Zhihao; Li, Yuanjie

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Detailed numerical analysis of heat transfer in a water-cooling first wall was carried out based on the conceptual design of CFETR WCSB blanket. • Investigation of the influences of buoyancy effect and surface roughness on heat transfer in the water-cooling first wall was presented. • Analysis of the effect of the front wall thickness on temperature was carried out for the water-cooling first wall design. • Simulation results of two 1D CFD methods were evaluated by the 3D CFD data. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), the first fusion reactor experiment project planned in China, is now being investigated in detail. Recently, a conceptual structural design of the Water-Cooled-Solid-Breeder (WCSB) blanket was proposed as one of the breeding blanket candidates for CFETR. In this research, based on the present design of the CFETR WCSB blanket, the heat transfer performance in the first wall (FW) under the pressurized water cooling condition was analyzed. The 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results show that the maximal temperature of the FW will not exceed the limited temperature under normal or even higher heat flux condition. In addition, the effect of buoyancy on heat transfer is negligible under both conditions. The influence of roughness becomes increasingly important when the roughness height lies in the fully turbulent regime. The maximal temperature increases approximately linearly as the thickness of the front wall increases. It is also found that the heat flux and the local heat transfer coefficient are extremely non-uniform in the circumferential direction. Two 1D CFD methods are also evaluated by 3D CFD data, with the conclusion that both 1D results have some differences with the 3D data. The improved 1D method is more accurate than the former one. However, we ascertain that 1D methods should be used with caution for the water-cooling FW design.

  9. Complex Effects of Free Stream Turbulence and Surface Roughness on the Transitional Intermittency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladík, Ondřej; Jonáš, Pavel; Mazur, Oton; Uruba, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, 4a (2012), s. 47-52 ISSN 1335-4205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1271 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : by-pass transition * rough wall boundary layer * CTA anemometry * instantaneous wall friction * intermittency analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  10. Analysis of turbulent heat and momentum transfer in a transitionally rough turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doosttalab, Ali; Dharmarathne, Suranga; Tutkun, Murat; Adrian, Ronald; Castillo, Luciano

    2016-11-01

    A zero-pressure-gradient (ZPG) turbulent boundary layer over a transitionally rough surface is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The rough surface is modeled as 24-grit sandpaper which corresponds to k+ 11 , where k+ is roughness height. Reynolds number based on momentum thickness is approximately 2400. The walls are isothermal and turbulent flow Prandtl number is 0.71. We simulate temperature as passive scalar. We compute the inner product of net turbulent force (d (u1ui) / dxi) and net turbulent heat flux (d (ui θ / dxi)) in order to investigate (i) the correlation between these vectorial quantities, (II) size of the projection of these fields on each other and (IIi) alignment of momentum and hear flux. The inner product in rough case results in larger projection and better alignment. In addition, our study on the vortices shows that surface roughness promotes production of vortical structures which affects the thermal transport near the wall.

  11. Geometrical properties of rough metallic surfaces and their implication in electromagnetic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A.; Chicon, R.; Ortuno, M.; Abellan, J.

    1987-01-01

    We analyze the geometrical properties and their implications in the effective surface resistance and wall losses of rough metallic surfaces. The power spectrum and the autocorrelation function are calculated for a simple model that adequately represent the rough surface. The roughness parameters are obtained through average values of the roughness and its derivative. We calculate the density profile, directly related to the depth-dependent effective conductivity. The data from the profilometer are corrected to take into account the finite size of the tip. (author)

  12. Modeling superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of random roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, M. A.; Tafreshi, H. Vahedi; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2011-11-01

    We model the performance of superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of randomly distributed roughness that resembles natural surfaces, or those produced via random deposition of hydrophobic particles. Such a fabrication method is far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrication. The present numerical simulations are aimed at improving our understanding of the drag reduction effect and the stability of the air-water interface in terms of the microstructure parameters. For comparison and validation, we have also simulated the flow over superhydrophobic surfaces made up of aligned or staggered microposts for channel flows as well as streamwise or spanwise ridge configurations for pipe flows. The present results are compared with other theoretical and experimental studies. The numerical simulations indicate that the random distribution of surface roughness has a favorable effect on drag reduction, as long as the gas fraction is kept the same. The stability of the meniscus, however, is strongly influenced by the average spacing between the roughness peaks, which needs to be carefully examined before a surface can be recommended for fabrication. Financial support from DARPA, contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  13. Characteristics of wall pressure over wall with permeable coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Woo Seog; Shin, Seungyeol; Lee, Seungbae [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Fluctuating wall pressures were measured using an array of 16 piezoelectric transducers beneath a turbulent boundary layer. The coating used in this experiment was an open cell, urethane type foam with a porosity of approximately 50 ppi. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The boundary layer on the flat plate was measured by using a hot wire probe, and the CPM method was used to determine the skin friction coefficient. The wall pressure autospectra and streamwise wavenumber frequency spectra were compared to assess the attenuation of the wall pressure field by the coating. The coating is shown to attenuate the convective wall pressure energy. However, the relatively rough surface of the coating in this investigation resulted in a higher mean wall shear stress, thicker boundary layer, and higher low frequency wall pressure spectral levels compared to a smooth wall.

  14. Influence of frequency of the excitation magnetic field and material's electric conductivity on domain wall dynamics in ferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez-González, A.F.; Pérez-Benítez, J.A.; Espina-Hernández, J.H.; Grössinger, R.; Hallen, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The present work analyzes the influence of electric conductivity on the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) signal using a microscopic model which includes the influence of eddy currents. This model is also implemented to explain the dependence of MBN on the frequency of the applied magnetic field. The results presented in this work allow analyzing the influence of eddy currents on MBN signals for different values of the material's electric conductivity and for different frequencies of applied magnetic field. Additionally, the outcomes of this research can be used as a reference to differentiate the influence of eddy currents from that of second phase particles in the MBN signal, which has been reported in previous works. - Highlights: • Electromagnetic simulation of MBN with eddy currents and micro-magnetism. • Influence of applied field frequency on MBN is explained. • Influence of electric conductivity on MBN is analyzed. • Hysteresis losses in ferromagnetic materials is analyzed using the model.

  15. The influence of wall thickness on the microstructure of bronze BA1055 with the additions of Si, Cr, Mo and/or W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Pisarek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium bronzes belong to the high-grade constructional materials applied on the put under strongly load pieces of machines, about good sliding, resistant properties on corrosion both in the cast state how and after the thermal processing. It moves to them Cr and Si in the aim of the improvement of their usable proprieties. Additions Mo and/or W were not applied so far in the larger concentration, these elements were introduced to the melts of the copper as the components of modifiers. It was worked out therefore the new kind of bronzes casting including these elements. Make additions to the Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronze of Si, Cr, Mo and/or W in the rise of these properties makes possible. The investigations of the influence of the wall thickness of the cast on size of crystallites were conducted: the primary phase β and intermetallic phase κ and the width separates of the secondary phase α precipitate at phase boundary. It results from conducted investigations, that in the aluminium bronze BA1055 after simultaneous makes additions Si, Cr, Mo and in the primary phase β it undergoes considerable reducing size. The addition W reduce size of the grain phase β in the thin walls of the cast 3-6 mm, and addition Cr in the range of the thickness of the wall of the cast 3-6 mm it favors to reducing size the phase β, in walls 12-25 mm the growth causes it. The addition Mo does not influence the change of the size of the grain of the β phase significantly. The make addition singly or simultaneously of the Cr, Mo and W to the bronze CuAl10Fe5Ni5Si it influences the decrease of the quantity separates of the phase α on the interface boundary and of width it separates independently from the thickness of the wall of the cast. The simultaneous make addition of the Si, Cr, Mo and W it enlarges the surface of the phase κFe, κMo. The make addition to the bronze CuAl10Fe5Ni5Si of the Cr, Mo or W the quantity of crystallizing hard phase κ enlarges and the

  16. The influence of insulation of walls of industrial objects on thermal regime at the heating system of gas infrared radiators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagornova Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a numerical study of the process of heat transfer from the gas infrared emitters in the heated accommodation are represented. Simulation was conducted taking into account the heat withdrawal in the enclosing constructions and of heat exchange with the environment. The estimation of the average values of temperatures of air indoors in the dependence on the different intensity of heat withdrawal into the vertical walls is carried out (when the layer of insulation is present, and without it.

  17. Dynamical structure of the turbulent boundary layer on rough surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav; Jonáš, Pavel; Hladík, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 603-604 ISSN 1617-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulent boundary layer * rough wall * hairpin vortex Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pamm.201110291/abstract

  18. Stochastic control with rough paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Joscha; Friz, Peter K.; Gassiat, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  19. Heat transfer from rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1977-01-01

    Artificial roughness is often used in nuclear reactors to improve the thermal performance of the fuel elements. Although these are made up of clusters of rods, the experiments to measure the heat transfer and friction coefficients of roughness are performed with single rods contained in smooth tubes. This work illustrated a new transformation method to obtain data applicable to reactor fuel elements from these annulus experiments. New experimental friction data are presented for ten rods, each with a different artificial roughness made up of two-dimensional rectangular ribs. For each rod four tests have been performed, each in a different outer smooth tube. For two of these rods, each for two different outer tubes, heat transfer data are also given. The friction and heat transfer data, transformed with the present method, are correlated by simple equations. In the paper, these equations are applied to a case typical for a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor fuel element. (orig.) [de

  20. Stochastic control with rough paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Joscha [University of California San Diego (United States); Friz, Peter K., E-mail: friz@math.tu-berlin.de [TU & WIAS Berlin (Germany); Gassiat, Paul [CEREMADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University (France)

    2017-04-15

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  1. Information Measures of Roughness of Knowledge and Rough Sets for Incomplete Information Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ji-ye; QU Kai-she

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we address information measures of roughness of knowledge and rough sets for incomplete information systems. The definition of rough entropy of knowledge and its important properties are given. In particular, the relationship between rough entropy of knowledge and the Hartley measure of uncertainty is established. We show that rough entropy of knowledge decreases monotonously as granularity of information become smaller. This gives an information interpretation for roughness of knowledge. Based on rough entropy of knowledge and roughness of rough set. a definition of rough entropy of rough set is proposed, and we show that rough entropy of rough set decreases monotonously as granularity of information become smaller. This gives more accurate measure for roughness of rough set.

  2. The influence of the tangential velocity of inner rotating wall on axial velocity profile of flow through vertical annular pipe with rotating inner surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharf Abdusalam M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the oil and gas industries, understanding the behaviour of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates, is a significantly important issue in drilling wells. The main emphasis is placed on experimental (using an available rig and computational (employing CFD software investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The measured axial velocity profiles, in the cases of low axial flow, show that the axial velocity is influenced by the rotation speed of the inner pipe in the region of almost 33% of the annulus near the inner pipe, and influenced inversely in the rest of the annulus. The position of the maximum axial velocity is shifted from the centre to be nearer the inner pipe, by increasing the rotation speed. However, in the case of higher flow, as the rotation speed increases, the axial velocity is reduced and the position of the maximum axial velocity is skewed towards the centre of the annulus. There is a reduction of the swirl velocity corresponding to the rise of the volumetric flow rate.

  3. Numerical prediction of shock induced oscillations over a 2D airfoil: Influence of turbulence modelling and test section walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiery, Mylene [Aerodynamics and Energetics Modelling Department, Turbulence Modelling and Prediction Unit, ONERA Toulouse, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Coustols, Eric [Aerodynamics and Energetics Modelling Department, Turbulence Modelling and Prediction Unit, ONERA Toulouse, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: Eric.Coustols@onera.fr

    2006-08-15

    The present study deals with recent numerical results from on-going research conducted at ONERA/DMAE regarding the prediction of transonic flows, for which shock wave/boundary layer interaction is important. When this interaction is strong enough (M {>=} 1.3), shock induced oscillations (SIO) appear at the suction side of the airfoil and lead to the formation of unsteady separated areas. The main issue is then to perform unsteady computations applying appropriate turbulence modelling and relevant boundary conditions with respect to the test case. Computations were performed with the ONERA elsA software and the URANS-type approach, closure relationships being achieved from transport-equation models. Applications are provided for the OAT15A airfoil data base, well documented for unsteady CFD validation (mean and r.m.s. pressure, phase-averaged LDA data, ...). In this paper, the capabilities of turbulence models are evaluated with two 2D URANS strategies, under free-stream or confined conditions. The latter takes into account the adaptive upper and lower wind-tunnel walls. A complete 3D URANS simulation was then performed to demonstrate the real impact of all lateral wind-tunnel walls on such a flow.

  4. Numerical prediction of shock induced oscillations over a 2D airfoil: Influence of turbulence modelling and test section walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiery, Mylene; Coustols, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The present study deals with recent numerical results from on-going research conducted at ONERA/DMAE regarding the prediction of transonic flows, for which shock wave/boundary layer interaction is important. When this interaction is strong enough (M ≥ 1.3), shock induced oscillations (SIO) appear at the suction side of the airfoil and lead to the formation of unsteady separated areas. The main issue is then to perform unsteady computations applying appropriate turbulence modelling and relevant boundary conditions with respect to the test case. Computations were performed with the ONERA elsA software and the URANS-type approach, closure relationships being achieved from transport-equation models. Applications are provided for the OAT15A airfoil data base, well documented for unsteady CFD validation (mean and r.m.s. pressure, phase-averaged LDA data, ...). In this paper, the capabilities of turbulence models are evaluated with two 2D URANS strategies, under free-stream or confined conditions. The latter takes into account the adaptive upper and lower wind-tunnel walls. A complete 3D URANS simulation was then performed to demonstrate the real impact of all lateral wind-tunnel walls on such a flow

  5. Influence of the Dentinal Wall on the pH of Sodium Hypochlorite during Root Canal Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, Ricardo Gomes; Herrero, Noemi Pascual; Wesselink, Paul; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, Luc

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dentin on the pH levels of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions over time and to evaluate if preconditioning of dentin with 17% EDTA or agitation of the NaOCl solution influences these pH levels.

  6. Red-staining of the wall rock and its influence on the reducing capacity around water conducting fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, Henrik; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Annersten, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Red-staining and alteration of wall rock is common around water conducting fractures in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (SE Sweden), which is currently being investigated by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) in common with many other places. Red-staining is often interpreted as a clear sign of oxidation but relevant analyses are seldom performed. The area is dominated by Palaeoproterozoic crystalline rocks ranging in composition from quartz monzodiorite to granite. In this study wall rock samples have been compared with reference samples from within 0.1 to 1 m of the red-stained rock, in order to describe mineralogical and geochemical changes but also changes in redox conditions. A methodology for tracing changes in mineralogy, mineral and whole rock chemistry and Fe 3+ /Fe tot ratio in silicates and oxides in the red-stained wall rock and the reference rock is reported. The results show that the red-stained rock adjacent to the fractures displays major changes in mineralogy; biotite, plagioclase and magnetite have been altered and chlorite, K-feldspar, albite, sericite, prehnite, epidote and hematite have been formed. The changes in chemistry are however moderate; K-enrichment, Ca-depletion and constant Fe tot are documented. The Fe 3+ /Fe tot ratio in the oxide phase is higher in the red-stained samples whereas the Fe 3+ /Fe tot ratio in the silicate phase is largely similar in the wall rock and the reference samples. Because most of the Fe is hosted in the silicate phase the decrease in reducing capacity (Fe 2+ ), if any, in the red-stained wall rock is very small and not as high as macroscopic observations might suggest. Instead, the mineralogical changes in combination with the modest oxidation and formation of minute hematite grains in porous secondary minerals in pseudomorphs after plagioclase have produced the red-staining. Increased porosity is also characteristic for the red-stained rock. Moderate alteration in the macroscopically fresh

  7. Does Surface Roughness Amplify Wetting?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 18 (2014), s. 184703 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09914S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : density functional theory * wetting * roughness Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2014

  8. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.

    2016-01-01

    organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions...

  9. Fuzzy Rough Ring and Its Prop erties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Bi-jun; FU Yan-ling

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the theories of fuzzy rough ring and its properties. The fuzzy approximation space generated by fuzzy ideals and the fuzzy rough approximation operators were proposed in the frame of fuzzy rough set model. The basic properties of fuzzy rough approximation operators were analyzed and the consistency between approximation operators and the binary operation of ring was discussed.

  10. Influence of the boundary conditions on a temperature field in the turbulent flow near the heated wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergant, R.; Tiselj, I.

    2002-01-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the fully developed velocity and temperature fields in the two-dimensional turbulent channel flow was performed for friction Reynolds number Reτ = 150 and Prandtl number Pr 0.71. Two thermal boundary conditions (BCs), isothermal and isoflux, were carried out. The main difference between two ideal types of boundary conditions is in temperature fluctuations, which retain a nonzero value on the wall for isoflux BC, and zero for isothermal BC. Very interesting effect is seen in streamwise temperature auto-correlation functions. While the auto-correlation function for isothermal BC decreases close to zero in the observed computational domain, the decrease of the auto-correlation function for the isoflux BC is slower and remains well above zero. Therefore, another DNS at two times longer computational domain was performed, but results did not show any differences larger than the statistical uncertainty.(author)

  11. Influences of multiple low-n modes on n=1 resistive wall mode identification and feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Strait, E. J.; Okabayashi, M.; Reimerdes, H.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known in theory that even after the n=1 resistive wall mode (RWM) is suppressed, the other low-n modes, such as n=2 or 3, can appear sequentially, as β increases. In recent DIII-D experiments [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], we found such an example that supports the theoretical prediction: while the n=1 mode was suppressed, an n=3 mode grew dominant, leading to a β collapse. The n=1 RWM suppression was likely due to a combination of rotational stabilization and n=1 RWM feedback. The multiple RWM identification was performed using an expanded matched filter, where n=1 and n=3 RWM basis vectors are simultaneously considered. Taking advantage of the expanded matched filter, we found that an n=3 mode following an edge-localized-mode burst grew almost linearly for several milliseconds without being hindered. This n=3 mode appeared responsible for the β collapse (down to the n=3 no-wall limit), as well as for a drop in toroidal rotation. A preliminary analysis suggests that the identity of the n=3 mode could be related to the n=3 RWM (possibly the first observation in tokamak experiments), while the impact of the n=3 mode was not as destructive as that of n=1 RWM. A numerical postprocessing of Mirnov probes showed that the n=2 mode was also unstable, consistent with the theoretical prediction. In practice, since the presence of an n=3 mode can interfere with the existing n=1 RWM identification, multiple low-n mode identification is deemed essential not only to detect n>1 mode, but also to provide accurate n=1 RWM identification and feedback control.

  12. The influence of hemodynamic forces on biomarkers in the walls of elastase-induced aneurysms in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Ding, Yong-Hong; Dai, Daying; Danielson, Mark A.; Lewis, Debra A.; Cloft, Harry J.; Kallmes, David F. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Zakaria, Hasballah; Robertson, Anne M. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Biological and biophysical factors have been shown to play an important role in the initiation, progression, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hemodynamic forces and markers of vascular remodeling in elastase-induced saccular aneurysms in rabbits. Elastase-induced aneurysms were created at the origin of the right common carotid artery in rabbits. Hemodynamic parameters were estimated using computational fluid dynamic simulations based on 3-D-reconstructed models of the vasculature. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), their inhibitors (TIMPs) and markers of vascular remodeling were measured in different spatial regions within the aneurysms. Altered expression of biological markers relative to controls was correlated with the locations of subnormal time-averaged wall shear stress (WSS) but not with the magnitude of pressure. In the aneurysms, WSS was low and expression of biological markers was significantly altered in a time-dependent fashion. At 2 weeks, an upregulation of active-MMP-2, downregulation of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, and intact endothelium were found in aneurysm cavities. However, by 12 weeks, endothelial cells were absent or scattered, and levels of pro- and active-MMP-2 were not different from those in control arteries, but pro-MMP-9 and both TIMPs were upregulated. These results reveal a strong, spatially localized correlation between diminished WSS and differential expression of biological markers of vascular remodeling in elastase-induced saccular aneurysms. The ability of the wall to function and maintain a healthy endothelium in a low shear environment appears to be significantly impaired by chronic exposure to low WSS. (orig.)

  13. Multiscale Analysis of the Roughness Effect on Lubricated Rough Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci , Ibrahim; MEZGHANI , Sabeur; YOUSFI , Mohammed; El Mansori , Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Determining friction is as equally essential as determining the film thickness in the lubricated contact, and is an important research subject. Indeed, reduction of friction in the automotive industry is important for both the minimization of fuel consumption as well as the decrease in the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the progress in friction reduction has been limited by the difficulty in understanding the mechanism of roughness effects on friction. It was observed that micro-surf...

  14. Research of Attrition of Cyclone Walls Made from Different Materials Under the Influence of Various Abbrasive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gailius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To eliminate particulate pollutants from air cyclones are being used. This article reviews the influence of particulate pollutants on cyclone insert. The stand was designed with possibility to change insert, rotation of engine and abrasive materials. Steel, stainless steel and polyurethane were used for inserts. Sand, glass balls, steel balls and corundum were used as abrasive materials. For the insert the steel balls has the strongest influence, when rotation of engine was 2400 rpm. Stainless steel was the most wearproof material for inserts.

  15. Influence of amine-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes on physical and rheological properties of PMMA-based nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-01-01

    In this work, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was grafted onto amine treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NH-MWNTs) and the physical and rheological properties of the NH-MWNTs-g-PMMA nanocomposites were investigated. The graft reaction of NH-MWNTs and the PMMA matrix was confirmed from the change of the N 1S peaks, including those of amine oxygen and amide oxygen, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The thermal and mechanical properties of the NH-MWNT-g-PMMA nanocomposites were enhanced by the graft reaction between NH-MWNTs and PMMA matrix. In addition, the viscosity of the nanocomposites was increased with the addition of NH-MWNTs. Storage (G') and loss modulus (G'') were significantly increased by increase in the NH-MWNT content compared to acid-treated MWNTs/PMMA nanocomposites. This increase was attributed to the strong interaction by the grafting reaction between NH-MWNTs and the PMMA matrix. - Graphical abstract: This describes the increase of mechanical properties in NH-MWNTs-g-PMMA hybrid composites with different NH-MWNT contents. Highlights: → Aminized carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcement for poly(methylmethacrylate). → Poly(methylmethacrylate) is grafted on aminized carbon nanotubes by thermal reaction. → Grafting of carbon nanotubes and polymer provide enhanced physical properties. → It was due to the strong interaction between carbon nanotubes and polymer matrix.

  16. Influence of high-energy electron irradiation on field emission properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Sandip S. [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Koinkar, Pankaj M. [Center for International Cooperation in Engineering Education (CICEE), University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-Josanjima-Cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Dhole, Sanjay D. [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); More, Mahendra A., E-mail: mam@physics.unipune.ac.i [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Murakami, Ri-ichi, E-mail: murakami@me.tokushima-u.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-Josanjima-Cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of very high energy electron beam irradiation on the field emission characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been investigated. The MWCNTs films deposited on silicon (Si) substrates were irradiated with 6 MeV electron beam at different fluence of 1x10{sup 15}, 2x10{sup 15} and 3x10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The irradiated films were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro-Raman spectrometer. The SEM analysis clearly revealed a change in surface morphology of the films upon irradiation. The Raman spectra of the irradiated films show structural damage caused by the interaction of high-energy electrons. The field emission studies were carried out in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure of {approx}1x10{sup -8} mbar. The values of the threshold field, required to draw an emission current density of {approx}1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, are found to be {approx}0.52, 1.9, 1.3 and 0.8 V/{mu}m for untreated, irradiated with fluence of 1x10{sup 15}, 2x10{sup 15} and 3x10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The irradiated films exhibit better emission current stability as compared to the untreated film. The improved field emission properties of the irradiated films have been attributed to the structural damage as revealed from the Raman studies.

  17. Influence of wall ribs on the thermal stratification and self-pressurization in a cryogenic liquid tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Juan; Sunden, Bengt; Chen, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    Self-pressurization in a cylindrical ribbed tank which is partially filled with liquid hydrogen is investigated numerically under different rib spacing-to-height ratios. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is employed as well as a phase change model. Appropriate models are incorporated into the Ansys Fluent by the user-defined functions to carry out the computations. The ribbed surface is modeled as a finned surface and a conjugate transient heat transfer problem is formulated for predicting fluid flow currents and heat transfer. The effect of rib material and shapes is also studied. Numerical results indicate that the pressure rise can be reduced by ribs mounted on the tank wall. This phenomenon is more pronounced as the rib spacing-to-height ratio is reduced. A vortex is observed in the downstream region of each rib when the spacing-to-height has a relatively high value. Evaporation occurs as time elapses due to heat accumulation at the rib surfaces. Pressure starts to rise later with high thermal conductivity ribs and becomes higher with low thermal conductivity ribs when the ribs are of identical configuration in geometry. The final pressure rise seems to be monotonically versus increasing time. The semicircular ribs perform better than rectangular ones in control of the pressure rise and thermal stratification for identical cross sectional area and if the locations are kept the same

  18. Influence of a boatlanding and j-tubes on wave loads and wall thickness of the monopile support structure design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, M.L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Support structures for offshore wind turbines play a significant part in the cost of offshore wind energy. With current access systems a conventional boat landing is not necessary. Secondary steel, such as a boat landing and J-tube, influences wave loads. A way of taking the secondary steel items

  19. Dispersant affects the cellular influences of single-wall carbon nanotube: the role of CNT as carrier of dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Stowe, Mayumi; Tabei, Miki; Kato, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Ayako; Endoh, Shigehisa; Morimoto, Yasuo; Fujita, Katsuhide

    2013-06-01

    The application of carbon nanotube (CNT) as a functional material to engineering and life sciences is advanced. In order to evaluate the cytotoxicity of CNT in vitro, some chemical and biological reagents are used for dispersants. In the present study, the cellular influences of six kinds of chemical or biological reagents used as dispersants were examined. Pluronic F-127, Pluronic F-68, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), pulmonary surfactant preparation Surfacten®, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Tween 80 were used in the preparation of CNT-medium dispersants. The influences of each reagent on cell viability in human lung carcinoma A549 cells were small. However, Pluronic F-127, DPPC, Surfacten® and Tween 80 induced an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Next, CNT-medium dispersions were prepared, using each reagent as a dispersant and applied to A549 cells. The cellular influences depended on the kind of dispersant. Cells exposed to CNT dispersion including Pluronic® F-127, Surfacten®, DPPC and Tween 80 showed LDH release to the culture supernatant. Induction of intracellular ROS level was observed in cells exposed to CNT dispersion including each reagent except BSA. These results suggest that the adsorbed dispersant reagents on the surface of the CNT affect its cellular influences, particularly the induction of oxidative stress.

  20. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...

  1. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  2. Rough surface mitigates electron and gas emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-ion beams impinging on surfaces near grazing incidence (to simulate the loss of halo ions) generate copious amounts of electrons and gas that can degrade the beam. We measured emission coefficients of η e (le) 130 and η 0 ∼ 10 4 respectively, with 1 MeV K + incident on stainless steel. Electron emission scales as η e ∝ 1/cos(θ), where θ is the ion angle of incidence relative to normal. If we were to roughen a surface by blasting it with glass beads, then ions that were near grazing incidence (90 o ) on smooth surface would strike the rims of the micro-craters at angles closer to normal incidence. This should reduce the electron emission: the factor of 10 reduction, Fig. 1(a), implies an average angle of incidence of 62 o . Gas desorption varies more slowly with θ (Fig. 1(b)) decreasing a factor of ∼2, and along with the electron emission is independent of the angle of incidence on a rough surface. In a quadrupole magnet, electrons emitted by lost primary ions are trapped near the wall by the magnetic field, but grazing incidence ions can backscatter and strike the wall a second time at an azimuth where magnetic field lines intercept the beam. Then, electrons can exist throughout the beam (see the simulations of Cohen, HIF News 1-2/04). The SRIM (TRIM) Monte Carlo code predicts that 60-70% of 1 MeV K + ions backscatter when incident at 88-89 o from normal on a smooth surface. The scattered ions are mostly within ∼10 o of the initial direction but a few scatter by up to 90 o . Ion scattering decreases rapidly away from grazing incidence, Fig. 1(c ). At 62 deg. the predicted ion backscattering (from a rough surface) is 3%, down a factor of 20 from the peak, which should significantly reduce electrons in the beam from lost halo ions. These results are published in Phys. Rev. ST - Accelerators and Beams

  3. Targeted changes of the cell wall proteome influence Candida albicans ability to form single- and multi-strain biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Cabral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation is an important virulence trait of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. We have combined gene overexpression, strain barcoding and microarray profiling to screen a library of 531 C. albicans conditional overexpression strains (∼10% of the genome for genes affecting biofilm development in mixed-population experiments. The overexpression of 16 genes increased strain occupancy within a multi-strain biofilm, whereas overexpression of 4 genes decreased it. The set of 16 genes was significantly enriched for those encoding predicted glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-modified proteins, namely Ihd1/Pga36, Phr2, Pga15, Pga19, Pga22, Pga32, Pga37, Pga42 and Pga59; eight of which have been classified as pathogen-specific. Validation experiments using either individually- or competitively-grown overexpression strains revealed that the contribution of these genes to biofilm formation was variable and stage-specific. Deeper functional analysis of PGA59 and PGA22 at a single-cell resolution using atomic force microscopy showed that overexpression of either gene increased C. albicans ability to adhere to an abiotic substrate. However, unlike PGA59, PGA22 overexpression led to cell cluster formation that resulted in increased sensitivity to shear forces and decreased ability to form a single-strain biofilm. Within the multi-strain environment provided by the PGA22-non overexpressing cells, PGA22-overexpressing cells were protected from shear forces and fitter for biofilm development. Ultrastructural analysis, genome-wide transcript profiling and phenotypic analyses in a heterologous context suggested that PGA22 affects cell adherence through alteration of cell wall structure and/or function. Taken together, our findings reveal that several novel predicted GPI-modified proteins contribute to the cooperative behaviour between biofilm cells and are important participants during C. albicans biofilm formation. Moreover, they illustrate the power

  4. Modification of the large-scale features of high Reynolds number wall turbulence by passive surface obtrusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monty, J.P.; Lien, K.; Chong, M.S. [University of Melbourne, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Allen, J.J. [New Mexico State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2011-12-15

    A high Reynolds number boundary-layer wind-tunnel facility at New Mexico State University was fitted with a regularly distributed braille surface. The surface was such that braille dots were closely packed in the streamwise direction and sparsely spaced in the spanwise direction. This novel surface had an unexpected influence on the flow: the energy of the very large-scale features of wall turbulence (approximately six-times the boundary-layer thickness in length) became significantly attenuated, even into the logarithmic region. To the author's knowledge, this is the first experimental study to report a modification of 'superstructures' in a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. The result gives rise to the possibility that flow control through very small, passive surface roughness may be possible at high Reynolds numbers, without the prohibitive drag penalty anticipated heretofore. Evidence was also found for the uninhibited existence of the near-wall cycle, well known to smooth-wall-turbulence researchers, in the spanwise space between roughness elements. (orig.)

  5. Ultrasonic backward radiation on painted rough interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Gyu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kwon, Sung Duck

    2002-01-01

    The angular dependence(profile) of backscattered ultrasound was measured for steel and brass specimens with periodical surface roughness (1-71μm). Backward radiations showed more linear dependency than normal profile. Direct amplitude increased and averaging amplitude decreased with surface roughness. Painting treatment improved the linearity in direct backward radiation below roughness of 0.03. Scholte and Rayleigh-like waves were observed in the spectrum of averaging backward radiation on periodically rough surface. Painting on periodically rough surface could be used in removing the interface mode effect by periodic roughness.

  6. Development of techniques for storing rough rice in cold regions, 1: Storage of rough rice at country elevator with natural heat radiation in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekura, K.; Kawamura, S.; Itoh, K.

    2003-01-01

    An on-farm experiment in which 361 metric tons of rough rice was stored in a silo from November until July was conducted at a country elevator in Hokkaido to develop new techniques for storing rough rice in cold regions. The temperature of the rough rice near the inner silo wall decreased to below ice point (-5°C) due to natural heat radiation in winter, which the temperature of the rough rice in the center of the silo was maintained at almost the same temperature as that at the beginning of storage (5°C). Ventilation in the upper vacant space of the silo prevented moisture condensation on the inside surface of the silo during storage. When the cold rough rice was unloaded from the silo in summer, an unheated forced-air drier was used to increase the temperature of rough rice to above the dew point temperature of surrounding air. During the unloading and rewarming process, the moisture content of the rough rice increased due to moisture condensation on the grain from the air. However, the husks first absorbed the condensation and then the moisture slowly permeated into the brown rice kernel. Thus the rewarming process didn't cause any fissures in the brown rice. The results of the experiment indicate that condensation on rough rice doesn't give rise to any problems

  7. Simulations and Experiments on Vibration Control of Aerospace Thin-Walled Parts via Preload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin-walled parts primarily comprise the entire piece of rough machining, and the material removal rate can surpass 95%. Numerous components with thin-walled structures are preferred in the aerospace industry for their light weight, high strength, and other advantages. In aerospace thin-walled workpiece machining processes and practical applications, they are excited by the vibration. The preload changing the modal stiffness of the part is found and this change causes continuous changes in the natural frequency. Researching on the influence of pretightening force on dynamic characteristics of thin-walled components is highly significant for controlling vibration. In this study, the typical aviation thin-walled part is the research object. Finite element numerical simulation and experimental verification are employed to analyze the dynamic characteristics of 7075 aluminum alloy thin-walled plates under different preloads for exploring the relationship between natural frequency and preload. The relationship is validated by comparative results. Both the simulation and experimental results show that the natural frequencies of plates increase following the augmentation of the preload. Thus, this research introduces the method where vibration of aerospace thin-walled parts is reduced by preload. For practical engineering application, a program showing the relationship between natural frequency and preload is written using Visual Basic language.

  8. AN AUTOMATED ROAD ROUGHNESS DETECTION FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rough roads influence the safety of the road users as accident rate increases with increasing unevenness of the road surface. Road roughness regions are required to be efficiently detected and located in order to ensure their maintenance. Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS systems provide a rapid and cost-effective alternative by providing accurate and dense point cloud data along route corridor. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented for detecting road roughness from MLS data. The presented algorithm is based on interpolating smooth intensity raster surface from LiDAR point cloud data using point thinning process. The interpolated surface is further processed using morphological and multi-level Otsu thresholding operations to identify candidate road roughness regions. The candidate regions are finally filtered based on spatial density and standard deviation of elevation criteria to detect the roughness along the road surface. The test results of road roughness detection algorithm on two road sections are presented. The developed approach can be used to provide comprehensive information to road authorities in order to schedule maintenance and ensure maximum safety conditions for road users.

  9. An Automated Road Roughness Detection from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Angelats, E.

    2017-05-01

    Rough roads influence the safety of the road users as accident rate increases with increasing unevenness of the road surface. Road roughness regions are required to be efficiently detected and located in order to ensure their maintenance. Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems provide a rapid and cost-effective alternative by providing accurate and dense point cloud data along route corridor. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented for detecting road roughness from MLS data. The presented algorithm is based on interpolating smooth intensity raster surface from LiDAR point cloud data using point thinning process. The interpolated surface is further processed using morphological and multi-level Otsu thresholding operations to identify candidate road roughness regions. The candidate regions are finally filtered based on spatial density and standard deviation of elevation criteria to detect the roughness along the road surface. The test results of road roughness detection algorithm on two road sections are presented. The developed approach can be used to provide comprehensive information to road authorities in order to schedule maintenance and ensure maximum safety conditions for road users.

  10. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, Sloan J. [Institute of Solid-State Electronics, TU Wien, Floragasse 7, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Hobler, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.hobler@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Solid-State Electronics, TU Wien, Floragasse 7, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Lojasiewicza 11, 30348 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A simple model of surface roughness is proposed. • Its key feature is a linearly varying target density at the surface. • The model can be used in 1D/2D/3D Monte Carlo binary collision simulations. • The model fits well experimental glancing incidence sputtering yield data. - Abstract: It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield – especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the “density gradient model”) which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target’s atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient – leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  11. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, Sloan J.; Hobler, Gerhard; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple model of surface roughness is proposed. • Its key feature is a linearly varying target density at the surface. • The model can be used in 1D/2D/3D Monte Carlo binary collision simulations. • The model fits well experimental glancing incidence sputtering yield data. - Abstract: It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield – especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the “density gradient model”) which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target’s atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient – leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  12. Multipoint contact modeling of nanoparticle manipulation on rough surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakeri, M., E-mail: m.zakeri@tabrizu.ac.ir; Faraji, J.; Kharazmi, M. [University of Tabriz, School of Engineering Emerging Technologies (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based 2-D pushing of nano/microparticles investigated on rough substrate by assuming a multipoint contact model. First, a new contact model was extracted and presented based on the geometrical profiles of Rumpf, Rabinovich and George models and the contact mechanics theories of JKR and Schwartz, to model the adhesion forces and the deformations in the multipoint contact of rough surfaces. The geometry of a rough surface was defined by two main parameters of asperity height (size of roughness) and asperity wavelength (compactness of asperities distribution). Then, the dynamic behaviors of nano/microparticles with radiuses in range of 50–500 nm studied during their pushing on rough substrate with a hexagonal or square arrangement of asperities. Dynamic behavior of particles were simulated and compared by assuming multipoint and single-point contact schemes. The simulation results show that the assumption of multipoint contact has a considerable influence on determining the critical manipulation force. Additionally, the assumption of smooth surfaces or single-point contact leads to large error in the obtained results. According to the results of previous research, it anticipated that a particles with the radius less than about 550 nm start to slide on smooth substrate; but by using multipoint contact model, the predicted behavior changed, and particles with radii of smaller than 400 nm begin to slide on rough substrate for different height of asperities, at first.

  13. Mapping gullies, dunes, lava fields, and landslides via surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Pfeifer, Norbert; Landtwing, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Gully erosion is a widespread and significant process involved in soil and land degradation. Mapping gullies helps to quantify past, and anticipate future, soil losses. Digital terrain models offer promising data for automatically detecting and mapping gullies especially in vegetated areas, although methods vary widely measures of local terrain roughness are the most varied and debated among these methods. Rarely do studies test the performance of roughness metrics for mapping gullies, limiting their applicability to small training areas. To this end, we systematically explored how local terrain roughness derived from high-resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data can aid in the unsupervised detection of gullies over a large area. We also tested expanding this method for other landforms diagnostic of similarly abrupt land-surface changes, including lava fields, dunes, and landslides, as well as investigating the influence of different roughness thresholds, resolutions of kernels, and input data resolution, and comparing our method with previously published roughness algorithms. Our results show that total curvature is a suitable metric for recognising analysed gullies and lava fields from LiDAR data, with comparable success to that of more sophisticated roughness metrics. Tested dunes or landslides remain difficult to distinguish from the surrounding landscape, partly because they are not easily defined in terms of their topographic signature.

  14. CFD simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer: wall function problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Stathopoulos, T.; Carmeliet, J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow are essential for a wide variety of atmospheric studies including pollutant dispersion and deposition. The accuracy of such simulations can be seriously compromised when wall-function roughness

  15. What is the critical height of leading edge roughness for aerodynamics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Gaunaa, Mac; Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2016-01-01

    -C2-18 and at three different Reynolds numbers with two different leading edge roughness tape heights. Firstly, an analysis of the momentum thickness as function of Reynolds number was carried out based on the boundary layer theory by Thwaites. Secondly, the wind tunnel measurements combined......In this paper the critical leading edge roughness height is analyzed in two cases: 1) leading edge roughness influencing the lift-drag ratio and 2) leading edge roughness influencing the maximum lift. The analysis was based on wind tunnel measurements on the airfoils NACA0015, Risoe-B1-18 and Risoe...

  16. Wall Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  17. Rough set classification based on quantum logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Yasser F.

    2017-11-01

    By combining the advantages of quantum computing and soft computing, the paper shows that rough sets can be used with quantum logic for classification and recognition systems. We suggest the new definition of rough set theory as quantum logic theory. Rough approximations are essential elements in rough set theory, the quantum rough set model for set-valued data directly construct set approximation based on a kind of quantum similarity relation which is presented here. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the new model for quantum rough sets has new type of decision rule with less redundancy which can be used to give accurate classification using principles of quantum superposition and non-linear quantum relations. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt aiming to define rough sets in representation of a quantum rather than logic or sets. The experiments on data-sets have demonstrated that the proposed model is more accuracy than the traditional rough sets in terms of finding optimal classifications.

  18. Surface roughness control by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Inam Ul; Obeidi, Muhannad Ahmed; Budner, Bogusław; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Brabazon, Dermot

    2017-10-01

    Surface roughness control of polymeric materials is often desirable in various biomedical engineering applications related to biocompatibility control, separation science and surface wettability control. In this study, Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer films were irradiated with Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in nitrogen environment and investigations were performed on surface roughness modification via EUV exposure. The samples were irradiated at 3 mm and 4 mm distance from the focal spot to investigate the effect of EUV fluence on topography. The topography of the EUV treated PET samples were studied by AFM. The detailed scanning was also performed on the sample irradiated at 3 mm. It was observed that the average surface roughness of PET samples was increased from 9 nm (pristine sample) to 280 nm and 253 nm for EUV irradiated samples. Detailed AFM studies confirmed the presence of 1.8 mm wide period U-shaped channels in EUV exposed PET samples. The walls of the channels were having FWHM of about 0.4 mm. The channels were created due to translatory movements of the sample in horizontal and transverse directions during the EUV exposure. The increased surface roughness is useful for many applications. The nanoscale channels fabricated by EUV exposure could be interesting for microfluidic applications based on lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices.

  19. Heat transfer and friction on smooth and rough test rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, W.M.P.; Hoogland, H.; Deijman, P.

    1977-06-01

    Results are reported on heat transfer and pressure drop tests on one smooth and nine rough test rods in an annular geometry. The wall roughness consisted of transversal ribs with various roughness pitches, rib heights and rib widths. The tests were performed with air as coolant under a wide range of experimental conditions: 10 5 5 , 1.1 2. Special attention has been given to the effect of variation of the physical coolant properties over the flow cross section. This effect could be described by the power function (Tsub(w)/Tsub(b))sup(-0.3l) in additional systematic variation of the heat transfer could be recognized, dependent on the coolant temperature level. The experimental results were correlated by the equation St = C(Tsub(in)) Resup(-0.2) Prsup(-0.6) (Tsub(w)/Tsub(b)sup(-0.31). Values of C(Tsub(in)) are given in tabular form. The thermal entrance effect has been measured on various test rods. A substantial reduction of the heat transfer coefficient was almost constant along the rough test rods

  20. Fractal characteristics of fracture roughness and aperture data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Boernge, J.

    1991-05-01

    In this study mathematical expressions are developed for the characteristics of apertures between rough surfaces. It has shown that the correlation between the opposite surfaces influences the aperture properties and different models are presented for these different surface correlations. Fracture and apertures profiles measured from intact fractures are evaluated and it is found that they qualitatively follow the mathematically predicted trends

  1. Wake Instabilities Behind Discrete Roughness Elements in High Speed Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Norris, Andrew; Edwards, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Computations are performed to study the flow past an isolated, spanwise symmetric roughness element in zero pressure gradient boundary layers at Mach 3.5 and 5.9, with an emphasis on roughness heights of less than 55 percent of the local boundary layer thickness. The Mach 5.9 cases include flow conditions that are relevant to both ground facility experiments and high altitude flight ("cold wall" case). Regardless of the Mach number, the mean flow distortion due to the roughness element is characterized by long-lived streamwise streaks in the roughness wake, which can support instability modes that did not exist in the absence of the roughness element. The higher Mach number cases reveal a variety of instability mode shapes with velocity fluctuations concentrated in different localized regions of high base flow shear. The high shear regions vary from the top of a mushroom shaped structure characterizing the centerline streak to regions that are concentrated on the sides of the mushroom. Unlike the Mach 3.5 case with nearly same values of scaled roughness height k/delta and roughness height Reynolds number Re(sub kk), the odd wake modes in both Mach 5.9 cases are significantly more unstable than the even modes of instability. Additional computations for a Mach 3.5 boundary layer indicate that the presence of a roughness element can also enhance the amplification of first mode instabilities incident from upstream. Interactions between multiple roughness elements aligned along the flow direction are also explored.

  2. Limit to mass sensitivity of nanoresonators with random rough surfaces due to intrinsic sources and interactions with the surrounding gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate initially the influence of thermomechanical and momentum exchange noise on the limit to mass sensitivity Delta m of nanoresonators with random rough surfaces, which are characterized by the roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent 0

  3. Wall-motion tracking in fetal echocardiography-Influence of frame rate on longitudinal strain analysis assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzensberger, Christian; Achterberg, Friederike; Graupner, Oliver; Wolter, Aline; Herrmann, Johannes; Axt-Fliedner, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Frame rates (FR) used for strain analysis assessed by speckle tracking in fetal echocardiography show a considerable variation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the FR on strain analysis in 2D speckle tracking. Fetal echocardiography was performed prospectively on a Toshiba Aplio 500 system and a Toshiba Artida system, respectively. Based on an apical or basal four-chamber view of the fetal heart, cine loops were stored with a FR of 30 fps (Aplio 500) and 60 fps (Artida/Aplio 500). For both groups (30fps and 60fps), global and segmental longitudinal peak systolic strain (LPSS) values of both, left (LV) and right ventricle (RV), were assessed by 2D wall-motion tracking. A total of 101 fetuses, distributed to three study groups, were included. The mean gestational age was 25.2±5.0 weeks. Mean global LPSS values for RV in the 30 fps group and in the 60 fps group were -16.07% and -16.47%, respectively. Mean global LPSS values for LV in the 30 fps group and in the 60 fps group were -17.54% and -17.06%, respectively. Comparing global and segmental LPSS values of both, the RV and LV, did not show any statistically significant differences within the two groups. Performance of myocardial 2D strain analysis by wall-motion tracking was feasible with 30 and 60 fps. Obtained global and segmental LPSS values of both ventricles were relatively independent from acquisition rate. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Experimental study on the influence of the opening in brick-masonry wall to seismic performance of reinforced concrete frame structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidiawati, Tanjung, Jafril; Medriosa, Hamdeni

    2017-10-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures with brick-masonry infills are commonly used in developing countries and high-risk seismic area, such as Indonesia. Significant researches have been carried out for studying the seismic performance of RC frame structures with brick-masonry infills. Only few of them focused on effects of the opening in the brick-masonry infill to the seismic performance of the RC frame structures. The presence of opening in brick-masonry infill is often used for placing doors and windows as well, however, it may reduce the seismic performance of the RC frame structure. In the current study, they influence of the opening in brick-masonry infills to the seismic performance RC frame structure will experimentally evaluated. Five of 1/4-scaled single story and single bay RC frame specimens were prepared, i.e. an RC bare frame, a clay brick-masonry infilled RC frame and three of clay brick-masonry infilled RC frame with openings in the brick-masonry infills. The last three specimens were clay brick infilled RC frame with a center opening, clay brick infilled RC frame with two openings used for placing the windows and clay brick infilled RC frame with opening for placing the door. The specimens pushed over by applying the static monotonic lateral load to the upper beam of the RC frame structures. The incremental of the lateral load and the lateral displacement of RC frame's column was recorded during test. The crack propagation and the major cracks were also observed to identify the mechanism failure of specimens. As the results, the opening in the brick-masonry wall controls the failure mechanism, the lateral strength and the stiffness of the overall of infilled RC frame structure. The diagonal shear crack pattern was found on brick-masonry wall without opening, on other hand the different crack patterns were observed on brick-masonry wall with openings. Although the opening in the brick masonry infill reduced the lateral strength and stiffness of

  5. Direct numerical simulation of open channel flow over smooth-to-rough and rough-to-smooth step changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi, Amirreza; Chung, Daniel; Hutchins, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are reported for open channel flow over streamwise-alternating patches of smooth and fully rough walls. Owing to the streamwise periodicity, the flow configuration is composed of a step change from smooth to rough, and a step change from rough to smooth. The friction Reynolds number varies from 443 over the smooth patch to 715 over the rough patch. The flow is thoroughly studied by mean and fluctuation profiles, and spectrograms. The detailed flow from DNS reveals discrepancies of up to 50% among the various definitions of the internal-layer thickness, with apparent power-law exponents differing by up to 60%. The definition based on the logarithmic slope of the velocity profile, as proposed by Chamorro et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol., vol. 130, 2009, pp. 29-41), is most consistent with the physical notion of the internal layer; this is supported by the defect similarity based on this internal-layer thickness, and the streamwise homogeneity of the dissipation length-scale within this internal layer. The statistics inside this internal-layer, and the growth of the internal layer itself, are minimally affected by the streamwise periodicity when the patch length is at least six times the channel height.

  6. Spatial and harvesting influence on growth, yield, quality and economic potential of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Wall Ex. Nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as Kalmegh, is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines because of its immunological, antibacterial and hepatoprotective properties. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of four harvesting times (120,135,150 days after planting and at seed maturity and four planting distances (30×15, 30×10, 20×15 and 20×10 cm on growth, dry herbage biomass, seed yield and quality traits of Andrographis paniculata at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India in the two years 2005 and 2006. The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The maximum values for dry herbage biomass yield (5.14 t ha^(-1, net returns (760.00 EUR ha^(-1, B:C ratio (2.59, andrographolide content (2.63% and total yield (135.00 kg ha^(-1 were detected 135 days after planting with an optimum planting distance of 30×15 cm. However, the maximum iron content was estimated 120 days after planting. The highest dry herbage (4.58 t ha^(-1 and maximum seed yield (19.7 kg ha^(-1 were registered at plants that were lined out with a distance of 20×10 cm.

  7. Influence of stochastic geometric imperfections on the load-carrying behaviour of thin-walled structures using constrained random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, S.; Fina, M.; Wagner, W.

    2018-04-01

    Since structural engineering requires highly developed and optimized structures, the thickness dependency is one of the most controversially debated topics. This paper deals with stability analysis of lightweight thin structures combined with arbitrary geometrical imperfections. Generally known design guidelines only consider imperfections for simple shapes and loading, whereas for complex structures the lower-bound design philosophy still holds. Herein, uncertainties are considered with an empirical knockdown factor representing a lower bound of existing measurements. To fully understand and predict expected bearable loads, numerical investigations are essential, including geometrical imperfections. These are implemented into a stand-alone program code with a stochastic approach to compute random fields as geometric imperfections that are applied to nodes of the finite element mesh of selected structural examples. The stochastic approach uses the Karhunen-Loève expansion for the random field discretization. For this approach, the so-called correlation length l_c controls the random field in a powerful way. This parameter has a major influence on the buckling shape, and also on the stability load. First, the impact of the correlation length is studied for simple structures. Second, since most structures for engineering devices are more complex and combined structures, these are intensively discussed with the focus on constrained random fields for e.g. flange-web-intersections. Specific constraints for those random fields are pointed out with regard to the finite element model. Further, geometrical imperfections vanish where the structure is supported.

  8. Surface roughness of sputtered ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y S [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Rd. Shou-Feng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsu, K C [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y M [Institute of Electronics Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, 1 Nan-Tai Street, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-01

    ZnO films are grown on Si and glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The crystalline structures are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the roughness characteristics of the films are examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). All films exhibit strong (002) preferential orientation. The influence of the RF power and target-to-substrate distance (D{sub ts}) on the properties of ZnO is studied. Under the optimized conditions of the RF power and D{sub ts}, root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughnesses of <0.8 nm are achieved.

  9. Surface roughness of sputtered ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y S; Hsu, K C; Huang, Y M

    2006-01-01

    ZnO films are grown on Si and glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The crystalline structures are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the roughness characteristics of the films are examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). All films exhibit strong (002) preferential orientation. The influence of the RF power and target-to-substrate distance (D ts ) on the properties of ZnO is studied. Under the optimized conditions of the RF power and D ts , root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughnesses of <0.8 nm are achieved

  10. Axis Problem of Rough 3-Valued Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Dai; Weidong Chen; Yunhe Pan

    2006-01-01

    The collection of all the rough sets of an approximation space has been given several algebraic interpretations, including Stone algebras, regular double Stone algebras, semi-simple Nelson algebras, pre-rough algebras and 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras. A 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a Stone algebra, a regular double Stone algebra, a semi-simple Nelson algebra, a pre-rough algebra. Thus, we call the algebra constructed by the collection of rough sets of an approximation space a rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra. In this paper,the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, which are a special kind of 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, are studied. Whether the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a axled 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is examined.

  11. Unbiased roughness measurements: the key to better etch performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Andrew; Mack, Chris; Sirard, Stephen; Liang, Chen-wei; Yang, Liu; Jiang, Justin; Shamma, Nader; Wise, Rich; Yu, Jengyi; Hymes, Diane

    2018-03-01

    Edge placement error (EPE) has become an increasingly critical metric to enable Moore's Law scaling. Stochastic variations, as characterized for lines by line width roughness (LWR) and line edge roughness (LER), are dominant factors in EPE and known to increase with the introduction of EUV lithography. However, despite recommendations from ITRS, NIST, and SEMI standards, the industry has not agreed upon a methodology to quantify these properties. Thus, differing methodologies applied to the same image often result in different roughness measurements and conclusions. To standardize LWR and LER measurements, Fractilia has developed an unbiased measurement that uses a raw unfiltered line scan to subtract out image noise and distortions. By using Fractilia's inverse linescan model (FILM) to guide development, we will highlight the key influences of roughness metrology on plasma-based resist smoothing processes. Test wafers were deposited to represent a 5 nm node EUV logic stack. The patterning stack consists of a core Si target layer with spin-on carbon (SOC) as the hardmask and spin-on glass (SOG) as the cap. Next, these wafers were exposed through an ASML NXE 3350B EUV scanner with an advanced chemically amplified resist (CAR). Afterwards, these wafers were etched through a variety of plasma-based resist smoothing techniques using a Lam Kiyo conductor etch system. Dense line and space patterns on the etched samples were imaged through advanced Hitachi CDSEMs and the LER and LWR were measured through both Fractilia and an industry standard roughness measurement software. By employing Fractilia to guide plasma-based etch development, we demonstrate that Fractilia produces accurate roughness measurements on resist in contrast to an industry standard measurement software. These results highlight the importance of subtracting out SEM image noise to obtain quicker developmental cycle times and lower target layer roughness.

  12. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the work carried out in a project supported by the Danish Council for Technology and Innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC-machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost...... and time consumption can become prohibitive in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, calling for the object to be manually polished. During the polishing process, the operator...... needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...

  13. Software testing in roughness calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y L; Hsieh, P F; Fu, W E

    2005-01-01

    A test method to determine the function quality provided by the software for roughness measurement is presented in this study. The function quality of the software requirements should be part of and assessed through the entire life cycle of the software package. The specific function, or output accuracy, is crucial for the analysis of the experimental data. For scientific applications, however, commercial software is usually embedded with specific instrument, which is used for measurement or analysis during the manufacture process. In general, the error ratio caused by the software would be more apparent especially when dealing with relatively small quantities, like the measurements in the nanometer-scale range. The model of 'using a data generator' proposed by NPL of UK was applied in this study. An example of the roughness software is tested and analyzed by the above mentioned process. After selecting the 'reference results', the 'reference data' was generated by a programmable 'data generator'. The filter function of 0.8 mm long cutoff value, defined in ISO 11562 was tested with 66 sinusoid data at different wavelengths. Test results from commercial software and CMS written program were compared to the theoretical data calculated from ISO standards. As for the filter function in this software, the result showed a significant disagreement between the reference and test results. The short cutoff feature for filtering at the high frequencies does not function properly, while the long cutoff feature has the maximum difference in the filtering ratio, which is more than 70% between the wavelength of 300 μm and 500 μm. Conclusively, the commercial software needs to be tested more extensively for specific application by appropriate design of reference dataset to ensure its function quality

  14. Time-dependent behavior of rough discontinuities under shearing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Shen, Mingrong; Ding, Wenqi; Jang, Boan; Zhang, Qingzhao

    2018-02-01

    The mechanical properties of rocks are generally controlled by their discontinuities. In this study, the time-dependent behavior of rough artificial joints under shearing conditions was investigated. Based on Barton’s standard profile lines, samples with artificial joint surfaces were prepared and used to conduct the shear and creep tests. The test results showed that the shear strength of discontinuity was linearly related to roughness, and subsequently an empirical equation was established. The long-term strength of discontinuity can be identified using the inflection point of the isocreep-rate curve, and it was linearly related to roughness. Furthermore, the ratio of long-term and instantaneous strength decreased with the increase of roughness. The shear-stiffness coefficient increased with the increase of shear rate, and the influence of shear rate on the shear stiffness coefficient decreased with the decrease of roughness. Further study of the mechanism revealed that these results could be attributed to the different time-dependent behavior of intact and joint rocks.

  15. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Sloan J.; Hobler, Gerhard; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield - especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the "density gradient model") which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target's atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient - leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  16. Roughness analysis of graphite surfaces of casting elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wieczorowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper profilometric measurements of graphite casting elements were described. Basic topics necessary to assess roughness of their surfaces and influence of asperities on various properties related to manufacturing and use were discussed. Stylus profilometer technique of surface irregularities measurements including its limits resulting from pickup geometry and its contact with measured object were ana-lyzed. Working principle of tactile profilometer and phenomena taking place during movement of a probe on a measured surface were shown. One of the important aspects is a flight phenomenon, which means movement of a pickup without contact with a surface during inspection resulting from too high scanning speed. results of comparison research for graphite elements of new and used mould and pin composing a set were presented. Using some surface roughness, waviness and primary profile parameters (arithmetical mean of roughness profile heights Ra, biggest roughness profile height Rz, maximum primary profile height Pt as well as maximum waviness profile height Wt a possibility of using surface asperities parameters as a measure of wear of chill graphite elements was proved. The most often applied parameter is Ra, but with a help of parameters from W and P family it was shown, that big changes occur not only for roughness but also for other components of surface irregularities.

  17. How do liquids confined at the nanoscale influence adhesion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Tartaglino, U; Persson, B N J

    2006-01-01

    Liquids play an important role in adhesion and sliding friction. They behave as lubricants in human bodies, especially in the joints. However, in many biological attachment systems they act like adhesives, e.g. facilitating insects to move on ceilings or vertical walls. Here we use molecular dynamics to study how liquids confined at the nanoscale influence the adhesion between solid bodies with smooth and rough surfaces. We show that a monolayer of liquid may strongly affect the adhesion

  18. Self-affine roughness effects on the contact area between elastic bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the real contact area between elastic bodies with self-affine rough surfaces, which are described in terms of analytical correlation models in Fourier space. It is found that the roughness has a strong influence on the real contact area A(lambda) at lateral length scales lambda

  19. Influence of the growth phenophases on the phenolic composition and anti-oxidant properties of Roscoea procera Wall. in western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Sandeep; Jugran, Arun K; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S

    2018-02-01

    Roscoea procera Wall. is one of the important Himalayan medicinal plant used in traditional as well as in modern health care system. The present study aimed to find out the influence of different phenophases on the phenolic compounds and anti-oxidant properties by analysing after every week for over 4 months from shoot bud initiation to the preparation of senescence. Concentration of total phenolic content were found to be about 1.5 times higher in preparation of senescence phase (6.10 mg GAE/g dry weight or dw) as compared to vegetative growth phase. Similarly, total flavonoid concentration ranged from 4.36 to 5.65 mg querectin equivalents/g dw. The concentration of selected phenolic compounds, i.e., gallic acid, catechin and p -coumaric acid was quantified by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography and varied significantly among the different phenophases. While, anti-oxidant activity was found 2-3 times higher in preparation of senescence phase as compared to vegetative phase. Thus, these results concluded that in R. procera , November month (preparation of senescence phase) could be recommended for extracting optimum level of total phenolics, flavonoids and anti-oxidant activity. These results will be further helpful for obtaining maximum benefits from the species and to reduce pressure on reproductive phase while ensuring its conservation.

  20. Optical roughness BRDF model for reverse Monte Carlo simulation of real material thermal radiation transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Peiran; Eri, Qitai; Wang, Qiang

    2014-04-10

    Optical roughness was introduced into the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model to simulate the reflectance characteristics of thermal radiation. The optical roughness BRDF model stemmed from the influence of surface roughness and wavelength on the ray reflectance calculation. This model was adopted to simulate real metal emissivity. The reverse Monte Carlo method was used to display the distribution of reflectance rays. The numerical simulations showed that the optical roughness BRDF model can calculate the wavelength effect on emissivity and simulate the real metal emissivity variance with incidence angles.

  1. Investigation of secondary flows in turbulent pipe flows with three-dimensional sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leon; MacDonald, Michael; Chung, Daniel; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ooi, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The occurrence of secondary flows is systematically investigated via Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent flow in a rough wall pipe at friction Reynolds numbers of 540. In this study, the peak-to-trough height of the roughness elements, which consist of three-dimensional sinusoidal roughness, is fixed at 120 viscous units while the wavelength of the roughness elements is varied. The solidity or effective slope (ES) of the roughness ranges from the sparse regime (ES = 0.18) to the closely packed roughness/dense regime (ES = 0.72). The time-independent dispersive stresses, which arise due to the stationary features of the flow, are analysed and are found to increase with increasing roughness wavelength. These dispersive stresses are related to the occurrence of secondary flows and are maximum within the roughness canopy. Above the crest of the roughness elements, the dispersive stresses reduce to zero at wall-normal heights greater than half of the roughness wavelength. This study has found that the size and wall-normal extent of the secondary flows scales with the roughness wavelength and can reach wall-normal heights of almost half of the pipe radius.

  2. PREFACE: Domain wall dynamics in nanostructures Domain wall dynamics in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrows, C. H.; Meier, G.

    2012-01-01

    forms of ordered phases such as antiferromagnetism and ferroelectricity. We would like to thank the scientists from all over the world who happily agreed to contribute their latest results to this special issue, and the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter staff for their help, patience and professionalism. In such a fast-moving field it is not possible to give a definitive account, and this special issue can be no more than a snapshot of the current state of knowledge regarding this topic. Nevertheless, we hope that this collection of papers is a useful resource for experienced workers in the field, forms a useful introduction to researchers early in their careers and inspires others in related areas of nanotechnology to enter into the study of domain dynamics in nanostructures. Domain wall dynamics in nanostructures contents Temperature estimation in a ferromagnetic Fe-Ni nanowire involving a current-driven domain wall motionA Yamaguchi, A Hirohata, T Ono and H Miyajima Magnetization reversal in magnetic nanostripes via Bloch wall formation M Zeisberger and R Mattheis Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process in permalloy magnetic nanowiresMi-Young Im, Lars Bocklage, Guido Meier and Peter Fischer Domain wall propagation in meso- and nanoscale ferroelectrics R G P McQuaid, M McMillen, L-W Chang, A Gruverman and J M Gregg Transverse and vortex domain wall structure in magnetic nanowires with uniaxial in-plane anisotropyM T Bryan, S Bance, J Dean, T Schrefl and D A Allwood The stochastic nature of the domain wall motion along high perpendicular anisotropy strips with surface roughness Eduardo Martinez Temperature-dependent dynamics of stochastic domain-wall depinning in nanowiresClemens Wuth, Peter Lendecke and Guido Meier Controlled pinning and depinning of domain walls in nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropyTheo Gerhardt, André Drews and Guido Meier The interaction of transverse domain wallsBenjamin Krüger The increase of the

  3. Effects of surface roughness and film thickness on the adhesion of a bioinspired nanofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z. L.; Chen, S. H.

    2011-05-01

    Inspired by the gecko's climbing ability, adhesion between an elastic nanofilm with finite length and a rough substrate with sinusoidal roughness is studied in the present paper, considering the effects of substrate roughness and film thickness. It demonstrates that the normal adhesion force of the nanofilm on a rough substrate depends significantly on the geometrical parameters of the substrate. When the film length is larger than the wavelength of the sinusoidal roughness of the substrate, the normal adhesion force decreases with increasing surface roughness, while the normal adhesion force initially decreases then increases if the wavelength of roughness is larger than the film length. This finding is qualitatively consistent with a previously interesting experimental observation in which the adhesion force of the gecko spatula is found to reduce significantly at an intermediate roughness. Furthermore, it is inferred that the gecko may achieve an optimal spatula thickness not only to follow rough surfaces, but also to saturate the adhesion force. The results in this paper may be helpful for understanding how geckos overcome the influence of natural surface roughness and possess such adhesion to support their weights.

  4. Application of function-oriented roughness parameters using confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Klauer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical measuring instruments are widely used for the functional characterization of surface topography. However, due to the interaction of the surface with the incident light, effects occur that can influence the measured topography height values and the obtained surface texture parameters. Therefore, we describe a systematic investigation of the influences of optical surface topography measurement on the acquisition of function-oriented roughness parameters. The same evaluation areas of varying cylinder liners which represent a typical application of function-oriented roughness parameters were measured with a confocal microscope and a stylus instrument. Functional surface texture parameters as given in the standards ISO 13565–2, ISO 13565–3 and ISO 25178–2 were evaluated for both measurement methods and compared. The transmission of specific surface features was described and a correlation analysis for the surface topographies obtained with the different measurement methods and their resulting functional roughness parameters was carried out. Keywords: Functional surface characterization, Optical metrology, Topography measurement, Roughness

  5. Scales of form roughness on riverbanks with different riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsoer, K. M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Best, J.; Langendoen, E. J.; Ursic, M.; Abad, J. D.; Garcia, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    Riverbanks often include topographic irregularities that occur over a range of scales and that are produced by interactions among erosional processes, vegetation, and the geotechnical properties of the banks and floodplains. Irregularity of the bank surface can increase form drag, affecting the overall flow resistance, near-bank shear stresses, and patterns of sediment transport. Understanding how dominant scales of form roughness influence the near-bank flow structure, and thus the shear stress partitioning, is vital for the development of accurate predictive morphodynamic models. In this paper, the scales of bank roughness are examined for two meander bends of a large alluvial river with differing riparian vegetation on the Wabash River near Grayville, Illinois. Detailed measurements of bank topography were obtained using terrestrial LiDAR during low flow events and a multibeam echo sounder (MBES) during bankfull events. These measurements yielded high spatial resolution maps (~5-10 cm) that were used to analyze scales of roughness at different elevations along the banks during both subaerial and subaqueous conditions. The results of these analyses provide insight into the influence of riparian vegetation on form roughness and patterns of near-bank flow structure as documented using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP).

  6. Vertical Equilibrium of Sheet Pile Walls with Emphasis on Toe Capacity and Plugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Augustesen, Anders Hust; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    Constructions including retaining walls are normally established in areas where it is impossible to conduct an excavation with inclined sides. Due to large excavation depths and due to restrictions on the deformations of the wall, it is often necessary to anchor the wall. The limited space makes...... at the pile toe to fulfil vertical equilibrium. The paper describes a case study of sheet pile walls in Aalborg Clay, and the amount of loads transferred as point loads at the pile toe for free and anchored walls is estimated. A parametric study is made for the free wall with regards to the height...... and the roughness of the wall. Due to limitations of the calculation method, the study of the anchored wall only includes variation of the roughness. For the case study, it is found that the vertical equilibrium is fulfilled for the considered free wall. An anchored wall needs a plug forming at the pile toe...

  7. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Stripf, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consiste nt with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparison s are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data ar e for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach ta ken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense , consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after e xposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determ ine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the re gular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test co nditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat tran sfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular as well a s statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculatio ns are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  8. Effect of seabed roughness on tidal current turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikrant; Wan, Minping

    2017-11-01

    Tidal current turbines are shown to have potential to generate clean energy for a negligible environmental impact. These devices, however, operate in high to moderate current regions where the flow is highly turbulent. It has been shown in flume tank experiments at IFREMER in Boulogne-Sur-Mer (France) and NAFL in the University of Minnesota (US) that the level of turbulence and boundary layer profile affect a turbine's power output and wake characteristics. A major factor that determines these marine flow characteristics is the seabed roughness. Experiments, however, cannot simulate the high Reynolds number conditions of real marine flows. For that, we rely on numerical simulations. High accuracy numerical methods, such as DNS, of wall-bounded flows are very expensive, where the number of grid-points needed to resolve the flow varies as (Re) 9 / 4 (where Re is the flow Reynolds number). While numerically affordable RANS methods compromise on accuracy. Wall-modelled LES methods, which provide both accuracy and affordability, have been improved tremendously in the recent years. We discuss the application of such numerical methods for studying the effect of seabed roughness on marine flow features and their impact on turbine power output and wake characteristics. NSFC, Project Number 11672123.

  9. Surface roughness of composite resins subjected to hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Ana Carolina Cabral; Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; de Godoi, Ana Paula Terossi; Colucci, Vivian; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Catirse, Alma Blásida Concepción Elizaur Benitez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hydrochloric acid on surface roughness of composite resins subjected to brushing. Sixty samples measuring 2 mm thick x 6 mm diameter were prepared and used as experimental units. The study presented a 3x2 factorial design, in which the factors were composite resin (n=20), at 3 levels: microhybrid composite (Z100), nanofilled composite (FiltekTM Supreme), nanohybrid composite (Ice), and acid challenge (n=10) at 2 levels: absence and presence. Acid challenge was performed by immersion of specimens in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) for 1 min, 4 times per day for 7 days. The specimens not subjected to acid challenge were stored in 15 mL of artificial saliva at 37 oC. Afterwards, all specimens were submitted to abrasive challenge by a brushing cycle performed with a 200 g weight at a speed of 356 rpm, totaling 17.8 cycles. Surface roughness measurements (Ra) were performed and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p≤0.05). Surface roughness values were higher in the presence (1.07±0.24) as compared with the absence of hydrochloric acid (0.72±0.04). Surface roughness values were higher for microhybrid (1.01±0.27) compared with nanofilled (0.68 ±0.09) and nanohybrid (0.48±0.15) composites when the specimens were not subjects to acid challenge. In the presence of hydrochloric acid, microhybrid (1.26±0.28) and nanofilled (1.18±0,30) composites presents higher surface roughness values compared with nanohybrid (0.77±0.15). The hydrochloric acid affected the surface roughness of composite resin subjected to brushing.

  10. Aging near the wall in colloidal glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cong; Huang, Xinru; Weeks, Eric

    In a colloidal glass system, particles move slower as sample ages. In addition, their motions may be affected by their local structure, and this structure will be different near a wall. We examine how the aging process near a wall differs from that in the bulk of the sample. In particular, we use a confocal microscope to observe 3D motion in a bidisperse colloidal glass sample. We find that flat walls induce the particles to organize into layers. The aging process behaves differently near the boundary, especially within the first three layers. Particle motion near the wall is noticeably slower but also changes less dramatically with age. We compare and contrast aging seen in samples with flat and rough walls.

  11. Surface roughness effects on plasma near a divertor plate and local impact angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpeng Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of rough surface topography on the electric potential and electric field is generally neglected due to the small scale of surface roughness compared to the width of the plasma sheath. However, the distributions of the electric potential and field on rough surfaces are expected to influence the characteristics of edge plasma and the local impact angle. The distributions of plasma sheath and local impact angle on rough surfaces are investigated by a two dimension-in-space and three dimension-in-velocity (2d3v Particle-In-Cell (PIC code. The influences of the plasma temperature andsurface morphology on the plasma sheath, local impact angle and resulting physical sputtering yield on rough surfaces are investigated.

  12. Dynamics of one-dimensional domain walls interacting with disorder potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Shibauchi, T.; Argyle, B.; Gignac, L.; Zabel, T.; Weller, D.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamics of 1D perpendicular-anisotropy domain walls in a few monolayer-thin Co films is imaged by polar Kerr microscopy. When domain walls, driven by a square-pulsed magnetic fields, travel through a random disordered potential landscape, they display Gaussian-distributed roughness characteristic of this landscape. Average velocity of the domain wall driven by a constant magnetic field strongly depends on a strain field which modifies (increases) the elastic energy of the wall and reduces the wall velocity

  13. Magnetic field influences on the lateral dose response functions of photon-beam detectors: MC study of wall-less water-filled detectors with various densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looe, Hui Khee; Delfs, Björn; Poppinga, Daniela; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn

    2017-06-21

    The distortion of detector reading profiles across photon beams in the presence of magnetic fields is a developing subject of clinical photon-beam dosimetry. The underlying modification by the Lorentz force of a detector's lateral dose response function-the convolution kernel transforming the true cross-beam dose profile in water into the detector reading profile-is here studied for the first time. The three basic convolution kernels, the photon fluence response function, the dose deposition kernel, and the lateral dose response function, of wall-less cylindrical detectors filled with water of low, normal and enhanced density are shown by Monte Carlo simulation to be distorted in the prevailing direction of the Lorentz force. The asymmetric shape changes of these convolution kernels in a water medium and in magnetic fields of up to 1.5 T are confined to the lower millimetre range, and they depend on the photon beam quality, the magnetic flux density and the detector's density. The impact of this distortion on detector reading profiles is demonstrated using a narrow photon beam profile. For clinical applications it appears as favourable that the magnetic flux density dependent distortion of the lateral dose response function, as far as secondary electron transport is concerned, vanishes in the case of water-equivalent detectors of normal water density. By means of secondary electron history backtracing, the spatial distribution of the photon interactions giving rise either directly to secondary electrons or to scattered photons further downstream producing secondary electrons which contribute to the detector's signal, and their lateral shift due to the Lorentz force is elucidated. Electron history backtracing also serves to illustrate the correct treatment of the influences of the Lorentz force in the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code applied in this study.

  14. Influence of the Accuracy of Angiography-Based Reconstructions on Velocity and Wall Shear Stress Computations in Coronary Bifurcations: A Phantom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, Jelle T. C.; Karanasos, Antonios; van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S.; Aben, Jean-Paul; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Wall shear stress (WSS) plays a key role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries. Especially sites with low and oscillating WSS near bifurcations have a higher propensity to develop atherosclerosis. WSS computations in coronary bifurcations can be performed in angiography-based 3D reconstructions. It is essential to evaluate how reconstruction errors influence WSS computations in mildly-diseased coronary bifurcations. In mildly-diseased lesions WSS could potentially provide more insight in plaque progression. Materials Methods Four Plexiglas phantom models of coronary bifurcations were imaged with bi-plane angiography. The lumens were segmented by two clinically experienced readers. Based on the segmentations 3D models were generated. This resulted in three models per phantom: one gold-standard from the phantom model itself, and one from each reader. Steady-state and transient simulations were performed with computational fluid dynamics to compute the WSS. A similarity index and a noninferiority test were used to compare the WSS in the phantoms and their reconstructions. The margin for this test was based on the resolution constraints of angiography. Results The reconstruction errors were similar to previously reported data; in seven out of eight reconstructions less than 0.10 mm. WSS in the regions proximal and far distal of the stenosis showed a good agreement. However, the low WSS areas directly distal of the stenosis showed some disagreement between the phantoms and the readers. This was due to small deviations in the reconstruction of the stenosis that caused differences in the resulting jet, and consequently the size and location of the low WSS area. Discussion This study showed that WSS can accurately be computed within angiography-based 3D reconstructions of coronary arteries with early stage atherosclerosis. Qualitatively, there was a good agreement between the phantoms and the readers. Quantitatively, the

  15. Influence of the Accuracy of Angiography-Based Reconstructions on Velocity and Wall Shear Stress Computations in Coronary Bifurcations: A Phantom Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle T C Schrauwen

    Full Text Available Wall shear stress (WSS plays a key role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries. Especially sites with low and oscillating WSS near bifurcations have a higher propensity to develop atherosclerosis. WSS computations in coronary bifurcations can be performed in angiography-based 3D reconstructions. It is essential to evaluate how reconstruction errors influence WSS computations in mildly-diseased coronary bifurcations. In mildly-diseased lesions WSS could potentially provide more insight in plaque progression.Four Plexiglas phantom models of coronary bifurcations were imaged with bi-plane angiography. The lumens were segmented by two clinically experienced readers. Based on the segmentations 3D models were generated. This resulted in three models per phantom: one gold-standard from the phantom model itself, and one from each reader. Steady-state and transient simulations were performed with computational fluid dynamics to compute the WSS. A similarity index and a noninferiority test were used to compare the WSS in the phantoms and their reconstructions. The margin for this test was based on the resolution constraints of angiography.The reconstruction errors were similar to previously reported data; in seven out of eight reconstructions less than 0.10 mm. WSS in the regions proximal and far distal of the stenosis showed a good agreement. However, the low WSS areas directly distal of the stenosis showed some disagreement between the phantoms and the readers. This was due to small deviations in the reconstruction of the stenosis that caused differences in the resulting jet, and consequently the size and location of the low WSS area.This study showed that WSS can accurately be computed within angiography-based 3D reconstructions of coronary arteries with early stage atherosclerosis. Qualitatively, there was a good agreement between the phantoms and the readers. Quantitatively, the low WSS regions directly distal to

  16. Optimization of surface roughness parameters in dry turning

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Mahdavinejad; H. Sharifi Bidgoli

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The precision of machine tools on one hand and the input setup parameters on the other hand, are strongly influenced in main output machining parameters such as stock removal, toll wear ratio and surface roughnes.Design/methodology/approach: There are a lot of input parameters which are effective in the variations of these output parameters. In CNC machines, the optimization of machining process in order to predict surface roughness is very important.Findings: From this point of view...

  17. Convective heat transfer in MHD channels and its influence on channel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Doss, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    The limitations of the integral boundary layer methods and the potential of the differential boundary layer method in analyzing MHD channel flows are assessed. The sensitivity of results from the integral method to the parametrization of boundary layer profiles and calculation of wall heat transfer is established. A mixing-length type turbulence model for flow on rough walls is developed and validated by comparison with experimental data. The turbulence model is used in a quasi-three-dimensional boundary layer model to evaluate the influence of wall roughness and pressure gradients on the flow characteristics and performance of MHD channels. The behaviors of skin friction and Stanton number calculated from the analytical model are found to differ considerably from the empirical correlations valid for non-MHD flows without pressure gradients

  18. Bed roughness experiments in supply limited conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, Matthieu; Tuijnder, Arjan; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Parsons, D.R.; Garlan, T.; Best, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable roughness models are of great importance, for example, when predicting water levels in rivers. The currently available roughness models are based on fully mobile bed conditions. However, in rivers where widely graded sediments are present more or less permanent armour layers can develop

  19. Axiomatic Characterizations of IVF Rough Approximation Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangji Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of axiomatic characterizations of IVF rough approximation operators. IVF approximation spaces are investigated. The fact that different IVF operators satisfy some axioms to guarantee the existence of different types of IVF relations which produce the same operators is proved and then IVF rough approximation operators are characterized by axioms.

  20. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel; Papadakis, Stergios J.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  1. Modeling surface roughness scattering in metallic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moors, Kristof, E-mail: kristof@itf.fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sorée, Bart [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); KU Leuven, Electrical Engineering (ESAT) Department, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Magnus, Wim [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2015-09-28

    Ando's model provides a rigorous quantum-mechanical framework for electron-surface roughness scattering, based on the detailed roughness structure. We apply this method to metallic nanowires and improve the model introducing surface roughness distribution functions on a finite domain with analytical expressions for the average surface roughness matrix elements. This approach is valid for any roughness size and extends beyond the commonly used Prange-Nee approximation. The resistivity scaling is obtained from the self-consistent relaxation time solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is compared to Prange-Nee's approach and other known methods. The results show that a substantial drop in resistivity can be obtained for certain diameters by achieving a large momentum gap between Fermi level states with positive and negative momentum in the transport direction.

  2. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou

    2017-01-01

    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have...... fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness...... of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error...

  3. Modeling of interface roughness in thermoelectric composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gather, F; Heiliger, C; Klar, P J

    2011-01-01

    We use a network model to calculate the influence of the mesoscopic interface structure on the thermoelectric properties of superlattice structures consisting of alternating layers of materials A and B. The thermoelectric figure of merit of such a composite material depends on the layer thickness, if interface resistances are accounted for, and can be increased by proper interface design. In general, interface roughness reduces the figure of merit, again compared to the case of ideal interfaces. However, the strength of this reduction depends strongly on the type of interface roughness. Smooth atomic surface diffusion leading to alloying of materials A and B causes the largest reduction of the figure of merit. Consequently, in real structures, it is important not only to minimize interface roughness, but also to control the type of roughness. Although the microscopic effects of interfaces are only empirically accounted for, using a network model can yield useful information about the dependence of the macroscopic transport coefficients on the mesoscopic disorder in structured thermoelectric materials.

  4. Surface roughness of orthodontic band cements with different compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Hélène van de Sande

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated comparatively the surface roughness of four orthodontic band cements after storage in various solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight standardized cylinders were made from 4 materials: zinc phosphate cement (ZP, compomer (C, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC and resin cement (RC. Specimens were stored for 24 h in deionized water and immersed in saline (pH 7.0 or 0.1 M lactic acid solution (pH 4.0 for 15 days. Surface roughness readings were taken with a profilometer (Surfcorder SE1200 before and after the storage period. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (comparison among cements and storage solutions or paired t-test (comparison before and after the storage period at 5% significance level. RESULTS: The values for average surface roughness were statistically different (pRMGIC>C>R (p0.05. Compared to the current threshold (0.2 µm related to biofilm accumulation, both RC and C remained below the threshold, even after acidic challenge by immersion in lactic acid solution. CONCLUSIONS: Storage time and immersion in lactic acid solution increased the surface roughness of the majority of the tested cements. RC presented the smoothest surface and it was not influenced by storage conditions.

  5. Cilia walls influence on peristaltically induced motion of magneto-fluid through a porous medium at moderate Reynolds number: Numerical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Abo-Elkhair

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses, effects of a magneto-fluid through a Darcy flow model with oscillatory wavy walled whose inner surface is ciliated. The equations that governing the flow are modeled without using any approximations. Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM is used to evaluate the solution of our system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Stream function, velocity and pressure gradient components are obtained by using the vorticity formula. The effects for our arbitrary physical parameters on flow characteristics are analyzed by plotting diagrams and discussed in details. With the help of stream lines the trapping mechanism has also been discussed. The major outcomes for the ciliated channel walls are: The axial velocity is higher without a ciliated walls than that for a ciliated walls and an opposite behaviour is shown near the ciliated channel walls. The pressure gradients in both directions are higher for a ciliated channel walls. More numbers of the trapped bolus in the absent of the eccentricity of the cilia elliptic path.

  6. Frequency Response Analysis of Hydroelectric Power Plants with Influence From a Non-Linearized Frictional Damping and the Turbine Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Brekke

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the dissertation has been to establish a complete stability analysis of a hydroelectric power plant. The most important part in this study has been to establish a theory for the damping of oscillatory flow in tunnels and pipes. The influence of the turbine characteristics is also important and has been included by differentiation of the turbine equation. The partial derivative values can be found by means of the characteristic diagram of the turbine. Special attention is paid to establishing an empirical friction function for tunnels with rough walls. The author has based his theory on experimental tests carried out for damping of sea waves on rough beds, and the friction factor is a function of both frequency, amplitudes, cross section area and roughness of the wall (Jonsson 1978. Further, the damping of oscillations in shafts leading to tunnels taking into account the mean velocity in the tunnel has been established.

  7. Acoustic receptivity and transition modeling of Tollmien-Schlichting disturbances induced by distributed surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Henrique; Mughal, Shahid; Ashworth, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic receptivity to Tollmien-Schlichting waves in the presence of surface roughness is investigated for a flat plate boundary layer using the time-harmonic incompressible linearized Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown to be an accurate and efficient means of predicting receptivity amplitudes and, therefore, to be more suitable for parametric investigations than other approaches with direct-numerical-simulation-like accuracy. Comparison with the literature provides strong evidence of the correctness of the approach, including the ability to quantify non-parallel flow effects. These effects are found to be small for the efficiency function over a wide range of frequencies and local Reynolds numbers. In the presence of a two-dimensional wavy-wall, non-parallel flow effects are quite significant, producing both wavenumber detuning and an increase in maximum amplitude. However, a smaller influence is observed when considering an oblique Tollmien-Schlichting wave. This is explained by considering the non-parallel effects on receptivity and on linear growth which may, under certain conditions, cancel each other out. Ultimately, we undertake a Monte Carlo type uncertainty quantification analysis with two-dimensional distributed random roughness. Its power spectral density (PSD) is assumed to follow a power law with an associated uncertainty following a probabilistic Gaussian distribution. The effects of the acoustic frequency over the mean amplitude of the generated two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves are studied. A strong dependence on the mean PSD shape is observed and discussed according to the basic resonance mechanisms leading to receptivity. The growth of Tollmien-Schlichting waves is predicted with non-linear parabolized stability equations computations to assess the effects of stochasticity in transition location.

  8. A computational and experimental investigation of wall loading near the DITE limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddison, G.P.; Allen, J.; Fielding, S.J.; Johnson, P.C.; Matthews, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Recycling from the DITE fixed limiter has been simulated employing a three-dimensional version of the DEGAS Monte Carlo neutral particle transport code. Experimental plasma data are used for input, in conjunction with a reasonable approximation to the DITE geometry. Between basic cases, moments of the neutral distribution function exhibit a scaling with limiter ion flux which becomes increasingly non-linear with order, a prominent instance being the first wall power loading. This reflects principally the influence of charge exchange neutrals sensing the ion temperature profiles. By also modifying the geometry, the neutral distribution is found for the regime investigated to depend primarily on plasma properties in velocity space and confining geometry in configuration space. On DITE, a so-called 'energy sensor array' (ESA) of bolometers detects wall loading adjacent to the limiter directly. Supposing a homogeneous radiation background, the computational model agress with ESA data roughly within a factor of 2. (orig.)

  9. Granular packings with moving side walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, James W.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The effects of movement of the side walls of a confined granular packing are studied by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamical evolution of the stress is studied as a function of wall movement both in the direction of gravity as well as opposite to it. For all wall velocities explored, the stress in the final state of the system after wall movement is fundamentally different from the original state obtained by pouring particles into the container and letting them settle under the influence of gravity. The original packing possesses a hydrostaticlike region at the top of the container which crosses over to a depth-independent stress. As the walls are moved in the direction opposite to gravity, the saturation stress first reaches a minimum value independent of the wall velocity, then increases to a steady-state value dependent on the wall velocity. After wall movement ceases and the packing reaches equilibrium, the stress profile fits the classic Janssen form for high wall velocities, while some deviations remain for low wall velocities. The wall movement greatly increases the number of particle-wall and particle-particle forces at the Coulomb criterion. Varying the wall velocity has only small effects on the particle structure of the final packing so long as the walls travel a similar distance.

  10. The effect of surface roughness on the heat exchange and pressure-drop coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.M.

    1963-02-01

    The effect of various types of roughness on the wall of an axial tube in an annular space of 15-25 mm cooled by an air-flow has been studied in the case of steady turbulence. Roughness of the type 'disrupter of the boundary layer' was set up using triangular threads of 0.2 to 0.4 mm thickness machined in the tube itself, or brass or glass wire wound on a smooth tube. Tests were also carried out using the roughness provided by regularly spaced pyramids 0.4 mm high. The results obtained showed that the heat exchange increased because of the presence of this roughness. A maximum in the heat exchange and pressure-drop coefficients was observed when the pitch equals about eight times the height of the thread. An analytical method has been developed and experiments have been carried out in which the two walls of the annular space were heated in such a way as to transmit unequal heat flows. The region considered is limited to Reynolds's numbers of between 5 X 10 3 and 5 x 10 4 and wall temperatures of under 250 deg C. (author) [fr

  11. Turbulent flow and heat transfer in channels with combined rough and smooth surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aytekin, A.

    1978-01-01

    A two-part experimental investigation is reported on the effects of transverse square rib roughening on fluid flow and heat transfer in channels with uniform and non-uniform boundary conditions. The first part of the experimental programme consisted of providing detailed measurements of mean and basic turbulent characteristics of fully developed flow in two rectangular ducts of aspect ratios 1.63 and 3.0. In each duct only one wall was roughened. In channels having low aspect ratios secondary flows play an important part in momentum transfer, and an interpretation of their effect on the measured Reynolds shear stress distribution has been attempted. In the second part of the experimental programme mean velocity and temperature profiles, friction factors and Stanton numbers were measured in an internally roughened pipe and annuli composed of a rough inner rod and either a smooth or a rough outer pipe. Heating was always applied on the outer surface. In all the geometries the mean velocities near the rough walls were found to be represented by logarithmic straight lines. The gradients of these lines were independent of Reynolds number but differed for various geometries. The mean temperature profiles, measured in the rough pipe and the fully rough annulus, showed that these could also be represented by logarithmic straight lines, but the slopes of these profiles were markedly different from those of the velocity profiles. (author)

  12. Numerical Schemes for Rough Parabolic Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deya, Aurelien, E-mail: deya@iecn.u-nancy.fr [Universite de Nancy 1, Institut Elie Cartan Nancy (France)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of numerical approximation schemes for a class of parabolic equations on (0,1) perturbed by a non-linear rough signal. It is the continuation of Deya (Electron. J. Probab. 16:1489-1518, 2011) and Deya et al. (Probab. Theory Relat. Fields, to appear), where the existence and uniqueness of a solution has been established. The approach combines rough paths methods with standard considerations on discretizing stochastic PDEs. The results apply to a geometric 2-rough path, which covers the case of the multidimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index H>1/3.

  13. Finite-element simulations of the influence of pore wall adsorption on cyclic voltammetry of ion transfer across a liquid-liquid interface formed at a micropore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jonathan S; Strutwolf, Jörg; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2012-02-21

    Adsorption onto the walls of micropores was explored by computational simulations involving cyclic voltammetry of ion transfer across an interface between aqueous and organic phases located at the micropore. Micro-interfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (micro-ITIES) have been of particular research interest in recent years and show promise for biosensor and biomedical applications. The simulation model combines diffusion to and within the micropore, Butler-Volmer kinetics for ion transfer at the liquid-liquid interface, and Langmuir-style adsorption on the pore wall. Effects due to pore radius, adsorption and desorption rates, surface adsorption site density, and scan rates were examined. It was found that the magnitude of the reverse peak current decreased due to adsorption of the transferring ion on the pore wall; this decrease was more marked as the scan rate was increased. There was also a shift in the half-wave potential to lower values following adsorption, consistent with a wall adsorption process which provides a further driving force to transfer ions across the ITIES. Of particular interest was the disappearance of the reverse peak from the cyclic voltammogram at higher scan rates, compared to the increase in the reverse peak size in the absence of wall adsorption. This occurred for scan rates of 50 mV s(-1) and above and may be useful in biosensor applications using micropore-based ITIES.

  14. Characterization of fluid dynamic behaviour and channel wall effects in microtube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, G.P.; Cumo, M.; McPhail, S.; Zummo, G.

    2006-01-01

    Sometimes contradictory results available for fluid flow in micropipes show that much is yet to be verified in microfluid dynamics. In this study the influence of channel wall roughness and of channel wall hydrophobicity on adiabatic flow in circular microchannels is investigated, varying in diameter from 70 μm to 326 μm. The hydrodynamic behaviour of water in smooth tubes down to 30 μm inner diameter (ID) is also ascertained. Within the current experimental accuracy it is found that the classical Hagen-Poiseuille law for friction factor vs. Reynolds number is respected for all diameters measured and Re > 300. With degassed water, no effect of slip flow due to hydrophobic channel walls was noted even at 70 μm ID, which might suggest that the liquid slip flow phenomenon is associated with local desorption of dissolved gases on the hydrophobic surface, as reported elsewhere in the literature. For roughened glass channels, an increase in Darcy friction factor above 64/Re was observed only at the smallest diameter measured, 126 μm. Although the roughness levels of these channels were up to 10 times coarser than the untreated, smooth glass tubes, probably the higher factor was caused by actual deformation of channel circularity, rather than increased friction at the rougher wall, as similar behaviour was observed in a Teflon tube, also of imperfect circularity of cross-section. For all experiments, no anticipated transition to turbulent flow was observed, which means that the transitional Reynolds number was always found between Re ∼ 2000 and Re ∼ 3000. Finally, an introduction to the importance of viscous dissipation in microchannels is added, with quantitative indications of its influence on hydrodynamic properties. It is put forward as being an alternative to pressure measurements in the characterization of the behaviour of microscopic flow

  15. Numerical analysis of the effect of surface roughness on mechanical fields in polycrystalline aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Yoann; Basseville, Stéphanie; Curtit, François; Stéphan, Jean-Michel; Cailletaud, Georges

    2018-06-01

    This paper is dedicated to the study of the influence of surface roughness on local stress and strain fields in polycrystalline aggregates. Finite element computations are performed with a crystal plasticity model on a 316L stainless steel polycrystalline material element with different roughness states on its free surface. The subsequent analysis of the plastic strain localization patterns shows that surface roughness strongly affects the plastic strain localization induced by crystallography. Nevertheless, this effect mainly takes place at the surface and vanishes under the first layer of grains, which implies the existence of a critical perturbed depth. A statistical analysis based on the plastic strain distribution obtained for different roughness levels provides a simple rule to define the size of the affected zone depending on the rough surface parameters.

  16. Global gas balance and influence of atomic hydrogen irradiation on the wall inventory in steady-state operation of QUEST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, A., E-mail: kuzmin@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Zushi, H. [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Takagi, I. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University (Japan); Sharma, S.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Ahmadabad, Gujrat (India); Rusinov, A. [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Inoue, Y. [IGSES, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Hirooka, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Zhou, H. [Graduate School for Advanced Studies, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kobayashi, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Sakamoto, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Hanada, K.; Yoshida, N.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Onchi, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Banerjee, S. [IGSES, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); and others

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen wall pumping is studied in steady state tokamak operation (SSTO) of QUEST with all metal plasma facing materials PFMs at 100 °C. The duration of SSTO is up to 820 s in fully non-inductive plasma. Global gas balance analysis shows that wall pumping at the apparent (retention–release) rate of 1–6 × 10{sup 18} H/s is dominant and 70–80% of injected H{sub 2} can be retained in PFMs. However, immediately after plasma termination the H{sub 2} release rate enhances to ∼10{sup 19} H/s. In order to understand a true retention process the direct measurement of retention flux has been carried out by permeation probes. The comparison between the evaluated wall retention and results from global analysis is discussed.

  17. Global gas balance and influence of atomic hydrogen irradiation on the wall inventory in steady-state operation of QUEST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, A.; Zushi, H.; Takagi, I.; Sharma, S. K.; Rusinov, A.; Inoue, Y.; Hirooka, Y.; Zhou, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Sakamoto, M.; Hanada, K.; Yoshida, N.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Onchi, T.; Banerjee, S.; Mishra, K.

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen wall pumping is studied in steady state tokamak operation (SSTO) of QUEST with all metal plasma facing materials PFMs at 100 °C. The duration of SSTO is up to 820 s in fully non-inductive plasma. Global gas balance analysis shows that wall pumping at the apparent (retention-release) rate of 1-6 × 1018 H/s is dominant and 70-80% of injected H2 can be retained in PFMs. However, immediately after plasma termination the H2 release rate enhances to ∼1019 H/s. In order to understand a true retention process the direct measurement of retention flux has been carried out by permeation probes. The comparison between the evaluated wall retention and results from global analysis is discussed.

  18. Global gas balance and influence of atomic hydrogen irradiation on the wall inventory in steady-state operation of QUEST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmin, A.; Zushi, H.; Takagi, I.; Sharma, S.K.; Rusinov, A.; Inoue, Y.; Hirooka, Y.; Zhou, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Sakamoto, M.; Hanada, K.; Yoshida, N.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Onchi, T.; Banerjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen wall pumping is studied in steady state tokamak operation (SSTO) of QUEST with all metal plasma facing materials PFMs at 100 °C. The duration of SSTO is up to 820 s in fully non-inductive plasma. Global gas balance analysis shows that wall pumping at the apparent (retention–release) rate of 1–6 × 10 18 H/s is dominant and 70–80% of injected H 2 can be retained in PFMs. However, immediately after plasma termination the H 2 release rate enhances to ∼10 19 H/s. In order to understand a true retention process the direct measurement of retention flux has been carried out by permeation probes. The comparison between the evaluated wall retention and results from global analysis is discussed

  19. Influence of wall couple stress in MHD flow of a micropolar fluid in a porous medium with energy and concentration transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Khalid

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention here is to investigate the effects of wall couple stress with energy and concentration transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow of a micropolar fluid embedded in a porous medium. The mathematical model contains the set of linear conservation forms of partial differential equations. Laplace transforms and convolution technique are used for computation of exact solutions of velocity, microrotations, temperature and concentration equations. Numerical values of skin friction, couple wall stress, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are also computed. Characteristics for the significant variables on the physical quantities are graphically discussed. Comparison with previously published work in limiting sense shows an excellent agreement. Keywords: Micropolor fluid, Microrotation, MHD, Porosity, Wall couple stress, Exact solutions

  20. On the impacts of coarse-scale models of realistic roughness on a forward-facing step turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yanhua; Ren, Huiying

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Discrete wavelet transform was used to produce coarse-scale models of roughness. ► PIV were performed in a forward-facing step flow with roughness of different scales. ► Impacts of roughness scales on various turbulence statistics were studied. -- Abstract: The present work explores the impacts of the coarse-scale models of realistic roughness on the turbulent boundary layers over forward-facing steps. The surface topographies of different scale resolutions were obtained from a novel multi-resolution analysis using discrete wavelet transform. PIV measurements are performed in the streamwise–wall-normal (x–y) planes at two different spanwise positions in turbulent boundary layers at Re h = 3450 and δ/h = 8, where h is the mean step height and δ is the incoming boundary layer thickness. It was observed that large-scale but low-amplitude roughness scales had small effects on the forward-facing step turbulent flow. For the higher-resolution model of the roughness, the turbulence characteristics within 2h downstream of the steps are observed to be distinct from those over the original realistic rough step at a measurement position where the roughness profile possesses a positive slope immediately after the step’s front. On the other hand, much smaller differences exist in the flow characteristics at the other measurement position whose roughness profile possesses a negative slope following the step’s front

  1. Influence of wall couple stress in MHD flow of a micropolar fluid in a porous medium with energy and concentration transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Asma; Khan, Ilyas; Khan, Arshad; Shafie, Sharidan

    2018-06-01

    The intention here is to investigate the effects of wall couple stress with energy and concentration transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a micropolar fluid embedded in a porous medium. The mathematical model contains the set of linear conservation forms of partial differential equations. Laplace transforms and convolution technique are used for computation of exact solutions of velocity, microrotations, temperature and concentration equations. Numerical values of skin friction, couple wall stress, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are also computed. Characteristics for the significant variables on the physical quantities are graphically discussed. Comparison with previously published work in limiting sense shows an excellent agreement.

  2. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun; Grigoryan, Vahram L.; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Wang, Xuhui; Xiao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  3. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    When water flows in an open channel, energy is lost through friction along the banks and bed of the channel and through turbulence within the channel. The amount of energy lost is governed by channel roughness, which is expressed in terms of a roughness coefficient. An evaluation of the roughness coefficient is necessary in many hydraulic computations that involve flow in an open channel. Owing to the lack of satisfactory quantitative procedure, the ability of evaluate roughness coefficients can be developed only through experience; however, a basic knowledge of the methods used to assign the coefficients and the factors affecting them will be a great help. One of the most commonly used equations in open-channel hydraulics is that of Manning. The Manning equation is       1.486

  4. Capillary-induced crack healing between surfaces of nanoscale roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylemez, Emrecan; de Boer, Maarten P

    2014-10-07

    Capillary forces are important in nature (granular materials, insect locomotion) and in technology (disk drives, adhesion). Although well studied in equilibrium state, the dynamics of capillary formation merit further investigation. Here, we show that microcantilever crack healing experiments are a viable experimental technique for investigating the influence of capillary nucleation on crack healing between rough surfaces. The average crack healing velocity, v̅, between clean hydrophilic polycrystalline silicon surfaces of nanoscale roughness is measured. A plot of v̅ versus energy release rate, G, reveals log-linear behavior, while the slope |d[log(v̅)]/dG| decreases with increasing relative humidity. A simplified interface model that accounts for the nucleation time of water bridges by an activated process is developed to gain insight into the crack healing trends. This methodology enables us to gain insight into capillary bridge dynamics, with a goal of attaining a predictive capability for this important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) reliability failure mechanism.

  5. Asperity interaction in adhesive contact of metallic rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Prasanta; Banerjee, Atanu

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of adhesive contact of metallic rough surfaces considering the effect of asperity interaction is the subject of this investigation. The micro-contact model of asperity interactions developed by Zhao and Chang (2001 Trans. ASME: J. Tribol. 123 857-64) is combined with the elastic plastic adhesive contact model developed by Chang et al (1988 Trans. ASME: J. Tribol. 110 50-6) to consider the asperity interaction and elastic-plastic deformation in the presence of surface forces simultaneously. The well-established elastic adhesion index and plasticity index are used to consider the different contact conditions. Results show that asperity interaction influences the load-separation behaviour in elastic-plastic adhesive contact of metallic rough surfaces significantly and, in general, adhesion is reduced due to asperity interactions

  6. Surface excitation parameter for rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da, Bo; Salma, Khanam; Ji, Hui; Mao, Shifeng; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaoping; Ding, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Instead of providing a general mathematical model of roughness, we directly use a finite element triangle mesh method to build a fully 3D rough surface from the practical sample. • The surface plasmon excitation can be introduced to the realistic sample surface by dielectric response theory and finite element method. • We found that SEP calculated based on ideal plane surface model are still reliable for real sample surface with common roughness. - Abstract: In order to assess quantitatively the importance of surface excitation effect in surface electron spectroscopy measurement, surface excitation parameter (SEP) has been introduced to describe the surface excitation probability as an average number of surface excitations that electrons can undergo when they move through solid surface either in incoming or outgoing directions. Meanwhile, surface roughness is an inevitable issue in experiments particularly when the sample surface is cleaned with ion beam bombardment. Surface roughness alters not only the electron elastic peak intensity but also the surface excitation intensity. However, almost all of the popular theoretical models for determining SEP are based on ideal plane surface approximation. In order to figure out whether this approximation is efficient or not for SEP calculation and the scope of this assumption, we proposed a new way to determine the SEP for a rough surface by a Monte Carlo simulation of electron scattering process near to a realistic rough surface, which is modeled by a finite element analysis method according to AFM image. The elastic peak intensity is calculated for different electron incident and emission angles. Assuming surface excitations obey the Poisson distribution the SEPs corrected for surface roughness are then obtained by analyzing the elastic peak intensity for several materials and for different incident and emission angles. It is found that the surface roughness only plays an

  7. Small-Scale Surf Zone Geometric Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    using stereo imagery techniques. A waterproof two- camera system with self-logging and internal power was developed using commercial-off-the-shelf...estimates. 14. SUBJECT TERMS surface roughness, nearshore, aerodynamic roughness, surf zone, structure from motion, 3D imagery 15. NUMBER OF... power was developed using commercial-off-the- shelf components and commercial software for operations 1m above the sea surface within the surf zone

  8. How supercontinents and superoceans affect seafloor roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Joanne M; Müller, R Dietmar; Roest, Walter R; Wessel, Paul; Smith, Walter H F

    2008-12-18

    Seafloor roughness varies considerably across the world's ocean basins and is fundamental to controlling the circulation and mixing of heat in the ocean and dissipating eddy kinetic energy. Models derived from analyses of active mid-ocean ridges suggest that ocean floor roughness depends on seafloor spreading rates, with rougher basement forming below a half-spreading rate threshold of 30-35 mm yr(-1) (refs 4, 5), as well as on the local interaction of mid-ocean ridges with mantle plumes or cold-spots. Here we present a global analysis of marine gravity-derived roughness, sediment thickness, seafloor isochrons and palaeo-spreading rates of Cretaceous to Cenozoic ridge flanks. Our analysis reveals that, after eliminating effects related to spreading rate and sediment thickness, residual roughness anomalies of 5-20 mGal remain over large swaths of ocean floor. We found that the roughness as a function of palaeo-spreading directions and isochron orientations indicates that most of the observed excess roughness is not related to spreading obliquity, as this effect is restricted to relatively rare occurrences of very high obliquity angles (>45 degrees ). Cretaceous Atlantic ocean floor, formed over mantle previously overlain by the Pangaea supercontinent, displays anomalously low roughness away from mantle plumes and is independent of spreading rates. We attribute this observation to a sub-Pangaean supercontinental mantle temperature anomaly leading to slightly thicker than normal Late Jurassic and Cretaceous Atlantic crust, reduced brittle fracturing and smoother basement relief. In contrast, ocean crust formed above Pacific superswells, probably reflecting metasomatized lithosphere underlain by mantle at only slightly elevated temperatures, is not associated with basement roughness anomalies. These results highlight a fundamental difference in the nature of large-scale mantle upwellings below supercontinents and superoceans, and their impact on oceanic crustal

  9. Role of surface roughness in superlubricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglino, U; Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J

    2006-01-01

    We study the sliding of elastic solids in adhesive contact with flat and rough interfaces. We consider the dependence of the sliding friction on the elastic modulus of the solids. For elastically hard solids with planar surfaces with incommensurate surface structures we observe extremely low friction (superlubricity), which very abruptly increases as the elastic modulus decreases. We show that even a relatively small surface roughness may completely kill the superlubricity state

  10. Numerical analysis of the bucket surface roughness effects in Pelton turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Y X; Zeng, C J; Zhang, J; Yan, Z G; Wang, Z W

    2013-01-01

    The internal flow of a Pelton turbine is quite complex. It is difficult to analyse the unsteady free water sheet flow in the rotating bucket owing to the lack of a sound theory. Affected by manufacturing technique and silt abrasion during the operation, the bucket surface roughness of Pelton turbine may be too great, and thereby influence unit performance. To investigate the effect of bucket roughness on Pelton turbine performance, this paper presents the numerical simulation of the interaction between the jet and the bucket in a Pelton turbine. The unsteady three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed with CFX code by using the SST turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. Different magnitude orders of bucket surface roughness were analysed and compared. Unsteady numerical results of the free water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface, torque and unit performance for each bucket surface roughness were generated. The total pressure distribution on bucket surface is used to show the free water sheet flow pattern on bucket surface. By comparing the variation of water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface with different roughness, this paper qualitatively analyses how the bucket surface roughness magnitude influences the impeding effect on free water sheet flow. Comparison of the torque variation of different bucket surface roughness highlighted the effect of the bucket surface roughness on the Pelton turbine output capacity. To further investigate the effect of bucket surface roughness on Pelton turbine performance, the relation between the relative efficiency loss rate and bucket surface roughness magnitude is quantitatively analysed. The result can be used to predict and evaluate the Pelton turbine performance

  11. Numerical analysis of the bucket surface roughness effects in Pelton turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y. X.; Zeng, C. J.; Zhang, J.; Yan, Z. G.; Wang, Z. W.

    2013-12-01

    The internal flow of a Pelton turbine is quite complex. It is difficult to analyse the unsteady free water sheet flow in the rotating bucket owing to the lack of a sound theory. Affected by manufacturing technique and silt abrasion during the operation, the bucket surface roughness of Pelton turbine may be too great, and thereby influence unit performance. To investigate the effect of bucket roughness on Pelton turbine performance, this paper presents the numerical simulation of the interaction between the jet and the bucket in a Pelton turbine. The unsteady three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed with CFX code by using the SST turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. Different magnitude orders of bucket surface roughness were analysed and compared. Unsteady numerical results of the free water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface, torque and unit performance for each bucket surface roughness were generated. The total pressure distribution on bucket surface is used to show the free water sheet flow pattern on bucket surface. By comparing the variation of water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface with different roughness, this paper qualitatively analyses how the bucket surface roughness magnitude influences the impeding effect on free water sheet flow. Comparison of the torque variation of different bucket surface roughness highlighted the effect of the bucket surface roughness on the Pelton turbine output capacity. To further investigate the effect of bucket surface roughness on Pelton turbine performance, the relation between the relative efficiency loss rate and bucket surface roughness magnitude is quantitatively analysed. The result can be used to predict and evaluate the Pelton turbine performance.

  12. Surface roughness retrieval by inversion of the Hapke model: A multiscale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarre, S.; Ferrari, C.; Jacquemoud, S.

    2017-07-01

    Surface roughness is a key property of soils that controls many surface processes and influences the scattering of incident electromagnetic waves at a wide range of scales. Hapke (2012b) designed a photometric model providing an approximate analytical solution of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of a particulate medium: he introduced the effect of surface roughness as a correction factor of the BRDF of a smooth surface. This photometric roughness is defined as the mean slope angle of the facets composing the surface, integrated over all scales from the grain size to the local topography. Yet its physical meaning is still a question at issue, as the scale at which it occurs is not clearly defined. This work aims at better understanding the relative influence of roughness scales on soil BRDF and to test the ability of the Hapke model to retrieve a roughness that depicts effectively the ground truth. We apply a wavelet transform on millimeter digital terrain models (DTM) acquired over volcanic terrains. This method allows splitting the frequency band of a signal in several sub-bands, each corresponding to a spatial scale. We demonstrate that sub-centimeter surface features dominate both the integrated roughness and the BRDF shape. We investigate the suitability of the Hapke model for surface roughness retrieval by inversion on optical data. A global sensitivity analysis of the model shows that soil BRDF is very sensitive to surface roughness, nearly as much as the single scattering albedo according to the phase angle, but also that these two parameters are strongly correlated. Based on these results, a simplified two-parameter model depending on surface albedo and roughness is proposed. Inversion of this model on BRDF data simulated by a ray-tracing code over natural targets shows a good estimation of surface roughness when the assumptions of the model are verified, with a priori knowledge on surface albedo.

  13. Capillary condensation and quantum vacuum effects on the pull-in voltage of electrostatic switches with self-affine rough plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, George

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we study the influence of capillary forces in combination with electrostatic and quantum vacuum generated forces on the pull-in voltage of microswitches having self-affine rough surfaces. This type of roughness is described by the rms roughness amplitude w, the in-plane correlation

  14. Implementation of a roughness element to trip transition in large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, J.; Monier, J.-F.; Gao, F.

    2015-02-01

    In aerodynamics, the laminar or turbulent regime of a boundary layer has a strong influence on friction or heat transfer. In practical applications, it is sometimes necessary to trip the transition to turbulent, and a common way is by use of a roughness element ( e.g. a step) on the wall. The present paper is concerned with the numerical implementation of such a trip in large-eddy simulations. The study is carried out on a flat-plate boundary layer configuration, with Reynolds number Rex=1.3×106. First, this work brings the opportunity to introduce a practical methodology to assess convergence in large-eddy simulations. Second, concerning the trip implementation, a volume source term is proposed and is shown to yield a smoother and faster transition than a grid step. Moreover, it is easier to implement and more adaptable. Finally, two subgrid-scale models are tested: the WALE model of Nicoud and Ducros ( Flow Turbul. Combust., vol. 62, 1999) and the shear-improved Smagorinsky model of Lévêque et al. ( J. Fluid Mech., vol. 570, 2007). Both models allow transition, but the former appears to yield a faster transition and a better prediction of friction in the turbulent regime.

  15. KETERASINGAN DALAM FILM WALL-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadya Putra Nugraha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern society nowadays technological advances at first create efficiency in human life. Further development of the technology thus drown human in a routine and automation of work created. The State is to be one of the causes of man separated from fellow or the outside world and eventually experiencing alienation. The movie as a mass media function to obtain the movie and entertainment can be informative or educative function is contained, even persuasive. The purpose of this research was conducted to find out the alienation in the movie Wall E. The concepts used to analyze the movie Wall E this is communication, movie, and alienation. The concept of alienation of human alienation from covering its own products of human alienation from its activities, the human alienation from nature of his humanity and human alienation from each other. Paradigm used is a critical paradigm with type a descriptive research with qualitative approach. The method used is the analysis of semiotics Roland Barthes to interpretation the scope of social alienation and fellow humans in the movie.This writing research results found that alienation of humans with other humans influenced the development of the technology and how the human it self represented of technology, not from our fellow human beings. Masyarakat modern saat ini kemajuan teknologi pada awalnya membuat efisiensi dalam kehidupan manusia. Perkembangan selanjutnya teknologi justru menenggelamkan manusia dalam suatu rutinitas dan otomatisasi kerja yang diciptakan. Keadaan itulah yang menjadi salah satu penyebab manusia terpisah dari sesama atau dunia luar dan akhirnya mengalami keterasingan. Film sebagai media massa berfungsi untuk memperoleh hiburan dan dalam film dapat terkandung fungsi informatif maupun edukatif, bahkan persuasif. Tujuan Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui Keterasingan dalam film Wall E. Konsep-konsep yang digunakan untuk menganalisis film Wall E ini adalah komunikasi, film, dan

  16. Lévy-noise-induced transport in a rough triple-well potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongge; Xu, Yong; Kurths, Jürgen; Yue, Xiaole

    2016-10-01

    Rough energy landscape and noisy environment are two common features in many subjects, such as protein folding. Due to the wide findings of bursting or spiking phenomenon in biology science, small diffusions mixing large jumps are adopted to model the noisy environment that can be properly described by Lévy noise. We combine the Lévy noise with the rough energy landscape, modeled by a potential function superimposed by a fast oscillating function, and study the transport of a particle in a rough triple-well potential excited by Lévy noise, rather than only small perturbations. The probabilities of a particle staying in the middle well are considered under different amplitudes of roughness to find out how roughness affects the steady-state probability density function. Variations in the mean first passage time from the middle well to the right well have been investigated with respect to Lévy parameters and amplitudes of the roughness. In addition, we have examined the influences of roughness on the splitting probabilities of the first escape from the middle well. We uncover that the roughness can enhance significantly the first escape of a particle from the middle well, especially for different skewness parameters, but weak differences are found for stability index and noise intensity on the probabilities a particle staying in the middle well and splitting probability to the right.

  17. Electromagnetic Scattering from Rough Sea Surface with PM Spectrum Covered by an Organic Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rui; Guo Li-Xin; Wang An-Qi; Wu Zhen-Sen

    2011-01-01

    The rough sea surface covered by an organic film will cause attenuation of capillarity waves, which implies that the organic films play an important role in rough sea surface processes. We focus on a one-dimensional (1D) rough sea surface with the Pierson—Moskowitz (PM) spectrum distributed to the homogeneous insoluble organic slicks. First, the impact of the organic film on the PM surface spectrum is presented, as well as that of the correlation length, the rms height and slope of the rough sea surface. The damping effect of the organic film changes the physical parameters of the rough sea surface. For example, the organic film will reduce the rms height and slopee of the rough sea surface, which results in the attenuation of the high-frequency components of the PM spectrum leading to modification of the surface PM spectrum. Then, the influence of the organic film on the electromagnetic (EM) scattering coefficients from PM rough sea surface covered by the organic film is investigated and discussed in detail, compared with the clean PM rough sea surface through the method of moments. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  18. Influence of in-plane field on vertical Bloch line in the walls of the second kind of dumbbell domains at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.P.; Liu, S.P.; Guo, G.X.; Zhen, C.M.; Tang, G.D.; Sun, H.Y.; Nie, X.F.

    2004-01-01

    The stability of vertical Bloch lines (VBLs) in the second kind of dumbbell domain (IIDs) walls in liquid phase epitaxy garnet bubble films subjected to an in-plane field at various temperatures is studied experimentally. It is found that there exists a critical in-plane field range depending on temperature, in which vertical Bloch lines (VBLs) in the second kind of IIDs walls are unstable, i.e., [Hip(1)(T),Hip(2)(T)]. Here, Hip(1)(T) is the initial critical in-plane field at which VBLs in the walls of IIDs annihilate; while Hip(2)(T) is the lowest in-plane field at which all VBLs in the walls of IIDs have annihilated completely. Also, the critical in-plane field range [Hip(1)(T),Hip(2)(T)],Hip(1)(T) and Hip(2)(T) all decrease with the temperature increasing. Hip(1)(T) and Hip(2)(T) reach zero at T0' and T0, respectively

  19. Influence of Wall-Current-Compensation and Secondary-Electron-Emission on the Plasma Parameters and on the Performance of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Stiebing, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Axial and radial diffusion processes determine the confinement time in an ECRIS. It has been demonstrated that a biased disk redirects the ion- and electron currents in the source in such a way that the source performance is improved. This effect is due to a partial cancellation of the compensating currents in the conductive walls of the plasma chamber.In this contribution we present an experiment, where these currents were effectively suppressed by using a metal-dielectric (MD) disk instead of the standard metallic disk in the Frankfurt 14-GHz-ECRIS. Lower values of the plasma potential and higher average charge states in the presence of the MD disk as compared to the case of the standard disk indicate that, due to the insulating properties of its dielectric layer the MD disk obviously blocks compensating wall currents better than applying bias to the metallic standard disk.A comparison with results from experiments with a MD liner in the source, covering essentially the complete radial walls of the plasma chamber, clearly demonstrates that the beneficial effect of the liner on the performance of the ECRIS is much stronger than that observed with the MD-disk. In accord with our earlier interpretation, it has to be concluded that the 'liner-effect' is not just the effect of blocking the compensating wall currents but rather has to be ascribed to the unique property of the thin MD liner as a strong secondary electron emitter under bombardment by charged particles

  20. Numerical modelling of flow and transport in rough fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Briggs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of flow and transport through rough walled rock fractures is investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and random walk (RW, respectively. The numerical implementation is developed and validated on general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPUs. Both the LBM and RW method are well suited to parallel implementation on GPGPUs because they require only next-neighbour communication and thus can reduce expenses. The LBM model is an order of magnitude faster on GPGPUs than published results for LBM simulations run on modern CPUs. The fluid model is verified for parallel plate flow, backward facing step and single fracture flow; and the RW model is verified for point-source diffusion, Taylor-Aris dispersion and breakthrough behaviour in a single fracture. Both algorithms place limitations on the discrete displacement of fluid or particle transport per time step to minimise the numerical error that must be considered during implementation.