Sample records for rough micron patterned

  1. Lacunarity study of speckle patterns produced by rough surfaces (United States)

    Dias, M. R. B.; Dornelas, D.; Balthazar, W. F.; Huguenin, J. A. O.; da Silva, L.


    In this work we report on the study of Lacunarity of digital speckle patterns generated by rough surfaces. The study of Lacunarity of speckle patterns was performed on both static and moving rough surfaces. The results show that the Lacunarity is sensitive to the surface roughness, which suggests that it can be used to perform indirect measurement of surface roughness as well as to monitor defects, or variations of roughness, of metallic moving surfaces. Our results show the robustness of this statistical tool applied to speckle pattern in order to study surface roughness.

  2. Beam diameter thresholds as applying light depolarization for effective submicron and micron root mean square roughness evaluation. (United States)

    Liu, Linsheng; Nonaka, Kazuhiro


    To further study the microscopic mechanism and beam diameter effect during light depolarization (LDP), we developed a compact laser instrument (λ=632.8  nm) with an adjustable beam diameter of ≥18  μm (approximately 28λ). Six nickel plate samples with rms roughness, Rq, of 42 nm to 2.3 μm (i.e., 0.067-3.7λ) fabricated by the fine-honing method are examined. To analyze the beam diameter effect as applying LDP for submicron and micron Rq evaluation, the cross-sectional beam-spot size (BSS) is adjusted from 20 μm to 650 μm during off-specular inspections. The results of BSS ≤40  μm (i.e., 60λ) have a 10-nm-level Rq sensitivity, while those of BSS ≥140  μm (220λ) have about a 100 times weaker sensitivity. It means that BSS of 60λ and 220λ should have instructional significance as applying LDP for precision levels of 10 nm and 1 μm surface roughness analyses, respectively. In addition, since the instrument is simple, portable, stable, and low-cost, it has great potential for both LDP analyses and practical online roughness testing.

  3. Heatshield Ablation Pattern Roughness Onset and Effects Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a practical method for predicting pattern roughness onset and quantitative effects on heat and mass transfer rates for heatshield materials...

  4. The influence of surface treatment on the implant roughness pattern (United States)

    ROSA, Marcio Borges; ALBREKTSSON, Tomas; FRANCISCHONE, Carlos Eduardo; SCHWARTZ FILHO, Humberto Osvaldo; WENNERBERG, Ann


    An important parameter for the clinical success of dental implants is the formation of direct contact between the implant and surrounding bone, whose quality is directly influenced by the implant surface roughness. A screw-shaped design and a surface with an average roughness of Sa of 1-2 µm showed a better result. The combination of blasting and etching has been a commonly used surface treatment technique. The versatility of this type of treatment allows for a wide variation in the procedures in order to obtain the desired roughness. Objectives To compare the roughness values and morphological characteristics of 04 brands of implants, using the same type of surface treatment. In addition, to compare the results among brands, in order to assess whether the type of treatment determines the values and the characteristics of implant surface roughness. Material and methods Three implants were purchased directly from each selected company in the market, i.e., 03 Brazilian companies (Biomet 3i of Brazil, Neodent and Titaniumfix) and 01 Korean company (Oneplant). The quantitative or numerical characterization of the roughness was performed using an interferometer. The qualitative analysis of the surface topography obtained with the treatment was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy images. Results The evaluated implants showed a significant variation in roughness values: Sa for Oneplant was 1.01 µm; Titaniumfix reached 0.90 µm; implants from Neodent 0.67 µm, and Biomet 3i of Brazil 0.53 µm. Moreover, the SEM images showed very different patterns for the surfaces examined. Conclusions The surface treatment alone is not able to determine the roughness values and characteristics. PMID:23138742

  5. Effect of nanoscale patterned interfacial roughness on interfacial toughness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mook, William M. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Zhou, Xiao Wang; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.


    The performance and the reliability of many devices are controlled by interfaces between thin films. In this study we investigated the use of patterned, nanoscale interfacial roughness as a way to increase the apparent interfacial toughness of brittle, thin-film material systems. The experimental portion of the study measured the interfacial toughness of a number of interfaces with nanoscale roughness. This included a silicon interface with a rectangular-toothed pattern of 60-nm wide by 90-nm deep channels fabricated using nanoimprint lithography techniques. Detailed finite element simulations were used to investigate the nature of interfacial crack growth when the interface is patterned. These simulations examined how geometric and material parameter choices affect the apparent toughness. Atomistic simulations were also performed with the aim of identifying possible modifications to the interfacial separation models currently used in nanoscale, finite element fracture analyses. The fundamental nature of atomistic traction separation for mixed mode loadings was investigated.

  6. Osteoblast viability on hydroxyapatite with well-adjusted submicron and micron surface roughness as monitored by the proliferation reagent WST-1. (United States)

    Holthaus, Marzellus Große; Treccani, Laura; Rezwan, Kurosch


    The impact of the cell surface roughness on titanium alloys used for biomedical implants has been extensively studied, whereas the dependency of human osteoblast viability on hydroxyapatite (HA) submicron and micron surface roughness has hitherto not yet been investigated in detail. Therefore, we investigate in this study the effect of HA substrates with different well-adjusted surface roughness on human osteoblast proliferation using the standard colorimetric reagent WST-1. By grinding, we obtained HA surfaces with six levels of well-defined surface roughness ranging from Sa = 3.36 µm down to 0.13 µm, resulting in hydrophilic contact angles from 11° to 27°. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence measurements confirmed that neither grinding paper residues nor changes of the crystal structure were introduced to the HA substrates by the grinding process. By applying this simple surface treatment, we were able to isolate other effects from surface chemistry, crystal structure, and relative density. The changes of the osteoblast proliferation (WST-1 assay) on these different roughened HA surfaces after 7 days were found to be insignificant (p > 0.05), evaluated by one-way analysis of variance and Tuckey's Multiple Comparison Method. The results of this study show that all roughened HA surfaces, regardless of the microtopography, are biocompatible and allow osteoblast attachment, proliferation, and collagen type I production. The comparison with surface roughness used for standard Ti-based implants yielded that for HA no finishing process is necessary to ensure a sound human osteoblast cell proliferation in vitro.

  7. Extreme ultraviolet mask substrate surface roughness effects on lithography patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Salmassi, Farhad; Mochi, Iacopo; Gullikson, Eric; Goldberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Erik


    In extreme ultraviolet lithography exposure systems, mask substrate roughness induced scatter contributes to LER at the image plane. In this paper, the impact of mask substrate roughness on image plane speckle is explicitly evaluated. A programmed roughness mask was used to study the correlation between mask roughness metrics and wafer plane aerial image inspection. We find that the roughness measurements by top surface topography profile do not provide complete information on the scatter related speckle that leads to LER at the image plane. We suggest at wavelength characterization by imaging and/or scatter measurements into different frequencies as an alternative for a more comprehensive metrology of the mask substrate/multilayer roughness effects.

  8. Experimental methodology of contact edge roughness on sub-100-nm pattern (United States)

    Lee, Tae Yong; Ihm, Dongchul; Kang, Hyo Chun; Lee, Jun Bum; Lee, Byoung-Ho; Chin, Soo-Bok; Cho, Do-Hyun; Kim, Yang Hyong; Yang, Ho Dong; Yang, Kyoung Mo


    The measurement of edge roughness has become a hot issue in the semiconductor industry. Major vendors offer a variety of features to measure the edge roughness in their CD-SEMs. However, most of the features are limited by the applicable pattern types. For the line and space patterns, features such as Line Edge Roughness (LER) and Line Width Roughness (LWR) are available in current CD-SEMs. The edge roughness is more critical in contact process. However the measurement of contact edge roughness (CER) or contact space roughness (CSR) is more complicated than that of LER or LWR. So far, no formal standard measurement algorithm or definition of contact roughness measurement exists. In this article, currently available features are investigated to assess their representability for CER or CSR. Some new ideas to quantify CER and CSR were also suggested with preliminary experimental results.

  9. Characterization and analysis of micro channels and sub-micron surface roughness of injection moulded microfluidic systems using optical metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    Precision injection moulding of miniaturized products with micro features such as channels for microfluidic applications poses the greatest challenges in terms of tooling technology and process optimization. The injection moulding process window of polypropylene was validated using a metrological...... approach for the production of a microfluidic substrate. Dimensional accuracy of micro channels 48 µm wide and 110 µm deep, as well as quality surface topography replication (surface roughness from 30 nm to 360 nm) were investigated using non-contact measuring instruments such as an optical coordinate...... measuring machine and a white light interferometer respectively. The effect of the dimensional scale range on the micro/nano features replication was evaluated and it was found to be the dominant parameter if compared with the effect of the other process-related parameters investigated (melt and mould...

  10. Characterization and analysis of micro channels and sub-micron surface roughness of injection moulded microfluidic systems using optical metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    Precision injection moulding of miniaturized products with micro features such as channels for microfluidic applications poses the greatest challenges in terms of tooling technology and process optimization. The injection moulding process window of polypropylene was validated using a metrological...... approach for the production of a microfluidic substrate. Dimensional accuracy of micro channels 48 µm wide and 110 µm deep, as well as quality surface topography replication (surface roughness from 30 nm to 360 nm) were investigated using non-contact measuring instruments such as an optical coordinate...... measuring machine and a white light interferometer respectively. The effect of the dimensional scale range on the micro/nano features replication was evaluated and it was found to be the dominant parameter if compared with the effect of the other process-related parameters investigated (melt and mould...

  11. Acoustic Emission Patterns and the Transition to Ductility in Sub-Micron Scale Laboratory Earthquakes (United States)

    Ghaffari, H.; Xia, K.; Young, R.


    We report observation of a transition from the brittle to ductile regime in precursor events from different rock materials (Granite, Sandstone, Basalt, and Gypsum) and Polymers (PMMA, PTFE and CR-39). Acoustic emission patterns associated with sub-micron scale laboratory earthquakes are mapped into network parameter spaces (functional damage networks). The sub-classes hold nearly constant timescales, indicating dependency of the sub-phases on the mechanism governing the previous evolutionary phase, i.e., deformation and failure of asperities. Based on our findings, we propose that the signature of the non-linear elastic zone around a crack tip is mapped into the details of the evolutionary phases, supporting the formation of a strongly weak zone in the vicinity of crack tips. Moreover, we recognize sub-micron to micron ruptures with signatures of 'stiffening' in the deformation phase of acoustic-waveforms. We propose that the latter rupture fronts carry critical rupture extensions, including possible dislocations faster than the shear wave speed. Using 'template super-shear waveforms' and their network characteristics, we show that the acoustic emission signals are possible super-shear or intersonic events. Ref. [1] Ghaffari, H. O., and R. P. Young. "Acoustic-Friction Networks and the Evolution of Precursor Rupture Fronts in Laboratory Earthquakes." Nature Scientific reports 3 (2013). [2] Xia, Kaiwen, Ares J. Rosakis, and Hiroo Kanamori. "Laboratory earthquakes: The sub-Rayleigh-to-supershear rupture transition." Science 303.5665 (2004): 1859-1861. [3] Mello, M., et al. "Identifying the unique ground motion signatures of supershear earthquakes: Theory and experiments." Tectonophysics 493.3 (2010): 297-326. [4] Gumbsch, Peter, and Huajian Gao. "Dislocations faster than the speed of sound." Science 283.5404 (1999): 965-968. [5] Livne, Ariel, et al. "The near-tip fields of fast cracks." Science 327.5971 (2010): 1359-1363. [6] Rycroft, Chris H., and Eran Bouchbinder

  12. Line edge roughness measurement technique for fingerprint pattern in block copolymer thin film (United States)

    Isawa, Miki; Sakai, Kei; Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Gronheid, Roel; Yoshida, Hiroshi


    Fingerprint edge roughness (FER) is proposed to characterize high frequency roughness of fingerprint pattern edges assembled by lamella forming block copolymer (BCP). The FER is a roughness index which does not include the roughness component of the fingerprint curvature. A technique to evaluate FER by using CD-SEM is also proposed. Centerline of the fingerprint patterns were extracted by utilizing binarization and slimming algorithm, and line width, line width roughness and line edge roughness along the centerline were measured. The FER thus measured showed a good agreement with those determined by utilizing conventional line edge roughness analyzing algorithm. The FERs of fingerprint patterns assembled with various BCP formulations were analyzed. As a result, the proposed technique successfully detected the line edge roughness difference between each BCP formulations with different compositions. The results indicate that the FER might be a useful index to evaluate the patterning performance of BCP as a material for DSA process. The proposed technique will provide a method for fast and easy development of BCP materials and processes

  13. Scalable Sub-micron Patterning of Organic Materials Toward High Density Soft Electronics. (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Myung-Gil; Kim, Jaehyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong-Wan; Lee, Woobin; Hwang, Chahwan; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Noh, Yong-Young; Jaung, Jae Yun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu


    The success of silicon based high density integrated circuits ignited explosive expansion of microelectronics. Although the inorganic semiconductors have shown superior carrier mobilities for conventional high speed switching devices, the emergence of unconventional applications, such as flexible electronics, highly sensitive photosensors, large area sensor array, and tailored optoelectronics, brought intensive research on next generation electronic materials. The rationally designed multifunctional soft electronic materials, organic and carbon-based semiconductors, are demonstrated with low-cost solution process, exceptional mechanical stability, and on-demand optoelectronic properties. Unfortunately, the industrial implementation of the soft electronic materials has been hindered due to lack of scalable fine-patterning methods. In this report, we demonstrated facile general route for high throughput sub-micron patterning of soft materials, using spatially selective deep-ultraviolet irradiation. For organic and carbon-based materials, the highly energetic photons (e.g. deep-ultraviolet rays) enable direct photo-conversion from conducting/semiconducting to insulating state through molecular dissociation and disordering with spatial resolution down to a sub-μm-scale. The successful demonstration of organic semiconductor circuitry promise our result proliferate industrial adoption of soft materials for next generation electronics.

  14. GaAs/Ge crystals grown on Si substrates patterned down to the micron scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taboada, A. G., E-mail:; Kreiliger, T.; Falub, C. V.; Känel, H. von [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zürich, Otto-Stern-Weg. 1, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Meduňa, M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-61137 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC, Masaryk University Kamenice 5, CZ-60177 Brno (Czech Republic); Salvalaglio, M.; Miglio, L. [L-NESS, Department of Materials Science, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Via R. Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Isa, F. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zürich, Otto-Stern-Weg. 1, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); L-NESS and Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Barthazy Meier, E.; Müller, E. [Scientific Center for Optical and Electron Microscopy (ScopeM), ETH Zürich, Auguste-Piccard-Hof 1, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Isella, G. [L-NESS and Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy)


    Monolithic integration of III-V compounds into high density Si integrated circuits is a key technological challenge for the next generation of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we report on the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of strain-free GaAs crystals on Si substrates patterned down to the micron scale. The differences in thermal expansion coefficient and lattice parameter are adapted by a 2-μm-thick intermediate Ge layer grown by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The GaAs crystals evolve during growth towards a pyramidal shape, with lateral facets composed of (111) planes and an apex formed by (137) and (001) surfaces. The influence of the anisotropic GaAs growth kinetics on the final morphology is highlighted by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The effect of the Si pattern geometry, substrate orientation, and crystal aspect ratio on the GaAs structural properties was investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction. The thermal strain relaxation process of GaAs crystals with different aspect ratio is discussed within the framework of linear elasticity theory by Finite Element Method simulations based on realistic geometries extracted from cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images.

  15. Rough-fuzzy pattern recognition applications in bioinformatics and medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Maji, Pradipta


    Learn how to apply rough-fuzzy computing techniques to solve problems in bioinformatics and medical image processing Emphasizing applications in bioinformatics and medical image processing, this text offers a clear framework that enables readers to take advantage of the latest rough-fuzzy computing techniques to build working pattern recognition models. The authors explain step by step how to integrate rough sets with fuzzy sets in order to best manage the uncertainties in mining large data sets. Chapters are logically organized according to the major phases of pattern recognition systems dev

  16. The Effective Surface Roughness Scaling of the Gelation Surface Pattern Formation (United States)

    Mizoue, T.; Tokita, M.; Honjo, H.; Barraza, H. J.; Katsuragi, H.

    The surface pattern formation on a gelation surface is analyzed using an effective surface roughness. The spontaneous surface deformation on DiMethylAcrylAmide (DMAA) gelation surface is controlled by temperature, initiator concentration, and ambient oxygen. The effective surface roughness is defined using 2-dimensional photo data to characterize the surface deformation. Parameter dependence of the effective surface roughness is systematically investigated. We find that decrease of ambient oxygen, increase of initiator concentration, and high temperature tend to suppress the surface deformation in almost similar manner. That trend allows us to collapse all the data to a unified master curve. As a result, we finally obtain an empirical scaling form of the effective surface roughness. This scaling is useful to control the degree of surface patterning. However, the actual dynamics of this pattern formation is not still uncovered.

  17. Advanced CD-SEM metrology for pattern roughness and local placement of lamellar DSA (United States)

    Kato, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Shinji; Tsutsumi, Tomohiko; Kim, JiHoon; Cao, Yi; Lin, Guanyang


    Directed self-assembly (DSA) applying chemical epitaxy is one of the promising lithographic solutions for next generation semiconductor device manufacturing. We introduced Fingerprint Edge Roughness (FER) as an index to evaluate edge roughness of non-guided lamella finger print pattern, and found its correlation with the Line Edge Roughness (LER) of the lines assembled on the chemical guiding patterns. In this work, we have evaluated both FER and LER at each process steps of the LiNe DSA flow utilizing PS-b-PMMA block copolymers (BCP) assembled on chemical template wafers fabricated with Focus Exposure Matrix (FEM). As a result, we found the followings. (1) Line widths and space distances of the DSA patterns slightly differ to each other depending on their relative position against the chemical guide patterns. Appropriate condition that all lines are in the same dimensions exists, but the condition is not always same for the spaces. (2) LER and LWR (Line Width Roughness) of DSA patterns neither depend on width nor LER of the guide patterns. (3) LWR of DSA patterns are proportional to the width roughness of fingerprint pattern. (4) FER is influenced not only by the BCP formulation, but also by its film thickness. We introduced new methods to optimize the BCP formulation and process conditions by using FER measurement and local CD valuation measurement. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 2 April 2014, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 14 May 2014. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.


    Lung volume and breathing pattern are the source of inter-and intra-subject variability of lung deposition of inhaled particles. Controlling these factors may help optimize delivery of aerosol medicine to the target site within the lung. In the present study we measured total lu...

  19. Optimization of low-diffusion EUV resist for linewidth roughness and pattern collapse on various substrates (United States)

    Thackeray, James W.; Cameron, James F.; Wagner, Michael; Coley, Suzanne; Ongayi, Owendi; Montgomery, Warren; Lovell, Dave; Biafore, John; Chakrapani, Vidhya; Ko, Akiteru


    This paper will report on our development of low diffusion EUV resists based on polymer-bound PAG technology. With our low diffusion resist, a wide process window for 30-nm hp of 280nm DOF over a 10% exposure range is achieved on a prototype ADT fullfield scanner. Linewidth roughness of 3.1nm is also achieved. Excellent resist profiles can be achieved on organic ULs or Si hardmask materials. This resist also shows only 1.1 nm carbon growth on witness plate mirrors for cleanables, and no reflectivity loss after mirror cleaning. These results clearly pass for use on all NXE exposure tools. We also have shown good pattern transfer for a Si HM stack using this resist. Finally, we report 17-nm hp resolution at a dose of 14.5mj for a higher absorption resist.

  20. Tyre/road interaction noise—Numerical noise prediction of a patterned tyre on a rough road surface (United States)

    O'Boy, D. J.; Dowling, A. P.


    The noise which results from the interaction of pneumatic tyres with a rough road surface is a significant contributor to an increasing local environmental problem. Above a steady forward vehicle speed of 40 km/h this is the dominant noise source of a modern car in good working condition, and is a significant contributor to the overall radiated noise during acceleration. In order to determine the noise produced by a patterned tyre rolling on a rough road surface, the vibration characteristics of the tyre must be known. A method has been presented by O'Boy and Dowling [Tyre/road interaction noise: a 3d viscoelastic multilayer model of a tyre belt, Journal of Sound and Vibration, volume 322, issues 4-5, 22 May 2009, pages 829-850] which provides these vibration characteristics for a tyre belt composed of multiple viscoelastic layers, each layer having a different thickness and material properties. In this paper, we use this model of the tyre belt to determine the parameters of an equivalent simple bending plate model which can be adapted to yield the response of a tyre which includes sidewalls. A method is then described which uses this response to determine the acceleration of the tyre surface as it rolls over a rough road. These accelerations are then used to predict the far-field radiated noise for a patterned tyre on two rough road surfaces. Comparisons with experimental data are provided at each stage.

  1. Roughness and uniformity improvements on self-aligned quadruple patterning technique for 10nm node and beyond by wafer stress engineering (United States)

    Liu, Eric; Ko, Akiteru; O'Meara, David; Mohanty, Nihar; Franke, Elliott; Pillai, Karthik; Biolsi, Peter


    Dimension shrinkage has been a major driving force in the development of integrated circuit processing over a number of decades. The Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning (SAQP) technique is widely adapted for sub-10nm node in order to achieve the desired feature dimensions. This technique provides theoretical feasibility of multiple pitch-halving from 193nm immersion lithography by using various pattern transferring steps. The major concept of this approach is to a create spacer defined self-aligned pattern by using single lithography print. By repeating the process steps, double, quadruple, or octuple are possible to be achieved theoretically. In these small architectures, line roughness control becomes extremely important since it may contribute to a significant portion of process and device performance variations. In addition, the complexity of SAQP in terms of processing flow makes the roughness improvement indirective and ineffective. It is necessary to discover a new approach in order to improve the roughness in the current SAQP technique. In this presentation, we demonstrate a novel method to improve line roughness performances on 30nm pitch SAQP flow. We discover that the line roughness performance is strongly related to stress management. By selecting different stress level of film to be deposited onto the substrate, we can manipulate the roughness performance in line and space patterns. In addition, the impact of curvature change by applied film stress to SAQP line roughness performance is also studied. No significant correlation is found between wafer curvature and line roughness performance. We will discuss in details the step-by-step physical performances for each processing step in terms of critical dimension (CD)/ critical dimension uniformity (CDU)/line width roughness (LWR)/line edge roughness (LER). Finally, we summarize the process needed to reach the full wafer performance targets of LWR/LER in 1.07nm/1.13nm on 30nm pitch line and space pattern.

  2. Initial conditions or emergence: What determines dissolution patterns in rough fractures? (United States)

    Upadhyay, Virat K.; Szymczak, Piotr; Ladd, Anthony J. C.


    Dissolution of fractured rocks is often accompanied by the formation of highly localized flow paths. While the fluid flow follows existing fractures in the rock, these fissures do not, in general, open uniformly. Simulations and laboratory experiments have shown that distinct channels or "wormholes" develop within the fracture, from which a single highly localized flow path eventually emerges. The aim of the present work is to investigate how these emerging flow paths are influenced by the initial aperture field. We have simulated the dissolution of a single fracture starting from a spatially correlated aperture distribution. Our results indicate a surprising insensitivity of the evolving dissolution patterns and flow rates to the amplitude and correlation length characterizing the imposed aperture field. We connect the similarity in outcomes to the self-organization of the flow into a small number of wormholes, with the spacing determined by the length of the longest wormholes. We have also investigated the effect of a localized region of increased aperture on the developing dissolution patterns. A competition was observed between the tendency of the high-permeability region to develop the dominant wormhole and the tendency of wormholes to spontaneously nucleate throughout the rest of the fracture. We consider the consequences of these results for the modeling of dissolution in fractured and porous rocks.

  3. Heavy metal incorporated helium ion active hybrid non-chemically amplified resists: Nano-patterning with low line edge roughness (United States)

    Reddy, Pulikanti Guruprasad; Thakur, Neha; Lee, Chien-Lin; Chien, Sheng-Wei; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Ghosh, Subrata; Tsai, Kuen-Yu; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.


    Helium (He) ion lithography is being considered as one of the most promising and emerging technology for the manufacturing of next generation integrated circuits (ICs) at nanolevel. However, He-ion active resists are rarely reported. In this context, we are introducing a new non-chemically amplified hybrid resist (n-CAR), MAPDSA-MAPDST, for high resolution He-ion beam lithography (HBL) applications. In the resist architecture, 2.15 % antimony is incorporated as heavy metal in the form of antimonate. This newly developed resists has successfully used for patterning 20 nm negative tone features at a dose of 60 μC/cm2. The resist offered very low line edge roughness (1.27±0.31 nm) for 20 nm line features. To our knowledge, this is the first He-ion active hybrid resist for nanopatterning. The contrast (γ) and sensitivity (E0) of this resist were calculated from the contrast curve as 0.73 and 7.2 μC/cm2, respectively.

  4. Heavy metal incorporated helium ion active hybrid non-chemically amplified resists: Nano-patterning with low line edge roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulikanti Guruprasad Reddy


    Full Text Available Helium (He ion lithography is being considered as one of the most promising and emerging technology for the manufacturing of next generation integrated circuits (ICs at nanolevel. However, He-ion active resists are rarely reported. In this context, we are introducing a new non-chemically amplified hybrid resist (n-CAR, MAPDSA-MAPDST, for high resolution He-ion beam lithography (HBL applications. In the resist architecture, 2.15 % antimony is incorporated as heavy metal in the form of antimonate. This newly developed resists has successfully used for patterning 20 nm negative tone features at a dose of 60 μC/cm2. The resist offered very low line edge roughness (1.27±0.31 nm for 20 nm line features. To our knowledge, this is the first He-ion active hybrid resist for nanopatterning. The contrast (γ and sensitivity (E0 of this resist were calculated from the contrast curve as 0.73 and 7.2 μC/cm2, respectively.

  5. Theoretical study on effects of exposure pattern width on line edge roughness and stochastic defect generation in fabrication of 16-nm-half-pitch line-and-space patterns by electron beam lithography (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Tamura, Takao


    The resolution of electron beam (EB) mask writers has reached a 16 nm half-pitch. The suppression of stochastic phenomena such as line edge roughness (LER) and stochastic defect generation is an important issue in the high-resolution fabrication of photomasks and nanoimprint molds. In this study, the effects of exposure pattern width on LER and stochastic defect generation were theoretically investigated on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified EB resists. The exposure pattern width affected stochastic bridging more than stochastic pinching and LER. The optimum pattern widths for the suppression of stochastic bridging in the fabrication of 16-nm-half-pitch line-and-space patterns were 8, 8, 10, and 12 nm for the sensitivities of 300, 240, 180, and 120 µC cm-2, respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aydın


    Full Text Available Some visual characteristics of wood such as color, pattern and texture determine the quality of manufactured products. Surface properties of wood material are important both in production and marketing after production. Initial studies related to the roughness of wood surface were begun in early 1950’s. However, no general agreed standardization can not have been developed for wood surfaces. Surface roughness of wood is function of the production process, product type and the natural anatomical properties of wood. Contact and non-contact tracing methods are used to measure of wood surface roughness. Surface roughness also affects the gluability and wettability of wood surfaces. The success in finishing also depends on the surface roughness of wood.

  7. Measuring past a micron...

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    Infinity: That is the name of the new ultra-precision machine used by CERN's Metrology Service to measure the copper components for the CLIC accelerating structures. This project is the result of a collaboration between CLIC and the EN Department. Curious to find out more? Read on because there’ll be an opportunity for you to get a very close look at Infinity!    Infinity, the new, ultra-precise, measuring machine, is currently in operation at the CERN Metrology Service. The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) radiofrequency structures will operate under very high electric fields (100 MV/m). They should be manufactured within minimal mechanical tolerances. To validate the quality of these components, they have to be measured with a precision that far exceeds the machining tolerances, i.e. 0.3 microns. No “ordinary” measuring machine can achieve this precision, but Infinity, the newly developed high-precision three-dimensional measuring machine i...

  8. Perspectives on Knowledge Discovery Algorithms Recently Introduced in Chemoinformatics: Rough Set Theory, Association Rule Mining, Emerging Patterns, and Formal Concept Analysis. (United States)

    Gardiner, Eleanor J; Gillet, Valerie J


    Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) refers to the use of methodologies from machine learning, pattern recognition, statistics, and other fields to extract knowledge from large collections of data, where the knowledge is not explicitly available as part of the database structure. In this paper, we describe four modern data mining techniques, Rough Set Theory (RST), Association Rule Mining (ARM), Emerging Pattern Mining (EP), and Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), and we have attempted to give an exhaustive list of their chemoinformatics applications. One of the main strengths of these methods is their descriptive ability. When used to derive rules, for example, in structure-activity relationships, the rules have clear physical meaning. This review has shown that there are close relationships between the methods. Often apparent differences lie in the way in which the problem under investigation has been formulated which can lead to the natural adoption of one or other method. For example, the idea of a structural alert, as a structure which is present in toxic and absent in nontoxic compounds, leads to the natural formulation of an Emerging Pattern search. Despite the similarities between the methods, each has its strengths. RST is useful for dealing with uncertain and noisy data. Its main chemoinformatics applications so far have been in feature extraction and feature reduction, the latter often as input to another data mining method, such as an Support Vector Machine (SVM). ARM has mostly been used for frequent subgraph mining. EP and FCA have both been used to mine both structural and nonstructural patterns for classification of both active and inactive molecules. Since their introduction in the 1980s and 1990s, RST, ARM, EP, and FCA have found wide-ranging applications, with many thousands of citations in Web of Science, but their adoption by the chemoinformatics community has been relatively slow. Advances, both in computer power and in algorithm development

  9. Fluidization and wall slip of soft glassy materials by controlled surface roughness (United States)

    Derzsi, Ladislav; Filippi, Daniele; Mistura, Giampaolo; Pierno, Matteo; Lulli, Matteo; Sbragaglia, Mauro; Bernaschi, Massimo; Garstecki, Piotr


    We present a comprehensive study of concentrated emulsions flowing in microfluidic channels, one wall of which is patterned with micron-size equally spaced grooves oriented perpendicularly to the flow direction. We find a scaling law describing the roughness-induced fluidization as a function of the density of the grooves, thus fluidization can be predicted and quantitatively regulated. This suggests common scenarios for droplet trapping and release, potentially applicable for other jammed systems as well. Numerical simulations confirm these views and provide a direct link between fluidization and the spatial distribution of plastic rearrangements.

  10. Venus - The 17- to 38-micron spectrum. [atmospheric thermal emission spectrum (United States)

    Reed, R. A.; Forrest, W. J.; Houck, J. R.; Pollack, J. B.


    A far-IR emission spectrum of Venus covering the wavelength range from 17 to 38 microns is examined which was obtained on five nights at an altitude of 14 km with the 30-cm telescope of the NASA Lear Jet. The spectrum is found to be characterized by an overall continuum level with noticeable absorption shortward of 20 microns and longward of 30 microns as compared with a 245-K blackbody. The continuum level is taken as implying a continuous source of opacity in the Venusian atmosphere over the entire range from 17 to 38 microns with increased opacity shortward of 20 microns and longward of 30 microns. It is shown that a haze of sulfuric acid droplets can provide the necessary opacity and explain the observed depressions. A pressure level of roughly 200 mb is deduced for this spectrum.

  11. Understanding EUV mask blank surface roughness induced LWR and associated roughness requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Pei-Yang [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Zhang, Guojing [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Gullickson, Eric M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldberg, Kenneth A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Benk, Markus P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) mask multi-layer (ML) blank surface roughness specification historically comes from blank defect inspection tool requirement. Later, new concerns on ML surface roughness induced wafer pattern line width roughness (LWR) arise. In this paper, we have studied wafer level pattern LWR as a function of EUVL mask surface roughness via High-NA Actinic Reticle Review Tool. We found that the blank surface roughness induced LWR at current blank roughness level is in the order of 0.5nm 3σ for NA=0.42 at the best focus. At defocus of ±40nm, the corresponding LWR will be 0.2nm higher. Further reducing EUVL mask blank surface roughness will increase the blank cost with limited benefit in improving the pattern LWR, provided that the intrinsic resist LWR is in the order of 1nm and above.

  12. Fuzzy-Rough Cognitive Networks. (United States)

    Nápoles, Gonzalo; Mosquera, Carlos; Falcon, Rafael; Grau, Isel; Bello, Rafael; Vanhoof, Koen


    Rough Cognitive Networks (RCNs) are a kind of granular neural network that augments the reasoning rule present in Fuzzy Cognitive Maps with crisp information granules coming from Rough Set Theory. While RCNs have shown promise in solving different classification problems, this model is still very sensitive to the similarity threshold upon which the rough information granules are built. In this paper, we cast the RCN model within the framework of fuzzy rough sets in an attempt to eliminate the need for a user-specified similarity threshold while retaining the model's discriminatory power. As far as we know, this is the first study that brings fuzzy sets into the domain of rough cognitive mapping. Numerical results in the presence of 140 well-known pattern classification problems reveal that our approach, referred to as Fuzzy-Rough Cognitive Networks, is capable of outperforming most traditional classifiers used for benchmarking purposes. Furthermore, we explore the impact of using different heterogeneous distance functions and fuzzy operators over the performance of our granular neural network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tactile perception of nonpainful unpleasantness in relation to perceived roughness: effects of inter-element spacing and speed of relative motion of rigid 2-D raised-dot patterns at two body loci. (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Sadato, Norihiro; Lederman, Susan J


    Rigid surfaces consisting of spatially jittered 2-D raised-dot patterns with different inter-element spacings were moved back and forth across the skin at three different speeds (10-fold range). Within each psychophysical experiment, participants numerically estimated the perceived magnitude of either unpleasantness (nonpainful) or roughness of 2-D raised-dot surfaces applied to two stationary body sites (experiment 1: fingers; experiment 2: forearm). The psychophysical functions for the two types of perceptual judgment were highly similar at both body loci; more specifically, the perceived magnitude of unpleasantness and roughness both increased monotonically as a power function of increasing inter-element spacing, with the rate of growth declining at the upper end of the continuum. These results suggest that inter-element spacing is a critical determinant of the perceived magnitude of unpleasantness (nonpainful), as well as of roughness. Each perceptual judgment also increased as a function of increasing relative speed at both body loci. However, the magnitude of this effect was significantly greater for perceived unpleasantness than for perceived roughness; conversely, the speed effect was significantly greater on the forearm than on the fingers. Several possible explanations for these findings are considered.

  14. Size-dependent adhesion of nanoparticles on rough substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, T S


    When the size of particles varies over the entire realm of nanotechnology, we find that surface forces can change by orders of magnitude depending on how surface interactions are influenced by the irregular fluctuations of rough surfaces at all length scales from atoms to microns. The length scales and roughness exponent define the distribution of asperities at points of contact and the adhesion that is maintained by van der Waals forces and contact deformation via asperities. (letter to the editor)

  15. Non-uniform plastic deformation of micron scale objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.


    Significant increases in apparent flow strength are observed when non-uniform plastic deformation of metals occurs at the scale ranging from roughly one to ten microns. Several basic plane strain problems are analyzed numerically in this paper based on a new formulation of strain gradient...... plasticity. The problems are the tangential and normal loading of a finite rectangular block of material bonded to rigid platens and having traction-free ends, and the normal loading of a half-space by a flat, rigid punch. The solutions illustrate fundamental features of plasticity at the micron scale...... that are not captured by conventional plasticity theory. These include the role of material length parameters in establishing the size dependence of strength and the elevation of resistance to plastic flow resulting from constraint on plastic flow at boundaries. Details of the finite element method employed...

  16. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Papadakis, Stergios J. [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (United States); Gracias, David H., E-mail: dgracias@jhu.ed [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)


    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  17. Effect of Discrete Roughness on Transition on a Sharp Cone at an Angle of Attach at Mach 6 (United States)

    Matlis, Eric; Corke, Thomas; Semper, Michael


    Experiments were performed to investigate passive discrete patterned roughness for transition control on a sharp right-circular cone at a 6° angle of attack at Mach 6.0. The angle of attack was set to produce a mean cross-flow velocity component in the boundary layer over the cone in which the cross-flow instability is the dominant mechanism of turbulent transition. The focus is transition control which is based on exciting less-amplified stationary cross-flow modes that suppress the growth of the more-amplified cross-flow modes, and thereby delay transition. The passive roughness consisted of an azimuthal array of micron-size indentations (dimples) at an axial location that was just upstream of the first linear stability neutral growth branch for cross-flow modes. Both critical and sub-critical azimuthal mode numbers of roughness were examined. The receptivity of the stationary cross-flow modes to the roughness was evaluated using Silicone-oil surface flow visualization. The visualization images were post-processed using a pixel-intensity based spectral analysis. Of particular interest was the effect that higher (conventional) tunnel acoustic levels had on the roughness receptivity. Supported by AFOSR.

  18. Transition Induced by a Streamwise Array of Roughness Elements on a Supersonic Flat Plate (United States)

    Chou, Amanda; Kegerise, Michael A.


    Roughness is unavoidable on practical high-speed vehicles, so it is critical to determine its impact on boundary layer transition. The flow field downstream of a streamwise array of cylindrical roughness elements is probed with hot-wire anemometry in this experiment. Mean flow distortion is examined in several measurement planes in the wake of the cylindrical roughness using the streak strength profiles and contour plots of the mass flux and total temperature. The roughness element heights and spacings were varied and their instability modes were examined. Cylindrical roughness elements approximately 140 micron tall produce an odd instability mode that grows weakly with downstream distance in the measurement range of this experiment. Cylindrical roughness elements approximately 280 micron tall produce an even instability mode that grows, becomes nonlinear, and then breaks down. Transition onset remains constant relative to the most downstream roughness in the streamwise array when the 280 micron roughness elements are spaced 2 diameters apart. Transition onset occurs at an earlier upstream location relative to the most downstream roughness in the streamwise array when the roughness elements are spaced 4 diameters appear to recover before the next downstream roughness element, so the location of transition shifts with the location of the most downstream roughness element in the array. When the rough- apart. The wake behind roughness elements spaced 2 diameters apart do not ness elements are spaced 4 diameters apart, the flow behind the first roughness element has enough space to recover before feeding into the second roughness element, and thus, moves transition forward.

  19. The Impedance Due to the Roughness of Metallic Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl L.F.; Chao, Alex W.; Ng, Cho-K.; /SLAC


    In some future accelerator designs, such as that of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the bunch is very short, with an rms length on the order of 10's of microns, and the effective skin depth of the vacuum chamber walls can be very small compared to 1 micron. If the skin depth is small compared to the scale of the surface roughness then the wakefield due to the walls will be dominated by the roughness, and not by the wall resistance. To estimate the wakefields of a rough, metallic surface we begin with a simple, analytical model. Then we apply the MAFIA 3-dimensional, time-domain computer module, T3 to check and find the correct coefficient for the model.

  20. Rough semigroups and rough fuzzy semigroups based on fuzzy ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiumei


    Full Text Available In this paper, we firstly introduce a special congruence relation U(μ, t induced by a fuzzy ideal μ in a semigroup S. Then we define the lower and upper approximations based on a fuzzy ideal in semigroups. We can establish rough semigroups, rough ideals, rough prime ideals, rough fuzzy semigroups, rough fuzzy ideals and rough fuzzy prime ideals according to the definitions of rough sets and rough fuzzy sets. Furthermore, we shall consider the relationships among semigroups and rough semigroups, fuzzy semigroups and rough fuzzy semigroups, and some relative properties are also discussed.

  1. Umatilla - Rough Fish Eradication (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to enhance environmental conditions in the McCormack Slough on Umatilla NWR, the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Afanas’ev


    Full Text Available Summary. During micronisation grain moisture evaporates mainly in decreasing drying rate period. Grain layer located on the surface of the conveyor micronisers will be regarded as horizontal plate. Due to the fact that the micronisation process the surface of the grain evaporates little moisture (within 2-7 % is assumed constant plate thickness. Because in the process of micronization grain structure is changing, in order to achieve an exact solution of the equations necessary to take into account changes thermophysical, optical and others. Equation of heat transfer is necessary to add a term that is responsible for the infrared heating. Because of the small thickness of the grain, neglecting the processes occurring at the edge of the grain, that is actually consider the problem of an infinite plate. To check the adequacy of the mathematical model of the process of micronisation of wheat grain moisture content must be comparable to the function of time, obtained by solving the system of equations with the measured experimental data of experience. Numerical solution of a system of equations for the period of decreasing drying rate is feasible with the help of the Maple 14, substituting the values of the constants in the system. Calculation of the average relative error does not exceed 7- 10 %, and shows a good agreement between the calculated data and the experimental values.

  3. One Micron Laser Technology Advancements at GSFC (United States)

    Heaps, William S.


    This slide presentation reviews the advancements made in one micron laser technology at Goddard Space Flight Center. It includes information about risk factors that are being addressed by GSFC, and overviews of the various programs that GSFC is currently managing that are using 1 micron laser technology.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micron sized polymeric particles were prepared from cashew nut shell liquid and subsequently functionalized to produce micron-sized carboxylated cation exchange resin (MCCER). By titrimetry and analytical procedures employing atomic absorption spectrometry, an assessment of the cation exchange capability of the ...

  5. The formation of photoresist film with thicknesses from 0.7 microns to 100 microns on surfaces with considerable relief by spray coating on the heated substrate (United States)

    Romashkin, Alexey V.; Levin, Denis D.; Rozanov, Roman Yu.; Nevolin, Vladimir K.


    The principle of the formation of thin and thick photoresist films on surfaces with considerable relief by the aerosol deposition using ultra low flow was investigated. It was shown that the change in the photoresist blend composition of solution is required with decreasing film thickness less than 1 micron to achieve a roughness of less than 150 nm. And the film at least 0.7 microns thickness can be formed and have the uniform film thickness as on the walls and on horizontal surfaces on the substrate with grooves obtained by etching liquid. It is shown that even with a film thickness of 10 microns vertical walls may be partially cover the of the photoresist and unfilled plasma-chemical etching grooves with vertical walls, whose width not exceeding 10 microns. To determine the uniformity of film thickness atomic force microscopy was used. And it was shown that up to 2 microns of film thickness spectroscopic methods with the analysis of the fluorescent signal intensity for positive photoresists is possible to use too.

  6. Improving applied roughness measurement of involute helical gears (United States)

    Koulin, G.; Zhang, J.; Frazer, R. C.; Wilson, S. J.; Shaw, B. A.


    With improving gear design and manufacturing technology, improvement in metrology is necessary to provide reliable feedback to the designer and manufacturer. A recommended gear roughness measurement method is applied to a micropitting contact fatigue test gear. The development of wear and micropitting is reliably characterised at the sub-micron roughness level. Changes to the features of the localised surface texture are revealed and are related to key gear meshing positions. The application of the recommended methodology is shown to provide informative feedback to the gear designer in reference to the fundamental gear coordinate system, which is used in gear performance simulations such as tooth contact analysis.

  7. Variability of Jupiter's Five-Micron Hot Spot Inventory (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Wakefield, L.; Rogers, J. H.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Boydstun, K.


    Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. We track the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-micron hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5degN (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images. Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-microns thermal radiance. Ortiz et al. (1998, GRL, 103) characterized the latitude and drift rates of the hot spots, including the descent of the Galileo probe at the southern edge of a 5-micron hot spot, as the superposition of equatorial Rossby waves, with phase speeds between 99 - 103m/s, relative to System III. We note that the high 5-micron radiances correlate well but not perfectly with high 8.57-micron radiances. Because the latter are modulated primarily by changes in the upper ammonia (NH3) ice cloud opacity, this correlation implies that changes in the ammonia ice cloud field may be responsible for the variability seen in the 5-m maps. During the NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-m hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. Their continuing growth through July 2012 indicates the possit.le re-establishment of Rossby waves. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions.

  8. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of innovative compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass...

  9. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers,...

  10. Compact, CO2-stabilized tuneable laser at 2.05 microns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Philip G.; Thomsen, Jan W.; Henriksen, Martin Romme


    We demonstrate a compact fibre-based laser system at 2.05 microns stabilized to a CO2 transition using frequency modulation spectroscopy of a gas-filled hollow-core fibre. The laser exhibits an absolute frequency accuracy of 5 MHz, a frequency stability noise floor of better than 7 kHz or 5......×10−11 and is tunable within ±200 MHz from the molecular resonance frequency while retaining roughly this stability and accuracy....

  11. Potential roughness near lithographically fabricated atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Andersson, L. M.; Wildermuth, Stefan


    Potential roughness has been reported to severely impair experiments in magnetic microtraps. We show that these obstacles can be overcome as we measure disorder potentials that are reduced by two orders of magnitude near lithographically patterned high-quality gold layers on semiconductor atom chip...

  12. Nanodrop impact on rough and textured surfaces (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Koplik, Joel


    We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the impact of a nanometer-sized drop onto structured atomic surfaces. Rough surfaces with Gaussian or power-law correlations are constructed using a Fourier synthesis algorithm. At low impact velocity drops spread into a lamella, and we study its shape and maximum extension as a function of surface roughness and wettability. At higher impact velocities a prompt splash occurs, and we examine the effects of the surface and external vapor on the behavior of the lamella rim. We also consider the effect of surface wettability patterns on splashing and spreading, and compare the results to lattice-Boltzmann simulations in the same geometry.

  13. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    -section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...... and explanatory variables previously associated with the cross-section of expected stock returns....

  14. Modelling dynamic roughness during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.


    In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most

  15. Pavement roughness and skid properties (United States)

    Road roughness and roadway safety as it relates to both surface and air transportation are discussed. The role of road roughness in vehicle ride, the measurement of roughness, the evaluation of riding confort, and the effect of grooving pavements are discussed. The effects of differential pavement friction on the response of cars in skidding maneuvers is discussed.

  16. Mitigating mask roughness via pupil filtering (United States)

    Baylav, B.; Maloney, C.; Levinson, Z.; Bekaert, J.; Vaglio Pret, A.; Smith, B.


    The roughness present on the sidewalls of lithographically defined patterns imposes a very important challenge for advanced technology nodes. It can originate from the aerial image or the photoresist chemistry/processing [1]. The latter remains to be the dominant group in ArF and KrF lithography; however, the roughness originating from the mask transferred to the aerial image is gaining more attention [2-9], especially for the imaging conditions with large mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) values. The mask roughness contribution is usually in the low frequency range, which is particularly detrimental to the device performance by causing variations in electrical device parameters on the same chip [10-12]. This paper explains characteristic differences between pupil plane filtering in amplitude and in phase for the purpose of mitigating mask roughness transfer under interference-like lithography imaging conditions, where onedirectional periodic features are to be printed by partially coherent sources. A white noise edge roughness was used to perturbate the mask features for validating the mitigation.

  17. Notions of Rough Neutrosophic Digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Ishfaq


    Full Text Available [-3]Graph theory has numerous applications in various disciplines, including computer networks, neural networks, expert systems, cluster analysis, and image capturing. Rough neutrosophic set (NS theory is a hybrid tool for handling uncertain information that exists in real life. In this research paper, we apply the concept of rough NS theory to graphs and present a new kind of graph structure, rough neutrosophic digraphs. We present certain operations, including lexicographic products, strong products, rejection and tensor products on rough neutrosophic digraphs. We investigate some of their properties. We also present an application of a rough neutrosophic digraph in decision-making.

  18. Efavirenz Dissolution Enhancement I: Co-Micronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio Vinícius Antunes Rocha


    Full Text Available AIDS constitutes one of the most serious infectious diseases, representing a major public health priority. Efavirenz (EFV, one of the most widely used drugs for this pathology, belongs to the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System for drugs with very poor water solubility. To improve EFV’s dissolution profile, changes can be made to the physical properties of the drug that do not lead to any accompanying molecular modifications. Therefore, the study objective was to develop and characterize systems with efavirenz able to improve its dissolution, which were co-processed with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. The technique used was co-micronization. Three different drug:excipient ratios were tested for each of the two carriers. The drug dispersion dissolution results showed significant improvement for all the co-processed samples in comparison to non-processed material and corresponding physical mixtures. The dissolution profiles obtained for dispersion with co-micronized SLS samples proved superior to those of co-micronized PVP, with the proportion (1:0.25 proving the optimal mixture. The improvements may be explained by the hypothesis that formation of a hydrophilic layer on the surface of the micronized drug increases the wettability of the system formed, corroborated by characterization results indicating no loss of crystallinity and an absence of interaction at the molecular level.

  19. Rough Surface Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nguyen


    Full Text Available This paper studies the contact of general rough curved surfaces having nearly identical geometries, assuming the contact at each differential area obeys the model proposed by Greenwood and Williamson. In order to account for the most general gross geometry, principles of differential geometry of surface are applied. This method while requires more rigorous mathematical manipulations, the fact that it preserves the original surface geometries thus makes the modeling procedure much more intuitive. For subsequent use, differential geometry of axis-symmetric surface is considered instead of general surface (although this “general case” can be done as well in Chapter 3.1. The final formulas for contact area, load, and frictional torque are derived in Chapter 3.2.

  20. Spectrophotometric Examination of Rough Print Surfaces


    Erzsébet Novotny


    The objective was to assess the impact of the surface texture of individual creative paper types (coated or patterned)on the quality of printing and to identify to what extent the various creative paper types require specific types ofspectrophotometers. We used stereomicroscopic images to illustrate unprinted and printed surfaces of creative papertypes. Surface roughness was measured to obtain data on the unevenness of surfaces. Spectrophotometric tests wereused to select the most suitable sp...

  1. Roughness Measurement of Dental Materials (United States)

    Shulev, Assen; Roussev, Ilia; Karpuzov, Simeon; Stoilov, Georgi; Ignatova, Detelina; See, Constantin von; Mitov, Gergo


    This paper presents a roughness measurement of zirconia ceramics, widely used for dental applications. Surface roughness variations caused by the most commonly used dental instruments for intraoral grinding and polishing are estimated. The applied technique is simple and utilizes the speckle properties of the scattered laser light. It could be easily implemented even in dental clinic environment. The main criteria for roughness estimation is the average speckle size, which varies with the roughness of zirconia. The algorithm used for the speckle size estimation is based on the normalized autocorrelation approach.

  2. Variations in roughness predictions (flume experiments)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, Daniëlle; Blom, Astrid; van der Klis, H.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Makaske, A.; Wolfert, H.P.; van Os, A.G.


    Data of flume experiments with bed forms are used to analyze and compare different roughness predictors. In this study, the hydraulic roughness consists of grain roughness and form roughness. We predict the grain roughness by means of the size of the sediment. The form roughness is predicted by

  3. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas


    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler....... For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance...... of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal...

  4. Roughness Sensitivity Comparisons of Wind Turbine Blade Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, Benjamin J. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; White, Edward B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.


    One explanation for wind turbine power degradation is insect roughness. Historical studies on insect-induced power degradation have used simulation methods which are either un- representative of actual insect roughness or too costly or time-consuming to be applied to wide-scale testing. Furthermore, the role of airfoil geometry in determining the relations between insect impingement locations and roughness sensitivity has not been studied. To link the effects of airfoil geometry, insect impingement locations, and roughness sensitivity, a simulation code was written to determine representative insect collection patterns for different airfoil shapes. Insect collection pattern data was then used to simulate roughness on an NREL S814 airfoil that was tested in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 1.6 x 106 and 4.0 x 106. Results are compared to previous tests of a NACA 633 -418 airfoil. Increasing roughness height and density results in decreased maximum lift, lift curve slope, and lift-to-drag ratio. Increasing roughness height, density, or Reynolds number results in earlier bypass transition, with critical roughness Reynolds numbers lying within the historical range. Increased roughness sensitivity on the 25% thick NREL S814 is observed compared to the 18% thick NACA 63 3 -418. Blade-element-momentum analysis was used to calculate annual energy production losses of 4.9% and 6.8% for a NACA 633 -418 turbine and an NREL S814 turbine, respectively, operating with 200 μm roughness. These compare well to historical field measurements.

  5. Micron size superconducting quantum interference devices of lead (Pb) (United States)

    Paul, Sagar; Biswas, Sourav; Gupta, Anjan K.


    Micron size superconducting quantum interference devices (μ-SQUID) of lead (Pb), for probing nano-magnetism, were fabricated and characterized. In order to get continuous Pb films with small grain size, Pb was thermally evaporated on a liquid nitrogen cooled Si substrate. Pb was sandwiched between two thin Cr layers for improved adhesion and protection. The SQUID pattern was made by e-beam lithography with Pb lift-off after deposition. The current-voltage characteristics of these devices show a critical current, which exhibits the expected SQUID oscillations with magnetic field, and two re-trapping currents. As a result these devices have hysteresis at low temperatures, which disappears just below the critical temperature.

  6. Experimental study of gas propagation in turbulent plate boundary layers with neutral and stable stratification for different surface roughness patterns. Experimentelle Untersuchung des Ausbreitungsverhaltens eines gasfoermigen Stoffes in neutral- und stabil-geschichteten turbulenten Plattengrenzschichten bei unterschiedlicher Bodenrauhigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerruth, M.


    The study investigates into the influence of stability and soil roughness on the dispersion of a gaseous substance in thermally stratified, turbulent balanced-pressure boundary layers. The simulation of atmospheric boundary layers in wind tunnels is tested and assessed critically with the help of a comparison of data on wind tunnels with atmospheric data. The transfer of impulses, heat and material in an atmospheric boundary layer flow is adequately reproduced in its structures in a wind tunnel. The wind tunnel experiment thus simulates turbulent transfer reliably. With this simulation system it is also possible to reproduce dispersion in the proximity of complicated geometrical structures. Specifically, material dispersion near buildings or building complexes which cannot be represented accurately by means of computer simulation can be studied reliably in the wind tunnel experiment, depending on soil roughness, stability and building geometry. (orig./KW).

  7. Directed assembly of conducting polymers on sub-micron templates by electrical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jia; Wei, Ming [National Science Foundation (NSF) Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Busnaina, Ahmed [National Science Foundation (NSF) Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Barry, Carol [National Science Foundation (NSF) Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Mead, Joey, E-mail: [National Science Foundation (NSF) Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscale patterns with dimensions of assembled PANi down to 100 nm were fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic assembly to deposit PANi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic assembly of PANi finished in less than 1 min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of process parameters on assembly of PANi onto nanoscale pattern was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assembled PANi can be transferred to other flexible substrates. - Abstract: Patterning of conducting polymer into sub-micron patterns over large areas at high rate and low cost is significant for commercial manufacturing of novel devices. Electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic assembly provide an easily scaled approach with high fabrication rates. In this work, electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic assembly were used to assemble polyaniline (PANi) into multiscale sub-micron size patterns in less than 1 min. The process was controlled by assembly time, amplitude, and frequency of the electric field. Dielectrophoretic assembly is preferable for manufacturing as it reduces damage to the templates used to control the assembly. Using this method, sub-micron patterns with dimensions of the assembled PANi down to 100 nm were fabricated over large areas in short times. The assembled PANi was further transferred to other flexible polymer substrates by a thermoforming process, providing a fast, easily controlled and promising approach for fabrication of nanoscale devices.

  8. Single closed contact for 0.18-micron photolithography process (United States)

    Cheung, Cristina; Phan, Khoi A.; Chiu, Robert J.


    With the rapid advances of deep submicron semiconductor technology, identifying defects is converted into a challenge for different modules in the fabrication of chips. Yield engineers often do bitmap on a memory circuit array (SRAM) to identify the failure bits. This is followed by a wafer stripback to look for visual defects at each deprocessed layer for feedback to the Fab. However, to identify the root cause of a problem, Fab engineers must be able to detect similar defects either on the product wafers in process or some short loop test wafers. In the photolithography process, we recognize that the detection of defects is becoming as important as satisfying the critical dimension (CD) of the device. For a multi-level metallization chemically mechanical polish backend process, it is very difficult to detect missing contacts or via at the masking steps due to metal grain roughness, film color variation and/or previous layer defects. Often, photolithography engineer must depend on Photo Cell Monitor (PCM) and short loop experiments for controlling baseline defects and improvement. In this paper, we discuss the findings on the Poly mask PCM and the Contact mask PCM. We present the comparison between the Poly mask and the Contact mask of the I-line Phase Shifted Via mask and DUV mask process for a 0.18 micron process technology. The correlation and the different type of defects between the Contact PCM and the Poly Mask are discussed. The Contact PCM was found to be more sensitive and correlated to contact failure at sort yield better. We also dedicate to study the root cause of a single closed contact hole in the Contact mask short loop experiment for a 0.18 micron process technology. A single closed contact defect was often caused by the developer process, such as bubbles in the line, resist residue left behind, and the rinse mechanism. We also found surfactant solution helps to improve the surface tension of the wafer for the developer process and this prevents

  9. Enhancement of light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic quasi-crystal patterned on p-GaN surface and n-side sidewall roughing. (United States)

    Lai, Fang-I; Yang, Jui-Fu


    In this paper, GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with photonic quasi-crystal (PQC) structure on p-GaN surface and n-side roughing by nano-imprint lithography are fabricated and investigated. At an injection current of 20 mA, the LED with PQC structure on p-GaN surface and n-side roughing increased the light output power of the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well LEDs by a factor of 1.42, and the wall-plug efficiency is 26% higher than the conventional GaN-based LED type. After 500-h life test (55°C/50 mA), it was found that the normalized output power of GaN-based LED with PQC structure on p-GaN surface and n-side roughing only decreased by 6%. These results offer promising potential to enhance the light output powers of commercial light-emitting devices using the technique of nano-imprint lithography.

  10. Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Soft Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi


    Full Text Available We first defined interval-valued neutrosophic soft rough sets (IVN-soft rough sets for short which combine interval-valued neutrosophic soft set and rough sets and studied some of its basic properties. This concept is an extension of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough sets (IVIF-soft rough sets.

  11. Systematic Sub-Micron Na/Ca Banding in Orbulina universa and bilobata (United States)

    Bonnin, E. A.; Zhu, Z.; Spero, H. J.; Hoenisch, B.; Russell, A. D.; Fehrenbacher, J. S.; Gagnon, A. C.


    Mg/Ca ratios in planktic foraminifera are used widely as a proxy for past sea-surface temperatures. However, over the last decade, it has become clear that these ratios are not constant throughout the shell. Instead these ratios vary systematically by several fold between day and night independent of temperature, a phenomenon that has yet to be explained mechanistically. Determining whether elements other than Mg also exhibit sub-micron banding is essential to properly interpret Me/Ca-based paleoproxies and could help constrain the mechanisms causing Me/Ca variability. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), an isotope mapping technique with a spatial resolution of roughly 200 nm, we discovered systematic Na/Ca banding in individuals of the symbiont-bearing planktic foraminifer Orbulina universa that had been cultured at constant temperature. Using stable-isotope time stamps, we show that this Na/Ca banding varies inversely with Mg/Ca, with high Na/Ca during the day and low Na/Ca at night for most individuals. Using a combination of analytical models and complementary instrumental techniques, we test whether these patterns can be explained by various ion transport processes. In addition to this Na/Ca banding pattern, there is a distinct region of both high Mg/Ca and high Na/Ca at the location of the primary organic membrane. This POM signature may be a useful way to map organic layers in foraminifera, a method we tested in bilobata, a rare morphotype of O. universa that develops a secondary sphere. Mapping Na/Ca and Mg/Ca in bilobata, we show that an additional organic layer is required during secondary sphere growth and that mineralization occurs over both spheres when this additional quasi-chamber forms. Applying ToF-SIMS and our new understanding of Na/Ca heterogeneity to bilobata is a first step towards connecting the extensive geochemical knowledge developed in O. universa to the multi-chambered species used in paleoceanography.

  12. Pull-in voltage of microswitch rough plates in the presence of electromagnetic and acoustic Casimir forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, George


    In this work, we investigate the combined influence of electromagnetic and acoustic Casimir forces on the pull-in voltage of microswitches with self-affine rough plates. It is shown that for plate separations within the micron range the acoustic term arising from pressure fluctuations can influence

  13. The influence of instrumental parameters on the adhesion force in a flat-on-rough contact geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colak, A.; Wormeester, Herbert; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene


    We have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure the snap-off forces between a micron sized flat silicon AFM tip and a rough Si(0 0 1) surface. The current paper is a natural continuation of our previous paper (Çolak et al., 2014), dealing with snap-off forces between an identical flat tip and

  14. Analysis of surface roughness generation in aircraft ice accretion (United States)

    Hansman, R. J., Jr.; Reehorst, Andrew; Sims, James


    Patterns of roughness evolution have been studied analysis of high magnification video observations of accreting ice surfaces provided by the NASA Lewis Research Center. Three distinct patterns of surface roughness generation have been identified within the parametric regions studied. They include: Rime, Multi-Zone Glaze, and Uniform Glaze. Under most icing conditions, a brief period of transient rime ice growth was observed caused by heat conduction into the body. The resulting thin rime layer explains previously observed insensitivity of some ice accretions to substrate insensitivity of some ice accretions to substrate surface chemistry and may provide justification for simplifying assumptions in ice accretion sailing and modeling effects.

  15. Stochastic control with rough paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Joscha [University of California San Diego (United States); Friz, Peter K., E-mail: [TU & WIAS Berlin (Germany); Gassiat, Paul [CEREMADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University (France)


    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  16. Surface Roughness and Snow Accumulation in East Antarctica (United States)

    Scambos, T. A.; Vornberger, P. L.; Bohlander, J. A.; Das, I.; Klinger, M.; Pope, A.; Lenaerts, J.; Fahnestock, M. A.


    A complex relationship exists between snow accumulation (e.g., net surface mass balance) and meter-scale surface roughness as represented by sastrugi and erosional structures over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). The morphology of the ice sheet at this scale is a result of a complex interaction between katabatic winds, synoptic storms, and the slope of the surface, all driving local patterns of snow accretion and sublimation. In megadune regions, the accumulation, surface slope, and surface roughness are highly correlated with slope. Smooth glazed surfaces are present on the steeper leeward wind-faces, and much rougher snow-accreting megadunes are present on the windward (depositional) slope. However, the highest elevation areas near the ridge crest of the EAIS (above ~3200 m) have a converse relationship between roughness and accumulation. Here, very low wind ridge crest areas are smooth and have higher accumulation than adjacent, slightly steeper regions that exhibit a slight increase in roughness. Below the main regions of megadunes (Landsat 8 acquisitions with available wind and accumulation data from climate model results and field measurements. Roughness is determined by sunlight scattering relative to viewing geometry (MISR) or from the amplitude of textural characteristics tied to surface sastrugi (Landsat 8). Both are validated by comparison with meter-scale images (WorldView-1) and field observations. MISR roughness mapping shows persistent qualitative patterns of surface roughness across the EAIS, but an absolute roughness scale mapping is difficult to generate because of complex viewing, illumination, and bi-directional reflectance variations of the snow surface. Landsat 8 band 8 provides a more constrained viewing geometry (nadir, sun-synchronous observations) and has a high radiometric sensitivity and adequate resolution (15 m) to reveal textural details in a consistent and quantitative way.

  17. Deformation Behavior of Sub-micron and Micron Sized Alumina Particles in Compression.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay; Mook, William; Boyce, Brad; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Hall, Aaron Christopher.


    The ability to integrate ceramics with other materials has been limited due to high temperature (>800degC) ceramic processing. Recently, researchers demonstrated a novel process , aerosol deposition (AD), to fabricate ceramic films at room temperature (RT). In this process, sub - micro n sized ceramic particles are accelerated by pressurized gas, impacted on the substrate, plastically deformed, and form a dense film under vacuum. This AD process eliminates high temperature processing thereby enabling new coatings and device integration, in which ceramics can be deposited on metals, plastics, and glass. However, k nowledge in fundamental mechanisms for ceramic particle s to deform and form a dense ceramic film is still needed and is essential in advancing this novel RT technology. In this wo rk, a combination of experimentation and atomistic simulation was used to determine the deformation behavior of sub - micron sized ceramic particle s ; this is the first fundamental step needed to explain coating formation in the AD process . High purity, singl e crystal, alpha alumina particles with nominal size s of 0.3 um and 3.0 um were examined. Particle characterization, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM ), showed that the 0.3 u m particles were relatively defect - free single crystals whereas 3.0 u m p articles were highly defective single crystals or particles contained low angle grain boundaries. Sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited ductile failure in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 0.3um particles deformed plastically, fractured, and became polycrystalline. Moreover, dislocation activit y was observed within the se particles during compression . These sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited large accum ulated strain (2 - 3 times those of micron - sized particles) before first fracture. I n agreement with the findings from experimentation , a tomistic simulation s of nano - Al 2 O 3 particles showed dislocation slip and

  18. Plant Communities of Rough Rock. (United States)

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  19. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.


    The key comparison EURAMET.L-K8.2013 on roughness was carried out in the framework of a EURAMET project starting in 2013 and ending in 2015. It involved the participation of 17 National Metrology Institutes from Europe, Asia, South America and Africa representing four regional metrology organisat...

  20. The effect of adding roughness and thickness to a transonic axial compressor rotor (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Chima, Rodrick V.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Roberts, William B.


    The performance deterioration of a high speed axial compressor rotor due to surface roughness and airfoil thickness variations is reported. A 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) thick rough coating with a surface finish of 2.54-3.18 RMS microns (100-125 RMS microinches) is applied to the pressure and suction surface of the rotor blades. Coating both surfaces increases the leading edge thickness by 10% at the hub and 20% at the tip. Application of this coating results in a loss in efficiency of 6 points and a 9% reduction in the pressure ratio across the rotor at an operating condition near the design point. To separate the effect of thickness and roughness, a smooth coating of equal thickness is also applied to the blade. The smooth coating surface finish is 0.254-0.508 RMS microns (10-20 RMS microinches), compared to the bare metal blade surface finish of 0.508 RMS microns (20 RMS microinches). The smooth coating results in approximately half of the performance deterioration found from the rough coating. Both coatings are then applied to different portions of the blade surface to determine which portions of the airfoil are most sensitive to thickness/roughness variations. Aerodynamic performance measurements are presented for a number of coating configurations at 60%, 80%, and 100% of design speed. The results indicate that thickness/roughness over the first 10% of blade chord accounts for virtually all of the observed performance degradation for the smooth coating, compared to about 70% of the observed performance degradation for the rough coating. The performance deterioration is investigated in more detail at design speed using laser anemometer measurements as well as predictions generated by a quasi-3D Navier-Stokes flow solver which includes a surface roughness model. Measurements and analysis are performed on the baseline blade and the full-coverage smooth and rough coatings. The results indicate that coating the blade causes a thickening of the blade boundary layers. The

  1. Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation. (United States)

    Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian


    Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles

  2. Soft Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi


    Full Text Available In this paper, we first defined soft interval-valued neutrosophic rough sets(SIVN- rough sets for short which combines interval valued neutrosophic soft set and rough sets and studied some of its basic properties. This concept is an extension of soft interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy rough sets( SIVIF- rough sets. Finally an illustrative example is given to verify the developped algorithm and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  3. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht


    and time consumption can become prohibitive in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, calling for the object to be manually polished. During the polishing process, the operator...... needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...... complications during the casting process. In this work we present a method for measuring the RMS-values of the surface roughness while simultaneously determining the polishing direction. We are mainly interested in the RMS-values in the range from 0 – 100 nm, which corresponds to the finish categories of A1, A2...

  4. Sensing roughness and polish direction (United States)

    Jakobsen, M. L.; Olesen, A. S.; Larsen, H. E.; Stubager, J.; Hanson, S. G.; Pedersen, T. F.; Pedersen, H. C.


    As a part of the work carried out on a project supported by the Danish council for technology and innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost and time consumption can become relatively large numbers in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, but then the object needs to be manually polished. During the polishing process the operator needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduces by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid complications during the casting process. In this work we present a method for measuring the RMS-values of the surface roughness while simultaneously determining the polishing direction. We are mainly interested in the RMS-values in the range from 0 - 100 nm, which corresponds to the finish categories of A1, A2 and A3. Based on simple intensity measurements we estimates the RMS-value of the surface roughness, and by using a sectioned annual photo-detector to collect the scattered light we can determine the direction of polishing and distinguish light scattered from random structures and light scattered from scratches.

  5. Viewing Seasonality in 8 Megacities at 4 Microns (United States)

    Tomaszewska, M. A.; Kovalskyy, V.; Small, C.; Henebry, G. M.


    The middle infrared (MIR) spectral region, between 3 and 5 microns, offers a different perspective on cities. The MIR is the mixing zone of both emitted terrestrial radiation and reflected solar radiation. The relatively long wavelengths enable views of surfaces often obscured by anthropogenic haze. Green vegetation appears very dark in the MIR due to high absorption by leaf water. In contrast, building, roofing, and paving materials reflect much MIR and exposed soils and dried vegetation reflect even more. Thus, physics dictates a strong expression of seasonality in the MIR. But is there sufficient signal in the MIR to merit it as a complementary approach for characterizing urbanized areas and monitoring their dynamics? We have explored this question in a research effort that links two NASA Interdisciplinary Science projects on the effect of cities on the environment. We focused on 8 global megacities: Beijing, Cairo, Istanbul, Mexico, Moscow, Nairobi, New Delhi, and São Paulo. We used Level 1B calibrated radiance data from band 23 (~4 microns) of the Aqua MODIS during ascending passes in 2010. These 1 km data were processed to reduce cloud cover using monthly maximum value compositing into four sensor view zenith angle (VZA) classes: 0urban, agriculture, and 'natural' which included forest, savanna, or desert depending on the city. The seasonal patterns of MIR radiance varied, as expected, by latitude, with very strong seasonality effects at higher latitudes (Beijing, Cairo, Istanbul, Moscow), and lesser to minimal seasonal signals evident in the tropics (Mexico City, Nairobi, São Paulo). The monsoon imposed strong MIR seasonality in New Delhi. The strength of the seasonality was modulated by the VZA with smaller VZAs (30°). SNR was higher in the summer months and quite low in the winter months at high latitudes, as was expected due to the seasonal cycle of irradiance. The urban land cover showed higher seasonal dynamic range than most other cover types, with

  6. Quantitative roughness measurements with iTIRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, R.J.M. van der; Fähnle, O.W.; Brug, H. van; Braat, J.J.M.


    A new method, iTIRM, is used for quantitative surface roughness measurements of ground and polished surfaces and it is shown to be a useful tool for measuring total surface quality instead of individual roughness parameters.

  7. Deposition of micron liquid droplets on wall in impinging turbulent air jet (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Nink, Jacob; Merati, Parviz; Tian, Tian; Li, Yong; Shieh, Tom


    The fluid mechanics of the deposition of micron liquid (olive oil) droplets on a glass wall in an impinging turbulent air jet is studied experimentally. The spatial patterns of droplets deposited on a wall are measured by using luminescent oil visualization technique, and the statistical data of deposited droplets are obtained through microscopic imagery. Two distinct rings of droplets deposited on a wall are found, and the mechanisms of the formation of the inner and outer rings are investigated based on global diagnostics of velocity and skin friction fields. In particular, the intriguing effects of turbulence, including large-scale coherent vortices and small-scale random turbulence, on micron droplet deposition on a wall and coalescence in the air are explored.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of line-edge and line-width roughness for EUV lithography (United States)

    Bonam, Ravi; Liu, Chi-Chun; Breton, Mary; Sieg, Stuart; Seshadri, Indira; Saulnier, Nicole; Shearer, Jeffrey; Muthinti, Raja; Patlolla, Raghuveer; Huang, Huai


    Pattern transfer fidelity is always a major challenge for any lithography process and needs continuous improvement. Lithographic processes in semiconductor industry are primarily driven by optical imaging on photosensitive polymeric material (resists). Quality of pattern transfer can be assessed by quantifying multiple parameters such as, feature size uniformity (CD), placement, roughness, sidewall angles etc. Roughness in features primarily corresponds to variation of line edge or line width and has gained considerable significance, particularly due to shrinking feature sizes and variations of features in the same order. This has caused downstream processes (Etch (RIE), Chemical Mechanical Polish (CMP) etc.) to reconsider respective tolerance levels. A very important aspect of this work is relevance of roughness metrology from pattern formation at resist to subsequent processes, particularly electrical validity. A major drawback of current LER/LWR metric (sigma) is its lack of relevance across multiple downstream processes which effects material selection at various unit processes. In this work we present a comprehensive assessment of Line Edge and Line Width Roughness at multiple lithographic transfer processes. To simulate effect of roughness a pattern was designed with periodic jogs on the edges of lines with varying amplitudes and frequencies. There are numerous methodologies proposed to analyze roughness and in this work we apply them to programmed roughness structures to assess each technique's sensitivity. This work also aims to identify a relevant methodology to quantify roughness with relevance across downstream processes.

  9. Characterization and analysis of sub-micron surface roughness of injection moulded microfluidic systems using White Light Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    Surface topography is of great importance in polymer micro fluidics, therefore the replication capability of the process and the surface quality of the tool has to be suitably optimized. In this paper, optical profilometry (white light interferometry, WLI) is implemented for topographical...

  10. Single Frequency Narrow Linewidth 2 Micron Laser Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs narrow linewidth lasers in the 1.5 or 2 micron wavelength regime for coherent Lidar applications. The laser should be tunable by several nm and frequency...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a collection of 3-micron spectra of 33 asteroids and Phobos and Deimos obtained by Andy Rivkin and collaborators. Nearly all these data have been...

  12. Apparatus for handling micron size range particulate material (United States)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Roy, N. L. (Inventor)


    An apparatus for handling, transporting, or size classifying comminuted material was described in detail. Electrostatic acceleration techniques for classifying particles as to size in the particle range from 0.1 to about 100 microns diameter were employed.

  13. 1.55 Micron High Peak Power Fiber Amplifier Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, we propose to demonstrate and build a 1.55 micron single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber amplifier by developing an innovative...

  14. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.


    the number of inconsistent results could be reduced to 20, which correspond to about 5% of the total and can statistically be expected. In addition to the material standards, two softgauges were circulated, which allow to test the software of the instruments used in the comparison. The comparison results......The key comparison EURAMET.L-K8.2013 on roughness was carried out in the framework of a EURAMET project starting in 2013 and ending in 2015. It involved the participation of 17 National Metrology Institutes from Europe, Asia, South America and Africa representing four regional metrology...

  15. Electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We present a numerical framework to model the electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness. The three-dimensional microstructure of the rough channel is generated by a random generation-growth method with three statistical parameters to control the number density, the total volume fraction, and the anisotropy characteristics of roughness elements. The governing equations for the electrokinetic transport are solved by a high-efficiency lattice Poisson?Boltzmann method in complex geometries. The effects from the geometric characteristics of roughness on the electrokinetic transport in microchannels are therefore modeled and analyzed. For a given total roughness volume fraction, a higher number density leads to a lower fluctuation because of the random factors. The electroosmotic flow rate increases with the roughness number density nearly logarithmically for a given volume fraction of roughness but decreases with the volume fraction for a given roughness number density. When both the volume fraction and the number density of roughness are given, the electroosmotic flow rate is enhanced by the increase of the characteristic length along the external electric field direction but is reduced by that in the direction across the channel. For a given microstructure of the rough microchannel, the electroosmotic flow rate decreases with the Debye length. It is found that the shape resistance of roughness is responsible for the flow rate reduction in the rough channel compared to the smooth channel even for very thin double layers, and hence plays an important role in microchannel electroosmotic flows.

  16. Micronized Organic Magnesium Salts Enhance Opioid Analgesia in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny

    Full Text Available As previously reported, magnesium sulphate administered parenterally significantly increased an opioid antinociception in different kinds of pain. Since the typical form of magnesium salts are poorly and slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract we examined whether their micronized form could increase opioids induced antinociception.In behavioural studies on rats morphine, tramadol and oxycodone together with magnesium (lactate dihydrate, hydroaspartate, chloride in micronized (particles of size D90 < 50 μm and conventional forms were used. Changes in pain thresholds were determined using mechanical stimuli. The intestinal absorption of two forms of magnesium lactate dihydrate (at the doses of 7.5 or 15 mg ions in the porcine gut sac model were also compared.Micronized form of magnesium lactate dihydrate or hydroaspartate but not chloride (15 mg of magnesium ions kg-1 enhanced the analgesic activity of orally administered opioids, significantly faster and more effective in comparison to the conventional form of magnesium salts (about 40% for oxycodone administered together with a micronized form of magnesium hydroaspartate. Moreover, in vitro studies of transport across porcine intestines of magnesium ions showed that magnesium salts administered in micronized form were absorbed from the intestines to a greater extent than the normal form of magnesium salts.The co-administration of micronized magnesium organic salts with opioids increased their synergetic analgesic effect. This may suggest an innovative approach to the treatment of pain in clinical practice.

  17. Physical Measurements of Sea Bed Roughness (United States)

    Nunes, V. B.; Pawlak, G.


    Physical measurements of sea bed roughness were obtained using a boat-mounted acoustic altimetry system combined with diver-based observations with the goal of resolving scales between 10 and 100cm. The surveyed area extends from the wave breaking zone to a depth of 20 m and is characterized by a highly inhomogeneous sea bed. Theory suggests that these roughness scales play an important role in wave energy dissipation, despite the lack of established parameterizations for these high roughness regimes. This study attempts to address this issue by investigating methods for quantifying roughness and examining the relationships between physical and hydrodynamic roughness. Results show a significant variation of roughness over the study area indicating limitations in defining a single scale for the shallow water region. Various statistical estimators are examined as potential candidates for roughness parameterization schemes, including rms, standard deviation and consecutive angle difference in order to characterize bed morphologies. Wave number spectral analysis is used to highlight the dominant roughness scales. The analysis is directed towards merging the various roughness parameters with wave field observations and numerical wave model output, to produce a roughness map that establishes a link between the physical roughness measurements and hydrodynamic wave friction at the study area.

  18. Adhesion of liquid droplets to rough surfaces. (United States)

    Li, Ri; Alizadeh, Azar; Shang, Wen


    We study the adhesion of liquid droplets to rough surfaces, focusing on how adhesion changes with surface chemistry and roughness. For hydrophobic surfaces (equilibrium contact angle θ(e)>90°), although increasing surface roughness augments apparent contact angle, it does not necessarily always reduce adhesion. In a domain defined by roughness and equilibrium contact angle, this study identifies regions where adhesion increases or decreases with increasing roughness. The two regions do not border at θ(e)=90°. It is found that making surfaces with low roughness ratio (close to 1) does not reduce adhesion unless the surface material is highly hydrophobic (θ(e)>120°). In other words, to reduce adhesion for existing hydrophobic materials (90°adhesion, the geometry of microstructures should be designed such that wetted fraction decreases with increasing roughness ratio. This study is of particular importance for the design of textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

  19. Prescribed 3-D Direct Writing of Suspended Micron/Sub-micron Scale Fiber Structures via a Robotic Dispensing System. (United States)

    Yuan, Hanwen; Cambron, Scott D; Keynton, Robert S


    A 3-axis dispensing system is utilized to control the initiating and terminating fiber positions and trajectory via the dispensing software. The polymer fiber length and orientation is defined by the spatial positioning of the dispensing system 3-axis stages. The fiber diameter is defined by the prescribed dispense time of the dispensing system valve, the feed rate (the speed at which the stage traverses from an initiating to a terminating position), the gauge diameter of the dispensing tip, the viscosity and surface tension of the polymer solution, and the programmed drawing length. The stage feed rate affects the polymer solution's evaporation rate and capillary breakup of the filaments. The dispensing system consists of a pneumatic valve controller, a droplet-dispensing valve and a dispensing tip. Characterization of the direct write process to determine the optimum combination of factors leads to repeatedly acquiring the desired range of fiber diameters. The advantage of this robotic dispensing system is the ease of obtaining a precise range of micron/sub-micron fibers onto a desired, programmed location via automated process control. Here, the discussed self-assembled micron/sub-micron scale 3D structures have been employed to fabricate suspended structures to create micron/sub-micron fluidic devices and bioengineered scaffolds.

  20. Effects of surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow in microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masilamani, Kannan; Ganguly, Suvankar; Feichtinger, Christian; Bartuschat, Dominik; Rüde, Ulrich, E-mail: [Department of Computer Science 10 University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr.11 91058 Erlangen (Germany)


    In this paper, a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and finite-difference (LB-FD) model is applied to simulate the effects of three-dimensional surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microchannel. The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method has been employed to obtain the flow field and a finite-difference (FD) method is used to solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation for the electrostatic potential distribution. Numerical simulation of flow through a square cross-section microchannel with designed roughness is conducted and the results are critically analysed. The effects of surface heterogeneity on the electroosmotic transport are investigated for different roughness height, width, roughness interval spacing, and roughness surface potential. Numerical simulations reveal that the presence of surface roughness changes the nature of electroosmotic transport through the microchannel. It is found that the electroosmotic velocity decreases with the increase in roughness height and the velocity profile becomes asymmetric. For the same height of the roughness elements, the EOF velocity rises with the increase in roughness width. For the heterogeneously charged rough channel, the velocity profile shows a distinct deviation from the conventional plug-like flow pattern. The simulation results also indicate locally induced flow vortices which can be utilized to enhance the flow and mixing within the microchannel. The present study has important implications towards electrokinetic flow control in the microchannel, and can provide an efficient way to design a microfluidic system of practical interest. (paper)

  1. The adhesion force of micronized Salmeterol Xinafoate particles to pharmaceutically relevant surface materials (United States)

    Podczeck, F.; Newton, J. M.; James, M. B.


    The adhesion of micronized Salmeterol Xinafoate to various surface materials has been investigated by the centrifuge technique. The adhesion of the drug to these materials used for manufacture and storage of interactive mixtures of the drug and milled lactose monohydrate depends on different properties of the surfaces. A longer contact with polyvinylchloride, polyethylene or aluminium surfaces, or a contact with these surfaces under mechanical pressure should be avoided because the adhesion force between the drug and these surfaces is much higher than between the drug and excipient particles. Hence detachment and a consequent loss of drug in the formulation could occur. Such a problem does not appear to exist for the contact with polyhydroxymethylene surfaces. Characteristics of the surface materials such as the surface free energy (acid - base concept), surface roughness and Young's modulus were determined and related to the experimental results. The work of adhesion appeared to have a very important influence on the adhesion forces measured. About 20% of the work of adhesion was due to acid - base interactions. The larger the work of adhesion, the stronger was the adhesion between the particles and the surfaces in contact. Surface roughness reduced the adhesion force, and stiffer materials (having a high Young's modulus) were found to have a lower adhesion force to the drug particles.

  2. The effects of particle size on the optical properties and surface roughness of a glass-balloon-filled black paint (United States)

    Heslin, T.; Heaney, J.; Harper, M.


    The effects of particle size on the optical properties and surface roughness of a glass-balloon-filled, carbon-pigmented paint were studied in order to develop a diffuse-reflecting, low-total-reflectance, low-outgassing black paint. Particle sizes ranged between 20 microns and 74 microns. Surface roughness was found to increase with increasing particle size. Relative total reflectance at near-normal incidence (MgO standard) of the filled paints was less than for the unfilled paint between 230 nm and 1800 nm. Total absolute reflectance at 546 nm decreased with increasing particle size at grazing angles of incidence. Near-normal, total emittance was greater for the filled paints than for the unfilled paint. Specularity decreased with increasing particle size over the range studied.

  3. Improved properties of micronized genetically modified flax fibers. (United States)

    Dymińska, Lucyna; Szatkowski, Michał; Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Zuk, Magdalena; Kurzawa, Adam; Syska, Wojciech; Gągor, Anna; Zawadzki, Mirosław; Ptak, Maciej; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of micronization on the compound content, crystalline structure and physicochemical properties of fiber from genetically modified (GM) flax. The GM flax was transformed with three bacterial (Ralstonia eutropha) genes coding for enzymes of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis and under the control of the vascular bundle promoter. The modification resulted in fibers containing the 3-hydroxybutyrate polymer bound to cellulose via hydrogen and ester bonds and antioxidant compounds (phenolic acids, vanillin, vitexin, etc.). The fibers appeared to have a significantly decreased particle size after 20h of ball-milling treatment. Micronized fibers showed reduced phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity compared to the results for untreated fibers. An increased level of PHB was also detected. Micronization introduces structural changes in fiber constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, PHB) and micronized fibers exhibit more functional groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl) derived from those constituents. It is thus concluded that micronization treatments improve the functional properties of the fiber components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Subpatch roughness in earthquake rupture investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zielke, O; Mai, P. M


    ...) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault's roughness and its seismic characteristics...

  5. Experimental study of contact edge roughness on sub-100 nm various circular shapes (United States)

    Lee, Tae Y.; Ihm, Dongchul; Kang, Hyo C.; Lee, Jum B.; Lee, Byoung H.; Chin, Soo B.; Cho, Do H.; Song, Chang L.


    The measurement of edge roughness has become a hot issue in the semiconductor industry. Especially the contact roughness is being more critical as design rule shrinks. Major vendors offer a variety of features to measure the edge roughness in their CD-SEMs. For the line and space patterns, features such as Line Edge Roughness (LER) and Line Width Roughness (LWR) are available in current CD-SEMs. However the features currently available in commercial CD-SEM cannot provide a proper solution in monitoring the contact roughness. We had introduced a new parameter R, measurement algorithm and definition of contact edge roughness to quantify CER and CSR in previous paper. The parameter, R could provide an alternative solution to monitor contact or island pattern roughness. In this paper, we investigated to assess optimum number of CD measurement (1-D) and fitting method for CER or CSR. The study was based on a circular contact shape. Some new ideas to quantify CER or CSR were also suggested with preliminary experimental results.

  6. Numerical analysis of the bucket surface roughness effects in Pelton turbine (United States)

    Xiao, Y. X.; Zeng, C. J.; Zhang, J.; Yan, Z. G.; Wang, Z. W.


    The internal flow of a Pelton turbine is quite complex. It is difficult to analyse the unsteady free water sheet flow in the rotating bucket owing to the lack of a sound theory. Affected by manufacturing technique and silt abrasion during the operation, the bucket surface roughness of Pelton turbine may be too great, and thereby influence unit performance. To investigate the effect of bucket roughness on Pelton turbine performance, this paper presents the numerical simulation of the interaction between the jet and the bucket in a Pelton turbine. The unsteady three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed with CFX code by using the SST turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. Different magnitude orders of bucket surface roughness were analysed and compared. Unsteady numerical results of the free water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface, torque and unit performance for each bucket surface roughness were generated. The total pressure distribution on bucket surface is used to show the free water sheet flow pattern on bucket surface. By comparing the variation of water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface with different roughness, this paper qualitatively analyses how the bucket surface roughness magnitude influences the impeding effect on free water sheet flow. Comparison of the torque variation of different bucket surface roughness highlighted the effect of the bucket surface roughness on the Pelton turbine output capacity. To further investigate the effect of bucket surface roughness on Pelton turbine performance, the relation between the relative efficiency loss rate and bucket surface roughness magnitude is quantitatively analysed. The result can be used to predict and evaluate the Pelton turbine performance.

  7. Rock discontinuity surface roughness variation with scale (United States)

    Bitenc, Maja; Kieffer, D. Scott; Khoshelham, Kourosh


    ABSTRACT: Rock discontinuity surface roughness refers to local departures of the discontinuity surface from planarity and is an important factor influencing the shear resistance. In practice, the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) roughness parameter is commonly relied upon and input to a shear strength criterion such as developed by Barton and Choubey [1977]. The estimation of roughness by JRC is hindered firstly by the subjective nature of visually comparing the joint profile to the ten standard profiles. Secondly, when correlating the standard JRC values and other objective measures of roughness, the roughness idealization is limited to a 2D profile of 10 cm length. With the advance of measuring technologies that provide accurate and high resolution 3D data of surface topography on different scales, new 3D roughness parameters have been developed. A desirable parameter is one that describes rock surface geometry as well as the direction and scale dependency of roughness. In this research a 3D roughness parameter developed by Grasselli [2001] and adapted by Tatone and Grasselli [2009] is adopted. It characterizes surface topography as the cumulative distribution of local apparent inclination of asperities with respect to the shear strength (analysis) direction. Thus, the 3D roughness parameter describes the roughness amplitude and anisotropy (direction dependency), but does not capture the scale properties. In different studies the roughness scale-dependency has been attributed to data resolution or size of the surface joint (see a summary of researches in [Tatone and Grasselli, 2012]). Clearly, the lower resolution results in lower roughness. On the other hand, have the investigations of surface size effect produced conflicting results. While some studies have shown a decrease in roughness with increasing discontinuity size (negative scale effect), others have shown the existence of positive scale effects, or both positive and negative scale effects. We

  8. Roughness Effects on the Formation of a Leading Edge Vortex (United States)

    Elliott, Cassidy; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Wilroy, Jacob


    Microscopic scales cover the wings of Monarch butterflies, creating a patterned surface that acts as a natural energy capture mechanism. This patterning is thought to delay the growth of the leading edge vortex (LEV) produced by the flapping motion of a wing. Increased skin friction caused by the scales leads to a weaker LEV being shed into the butterfly's wake, lessening drag and increasing flight efficiency. To test how this roughness effects LEV formation, a plate of random roughness was designed in SolidWorks and printed on the Objet 30 Pro 3D printer. A 2x3x5 cubic foot tow tank was used to test the rough plate at Reynold's numbers of 1500, 3000, and 6000 (velocities of 8, 16, and 32 mm/s) at an angle of attack of 45 degrees. Images were captured of the LEV generated when the plate was towed upwards through the particle-seeded flow. These images were used to determine the XY velocity of the particles using a technique called Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). Codes written in MATLAB were used to track and measure the strength of the LEV. Circulation values for the randomly-rough plate were then compared to the same values generated in a previous experiment that used a smooth plate and a grooved plate to determine the effect of the patterning on vortex development. Funding for this research project was provided by the National Science Foundation under the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program (REU Supplement CBET 1628600 under CBET 1335848).

  9. Specular Reflection from Rough Surfaces Revisited (United States)

    Yasuda, Kensei; Kim, Alvin; Cho, Hayley; Timofejev, Timofej; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Klep, James; Edelson, Amy S.; Walecki, Abigail S.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.


    In his beautiful paper, Hasan Fakhruddin reported observations of mirror-like reflections in the rough surface of a ground glass plate. Similar effects have been recently employed for metrology of the roughness of optical diffusers used in modern light emitting device illumination systems. We report the observations of specular reflection in…

  10. Roughness on Dutch railway wheels and rails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dings, P.C.; Dittrich, M.G.


    Surface roughness on 150 railway wheels and on the rails of 30 sites in the Netherlands have been measured. Block braked wheels were found to show higher roughnesses than the rail at any site. The smoothest rail is 8 dB smoother than the smoothest wheel. It was concluded that in reducing railway

  11. Axiomatic Characterizations of IVF Rough Approximation Operators


    Yu, Guangji


    This paper is devoted to the study of axiomatic characterizations of IVF rough approximation operators. IVF approximation spaces are investigated. The fact that different IVF operators satisfy some axioms to guarantee the existence of different types of IVF relations which produce the same operators is proved and then IVF rough approximation operators are characterized by axioms.

  12. Axiomatic Characterizations of IVF Rough Approximation Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangji Yu


    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of axiomatic characterizations of IVF rough approximation operators. IVF approximation spaces are investigated. The fact that different IVF operators satisfy some axioms to guarantee the existence of different types of IVF relations which produce the same operators is proved and then IVF rough approximation operators are characterized by axioms.

  13. Bed roughness experiments in supply limited conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, Matthieu; Tuijnder, Arjan; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Parsons, D.R.; Garlan, T.; Best, J.L.


    Reliable roughness models are of great importance, for example, when predicting water levels in rivers. The currently available roughness models are based on fully mobile bed conditions. However, in rivers where widely graded sediments are present more or less permanent armour layers can develop

  14. Turning rough sleepers into responsible citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Tonkens; dr Lia van Doorn


    On the eve of the twenty-first century, it is a scandal that there are still people sleeping rough on our streets. This is not a situation we can continue to tolerate in a modern and civil society. These were the words of Tony Blair in his foreword to the policy document Rough Sleeping, The

  15. Computation of surface roughness using optical correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The laser speckle photography is used to calculate the average surface rough- ness from the autocorrelation function of the aluminum diffuse objects. The computed results of surface roughness obtained from the profile shapes of the autocorrelation func- tion of the diffuser show good agreement with the results obtained by ...

  16. Micron-sized polymer particles from tanzanian cashew nut shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micron-sized polymer particles (MSPP) were prepared by formaldehyde condensation polymerization of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) previously emulsified with sodium lauryl sulphate. The sizes of the MSPP were found to range from 0.1 to 4.4 mm. Increasing the emulsifier concentration had the effect of increasing the ...

  17. Micron-sized polymer particles from Tanzanian cashew nut shell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Micron-sized polymer particles (MSPP) were prepared by formaldehyde condensation polymerization of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) previously emulsified with sodium lauryl sulphate. The sizes of the MSPP were found to range from 0.1 to 4.4 μm. Increasing the emulsifier concentration had the effect of ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Kochanov


    Full Text Available Summary. Effect of weed, mineral and metallomagnetic impurities in the grain feedstock to micronization process was investigated. In laboratory and production conditions conducted a study on the influence of the impurity content in the treated grain, different size, density and metallomagnetic properties on the process of micronization. Trash content in feed grains of barley, wheat and corn according to current standards for grain must match the basic approach, and do not exceed 5 % , including mineral impurities - 1.0%. No restrictions on metallomagnetic and organic impurities. Dependence of the clearing of mineral impurities in various capacities device for separating stones was installed. Most effectively, 95-98 % grain (especially barley where these studies were carried out allocated pebbles, i.e. mineral impurity density which is almost twice the density of barley. Lumps of earth, the density of which is virtually identical to the density of barley allocated a maximum of 70%. Setting in the shop micronization grain separator and magnetic separator device for separating stones led to increase the reliability of the process equipment and process stability micronization. Year and a half after the reconstruction of the workshop there were no failure nodes of device for flattening. A particularly important consideration is to increase the duration of exploitation of the working surfaces of the rolls crusher to guaranteed by period (not less than 1 year.

  19. Perturbation of a radially oscillating single-bubble by a micron-sized object. (United States)

    Montes-Quiroz, W; Baillon, F; Louisnard, O; Boyer, B; Espitalier, F


    A single bubble oscillating in a levitation cell is acoustically monitored by a piezo-ceramics microphone glued on the cell external wall. The correlation of the filtered signal recorded over distant cycles on one hand, and its harmonic content on the other hand, are shown to carry rich information on the bubble stability and existence. For example, the harmonic content of the signal is shown to increase drastically once air is fully dissociated in the bubble, and the resulting pure argon bubble enters into the upper branch of the sonoluminescence regime. As a consequence, the bubble disappearance can be unambiguously detected by a net drop in the harmonic content. On the other hand, we perturb a stable sonoluminescing bubble by approaching a micron-sized fiber. The bubble remains unperturbed until the fiber tip is approached within a critical distance, below which the bubble becomes unstable and disappears. This distance can be easily measured by image treatment, and is shown to scale roughly with 3-4 times the bubble maximal radius. The bubble disappearance is well detected by the drop of the microphone harmonic content, but several thousands of periods after the bubble actually disappeared. The delay is attributed to the slow extinction of higher modes of the levitation cell, excited by the bubble oscillation. The acoustic detection method should however allow the early detection and imaging of non-predictable perturbations of the bubble by foreign micron-sized objects, such as crystals or droplets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Proximity effect correction on MEBES for 1x mask fabrication: lithography issues and tradeoffs at 0.25 micron (United States)

    Muray, Andrew J.; Dean, Robert L.


    Proximity effect correction is necessary to fabricate masks with 0.25 micron design rules using electron beam lithography. The GHOST technique of proximity correction has the advantage of no pattern preprocessing and is easily implemented on a raster scan system such as MEBES. Recent results show proximity corrected features at 0.3 micron. To minimize constraints on the resist characteristics, such as the Srg ratio, global sizing of patterns has been investigated and found to provide an additional degree of freedom to control sensitivities and process latitude. Simulation and experimental results will be presented to demonstrate the use of GHOST and sizing for 1X mask making, including discussion of some of the relevant issues and tradeoffs.

  1. Parametric optical surface roughness measurement by means of polychromatic speckle autocorrelation (United States)

    Patzelt, Stefan; Ciossek, Andreas; Lehmann, Peter; Schoene, Armin


    A method for determining surface roughness of engineering surfaces that is applicable to in-process measurements under harsh circumstances of industrial production plants (e.g. vibrations, humidity) is introduced. The rough surface is illuminated with polychromatic laser light. The angular distribution of scattered light intensities, i.e. a polychromatic speckle pattern, is the result of an incoherent superposition of monochromatic speckle intensities. The angular dispersion leads to increasing speckle widths with an increasing distance to the optical axis an effect called speckle elongation. This gives rise to a radial structure of the speckle pattern. However, with increasing surface roughness the radial structure vanishes because of a decreasing similarity of the monochromatic speckle patterns of the different wavelengths. The markedness of this effect is analyzed by digital image processing algorithms, e.g. the procedure of polychromatic speckle autocorrelation. The latest approach to an in-process roughness measurement device was made by the use of singlemode fiber-pigtailed laser diodes in order to supply a trichromatic, temporally partially coherent laser beam. A brief introduction to the theoretical background is followed by the presentation of the experimental setup. The image processing algorithms for calculating an optical roughness measure from digitalized speckle patterns are explained, and first results of surface roughness determination are presented.

  2. LED pumped micron-scale all-silicon Raman amplifier (United States)

    Datta, Tanmoy; Sen, Mrinal


    A micron-scale all-silicon Raman amplifier has been proposed in this paper, exploiting the giant Raman gain of silicon nanocrystal material along with the extreme optical confinement of slotted photonic crystal waveguide. Light Emitting Diode (LED) has been considered here for low-cost optical pumping and the possibility of on-chip integration. At the same time, LED pumping eradicates the temporal impairment of output pulses which is otherwise unavoidable in case of continuous wave laser pumping. An overall gain of 3.22 dB has been achieved for a 400 Gbps input pulse train with a waveguide length of the amplifier which is as small as 4 μm. Moreover, the strong electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystal opens up the possibility of integrating the pump source on the same platform and, hence, expedites the future scope of realizing micron-scale silicon Raman laser without external pump source.

  3. Prospects for use of micronized coal in power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdukov, A.P.; Konovalov, V.V.; Yusupov, T.S. [Inst. of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    Heat-and-power engineering is the basis for industrial development of developed countries and the main energy fuel for plants is coal. The main directions in improvement of coal energy technologies are related to better ignition of fuel and to gas and mazut substitution with pulverized coal. This paper considerers the prospects of energy coal enrichment and the method for production of ultrafine coal with the average size of particles about 10-20 microns, and the existing machines for ultrafine coal production. This method increases substantially the velocity of ignition and combustion of pulverized coal flame. The changes of physical and chemical properties of coal after grinding were considered, and the processes of ignition, combustion of micronized coal, spaying and stabilization of flame combustion were analyzed in this paper. The problem of ultrafine coal ignition were considered also. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Prospects for use of micronized coal in power industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukov Anatolii P.


    Full Text Available Heat-and-power engineering is the basis for industrial development of developed countries and the main energy fuel for plants is coal. The main directions in improvement of coal energy technologies are related with better ignition of powered fuel and with gas and mazut substitution with coal powder. This paper considered the prospects of energy coal enrichment and the method for production of ultrafine coal with the average size of particles about 10-20 microns, and the existing machines for ultrafine coal production. This method increases substantially the velocity of ignition and combustion of pulverized coal flame. The changes of physical and chemical properties of coal after grinding were considered, the processes of ignition, combustion of micronized coal, spaying and stabilization of flame combustion were analyzed in this paper. The problem of ultrafine coal ignition were considered also.

  5. 60 micron luminosity evolution of rich clusters of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.M.; Rieke, G.H. (Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA))


    The average 60-micron flux has been determined for a collection of optically selected galaxy clusters at redshifts ranging from 0.30 to 0.92. The result, 26 mJy per cluster, represents the faintest flux determination known of using the IRAS data base. The flux from this set of clusters has been compared to the 60-micron flux from a sample of nearby galaxy clusters. It is found that the far-infrared luminosity evolution in cluster galaxies can be no more than a factor of 1.7 from z = 0.4 to the present epoch. This upper limit is close to the evolution predicted for simple aging of the stellar populations. Additional processes such as mergers, cannibalism, or enhanced rates of starbursts appear to occur at a low enough level that they have little influence on the far-infrared emission from clusters over this redshift range. 38 refs.

  6. Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC/VEx) 1 micron emissivity and Magellan microwave properties of crater-related radar-dark parabolas and other terrains (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Shalygina, O. S.; Bondarenko, N. V.; Shalygin, E. V.; Markiewicz, W. J.


    The aim of this work is a comparative study of several typical radar-dark parabolas, the neighboring plains and some other geologic units seen in the study areas which include craters Adivar, Bassi, Bathsheba, du Chatelet and Sitwell, at two depths scales: the upper several meters of the study object available through the Magellan-based microwave (at 12.6 cm wavelength) properties (microwave emissivity, Fresnel reflectivity, large-scale surface roughness, and radar cross-section), and the upper hundreds microns of the object characterized by the 1 micron emissivity resulted from the analysis of the near infra-red (NIR) irradiation of the night-side of the Venusian surface measured by the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) on-board of Venus Express (VEx).

  7. Development program for 1.93-micron lasers (United States)

    Longeway, P.; Zamerowski, T.; Martinelli, R.; Stolzenberger, R.; Digiuseppe, N.


    For the first time lasers operating at 1.93 microns were demonstrated. The lasers were fabricated by Vapor Phase Epitaxial (VPE) growth techniques currently used for the fabrication of high power lasers at 1.3 microns. The structure of these laser diodes consisted of compositionally graded, sulfur-doped InAsP, grown on an InP substrate; a constant-composition n+InAs(0.27)P(0.73) layer, which is the first cladding layer; an In(0.66)Ga(0.34)As layer, which is the active region, and a second InAs(0.27)P(0.73) layer. The devices were oxide-stripe DH lasers (gain-guided only). The best devices had 80 K lasing thresholds in the range of from 80 to 150 mA, and T sub o (below 220 K) in the range of 60 to 90 K. The highest observed temperature of oscillation was 15.5 C. The highest observed power output at 80 K was in the range of 3 to 5 mW. The calculated delta I/delta T was 4.4 A/K. As a part of the materials development, PIN homojunction detectors having the band edge near 1.93 were also fabricated. The best devices (100 micron diameter, mesa structure) exhibited room temperature dark currents in the range of from 20 to 50 nA and had QE at 1.93 microns in the range of 35 to 40 percent. In addition to the device results, the InGaAs-InAsP materials system was extensively investigated and low defect density layers can now be grown allowing for significant device performance improvement.

  8. micron-sized polymeric particles from cashew nut shell liquid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micron-sized polymeric particles from cashew nut shell liquid … 38 to 0.21 µm. When the concentration of. NaOH was increased further to 1.2 g/dm3 while keeping constant the values of the other variables, the extent of coagulation in the latex was found to have intensified; this gave rise to the increase in particle size to.

  9. Characterization of Micron-Scale Nanotublar Super Dielectric Materials (United States)


    unit of electrical resistance) r  relative permittivity of a dielectric material   permittivity of free space (or vacuum) m micron ( on fossil fuels and overall energy consumption [14]. The Navy set an energy goal to improve energy efficiency and reduce afloat fuel ...transient demands, a so-called “rolling reserve” that continuously burns fuel at a minimum load waiting for planned or unexpected needs [15]. In an

  10. McNary - Rough Fish Control (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the action is to enhance environmental conditions in the McNary Slough by reducing the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus...

  11. SMEX03 Surface Roughness Data, Alabama (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set SMEX03 Surface Roughness Data is comprised of data collected over the regional study areas of Alabama, Georgia, and Oklahoma, USA as part of the 2003...

  12. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces. (United States)

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun


    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s(-1). In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s(-1) (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties.

  13. Scanning SQUID susceptometers with sub-micron spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirtley, John R., E-mail:; Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Holland, Connor M.; Moler, Kathryn A. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4045 (United States); Paulius, Lisa [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States); Spanton, Eric M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4045 (United States); Schiessl, Daniel [Attocube Systems AG, Königinstraße 11A, 80539 Munich (Germany); Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Fung, Y.-K.K.; Gibson, Gerald W. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Huber, Martin E. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado 80217-3364 (United States); Ralph, Daniel C. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Ketchen, Mark B. [OcteVue, Hadley, Massachusetts 01035 (United States)


    Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopy has excellent magnetic field sensitivity, but suffers from modest spatial resolution when compared with other scanning probes. This spatial resolution is determined by both the size of the field sensitive area and the spacing between this area and the sample surface. In this paper we describe scanning SQUID susceptometers that achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while retaining a white noise floor flux sensitivity of ≈2μΦ{sub 0}/Hz{sup 1/2}. This high spatial resolution is accomplished by deep sub-micron feature sizes, well shielded pickup loops fabricated using a planarized process, and a deep etch step that minimizes the spacing between the sample surface and the SQUID pickup loop. We describe the design, modeling, fabrication, and testing of these sensors. Although sub-micron spatial resolution has been achieved previously in scanning SQUID sensors, our sensors not only achieve high spatial resolution but also have integrated modulation coils for flux feedback, integrated field coils for susceptibility measurements, and batch processing. They are therefore a generally applicable tool for imaging sample magnetization, currents, and susceptibilities with higher spatial resolution than previous susceptometers.

  14. Soft tissue engineering with micronized-gingival connective tissues. (United States)

    Noda, Sawako; Sumita, Yoshinori; Ohba, Seigo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Asahina, Izumi


    The free gingival graft (FGG) and connective tissue graft (CTG) are currently considered to be the gold standards for keratinized gingival tissue reconstruction and augmentation. However, these procedures have some disadvantages in harvesting large grafts, such as donor-site morbidity as well as insufficient gingival width and thickness at the recipient site post-treatment. To solve these problems, we focused on an alternative strategy using micronized tissue transplantation (micro-graft). In this study, we first investigated whether transplantation of micronized gingival connective tissues (MGCTs) promotes skin wound healing. MGCTs (≤100 µm) were obtained by mincing a small piece (8 mm 3 ) of porcine keratinized gingiva using the RIGENERA system. The MGCTs were then transplanted to a full skin defect (5 mm in diameter) on the dorsal surface of immunodeficient mice after seeding to an atelocollagen matrix. Transplantations of atelocollagen matrixes with and without micronized dermis were employed as experimental controls. The results indicated that MGCTs markedly promote the vascularization and epithelialization of the defect area 14 days after transplantation compared to the experimental controls. After 21 days, complete wound closure with low contraction was obtained only in the MGCT grafts. Tracking analysis of transplanted MGCTs revealed that some mesenchymal cells derived from MGCTs can survive during healing and may function to assist in wound healing. We propose here that micro-grafting with MGCTs represents an alternative strategy for keratinized tissue reconstruction that is characterized by low morbidity and ready availability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Demonstration of an optical enhancement cavity with 10 micron wavelength (United States)

    Sakaue, K.; Washio, M.; Endo, A.


    We have been developing a pulsed-laser optical enhancement cavity for laser-Compton scattering (LCS). LCS can produce high brightness X-ray through the collision between relativistic electrons generated from the accelerator and high power laser photons with a compact facility. In order to increase the number of collisions/sec, high repetition rate accelerator and laser are required. For the laser system, an optical enhancement cavity is the most powerful tool for LCS, thus we have been developing the cavity for storing 1 micron laser pulse. On the other hand, the resulting X-ray energy can be changed by the collision laser wavelength. If we have another optical cavity with different wavelength, the multicolor, quasi-monochromatic, high brightness and compact X-ray source can be realized. Therefore, we started to develop an optical cavity at 10 micron wavelength with CO2 laser. At this wavelength region, the absorption loss is dominant compared with scattering loss. Thus we carefully chose the optical mirrors for enhancement cavity. We demonstrated a more than 200 enhancement factor with 795 finesse optical cavity at 10 micron CO2 laser. Moreover, 2.3 kW storage in the optical cavity was successfully demonstrated. The design of optical cavity, first experimental results and future prospects will be presented at the conference.

  16. Turbulent thermal convection over rough surfaces (United States)

    Stringano, G.; Verzicco, R.; Pascazio, G.


    Convective heat transport has important applications in engineering and meteorology and a better understanding of heat transport phenomena would lead to improvements in technological applications such as cooling of thermal machines and micro-electronic components or cooling during a metallurgical fusion. It would also improve the prediction of geophysical motions in oceans and atmosphere. The use of rough surfaces is a way to enhance the heat flux. The interaction between the main shear flow and the rough surface creates secondary vortices that enhance the detachment of thermal plumes from the tip of the rough elements. In this work numerical simulations are conducted in a cylindrical cell heated from below and cooled from above in presence of rough surfaces. A comparison of Rayleigh versus Nusselt number scaling between rough surfaces and smooth ones shows enhanced heat fluxes. The flow is solved using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the three dimensional unsteady Navier Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and an immersed boundary approach is used for the treatment of rough surfaces.

  17. General Regularities of Wood Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGOSS, Endre


    Full Text Available The surface roughness of wood products is depending on many factors related both towood properties and wood working operational parameters. Probably this is the reason why there areno generally valid correlation determining surface roughness parameters as a function of influencingfactors. In particular, the account of wood structure in the surface roughness interpretation proved tobe difficult.In the last years an important progress was made in recognizing the role of the anatomicalstructure of wood species in the attainable surface roughness. The introduction of a structure numbermade it possible to express and characterize the different wood species numerically.The aim of these studies was the separation of roughness components due to the anatomicalstructure and the woodworking operation. Using a special finishing technique, the roughnesscomponent due to woodworking operations was not significant and could be separated. The samespecimens were also subjected to different woodworking operations using cutting velocities between10 and 50 m/s. The processing of experimental data resulted in a chart showing the minimumroughness component due to different woodworking operations. Special experimental investigationwas conducted to clear the influence of edge dullness on the surface roughness, especially on itsAbbott-parameters. The measurements showed that the Rk-parameter is a good indicator to predictedge dullness.

  18. Solar-Powered, Micron-Gap Thermophotovoltaics for MEO Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an InGaAs-based, radiation-tolerant, micron-gap thermophotovoltaic (MTPV) technology. The use of a micron wide gap between the radiation...

  19. Note: Adhesive stamp electrodes using spider silk masks for electronic transport measurements of supra-micron sized samples (United States)

    Steven, E.; Jobiliong, E.; Eugenio, P. M.; Brooks, J. S.


    A procedure for fabricating adhesive stamp electrodes based on gold coated adhesive tape used to measure electronic transport properties of supra-micron samples in the lateral range 10-100 μm and thickness >1 μm is described. The electrodes can be patterned with a ˜4 μm separation by metal deposition through a mask using Nephila clavipes spider dragline silk fibers. Ohmic contact is made by adhesive lamination of a sample onto the patterned electrodes. The performance of the electrodes with temperature and magnetic field is demonstrated for the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF)2PF6 and single crystal graphite, respectively.

  20. Roughness influence on human blood drop spreading and splashing (United States)

    Smith, Fiona; Buntsma, Naomi; Brutin, David


    The impact behaviour of complex fluid droplets is a topic that has been extensively studied but with much debate. The Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) community is encountering this scientific problem with daily practical cases since they use bloodstains as evidence in crime scene reconstruction. We aim to provide fundamental explanations in the study of blood drip stains by investigating the influence of surface roughness and wettability on the splashing limit of droplets of blood, a non-Newtonian colloidal fluid. Droplets of blood impacting perpendicularly different surfaces at different velocities were recorded. The recordings were analysed as well as the surfaces characteristics in order to find an empirical solution since we found that roughness plays a major role in the threshold of the splashing/non-splashing behaviour of blood compared to the wettability. Moreover it appears that roughness alters the deformation of the drip stains. These observations are key in characterising features of drip stains with the impacting conditions, which would answer some forensic issues.

  1. Combinatorial Block Copolymer Ordering on Tunable Rough Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Manish M.; Yager, Kevin G.; Sharma, Ashutosh; Karim, Alamgir (IIT-India); (Akron); (BNL)


    Morphology control of block copolymer (BCP) thin films through substrate interaction via controlled roughness parameters is of significant interest for numerous high-tech applications ranging from solar cells to high-density storage media. While effects of substrate surface energy (SE) and roughness (R) on BCP morphology have been individually investigated, their synergistic effects have not been explored in any systematic manner. Interestingly, orientation response of BCP to changes in SE can be similar to what can be accomplished with variations in R. Here we present a novel approach for orienting lamellar BCP films of poly(styrene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) on spin-coated xerogel (a dried gel of silica nanoparticle network) substrate with simultaneously tunable surface energy, {gamma}{sub s} {approx} 29-53 mJ/m{sup 2}, by UVO exposure and roughness, R{sub rms} {approx} 0.5-30 nm, by sol-gel processing steps of regulating the catalyst concentration and sol aging time. As in previous BCP orientation studies on 20 nm diameter monodisperse silica nanoparticle coated surface, we find a similar but broadened oscillatory BCP orientation behavior with film thickness due to the random rather than periodic rough surfaces. We also find that higher random roughness amplitude is not the necessary criteria for obtaining a vertical orientation of BCP lamellae. Rather, a high surface fractal dimension (D{sub f} > 2.4) of the rough substrate in conjunction with an optimal substrate surface energy {gamma}{sub s} {approx} 29 mJ/m{sup 2} results in 100% vertically oriented lamellar microdomains. The AFM measured film surface microstructure correlates well with the internal 3D BCP film structure probed by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and rotational small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In contrast to tunable self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-coated substrates, the xerogel films are very durable and retain their chemical properties over period

  2. Estimation of scattering from a moist rough surface with spheroidal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    x y. E. D K K g K K π. ∞. −∞. = ∫ ∫. (7). 1. 1. ( . ) d d ,. 2 z z x y x y. E. D K K g K K π. ∞. −∞. = ∫ ∫. (8) where. 1 exp( . ). x x y z g. jK. jK y jK Z. = +. +. Now the expression for transmission loss and absorption loss for the wave guide scattering pattern model under rough surface can be written as (Shimaru 1978), r abs r. 2 cos.

  3. Rough Set Based Splitting Criterion for Binary Decision Tree Classifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikulski, Dariusz G


    ...%ation based on rough set theory - the rough product. The rough product helps us to understand the manner in which an attribute value partition affects the upper approximation for each decision class...

  4. Enhancing Low-Temperature and Pressureless Sintering of Micron Silver Paste Based on an Ether-Type Solvent (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Wanli; Gao, Yue; Zhang, Hao; Jiu, Jinting; Suganuma, Katsuaki


    Micron silver paste enables a low-temperature and pressureless sintering process by using an ether-type solvent CELTOL-IA (C x H y O z , x > 10, boiling point of approximately 200°C) for the die attachment of high-powered devices. The conductive patterns formed by the silver paste had a low electrical resistivity of 8.45 μΩ cm at 180°C. The paste also achieved a high bonding strength above 30 MPa at 180°C without the assistance of pressures. These superior performance indicators result from the favorable removal of the solvent, its thermal behavior, and its good wetting on the silver layer. The results suggest that the micron silver paste with a suitable solvent can promote the further spreading of next-generation power devices owing to its marked cost advantage and excellent performance.

  5. Effect of roughness on water flow through a single rough fracture (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Zhou, Z.; WANG, J.; Guo, Q.; Dou, Z.


    A single fracture (SF) usually has rough surfaces with points of contact. Though relative roughness was considered in quantifying flow through a single rough fracture (SRF) previously, additional factors such as the distribution of rough elements and bending degree of streamlines are rarely considered before. Semi-empirical friction factor (f) and discharge per unit width (q) equations are first deduced based on the consideration of relative roughness, roughness elements distribution and streamline reattachment length in this study. A horizontal SRF model is set up and a series of experiments and simulations are performed. Main conclusions are drawn: recirculation of streamlines occurred in the rough element and its intensity increases with the entering angle of the streamlines into the element and Reynolds number (Re); streamlines are discontinuously distributed when asperity height is large, leading to departure from Darcy's law (non-linear flow); the non-linearity of flow increases with the asperity height and Re; the relative roughness for not affecting water flow through a SRF should be much less than 0.033, a benchmark value commonly used previously for neglecting the roughness effect; the revised f and q equations under laminar flow through a SRF are shown to be better than previously proposed equations.

  6. Patterning of dispenser cathode surfaces to a controlled porosity (United States)

    Garner, Charles E.; Deininger, William D.; Gibson, John; Thomas, Richard


    A process to pattern slots approximately 1.25 microns in width into 25-micron-thick W films that have been deposited onto flat or concave surfaces is discussed. A 25-micron-thick W film with a high degree of (100) orientation is chemically vapor deposited (CVD) onto a flat or concave Mo mandrel. A 5-micron-thick Al film is deposited onto the CVD W, followed by 2 microns of photoresist. On concave cathodes, XeCl2 laser ablation or X-ray lithography is used to pattern the photoresist, whereas on flat cathodes deep UV lithography can be used. The patterned photoresist serves as the mask in a Cl ion-beam-assisted etching (IBAE) process to pattern the Al. An alternative process is to deposit Al2O3 films onto the W and pattern the Al2O3 using laser ablation. The W film is then patterned to 3-6-micron slot widths using IBAE + ClF3 with the patterned Al or Al2O3 as the mask. Finally, a sputter deposition step is required to close up the slots to approximately 1 micron. The process described is capable of patterning concave dispenser cathodes to a controlled and precise porosity.

  7. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene (United States)

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou; Gammelgaard, Lene; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen; Mackenzie, David M. A.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Bøggild, Peter; Booth, Timothy J.


    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error to the rms vibrational amplitudes of carbon atoms in bulk graphite. Our first-principles calculations of the phonon bands in graphene/hBN heterostructures show that the flexural acoustic phonon mode is localized predominantly in the hBN layer. Consequently, the flexural displacement of the atoms in the graphene layer is strongly suppressed when it is supported by hBN, and this effect increases when graphene is fully encapsulated.

  8. Micron-scale lens array having diffracting structures (United States)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A


    A novel micron-scale lens, a microlens, is engineered to concentrate light efficiently onto an area of interest, such as a small, light-sensitive detector element in an integrated electronic device. Existing microlens designs imitate the form of large-scale lenses and are less effective at small sizes. The microlenses described herein have been designed to accommodate diffraction effects, which dominate the behavior of light at small length scales. Thus a new class of light-concentrating optical elements with much higher relative performance has been created. Furthermore, the new designs are much easier to fabricate than previous designs.

  9. Bottom friction and wave-induced roughness (United States)

    Lepesqueur, J.; Ardhuin, F.; Bennis, A.-C.


    The parameterization of the interaction of waves with a sandy bottom including ripple generation and relict ripple roughness (Ardhuin et al. 2003) using the sub-grid roughness algorithm by Tolman (1995) has been implemented in the WAVEWATCH III model and generalized to take into account the variability of the bottom nature, including rock and cohesive sediments. The model is applied with a triangle-based mesh to both the U.S. East-Coast and the French Atlantic to North Sea coasts. The hindcast wave heights over the North Carolina continental shelf during the SHOaling Waves EXperiment reproduce the results of Ardhuin et al. (2003). The new application in the English Channel and Southern North see shows a general better result that with the JONSWAP parameterization. In particular the use of realistic roughness is important with gravel in the central Channel and sand or sand/silt mixtures in the southern North Sea.

  10. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun


    The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  11. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow-roughness interaction over surfaces of rigid and flexible roughness (United States)

    Toloui, Mostafa; Hong, Jiarong


    The influence of flexible surface roughness on wall-bounded turbulent flows is examined experimentally via simultaneous 3D fluid velocity and roughness deformation measurements using Digital inline holographic PTV (i.e. DIH-PTV, Toloui et al. Meas. Sci. & Tech 2017). The experiments are conducted in a refractive-index-matched turbulent channel over two rough surface panels of similar geometry but with an order of magnitude difference in elastic modulus (1.8 Mpa vs. 0.2 Mpa). The roughness elements (i.e. tapered cylinders of 0.35 mm in base diameter, 3 mm in height, 4 mm spacing) are designed such that the rough surface with higher modulus shows no deformation (namely rigid roughness) while the one with lower elasticity deforms appreciably under the same flow conditions (Reh 32500 , based on centerline velocity and channel width). The concurrent fluid velocity and roughness deformation measurements are acquired with 160 μs temporal, 1.1 mm/vector velocity, and linked to roughness deformation. The fingerprint of this energy exchange on shortening the instantaneous flow structures, reduction of Reynolds stresses as well as flow features in energy spectra are examined and will be presented in detail.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.М. Karuskevich


    Full Text Available  The experiments are aimed to develop a new non-destructive method for fatigue damage diagnostics. This method is based on monitoring deformation roughness which is formed on the surface of aluminum structural alloys. The evolution of this roughness near the stress concentrator has been monitored at various stages of fatigue life under the stress level close to the operational stress level on the fuselage skin of modern aircraft. The deformation relief under static loads  is represented as well.

  13. Hailstone classifier based on Rough Set Theory (United States)

    Wan, Huisong; Jiang, Shuming; Wei, Zhiqiang; Li, Jian; Li, Fengjiao


    The Rough Set Theory was used for the construction of the hailstone classifier. Firstly, the database of the radar image feature was constructed. It included transforming the base data reflected by the Doppler radar into the bitmap format which can be seen. Then through the image processing, the color, texture, shape and other dimensional features should be extracted and saved as the characteristic database to provide data support for the follow-up work. Secondly, Through the Rough Set Theory, a machine for hailstone classifications can be built to achieve the hailstone samples’ auto-classification.

  14. Fuzzy sets, rough sets, multisets and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlbom, Anders; Narukawa, Yasuo


    This book is dedicated to Prof. Sadaaki Miyamoto and presents cutting-edge papers in some of the areas in which he contributed. Bringing together contributions by leading researchers in the field, it concretely addresses clustering, multisets, rough sets and fuzzy sets, as well as their applications in areas such as decision-making. The book is divided in four parts, the first of which focuses on clustering and classification. The second part puts the spotlight on multisets, bags, fuzzy bags and other fuzzy extensions, while the third deals with rough sets. Rounding out the coverage, the last part explores fuzzy sets and decision-making.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, C.


    Surface roughness values for the areas surrounding the H, D and N-Area meteorological towers were computed from archived 2010 meteorological data. These 15-minute-averaged data were measured with cup anemometers and bidirectional wind vanes (bivanes) 61 m above the surface. The results of the roughness calculation using the standard deviation of elevation angle {sigma}{sub E}, and applying the simple formula based on tree canopy height, gave consistent estimates for roughness around the H-Area tower in the range of 1.76 to 1.86 m (95% confidence interval) with a mean value of 1.81 m. Application of the {sigma}{sub E} method for the 61-m level at D and N-Areas gave mean values of 1.71 and 1.81 with confidence ranges of 1.62-1.81 and 1.73-1.88 meters, respectively. Roughness results are azimuth dependent, and thus are presented as averages over compass sectors spanning 22.5 degrees. Calculated values were compared to other methods of determining roughness, including the standard deviation of the azimuth direction, {sigma}{sub A}, and standard deviation of the wind speed, {sigma}{sub U}. Additional data was obtained from a sonic anemometer at 61-m on the H-Area tower during a period of a few weeks in 2010. Results from the sonic anemometer support our use of {sigma}{sub E} to calculate roughness. Based on the H-Area tower results, a surface roughness of 1.8 m using is recommended for use in dispersion modeling applications that consider the impacts of a contaminant release to individuals along the Site boundary. The canopy surrounding the H-Area tower is relatively uniform (i.e., little variance in roughness by upwind direction), and data supplied by the U.S. Forest Service at Savannah River show that the canopy height and composition surrounding the H-Area tower is reasonably representative of forested areas throughout the SRS reservation. For dispersion modeling analyses requiring assessments of a co-located worker within the respective operations area, recommended

  16. Prediction of Ductile Fracture Surface Roughness Scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needleman, Alan; Tvergaard, Viggo; Bouchaud, Elisabeth


    Experimental observations have shown that the roughness of fracture surfaces exhibit certain characteristic scaling properties. Here, calculations are carried out to explore the extent to which a ductile damage/fracture constitutive relation can be used to model fracture surface roughness scaling...... three dimensional stress and deformation states that develop in the fracture process region. An elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a progressively cavitating plastic solid is used to model the material. Two populations of second phase particles are represented: large inclusions with low....... The scaling properties of the predicted thickness average fracture surfaces are calculated and the results are discussed in light of experimental observations....

  17. Dynamic wetting on anisotropic patterned surfaces (United States)

    Do-Quang, Minh; Wang, Jiayu; Nita, Satoshi; Shiomi, Junichiro; Amberg, Gustav; Physiochemical fluid mechanics Team; Maruyama-Chiashi Laboratory Team


    Dynamic wetting, as occurs when a droplet of a wetting liquid is brought in contact with a dry solid, is important in various engineering processes, such as printing, coating, and lubrication. Our overall aim is to investigate if and how the detailed properties of the solid surface influence the dynamics of wetting. We have recently quantified the hindering effect of fairly isotropic micron-sized patterns on the substrate. Here we will study highly anisotropic surfaces, such as parallel grooves, either perpendicular or parallel to an advancing contact line. This is done by detailed phase field simulations and experiments on structured silicon surfaces. The dynamic wetting behavior of drops on the grooved surfaces is governed by the combined interplay of the wetting line friction and the internal viscous dissipation. Influence of roughness is quantified in terms of the energy dissipation rate at the contact line using the experiment-simulation combined analysis. The energy dissipation of the contact line at the different part of the groove will be discussed. The performance of the model is assessed by comparing its predictions with the experimental data. This work was financially supported in part by, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (J.W., S.N., and J.S) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (M.D.-Q. and G.A).

  18. Micron: an Actively Stabilized Handheld Tool for Microsurgery. (United States)

    Maclachlan, Robert A; Becker, Brian C; Tabarés, Jaime Cuevas; Podnar, Gregg W; Lobes, Louis A; Riviere, Cameron N


    We describe the design and performance of a hand-held actively stabilized tool to increase accuracy in micro-surgery or other precision manipulation. It removes involuntary motion such as tremor by actuating the tip to counteract the effect of the undesired handle motion. The key components are a three-degree-of-freedom piezoelectric manipulator that has 400 μm range of motion, 1 N force capability, and bandwidth over 100 Hz, and an optical position measurement subsystem that acquires the tool pose with 4 μm resolution at 2000 samples/s. A control system using these components attenuates hand motion by at least 15 dB (a fivefold reduction). By considering the effect of the frequency response of Micron on the human visual feedback loop, we have developed a filter that reduces unintentional motion, yet preserves intuitive eye-hand coordination. We evaluated the effectiveness of Micron by measuring the accuracy of the human/machine system in three simple manipulation tasks. Handheld testing by three eye surgeons and three non-surgeons showed a reduction in position error of between 32% and 52%, depending on the error metric.

  19. Griseofulvin micronization and dissolution rate improvement by supercritical assisted atomization. (United States)

    Reverchon, E; Della Porta, G; Spada, A; Antonacci, A


    Supercritical assisted atomization (SAA) was used to micronize griseofulvin (GF), selected as a model compound, to verify the performance of this innovative process. SAA is based on the solubilization of supercritical carbon dioxide in a liquid solution containing the drug. The ternary mixture is then sprayed through a nozzle and microparticles are formed as a consequence of the enhanced atomization. Precipitation temperature and drug concentration in the liquid solution were studied to evaluate their influence on morphology and size of precipitated particles. A good particle size control was obtained and GF spherical particles with mean diameters ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 microm were produced with a narrow particle size distribution. Processed GF was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV/vis, headspace-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection, differential scanning calorimetry, BET and X-ray analyses. No drug degradation was observed and a solvent residue (acetone) less than 800 ppm was measured. GF microparticles showed good stability and surface areas ranging from about 4 to 6 m(2) g(-1); moreover, the micronized drug retained the crystalline habit. GF capsules were formulated with starch and used to compare the dissolution rate of SAA-processed and conventional jet-milled drug. A faster dissolution and a better reproducibility of the dissolution profile were observed for SAA-processed GF.

  20. Immiscible displacement in a rough fracture: beyond Darcy's law (United States)

    Pahlavan, A. A.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; McKinley, G. H.; Juanes, R.


    The interplay between wetting and disorder, as well as the inherent complexity of porous media renders the description of immiscible displacement a daunting task. Nano-scale physics dictates the macroscopic behavior of the moving contact lines, which in turn determines the flow pattern. To shed light on this problem, we conduct experiments on rough radial Hele-Shaw cells and use the results to guide our modeling efforts. We saturate the cell with a highly viscous glycerol, and then inject a less viscous silicone oil at the center of the cell and visualize the displacement patterns. The surfaces are treated to alter their wettability, allowing us to study both drainage (less wetting liquid displacing a more wetting one) and imbibition (opposite of drainage) regimes. Viscous forces tend to destabilize the interfaces, whereas capillary forces play a stabilizing role; however, the disorder in the medium complicates this balance substantially: 1) it leads to heterogeneities in the permeability field and capillary pressure distribution, and 2) it changes the effective wettability of the medium and leads to contact line-pinning and hysteresis. We observe that at high capillary numbers (ratio of viscous forces to capillary forces), the disorder only weakly modulates the patterns, whereas at low capillary numbers, the disorder affects the flow pattern significantly; it leads to preferential flow paths in the drainage regime, and pinning and intermittent avalanche-like behavior in the imbibition regime. Based on these observations, we propose a phase diagram by incorporating the wettability, capillary number, and effective roughness of the medium as the controlling parameters. Inspired by these observations, we construct a thermodynamically-consistent phase-field model, taking the non-hydrodynamic interactions between the liquids and the solid surface into account. Our model goes beyond Darcy's law, which cannot describe the observed unstable displacements, by taking

  1. Roughness-induced streaming in turbulent wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    -averaged streaming characteristics induced by bottom roughness variations are systematically assessed. The effects of variable roughness ratio, gradual roughness transitions, as well as changing flow orientation in plan are all considered. As part of the latter, roughness-induced secondary flows are predicted...

  2. More on neutrosophic soft rough sets and its modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Marei


    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce and discuss anew mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainties, which is a combination of neutrosophic sets, soft sets and rough sets, namely neutrosophic soft rough set model. Also, its modification is introduced. Some of their properties are studied and supported with proved propositions and many counter examples. Some of rough relations are redefined as a neutrosophic soft rough relations. Comparisons among traditional rough model, suggested neutrosophic soft rough model and its modification, by using their properties and accuracy measures are introduced. Finally, we illustrate that, classical rough set model can be viewed as a special case of suggested models in this paper.

  3. High speed machined surface roughness measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface roughness monitoring techniques using non-contact methods based on computer vision technology are becoming popular and cost effective. An evolvable hardware configuration using reconfigurable Xilinx Virtex FPGA xcv1000 architecture with capability to compensate for poor illumination environment is ...

  4. Roughness vs. contrast in natural textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Egmond, R.; De Ridder, H.; Pappas, T.N.; Silva, P.M.


    We investigate the effect of contrast enhancement on the subjective roughness of visual textures. Our analysis is based on subjective experiments with seventeen images from the CUReT database in three variants: original, synthesized textures, and contrast-enhanced synthesized textures. In Experiment

  5. Distance upon contact : Determination from roughness profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Svetovoy, V. B.; Palasantzas, G.


    The point at which two random rough surfaces make contact takes place at the contact of the highest asperities. The distance upon contact d(0) in the limit of zero load has crucial importance for determination of dispersive forces. Using gold films as an example we demonstrate that for two parallel

  6. Determination of hydraulic resistance of rough annular channels by resistance of rough pipes (United States)

    Korsun, A. S.; Pisarevsky, M. I.; Fedoseev, V. N.; Kreps, M. V.


    According to the current calculation recommendations for turbulent flow, coefficient of hydraulic resistance of a smooth annular channel with an equivalent hydraulic diameter dh is assumed to be equal to the coefficient of hydraulic resistance of a pipe with a diameter dh multiplied by a conversion factor. The value of this conversion factor, depending on the Reynolds number and the ratio of the inner diameter of the annular channel to the outer diameter, varies from 1 to 1.07. That is, a smooth annular channel and a smooth pipe with the same hydraulic diameters have practically the same hydraulic resistance coefficients. In this paper, experiments were conducted to test the feasibility of such an approach to channels with rough walls. According to measurements of water flow and pressure gradient, the coefficients of hydraulic resistance of a rough annular channel and a pipe with hydraulic diameters dh = 6 mm were calculated and compared. A trapezoidal artificial roughness was applied to the surfaces, which are flowing with a liquid. The experiments were carried out on a water circuit in the Reynolds number range from 103 to 105 in the regime of full roughness. The obtained experimental results were compared with calculations of coefficients of hydraulic resistance of pipes with artificial roughness according to the existing recommendations. Conclusions are drawn on the possibility of determining the hydraulic resistance of rough annular channels through the resistance of rough pipes.

  7. Influence of random roughness on cantilever resonance frequency


    Ergincan, O.; Palasantzas, G.


    In this paper we investigate the influence of random roughness on the oscillation frequency of cantilevers coated with thin film overlayers. First the theory expressions for the roughness-induced frequency shift are derived using the cantilever equation of motion. Subsequently it is shown that the roughness induced shift depends on the particular roughness parameters, assuming the general case of self-affine rough surfaces for the overlayer film, the material properties of the overlayer film,...

  8. The 2-micron plasmid as a nonselectable, stable, high copy number yeast vector (United States)

    Ludwig, D. L.; Bruschi, C. V.


    The endogenous 2-microns plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used extensively for the construction of yeast cloning and expression plasmids because it is a native yeast plasmid that is able to be maintained stably in cells at high copy number. Almost invariably, these plasmid constructs, containing some or all 2-microns sequences, exhibit copy number levels lower than 2-microns and are maintained stably only under selective conditions. We were interested in determining if there was a means by which 2-microns could be utilized for vector construction, without forfeiting either copy number or nonselective stability. We identified sites in the 2-microns plasmid that could be used for the insertion of genetic sequences without disrupting 2-microns coding elements and then assessed subsequent plasmid constructs for stability and copy number in vivo. We demonstrate the utility of a previously described 2-microns recombination chimera, pBH-2L, for the manipulation and transformation of 2-microns as a pure yeast plasmid vector. We show that the HpaI site near the STB element in the 2-microns plasmid can be utilized to clone yeast DNA of at least 3.9 kb with no loss of plasmid stability. Additionally, the copy number of these constructs is as high as levels reported for the endogenous 2-microns.

  9. Effect of roughness on the conductivity of semiconducting thin films/quantum wells with double rough boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G; De Hosson, JTM


    We have investigated the influence of surface/interface roughness on the electrical conductivity in semiconducting thin films/quantum wells with double self-affine rough interface boundaries. The self-affine boundary roughness is characterized by the roughness exponent H, the in-plane correlation

  10. Deciphering sub-micron ice particles on Enceladus surface (United States)

    Scipioni, F.; Schenk, P.; Tosi, F.; D'Aversa, E.; Clark, R.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Ore, C. M. Dalle


    The surface of Saturn's moon Enceladus is composed primarily by pure water ice. The Cassini spacecraft has observed present-day geologic activity at the moon's South Polar Region, related with the formation and feeding of Saturn's E-ring. Plumes of micron-sized particles, composed of water ice and other non-ice contaminants (e.g., CO2, NH3, CH4), erupt from four terrain's fractures named Tiger Stripes. Some of this material falls back on Enceladus' surface to form deposits that extend to the North at ∼40°W and ∼220°W, with the highest concentration found at the South Pole. In this work we analyzed VIMS-IR data to identify plumes deposits across Enceladus' surface through the variation in band depth of the main water ice spectral features. To characterize the global variation of water ice band depths across Enceladus, the entire surface was sampled with an angular resolution of 1° in both latitude and longitude, and for each angular bin we averaged the value of all spectral indices as retrieved by VIMS. The position of the plumes' deposits predicted by theoretical models display a good match with water ice band depths' maps on the trailing hemisphere, whereas they diverge significantly on the leading side. Space weathering processes acting on Enceladus' surface ionize and break up water ice molecules, resulting in the formation of particles smaller than one micron. We also mapped the spectral indices for sub-micron particles and we compared the results with the plumes deposits models. Again, a satisfactory match is observed on the trailing hemisphere only. Finally, we investigated the variation of the depth of the water ice absorption bands as a function of the phase angle. In the visible range, some terrains surrounding the Tiger Stripes show a decrease in albedo when the phase angle is smaller than 10°. This unusual effect cannot be confirmed by near infrared data, since observations with a phase angle lower than 10° are not available. For phase angle

  11. Discovering sub-micron ice particles across Dione' surface (United States)

    Scipioni, Francesca; Schenk, Pual; Tosi, Federico; Clark, Roger; Dalle Ore, Cristina; Combe, Jean-Philippe


    Water ice is the most abundant component of Saturn’s mid-sized moons. However, these moons show an albedo asymmetry - their leading sides are bright while their trailing side exhibits dark terrains. Such differences arise from two surface alteration processes: (i) the bombardment of charged particles from the interplanetary medium and driven by Saturn’s magnetosphere on the trailing side, and (ii) the impact of E-ring water ice particles on the satellites’ leading side. As a result, the trailing hemisphere appears to be darker than the leading side. This effect is particularly evident on Dione's surface. A consequence of these surface alteration processes is the formation or the implantation of sub-micron sized ice particles.The presence of such particles influences and modifies the surfaces' spectrum because of Rayleigh scattering by the particles. In the near infrared range of the spectrum, the main sub-micron ice grains spectral indicators are: (i) asymmetry and (ii) long ward minimum shift of the absorption band at 2.02 μm (iii) a decrease in the ratio between the band depths at 1.50 and 2.02 μm (iv) a decrease in the height of the spectral peak at 2.6 μm (v) the suppression of the Fresnel reflection peak at 3.1 μm and (vi) the decrease of the reflection peak at 5 μm relative to those at 3.6 μm.We present results from our ongoing work mapping the variation of sub-micron ice grains spectral indicators across Dione' surface using Cassini-VIMS cubes acquired in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). To characterize the global variations of spectral indicators across Dione' surface, we divided it into a 1°x1° grid and then averaged the band depths and peak values inside each square cell.We will investigate if there exist a correspondence with water ice abundance variations by producing water ice' absorption band depths at 1.25, 1.52 and 2.02 μm, and with surface morphology by comparing the results with ISS color maps in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared

  12. Model for continuously scanning ultrasound vibrometer sensing displacements of randomly rough vibrating surfaces. (United States)

    Ratilal, Purnima; Andrews, Mark; Donabed, Ninos; Galinde, Ameya; Rappaport, Carey; Fenneman, Douglas


    An analytic model is developed for the time-dependent ultrasound field reflected off a randomly rough vibrating surface for a continuously scanning ultrasound vibrometer system in bistatic configuration. Kirchhoff's approximation to Green's theorem is applied to model the three-dimensional scattering interaction of the ultrasound wave field with the vibrating rough surface. The model incorporates the beam patterns of both the transmitting and receiving ultrasound transducers and the statistical properties of the rough surface. Two methods are applied to the ultrasound system for estimating displacement and velocity amplitudes of an oscillating surface: incoherent Doppler shift spectra and coherent interferometry. Motion of the vibrometer over the randomly rough surface leads to time-dependent scattering noise that causes a randomization of the received signal spectrum. Simulations with the model indicate that surface displacement and velocity estimation are highly dependent upon the scan velocity and projected wavelength of the ultrasound vibrometer relative to the roughness height standard deviation and correlation length scales of the rough surface. The model is applied to determine limiting scan speeds for ultrasound vibrometer measuring ground displacements arising from acoustic or seismic excitation to be used in acoustic landmine confirmation sensing.

  13. Backscattering of linearly polarized light from turbid tissue-like scattering medium with rough surface (United States)

    Doronin, Alexander; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Markhvida, Igor; Lee, Tim K.; Meglinski, Igor


    In the framework of further development of a unified computational tool for the needs of biomedical optics, we introduce an electric field Monte Carlo (MC) model for simulation of backscattering of coherent linearly polarized light from a turbid tissue-like scattering medium with a rough surface. We consider the laser speckle patterns formation and the role of surface roughness in the depolarization of linearly polarized light backscattered from the medium. The mutual phase shifts due to the photons' pathlength difference within the medium and due to reflection/refraction on the rough surface of the medium are taken into account. The validation of the model includes the creation of the phantoms of various roughness and optical properties, measurements of co- and cross-polarized components of the backscattered/reflected light, its analysis and extensive computer modeling accelerated by parallel computing on the NVIDIA graphics processing units using compute unified device architecture (CUDA). The analysis of the spatial intensity distribution is based on second-order statistics that shows a strong correlation with the surface roughness, both with the results of modeling and experiment. The results of modeling show a good agreement with the results of experimental measurements on phantoms mimicking human skin. The developed MC approach can be used for the direct simulation of light scattered by the turbid scattering medium with various roughness of the surface.

  14. Effect finishing and polishing procedures on the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic. (United States)

    Boaventura, Juliana Maria Capelozza; Nishida, Rodrigo; Elossais, André Afif; Lima, Darlon Martins; Reis, José Mauricio Santos Nunes; Campos, Edson Alves; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi


    To evaluate the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic when treated with different finishing/polishing protocols. Sixteen specimens of IPS Empress 2 ceramic were made from wax patterns obtained using a stainless steel split mold. The specimens were glazed (Stage 0-S0, control) and divided into two groups. The specimens in Group 1 (G1) were finished/polished with a KG Sorensen diamond point (S1), followed by KG Sorensen siliconized points (S2) and final polishing with diamond polish paste (S3). In Group 2 (G2), the specimens were finished/polished using a Shofu diamond point (S1), as well as Shofu siliconized points (S2) and final polishing was performed using Porcelize paste (S3). After glazing (S0) and following each polishing procedure (S1, S2 or S3), the surface roughness was measured using TALYSURF Series 2. The average surface roughness results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc tests (α = 0.01) RESULTS: All of the polishing procedures yielded higher surface roughness values when compared to the control group (S0). S3 yielded lower surface roughness values when compared to S1 and S2. The proposed treatments negatively affected the surface roughness of the glazed IPS Empress 2 ceramic.

  15. Shock-wave micron-size diamond synthesis from fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epanchintsev, O.G.; Zubchenko, A.S.; Kobelev, N.N. [Federal Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others


    Shock-wave synthesis of micron-size diamond is performed from fullerenes C{sub 60} -- C {sub 150} powders using the explosive compaction technique with plane shock-wave loading at different pressures in the range of 24-40 GPa. The compacts of different initial compositions consisted of diamond, fcc fullerite C{sub 60}, graphite and amorphous carbon. The most coarse diamond grains sized up to 6 {mu}n were formed at the shock pressure of 24 and 40 GPa in the compacts of initial powder mixture copper-5 mass.% fullerite and at shock pressure of 40 GPa in the compact of initial powder mixture copper - 10 mass.% fullerite. Shock-wave synthesis of diamond is performed without forming intermediate diamond-like phases, such as n-diamond and lonsdaleite (hexagonal diamond) in the final products.

  16. Mars Atmospheric Characterization Using Advanced 2-Micron Orbiting Lidar (United States)

    Singh, U.; Engelund, W.; Refaat, T.; Kavaya, M.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.


    Mars atmospheric characterization is critical for exploring the planet. Future Mars missions require landing massive payloads to the surface with high accuracy. The accuracy of entry, descent and landing (EDL) of a payload is a major technical challenge for future Mars missions. Mars EDL depends on atmospheric conditions such as density, wind and dust as well as surface topography. A Mars orbiting 2-micron lidar system is presented in this paper. This advanced lidar is capable of measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles using the most abundant atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on Mars. In addition Martian winds and surface altimetry can be mapped, independent of background radiation or geographical location. This orbiting lidar is a valuable tool for developing EDL models for future Mars missions.

  17. Two Micron Laser Technology Advancements at NASA Langley Research Center (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.


    An Independent Laser Review Panel set up to examine NASA s space-based lidar missions and the technology readiness of lasers appropriate for space-based lidars indicated a critical need for an integrated research and development strategy to move laser transmitter technology from low technical readiness levels to the higher levels required for space missions. Based on the review, a multiyear Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) was initiated by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that ensure the successful development of the broad range of lidar missions envisioned by NASA. This presentation will provide an overview of the development of pulsed 2-micron solid-state laser technologies at NASA Langley Research Center for enabling space-based measurement of wind and carbon dioxide.

  18. Short range investigation of sub-micron zirconia particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caracoche, M C; Martinez, J A [Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, CICPBA, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Rivas, P C [IFLP-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Bondioli, F; Cannillo, V [Dipartimento di Ingegniria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia (Italy); Ferrari, A M, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienza a Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia (Italy)


    The Perturbed Angular Correlations technique was used to determine the configurations around Zirconium ions and their thermal behavior in non-aggregated sub-micron zirconia spherical particles. Three residues containing- Zr surroundings were determined for the non-crystalline starting particles, which were identified under the assumption of a certain chemical reactions sequence during synthesis. While the one made up mainly by hydroxyl groups was common to both samples, the two involving mainly organic residues were particle size dependent. Upon crystallization, both samples stabilized in the t'- and t- tetragonal forms and the Xc-cubic form but their amounts and temperatures of appearance were different. On heating, the structure of the smaller particles became gradually monoclinic achieving total degradation upon the subsequent cooling to RT.

  19. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, Siddharth S. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); de Boer, Maarten Pieter (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Boyce, Brad Lee; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Foulk, James W., III; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.


    Designing reliable MEMS structures presents numerous challenges. Polycrystalline silicon fractures in a brittle manner with considerable variability in measured strength. Furthermore, it is not clear how to use a measured tensile strength distribution to predict the strength of a complex MEMS structure. To address such issues, two recently developed high throughput MEMS tensile test techniques have been used to measure strength distribution tails. The measured tensile strength distributions enable the definition of a threshold strength as well as an inferred maximum flaw size. The nature of strength-controlling flaws has been identified and sources of the observed variation in strength investigated. A double edge-notched specimen geometry was also tested to study the effect of a severe, micron-scale stress concentration on the measured strength distribution. Strength-based, Weibull-based, and fracture mechanics-based failure analyses were performed and compared with the experimental results.

  20. Tunneling of micron-sized droplets through soap films. (United States)

    Kim, Ildoo; Wu, X L


    When a micron-sized water droplet impacts on a freely suspended soap film with speed v(i), there exists a critical impact velocity of penetration v(C). Droplets with v(i)film after impacts, whereas droplets with v(i)>v(C) tunnel through it. In all cases, the film remains intact despite the fact that the droplet radius (R_{0}=26 μm) is much greater than the film thickness (0film is required for penetration. Quantitatively, we found that this deformation energy corresponds to the creation of ∼14 times of the cross-sectional area of the droplet (14πR(0)(2)) or a critical Weber number We(C)}(≡2ρ(w) v(C0)(2) R(0)/σ)≃44 , where ρ(w) and σ are, respectively, the density and the surface tension of water.

  1. Dynamical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Micron-scale Liquids (United States)

    Sixta, Aimee; Choate, Alexandra; Maeker, Jake; Bogat, Sophia; Tennant, Daniel; Mozaffari, Shirin; Markert, John

    We report our efforts in the development of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (NMRFM) for dynamical imaging of liquid media at the micron scale. Our probe contains microfluidic samples sealed in thin-walled (µm) quartz tubes, with a micro-oscillator sensor nearby in vacuum to maintain its high mechanical resonance quality factor. Using 10 µm spherical permalloy magnets at the oscillator tips, a 3D T1-resolved image of spin density can be obtained by reconstruction from our magnetostatics-modelled resonance slices; as part of this effort, we are exploring single-shot T1 measurements for faster dynamical imaging. We aim to further enhance imaging by using a 2 ω technique to eliminate artifact signals during the cyclic inversion of nuclear spins. The ultimate intent of these efforts is to perform magnetic resonance imaging of individual biological cells.

  2. EUV mask reflectivity measurements with micron-scale spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Rekawa, S.B.; Kemp, C.D.; Barty, A.; Anderson, E.H.; Kearney, Patrick; Han, Hakseung


    The effort to produce defect-free mask blanks for EUV lithography relies on increasing the detection sensitivity of advanced mask inspection tools, operating at several wavelengths. We describe the unique measurement capabilities of a prototype actinic (EUV wavelength) microscope that is capable of detecting small defects and reflectivity changes that occur on the scale of microns to nanometers. Types of defects: (a) Buried Substrate Defects: particles & pits (causes amplitude and/or phase variations); (b) Surface Contamination (reduces reflectivity and (possibly) contrast); (c) Damage from Inspection and Use (reduces the reflectivity of the multilayer coating). This paper presents an overview of several topics where scanning actinic inspection makes a unique contribution to EUVL research. We describe the role of actinic scanning inspection in four cases: defect repair studies; observations of laser damage; after scanning electron microscopy; and native and programmed defects.

  3. Acoustically enhanced combustion of micronized coal water slurry fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopmann, G. M.; Scaroni, A. W.; Yavuzkurt, S.; Reethof, G.; Ramachandran, P.; Ha, M. Y.


    A multi-faceted investigation has been carried out to demonstrate analytically and experimentally, that a high intensity acoustic field can be substantially enhance the convective transfer processes occurring during MCWSF (micronized coal water slurry fuel) combustion. The initial stage of the investigation dealt with elucidating the transient as well as time-averaged efforts of high intensity acoustic fields on the heat and mass transfer between a single spherical particle and its environment. A two-dimensional unsteady computer code was developed, which employs the unsteady conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations for laminar flow in spherical coordinates. One objective of the present project was the modeling of MCWSF combustion in a laboratory scale combustor with and without the application of a sonic field. The influence of various operating parameters (sound frequency and level, etc.) on sonic enhancement could thus be studied. The combustion of pulverized coal (PC) was also modeled for the sake of comparison. The first of the two coal combustion experiments was performed using a flat flame methane-air burner. Micronized coal was injected in the same direction as, and burned together with the methane. The final investigation was carried out in a 300,000 Btu/h sonic combustor. For the runs conducted, SPLs of 156 dB and 145 dB, respectively, were measured below the fuel injection point and before the exit to the combustor. Frequency was held at 1400 Hz. Finally, an attempt was made to model the runs performed in the down-fired unit, using the PCGC-2 code. 61 refs., 60 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Tactile perception of the roughness of the end of a tool: what role does tool handle roughness play? (United States)

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Mawhinney, Sara; Spence, Charles


    We investigated whether the perceived roughness of the end of a tool is influenced by the texture of the handle used to hold it. Participants rated the roughness of the ends (caps) of a series of tools by rubbing them along their forearm, and indicated the perceived roughness of the tool's cap by means of an anchored visual scale. The caps of the tools had one of eight different levels of roughness varying from very smooth (sample 1) to very rough (sample 8). The participants held the tool handle in one hand while rubbing the cap of the tool against their contralateral forearm. The tool handle was either smooth (similar in smoothness to sample 1) or else very rough (matched in roughness to sample 8). Overall, participants were remarkably good at ignoring the roughness of the tool's handle when discriminating the roughness of the tool's cap. Nevertheless, the roughness of the tool handle was shown to modulate roughness judgments concerning the tool cap under certain conditions: in particular, tool caps at the rougher end of the scale (6 and 7) were rated as being significantly less rough when the participants held tools with a rough handle than when they held tools with a smooth handle. Our results therefore demonstrate a small but significant effect of the roughness of the handle of a tool on the perceived roughness of its cap.

  5. Rough primes and rough conversations: evidence for a modality-specific basis to mental metaphors. (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Denke, Claudia; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael


    How does our brain organize knowledge? Traditional theories assume that our knowledge is represented abstractly in an amodal conceptual network of formal logic symbols. The theory of embodied cognition challenges this view and argues that conceptual representations that constitute our knowledge are grounded in sensory and motor experiences. We tested this hypothesis by examining how the concept of social coordination is grounded metaphorically in the tactile sensation of roughness. Participants experienced rough or smooth touch before being asked to judge an ambiguous social interaction. Results revealed that rough touch made social interactions appear more difficult and adversarial, consistent with the rough metaphor. This impact of tactile cues on social impressions was accompanied by a network including primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, amygdala, hippocampus and inferior prefrontal cortex. Thus, the roughness of tactile stimulation affected metaphor-relevant (but not metaphor-irrelevant) behavioral and neural responses. Receiving touch from a rough object seems to trigger the application of associated ontological concepts (or scaffolds) even for unrelated people and situations (but not to unrelated or more general feelings). Since this priming was based on somatosensory brain areas, our results provide support for the theory that sensorimotor grounding is intrinsic to cognitive processes. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Offshore Wind Power at Rough Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian Rasmus; Madsen, Erik Skov; Bilberg, Arne


    This study compare the current operations and maintenance issues of one offshore wind park at very rough sea conditions and two onshore wind parks. Through a detailed data analysis and case studies this study identifies how improvements have been made in maintenance of large wind turbines. Howeve......, the study has also revealed the need for new maintenance models including a shift from breakdown and preventive maintenances and towards more predictive maintenance to reduce the cost of energy for offshore wind energy installations in the future.......This study compare the current operations and maintenance issues of one offshore wind park at very rough sea conditions and two onshore wind parks. Through a detailed data analysis and case studies this study identifies how improvements have been made in maintenance of large wind turbines. However...

  7. Analysis of accuracy in photogrammetric roughness measurements (United States)

    Olkowicz, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Marcin; Pluymakers, Anne


    Regarding permeability, one of the most important features of shale gas reservoirs is the effective aperture of cracks opened during hydraulic fracturing, both propped and unpropped. In a propped fracture, the aperture is controlled mostly by proppant size and its embedment, and fracture surface roughness only has a minor influence. In contrast, in an unpropped fracture aperture is controlled by the fracture roughness and the wall displacement. To measure fracture surface roughness, we have used the photogrammetric method since it is time- and cost-efficient. To estimate the accuracy of this method we compare the photogrammetric measurements with reference measurements taken with a White Light Interferometer (WLI). Our photogrammetric setup is based on high resolution 50 Mpx camera combined with a focus stacking technique. The first step for photogrammetric measurements is to determine the optimal camera positions and lighting. We compare multiple scans of one sample, taken with different settings of lighting and camera positions, with the reference WLI measurement. The second step is to perform measurements of all studied fractures with the parameters that produced the best results in the first step. To compare photogrammetric and WLI measurements we regrid both data sets onto a regular 10 μm grid and determined the best fit, followed by a calculation of the difference between the measurements. The first results of the comparison show that for 90 % of measured points the absolute vertical distance between WLI and photogrammetry is less than 10 μm, while the mean absolute vertical distance is 5 μm. This proves that our setup can be used for fracture roughness measurements in shales.

  8. Roughness Length Variability over Heterogeneous Surfaces (United States)


    By this definition , roughness length, although defined at a specific point , substantially depends upon the morphology of the surface in some...circulations at Cape Canaveral have been conducted in situ using Doppler radar and cloud photogrammetry (Wakimoto and Atkins 1993); observations (Reed 1979...the sea-breeze front during CaPE. part I: single-Doppler, satellite, and cloud photogrammetry analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 1092–1114. Wang, Q

  9. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Eissa


    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.

  10. Characterizing overwater roughness Reynolds number during hurricanes (United States)

    Hsu, S. A.; Shen, Hui; He, Yijun


    The Reynolds number, which is the dimensionless ratio of the inertial force to the viscous force, is of great importance in the theory of hydrodynamic stability and the origin of turbulence. To investigate aerodynamically rough flow over a wind sea, pertinent measurements of wind and wave parameters from three data buoys during Hurricanes Kate, Lili, Ivan, Katrina, Rita, and Wilma are analyzed. It is demonstrated that wind seas prevail when the wind speed at 10 m and the wave steepness exceed 9 m s-1 and 0.020, respectively. It is found that using a power law the roughness Reynolds number is statistically significantly related to the significant wave height instead of the wind speed as used in the literature. The reason for this characterization is to avoid any self-correlation between Reynolds number and the wind speed. It is found that although most values of R_{*} were below 500, they could reach to approximately 1000 near the radius of maximum wind. It is shown that, when the significant wave height exceeds approximately 2 m in a wind sea, the air flow over that wind sea is already under the fully rough condition. Further analysis of simultaneous measurements of wind and wave parameters using the logarithmic law indicates that the estimated overwater friction velocity is consistent with other methods including the direct (eddy-covariance flux) measurements, the atmospheric vorticity approach, and the sea-surface current measurements during four slow moving super typhoons with wind speed up to 70 m s-1.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeill, G.; Reece, C.


    Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities have gained widespread use in accelerator systems. It has been shown that surface roughness is a determining factor in the cavities’ effi ciency and maximum accelerating potential achievable through this technology. Irregularities in the surface can lead to spot heating, undesirable local electrical fi eld enhancement and electron multipacting. Surface quality is typically ensured through the use of acid etching in a Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) bath and electropolishing (EP). In this study, the effects of these techniques on surface morphology have been investigated in depth. The surface of niobium samples polished using different combinations of these techniques has been characterized through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and stylus profi lometry across a range of length scales. The surface morphology was analyzed using spectral techniques to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. Experimentation has shown that this method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales. It has demonstrated that light BCP pretreatment and lower electrolyte temperature favors a smoother electropolish. These results will allow for the design of a superior polishing process for niobium SRF cavities and therefore increased accelerator operating effi ciency and power.

  12. Fabrication of micron and submicron gratings by using plasma treatment on the curved polydimethylsiloxane surfaces (United States)

    Yang, Jiangtao; Tang, Jun; Guo, Hao; Liu, Wenyao; Shen, Chong; Liu, Jun; Qin, Li


    Here, a simple and low-cost fabrication strategy to efficiently construct well-ordered micron and submicron gratings on polymeric substrates by oxygen plasma treatment is reported. The Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate is prepared on the polyethylene (PET) by spin-coating method, then the curved PDMS-PET substrates are processed in oxygen plasma. After appropriate surface treatment time in plasma the curved substrates are flattened, and well-ordered wrinkling shape gratings are obtained, due to the mechanical buckling instability. It is also demonstrated that changing the curvature radius of PDMS-PET substrates and the time of plasma treatment, the period of the wrinkling patterns and the amplitude of grating also change accordingly. It is found the period of the wrinkling patterns increased with the radius of curvature; while the amplitude decreased with that. It also shows good optical performance in transmittance diffraction testing experiments. Thus the well-ordered grating approach may further develop portable and economical applications and offer a valuable method to fabricate other optical micro strain gauges devices.

  13. Anisotropic spreading of liquid metal on a rough intermetallic surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen


    Full Text Available An anisotropic wicking of molten Sn-Pb solder over an intermetallic rough surface has been studied. The phenomenon features preferential spreading and forming of an elliptical spread domain. A theoretically formulated model was established to predict the ratio of the wicking distance along the long axis (rx to that along the short axis (ry of the final wicking pattern. The phenomenon was simultaneously experimentally observed and recorded with a hotstage microscopy technique. The anisotropic wicking is established to be caused by a non-uniform topography of surface micro structures as opposed to an isotropic wicking on an intermetallic surface with uniformly distributed surface micro features. The relative deviation between the theoretically predicted rx/ry ratio and the corresponding average experimental value is 5%. Hence, the small margin of error confirms the validity of the proposed theoretical model of anisotropic wicking.

  14. Selection of quasi-monodisperse super-micron aerosol particles (United States)

    Rösch, Michael; Pfeifer, Sascha; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank


    Size-segregated quasi monodisperse particles are essential for e.g. fundamental research concerning cloud microphysical processes. Commonly a DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer) is used to produce quasi-monodisperse submicron particles. Thereto first, polydisperse aerosol particles are bipolarly charged by a neutralizer, and then selected according to their electrical mobility with the DMA [Knutson et al. 1975]. Selecting a certain electrical mobility with a DMA results in a particle size distribution, which contains singly charged particles as well as undesired multiply charged larger particles. Often these larger particles need to either be removed from the generated aerosol or their signals have to be corrected for in the data inversion and interpretation process. This problem becomes even more serious when considering super-micron particles. Here we will present two different techniques for generating quasi-monodisperse super-micron aerosol particles with no or only an insignificant number of larger sized particles being present. First, we use a combination of a cyclone with adjustable aerodynamic cut-off diameter and our custom-built Maxi-DMA [Raddatz et al. 2013]. The cyclone removes particles larger than the desired ones prior to mobility selection with the DMA. This results in a reduction of the number of multiply charged particles of up to 99.8%. Second, we utilize a new combination of cyclone and PCVI (Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor), which is based on purely inertial separation and avoids particle charging. The PCVI instrument was previously described by Boulter et al. (2006) and Kulkarni et al. (2011). With our two setups we are able to produce quasi-monodisperse aerosol particles in the diameter range from 0.5 to 4.4 µm without a significant number of larger undesired particles being present. Acknowledgements: This work was done within the framework of the DFG funded Ice Nucleation research UnIT (INUIT, FOR 1525) under WE 4722/1-1. References

  15. Numerical modeling of multiphase flow in rough and propped fractures (United States)

    Dabrowski, Marcin; Dzikowski, Michał; Jasinski, Lukasz; Olkiewicz, Piotr


    crystalline rocks. The detailed pattern of flow paths and effective fracture conductivity are largely dependent on the level of confining stresses and fracture wall roughness, which both determine the shape and distribution of fracture apertures and contact areas. The distribution of proppant grains, which are used to maintain apertures of hydraulic fractures, is a key factor governing fracture flow in industrial applications. The flow of multiphase fluids in narrow apertures of rock fractures may substantially differ from the flow of a single-phase fluid. For example, multiphase flow effects play an important role during all stages of unconventional reservoir life cycle. Multiphase flow conditions are also expected to prevail in high temperature geothermal fields and during the transport of non aqueous phase liquid contaminants in groundwaters. We use direct numerical simulations to study single- and multiphase flow in rough and propped fractures. We compute the fluid flow using either the finite element or the lattice Boltzmann method. Body-fitting, unstructured computational meshes are used to improve the numerical accuracy. The fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces are directly resolved and an implicit approach to surface tension is used to alleviate restrictions due to capillary CFL condition. In FEM simulations, the Beltrami-Laplace operator is integrated by parts to avoid interface curvature computation during evaluation of the surface tension term. We derive and validate an upscaled approach to Stokes flow in propped and rough fractures. Our upscaled 2.5D fracture flow model features a Brinkman term and is capable of treating no-slip boundary conditions on the rims of proppant grains and fracture wall contact areas. The Stokes-Brinkman fracture flow model provides an improvement over the Reynolds model, both in terms of the effective fracture permeability and the local flow pattern. We present numerical and analytical models for the propped fracture

  16. Knudsen self- and Fickian diffusion in rough nanoporous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malek, K.; Coppens, M.O.


    The effect of pore surface roughness on Knudsen diffusion in nanoporous media is investigated by dynamic Monte Carlo simulations and analytical calculations. A conceptual difference is found between the roughness dependence of the macroscopic, transport diffusivity and the microscopic,

  17. Optical discrimination of surface reflection from volume backscattering in speckle contrast for skin roughness measurements (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Zeng, Haishan; Markhvida, Igor; Dhadwal, Gurbir; McLean, Lianne; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey; Lee, Tim K.


    Background: The intermixing of light reflected from tissue surface and scattered from tissue volume complicates skin surface roughness assessment by laser speckle technique, a non-invasive optical method based on the analysis of the contrast of a speckle pattern. Objective: In this study we investigated optical discrimination methods to separate the two contributions in a speckle pattern. Methods: Three discrimination methods, spatial, polarization and spectral filtering, were implemented to suppress light from skin internal volume in a laser speckle device. In order to determine the effectiveness of the discrimination methods, speckle patterns were obtained from healthy volunteers, and polychromatic speckle contrast was computed before and after each filtering procedure. Results: Speckle contrast increased after discrimination filtering. A simple formula was derived to calculate the speckle contrast associated with light scattered from the skin surface. This corrected speckle contrast was proposed to be used for skin roughness assessment.

  18. Micronized Coal Reburning Demonstration for NOx Control: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory


    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Micronized Coal Reburning (MCR) Demonstration for NO{sub x} Control, as described in a report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1999). The need to meet strict emissions requirements at a minimum cost prompted the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), in conjunction with Fuller Company, Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), and Fluor Daniel, to submit the proposal for this project to be sited at TVA's Shawnee Fossil Plant. In July 1992, TVA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct the study. However, because of operational and environmental compliance strategy changes, the Shawnee site became unavailable.

  19. Carotenoids microencapsulation by spray drying method and supercritical micronization. (United States)

    Janiszewska-Turak, Emilia


    Carotenoids are used as natural food colourants in the food industry. As unstable natural pigments they need protection. This protection can involve the microencapsulation process. There are numerous techniques that can be used for carotenoid protection, but two of them -spray drying and supercritical micronization - are currently the most commonly used. The objective of this paper is to describe these two techniques for carotenoid microencapsulation. In this review information from articles from the last five years was taken into consideration. Pigments described in the review are all carotenoids. Short summary of carotenoids sources was presented. For the spray drying technique, a review of carrier material and process conditions was made. Moreover, a short description of some of the most suitable processes involving supercritical fluids for carotenoids (astaxanthin, β-carotene, lutein and lycopene) encapsulation was given. These include the Supercritical Antisolvent process (SAS), Particles from Gas-Saturated Solutions (PGSS), Supercritical Fluid Extraction From an Emulsion (SFEE) and Solution Enhanced Dispersion by Supercritical fluids (SEDS). In most cases the studies, independently of the described method, were conducted on the laboratory scale. In some a scale-up was also tested. In the review a critical assessment of the used methods was made. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Marketing activities in the area of micronization services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołtysik Barbara


    Full Text Available Under conditions of constantly growing competition, what is becoming a key problem is keeping the previously acquired clients. Their trust in the provider and regularly repeated purchases are an expression of the efficiency of marketing activities conducted by companies. What is becoming a measure of success is the satisfaction and loyalty of buyers. Companies spend a lot of money to attract clients and the competition keeps trying to take away their clients. A lost client means not just the loss of a future order – this is the loss of revenues equal to the value of all products which a particular buyer could purchase in his entire life. On top of that comes the cost of acquiring new client to replace the old one. TARP research shows that the cost of acquiring a new client is five times higher than the cost of pleasing an existing client (Kotler, 2006. In the publication the significance of the relations with the client are discussed with regard to efficient marketing strategy. Moreover, the results of client satisfaction surveys and market analysis taking into consideration the revenues from sale of services in the area of micronization are presented.

  1. Timing Challenges for Very Deep Sub-Micron (VDSM IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiang Lin


    Full Text Available Many IC design houses failed to be market leaders because they miss the market window due to timing closure problems. Compared to half-micron designs, the amount of time spent on timing verification has greatly increased. Cell delays can be accurately estimated during logic synthesis. However, interconnect delays are unknown until the wire geometry is defined in physical design. Logic synthesis using the cell library models for interconnect delay estimates may be statistically accurate, but can not predict the delay of individual nets accurately. Delay estimates for individual nets (global nets, long wires, large fan-outs, buses, which matter most for the critical paths can be inaccurate and cause a design failure. Inaccurate timing verification causes silicon failure in shipped products that results in the loss of millions of dollars spent designing a high-performance product and potentially larger costs due to lost market share. Full-chip, sign-off verification with silicon-accuracy will allow these problems to be discovered and fixed before tape-out.

  2. Mapping coalescence of micron-sized drops and bubbles. (United States)

    Berry, Joseph D; Dagastine, Raymond R


    Emulsion formulation, solvent extraction and multiphase microfluidics are all examples of processes that require precise control of drop or bubble collision stability. We use a previously validated numerical model to map the exact conditions under which micron-sized drops or bubbles undergo coalescence in the presence of colloidal forces and hydrodynamic effects relevant to Brownian motion and low Reynolds number flows. We demonstrate that detailed understanding of how the equilibrium surface forces vary with film thickness can be applied to make accurate predictions of the outcome of a drop or bubble collision when hydrodynamic effects are negligible. In addition, we illuminate the parameter space (i.e. interaction velocity, drop deformation, interfacial tension, etc.) at which hydrodynamic effects can stabilise collisions that are unstable at equilibrium. Further, we determine conditions for which drop or bubble collisions become unstable upon separation, caused by negative hydrodynamic pressure in the film. Lastly, we show that scaling analyses are not applicable for constant force collisions where the approach timescale is comparable to the coalescence timescale, and demonstrate that initial conditions under these circumstances cannot be ignored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Micron size GMR magnetic sensor with needle structure (United States)

    Yamada, S.; Haraszczuk, R.; Kakikawa, M.; Hoang, H.


    The work presents inimitable shaped needle type probe with spin valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) elements. Sensitive elements with 75 μm width are connected in the Wheatstone bridge structure. The length of the needle is 20-30 mm and its cross section is square. The magnetic sensor probe has the advantage of micron order spatial resolution. The needle type probe works as a gradient meter which concurrently suppresses the influence of externally applied field and detects magnetic fields emanating from nano or micro order size sources. Sensing elements present high sensitivity 260 μV/μT and are capable of detecting the magnetic fields in order of few nT. SV-GMR elements present flat amplitude and phase characteristics in wide frequency range. The novel characteristicsof the probe allow it to be utilized in detection of the in-phase and out of phase signal components. An additional merit of this design is extremely small liftoff height between sensing element and the source of magnetic field. The SV-GMR elements are isolated only by very thin protection layer (a few μm), that gives opportunity to apply the probe in biological (in vivo) experiments, and in non destructive evaluation of current detection. The needle shape allows the sensing element toapproach the examined materials in a distance of few ten μm.

  4. Discovering Motifs in Biological Sequences Using the Micron Automata Processor. (United States)

    Roy, Indranil; Aluru, Srinivas


    Finding approximately conserved sequences, called motifs, across multiple DNA or protein sequences is an important problem in computational biology. In this paper, we consider the (l, d) motif search problem of identifying one or more motifs of length l present in at least q of the n given sequences, with each occurrence differing from the motif in at most d substitutions. The problem is known to be NP-complete, and the largest solved instance reported to date is (26,11). We propose a novel algorithm for the (l,d) motif search problem using streaming execution over a large set of non-deterministic finite automata (NFA). This solution is designed to take advantage of the micron automata processor, a new technology close to deployment that can simultaneously execute multiple NFA in parallel. We demonstrate the capability for solving much larger instances of the (l, d) motif search problem using the resources available within a single automata processor board, by estimating run-times for problem instances (39,18) and (40,17). The paper serves as a useful guide to solving problems using this new accelerator technology.

  5. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Civardi

    Full Text Available The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP, which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH2, with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect. The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect.

  6. Micron-gap ThermoPhotoVoltaics (MTPV) (United States)

    DiMatteo, R.; Greiff, P.; Seltzer, D.; Meulenberg, D.; Brown, E.; Carlen, E.; Kaiser, K.; Finberg, S.; Nguyen, H.; Azarkevich, J.; Baldasaro, P.; Beausang, J.; Danielson, L.; Dashiell, M.; DePoy, D.; Ehsani, H.; Topper, W.; Rahner, K.; Siergiej, R.


    This paper discusses advances made in the field of Micron-gap ThermoPhotoVoltaics (MTPV). Initial modeling has shown that MTPV may enable significant performance improvements relative to conventional far field TPV. These performance improvements include up to a 10× increase in power density, 30% to 35% fractional increase in conversion efficiency, or alternatively, reduced radiator temperature requirements to as low as 550°C. Recent experimental efforts aimed at supporting these predictions have successfully demonstrated that early current and voltage enhancements could be done repeatedly and at higher temperatures. More importantly, these efforts indicated that no unknown energy transfer process occurs reducing the potential utility of MTPV. Progress has been made by running tests with at least one of the following characteristics relative to the MTPV results reported in 2001: • Tests at over twice the temperature (900°C). • Tests at 50% smaller gaps (0.12 μm) • Tests with emitter areas from 4 to 100 times larger (16 mm2 to 4 cm2). • Tests with over 20× reduction in parasitic spacer heat flow. Remaining fundamental challenges to realizing these improvements relative to the recent breakthroughs in conventional far field TPV include reengineering the photovoltaic (PV) diode, filter, and emitter system for MTPV and engineering devices and systems that can achieve submicron vacuum gaps between surfaces with large temperature differences.

  7. Micron-gap ThermoPhotoVoltaics (MTPV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R DiMatteo; P Greiff; D Seltzer; D Meaulenberg; E Brown; E Carlen; K Kaiser; S Finberg; H Ngyyen; J Azarkevich; P Baldasaro; J Beausang; L Danielson; M Dashiell; D DePoy; H Ehsani; W Topper; K Rahner; R Siergiej


    This paper discusses advances made in the field of Micron-gap ThermoPhotoVoltaics (MTPV). Initial modeling has shown that MTPV may enable significant performance improvements relative to conventional far field TPV. These performance improvements include up to a 10x increase in power density, 30% to 35% fractional increase in conversion efficiency, or alternatively, reduced radiator temperature requirements to as low as 550 C. Recent experimental efforts aimed at supporting these predictions have successfully demonstrated that early current and voltage enhancements could be done repeatedly and at higher temperatures. More importantly, these efforts indicated that no unknown energy transfer process occurs reducing the potential utility of MTPV. Progress has been made by running tests with at least one of the following characteristics relative to the MTPV results reported in 2001: Tests at over twice the temperature (900 C); Tests at 50% smaller gaps (0.12 {micro}m); Tests with emitter areas from 4 to 100 times larger (16 mm{sup 2} to 4 cm{sup 2}); and Tests with over 20x reduction in parasitic spacer heat flow. Remaining fundamental challenges to realizing these improvements relative to the recent breakthroughs in conventional far field TPV include reengineering the photovoltaic (PV) diode, filter, and emitter system for MTPV and engineering devices and systems that can achieve submicron vacuum gaps between surfaces with large temperature differences.

  8. [The surface roughness analysis of the titanium casting founding by a new titanium casting investment material]. (United States)

    Liang, Qin-ye; Wu, Xia-yi; Lin, Xue-feng


    To investigate the surface roughness property of the titanium castings cast in a new investment for titanium casting. Six wax patterns (20 mm × 20 mm × 0.5 mm) were invested using two investments: three in a new titanium investment material and three in the control material (Rematitan Plus). Six titanium specimens were obtained by conventional casting. After casting, surface roughness of the specimens were evaluated with a surface profilometer. The surface roughness of the specimens cast in new titanium investment material was (1.72 ± 0.08) µm, which was much smaller than that from Rematitan Plus [(1.91 ± 0.15) µm, P cast using these two investment materials are both smooth enough to fulfill the demand of the titanium precision-casting for prosthodontic clinical use.

  9. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles (United States)

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan


    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  10. Separating the signal from the noise: Expanding flow cytometry into the sub-micron range. (United States)

    Cytometry Part A Special Section: Separating the signal from the noise: Expanding flow cytometry into the sub-micron range. The current Cytometry Part A Special Section presents three studies that utilize cytometers to study sub-micron particles. The three studies involve the 1...

  11. β-Tricalcium Phosphate Micron Particles Enhance Calcification of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Nakagawa


    Full Text Available β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP micron particles whose diameters range from 1 μm to 10 μm have been recently developed, however, their biological effects remain unknown. We investigated the biological effects of β-TCP micron particles on proliferation, cytotoxicity, and calcification of human synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. MSCs were cultured without dexamethasone, β-glycerophosphate, or ascorbic acid. 1.0 mg/mL β-TCP micron particles inhibited proliferation of MSCs significantly and increased dead cells. In the contact condition, 0.1 mg/mL β-TCP micron particles promoted calcification of MSCs evaluated by alizarin red staining and enhanced mRNA expressions of runx2, osteopontin, and type I collagen. In the noncontact condition, these effects were not observed. 0.1 mg/mL β-TCP micron particles increased calcium concentration in the medium in the contact condition, while 1.0 mg/mL β-TCP micron particles decreased calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the medium in the noncontact condition. By transmission electron microscopy, β-TCP micron particles were localized in the phagosome of MSCs and were dissolved. In conclusion, β-TCP micron particles promoted calcification of MSCs and enhanced osteogenesis-related gene expressions in vitro.

  12. Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, F G; ter Haar, D


    Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a

  13. Roughly isometric minimal immersions into Riemannian manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    . In this talk we will mainly be concerned with {\\em{minimal}} isometric immersions of such geometrized approximations $(G, g)$ of $X$ into Riemannian manifolds $N$ with bounded curvature. When such an immersion exists, we will call it an $X$-web in $N$. Such webs admit a natural 'geometric' extension...... of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian, and we will show that they share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in $N$. The intrinsic properties thus obtained may hence serve as roughly invariant descriptors for the original metric space $X$....

  14. Simulation of chemical erosion in rough fractures. (United States)

    Verberg, R; Ladd, A J C


    We report on numerical simulations of acid erosion in a fractured specimen of Carrara marble. The simulations combine two recent advances in lattice-Boltzmann methodology to accurately and efficiently calculate the velocity field in the pore space. A tracer diffusion algorithm was then used to calculate the distribution of reactants in the fracture, and the local erosion rate was obtained from the flux of tracer particles across the surfaces. Our results show that at large length scales, erosion leads to increased heterogeneity via channel formation, whereas at small length scales it tends to smooth out the roughness in the local aperture.

  15. Traceability of optical roughness measurements on polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Gasparin, Stefania; Carli, Lorenzo


    -focus instrument, and a confocal microscope. Using stylus measurements as reference, parameter settings on the optical instruments were optimised and residual noise reduced by low pass filtering. Traceability of optical measurements could be established with expanded measuring uncertainties (k=2) of 4......An experimental investigation on surface roughness measurements on plastics was carried out with the objective of developing a methodology to achieve traceability of optical instruments. A ground steel surface and its replicas were measured using a stylus instrument, an optical auto......% for the auto-focus instrument and 10% for confocal microscope....

  16. Albedo over rough snow and ice surfaces (United States)

    Lhermitte, S.; Abermann, J.; Kinnard, C.


    Both satellite and ground-based broadband albedo measurements over rough and complex terrain show several limitations concerning feasibility and representativeness. To assess these limitations and understand the effect of surface roughness on albedo, firstly, an intrasurface radiative transfer (ISRT) model is combined with albedo measurements over different penitente surfaces on Glaciar Tapado in the semi-arid Andes of northern Chile. Results of the ISRT model show effective albedo reductions over the penitentes up to 0.4 when comparing the rough surface albedo relative to the albedo of the flat surface. The magnitude of these reductions primarily depends on the opening angles of the penitentes, but the shape of the penitentes and spatial variability of the material albedo also play a major role. Secondly, the ISRT model is used to reveal the effect of using albedo measurements at a specific location (i.e., apparent albedo) to infer the true albedo of a penitente field (i.e., effective albedo). This effect is especially strong for narrow penitentes, resulting in sampling biases of up to ±0.05. The sampling biases are more pronounced when the sensor is low above the surface, but remain relatively constant throughout the day. Consequently, it is important to use a large number of samples at various places and/or to locate the sensor sufficiently high in order to avoid this sampling bias of surface albedo over rough surfaces. Thirdly, the temporal evolution of broadband albedo over a penitente-covered surface is analyzed to place the experiments and their uncertainty into a longer temporal context. Time series of albedo measurements at an automated weather station over two ablation seasons reveal that albedo decreases early in the ablation season. These decreases stabilize from February onwards with variations being caused by fresh snowfall events. The 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 seasons differ notably, where the latter shows lower albedo values caused by larger

  17. Rough sets selected methods and applications in management and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Georg; Ślęzak, Dominik; Yao, Yiyu


    Introduced in the early 1980s, Rough Set Theory has become an important part of soft computing in the last 25 years. This book provides a practical, context-based analysis of rough set theory, with each chapter exploring a real-world application of Rough Sets.

  18. Roughness correction to the Casimir force beyond perturbation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, Wijnand; Palasantzas, George; Knoester, Jasper; Svetovoy, Vitaly B.

    Up to now there has been no reliable method to calculate the Casimir force when surface roughness becomes comparable with the separation between bodies. Statistical analysis of rough Au films demonstrates rare peaks with heights considerably larger than the root-mean-square (rms) roughness. These

  19. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.


    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  20. ROMI 4.0: Updated Rough Mill Simulator (United States)

    Timo Grueneberg; R. Edward Thomas; Urs. Buehlmann


    In the secondary hardwood industry, rough mills convert hardwood lumber into dimension parts for furniture, cabinets, and other wood products. ROMI 4.0, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's ROugh-MIll simulator, is a software package designed to simulate the cut-up of hardwood lumber in rough mills in such a way that a maximum possible component yield...

  1. Use of roughness maps in visualisation of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko


    monohydrate, theophylline anhydrate, sodium chloride and potassium chloride. The roughness determinations were made by a laser profilometer. The new matrix method gives detailed roughness maps, which are able to show local variations in surface roughness values and provide an illustrative picture...

  2. Mask roughness induced LER control and mitigation: aberrations sensitivity study and alternate illumination scheme (United States)

    McClinton, Brittany M.; Naulleau, Patrick P.


    Here we conduct a mask-roughness-induced line-edge-roughness (LER) aberrations sensitivity study both as a random distribution amongst the first 16 Fringe Zernikes (for overall aberration levels of 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75nm rms) as well as an individual aberrations sensitivity matrix over the first 37 Fringe Zernikes. Full 2D aerial image modeling for an imaging system with NA = 0.32 was done for both the 22-nm and 16-nm half-pitch nodes on a rough mask with a replicated surface roughness (RSR) of 100 pm and a correlation length of 32 nm at the nominal extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) wavelength of 13.5nm. As the ideal RSR value for commercialization of EUVL is 50 pm and under, and furthermore as has been shown elsewhere, a correlation length of 32 nm of roughness on the mask sits on the peak LER value for an NA = 0.32 imaging optic, these mask roughness values and consequently the aberration sensitivity study presented here, represent a worst-case scenario. The illumination conditions were chosen based on the possible candidates for the 22-nm and 16-nm half-pitch nodes, respectively. In the 22-nm case, a disk illumination setting of σ = 0.50 was used, and for the 16-nm case, crosspole illumination with σ = 0.10 at an optimum offset of dx = 0 and dy = .67 in sigma space. In examining how to mitigate mask roughness induced LER, we considered an alternate illumination scheme whereby a traditional dipole's angular spectrum is extended in the direction parallel to the line-and-space mask absorber pattern to represent a "strip". While this illumination surprisingly provides minimal improvement to the LER as compared to several alternate illumination schemes, the overall imaging quality in terms of image-log-slope (ILS) and contrast is improved.

  3. Modeling photopolarimetric characteristics of comet dust as a polydisperse mixture of polyshaped rough spheroids (United States)

    Kolokolova, L.; Das, H.; Dubovik, O.; Lapyonok, T.


    It is widely recognized now that the main component of comet dust is aggregated particles that consist of submicron grains. It is also well known that cometary dust obey a rather wide size distribution with abundant particles whose size reaches dozens of microns. However, numerous attempts of computer simulation of light scattering by comet dust using aggregated particles have not succeeded to consider particles larger than a couple of microns due to limitations in the memory and speed of available computers. Attempts to substitute aggregates by polydisperse solid particles (spheres, spheroids, cylinders) could not consistently reproduce observed angular and spectral characteristics of comet brightness and polarization even in such a general case as polyshaped (i.e. containing particles of a variety of aspect ratios) mixture of spheroids (Kolokolova et al., In: Photopolarimetry in Remote Sensing, Kluwer Acad. Publ., 431, 2004). In this study we are checking how well cometary dust can be modeled using modeling tools for rough spheroids. With this purpose we use the software package described in Dubovik et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 111, D11208, doi:10.1029/2005JD006619d, 2006) that allows for a substantial reduction of computer time in calculating scattering properties of spheroid mixtures by means of using pre-calculated kernels - quadrature coefficients employed in the numerical integration of spheroid optical properties over size and shape. The kernels were pre-calculated for spheroids of 25 axis ratios, ranging from 0.3 to 3, and 42 size bins within the size parameter range 0.01 - 625. This software package has been recently expanded with the possibility of simulating not only smooth but also rough spheroids that is used in present study. We consider refractive indexes of the materials typical for comet dust: silicate, carbon, organics, and their mixtures. We also consider porous particles accounting on voids in the spheroids through effective medium approach. The

  4. Recent Fuzzy Generalisations of Rough Sets Theory: A Systematic Review and Methodological Critique of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mardani


    Full Text Available Rough set theory has been used extensively in fields of complexity, cognitive sciences, and artificial intelligence, especially in numerous fields such as expert systems, knowledge discovery, information system, inductive reasoning, intelligent systems, data mining, pattern recognition, decision-making, and machine learning. Rough sets models, which have been recently proposed, are developed applying the different fuzzy generalisations. Currently, there is not a systematic literature review and classification of these new generalisations about rough set models. Therefore, in this review study, the attempt is made to provide a comprehensive systematic review of methodologies and applications of recent generalisations discussed in the area of fuzzy-rough set theory. On this subject, the Web of Science database has been chosen to select the relevant papers. Accordingly, the systematic and meta-analysis approach, which is called “PRISMA,” has been proposed and the selected articles were classified based on the author and year of publication, author nationalities, application field, type of study, study category, study contribution, and journal in which the articles have appeared. Based on the results of this review, we found that there are many challenging issues related to the different application area of fuzzy-rough set theory which can motivate future research studies.

  5. Ballistic thermal conductance limited by phonon roughness scattering : A comparison of power-law and Gaussian roughness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G


    In this work, we have investigated the influence of power-law roughness on the ballistic thermal conductance K-TH for a nanosized beam adiabatically connected between two heat reservoirs. The sideways wall beam roughness is assumed to be power-law type, which is described by the roughness amplitude

  6. A Comparative Study of Some Soft Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Liu


    Full Text Available Through the combination of different types of sets such as fuzzy sets, soft sets and rough sets, abundant hybrid models have been presented in order to take advantage of each other and handle uncertainties. A comparative study of relationships and interconnections of some existing hybrid models has been carried out. Some foundational properties of modified soft rough sets (MSR sets are analyzed. It is pointed out that MSR approximation operators are some kinds of Pawlak approximation operators, whereas approximation operators of Z-soft rough fuzzy sets are equivalent to approximation operators of rough fuzzy sets. The relationships among F-soft rough fuzzy sets, M-soft rough fuzzy sets and Z-soft rough fuzzy sets are surveyed. A new model called soft rough soft sets has been provided as the generalization of F-soft rough sets, and its application in group decision-making has been studied. Various soft rough sets models show great potential as a tool to solve decision-making problems, and a depth study of the connections among these models contributes to the flexible application of soft rough sets based decision-making approaches.

  7. Physical model for turbulent friction on rough surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhuoqun


    We present an analytical expression for turbulent friction on rough surfaces with regularly distributed roughness elements. Wall shear stresses are expressed as functions of physical quantities. Surfaces with varying roughness densities and roughness elements with different aspect ratios are considered. As the drag on each roughness element decreases as roughness density increases, we propose a straight forward method based on momentum conservation to deduce drag on elements by expressing it as a function of the maximum drag on elements and drag reductions ratios. We proposed a drag reduction effect of momentum redistribution and studied the mutual sheltering effect. Reduction ratios for redistribution effect and mutual sheltering effect are deduced, for different rough surfaces. These two drag reduction mechanisms are significant for sparse and dense surfaces, respectively. The shear stress on elements and the total shear stress are obtained as the result of the drag analysis. The estimated wall shear stress...

  8. Internal surface roughness of plastic pipes for irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes S. da Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Assuming that a roughness meter can be successfully employed to measure the roughness on the internal surface of irrigation pipes, this research had the purpose of defining parameters and procedures required to represent the internal surface roughness of plastic pipes used in irrigation. In 2013, the roughness parameter Ra, traditional for the representation of surface irregularities in most situations, and the parameters Rc, Rq, and Ry were estimated based on 350 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and low-density polyethylene (LDPE pipes. Pressure losses were determined from experiments carried out in laboratory. Estimations of pressure loss varied significantly according to the roughness parameters (Ra, Rc, Rq, and Ry and the corresponding pipe diameter. Therefore, specific values of roughness for each pipe diameter improves accuracy in pressure losses estimation. The average values of internal surface roughness were 3.334 and 8.116 μm for PVC and LDPE pipes, respectively.

  9. Line-edge roughness reduction and CD slimming using hardback processing (United States)

    Peters, Richard D.; Lucas, Kevin; Cobb, Jonathan L.; Parker, Colita; Patterson, Kyle; McCauley, Robb; Ercken, Monique; Van Roey, Frieda; Vandenbroeck, Nadia; Pollentier, Ivan K.


    Tight control of very small transistor gate CDs is one of the most difficult problems in advanced device patterning. Line-edge roughness on these small gate lines has become a serious issue with 193nm lithography and is only expected to worsen with 157nm and EUV lithography. Methods are needed that can minimize line-edge roughness while also enabling the patterning of small gate features. We have analyzed the use of a simple and manufacturable post-develop bake step, a 'hardbake', that controllably reduces both gate resist CDs and to line-edge roughness. Hardbake resist shrinkage is a well-known phenomena from earlier Novolak resist processing, but has not been investigated for chemically amplified resists as much as other CD slimming techniques. Our tests have been performed for different chemically amplified 193nm and EUV-type (essentially reformulated 248nm) resists. The results of our experiments show considerable potential for certain types of resists to provide gate CD control benefits from either roughness reduction or CD slimming.

  10. Echo signal from rough planar interfaces influence of roughness, angle, range and transducer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, P.C.; Jacobsen, S.M.


    The received electrical signal from a pulse-echo system insonifying a planar acoustical interface was measured for varying degrees of rms roughness (0-0.16 mm), angle of incidence (typically +/-7°) and range to the transducer. A planar and a focused 5 MHz transducer was used. When insonifying a s...

  11. Influence of surface roughness on nonlinear flow behaviors in 3D self-affine rough fractures: Lattice Boltzmann simulations (United States)

    Wang, Min; Chen, Yi-Feng; Ma, Guo-Wei; Zhou, Jia-Qing; Zhou, Chuang-Bing


    This study investigates the impacts of surface roughness on the nonlinear fluid flow through three-dimensional (3D) self-affine rock fractures, whose original surface roughness is decomposed into primary roughness (i.e. the large-scale waviness of the fracture morphology) and secondary roughness (i.e. the small-scale unevenness) with a wavelet analysis technique. A 3D Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is adopted to predict the flow physics in rock fractures numerically created with and without consideration of the secondary roughness, respectively. The simulation results show that the primary roughness mostly controls the pressure distribution and fracture flow paths at a large scale, whereas the secondary roughness determines the nonlinear properties of the fluid flow at a local scale. As the pressure gradient increases, the secondary roughness enhances the local complexity of velocity distribution by generating and expanding the eddy flow and back flow regions in the vicinity of asperities. It was found that the Forchheimer's law characterizes well the nonlinear flow behavior in fractures of varying roughness. The inertial effects induced by the primary roughness differ only marginally in fractures with the roughness exponent varying from 0.5 to 0.8, and it is the secondary roughness that significantly enhances the nonlinear flow and leads to earlier onset of nonlinearity. Further examined were the effects of surface roughness on the transmissivity, hydraulic aperture and the tortuosity of flow paths, demonstrating again the dominant role of the secondary roughness, especially for the apparent transmissivity and the equivalent hydraulic aperture at high pressure gradient or high Reynolds number. The results may enhance our understanding of the role of surface roughness in the nonlinear flow behaviors in natural rock fractures.

  12. Rough and partially-cemented fracture permeability (United States)

    Landry, C. J.; Eichhubl, P.; Prodanovic, M.


    Numerical studies of mass transport in fractured rock, such as discrete fracture network models, use models to assign estimates of permeability to individual fractures. These fracture permeability models typically employ statistical moments of the fracture aperture distribution to estimate permeability. Although it is known that these fracture permeability models are in error, the quantification of this error is limited. We use a digital rock physics workflow to quantify this error in four fracture samples, a barren artificially-induced fracture in sandstone, a calcite-lined fracture sampled from outcrop, and two quartz-bridged fractures sampled from reservoir core. Each of the fracture samples is imaged using three-dimensional x-ray computed microtomography. The images are then processed, segmented and used in a lattice-Boltzmann-method-based flow simulation. We also vary the kinematic apertures of the barren and calcite-lined fractures through digital dilatation and closure in order to investigate sensitivity to the relative fracture roughness. We define the scalar error, F, between the actual permeability determined from simulation, kLB, and that predicted using the fracture permeability model of Zimmerman and Bodvarsson (1996), kZB, as, F±1=kZB/kLB. Although the pore space shape of the fractures appears quite different, the scalar error as a function of relative roughness is found to be similar for all fracture samples investigated, with a maximum of approximately 2. Considering two-dimensional cross-sections of fractures are more readily available than three-dimensional images we then plot the scalar error as a function of relative roughness and the number of observations measured from two-dimensional images (width of fracture analyzed). In general, the rougher the fracture, the greater the number of observations that are required to define the statistical moment inputs for the fracture permeability model. We use these results to approximate the width of the

  13. Parametric Rough Sets with Application to Granular Association Rule Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu He


    Full Text Available Granular association rules reveal patterns hidden in many-to-many relationships which are common in relational databases. In recommender systems, these rules are appropriate for cold-start recommendation, where a customer or a product has just entered the system. An example of such rules might be “40% men like at least 30% kinds of alcohol; 45% customers are men and 6% products are alcohol.” Mining such rules is a challenging problem due to pattern explosion. In this paper, we build a new type of parametric rough sets on two universes and propose an efficient rule mining algorithm based on the new model. Specifically, the model is deliberately defined such that the parameter corresponds to one threshold of rules. The algorithm benefits from the lower approximation operator in the new model. Experiments on two real-world data sets show that the new algorithm is significantly faster than an existing algorithm, and the performance of recommender systems is stable.

  14. Reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An investigation on the reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming was performed to document the applicability of this approach for testing cutting fluids. Austenitic stainless steel was used as a workpiece material and HSS reamers as cutting tools. Reproducibility of the results was evaluated...... of tool geometry and path. 2D and 3D reference measurements were done to ensure traceability of the measurement. Moreover, surface profiles were examined under the 3D optical microscope. Measuring uncertainty evaluation using statistical methods was applied. Surfaces produced with a low cutting speed were....... High reproducibility of different operators, especially when low cutting speed was applied, was achieved. From the surface profiles, an identification of individual feed marks from the tool is possible, tool replication being most clear from the 3D reference measurements....

  15. Backscatter enhancement in scattering from rough surfaces (United States)

    Papa, Robert J.; Woodworth, Margaret B.


    Stealth technology has advanced to the point where radar target cross sections are so small there is a great need to determine mean clutter cross sections and clutter variability with great accuracy. Established clutter prediction techniques result in forward scatter values that exceed backscatter. There is some new experimental data on light scattering from rough metallic surfaces which shows there is an enhancement of backscattering in the antispecular direction under some conditions. This unusual result has been addressed by several theoretical analyses with varying success at confirmation. In this report an integral form of a physical optics representation is used to simulate the experimental conditions. For a one-dimensional surface height variation this model predicts enhanced backscatter at optical frequencies. Additional calculations for the more significant radar case of microwave frequencies and a dielectric surface again predict an increase in backscatter for large or intermediate surface slope conditions.

  16. Manning's roughness coefficient for Illinois streams (United States)

    Soong, David T.; Prater, Crystal D.; Halfar, Teresa M.; Wobig, Loren A.


    Manning's roughness coefficients for 43 natural and constructed streams in Illinois are reported and displayed on a U.S. Geological Survey Web site. At a majority of the sites, discharge and stage were measured, and corresponding Manning's coefficients—the n-values—were determined at more than one river discharge. The n-values discussed in this report are computed from data representing the stream reach studied and, therefore, are reachwise values. Presentation of the resulting n-values takes a visual-comparison approach similar to the previously published Barnes report (1967), in which photographs of channel conditions, description of the site, and the resulting n-values are organized for each site. The Web site where the data can be accessed and are displayed is at URL

  17. Quantitative Characterization of Boundary Roughness in Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jun

    The boundary migration during recrystallization is by nature a heterogeneous process and local structural variations form on recrystallization boundaries, as revealed from modern techniques such as synchrotron X-rays and advanced electron microscopy. The local structural variations, in the form...... of protrusions and retrusions, can provide a dragging/driving force due to the local boundary curvature and affect the further migration of recrystallization boundaries through the deformed matrix. In order to develop new understandings and models for boundary migration that take the heterogeneous local...... structural aspects into account, a detailed characterization is essential of partly recrystallized microstructures focusing on the local shapes of the boundaries, in particular on whether protrusions and retrusions are formed or not. Quantification of the “amount” of boundary roughness in the form...

  18. Water ice and sub-micron ice particles on Tethys and Mimas (United States)

    Scipioni, Francesca; Nordheim, Tom; Clark, Roger Nelson; D'Aversa, Emiliano; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Tosi, Federico; Schenk, Paul M.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.


    IntroductionWe present our ongoing work, mapping the variation of the main water ice absorption bands, and the distribution of the sub-micron particles, across Mimas and Tethys’ surfaces using Cassini-VIMS cubes acquired in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). We present our results in the form of maps of variation of selected spectral indicators (depth of absorption bands, reflectance peak height, spectral slopes).Data analysisVIMS acquires hyperspectral data in the 0.3-5.1 μm spectral range. We selected VIMS cubes of Tethys and Mimas in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). For all pixels in the selected cubes, we measured the band depths for water-ice absorptions at 1.25, 1.5 and 2.02 μm and the height of the 3.6 μm reflection peak. Moreover, we considered the spectral indictors for particles smaller than 1 µm [1]: (i) the 2 µm absorption band is asymmetric and (ii) it has the minimum shifted to longer λ (iii) the band depth ratio 1.5/2.0 µm decreases; (iv) the reflection peak at 2.6 µm decreases; (v) the Fresnel reflection peak is suppressed; (vi) the 5 µm reflectance is decreased relative to the 3.6 µm peak. To characterize the global variation of water-ice band depths, and of sub-micron particles spectral indicators, across Mimas and Tethys, we sampled the two satellites’ surfacees with a 1°x1° fixed-resolution grid and then averaged the band depths and peak values inside each square cell.3. ResultsFor both moons we find that large geologic features, such as the Odysseus and Herschel impact basins, do not correlate with water ice’s abundance variation. For Tethys, we found a quite uniform surface on both hemispheres. The only deviation from this pattern shows up on the trailing hemisphere, where we notice two north-oriented, dark areas around 225° and 315°. For Mimas, the leading and trailing hemispheres appear to be quite similar in water ice abundance, the trailing portion having water ice absorption bands lightly more suppressed than the leading side

  19. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires (United States)

    Hochbaum, Allon I.; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz; Liang, Wenjie; Garnett, Erik C.; Najarian, Mark; Majumdar, Arun; Yang, Peidong


    Approximately 90 per cent of the world's power is generated by heat engines that use fossil fuel combustion as a heat source and typically operate at 30-40 per cent efficiency, such that roughly 15terawatts of heat is lost to the environment. Thermoelectric modules could potentially convert part of this low-grade waste heat to electricity. Their efficiency depends on the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of their material components, which is a function of the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and absolute temperature. Over the past five decades it has been challenging to increase ZT>1, since the parameters of ZT are generally interdependent. While nanostructured thermoelectric materials can increase ZT>1 (refs 2-4), the materials (Bi, Te, Pb, Sb, and Ag) and processes used are not often easy to scale to practically useful dimensions. Here we report the electrochemical synthesis of large-area, wafer-scale arrays of rough Si nanowires that are 20-300nm in diameter. These nanowires have Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity values that are the same as doped bulk Si, but those with diameters of about 50nm exhibit 100-fold reduction in thermal conductivity, yielding ZT = 0.6 at room temperature. For such nanowires, the lattice contribution to thermal conductivity approaches the amorphous limit for Si, which cannot be explained by current theories. Although bulk Si is a poor thermoelectric material, by greatly reducing thermal conductivity without much affecting the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity, Si nanowire arrays show promise as high-performance, scalable thermoelectric materials.

  20. Characterization of rough interfaces obtained by boriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Silva, I. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail:; Balankin, A.S. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Sierra, A.H. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPIICSA, Av. Te 950, Col Granjas, Mexico D.F. 08400 (Mexico); Lopez-Perrusquia, N. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Escobar-Galindo, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Morales-Matamoros, D. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas Norte, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)


    This study evaluates the morphology of borided interfaces by means of the fractal theory. The boride layers were formed in the AISI M2 steel by applying the paste boriding treatment at temperatures of 1253 and 1273 K and treatment times of 2 and 6 h, while a boron carbide paste thickness of 4 or 5 mm covered the samples surface in order to produce the boron diffusion. The morphology of interfaces formed between FeB and Fe{sub 2}B layers and between Fe{sub 2}B layer and steel substrate was analyzed by the rescaled-range (R/S), root-mean-square (RMS), and Fourier power spectrum (FPS) methods. Moreover, the multi-affine spectra of roughness exponent were obtained by calculating the q-order height-height correlation functions. We found that both interfaces are multi-affine, rather than self-affine. The multi-affine spectra of roughness exponents are found to be different for FeB/Fe{sub 2}B and Fe{sub 2}B/substrate interfaces, but independent on the treatment parameters (boron carbide paste thickness, temperature, and boriding time). Furthermore, we found that the multi-affine spectra of both interfaces behave as it is expected for 'universal multi-fractals' with the Levy index {gamma} = 1, associated with the multiplicative cascades with a log-Cauchy distribution. Furthermore, our data suggest a great homogeneity of the boron diffusion field, characterized by universal fractal dimension D{sub diff} = 2.90 {+-} 0.01. These findings provide a novel insight into the nature of phase formation during the boriding treatment.

  1. Room-temperature InGaAs detector arrays for 2.5 microns (United States)

    Olsen, G. H.; Joshi, A. M.; Mason, S. M.; Woodruff, K. M.; Mykietyn, E.


    This paper describes new alloy heterojunction detectors of In(.8)Ga(.2)As/InAs(.6)P(.4) which can detect light between 1.7 and 2.6 microns with 50 percent quantum efficiency and 5 mA/sq cm dark current (-1 V) density at room temperature. Wafer probe data showed that over 50 good contiguous 100 micron diameter devices (spaced 400 microns) could be made on a 25 x 30 mm wafer with overall yield above 93 percent. The ability to operate under -1 V reverse bias makes these devices ideally compatible with existing commercial multiplexer readouts.

  2. Effect of micronization on the solubility, viscosity and structural properties of tapioca starch (United States)

    Xia, Wen; Li, Ji-Hua; Wei, Xiao-Yi; Wang, Fei; Lin, Yan-Yun


    Tapioca starch (TS) was treated by vibrating superfine mill with different micronization time (15, 30, 45, and 60 mins) and the solubility, viscosity and structural were also studied. The solubilities of treated samples were dramatically increased after micronization treatment. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum of samples did not display any new peaks compared to native TS but had different intensity in some peaks. Rapid visco analyzer (RVA) determination suggested that micronization process altered pasting features, resulting in a decrease in viscosity and pasting temperature.

  3. Roughness coefficient and its uncertainty in gravel-bed river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sung Kim


    Full Text Available Manning's roughness coefficient was estimated for a gravel-bed river reach using field measurements of water level and discharge, and the applicability of various methods used for estimation of the roughness coefficient was evaluated. Results show that the roughness coefficient tends to decrease with increasing discharge and water depth, and over a certain range it appears to remain constant. Comparison of roughness coefficients calculated by field measurement data with those estimated by other methods shows that, although the field-measured values provide approximate roughness coefficients for relatively large discharge, there seems to be rather high uncertainty due to the difference in resultant values. For this reason, uncertainty related to the roughness coefficient was analyzed in terms of change in computed variables. On average, a 20% increase of the roughness coefficient causes a 7% increase in the water depth and an 8% decrease in velocity, but there may be about a 15% increase in the water depth and an equivalent decrease in velocity for certain cross-sections in the study reach. Finally, the validity of estimated roughness coefficient based on field measurements was examined. A 10% error in discharge measurement may lead to more than 10% uncertainty in roughness coefficient estimation, but corresponding uncertainty in computed water depth and velocity is reduced to approximately 5%. Conversely, the necessity for roughness coefficient estimation by field measurement is confirmed.

  4. Urban Aerodynamic Roughness Length Mapping Using Multitemporal SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang


    Full Text Available Aerodynamic roughness is very important to urban meteorological and climate studies. Radar remote sensing is considered to be an effective means for aerodynamic roughness retrieval because radar backscattering is sensitive to the surface roughness and geometric structure of a given target. In this paper, a methodology for aerodynamic roughness length estimation using SAR data in urban areas is introduced. The scale and orientation characteristics of backscattering of various targets in urban areas were firstly extracted and analyzed, which showed great potential of SAR data for urban roughness elements characterization. Then the ground truth aerodynamic roughness was calculated from wind gradient data acquired by the meteorological tower using fitting and iterative method. And then the optimal dimension of the upwind sector for the aerodynamic roughness calculation was determined through a correlation analysis between backscattering extracted from SAR data at various upwind sector areas and the aerodynamic roughness calculated from the meteorological tower data. Finally a quantitative relationship was set up to retrieve the aerodynamic roughness length from SAR data. Experiments based on ALOS PALSAR and COSMO-SkyMed data from 2006 to 2011 prove that the proposed methodology can provide accurate roughness length estimations for the spatial and temporal analysis of urban surface.

  5. Emission and extinction of ground and vapor-condensed silicates from 4 to 14 microns and the 10 micron silicate feature (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Rusell, R. W.


    Emission and absorption spectra from 4 to 14 microns of ground and laser-vaporized olivine and enstatite silicates are compared with the 10-micron emission feature of the Orion Trapezium. The agreement in band center and shape between the amorphous laser-vaporized olivine sample and the Trapezium feature suggests that amorphous silicate grains of approximately olivine composition may be a major constituent of interstellar dust. Differences between the emission and absorption spectral profiles (absorption plus scattering) show characteristics that could be used as a sensitive probe of the morphology of interstellar grain systems when high signal-to-noise ratio (30-100) observational spectra become available.

  6. Submicron Surface-Patterned Fibers and Textiles (United States)


    The patterned fiber surface behaves as an optical diffraction grating when the feature size is comparable with visible light wavelengths. A red laser...the optical fiber gratings For the first diffraction order of the micron and submicron patterned fiber , we utilize the formula α tanh (where s...e) SEM images of patterned PMMA fiber are depicted. The inset shows the cross- section of this fiber . Submitted to 20 Figure S3

  7. The Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Duration on the Surface Micromorphology, Roughness, and Wettability of Dental Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar Ramakrishnaiah


    Full Text Available The current laboratory study is evaluating the effect of hydrofluoric acid etching duration on the surface characteristics of five silica-based glass ceramics. Changes in the pore pattern, crystal structure, roughness, and wettability were compared and evaluated. Seventy-five rectangularly shaped specimens were cut from each material (IPS e-max™, Dentsply Celtra™, Vita Suprinity™, Vita mark II™, and Vita Suprinity FC™; the sectioned samples were finished, polished, and ultrasonically cleaned. Specimens were randomly assigned into study groups: control (no etching and four experimental groups (20, 40, 80 and 160 s of etching. The etched surfaces’ microstructure including crystal structure, pore pattern, pore depth, and pore width was studied under a scanning electron microscope, and the surface roughness and wettability were analyzed using a non-contact surface profilometer and a contact angle measuring device, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey’s test. The results showed a significant change in the pore number, pore pattern, crystal structure, surface roughness, and wettability with increased etching duration. Etching for a short time resulted in small pores, and etching for longer times resulted in wider, irregular grooves. A significant increase in the surface roughness and wettability was observed with an increase in the etching duration. The findings also suggested a strong association between the surface roughness and wettability.

  8. Numerical simulations of seepage flow in rough single rock fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingang Zhang


    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the structural characteristics and seepage flow behavior of rough single rock fractures, a set of single fracture physical models were produced using the Weierstrass–Mandelbrot functions to test the seepage flow performance. Six single fractures, with various surface roughnesses characterized by fractal dimensions, were built using COMSOL multiphysics software. The fluid flow behavior through the rough fractures and the influences of the rough surfaces on the fluid flow behavior was then monitored. The numerical simulation indicates that there is a linear relationship between the average flow velocity over the entire flow path and the fractal dimension of the rough surface. It is shown that there is good a agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data in terms of the properties of the fluid flowing through the rough single rock fractures.

  9. Changes in the spectrum of light scattered from a rough dielectric film on a metal surface (United States)

    Gu, Zu-Han


    Theoretical calculations have shown that in order to obtain changes in the spectrum of light scattered from a randomly rough surface that are large enough to be observed experimentally, this spectrum should be measured at angles of scattering in the near vicinity of features in the scattering pattern whose angular positions depend strongly on the frequency of the incident light. A scattering system that possessses such features is a dielectric film deposited on the planar surface of a reflecting substrate whose illuminated surface is a 2D randomly rough surface. When the dielectric surface is weakly rough, coherent light scattered from this system consists of speckle spots that arrange themselves into concentric interference rings, called Selenyi rings, centered at the normal to the mean surfaces. The angular positions of these rings (intensity maxima) are independent of the angle of incidence of the incident light. When the dielectric surface is strongly rough the angular positions of these rings now depend on the angle of incidence, and they are called Quetelet rings. The angular positions of both types of rings depend strongly on the wavelength of the incident light. Therefore, the spectrum of the scattered light, measured at a scattering angle close to the position of one of these rings, can differ significantly from that of the incident light. In this paper we study experimentally the scattering of light from the system just described, namely a dielectric film deposited on the planar surface of a metallic substrate, when the illuminated surface of the film is a 2D randomly rough surface. We find large changes in the spectrum of the scattered light at scattering angles in the neighborhood of the fringes in the scattering pattern to which this system gives rise.

  10. Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission fluxes modeling (United States)

    Menut, Laurent; Pérez, Carlos; Haustein, Karsten; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Prigent, Catherine; Alfaro, Stéphane


    Dust production models (DPM) used to estimate vertical fluxes of mineral dust aerosols over arid regions need accurate data on soil and surface properties. The Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA) data set was developed for Northern Africa, the Middle East, and East Asia. This regional data set was built through dedicated field campaigns and include, among others, the aerodynamic roughness length, the smooth roughness length of the erodible fraction of the surface, and the dry (undisturbed) soil size distribution. Recently, satellite-derived roughness length and high-resolution soil texture data sets at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity for the use of advanced schemes in global models. This paper analyzes the behavior of the ERS satellite-derived global roughness length and the State Soil Geographic data base-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) using an advanced DPM in comparison to the LISA data set over Northern Africa and the Middle East. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the DPM) and of the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length and soil texture data sets. We also compare the use of the drag partition scheme to a widely used preferential source approach in global models. Idealized experiments with prescribed wind speeds show that the ERS and STATSGO-FAO data sets provide realistic spatial patterns of dust emission and friction velocity thresholds in the region. Finally, we evaluate a dust transport model for the period of March to July 2011 with observed aerosol optical depths from Aerosol Robotic Network sites. Results show that ERS and STATSGO-FAO provide realistic simulations in the region.

  11. Silicon Germanium Alloy Photovoltaics for 1.06 Micron Wireless Power Transmission Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR effort, Structured Materials Industries, Inc. (SMI)will design, fabricate, and test more efficient photovoltaics for 1.06 micron wavelength...

  12. Mid-IR fiber optic light source around 6 micron through parametric wavelength translation

    CERN Document Server

    Barh, A; Varshney, R K; Pal, B P; Sanghera, J; Shaw, L B; Aggarwal, I D


    We report numerically designed highly nonlinear all glass chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber for efficient generation of light around 6 micron through degenerate four wave mixing by considering continuous wave CO laser of 5 to 10 Watts power emitting at 5.6 micron as the pump. By tuning the pump wavelength, pump power, fiber dispersion and nonlinear properties, narrow and broad band mid-IR all-fiber light source could be realized. Parametric amplification of more than 20 decibel is achievable for the narrow band source at 6.46 micron with a maximum power conversion efficiency of 33 percent while amplification of 22 decibel is achievable for a B-band source over the wavelength range of 5 to 6.3 micron with a conversion efficiency of 40 percent.

  13. Nimbus-5/THIR Level 1 Brightness Temperature at 6.7 microns V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-5 Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) Level 1 Brightness Temperature at 6.7 microns data product contains radiances expressed in units of...

  14. Nimbus-5/THIR Level 1 Brightness Temperature at 11.5 microns V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-5 Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) Level 1 Brightness Temperature at 11.5 microns data product contains radiances expressed in units of...

  15. Single-Frequency Semiconductor Lasers Operating at 1.5 and 2.0 microns Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While conventional injection seeding sources (such as DFB diode lasers and rare-earth doped solid-state microchip lasers) are available at 1.5 microns, these sources...

  16. High Power Narrow Linewidth 1.26 Micron Ho-Doped Fiber Amplifier Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of an innovative, high power, and extremely reliable 1.26-micron Ho-doped fluoride fiber amplifier. The proposed fiber amplifier...

  17. Tunable Narrow Linewidth, Low Noise 2.05 Micron Single Frequency Seeder Laser Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an all-fiber based 2.05-micron single frequency, narrow linewidth seeder laser with 10 nm tuning range and 5GHz frequency modulation for next generation...

  18. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  19. Nimbus-6/THIR Level 1 Brightness Temperature at 11.5 microns V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-6 Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) Level 1 Brightness Temperature at 11.5 microns data product contains radiances expressed in units of...

  20. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 12.1 Microns Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 12.1 Microns Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFC12MEXT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS...

  1. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 8.3 Microns Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 8.3 Microns Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFC8MEXT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS...

  2. Tunable Single Frequency 2.05 Micron Fiber Laser Using New Ho-Doped Fiber Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, we propose to demonstrate and build a widely tunable, narrow linewidth, single frequency fiber laser near 2.05 micron by developing an innovative...

  3. Tunable Single Frequency 2.054 Micron Fiber Laser Using New Ho-Doped Fiber Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, we propose to demonstrate and build a near 2 micron widely tunable, narrow linewidth, single frequency fiber laser by developing an innovative...

  4. Frequency-Locked Single-Frequency Fiber Laser at 2 Micron Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Frequency-locked single-frequency 2 micron fiber laser is proposed to be used for airborne/spaceborne coherent lidar measurements, i.e., Active Sensing of CO2...

  5. Efficient High Power 2 micron Tm3+-Doped Fiber Laser Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers for efficient high power 2-micron fiber lasers capable of generating an output power of...

  6. Efficient high power 2 micron Tm3+-Doped Fiber Laser Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers for efficient high power 2 micron fiber lasers capable of generating an output power of...

  7. 2-Micron Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; hide


    A 2-micron high energy, pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. Development of this lidar heavily leverages the 2-micron laser technologies developed in LaRC over the last decade. The high pulse energy, direct detection lidar operating at CO2 2-micron absorption band provides an alternate approach to measure CO2 concentrations. This new 2-micron pulsed IPDA lidar has been flown in spring of this year for total ten flights with 27 flight hours. It is able to make measurements of the total amount of atmospheric CO2 from the aircraft to the ground or cloud. It is expected to provide high-precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  8. Nimbus-6/THIR Level 1 Brightness Temperature at 6.7 microns V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-6 Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) Level 1 Brightness Temperature at 6.7 microns data product contains radiances expressed in units of...

  9. Silicon Germanium Alloy Photovoltaics for 1.06 Micron Wireless Power Transmission Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Structured Materials Industries, Inc. proposes to develop SiGe photovoltaic technology that matches the Nd:YAG wavelength of 1.06 micron for insertion in future...

  10. Development of Double-Pulsed Two-Micron Laser for Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Measurements (United States)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Refaat, Tamer F.


    A CO2 lidar double-pulse two-micron high-energy transmitter, tuned to on- and off-line absorption wavelengths, has been developed. Transmitter operation and performance has been verified on ground and airborne platform.

  11. In Vitro Permeation of Micronized and Nanonized Alaptide from Semisolid Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Opatrilova


    Full Text Available This study is focused on in vitro permeation of the original Czech compound, a skin/mucosa tissue regeneration promoter, known under the international nonproprietary name “alaptide,” in micronized and nanonized forms. Alaptide showed a great potential for local applications for treatment and/or regeneration of the injured skin. The above mentioned technological modifications influence the permeation of alaptide through artificial or biological membranes, such as PAMPA or skin. The permeation of micronized and nanonized form of alaptide formulated to various semisolid pharmaceutical compositions through full-thickness pig ear skin using a Franz cell has been investigated in detail. In general, it can be concluded that the nanonized alaptide permeated through the skin less than the micronized form; different observations were made for permeation through the PAMPA system, where the micronized form showed lower permeation than the nanonized alaptide.

  12. Incorporating Skew into RMS Surface Roughness Probability Distribution (United States)

    Stahl, Mark T.; Stahl, H. Philip.


    The standard treatment of RMS surface roughness data is the application of a Gaussian probability distribution. This handling of surface roughness ignores the skew present in the surface and overestimates the most probable RMS of the surface, the mode. Using experimental data we confirm the Gaussian distribution overestimates the mode and application of an asymmetric distribution provides a better fit. Implementing the proposed asymmetric distribution into the optical manufacturing process would reduce the polishing time required to meet surface roughness specifications.

  13. Investigation of surface roughness influence on hyperbolic metamaterial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kozik


    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to introduce simple model of surface roughness which does not involve objects with complicated shapes and could help to reduce computational costs. We described and proved numerically that the influence of surface roughness at the interfaces in metal-dielectric composite materials could be described by proper selection of refractive index of dielectric layers. Our calculations show that this model works for roughness with RMS value about 1 nm and below.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Micronized Artemisinin via a Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Zhang


    Full Text Available The particle sizes of pharmaceutical substances are important for their bioavailability. Bioavailability can be improved by reducing the particle size of the drug. In this study, artemisinin was micronized by the rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS. The particle size of the unprocessed white needle-like artemisinin particles was 30 to 1200 µm. The optimum micronization conditions are determined as follows: extraction temperature of 62 °C, extraction pressure of 25 MPa, precipitation temperature 45 °C and nozzle diameter of 1000 μm. Under the optimum conditions, micronized artemisinin with a (mean particle size MPS of 550 nm is obtained. By analysis of variance (ANOVA, extraction temperature and pressure have significant effects on the MPS of the micronized artemisinin. The particle size of micronized artemisinin decreased with increasing extraction temperature and pressure. Moreover, the SEM, LC-MS, FTIR, DSC and XRD allowed the comparison between the crystalline initial state and the micronization particles obtained after the RESS process. The results showed that RESS process has not induced degradation of artemisinin and that processed artemisinin particles have lower crystallinity and melting point. The bulk density of artemisinin was determined before and after RESS process and the obtained results showed that it passes from an initial density of 0.554 to 0.128 g·cm−3 after the processing. The decrease in bulk density of the micronized powder can increase the liquidity of drug particles when they are applied for medicinal preparations. These results suggest micronized powder of artemisinin can be of great potential in drug delivery systems.

  15. Solid methane on Triton and Pluto - 3- to 4-micron spectrophotometry (United States)

    Spencer, John R.; Buie, Marc W.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.


    Methane has been identified in the Pluto/Charon system on the basis of absorption features in the reflectance spectrum at 1.5 and 2.3 microns; attention is presently given to observations of a 3.25 micron-centered deep absorption feature in Triton and Pluto/Charon system reflectance spectra. This absorption may indicate the presence of solid methane, constituting either the dominant surface species or a mixture with a highly transparent substance, such as N2 frost.

  16. 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most important greenhouse gases. It is essential for the study of global warming to accurately measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and continuously record its variation. A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed in NASA Langley Research Center. This laser system is capable of making a vertical profiling of CO2 from ground and column measurement of CO2 from air and space-borne platform. The transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. A Ho:YLF laser operating in the range of 2.05 micrometers can be tuned over several characteristic lines of CO2 absorption. Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of CO2 with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ. For coherent detection, high repetition rate is required for speckle averaging to obtain highly precise measurements. However, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser can not operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. A Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can operate in high repetition rate. A theoretical model has been established to simulate the performance of Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF lasers. For continuous wave (CW) operation, high pump intensity with small beam

  17. Estimation of fracture roughness from the acoustic borehole televiewer image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Dae Soek; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon


    Estimation of fracture roughness - as one of the basic hydraulic fracture parameters - is very important in assessing ground water flow described by using discrete fracture network modeling. Former manual estimation of the roughness for each fracture surface of drill cores is above all a tedious, time-consuming work and will often cause some ambiguities of roughness interpretation partly due to the subjective judgements of observers, and partly due to the measuring procedure itself. However, recently, indebt to the highly reliable Televiewer data for the fracture discrimination, it has led to a guess to develop a relationship between the traditional roughness method based on a linear profiles and the method from the Televiewer image based on a ellipsoidal profile. Hence, the aim of this work is to develop an automatic evaluation algorithm for measuring the roughness from the Televiewer images. A highly reliable software named 'FRAFA' has been developed and realized to the extent that its utility merits. In the developing procedure, various problems - such as the examination of a new base line(ellipsoidal) for measuring the unevenness of fracture, the elimination of overlapping fracture signatures or noise, the wavelet estimation according to the type of fractures and the digitalization of roughness etc. - were considered. With these consideration in mind, the newly devised algorithm for the estimation of roughness curves showed a great potential not only for avoiding ambiguities of roughness interpretation but also for the judgement of roughness classification.

  18. Advanced 2-micron Solid-state Laser for Wind and CO2 Lidar Applications (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    Significant advancements in the 2-micron laser development have been made recently. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. The world record 2-micron laser energy is demonstrated with an oscillator and two amplifiers system. It generates more than one joule per pulse energy with excellent beam quality. Based on the successful demonstration of a fully conductive cooled oscillator by using heat pipe technology, an improved fully conductively cooled 2-micron amplifier was designed, manufactured and integrated. It virtually eliminates the running coolant to increase the overall system efficiency and reliability. In addition to technology development and demonstration, a compact and engineering hardened 2-micron laser is under development. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser is expected to be integrated to a lidar system and take field measurements. The recent achievements push forward the readiness of such a laser system for space lidar applications. This paper will review the developments of the state-of-the-art solid-state 2-micron laser.

  19. The Carnegie Hubble Program: The Leavitt Law at 3.6 microns and 4.5 microns in the Large Magellanic Cloud (United States)

    Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew J.; Persson, S. E.; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane R.; Sturch, Laura


    The Carnegie Hubble Program (CHP) is designed to improve the extragalactic distance scale using data from the post-cryogenic era of Spitzer. The ultimate goal is a determination of the Hubble constant to an accuracy of 2%. This paper is the first in a series on the Cepheid population of the Large Magellanic Cloud, and focuses on the period-luminosity relations (Leavitt laws) that will be used, in conjunction with observations of Milky Way Cepheids, to set the slope and zero-point of the Cepheid distance scale in the mid-infrared. To this end, we have obtained uniformly-sampled light curves for 85 LMC Cepheids, having periods between 6 and 140 days. Period- luminosity and period-color relations are presented in the 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron bands. We demonstrate that the 3.6 micron band is a superb distance indicator. The cyclical variation of the [3.6]-[4.5] color has been measured for the first time. We attribute the amplitude and phase of the color curves to the dissociation and recombination of CO molecules in the Cepheid s atmosphere. The CO affects only the 4.5 micron flux making it a potential metallicity indicator.

  20. Spectrophotometric Examination of Rough Print Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet Novotny


    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the impact of the surface texture of individual creative paper types (coated or patternedon the quality of printing and to identify to what extent the various creative paper types require specific types ofspectrophotometers. We used stereomicroscopic images to illustrate unprinted and printed surfaces of creative papertypes. Surface roughness was measured to obtain data on the unevenness of surfaces. Spectrophotometric tests wereused to select the most suitable spectrophotometer from meters with different illumination setup for testing anygiven print. For the purpose of testing, we used spectrophotometers which are commonly available generally used totest print products for colour accuracy. With the improvement of measuring geometries, illumination setup, colourmeasurement becomes more and more capable of producing reliable results unaffected by surface textures. Our testshave proved this fact by showing that the GretagMacbeth Spectrolino with annular illumination is less sensitive tosurface texture than the X-Rite Spetrodensitometer and the Techkon SpetroDens with directional illumination. Furthertests have brought us to the conclusion that there is a difference even between the two devices with directionalillumination. While the X-Rite 530 Spectrodensitometer is more suitable for testing coated surfaces, the TechkonSpectroDens can come close to ΔE*ab values produced by the annular illuminated device for textured surfaces.

  1. Intrusion detection using rough set classification. (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-hua; Zhang, Guan-hua; Zhang, Jie; Bai, Ying-cai


    Recently machine learning-based intrusion detection approaches have been subjected to extensive researches because they can detect both misuse and anomaly. In this paper, rough set classification (RSC), a modern learning algorithm, is used to rank the features extracted for detecting intrusions and generate intrusion detection models. Feature ranking is a very critical step when building the model. RSC performs feature ranking before generating rules, and converts the feature ranking to minimal hitting set problem addressed by using genetic algorithm (GA). This is done in classical approaches using Support Vector Machine (SVM) by executing many iterations, each of which removes one useless feature. Compared with those methods, our method can avoid many iterations. In addition, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed to increase the convergence speed and decrease the training time of RSC. The models generated by RSC take the form of "IF-THEN" rules, which have the advantage of explication. Tests and comparison of RSC with SVM on DARPA benchmark data showed that for Probe and DoS attacks both RSC and SVM yielded highly accurate results (greater than 99% accuracy on testing set).

  2. Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Causse, Mathieu


    This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.

  3. Global-Scale Evaluation of Roughness Effects on C-Band AMSR-E Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Wang


    Full Text Available Quantifying roughness effects on ground surface emissivity is an important step in obtaining high-quality soil moisture products from large-scale passive microwave sensors. In this study, we used a semi-empirical method to evaluate roughness effects (parameterized here by the  parameter on a global scale from AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS observations. AMSR-E brightness temperatures at 6.9 GHz obtained from January 2009 to September 2011, together with estimations of soil moisture from the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity L3 products and of soil temperature from ECMWF’s (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting were used as inputs in a retrieval process. In the first step, we retrieved a parameter (referred to as the  parameter accounting for the combined effects of roughness and vegetation. Then, global MODIS NDVI data were used to decouple the effects of vegetation from those of surface roughness. Finally, global maps of the Hr parameters were produced and discussed. Initial results showed that some spatial patterns in the  values could be associated with the main vegetation types (higher values of  were retrieved generally in forested regions, intermediate values were obtained over crops and grasslands, and lower values were obtained over shrubs and desert and topography. For instance, over the USA, lower values of  were retrieved in relatively flat regions while relatively higher values were retrieved in hilly regions.

  4. Modeling of flow and mixing in 3D rough-walled rock fracture intersections (United States)

    Zou, Liangchao; Jing, Lanru; Cvetkovic, Vladimir


    The processes of fluid flow and solute transport through rock fractures are of primary importance in environmental engineering and geosciences. This study presented numerical modeling results of fluid flow and solute transport in a 3D rock fracture-matrix system with an orthogonal intersection of two rough-walled rock fractures. The rough-walled fracture geometry models were built from laser-scanned data of a real rock surface, for a realistic representation of natural rock fracture surface roughness. The fluid flow in the two intersected fractures and solute transport in the fracture-matrix system were simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) and transport equation in the entire system. The dependence of mixing on Péclet number (Pe) and flow directionality features were analyzed. The results directly visualized important channeling flow patterns that significantly enhanced the solute mixing process at the rough-walled fracture intersection. The illustrated channeling flow and associated impacts on mixing are particularly important in the prediction of solute transport in natural fractured rocks, especially when discrete fracture network (DFN) approach is applied.

  5. Using the automata processor for fast pattern recognition in high energy physics experiments—A proof of concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael H.L.S., E-mail: [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Cancelo, Gustavo; Green, Christopher [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Guo, Deyuan; Wang, Ke [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Zmuda, Ted [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)


    We explore the Micron Automata Processor (AP) as a suitable commodity technology that can address the growing computational needs of pattern recognition in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. A toy detector model is developed for which an electron track confirmation trigger based on the Micron AP serves as a test case. Although primarily meant for high speed text-based searches, we demonstrate a proof of concept for the use of the Micron AP in a HEP trigger application.

  6. Secondary flows in turbulent boundary layers over longitudinal surface roughness (United States)

    Hwang, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Jae Hwa


    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers over longitudinal surface roughness are performed to investigate the impact of the surface roughness on the mean flow characteristics related to counter-rotating large-scale secondary flows. By systematically changing the two parameters of the pitch (P) and width (S) for roughness elements in the ranges of 0.57 ≤P /δ ≤2.39 and 0.15 ≤S /δ ≤1.12 , where δ is the boundary layer thickness, we find that the size of the secondary flow in each case is mostly determined by the value of P - S, i.e., the valley width, over the ridge-type roughness. However, the strength of the secondary flows on the cross-stream plane relative to the flow is increased when the value of P increases or when the value of S decreases. In addition to the secondary flows, additional tertiary and quaternary flows are observed both above the roughness crest and in the valley as the values of P and S increase further. Based on an analysis using the turbulent kinetic energy transport equation, it is shown that the secondary flow over the ridge-type roughness is both driven and sustained by the anisotropy of turbulence, consistent with previous observations of a turbulent boundary layer over strip-type roughness [Anderson et al., J. Fluid Mech. 768, 316 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2015.91]. Careful inspection of the turbulent kinetic energy budget reveals that the opposite rotational sense of the secondary flow between the ridge- and strip-type roughness elements is primarily attributed to the local imbalance of energy budget created by the strong turbulent transport term over the ridge-type roughness. The active transport of the kinetic energy over the ridge-type roughness is closely associated with the upward deflection of spanwise motions in the valley, mostly due to the roughness edge.

  7. Effect of surface roughness on bidirectional reflectance of Antarctic snow (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.; Brandt, Richard E.; O'Rawe Hinton, Patricia


    The angular pattern of sunlight reflected by snow is altered by surface roughness, which in the interior of Antarctica is usually in the form of meter-scale longitudinal erosional features (sastrugi), whose axes align with the direction of strong winds. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) changes over the course of a day as the solar azimuth changes relative to the sastrugi axis. The normalized BRDF, or ``anisotropic reflectance factor'' R, was measured at South Pole Station from a 22-m tower at 600, 660, and 900 nm wavelengths. The R pattern was similar at the three wavelengths; it probably varies little from 300 to 900 nm. Measurements were made at solar zenith angles θ0 from 67° to 90°, over the full range of viewing zenith angle (θr), azimuth angle between Sun and view (ϕ), and azimuth angle between Sun and sastrugi (ϕsas). Variation of R with ϕsas was notable; sastrugi oriented perpendicular to the solar beam cause a reduction of the forward peak, and sastrugi at an oblique angle cause R to lose its symmetry about the solar azimuth. However, the effects of sastrugi are mostly restricted to large viewing zenith angles, so remote sensing of albedo and atmospheric properties can be carried out accurately without knowledge of sastrugi height and orientation if only near-nadir views are used. This recommendation is opposite that for observations of broken clouds over dark surfaces, for which large θr is preferred. A parameterization of R is developed, valid for viewing angles θrSastrugi can cause a reduction of the snow albedo by altering the angle of incidence and by trapping of photons. For the small sastrugi of the Antarctic Plateau, the albedo is unaffected at visible wavelengths but can be reduced by a few percent at near-infrared wavelengths when the Sun is low.

  8. Amorphous selenium direct detection CMOS digital x-ray imager with 25 micron pixel pitch (United States)

    Scott, Christopher C.; Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Ghanbarzadeh, Sina; Allan, Gary; Farrier, Michael; Cunningham, Ian A.; Karim, Karim S.


    We have developed a high resolution amorphous selenium (a-Se) direct detection imager using a large-area compatible back-end fabrication process on top of a CMOS active pixel sensor having 25 micron pixel pitch. Integration of a-Se with CMOS technology requires overcoming CMOS/a-Se interfacial strain, which initiates nucleation of crystalline selenium and results in high detector dark currents. A CMOS-compatible polyimide buffer layer was used to planarize the backplane and provide a low stress and thermally stable surface for a-Se. The buffer layer inhibits crystallization and provides detector stability that is not only a performance factor but also critical for favorable long term cost-benefit considerations in the application of CMOS digital x-ray imagers in medical practice. The detector structure is comprised of a polyimide (PI) buffer layer, the a-Se layer, and a gold (Au) top electrode. The PI layer is applied by spin-coating and is patterned using dry etching to open the backplane bond pads for wire bonding. Thermal evaporation is used to deposit the a-Se and Au layers, and the detector is operated in hole collection mode (i.e. a positive bias on the Au top electrode). High resolution a-Se diagnostic systems typically use 70 to 100 μm pixel pitch and have a pre-sampling modulation transfer function (MTF) that is significantly limited by the pixel aperture. Our results confirm that, for a densely integrated 25 μm pixel pitch CMOS array, the MTF approaches the fundamental material limit, i.e. where the MTF begins to be limited by the a-Se material properties and not the pixel aperture. Preliminary images demonstrating high spatial resolution have been obtained from a frst prototype imager.

  9. Fuzzy multi-project rough-cut capacity planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masmoudi, Malek; Hans, Elias W.; Leus, Roel; Hait, Alain; Sotskov, Yuri N.; Werner, Frank


    This chapter studies the incorporation of uncertainty into multi-project rough-cut capacity planning. We use fuzzy sets to model uncertainties, adhering to the so-called possibilistic approach. We refer to the resulting proactive planning environment as Fuzzy Rough Cut Capacity Planning (FRCCP).

  10. Surface roughness and morphologic changes of zirconia: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface roughness of zirconia ceramics. 125. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Jan-Feb 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 1. Researchers evaluated the effect of the aggressive mechanical abrasion methods used to increase surface roughness on. ZrO2. These treatments are: Abrasion with diamond (or other) rotary instruments,[17] ...

  11. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf


    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault\\'s roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughnessroughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  12. Roughness of grain boundaries in partly recrystallized aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yubin; Juul Jensen, Dorte


    cold rolled aluminum samples. The results show that particle pinning is not the main reason accounting for recrystallization boundary roughness in the present samples. The roughness is however shown to relate to the deformation microstructure and possible effects of migration rate are discussed...

  13. Roughness Induced Boundary Layer Transition in Incompressible Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Q.; Schrijer, F.J.; Scarano, F.


    The fluid dynamics process leading to laminar-turbulent transition behind an isolated roughness element is investigated in the incompressible regime using particle image velocimetry. The study covers the effect of roughness size and geometry on the promotion of transition. The measurement domain

  14. End depth in steeply sloping rough rectangular channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    known end depth and Nikuradse equivalent sand roughness is also presented. Results from the present model correspond satisfactorily with experimental observations except for some higher roughnesses. Keywords. Brink depth; end depth; free overfall; one-dimensional flow; open channel flow; steady flow. 1. Introduction.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2011 ... EFFECT OF ROUGHNESS TO HYDRAULIC PROJECTION IN AN U-SHAPED. CHANNEL, WITH ROUGH BED. A. Ghomri*, M. Debabeche and F. Riguet. LARHYSS, Université de Biskra, BP 145 RP – 07000 Biskra, - Algérie. Received: 26 February 2011 / Accepted: 03 April 2010 / Published online: 30 ...

  16. Heat transfer and pressure drop in microchannels with random roughness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelevic, N.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.


    The effect of surface roughness on heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena within a microchannel has been investigated by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The surface roughness has been generated by using Gaussian function. Gaussian function is an efficient and convenient method to create surface

  17. The effect of sediment concentration on bedload roughness (United States)

    Bergeron, Normand E.; Carbonneau, Patrice


    Bedload roughness is the roughness produced by sediment transported near the bed. While it is well established that the magnitude of this roughness is proportional to the thickness of the moving sediment layer, the effect of sediment concentration remains largely unknown. This paper presents the results of a flume experiment that was designed to investigate the effect of sediment concentration on bedload roughness. The experiment consisted of creating flow conditions where bedload transport is supply-limited and injecting gravel size particles (D50=7·4 mm) at the upstream end of the flume in order to produce bedload transport. While keeping flow conditions constant, sediment concentration was varied by successively increasing the injection rate of gravel in the flow. For each injection rate, flow velocity profiles were measured in order to evaluate changes of mean flow velocity U, shear velocity u*, roughness length zo and resistance to flow f. The results indicate that low sediment concentration affects mainly the near bed portion of the flow where it causes a reduction of mean flow velocity and an increase of shear velocity and roughness length. For larger sediment concentration, the whole flow velocity profile becomes affected by bedload roughness but the importance of this effect always remain larger near the bed. As sediment concentration is augmented, mean flow velocity is consistently reduced but shear velocity and roughness length increase until a plateau is reached where these two variables become constant.

  18. Comparison Between 2D And 3D Surface Roughness Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For many decades engineers and researchers have been using two-dimensional (2D) instruments to measure the roughness of a surface. Several 2D surface roughness parameters have been developed, and have emerged in different countries where researches in the area of surface metrology were carried out. The most ...

  19. Empirical model for estimating the surface roughness of machined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    in the present industrial age, in which the growing competition calls for all the efforts to be directed towards the economical manufacture of ... used a neural network modeling approach to predict surface roughness and tool wear in ... networks in machining process modeling to predict surface roughness in turning operation ...

  20. Rough Mill Improvement Guide for Managers and Supervisors (United States)

    Philip H. Mitchell; Jan Wiedenbeck; Bobby Ammerman; Bobby Ammerman


    Wood products manufacturers require an efficient recovery of product from lumber to remain profitable. A company's ability to obtain the best yield in lumber cut-up operations (i.e., the rough mill) varies according to the raw material, product, processing equipment, processing environment, and knowledge and skill of the rough mill's employees. This book...

  1. Ice Roughness in Short Duration SLD Icing Events (United States)

    McClain, Stephen T.; Reed, Dana; Vargas, Mario; Kreeger, Richard E.; Tsao, Jen-Ching


    Ice accretion codes depend on models of roughness parameters to account for the enhanced heat transfer during the ice accretion process. While mitigating supercooled large droplet (SLD or Appendix O) icing is a significant concern for manufacturers seeking future vehicle certification due to the pending regulation, historical ice roughness studies have been performed using Appendix C icing clouds which exhibit mean volumetric diameters (MVD) much smaller than SLD clouds. Further, the historical studies of roughness focused on extracting parametric representations of ice roughness using multiple images of roughness elements. In this study, the ice roughness developed on a 21-in. NACA 0012 at 0deg angle of attack exposed to short duration SLD icing events was measured in the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The MVD's used in the study ranged from 100 micrometer to 200 micrometers, in a 67 m/s flow, with liquid water contents of either 0.6 gm/cubic meters or 0.75 gm/cubic meters. The ice surfaces were measured using a Romer Absolute Arm laser scanning system. The roughness associated with each surface point cloud was measured using the two-dimensional self-organizing map approach developed by McClain and Kreeger (2013) resulting in statistical descriptions of the ice roughness.

  2. Smooth and rough boundaries in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Th.H.; Doering, Charles R.; Lohse, Detlef; Lathrop, Daniel P.


    We examine the torque required to drive the smooth or rough cylinders in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. With rough inner and outer walls the scaling of the dimensionless torque G is found to be consistent with pure Kolmogorov scaling G~Re2. The results are interpreted within the Grossmann-Lohse

  3. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barchiesi


    Full Text Available The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric roughness on the efficiency of a dimer nano-biosensor (two levels of roughness are considered. Therefore, we propose a general numerical method, that can be applied to any other nanometric shape, to take into account the roughness in a three dimensional model. The study focuses on both the far-field, which corresponds to the experimental detected data, and the near-field, responsible for exciting and then detecting biological molecules. The results suggest that the biosensor efficiency is highly sensitive to the surface roughness. The roughness can produce important shifts of the extinction efficiency peak and a decrease of its amplitude resulting from changes in the distribution of near-field and absorbed electric field intensities.

  4. Gliding Swifts Attain Laminar Flow over Rough Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; De Kat, R.


    Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1–2% of chord length on the upper surface—10,000 times rougher than sailplane

  5. Hydrodynamic roughness of floodplain vegetation : Airborne parameterization and field validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsma, M.W.


    The parameterization of hydrodynamic roughness of floodplains is a key component in the assessment of the safety levels of the fluvial area. Roughness describes the amount of friction that is exerted on the water by the vegetation and the ground surface. Menno Straatsma studied new ways to quantify

  6. Determining the Effect of Cutting Parameters on Surface Roughness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methodology (RSM) was implemented to investigate the effect of the cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on the surface roughness. In this study, the surface roughness is measured during turning operation at different cutting parameters such as speed, feed, and depth of cut on Alumunium ...

  7. Estimating aerodynamic resistance of rough surfaces from angular reflectance (United States)

    Current wind erosion and dust emission models neglect the heterogeneous nature of surface roughness and its geometric anisotropic effect on aerodynamic resistance, and over-estimate the erodible area by assuming it is not covered by roughness elements. We address these shortfalls with a new model wh...

  8. Influence of obstacles on the aerodynamic roughness of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Joost J.M. de; Vries, Arjen C. de; Klaassen, Wim

    The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of large- and small-scale obstacles (orography, tree lines, and dikes) on the effective aerodynamic roughness of the Netherlands, a relatively flat, small-scale landscape. The roughness averaging approach was based on drag coefficients. The

  9. The psychophysics of roughness applied to dysphonic voice. (United States)

    Eddins, David A; Kopf, Lisa M; Shrivastav, Rahul


    Roughness is a sound quality that has been related to the amplitude modulation characteristics of the acoustic stimulus. Roughness also is considered one of the primary elements of voice quality associated with natural variations across normal voices and is a salient feature of many dysphonic voices. It is known that the roughness of tonal stimuli is dependent on the frequency and depth of amplitude modulation and on the carrier frequency. Here, it is determined if similar dependencies exist for voiced speech stimuli. Knowledge of such dependencies can lead to a better understanding of the acoustic characteristics of vocal roughness along the continuum of normal to dysphonic and may facilitate computational estimates of vocal roughness. Synthetic vowel stimuli were modeled after talkers selected from the Satloff/Heman-Ackah disordered voice database. To parametrically control amplitude modulation frequency and depth, synthesized stimuli had minimal amplitude fluctuations, and amplitude modulation was superimposed with the desired frequency and depth. Perceptual roughness judgments depended on amplitude modulation frequency and depth in a manner that closely matched data from tonal carriers. The dependence of perceived roughness on amplitude modulation frequency and depth closely matched the roughness of sinusoidal carriers as reported by Fastl and Zwicker [(2007) Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models, 3rd ed. (Springer, New York)].

  10. Pressure variation of developed lapping tool on surface roughness (United States)

    Hussain, A. K.; Lee, K. Q.; Aung, L. M.; Abu, A.; Tan, L. K.; Kang, H. S.


    Improving the surface roughness is always one of the major concerns in the development of lapping process as high precision machining caters a great demand in manufacturing process. This paper aims to investigate the performance of a newly designed lapping tool in term of surface roughness. Polypropylene is used as the lapping tool head. The lapping tool is tested for different pressure to identify the optimum working pressure for lapping process. The theoretical surface roughness is also calculated using Vickers Hardness. The present study shows that polypropylene is able to produce good quality and smooth surface roughness. The optimum lapping pressure in the present study is found to be 45 MPa. By comparing the theoretical and experimental values, the present study shows that the newly designed lapping tool is capable to produce finer surface roughness.

  11. Quantized Ultracold Neutrons in Rough Waveguides: GRANIT Experiments and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Escobar


    Full Text Available We apply our general theory of transport in systems with random rough boundaries to gravitationally quantized ultracold neutrons in rough waveguides as in GRANIT experiments (ILL, Grenoble. We consider waveguides with roughness in both two and one dimensions (2D and 1D. In the biased diffusion approximation the depletion times for the gravitational quantum states can be easily expressed via each other irrespective of the system parameters. The calculation of the exit neutron count reduces to evaluation of a single constant which contains a complicated integral of the correlation function of surface roughness. In the case of 1D roughness (random grating this constant is calculated analytically for common types of the correlation functions. The results obey simple scaling relations which are slightly different in 1D and 2D. We predict the exit neutron count for the new GRANIT cell.

  12. Computer simulation of RBS spectra from samples with surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinský, P., E-mail: [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Hnatowicz, V., E-mail: [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Macková, A., E-mail: [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic)


    A fast code for the simulation of common RBS spectra including surface roughness effects has been written and tested on virtual samples comprising either a rough layer deposited on a smooth substrate or smooth layer deposited on a rough substrate and simulated at different geometries. The sample surface or interface relief has been described by a polyline and the simulated RBS spectrum has been obtained as the sum of many particular spectra from randomly chosen particle trajectories. The code includes several procedures generating virtual samples with random and regular (periodical) roughness. The shape of the RBS spectra has been found to change strongly with increasing sample roughness and an increasing angle of the incoming ion beam.

  13. a Comparison of Uav and Tls Data for Soil Roughness Assessment (United States)

    Milenković, M.; Karel, W.; Ressl, C.; Pfeifer, N.


    Soil roughness represents fine-scale surface geometry which figures in many geophysical models. While static photogrammetric techniques (terrestrial images and laser scanning) have been recently proposed as a new source for deriving roughness heights, there is still need to overcome acquisition scale and viewing geometry issues. By contrast to the static techniques, images taken from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can maintain near-nadir looking geometry over scales of several agricultural fields. This paper presents a pilot study on high-resolution, soil roughness reconstruction and assessment from UAV images over an agricultural plot. As a reference method, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was applied on a 10 m x 1.5 m subplot. The UAV images were self-calibrated and oriented within a bundle adjustment, and processed further up to a dense-matched digital surface model (DSM). The analysis of the UAV- and TLS-DSMs were performed in the spatial domain based on the surface autocorrelation function and the correlation length, and in the frequency domain based on the roughness spectrum and the surface fractal dimension (spectral slope). The TLS- and UAV-DSM differences were found to be under ±1 cm, while the UAV DSM showed a systematic pattern below this scale, which was explained by weakly tied sub-blocks of the bundle block. The results also confirmed that the existing TLS methods leads to roughness assessment up to 5 mm resolution. However, for our UAV data, this was not possible to achieve, though it was shown that for spatial scales of 12 cm and larger, both methods appear to be usable. Additionally, this paper suggests a method to propagate measurement errors to the correlation length.

  14. Potential impacts of robust surface roughness indexes on DTM-based segmentation (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele


    In this study, we explore the impact of robust surface texture indexes based on MAD (median absolute differences), implemented by Trevisani and Rocca (2015), in the unsupervised morphological segmentation of an alpine basin. The area was already object of a geomorphometric analysis, consisting in the roughness-based segmentation of the landscape (Trevisani et al. 2012); the roughness indexes were calculated on a high resolution DTM derived by means of airborne Lidar using the variogram as estimator. The calculated roughness indexes have been then used for the fuzzy clustering (Odeh et al., 1992; Burrough et al., 2000) of the basin, revealing the high informative geomorphometric content of the roughness-based indexes. However, the fuzzy clustering revealed a high fuzziness and a high degree of mixing between textural classes; this was ascribed both to the morphological complexity of the basin and to the high sensitivity of variogram to non-stationarity and signal-noise. Accordingly, we explore how the new implemented roughness indexes based on MAD affect the morphological segmentation of the studied basin. References Burrough, P.A., Van Gaans, P.F.M., MacMillan, R.A., 2000. High-resolution landform classification using fuzzy k-means. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 113, 37-52. Odeh, I.O.A., McBratney, A.B., Chittleborough, D.J., 1992. Soil pattern recognition with fuzzy-c-means: application to classification and soil-landform interrelationships. Soil Sciences Society of America Journal 56, 505-516. Trevisani, S., Cavalli, M. & Marchi, L. 2012, "Surface texture analysis of a high-resolution DTM: Interpreting an alpine basin", Geomorphology, vol. 161-162, pp. 26-39. Trevisani, S. & Rocca, M. 2015, "MAD: Robust image texture analysis for applications in high resolution geomorphometry", Computers and Geosciences, vol. 81, pp. 78-92.

  15. Evaluation of the Potential Use of Laminar Extrudates on Stabilizing Micronized Coumarin Particles by Supercritical Fluids (RESS)-Study of Different RESS Processing Variables and Mode of Operation. (United States)

    Oliveira, Gonçalo E; Pinto, João F


    The study evaluates the ability of extrudates to deliver coumarin particles micronized by the rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS). The RESS parameters were drug load (2-50 g), pressure (15-42 MPa) and temperature (40-60°C) in the extraction and pressure in the expansion (0.1-5 MPa) chambers in batch or continuous and CO 2 flow rate in the continuous mode of operation. Particles were characterized for size (laser diffractometry, optical and electronic microscopies-19-61 μm), surface area (BET-0.282-0.423 m 2 /g), density (pycnometry-1.273-1.358 g/cm 3 ) and yield (2-70%). Extrudates were characterized for the force of extrusion (4 kN), release of coumarin (100%/24 h) and mechanical properties (bending strength and stiffness increased, whereas elasticity decreased in storage) and X-ray diffractometry (micronized particles and extrudates have shown identical patterns) and calorimetry (DSC, enthalpies increased on storage). In the discontinuous mode of operation, increased loads in the extraction or increased pressure in the expansion chambers led to larger particles, whereas increased temperature and pressure in the extraction chamber led to smaller particles. In the continuous mode of operation, a decrease on the expansion pressure, load and CO 2 flow rate led to increased yields. An increase on the flow rate led to a decrease on the particles' diameter, but an increase on coumarin load in the extraction chamber led to an increase in diameter. The study has identified the key parameters in RESS continuous and discontinuous modes of operation affecting the properties of the micronized coumarin particles and has proved the ability of extrudates with a laminar shape on delivering micronized particles.

  16. Development of megapixel HgCdTe detector arrays with 15 micron cutoff (United States)

    Forrest, William J.; McMurtry, Craig W.; Dorn, Meghan; Pipher, Judith; Cabrera, Mario S.


    I. HistoryHgCdTe is a versatile II-VI semiconductor with a direct-bandgap tunable via the Hg:Cd ratio. Hg:Cd ratio = 53:47 (2.5 micron cutoff) was used on the NICMOS instrument on HST and the 2MASS. Increasing Hg:Cd ratio to 70:30 leads to a 5.4 micron cutoff, utilized in NEOWISE and many JWST instruments. Bailey, Wu et al. (1998) motivated extending this technology to 10 microns and beyond. Bacon, McMurtry et al. (2003, 2004) indicated significant progress toward this longwave (LW) goal.Warm-Spitzer has pioneered passive cooling to below 30 K in space, enabling the JWST mission.II. CurrentNASA's proposed NEOcam mission selected HgCdTe with a 10.6 micron cutoff because it promises natural Zodiacal background limited sensitivity with modest cooling (40 K). Teledyne Imaging Systems (TIS) is producing megapixel arrays with excellent performance (McMurtry, Lee, Dorn et al. (2013)) for this mission.III. FutureModest cooling requirements (circa 30 K) coupled with megapixel arrays and LW sensitivity in the thermal IR make HgCdTe attractive for many infrared instruments. For instance, the spectral signature of a terrestrial planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a nearby star will be the deep and wide absorption by CO_2 centered at 15 microns (Seager and Deming, 2010). LW instruments can enhance Solar System missions, such as exploration of the Enceladus geysers (Spencer, Buratti et al. 2006). Passive cooling will be adequate for these missions. Modern ground-based observatories will benefit from infrared capability out to the N band (7.5-13.6 microns). The required detector temperatures (30-40 K) are easily achievable using commercially available mechanical cryo-coolers (refrigerators).IV. Progress to dateTIS is developing megapixel HgCdTe arrays sensitive out to 15 microns under the direction of the University of Rochester. As a first step, we have produced arrays with a 13 micron cutoff. The initial measurements indicate very promising performance. We will present the

  17. Comparative Study of Equivalent Manning Roughness Coefficient for Channel with Composite Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Djajadi


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applicability of nine selected expressions in determining the equivalent value of the Manning coefficient of roughness. For this purpose, a prismatic 4m-long and 0.05m-wide trapezoidal-shape channel was constructed, namely the homogeneous channel and the composite channel. The homogeneous channel had the same surface lining, whereas the composite channel had two different surface linings. Four different lining materials were considered: plaster, small, medium, and large-sized aggregates. The homogeneous channel showed a reliable Manning coefficient prediction, provided that a uniform flow was achieved. The roughness of the composite channel can be predicted accurately by the nine expressions; the average was 0.96, with standard deviation of 11.13%. Out of the nine expressions, the expression that considers wet-perimeter as its main parameter showed the best estimate. The error was about 2% with standard deviation of 5.15%. This can be actually traced back to the limited width of the test channel, thereby increasing the role of wet perimeter.

  18. Penetration of sub-micron particles into dentinal tubules using ultrasonic cavitation. (United States)

    Vyas, N; Sammons, R L; Pikramenou, Z; Palin, W M; Dehghani, H; Walmsley, A D


    Functionalised silica sub-micron particles are being investigated as a method of delivering antimicrobials and remineralisation agents into dentinal tubules. However, their methods of application are not optimised, resulting in shallow penetration and aggregation. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of cavitation occurring around ultrasonic scalers for enhancing particle penetration into dentinal tubules. Dentine slices were prepared from premolar teeth. Silica sub-micron particles were prepared in water or acetone. Cavitation from an ultrasonic scaler (Satelec P5 Newtron, Acteon, France) was applied to dentine slices immersed inside the sub-micron particle solutions. Samples were imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess tubule occlusion and particle penetration. Qualitative observations of SEM images showed some tubule occlusion. The particles could penetrate inside the tubules up to 60μm when there was no cavitation and up to ∼180μm when there was cavitation. The cavitation bubbles produced from an ultrasonic scaler may be used to deliver sub-micron particles into dentine. This method has the potential to deliver such particles deeper into the dentinal tubules. Cavitation from a clinical ultrasonic scaler may enhance penetration of sub-micron particles into dentinal tubules. This can aid in the development of novel methods for delivering therapeutic clinical materials for hypersensitivity relief and treatment of dentinal caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar Instrument Advancements for Tropospheric Wind Measurement (United States)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Kavaya, M. J.; Koch, G.


    Knowledge derived from global tropospheric wind measurement is an important constituent of our overall understanding of climate behavior [1]. Accurate weather prediction saves lives and protects properties from destructions. High-energy 2-micron laser is the transmitter of choice for coherent Doppler wind detection. In addition to the eye-safety, the wavelength of the transmitter suitably matches the aerosol size in the lower troposphere. Although the technology of the 2-micron laser has been maturing steadily, lidar derived wind data is still a void in the global weather database. In the last decade, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have been engaged in this endeavor, contributing to the scientific database of 2-micron lidar transmitters. As part of this effort, an in depth analysis of the physics involved in the workings of the Ho: Tm laser systems have been published. In the last few years, we have demonstrated lidar transmitter with over1Joule output energy. In addition, a large body of work has been done in characterizing new laser materials and unique crystal configurations to enhance the efficiency and output energy of the 2-micron laser systems. At present 2-micron lidar systems are measuring wind from both ground and airborne platforms. This paper will provide an overview of the advancements made in recent years and the technology maturity levels attained.

  20. 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar instrument advancements for tropospheric wind measurement (United States)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Kavaya, M. J.; Koch, G.


    Knowledge derived from global tropospheric wind measurement is an important constituent of our overall understanding of climate behavior [1]. Accurate weather prediction saves lives and protects properties from destructions. High-energy 2-micron laser is the transmitter of choice for coherent Doppler wind detection. In addition to the eye-safety, the wavelength of the transmitter suitably matches the aerosol size in the lower troposphere. Although the technology of the 2-micron laser has been maturing steadily, lidar derived wind data is still a void in the global weather database. In the last decade, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have been engaged in this endeavor, contributing to the scientific database of 2-micron lidar transmitters. As part of this effort, an in depth analysis of the physics involved in the workings of the Ho: Tm laser systems have been published. In the last few years, we have demonstrated lidar transmitter with over1Joule output energy. In addition, a large body of work has been done in characterizing new laser materials and unique crystal configurations to enhance the efficiency and output energy of the 2-micron laser systems. At present 2-micron lidar systems are measuring wind from both ground and airborne platforms. This paper will provide an overview of the advancements made in recent years and the technology maturity levels attained.

  1. Brucellosis vaccines: assessment of Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide rough mutants defective in core and O-polysaccharide synthesis and export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The brucellae are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the major neglected zoonoses. In endemic areas, vaccination is the only effective way to control this disease. Brucella melitensis Rev 1 is a vaccine effective against the brucellosis of sheep and goat caused by B. melitensis, the commonest source of human infection. However, Rev 1 carries a smooth lipopolysaccharide with an O-polysaccharide that elicits antibodies interfering in serodiagnosis, a major problem in eradication campaigns. Because of this, rough Brucella mutants lacking the O-polysaccharide have been proposed as vaccines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the possibilities of rough vaccines, we screened B. melitensis for lipopolysaccharide genes and obtained mutants representing all main rough phenotypes with regard to core oligosaccharide and O-polysaccharide synthesis and export. Using the mouse model, mutants were classified into four attenuation patterns according to their multiplication and persistence in spleens at different doses. In macrophages, mutants belonging to three of these attenuation patterns reached the Brucella characteristic intracellular niche and multiplied intracellularly, suggesting that they could be suitable vaccine candidates. Virulence patterns, intracellular behavior and lipopolysaccharide defects roughly correlated with the degree of protection afforded by the mutants upon intraperitoneal vaccination of mice. However, when vaccination was applied by the subcutaneous route, only two mutants matched the protection obtained with Rev 1 albeit at doses one thousand fold higher than this reference vaccine. These mutants, which were blocked in O-polysaccharide export and accumulated internal O-polysaccharides, stimulated weak anti-smooth lipopolysaccharide antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that no rough mutant is equal to Rev 1 in laboratory models and question the notion that

  2. Assessment of engineered surfaces roughness by high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry. (United States)

    Gontard, L C; López-Castro, J D; González-Rovira, L; Vázquez-Martínez, J M; Varela-Feria, F M; Marcos, M; Calvino, J J


    We describe a methodology to obtain three-dimensional models of engineered surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and multi-view photogrammetry (3DSEM). For the reconstruction of the 3D models of the surfaces we used freeware available in the cloud. The method was applied to study the surface roughness of metallic samples patterned with parallel grooves by means of laser. The results are compared with measurements obtained using stylus profilometry (PR) and SEM stereo-photogrammetry (SP). The application of 3DSEM is more time demanding than PR or SP, but it provides a more accurate representation of the surfaces. The results obtained with the three techniques are compared by investigating the influence of sampling step on roughness parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative Study of Lunar Roughness from Multi - Source Data (United States)

    Lou, Y.; Kang, Z.


    The lunar terrain can show its collision and volcanic history. The lunar surface roughness can give a deep indication of the effects of lunar surface magma, sedimentation and uplift. This paper aims to get different information from the roughness through different data sources. Besides introducing the classical Root-mean-square height method and Morphological Surface Roughness (MSR) algorithm, this paper takes the area of the Jurassic mountain uplift in the Sinus Iridum and the Plato Crater area as experimental areas. And then make the comparison and contrast of the lunar roughness derived from LRO's DEM and CE-2 DOM. The experimental results show that the roughness obtained by the traditional roughness calculation method reflect the ups and downs of the topography, while the results obtained by morphological surface roughness algorithm show the smoothness of the lunar surface. So, we can first use the surface fluctuation situation derived from RMSH to select the landing area range which ensures the lands are gentle. Then the morphological results determine whether the landing area is suitable for the detector walking and observing. The results obtained at two different scales provide a more complete evaluation system for selecting the landing site of the lunar probe.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lou


    Full Text Available The lunar terrain can show its collision and volcanic history. The lunar surface roughness can give a deep indication of the effects of lunar surface magma, sedimentation and uplift. This paper aims to get different information from the roughness through different data sources. Besides introducing the classical Root-mean-square height method and Morphological Surface Roughness (MSR algorithm, this paper takes the area of the Jurassic mountain uplift in the Sinus Iridum and the Plato Crater area as experimental areas. And then make the comparison and contrast of the lunar roughness derived from LRO's DEM and CE-2 DOM. The experimental results show that the roughness obtained by the traditional roughness calculation method reflect the ups and downs of the topography, while the results obtained by morphological surface roughness algorithm show the smoothness of the lunar surface. So, we can first use the surface fluctuation situation derived from RMSH to select the landing area range which ensures the lands are gentle. Then the morphological results determine whether the landing area is suitable for the detector walking and observing. The results obtained at two different scales provide a more complete evaluation system for selecting the landing site of the lunar probe.

  5. Virtual Sensors for On-line Wheel Wear and Part Roughness Measurement in the Grinding Process (United States)

    Arriandiaga, Ander; Portillo, Eva; Sánchez, Jose A.; Cabanes, Itziar; Pombo, Iñigo


    Grinding is an advanced machining process for the manufacturing of valuable complex and accurate parts for high added value sectors such as aerospace, wind generation, etc. Due to the extremely severe conditions inside grinding machines, critical process variables such as part surface finish or grinding wheel wear cannot be easily and cheaply measured on-line. In this paper a virtual sensor for on-line monitoring of those variables is presented. The sensor is based on the modelling ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for stochastic and non-linear processes such as grinding; the selected architecture is the Layer-Recurrent neural network. The sensor makes use of the relation between the variables to be measured and power consumption in the wheel spindle, which can be easily measured. A sensor calibration methodology is presented, and the levels of error that can be expected are discussed. Validation of the new sensor is carried out by comparing the sensor's results with actual measurements carried out in an industrial grinding machine. Results show excellent estimation performance for both wheel wear and surface roughness. In the case of wheel wear, the absolute error is within the range of microns (average value 32 μm). In the case of surface finish, the absolute error is well below Ra 1 μm (average value 0.32 μm). The present approach can be easily generalized to other grinding operations. PMID:24854055

  6. Virtual sensors for on-line wheel wear and part roughness measurement in the grinding process. (United States)

    Arriandiaga, Ander; Portillo, Eva; Sánchez, Jose A; Cabanes, Itziar; Pombo, Iñigo


    Grinding is an advanced machining process for the manufacturing of valuable complex and accurate parts for high added value sectors such as aerospace, wind generation, etc. Due to the extremely severe conditions inside grinding machines, critical process variables such as part surface finish or grinding wheel wear cannot be easily and cheaply measured on-line. In this paper a virtual sensor for on-line monitoring of those variables is presented. The sensor is based on the modelling ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for stochastic and non-linear processes such as grinding; the selected architecture is the Layer-Recurrent neural network. The sensor makes use of the relation between the variables to be measured and power consumption in the wheel spindle, which can be easily measured. A sensor calibration methodology is presented, and the levels of error that can be expected are discussed. Validation of the new sensor is carried out by comparing the sensor's results with actual measurements carried out in an industrial grinding machine. Results show excellent estimation performance for both wheel wear and surface roughness. In the case of wheel wear, the absolute error is within the range of microns (average value 32 μm). In the case of surface finish, the absolute error is well below Ra 1 μm (average value 0.32 μm). The present approach can be easily generalized to other grinding operations.

  7. Assessment of engineered surfaces roughness by high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontard, L.C., E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11510 (Spain); López-Castro, J.D.; González-Rovira, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Laboratorio de Corrosión, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Vázquez-Martínez, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Varela-Feria, F.M. [Servicio de Microscopía Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Marcos, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); and others


    Highlights: • We describe a method to acquire a high-angle tilt series of SEM images that is symmetrical respect to the zero tilt of the sample stage. The method can be applied in any SEM microscope. • Using the method, high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry can be applied on planar surfaces. • 3D models of three surfaces patterned with grooves are reconstructed with high resolution using multi-view freeware photogrammetry software as described in LC Gontard et al. Ultramicroscopy, 2016. • From the 3D models roughness parameters are measured • 3D SEM high-resolution photogrammetry is compared with two conventional methods used for roughness characetrization: stereophotogrammetry and contact profilometry. • It provides three-dimensional information with high-resolution that is out of reach for any other metrological technique. - Abstract: We describe a methodology to obtain three-dimensional models of engineered surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and multi-view photogrammetry (3DSEM). For the reconstruction of the 3D models of the surfaces we used freeware available in the cloud. The method was applied to study the surface roughness of metallic samples patterned with parallel grooves by means of laser. The results are compared with measurements obtained using stylus profilometry (PR) and SEM stereo-photogrammetry (SP). The application of 3DSEM is more time demanding than PR or SP, but it provides a more accurate representation of the surfaces. The results obtained with the three techniques are compared by investigating the influence of sampling step on roughness parameters.

  8. The influence of surface roughness on cloud cavitation flow around hydrofoils (United States)

    Hao, Jiafeng; Zhang, Mindi; Huang, Xu


    The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the effect of surface roughness on cloud cavitation around Clark-Y hydrofoils. High-speed video and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to obtain cavitation patterns images (Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 37: 551-581, 2001), as well as velocity and vorticity fields. Results are presented for cloud cavitating conditions around a Clark-Y hydrofoil fixed at angle of attack of α =8{°} for moderate Reynolds number of Re=5.6 × 105 . The results show that roughness had a great influence on the pattern, velocity and vorticity distribution of cloud cavitation. For cavitating flow around a smooth hydrofoil (A) and a rough hydrofoil (B), cloud cavitation occurred in the form of finger-like cavities and attached subulate cavities, respectively. The period of cloud cavitation around hydrofoil A was shorter than for hydrofoil B. Surface roughness had a great influence on the process of cloud cavitation. The development of cloud cavitation around hydrofoil A consisted of two stages: (1) Attached cavities developed along the surface to the trailing edge; (2) A reentrant jet developed, resulting in shedding and collapse of cluster bubbles or vortex structure. Meanwhile, its development for hydrofoil B included three stages: (1) Attached cavities developed along the surface to the trailing edge, with accumulation and rotation of bubbles at the trailing edge of the hydrofoil affecting the flow field; (2) Development of a reentrant jet resulted in the first shedding of cavities. Interaction and movement of flows from the pressure side and suction side brought liquid water from the pressure side to the suction side of the hydrofoil, finally forming a reentrant jet. The jet kept moving along the surface to the leading edge of the hydrofoil, resulting in large-scale shedding of cloud bubbles. Several vortices appeared and dissipated during the process; (3) Cavities grew and shed again.

  9. Sediment transport in the presence of large reef bottom roughness (United States)

    Pomeroy, Andrew W. M.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Ghisalberti, Marco; Storlazzi, Curt; Symonds, Graham; Roelvink, Dano


    The presence of large bottom roughness, such as that formed by benthic organisms on coral reef flats, has important implications for the size, concentration, and transport of suspended sediment in coastal environments. A 3 week field study was conducted in approximately 1.5 m water depth on the reef flat at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to quantify the cross-reef hydrodynamics and suspended sediment dynamics over the large bottom roughness (˜20-40 cm) at the site. A logarithmic mean current profile consistently developed above the height of the roughness; however, the flow was substantially reduced below the height of the roughness (canopy region). Shear velocities inferred from the logarithmic profile and Reynolds stresses measured at the top of the roughness, which are traditionally used in predictive sediment transport formulations, were similar but much larger than that required to suspend the relatively coarse sediment present at the bed. Importantly, these stresses did not represent the stresses imparted on the sediment measured in suspension and are therefore not relevant to the description of suspended sediment transport in systems with large bottom roughness. Estimates of the bed shear stresses that accounted for the reduced near-bed flow in the presence of large roughness vastly improved the relationship between the predicted and observed grain sizes that were in suspension. Thus, the impact of roughness, not only on the overlying flow but also on bed stresses, must be accounted for to accurately estimate suspended sediment transport in regions with large bottom roughness, a common feature of many shallow coastal ecosystems.

  10. Site-specific retention of colloids at rough rock surfaces. (United States)

    Darbha, Gopala Krishna; Fischer, Cornelius; Luetzenkirchen, Johannes; Schäfer, Thorsten


    The spatial deposition of polystyrene latex colloids (d = 1 μm) at rough mineral and rock surfaces was investigated quantitatively as a function of Eu(III) concentration. Granodiorite samples from Grimsel test site (GTS), Switzerland, were used as collector surfaces for sorption experiments. At a scan area of 300 × 300 μm(2), the surface roughness (rms roughness, Rq) range was 100-2000 nm, including roughness contribution from asperities of several tens of nanometers in height to the sample topography. Although, an increase in both roughness and [Eu(III)] resulted in enhanced colloid deposition on granodiorite surfaces, surface roughness governs colloid deposition mainly at low Eu(III) concentrations (≤5 × 10(-7) M). Highest deposition efficiency on granodiorite has been found at walls of intergranular pores at surface sections with roughness Rq = 500-2000 nm. An about 2 orders of magnitude lower colloid deposition has been observed at granodiorite sections with low surface roughness (Rq colloids at intergranular pores is induced by small scale protrusions (mean height = 0.5 ± 0.3 μm). These protrusions diminish locally the overall DLVO interaction energy at the interface. The protrusions prevent further rolling over the surface by increasing the hydrodynamic drag required for detachment. Moreover, colloid sorption is favored at surface sections with high density of small protrusions (density (D) = 2.6 ± 0.55 μm(-1), asperity diameter (φ) = 0.6 ± 0.2 μm, height (h) = 0.4 ± 0.1 μm) in contrast to surface sections with larger asperities and lower asperity density (D = 1.2 ± 0.6 μm(-1), φ = 1.4 ± 0.4 μm, h = 0.6 ± 0.2 μm). The study elucidates the importance to include surface roughness parameters into predictive colloid-borne contaminant migration calculations.

  11. Sediment transport in the presence of large reef bottom roughness (United States)

    Pomeroy, Andrew; Lowe, Ryan J.; Ghisalberti, Marco; Storlazzi, Curt; Symonds, Graham; Roelvink, Dano


    The presence of large bottom roughness, such as that formed by benthic organisms on coral reef flats, has important implications for the size, concentration, and transport of suspended sediment in coastal environments. A 3 week field study was conducted in approximately 1.5 m water depth on the reef flat at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to quantify the cross-reef hydrodynamics and suspended sediment dynamics over the large bottom roughness (∼20–40 cm) at the site. A logarithmic mean current profile consistently developed above the height of the roughness; however, the flow was substantially reduced below the height of the roughness (canopy region). Shear velocities inferred from the logarithmic profile and Reynolds stresses measured at the top of the roughness, which are traditionally used in predictive sediment transport formulations, were similar but much larger than that required to suspend the relatively coarse sediment present at the bed. Importantly, these stresses did not represent the stresses imparted on the sediment measured in suspension and are therefore not relevant to the description of suspended sediment transport in systems with large bottom roughness. Estimates of the bed shear stresses that accounted for the reduced near-bed flow in the presence of large roughness vastly improved the relationship between the predicted and observed grain sizes that were in suspension. Thus, the impact of roughness, not only on the overlying flow but also on bed stresses, must be accounted for to accurately estimate suspended sediment transport in regions with large bottom roughness, a common feature of many shallow coastal ecosystems.

  12. Applying Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Soil Surface Roughness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutin Milenković


    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning can provide high-resolution, two-dimensional sampling of soil surface roughness. While previous studies demonstrated the usefulness of these roughness measurements in geophysical applications, questions about the number of required scans and their resolution were not investigated thoroughly. Here, we suggest a method to generate digital elevation models, while preserving the surface’s stochastic properties at high frequencies and additionally providing an estimate of their spatial resolution. We also study the impact of the number and positions of scans on roughness indices’ estimates. An experiment over a smooth and isotropic soil plot accompanies the analysis, where scanning results are compared to results from active triangulation. The roughness measurement conditions for ideal sampling are revisited and updated for diffraction-limited sampling valid for close-range laser scanning over smooth and isotropic soil roughness. Our results show that terrestrial laser scanning can be readily used for roughness assessment on scales larger than 5 cm, while for smaller scales, special processing is required to mitigate the effect of the laser beam footprint. Interestingly, classical roughness parametrization (correlation length, root mean square height (RMSh was not sensitive to these effects. Furthermore, comparing the classical roughness parametrization between one- and four-scan setups shows that the one-scan data can replace the four-scan setup with a relative loss of accuracy below 1% for ranges up to 3 m and incidence angles no larger than 50°, while two opposite scans can replace it over the whole plot. The incidence angle limit for the spectral slope is even stronger and is 40°. These findings are valid for scanning over smooth and isotropic soil roughness.

  13. The use of mechanically activated micronized coal in thermal power engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukov Anatoliy P.


    Full Text Available Coal is one of the main energy resources and development of new promising technologies on its basis is certainly topical. This article discusses the use of new technology of gas and fuel oil replacement by mechanically activated micronized coal in power engineering: ignition and stabilization of pulverized coal flame combustion, as well as gasification of micronized coal in the flow. The new technology coal combustion with two stages of grinding is suggested. Optimization of the scheme of two-stage combustion is calculated. The first experimental data on the combustion process are obtained. The first demonstration tests on gas and heavy oil replacement by micronized coal during boiler ignition were carried out in the real power boiler with the capacity of 320 tons of steam per hour.

  14. Friction behaviors of rough chromium surfaces under starving lubrication conditions (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Yan, Bo; Shen, Bin; Liu, Lei; Hu, Wenbin


    Surface texturing has become an effective method for improving the tribological properties of mechanical components under the oil lubrication. In this study, a rough surface, with the bumps arranged in a random array, was prepared by means of electrodeposition. A post-grinding and polishing processing was employed to fabricate flat areas for tribological tests under conformal contact. Compared with the smooth surfaces, the rough surface improves the load capacity of coatings at high loads. The effects of rough surfaces on friction reduction become more pronounced at higher speeds and lower normal loads due to the transition of lubricant regime from the boundary to mixed lubrication.

  15. Surface roughness reduction using spray-coated hydrogen silsesquioxane reflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Pranov, Henrik; Kofod, Guggi


    called “optically smooth” plastic surfaces is one example, where low roughness of a tool cavity is desirable. Such tool surfaces can be very expensive to fabricate using conventional means, such as abrasive diamond polishing or diamond turning. We present a novel process to coat machined metal parts...... with hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) to reduce their surface roughness. Results from the testing of surfaces made from two starting roughnesses are presented; one polished with grit 2500 sandpaper, another with grit 11.000 diamond polishing paste. We characterize the two surfaces with AFM, SEM and optical...

  16. Technology for an Experimental Test of Micron Length Scale Interactions on Ultracold Neutrons in Gravitational Eigenstates (United States)

    Dees, Eric; Young, Albert; Riehn, Robert; Abele, Hartmut; Jenke, Tobias


    We have manufactured a new technology for studies of short range interactions on ultracold neutrons in eigenstates of earth's gravitational potential. By using a separated oscillatory fields apparatus in combination with our device (in collaboration with the QBOUNCE experiment at ILL), we hope to probe new sensitivity levels of micron length scale forces by looking for a shift in the resonant frequency of the gravitational states induced by attractor materials with different densities. This technology should permit a direct exploration of ranges near micron scales and produce improved limits on certain Beyond Standard Model interactions, such as from chameleon fields or dimensional compactification.

  17. Hidden Broad Line Seyfert 2 Galaxies in the CfA and 12micron Samples


    Tran, Hien D.


    We report the results of a spectropolarimetric survey of the CfA and 12micron samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (S2s). Polarized (hidden) broad line regions (HBLRs) are confirmed in a number of galaxies, and several new cases (F02581-1136, MCG -3-58-7, NGC 5995, NGC 6552, NGC 7682) are reported. The 12micron S2 sample shows a significantly higher incidence of HBLR (50%) than its CfA counterpart (30%), suggesting that the latter may be incomplete in hidden AGNs. Compared to the non-HBLR S2s, the H...

  18. Measuring charge carrier mobility in photovoltaic devices with micron-scale resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, A. [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Dissanayake, D. M. N. M. [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Eisaman, M. D., E-mail: [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)


    We present a charge-extraction technique, micron-scale charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage, which enables simultaneous spatially resolved measurements of charge carrier mobility and photocurrent in thin-film photovoltaic devices with micron-scale resolution. An intensity-modulated laser with beam diameter near the optical diffraction limit is scanned over the device, while a linear voltage ramp in reverse bias is applied at each position of illumination. We calculate the majority carrier mobility, photocurrent, and number of photogenerated charge carriers from the resulting current transient. We demonstrate this technique on an organic photovoltaic device, but it is applicable to a wide range of photovoltaic materials.

  19. InGaAs/InGaAsP/InP strained-layer quantum well lasers at about 2 microns (United States)

    Forouhar, S.; Ksendzov, A.; Larsson, A.; Temkin, H.


    The first successful operation of InGaAs strained layer quantum well (Sl-QW) injection lasers at about 2 microns is reported. The threshold current density and the external differential quantum efficiency of 5 microns wide and 800 microns long ridge waveguide lasers were 2.5 kA/sq cm and 6 percent, respectively. The devices had a reverse leakage current of less than 20 micro-A at -1 V indicating epitaxial layers with low defect density.

  20. SMEX02 Land Surface Information: Geolocation, Surface Roughness, and Photographs (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set combines various ancillary data (geolocation, surface roughness, and photographs) collected for the Iowa Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) study...

  1. Scattering of Rossby and Poincare waves off rough lateral boundaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Prahalad, Y; Sengupta, D.

    Unified treatment of wave scattering from a rough boundary, which was originally developed by Nakayama et al. is presented. The stationary nature of the boundary process is used to show that the wave field is also stationary, and therefore can...

  2. Rough Mirror as a Quantum State Selector: Analysis and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Escobar


    Full Text Available We report analysis of rough mirrors used as the gravitational state selectors in neutron beam and similar experiments. The key to mirror properties is its roughness correlation function (CF which is extracted from the precision optical scanning measurements of the surface profile. To identify CF in the presence of fluctuation-driven fat tails, we perform numerical experiments with computer-generated random surfaces with the known CF. These numerical experiments provide a reliable identification procedure which we apply to the actual rough mirror. The extracted CF allows us to make predictions for ongoing GRANIT experiments. We also propose a radically new design for rough mirrors based on Monte Carlo simulations for the 1D Ising model. The implementation of this design provides a controlled environment with predictable scattering properties.

  3. Matroidal Structure of Generalized Rough Sets Based on Tolerance Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li


    of the generalized rough set based on the tolerance relation. The matroid can also induce a new relation. We investigate the connection between the original tolerance relation and the induced relation.

  4. Impact of nighttime paving operations on asphalt roughness behavior. (United States)


    The relationship between nighttime construction scheduling and future road quality in terms of roughness was investigated. Research was three-phased: interviews with local leaders in paving, on-site observations, and historical data analyses. Intervi...

  5. Efficient ultrasonic grinding: a new technology for micron-sized coal. Final report, September 15, 1979-December 14, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarpley, W.B. Jr.; Howard, P.L.; Moulder, G.R.


    To burn coal most efficiently and cleanly, much smaller particle sizes are needed than can now be ground economically. This project was performed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ultrasonics to enhance grinding below the standard plant grind of 75 microns, and to extrapolate from this laboratory work the ultrasonic energy requirements for production use. Successively improved laboratory arrays demonstrated a repeatable production of particulates from 2000-micron coal to the desired size ranges (approximately 35% below 7 microns, 95% below 44 microns) with selective liberation of ash and pyrite inclusions to facilitate removal, with equipment translatable to production use, and the possibility of only 37 kwh/ton energy input requirement.

  6. Convective Enhancement of Icing Roughness Elements in Stagnation Region Flows (United States)

    Hughes, Michael T.; McClain, Stephen T.; Vargas, Mario; Broeren, Andy


    To improve existing ice accretion simulation codes, more data regarding ice roughness and its effects on convective heat transfer are required. To build on existing research on this topic, this study used the Vertical Icing Studies Tunnel (VIST) at NASA Glenn Research to model realistic ice roughness in the stagnation region of a NACA 0012 airfoil. Using the VIST, a test plate representing the leading 2% chord of the airfoil was subjected to flows of 7.62 m/s (25 ft/s), 12.19 m/s (40 ft/s), and 16.76 m/s (55 ft/s). The test plate was fitted with 3 surfaces, each with a different representation of ice roughness: 1) a control surface with no ice roughness, 2) a surface with ice roughness with element height scaled by 10x and streamwise rough zone width from the stagnation point scaled by 10x, and 3) a surface with ice roughness with element height scaled by 10x and streamwise rough zone width from the stagnation point scaled by 25x. Temperature data from the tests were recorded using an infrared camera and thermocouples imbedded in the test plate. From the temperature data, a convective heat transfer coefficient map was created for each case. Additional testing was also performed to validate the VIST's flow quality. These tests included five-hole probe and hot-wire probe velocity traces to provide flow visualization and to study boundary layer formation on the various test surfaces. The knowledge gained during the experiments will help improve ice accretion codes by providing heat transfer coefficient validation data and by providing flow visualization data helping understand current and future experiments performed in the VIST.

  7. Surface roughness and wear of resin cements after toothbrush abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Kiyoshi ISHIKIRIAMA


    Full Text Available Increased surface roughness and wear of resin cements may cause failure of indirect restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the surface roughness change and the vertical wear of four resin cements subjected to mechanical toothbrushing abrasion. Ten rectangular specimens (15 × 5 × 4 mm were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions for each group (n = 10: Nexus 3, Kerr (NX3; RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE (ARC; RelyX U100, 3M ESPE (U100; and Variolink II, Ivoclar/Vivadent (VL2. Initial roughness (Ra, µm was obtained through 5 readings with a roughness meter. Specimens were then subjected to toothbrushing abrasion (100,000 cycles, and further evaluation was conducted for final roughness. Vertical wear (µm was quantified by 3 readings of the real profile between control and brushed surfaces. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, followed by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. The Pearson correlation test was performed between the surface roughness change and wear (p < 0.05. The mean values of initial/final roughness (Ra, µm/wear (µm were as follows: NX3 (0.078/0.127/23.175; ARC (0.086/0.246/20.263; U100 (0.296/0.589/16.952; and VL2 (0.313/0.512/22.876. Toothbrushing abrasion increased surface roughness and wear of all resin cements tested, although no correlation was found between those variables. Vertical wear was similar among groups; however, it was considered high and may lead to gap formation in indirect restorations.

  8. Uncertainty Analysis of Knowledge Reductions in Rough Sets


    Ying Wang; Nan Zhang


    Uncertainty analysis is a vital issue in intelligent information processing, especially in the age of big data. Rough set theory has attracted much attention to this field since it was proposed. Relative reduction is an important problem of rough set theory. Different relative reductions have been investigated for preserving some specific classification abilities in various applications. This paper examines the uncertainty analysis of five different relative reductions in four aspects, that i...

  9. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk (United States)

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.


    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  10. Lost in translation? microRNAs at the rough ER. (United States)

    Axtell, Michael J


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function to post-transcriptionally regulate target RNAs, including long non-coding RNAs and mRNAs. A recent study demonstrates that Arabidopsis miRNAs are enriched at the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This enrichment is a surprise, given that most known miRNA targets are not expected to be translated at the rough ER. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sidewall roughness measurement of photonic wires and photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Garnæs, Jørgen


    The performance of nanophotonic building blocks such as photonic wires and photonic crystals are rapidly improving, with very low propagation loss and very high cavity Q-factors being reported. In order to facilitate further improvements in performance the ability to quantitatively measure...... topological imperfections such as sidewall roughness on a sub-nm scale becomes essential. In this paper we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) on tilted samples to obtain the most detailed sidewall roughness measurements yet on nanophotonic structures....

  12. Quadratic BSDEs with rough drivers and $L^2$--terminal condition


    Eddahbi, M'hamed; Sène, Abou


    In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of solutions to quadratic Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (QBSDEs for short) with rough driver and square integrable terminal condition. The main idea consists in using both Doss-Sussman and Zvonkin type transformations. As an application we study connection between QBSDEs and quadratic PDEs with rough drivers. We also obtain Backward Doubly SDEs and QBSDEs driven by Fractional Brownian with Hurst parameter greater than $\\frac{1}...

  13. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming (United States)

    Li, Ting [Ventura, CA


    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  14. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming (United States)

    Li, Ting


    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  15. Surface roughness and chemical properties of porous inorganic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggen, Carrie L.; McAfee, Paul M. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Jin, Yi [China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing 100192 (China); Lin, Y.S., E-mail: [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)


    Porous inorganic films of different materials and pore architecture: mesoporous γ-alumina, mesoporous yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), macroporous YSZ and macroporous/microporous zeolite silicalite, were synthesized by the sol–gel spin-coating or dip-coating methods on silicon wafers of different surface roughness. Their surface chemical properties, pore and phase structure, and surface roughness were studied by various surface characterization methods. The pore sizes of these films are determined by their primary particle size. All the films studied are hydrophilic due to the presence of hydroxyl groups on the external crystallite surface, and their hydrophilicity increases in the order: macroporous YSZ < mesoporous YSZ < silicalite < γ-alumina. The γ-alumina films have highly smooth surfaces, while mesoporous YSZ, macroporous YSZ and silicalite films have similar surface roughness much rougher than γ-alumina films. The surface roughness of these coated films does not depend on the coating method, surface roughness of the substrate, surface chemistry or pore structure of the films. It is more controlled by the shape and size of the primary particles and aggregates in the sol or suspension from which the films are obtained. - Highlights: • Porous films of various pore structures are prepared by sol–gel methods. • γ-Alumina films have much smoother surface than thin films of other materials. • Film surface roughness is controlled by the shape and size of particles in the sols.

  16. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  17. Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow (United States)

    Hsiao, Lilian C.; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F.; Larson, Ronald G.; Solomon, Michael J.


    To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.

  18. Multipoint contact modeling of nanoparticle manipulation on rough surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakeri, M., E-mail:; Faraji, J.; Kharazmi, M. [University of Tabriz, School of Engineering Emerging Technologies (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper, the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based 2-D pushing of nano/microparticles investigated on rough substrate by assuming a multipoint contact model. First, a new contact model was extracted and presented based on the geometrical profiles of Rumpf, Rabinovich and George models and the contact mechanics theories of JKR and Schwartz, to model the adhesion forces and the deformations in the multipoint contact of rough surfaces. The geometry of a rough surface was defined by two main parameters of asperity height (size of roughness) and asperity wavelength (compactness of asperities distribution). Then, the dynamic behaviors of nano/microparticles with radiuses in range of 50–500 nm studied during their pushing on rough substrate with a hexagonal or square arrangement of asperities. Dynamic behavior of particles were simulated and compared by assuming multipoint and single-point contact schemes. The simulation results show that the assumption of multipoint contact has a considerable influence on determining the critical manipulation force. Additionally, the assumption of smooth surfaces or single-point contact leads to large error in the obtained results. According to the results of previous research, it anticipated that a particles with the radius less than about 550 nm start to slide on smooth substrate; but by using multipoint contact model, the predicted behavior changed, and particles with radii of smaller than 400 nm begin to slide on rough substrate for different height of asperities, at first.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar


    Full Text Available Rough roads influence the safety of the road users as accident rate increases with increasing unevenness of the road surface. Road roughness regions are required to be efficiently detected and located in order to ensure their maintenance. Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS systems provide a rapid and cost-effective alternative by providing accurate and dense point cloud data along route corridor. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented for detecting road roughness from MLS data. The presented algorithm is based on interpolating smooth intensity raster surface from LiDAR point cloud data using point thinning process. The interpolated surface is further processed using morphological and multi-level Otsu thresholding operations to identify candidate road roughness regions. The candidate regions are finally filtered based on spatial density and standard deviation of elevation criteria to detect the roughness along the road surface. The test results of road roughness detection algorithm on two road sections are presented. The developed approach can be used to provide comprehensive information to road authorities in order to schedule maintenance and ensure maximum safety conditions for road users.

  20. Study the Relationship between Pavement Surface Distress and Roughness Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubaraki Muhammad


    Full Text Available In this paper, pavement sections from the highway connected Jeddah to Jazan were selected and analyzed to investigate the relationship between International Roughness Index (IRI and pavement damage including; cracking, rutting, and raveling. The Ministry of Transport (MOT of Saudi Arabia has been collecting pavement condition data using the Road Surface Tester (RST vehicle. The MOT measures Roughness, Rutting (RUT, Cracking (CRA, raveling (RAV. Roughness measurements are calculated in terms of the International Roughness Index (IRI. The IRI is calculated over equally spaced intervals along the road profile. Roughness measurements are performed at speed between at 80 kilometers per hour. Thus RST vehicle has been used to evaluate highways across the country. The paper shows three relationships including; cracking (CRA verses roughness (IRI, rutting (RUT verses IRI, and raveling (RAV verses IRI. Also, the paper developed two models namely; model relates IRI to the three distress under study, and model relates IRI to ride quality. The results of the analysis claim at 95% confidence that a significant relationship exist between IRI and cracking, and raveling. It’s also shown that rutting did not show significant relationship to IRI values. That’s leads to conclude that the distresses types: cracking and raveling may possibly be described as ride quality distresses at different level of significant. Rutting distress described as non-ride quality type’s distresses.

  1. Mapping gullies, dunes, lava fields, and landslides via surface roughness (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Pfeifer, Norbert; Landtwing, Stephan


    Gully erosion is a widespread and significant process involved in soil and land degradation. Mapping gullies helps to quantify past, and anticipate future, soil losses. Digital terrain models offer promising data for automatically detecting and mapping gullies especially in vegetated areas, although methods vary widely measures of local terrain roughness are the most varied and debated among these methods. Rarely do studies test the performance of roughness metrics for mapping gullies, limiting their applicability to small training areas. To this end, we systematically explored how local terrain roughness derived from high-resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data can aid in the unsupervised detection of gullies over a large area. We also tested expanding this method for other landforms diagnostic of similarly abrupt land-surface changes, including lava fields, dunes, and landslides, as well as investigating the influence of different roughness thresholds, resolutions of kernels, and input data resolution, and comparing our method with previously published roughness algorithms. Our results show that total curvature is a suitable metric for recognising analysed gullies and lava fields from LiDAR data, with comparable success to that of more sophisticated roughness metrics. Tested dunes or landslides remain difficult to distinguish from the surrounding landscape, partly because they are not easily defined in terms of their topographic signature.

  2. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer (United States)

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre


    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.

  3. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer. (United States)

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre


    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.

  4. Diffusely scattered and transmitted elastic waves by random rough solid-solid interfaces using an elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Lowe, Mike; Craster, Richard


    Elastic waves scattered by random rough interfaces separating two distinct media play an important role in modeling phonon scattering and impact upon thermal transport models, and are also integral to ultrasonic inspection. We introduce theoretical formulas for the diffuse field of elastic waves scattered by, and transmitted across, random rough solid-solid interfaces using the elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation. The new formulas are validated by comparison with numerical Monte Carlo simulations, for a wide range of roughness (rms σ ≤λ /3 , correlation length λ0≥ wavelength λ ), demonstrating a significant improvement over the widely used small-perturbation approach, which is valid only for surfaces with small rms values. Physical analysis using the theoretical formulas derived here demonstrates that increasing the rms value leads to a considerable change of the scattering patterns for each mode. The roughness has different effects on the reflection and the transmission, with a strong dependence on the material properties. In the special case of a perfect match of the wave speed of the two solid media, the transmission is the same as the case for a flat interface. We pay particular attention to scattering in the specular direction, often used as an observable quantity, in terms of the roughness parameters, showing a peak at an intermediate value of rms; this rms value coincides with that predicted by the Rayleigh parameter.

  5. Sub-half-micron contact window design with 3D photolithography simulator (United States)

    Brainerd, Steve K.; Bernard, Douglas A.; Rey, Juan C.; Li, Jiangwei; Granik, Yuri; Boksha, Victor V.


    In state of the art IC design and manufacturing certain lithography layers have unique requirements. Latitudes and tolerances that apply to contacts and polysilicon gates are tight for such critical layers. Industry experts are discussing the most cost effective ways to use feature- oriented equipment and materials already developed for these layers. Such requirements introduce new dimensions into the traditionally challenging task for the photolithography engineer when considering various combinations of multiple factors to optimize and control the process. In addition, he/she faces a rapidly increasing cost of experiments, limited time and scarce access to equipment to conduct them. All the reasons presented above support simulation as an ideal method to satisfy these demands. However lithography engineers may be easily dissatisfied with a simulation tool when discovering disagreement between the simulation and experimental data. The problem is that several parameters used in photolithography simulation are very process specific. Calibration, i.e. matching experimental and simulation data using a specific set of procedures allows one to effectively use the simulation tool. We present results of a simulation based approach to optimize photolithography processes for sub-0.5 micron contact windows. Our approach consists of: (1) 3D simulation to explore different lithographic options, (2) calibration to a range of process conditions with extensive use of specifically developed optimization techniques. The choice of a 3D simulator is essential because of 3D nature of the problem of contact window design. We use DEPICT 4.1. This program performs fast aerial image simulation as presented before. For 3D exposure the program uses an extension to three-dimensions of the high numerical aperture model combined with Fast Fourier Transforms for maximum performance and accuracy. We use Kim (U.C. Berkeley) model and the fast marching Level Set method respectively for the

  6. Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions for a 175-MWe boiler by micronized coal reburning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, E.D.; Bradshaw, D.T.; Butler, T.F.; Kazemersky, P.M. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))


    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has been selected for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology IV program to demonstrate Micronized Coal Reburn technology for control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions on a 175 MWe wall-fired steam generator at its Shawnee Fossil Plant. TVA has selected MicroFuel Division of Fuller Power Corporation as the prime contractor for the project and partner in the commercialization of this technology. The project will demonstrate the technology with which Microfuel can produce micro fine coal. This retrofit demonstration is expected to decrease NO[sub x] emissions by 50 to 60 percent. Up to 30 percent of the total fuel fired in the furnace will be micronized coal injected in the upper furnace creating a fuel-rich reburn zone. Overfire will be injected above the reburn zone at high velocity for good furnace gas mixing above the reburn zone to ensure complete combustion. TVA Shawnee Steam Plant, comprised of 10 units of 175-MW[sub e] each, is indicative of a large portion of boilers in TVA's and the nation's utility operating base. Micronized coal Reburn technology compares favourably with other NO[sub x] control technologies and yet offers additional performance benefits. This paper focuses on Micronized Coal Reburn technology and the schedule and activities for implementing a full-scale demonstration at Shawnee. 6 figs.

  7. Analysis and Design of Monolithic Inductors in Sub-micron CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Carsten; Jørgensen, Allan


    In the last few years the CMOS processes have gone into deep sub-micron channel lengths. This means that it is now possible to make GHz applications in CMOS. In analog GHz applications it is often necessary to have access to inductors. This report describes the development of a physical model of ...

  8. Chemigation with micronized sulfur rapidly reduces soil pH in northern highbush blueberry (United States)

    Northern highbush blueberry is adapted to low soil pH in the range of 4.5–5.5. When pH is higher, soil is usually acidified by incorporating elemental sulfur (S) prior to planting. A study was conducted to determine the potential of applying micronized S by chemigation through the drip system to red...

  9. Bragg diffraction from sub-micron particles isolated by optical tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yuan, E-mail:; Harder, Ross; Southworth, Stephen; Guest, Jeffrey; Ocola, Leonidas; Young, Linda [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Scherer, Norbert; Yan, Zijie [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pelton, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD 21250 (United States)


    We describe an apparatus using dynamic holographic optical tweezers which is capable of trapping and aligning a single micron scale anisotropic ZnO particle for x-ray Bragg diffraction experiments. The optical tweezers demonstrate enough stability to perform coherent x-ray diffraction imaging.

  10. Observation of Shapiro-steps in AFM-plought micron-size YBCO planar construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Elkaseh, AAO


    Full Text Available Using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), micron size planar constriction type junctions was successfully ploughed on YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films. The 100 nanometer (nm) thin films are deposited on MgO substrates by an Inverted Cylindrical Magnetron (ICM...

  11. High spatial resolution observations of NGC 7027 with a 10 micron array camera (United States)

    Arens, J. F.; Lamb, G. M.; Peck, M. C.; Moseley, H.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Tresch-Fienberg, R.; Fazio, G. G.


    First observations of a planetary nebula with an infrared charge injection device (CID) array camera are reported. The 10 micron images of NGC 7027 have spatial resolution comparable to that of the highest resolution (less than 2 arcsec) radio aperture-synthesis maps of this source. A much closer correspondence between the mid-infrared and radio appearance of NGC 7027 was found than was known previously, confirming that warm dust is coextensive and well mixed with the gas in the ionized zone. Using maps at three wavelengths, the spatial dependence of the shape of the 8-13 micron spectrum within the nebula is examined. The dip at 9.60 microns is shallowest in regions of enhanced optical extinction (as determined from new images near 4000 and 9000 A obtained with an optical charge coupled device). The 9.60 micron emission is strongest in these same positions. It is shown that the results may be explained not by silicate absorption, but by a combination of emission from two distinct grain populations, one of which is also partly responsible for the variation in extinction across the nebula.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Pastas are generally accepted all over the world, mainly because they are versatile, cheap and easy - to - prepare. They are not nutritionally balanced, since they provide mainly carbohydrates. As a result of this, it is important to use ingredients which could improve the nutritional deficiencies, without affecting the technological and sensorial characteristics. This study evaluated the effect of using wheat semolina and micronized corn pericarp (MCP, on the proximate composition, cooking quality and color of spaghetti type pasta. Spaghetti pasta was produced using wheat semolina with the incorporation of micronized corn pericarp, at levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the formulated samples with regards to the contents of moisture and lipid, cooking time, weight gain and volume increase. As observed, supplementation with micronized corn pericarp presented significant difference on the contents of proteins, minerals, dietary fiber and solid soluble loss of the spaghetti pasta (p < 0.05. With increase in micronized corn pericarp concentration, the color difference became accentuated. The use of MCP appears to be viable, providing a nutritionally enriched product without further impairment on pasta quality.

  13. New silicon photonics integration platform enabled by novel micron-scale bends

    CERN Document Server

    Cherchi, Matteo; Harjanne, Mikko; Kapulainen, Markku; Aalto, Timo


    Even though submicron silicon waveguides have been proposed for dense integration of photonic devices, to date the lightwave circuits on the market mainly rely on waveguides with micron-scale core dimensions. These larger waveguides feature easier fabrication, higher reliability and better interfacing to optical fibres. Single-mode operation with large core dimensions is obtained with low lateral refractive index contrast. Hence, the main limitation in increasing the level of integration and in reducing the cost of micron-scale waveguide circuits is their mm- to cm-scale minimum bending radius. Fortunately, single-mode rib waveguides with a micron-scale silicon core can be locally transformed into multi-mode strip waveguides that have very high lateral index contrast. Here we show how Euler spiral bends realized with these waveguides can have bending radii below 10 {\\mu}m and losses below 0.02 dB/90{\\deg} for the fundamental mode, paving way for a novel densely integrated platform based on micron-scale wavegu...

  14. Numerical simulations of turbulent flow with technical roughness elements; Numerische Simulationen turbulenter Stroemungen mit technischen Rauhigkeitselementen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, J.


    Apart from improved gas turbine blades, process optimisation today aims at efficient cooling and temperature control. In order to influence the viscous lower layer, which determines the heat transition resistance, rectangular roughness elements were arranged periodically. Detailed, time-averaged heat transfer and flow structure data were obtained on roughness elements arranged in different patterns in turbulent gap flow and duct flow. Apat from heat transfer measurement by ammonia absorption, a numerical calculation method with a Low Reynolds Number k-{epsilon} Model was used. Knowledge of the local processes resulted in proposals for improved arrangements of discrete roughness elements. [Deutsch] Neben den Schaufeln moderner Gasturbinen ist eine effiziente Kuehlung und Temperierung bei vielen turbulenten Innenstroemungen Gegenstand einer verfahrenstechnischen Prozessoptimierung. Zur Beeinflussung der den Waermeuebergangswiderstand massgeblich bestimmenden, viskosen Unterschicht werden periodisch angeordnete, rechteckfoermige Rauhigkeitselemente eingesetzt. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit konnten detaillierte, zeitgemittelte und flaechendeckende Verteilungen zum Waermeuebergang und zur Stroemungsstruktur an unterschiedlich angeordneten Rauhigkeitselementen in turbulenten Spalt- und Kanalstroemungen gewonnen werden. Als Untersuchungswerkzeug ist hierbei neben einer Stoffuebergangsmessmethode, der Ammoniak-Absorptions-Methode, hauptsaechlich ein numerisches Berechnungsverfahren mit einem Low Reynolds Number k-{epsilon} Modell eingesetzt worden. Basierend auf der Kenntnis lokaler Vorgaenge sind Vorschlaege zur verbesserten Anordnung von diskreten Rauhigkeitselementen entstanden. (orig.)

  15. Effects of sound on the tactile perception of roughness in peri-head space. (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuika; Gyoba, Jiro


    The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not spatial congruency between tactile and auditory stimuli would influence the tactile roughness discrimination of stimuli presented to the fingers or cheeks. In the experiment, when abrasive films were passively presented to the participants, white noise bursts were simultaneously presented from the same or different side, either near or far from the head. The results showed that when white noise was presented from the same side as the tactile stimuli, especially from near the head, the discrimination sensitivity on the cheeks was higher than when sound was absent or presented from a different side. A similar pattern was observed in discrimination by the fingers but it was not significant. The roughness discrimination by the fingers was also influenced by the presentation of sound close to the head, but significant differences between conditions with and without sounds were observed at the decisional level. Thus, the spatial congruency between tactile and auditory information selectively modulated the roughness sensitivity of the skin on the cheek, especially when the sound source was close to the head.

  16. Feature selection in gene expression data using principal component analysis and rough set theory. (United States)

    Mishra, Debahuti; Dash, Rajashree; Rath, Amiya Kumar; Acharya, Milu


    In many fields such as data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition and signal processing, data sets containing huge number of features are often involved. Feature selection is an essential data preprocessing technique for such high-dimensional data classification tasks. Traditional dimensionality reduction approach falls into two categories: Feature Extraction (FE) and Feature Selection (FS). Principal component analysis is an unsupervised linear FE method for projecting high-dimensional data into a low-dimensional space with minimum loss of information. It discovers the directions of maximal variances in the data. The Rough set approach to feature selection is used to discover the data dependencies and reduction in the number of attributes contained in a data set using the data alone, requiring no additional information. For selecting discriminative features from principal components, the Rough set theory can be applied jointly with PCA, which guarantees that the selected principal components will be the most adequate for classification. We call this method Rough PCA. The proposed method is successfully applied for choosing the principal features and then applying the Upper and Lower Approximations to find the reduced set of features from a gene expression data.

  17. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a periodic surface with random roughness (United States)

    Yueh, H. A.; Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.


    Equations for the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a randomly perturbed periodic surface have been formulated using the extended boundary condition method and solved using the small perturbation method. Surface currents and scattered fields are solved for up to the second order. The results indicate that as the correlation length of the random roughness increases, the bistatic scattering patterns of the scattered fields show several beams associated with each Bragg diffraction direction of the periodic surface. The beam shape becomes broader with smaller correlation length. Results obtained using the Kirchhoff approximation are found to agree well with the present results for the hh and vv polarized backscattering coefficients for small angles of incidence.

  18. When the going gets rough - studying the effect of surface roughness on the adhesive abilities of tree frogs. (United States)

    Crawford, Niall; Endlein, Thomas; Pham, Jonathan T; Riehle, Mathis; Barnes, W Jon P


    Tree frogs need to adhere to surfaces of various roughnesses in their natural habitats; these include bark, leaves and rocks. Rough surfaces can alter the effectiveness of their toe pads, due to factors such as a change of real contact area and abrasion of the pad epithelium. Here, we tested the effect of surface roughness on the attachment abilities of the tree frog Litoria caerulea. This was done by testing shear and adhesive forces on artificial surfaces with controlled roughness, both on single toe pads and whole animal scales. It was shown that frogs can stick 2-3 times better on small scale roughnesses (3-6 µm asperities), producing higher adhesive and frictional forces, but relatively poorly on the larger scale roughnesses tested (58.5-562.5 µm asperities). Our experiments suggested that, on such surfaces, the pads secrete insufficient fluid to fill the space under the pad, leaving air pockets that would significantly reduce the Laplace pressure component of capillarity. Therefore, we measured how well the adhesive toe pad would conform to spherical asperities of known sizes using interference reflection microscopy. Based on experiments where the conformation of the pad to individual asperities was examined microscopically, our calculations indicate that the pad epithelium has a low elastic modulus, making it highly deformable.

  19. When the going gets rough – studying the effect of surface roughness on the adhesive abilities of tree frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Crawford


    Full Text Available Tree frogs need to adhere to surfaces of various roughnesses in their natural habitats; these include bark, leaves and rocks. Rough surfaces can alter the effectiveness of their toe pads, due to factors such as a change of real contact area and abrasion of the pad epithelium. Here, we tested the effect of surface roughness on the attachment abilities of the tree frog Litoria caerulea. This was done by testing shear and adhesive forces on artificial surfaces with controlled roughness, both on single toe pads and whole animal scales. It was shown that frogs can stick 2–3 times better on small scale roughnesses (3–6 µm asperities, producing higher adhesive and frictional forces, but relatively poorly on the larger scale roughnesses tested (58.5–562.5 µm asperities. Our experiments suggested that, on such surfaces, the pads secrete insufficient fluid to fill the space under the pad, leaving air pockets that would significantly reduce the Laplace pressure component of capillarity. Therefore, we measured how well the adhesive toe pad would conform to spherical asperities of known sizes using interference reflection microscopy. Based on experiments where the conformation of the pad to individual asperities was examined microscopically, our calculations indicate that the pad epithelium has a low elastic modulus, making it highly deformable.

  20. Analysis of Snow and Ice Surface Roughness Utilizing Higher-order Vario Functions and Geostatistical Classification (United States)

    Herzfeld, Ute C.

    Ridge, Colorado Front Range, the same problem is ill-posed, because the snow surface develops morphologic fea- tures that are small relative to the resolution of the survey device. Definition of vario functions of higher order provides a solution to this problem. 1 There is a wide range of applications: (a) High-resolution surface structures influ- ence return signals of satellite sensors, and on this data much of the monitoring of changes in the large ice sheets is based. (b) Geostatistical classification yields a char- acterization of typical and distinct ice surface provinces, including sastrugi, blue ice fields, ablation channels, and combined forms. (c) Seasonal comparison facilitates un- derstanding of ice-surface morphogenetic processes, such as the interaction of wind and ablation processes, as carried out for Jakobshavn Isbrae , Greenland. (d) Self- organizational processes in snow can be distinguished from the influence of ground patterns on winter and summer snow surface morphogenesis in an alpine snowfield. (e) Surface roughness characteristics influence energy exchange, heat transfer, melting in the snowpack, and thus are important input variables in snow-hydrologic models. 2

  1. Numerical Modeling of Electrical Contact Conductance of Rough Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Murashov


    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century to the present time, efforts have been made to develop a model of the electrical contact conductance. The development of micro- and nanotechnologies make contact conductance problem more essential. To conduct borrowing from a welldeveloped thermal contact conductance models on the basis of thermal and electrical conductivity analogy is often not possible due to a number of fundamental differences. While some 3Dmodels of rough bodies deformation have been developed in one way or another, a 3D-model of the electrical conductance through rough bodies contact is still not. A spatial model of electrical contact of rough bodies is proposed, allows one to calculate the electrical contact conductance as a function of the contact pressure. Representative elements of the bodies are parallelepipeds with deterministic roughness on the contacting surfaces. First the non-linear elastic-plastic deformation of rough surface under external pressure is solved using the finite element software ANSYS. Then the solution of electrostatic problem goes on the same finite element mesh. Aluminum AD1 is used as the material of the contacting bodies with properties that account for cold work hardening of the surface. The numerical model is built within the continuum mechanics and nanoscale effects are not taken into account. The electrical contact conductance was calculated on the basis of the concept of electrical resistance of the model as the sum of the electrical resistances of the contacting bodies and the contact itself. It was assumed that there is no air in the gap between the bodies. The dependence of the electrical contact conductance on the contact pressure is calculated as well as voltage and current density distributions in the contact bodies. It is determined that the multi-asperity contact mode, adequate to real roughness, is achieved at pressures higher than 3MPa, while results within the single contact spot are

  2. Roughness and microhardness of composites after different bleaching techniques. (United States)

    Leal, Andreia; Paula, Anabela; Ramalho, Amílcar; Esteves, Miguel; Ferreira, Manuel Marques; Carrilho, Eunice


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the roughness and microhardness of SonicFill™ (Kerr), and compare it with Filtek™ Supreme XTE (3M ESPE) after 2 bleaching regimens. Sixty cylindrical specimens (10 × 2 mm) of each of the 2 composites were prepared and divided into 6 groups (n = 20): groups 1, 2: no treatment; groups 3, 4: 10% carbamide peroxide (CP); and groups 5, 6: 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) plus LED. After treatments, specimens were thermocycled (500 cycles, 5 °C/55 °C, dwell time 30 minutes). A mechanical roughness tester was employed to measure the surface roughness parameters and the Vickers test to measure microhardness. One-way ANOVA, Tukey and Bonferroni methods with a significance level of 5% were used for the statistical analysis. For SonicFill™, there was no statistically significant difference in microhardness between the control group (no. 1) and the bleached groups (nos. 3, 5), but there was difference between CP and HP treatments; for Filtek™ Supreme XTE, there was no significant difference in microhardness among all groups. There was no significant difference in average roughness (Ra) and the root mean square of the roughness (Rq) among all groups. The mean roughness depth (Rz) parameter showed no statistically significant differences among all groups for SonicFill™, but in Filtek™ Supreme XTE, there was a significant increase between control and bleaching treatments; roughness skewness (Rsk) showed no statistically significant differences among all groups for SonicFill™ and Filtek™ Supreme XTE, except for nos. 2 and 4, where the Rsk increased with CP. The microhardness of Filtek™ Supreme XTE is less affected by bleaching than that of SonicFill™. Both bleaching treatments affect Rz in Filtek™ Supreme XTE in contrast to SonicFill™, but only the CP treatment affects the Rsk of Filtek™ Supreme XTE, with no significant effect of SonicFill™.

  3. Connections Between the Spring Breakup of the Southern Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air-sea Roughness (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Oman, Luke David; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Hurwitz, Margaret H.; Molod, Andrea M.


    A robust connection between the drag on surface-layer winds and the stratospheric circulation is demonstrated in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Specifically, an updated parameterization of roughness at the air-sea interface, in which surface roughness is increased for moderate wind speeds (4ms to 20ms), leads to a decrease in model biases in Southern Hemispheric ozone, polar cap temperature, stationary wave heat flux, and springtime vortex breakup. A dynamical mechanism is proposed whereby increased surface roughness leads to improved stationary waves. Increased surface roughness leads to anomalous eddy momentum flux convergence primarily in the Indian Ocean sector (where eddies are strongest climatologically) in September and October. The localization of the eddy momentum flux convergence anomaly in the Indian Ocean sector leads to a zonally asymmetric reduction in zonal wind and, by geostrophy, to a wavenumber-1 stationary wave pattern. This tropospheric stationary wave pattern leads to enhanced upwards wave activity entering the stratosphere. The net effect is an improved Southern Hemisphere vortex: the vortex breaks up earlier in spring (i.e., the spring late-breakup bias is partially ameliorated) yet is no weaker in mid-winter. More than half of the stratospheric biases appear to be related to the surface wind speed biases. As many other chemistry climate models use a similar scheme for their surface layer momentum exchange and have similar biases in the stratosphere, we expect that results from GEOSCCM may be relevant for other climate models.

  4. Effects of edge roughness on optical scattering from periodic microstructures (United States)

    Bergner, Brent C.

    Planar photonic crystals and other microstructured surfaces have important applications in a number of emerging technologies. However, these structures can be difficult to fabricate in a consistent manner. Rapid, precise measurements of critical parameters are needed to control the fabrication process, but current measurement techniques tend to be slow and often require that the sample be modified in order to make the measurement. Optical scattering can provide a rapid, non-destructive, and precise method for measuring these structures, and optical scatterometry is a good candidate technique for measuring micro-structured surfaces for process control. However, variations in the profile, such as those caused by edge roughness, can make significant contributions to the uncertainty in scatterometry measurements. Because of the multidimensional nature of the problem, modeling these variations can be computationally expensive. This dissertation examines the effects of edge roughness on optical scatterometry signals. Rigorous numerical simulations show that the effects of edge roughness are sensitive to the correlation length and the frequency content of the roughness as well as its amplitude. However, these rigorous calculations are computationally expensive. A less computationally expensive model based on a generalized Bruggeman effective medium approximation is developed and shown to be effective for modeling the effects of short correlation length edge roughness on optical scatterometry signals.

  5. Mechanical properties of rough and dehulled rice during drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende


    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This work aimed to determine the mechanical properties of rough and dehulled rice grains, for different moisture contents, by obtaining their rupture force, deformation, maximum compression force and proportional deformity modulus under a compression test. Rice grains, with moisture content varying from 0.12 to 0.30 (d.b., were subject to an uniaxial compression in order to analyze these properties. On reducting moisture content the rupture force increased from 37.2 to 70.6 N for dehulled rice and 48.0 to 79.5 N for rough rice. The average compression force varied from 131 to 171 N for dehulled rice and 203 to 283 N for rough rice. The value range of proportional deformity modulus was from 5.5 x 109 to 7.4 x 109 Pa for dehulled rice and 9.5 x 109 to 12.3 x 109 Pa for rough rice. Rough rice presented more resistance to compression compared to dehulled rice.

  6. The effect of toothbrush bristle stiffness on nanohybrid surface roughness (United States)

    Zairani, O.; Irawan, B.; Damiyanti, M.


    The surface of a restoration can be affected by toothpaste containing abrasive agents and the stiffness of toothbrush bristles. Objective: To identify the effect of toothbrush bristle stiffness on nanohybrid surface roughness. Methods: Sixteen nanohybrid specimens were separated into two groups. The first group was brushed using soft-bristle toothbrushes, and the second group was brushed using medium-bristle toothbrushes. Media such as aqua bides was used for brushing in both groups. Brushing was done 3 times for 5 minutes. Surface roughness was measured initially and at 5, 10, and 15 minutes using a surface roughness tester. Results: The results, tested with One-Way ANOVA and Independent Samples t Test, demonstrated that after brushing for 15 minutes, the soft-bristle toothbrush group showed a significantly different value (p toothbrushes showed the value of nano hybrid surface roughness significant difference after brushing for 10 minutes. Conclusion: Roughness occurs more rapidly when brushing with medium-bristle tooth brushes than when brushing with soft-bristle toothbrushes.

  7. Fuzzy Linguistic Optimization on Surface Roughness for CNC Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Syung Lan


    Full Text Available Surface roughness is often considered the main purpose in contemporary computer numerical controlled (CNC machining industry. Most existing optimization researches for CNC finish turning were either accomplished within certain manufacturing circumstances or achieved through numerous equipment operations. Therefore, a general deduction optimization scheme is deemed to be necessary for the industry. In this paper, the cutting depth, feed rate, speed, and tool nose runoff with low, medium, and high level are considered to optimize the surface roughness for finish turning based on L9(34 orthogonal array. Additionally, nine fuzzy control rules using triangle membership function with respective to five linguistic grades for surface roughness are constructed. Considering four input and twenty output intervals, the defuzzification using center of gravity is then completed. Thus, the optimum general fuzzy linguistic parameters can then be received. The confirmation experiment result showed that the surface roughness from the fuzzy linguistic optimization parameters is significantly advanced compared to that from the benchmark. This paper certainly proposes a general optimization scheme using orthogonal array fuzzy linguistic approach to the surface roughness for CNC turning with profound insight.

  8. Contact force and scanning velocity during active roughness perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Tanaka

    Full Text Available Haptic perception is bidirectionally related to exploratory movements, which means that exploration influences perception, but perception also influences exploration. We can optimize or change exploratory movements according to the perception and/or the task, consciously or unconsciously. This paper presents a psychophysical experiment on active roughness perception to investigate movement changes as the haptic task changes. Exerted normal force and scanning velocity are measured in different perceptual tasks (discrimination or identification using rough and smooth stimuli. The results show that humans use a greater variation in contact force for the smooth stimuli than for the rough stimuli. Moreover, they use higher scanning velocities and shorter break times between stimuli in the discrimination task than in the identification task. Thus, in roughness perception humans spontaneously use different strategies that seem effective for the perceptual task and the stimuli. A control task, in which the participants just explore the stimuli without any perceptual objective, shows that humans use a smaller contact force and a lower scanning velocity for the rough stimuli than for the smooth stimuli. Possibly, these strategies are related to aversiveness while exploring stimuli.

  9. Surface energy, elasticity and the homogenization of rough surfaces (United States)

    Mohammadi, P.; Liu, L. P.; Sharma, P.; Kukta, R. V.


    The concept of surface energy is widely used to understand numerous aspects of material behavior: fracture, self-assembly, catalysis, void formation, microstructure evolution, and size-effect exhibited by nanostructures. Extensive work exists on deriving homogenized constitutive responses for macroscopic composites—relating effective properties to various microstructural details. In the present work, we focus on homogenization of surfaces. Indeed, elucidation of the effect of surface roughness on the surface energy, stress, and elastic behavior is relatively under-studied and quite relevant to the behavior of both nanostructures and bulk material where surfaces are involved in some form or fashion. We present derivations that relate both periodic and random roughness to the effective surface elastic behavior. We find that the residual surface stress is hardly affected by roughness while the superficial elastic properties are dramatically altered and, importantly, they may also change sign—this has significant ramifications in the interpretation of sensing based on frequency measurement changes. Interestingly, even if the bare surface has a zero surface elasticity modulus, roughness is seen to endow it with one. Using atomistic calculations, we verify the qualitative validity of the obtained theoretical insights. We show, through an illustrative example, that the square of resonance frequency of a cantilever beam with rough surface can decrease almost by a factor of two compared to a flat surface.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda Erşahan


    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effects of different methods of surface treatment on enamel roughness. Materials and Methods: Ninety human maxillary first premolars were randomly divided into three groups (n=30 according to type of enamel surface treatment: I, acid etching; II, Er:YAG laser; III, Nd:YAG laser. The surface roughness of enamel was measured with a noncontact optical profilometer. For each enamel sample, two readings were taken across the sample—before enamel surface treatment (T1 and after enamel surface treatment (T2. The roughness parameter analyzed was the average roughness (Ra. Statistical analysis was performed using a Paired sample t test and the post-hoc Mann- Whitney U test, with the significance level set at 0.05. Results: The highest Ra (average roughness values were observed for Group II, with a significant difference with Groups I and III (P<0.001. Ra values for the acid etching group (Group I were significantly lower than other groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Surface treatment of enamel with Er:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser results in significantly higher Ra than acid-etching. Both Er:YAG laser or Nd:YAG laser can be recommended as viable treatment alternatives to acid etching.

  11. LiDAR-derived surface roughness signatures of basaltic lava types at the Muliwai a Pele Lava Channel, Mauna Ulu, Hawai`i (United States)

    Whelley, Patrick L.; Garry, W. Brent; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Bleacher, Jacob E.


    We used light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data to calculate roughness patterns (homogeneity, mean-roughness, and entropy) for five lava types at two different resolutions (1.5 and 0.1 m/pixel). We found that end-member types (´áā and pāhoehoe) are separable (with 95% confidence) at both scales, indicating that roughness patterns are well suited for analyzing types of lava. Intermediate lavas were also explored, and we found that slabby-pāhoehoe is separable from the other end-members using 1.5 m/pixel data, but not in the 0.1 m/pixel analysis. This suggests that the conversion from pāhoehoe to slabby-pāhoehoe is a meter-scale process, and the finer roughness characteristics of pāhoehoe, such as ropes and toes, are not significantly affected. Furthermore, we introduce the ratio ENT/HOM (derived from lava roughness) as a proxy for assessing local lava flow rate from topographic data. High entropy and low homogeneity regions correlate with high flow rate while low entropy and high homogeneity regions correlate with low flow rate. We suggest that this relationship is not directional, rather it is apparent through roughness differences of the associated lava type emplaced at the high and low rates, respectively.

  12. Room-temperature InGaAs detector arrays for 1.0 - 1.7 microns spectroscopy (United States)

    Olsen, G. H.; Joshi, A. M.; Mykietyn, E.; Colosi, J.; Woodruff, K. M.


    Linear arrays of 256 element InGaAs detectors with 100 x 30 micron pixels were mounted in multiplexer packages and tested in an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA). Typical performance characteristics include dark current (-5V) of 400 picoamps and responsivities of 0.75 A/W (1.3 microns) and 0.14 A/W (0.85 microns). The 256 element exhibited a mean room-temperature dark current of under 400 picoamps when mounted in the OMA and a dynamic range over 11 bits (2000:1). Future applications, including room-temperature detector arrays for 2.5 microns and avalanche photodiode arrays for 1.0-1.7 microns, are discussed.

  13. Multiplexed 256 element InGaAs detector arrays for 0.8-1.7-micron room-temperature operation (United States)

    Olsen, G. H.; Joshi, A. M.; Ban, V. S.; Woodruff, K. M.; Gasparian, G. A.


    InGaAs photodetectors have been configured into linear arrays of 30 x 30 micron photodetectors spaced 50 microns apart. The devices have typical responsivities of 0.9 A/W (86-percent QE) at 1.3 microns and exhibit room temperature dark currents below 100 pA. A 256-element array has been mounted in a Reticon multiplexer and configured into a PAR optical multichannel analyzer to extend spectral response out to 1.7 microns. Individual InGaAs detectors have been fabricated for response out to 2.2 microns with dark current below 1 microA (-1V) and 50-percent QE at room temperature.

  14. Influence of Process Control Agent on Characterization and Structure of Micron Chitosan Powders Prepared by Ball Milling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Chuan-jie


    Full Text Available With ethyl alcohol or distilled water as process control agent (PCA, micron chitosan powder was prepared by ball milling method. The yield rate, particle size distribution, micro morphology, viscosity average molecular mass, chemical and crystal structures, and thermal properties of these different micron chitosan powders were measured. The results indicate that the yield rate of micron chitosan powders prepared with ethyl alcohol as PCA increases significantly, and improves to 94.7% from 25% while the amount of ethyl alcohol is 0.75mL/g. The particle size distribution of micron chitosan powder prepared with ethyl alcohol as PCA is concentrated, while the D50 and D90 in size are 824nm and 1629nm respectively. Chitosan do not react with ethyl alcohol used as PCA, but the viscosity average molecular mass of prepared micron chitosan powder decreases by 23%, the crystal structures are destroyed slightly, and its thermal stability is slightly weakened.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Roughness Effects on Transition Onset and Turbulent Heating Augmentation on a Hemisphere at Mach 6 and Mach 10 (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.


    An experimental investigation of the effects of distributed surface roughness on boundary-layer transition and turbulent heating has been conducted. Hypersonic wind tunnel testing was performed using hemispherical models with surface roughness patterns simulating those produced by heat shield ablation. Global aeroheating and transition onset data were obtained using phosphor thermography at Mach 6 and Mach 10 over a range of roughness heights and free stream Reynolds numbers sufficient to produce laminar, transitional and turbulent flow. Upstream movement of the transition onset location and increasing heating augmentation over predicted smooth-wall levels were observed with both increasing roughness heights and increasing free stream Reynolds numbers. The experimental heating data are presented herein, as are comparisons to smooth-wall heat transfer distributions from computational flow-field simulations. The transition onset data are also tabulated, and correlations of these data are presented.

  16. X-ray powder pattern analysis of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus inclusion bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di, X.; Sun, Y.K.; McCrae, M.A.; Rossmann, M.G. (Purdue Univ., West lafayette, IN (USA))


    Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus is an insect reovirus which is occluded in crystalline inclusion bodies that form in the mid-gut of certain insects. Inclusion bodies of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus from Bombyx mori were isolated and purified. These crystalline bodies, about 1-3 microns in linear size, were compacted in a capillary tube while immersed in buffer. X-ray diffraction photographs showed powder rings, extending to 8.2 A resolution, which could be indexed with a cell measuring a = b = 49.9 +/- 0.4 A, c = 41.5 +/- 0.4 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees. The polyhedrin protein, which is the major component of the inclusion body, has a molecular weight of about 30,000 daltons and, hence, there are probably two molecules in the unit cell. Thus, the unit cell is monoclinic or possibly triclinic. A Patterson derived from the measured powder pattern intensities, assuming monoclinic symmetry, could be interpreted in terms of a molecule with two larger globes. Such a structure is roughly consistent with the breakdown of the polyhedrin into two larger fragments of molecular weight 17,000 and 14,000 when raising the pH to near 10. Under these conditions the inclusion bodies disintegrate, releasing virus and catalyzing the proteolysis of the polyhedrin.

  17. Grism Performance for Mid-IR (5-40 microns) Spectroscopy (United States)

    Ennico, K. A.; Mar, D. J.; Jaffe, D. T.; Marsh, J. P.; Keller, L. D.; Herter, T. L.; Greene, T. P.; Adams, J. D.


    Grisms provide a straightforward method to transform an imager into a spectrometer with little change to the original imaging optics. This paper addresses the performance of a suite of grisms as part of an Astrobiology Science and Instrument Development (ASTID) Program to implement a moderate resolution spectroscopic capability to the mid/far-IR facility instrument FORCAST for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) [see accompanying abstract by Adams et al.]. A moderate resolution mid-IR spectrometer on SOFIA will offer advantages not available to either ground or space-based instruments after the Spitzer Space Telescope ceases operation in approx. 2007. SOFIA will begin operations in 2007 and will have an operational lifetime of approx. 20 years. From aircraft altitudes, it will be possible to cover a range of wavelengths, particularly in the critical 5-9 micron band, where detection of astrobiologically interesting molecules have key spectral signatures, that are not accessible from the ground. This grism suite consists of six grisms: four monolithic Si grisms [see accompanying abstract by Mar et al.] and two KRS-5 grisms. These devices will allow long slit low-resolution and short slit, cross-dispersed high-resolution spectroscopic modes selectable by simply moving the camera filter wheels. This configuration will enable observing programs to gather images and spectra in a single SOFIA flight. The four silicon grisms, whose performance is highlighted in this paper, will operate in the following wavelength ranges: 5-8, 17-28, and 28-37 microns. In the 5-8 micron range, R=1200 is achievable for a 2 arcsecond slit using the grism as a cross-disperser. For the 17-28 and 28-37 micron ranges, the resolving powers are R approx. 130, 250 when used in low orders with a slit of 3 arcseconds. The silicon grisms demonstrate a new family of dispersive elements with good optical performance for spectroscopy from 1.2-8 micron and beyond 18 microns

  18. Visualizing and quantifying the crossover from capillary fingering to viscous fingering in a rough fracture (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Feng; Fang, Shu; Wu, Dong-Sheng; Hu, Ran


    Immiscible fluid-fluid displacement in permeable media is important in many subsurface processes, including enhanced oil recovery and geological CO2 sequestration. Controlled by capillary and viscous forces, displacement patterns of one fluid displacing another more viscous one exhibit capillary and viscous fingering, and crossover between the two. Although extensive studies investigated viscous and capillary fingering in porous media, a few studies focused on the crossover in rough fractures, and how viscous and capillary forces affect the crossover remains unclear. Using a transparent fracture-visualization system, we studied how the two forces impact the crossover in a horizontal rough fracture. Drainage experiments of water displacing oil were conducted at seven flow rates (capillary number log10Ca ranging from -7.07 to -3.07) and four viscosity ratios (M=1/1000,1/500,1/100 and 1/50). We consistently observed lower invading fluid saturations in the crossover zone. We also proposed a phase diagram for the displacement patterns in a rough fracture that is consistent with similar studies in porous media. Based on real-time imaging and statistical analysis of the invasion morphology, we showed that the competition between capillary and viscous forces is responsible for the saturation reduction in the crossover zone. In this zone, finger propagation toward the outlet (characteristic of viscous fingering) as well as void-filling in the transverse/backward directions (characteristic of capillary fingering), are both suppressed. Therefore, the invading fluid tends to occupy larger apertures with higher characteristic front velocity, promoting void-filling toward the outlet with thinner finger growth and resulting in a larger volume of defending fluid left behind.

  19. The effects of leading edge roughness on dynamic stall (United States)

    Hrynuk, John


    Dynamic stall is a fundamental flow phenomenon that is commonly observed for insect flight and rotorcraft. Under certain conditions a leading edge vortex forms generating large but temporary lift forces. Historically, computations studying dynamic stall on airfoil shapes have struggled to predict this vortex formation time and separation point. Reduced order models and CFD have performed well when experiments have been performed to develop separation models, but this has limited the development of robust design tools. The current study looks at the effect of leading edge surface roughness on the formation of the Dynamic Stall Vortex (DSV). Roughness elements were applied to the leading edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil and PIV data of the vortex formation process was recorded. Measurements were taken at a Reynolds number of Re = 12,000 and baseline smooth NACA 0012 data was also recorded for comparison. Surface roughness elements, below the typical scale modeled by CFD, are shown to change DSV formation angle and location.

  20. Refining of Rough Indium by Method of Reactionary Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkitbayeva Bibisara


    Full Text Available Electro-refining of rough indium by method of reactionary electrolysis from the chloride solutions containing InCl3 was carried out. The research of ionization of rough and modified indium anodes showed a decrease in an overvoltage of dissolution of indium when using the anodes containing bismuth. The values of the activation energy of the ionization stage of rough to 7.3 kJ / mole and the indium anodes modified by bismuth with 5- and 10-fold excess of depressor in relation to the total content of impurities, amounted to 5.6 and 3.7 kJ / mole, respectively. Results of the analysis of the refined indium by ICP-OES and ICP-MS methods showed that use of bismuth as a depressor additive allowed reducing impurity (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, As, Tl level to 1.1 ppm.

  1. The physical basis of perceived roughness in virtual sinusoidal textures. (United States)

    Unger, Bertram; Klatzky, Roberta; Hollis, Ralph


    Using a high-fidelity haptic interface based on magnetic levitation, subjects explored virtual sinusoidal textures with a frictionless probe and reported the subjective magnitude of perceived roughness. A psychophysical function was obtained spanning 33 levels of spatial periods from 0.025 to 6.00 mm. Kinematic and dynamic variables were recorded at 1,000 Hz and used to derive a set of variables to correlate with the psychophysical outcome. These included position, velocity, kinetic energy, instantaneous force (based on acceleration), mean force, and variability of the z-axis force signal from the power spectral density. The analysis implicates power of the force signal as the physical correlate of perceived roughness of sinusoidal textures. The relationship between power and roughness held across the range of spatial periods examined.

  2. Turbulent flow over a long flat plate with uniform roughness (United States)

    Pullin, D. I.; Hutchins, N.; Chung, D.


    For turbulent boundary-layer flow under a uniform freestream speed U∞ over a plate of length L , covered with uniform roughness of nominal sand-grain scale ks, the physical behaviors underlying two distinguished limits at large ReL≡U∞L /ν are explored: the fully rough wall flow where ks/L is fixed and the long-plate limit where Rek≡U∞ks/ν is fixed. For the fully rough limit it is shown that not only is the drag coefficient CD independent of ReL but that a universal skin-friction coefficient Cf and normalized boundary-layer thickness δ /ks can be found that depends only on ks/x , where x is the downstream distance. In the long-plate limit, it is shown that the flow becomes asymptotically smooth at huge ReL at a rate that depends on Rek. Comparisons with wind-tunnel and field data are made.

  3. Direct numerical simulation of the dynamics of sliding rough surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Viet Hung; Scheibert, Julien; Bot, Alain Le


    The noise generated by the friction of two rough surfaces under weak contact pressure is usually called roughness noise. The underlying vibration which produces the noise stems from numerous instantaneous shocks (in the microsecond range) between surface micro-asperities. The numerical simulation of this problem using classical mechanics requires a fine discretization in both space and time. This is why the finite element method takes much CPU time. In this study, we propose an alternative numerical approach which is based on a truncated modal decomposition of the vibration, a central difference integration scheme and two algorithms for contact: The penalty algorithm and the Lagrange multiplier algorithm. Not only does it reproduce the empirical laws of vibration level versus roughness and sliding speed found experimentally but it also provides the statistical properties of local events which are not accessible by experiment. The CPU time reduction is typically a factor of 10.

  4. Noise reduction in tunnels by hard rough surfaces. (United States)

    Law, Ming Kan; Li, Kai Ming; Leung, Chun Wah


    This paper examines the feasibility of using two-dimensional hard rough surfaces to reduce noise levels in traffic tunnels with perfectly reflecting boundaries. First, the Twersky boss model is used to estimate the acoustic impedance of a hard rough surface. Second, an image source model is then used to compute the propagation of sound in a long rectangular enclosure with finite impedance. The total sound fields are calculated by summing the contributions from all image sources coherently. Two model tunnels are built to validate the proposed model experimentally. Finally, a case study for a realistic geometrical configuration is presented to explore the use of hard rough surfaces for reducing traffic noise in a tunnel which is constructed with hard boundaries.

  5. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...

  6. The effect of sidewall roughness on line edge roughness in top-down scanning electron microscopy images (United States)

    Verduin, T.; Lokhorst, S. R.; Kruit, P.; Hagen, C. W.


    We have investigated in a numerical study the determination of sidewall roughness (SWR) from top down scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. In a typical metrology application, top-down SEM images are acquired in a (critical-dimension) SEM and the roughness is analyzed. However, the true size, shape and roughness characteristics of resist features are not fully investigated in the analysis of top-down SEM images. In reality, rough resist features are complex three-dimensional structures and the characterization naturally extends to the analysis of SWR. In this study we randomly generate images of rough lines and spaces, where the lines are made of PMMA on a silicon substrate. The lines that we study have a length of 2 µm, a width of 32nm and a height of 32 nm. The SWR is modeled by using the power spectral density (PSD) function of Palasantzas, which characterizes roughness by the standard deviation σ, correlation length ξ and roughness exponent α . The actual roughness is generated by application of the method of Thorsos in two dimensions. The images are constructed by using a home-built program for simulating electron-specimen interactions. The program that we have developed is optimized for complex arbitrary geometries and large number of incident low energy primary electrons by using multi-core CPUs and GPUs. The program uses the dielectric function model for inelastic scattering events and has an implementation specifically for low energy electrons. A satisfactory comparison is made between the secondary electron yields from the home-built program and another program found in literature. In order to reduce the risk of shrinkage, we use a beam energy of 300 eV and a spot size of 3 nm. Each pixel is exposed with 20 electrons on average (≍ 276 µC/cm2), following the Poisson distribution to account for illumination shot noise. We have assumed that the detection of electrons is perfect and does not introduce additional noise. We measure line edge

  7. Surface roughness of composite resins subjected to hydrochloric acid. (United States)

    Roque, Ana Carolina Cabral; Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; de Godoi, Ana Paula Terossi; Colucci, Vivian; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Catirse, Alma Blásida Concepción Elizaur Benitez


    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hydrochloric acid on surface roughness of composite resins subjected to brushing. Sixty samples measuring 2 mm thick x 6 mm diameter were prepared and used as experimental units. The study presented a 3x2 factorial design, in which the factors were composite resin (n=20), at 3 levels: microhybrid composite (Z100), nanofilled composite (FiltekTM Supreme), nanohybrid composite (Ice), and acid challenge (n=10) at 2 levels: absence and presence. Acid challenge was performed by immersion of specimens in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) for 1 min, 4 times per day for 7 days. The specimens not subjected to acid challenge were stored in 15 mL of artificial saliva at 37 oC. Afterwards, all specimens were submitted to abrasive challenge by a brushing cycle performed with a 200 g weight at a speed of 356 rpm, totaling 17.8 cycles. Surface roughness measurements (Ra) were performed and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p≤0.05). Surface roughness values were higher in the presence (1.07±0.24) as compared with the absence of hydrochloric acid (0.72±0.04). Surface roughness values were higher for microhybrid (1.01±0.27) compared with nanofilled (0.68 ±0.09) and nanohybrid (0.48±0.15) composites when the specimens were not subjects to acid challenge. In the presence of hydrochloric acid, microhybrid (1.26±0.28) and nanofilled (1.18±0,30) composites presents higher surface roughness values compared with nanohybrid (0.77±0.15). The hydrochloric acid affected the surface roughness of composite resin subjected to brushing.

  8. Biofilm retention on surfaces with variable roughness and hydrophobicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lone; Pillai, Saju; Revsbech, Niels Peter


    (SS) was compared to two novel nanostructured sol-gel coatings with differing hydrophobicity. Surfaces were characterized with respect to roughness, hydrophobicity, protein adsorption, biofilm retention, and community composition of the retained bacteria. Fewer bacteria were retained on the sol-gel...... coated surfaces compared to the rougher SS. However, the two sol-gel coatings did not differ in either protein adsorption, biofilm retention, or microbial community composition. When polished to a roughness similar to sol-gel, the SS was colonized by the same amount of bacteria as the sol-gel...

  9. Rough Set Based Classification rules generation for SARS Patients. (United States)

    Honghai, Feng; Guoshun, Chen; Yufeng, Wang; Bingru, Yang; Yumei, Chen


    SARS is an acute infectious disease and can cause a large amount of death. Up until now we have not known it well. With the experimental results of micronutrients of 30 SARS patients and 30 non-SARS patients, using rough set theory we induce some classification rules. Attribute reduction results show that micronutrients Fe, Ca, K and Na are necessary and sufficient for classification, whereas micronutrients Zn, Cu and Mg are not necessary or are redundant. Additionally, we find that micronutrient Ca has a strong correlation to SARS. The classification results of 30 other examples show that the rough set classification method is available.

  10. Determination of interfacial roughness using X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munkholm, Anneli [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    Crystal truncation rod (CTR) scattering is shown to be a powerful technique for determining interfacial roughness non-destructively. By measuring the decay of scattering away from a Bragg reflection in the surface direction an rms roughness of the surface or interface can be extracted. The authors obtain rms roughness values with an accuracy of ± 0.1 Å. Sensitivity to lateral length scale roughness ranges from the wavelength of the x-rays to between 1,000--10,000 Å depending on the instrument function and the specific truncation rod. The influence of different cleans, as well as the thermal oxidation process, on the Si-SiO2 interface is investigated. A hot water treatment prior to the thermal oxidation is shown to roughen the Si-SiO2 interface. CTR scattering results also show a smoothing of the interface as a result of the oxidation process even for as little as 60 Å of thermal oxidation. Comparison between AFM and CTR scattering gives a consistent picture of the relative roughness of the wafers, although the absolute numbers do not agree. The differences in the absolute values can be explained by the lateral roughness scale that the two techniques measure, indicating that it is at periodicities below ~ 100 Å that the increased roughness observed by the x-ray is found. Crystal truncation rods are shown to be perpendicular to the surface and not along the crystallographic axes of a miscut crystal. It is shown that for a crystal terminated by a regular step array both an atomistic and a continuum description of CTR scattering give identical results. Furthermore, the atomistic approach is used to show that a diamond cubic surface with a miscut is inherently rough. Even for a small miscut the tilt of the CTR with respect to the crystallographic axes results in complications for measuring the rod intensity. The authors present schemes for determining the exact position of the CTR in reciprocal space and for measuring the miscut of a single

  11. Uncertainty Analysis of Knowledge Reductions in Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang


    Full Text Available Uncertainty analysis is a vital issue in intelligent information processing, especially in the age of big data. Rough set theory has attracted much attention to this field since it was proposed. Relative reduction is an important problem of rough set theory. Different relative reductions have been investigated for preserving some specific classification abilities in various applications. This paper examines the uncertainty analysis of five different relative reductions in four aspects, that is, reducts’ relationship, boundary region granularity, rules variance, and uncertainty measure according to a constructed decision table.

  12. Uncertainty analysis of knowledge reductions in rough sets. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Nan


    Uncertainty analysis is a vital issue in intelligent information processing, especially in the age of big data. Rough set theory has attracted much attention to this field since it was proposed. Relative reduction is an important problem of rough set theory. Different relative reductions have been investigated for preserving some specific classification abilities in various applications. This paper examines the uncertainty analysis of five different relative reductions in four aspects, that is, reducts' relationship, boundary region granularity, rules variance, and uncertainty measure according to a constructed decision table.

  13. Binary Relations-based Rough Sets – an Automated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowski Adam


    Full Text Available Rough sets, developed by Zdzisław Pawlak [12], are an important tool to describe the state of incomplete or partially unknown information. In this article, which is essentially the continuation of [8], we try to give the characterization of approximation operators in terms of ordinary properties of underlying relations (some of them, as serial and mediate relations, were not available in the Mizar Mathematical Library [11]. Here we drop the classical equivalence- and tolerance-based models of rough sets trying to formalize some parts of [18].

  14. Characterising soil surface roughness with a frequency modulated polarimetric radar (United States)

    Seeger, Manuel; Gronz, Oliver; Beiske, Joshua; Klein, Tobias


    Soil surface roughness is considered crucial for soil erosion as it determines the effective surface exposed to the raindrop impact. It regulates surface runoff velocity and it causes runoff concentration. But a comprehensive characterisation of the shape of the soils' surface is still difficult to achieve. Photographic systems and terrestrial laser-scanning are nowadays able to generate high resolution DEMs, but the derivation of roughness parameters is still not clear. Spaceborne radar systems are used for about 3 decades for earth survey. Spatial soil moisture distribution, ice sheet monitoring and earth-wide topographic survey are the main objectives of these radar systems, working generally with frequencies <10 GHz. Contrasting with this, technologies emitting frequencies up to 77 GHz are generally used for object tracking purposes. But it is known, that the reflection characteristics, such as intensity and polarisation, strongly depend on the properties of the target object. A new design of a frequency modulated continuous wave radar, emitting a right hand shaped circular polarization and receiving both polarization directions, right and left-hand shaped, is tested here for its ability to detect and quantify different surface roughness. The reflection characteristics of 4 different materials 1) steel, 2) sand (0,5-1 mm), 3) fine (2-4 mm) and 4) coarse (15-30 mm) rock-fragments and different roughness as well as moisture content are analysed. In addition, the signals are taken at 2 different angles to the soil's surface (90° and 70°). For quantification of the roughness, a photographic method (Structure-from-Motion) is applied to generate a detailed DEM and random roughness (RR) is calculated. To characterise the radar signal, different ratios of the reflected channels and polarisations are calculated. The signals show differences for all substrates, also clearly visible between sand and fine rock fragments, despite a wavelength of 1 cm of the

  15. Roughness and waviness requirements for laminar flow surfaces (United States)

    Obara, Clifford J.; Holmes, Bruce J.


    Many modern metal and composite airframe manufacturing techniques can provide surface smoothness which is compatible with natural laminar flow (NLF) requirements. An important consideration is manufacturing roughness of the surface in the form of steps and gaps perpendicular to the freestream. The principal challenge to the design and manufacture of laminar flow surfaces today appears to be in the installation of leading-edge panels on wing, nacelle, and empennage surfaces. A similar challenge is in the installation of access panels, doors, windows, fuselage noses, and engine nacelles. Past work on roughness and waviness manufacturing tolerances and comparisons with more recent experiments are reviewed.

  16. Hydraulic resistance in part-full pipes with composite roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrusquia, G.; Petersen, O.; Larsen, Torben


    The paper discusses the boundary shear stresses and the hydraulic resistance in part-full sewer pipes with composite roughness. The discussion is based on a series of numerical experiments using a validated numerical turbulence model. The results from the numerical model are compared with the sid......The paper discusses the boundary shear stresses and the hydraulic resistance in part-full sewer pipes with composite roughness. The discussion is based on a series of numerical experiments using a validated numerical turbulence model. The results from the numerical model are compared...

  17. River density and landscape roughness are universal determinants of linguistic diversity. (United States)

    Axelsen, Jacob Bock; Manrubia, Susanna


    Global linguistic diversity (LD) displays highly heterogeneous distribution patterns. Though the origin of the latter is not yet fully understood, remarkable parallelisms with biodiversity distribution suggest that environmental variables should play an essential role in their emergence. In an effort to construct a broad framework to explain world LD and to systematize the available data, we have investigated the significance of 14 variables: landscape roughness, altitude, river density, distance to lakes, seasonal maximum, average and minimum temperature, precipitation and vegetation, and population density. Landscape roughness and river density are the only two variables that universally affect LD. Overall, the considered set accounts for up to 80% of African LD, a figure that decreases for the joint Asia, Australia and the Pacific (69%), Europe (56%) and the Americas (53%). Differences among those regions can be traced down to a few variables that permit an interpretation of their current states of LD. Our processed datasets can be applied to the analysis of correlations in other similar heterogeneous patterns with a broad spatial distribution, the clearest example being biological diversity. The statistical method we have used can be understood as a tool for cross-comparison among geographical regions, including the prediction of spatial diversity in alternative scenarios or in changing environments.

  18. Improved Algorithms for the Classification of Rough Rice Using a Bionic Electronic Nose Based on PCA and the Wilks Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Xu


    Full Text Available Principal Component Analysis (PCA is one of the main methods used for electronic nose pattern recognition. However, poor classification performance is common in classification and recognition when using regular PCA. This paper aims to improve the classification performance of regular PCA based on the existing Wilks ?-statistic (i.e., combined PCA with the Wilks distribution. The improved algorithms, which combine regular PCA with the Wilks ?-statistic, were developed after analysing the functionality and defects of PCA. Verification tests were conducted using a PEN3 electronic nose. The collected samples consisted of the volatiles of six varieties of rough rice (Zhongxiang1, Xiangwan13, Yaopingxiang, WufengyouT025, Pin 36, and Youyou122, grown in same area and season. The first two principal components used as analysis vectors cannot perform the rough rice varieties classification task based on a regular PCA. Using the improved algorithms, which combine the regular PCA with the Wilks ?-statistic, many different principal components were selected as analysis vectors. The set of data points of the Mahalanobis distance between each of the varieties of rough rice was selected to estimate the performance of the classification. The result illustrates that the rough rice varieties classification task is achieved well using the improved algorithm. A Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN was also established to test the effectiveness of the improved algorithms. The first two principal components (namely PC1 and PC2 and the first and fifth principal component (namely PC1 and PC5 were selected as the inputs of PNN for the classification of the six rough rice varieties. The results indicate that the classification accuracy based on the improved algorithm was improved by 6.67% compared to the results of the regular method. These results prove the effectiveness of using the Wilks ?-statistic to improve the classification accuracy of the regular PCA approach. The

  19. The fabrication of integrated carbon pipes with sub-micron diameters (United States)

    Kim, B. M.; Murray, T.; Bau, H. H.


    A method for fabricating integrated carbon pipes (nanopipettes) of sub-micron diameters and tens of microns in length is demonstrated. The carbon pipes are formed from a template consisting of the tip of a pulled alumino-silicate glass capillary coated with carbon deposited from a vapour phase. This method renders carbon nanopipettes without the need for ex situ assembly and facilitates parallel production of multiple carbon-pipe devices. An electric-field-driven transfer of ions in a KCl solution through the integrated carbon pipes exhibits nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) curves, markedly different from the Ohmic I-V curves observed in glass pipettes under similar conditions. The filling of the nanopipette with fluorescent suspension is also demonstrated.

  20. Mini-Conference on the First Microns of the First Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotler, D. P.; Rognlien, T. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.


    Interactions between plasmas and their surrounding materials (plasma facing components) are of great interest to present and future magnetic fusion experiments, and ITER [ITER Physics Basis Editors, ITER Physics Exper Group Chairs, ITER Joint Central Team, and Physics Inte gration Unit, Nucl. Fusion 39, 2137 (1999)] in particular. This interest is the result of concerns with the survivability of these materials, as well as the impact of these interactions back on the plasma. These interactions begin on the surface, but can have consequences a few microns into the material.This mini-conference on these "first microns" was designed to bring to the Division of Plasma Physics Meeting experts on these topics who would otherwise not attend. At the same time, the mini-conference was intended to expose the broader fusion community to these issues. The mini-conference covered in three, half-day sessions the topics of lithium coatings and surfaces, mixed materials characteristics, and issues associated with graphite.

  1. Simulations of micron-scale fracture using atomistic-based boundary element method (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojie; Li, Xiantao


    A new formulation of a boundary element method (BEM) is proposed in this paper to simulate cracks at the micron scale. The main departure from the traditional BEMs is that the current model is derived from the underlying atomistic model, which involves the interactions of atoms at the scale of Angstroms. By using the lattice Green’s function, the new BEM formulation eliminates the excessive atomic degrees of freedom away from crack tips, and directly couples the process zones with the physical boundary conditions. We show that with such a drastic reduction, one can simulate brittle fracture process on the scale of microns, for which the entire system consists of a few billion atoms. We discuss several numerical issues to make the implementation more efficient. Examples will be presented for cracks in the bcc iron system.

  2. Rough-to-smooth transition of an equilibrium neutral constant stress layer. [atmospheric flow over rough terrain (United States)

    Logan, E., Jr.; Fichtl, G. H.


    A model is proposed for low-level atmospheric flows over terrains of changing roughness length, such as those found at the windward end of landing strips adjoining rough terrain. The proposed model is used to develop a prediction technique for calculating transition wind and shear-stress profiles in the region following surface roughness discontinuity. The model for the transition region comprises two layers: a logarithmic layer and a buffer layer. The flow is assumed to be steady, two-dimensional, and incompressible, with neutral hydrostatic stability. A diagram is presented for a typical wind profile in the transition region, obtained from the logarithmic and velocity defect profiles using shear stress calculated by relevant equations.



    Selvaraj, Vimal; Asano, Atsushi; Buttke, Danielle E.; Sengupta, Prabuddha; Weiss, Robert S.; Alexander J Travis


    We demonstrate for the first time that a stable, micron-scale segregation of focal enrichments of sterols exists at physiological temperature in the plasma membrane of live murine and human sperm. These enrichments of sterols represent microheterogeneities within this membrane domain overlying the acrosome. Previously, we showed that cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), which binds the glycosphingolipid, GM1, localizes to this same domain in live sperm. Interestingly, the GM1 undergoes an unexplain...

  4. Sub-micron-sized delafossite CuCrO2 with different morphologies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40, No. 1, February 2017, pp. 195–199. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12034-016-1340-6. Sub-micron-sized delafossite CuCrO2 with different morphologies synthesized by nitrate–citric acid sol–gel route. SATISH BOLLOJU1 and RADHAKRISHNAN SRINIVASAN1,2,∗. 1Department of Chemistry, BITS Pilani ...

  5. Charging of Individual Micron-Size Interstellar/Planetary Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.


    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with UV/X-ray radiation, as well as by electron/ion impact. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of individual dust grains is required for understanding of the physical and dynamical processes in space environments and the role of dust in formation of stellar and planetary systems. In this paper, we discuss experimental results on dust charging by electron impact, where low energy electrons are scattered or stick to the dust grains, thereby charging the dust grains negatively, and at sufficiently high energies the incident electrons penetrate the grain leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size dust grains, particularly by low energy electron impact. Available theoretical models based on the Sternglass equation (Sternglass, 1954) are applicable for neutral, planar, and bulk surfaces only. However, charging properties of individual micron-size dust grains are expected to be different from the values measured on bulk materials. Our recent experimental results on individual, positively charged, micron-size lunar dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance facility (at NASA-MSFC) indicate that the SEE by electron impact is a complex process. The electron impact may lead to charging or discharging of dust grains depending upon the grain size, surface potential, electron energy, electron flux, grain composition, and configuration (e.g. Abbas et al, 2010). Here we discuss the complex nature of SEE charging properties of individual micron-size lunar dust grains and silica microspheres.

  6. Comprehensive investigation of the dynamics of micron and submicron lunar ejecta in heliocentric space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrave, A.D.


    The forces which act on micron and submicron dust particles in interplanetary space are studied in detail. Particular attention is given to Mie scattering theory as it applies to the calculation of the force due to radiation pressure. All of the forces are integrated into a computer model to study the heliocentric orbits of lunar ejecta. It is shown that lunar ejecta contribute to a geocentric dust cloud, as well as to a heliocentric dust belt.

  7. Solid Hydrocarbon Assisted Reduction: A New Process of Generating Micron Scale Metal Particles (United States)


    these experiments. By contrast, the pyrolysis of coal in the absence of catalysts results in a two-phase decomposition and degasification process. In... coal is heat treat has a strong impact on the nature of the decomposition [28]. The highly dynamic nature of coal pyrolysis was not accounted for...wax and low-grade coal , both with and without catalysts, in a nitrogen environment at >600 oc, located immediately below beds of micron scale

  8. Luteal start vaginal micronized progesterone improves pregnancy success in women with recurrent pregnancy loss. (United States)

    Stephenson, Mary D; McQueen, Dana; Winter, Michelle; Kliman, Harvey J


    To assess the effectiveness of luteal start vaginal micronized P in a recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) cohort. Observational cohort study using prospectively collected data. Not applicable. Women seen between 2004 and 2012 with a history of two or more unexplained pregnancy losses pregnancy(ies). Women were excluded if concomitant findings, such as endometritis, maturation delay, or glandular-stromal dyssynchrony, were identified on EB. Vaginal micronized P was prescribed at a dose of 100-200 mg every 12 hours starting 3 days after LH surge (luteal start) if glandular epithelial nuclear cyclin E (nCyclinE) expression was elevated (>20%) in endometrial glands or empirically despite normal nCyclinE (≤20%). Women with normal nCyclinE (≤20%) who did not receive P were used as controls. Pregnancy success was an ongoing pregnancy >10 weeks in size. One hundred sixteen women met the inclusion criteria, of whom 51% (n = 59) had elevated nCyclinE and 49% (n = 57) had normal nCyclinE. Pregnancy success in the 59 women with elevated nCyclinE significantly improved after intervention: 6% (16/255) in prior pregnancies versus 69% (57/83) in subsequent pregnancies. Pregnancy success in subsequent pregnancies was higher in women prescribed vaginal micronized P compared with controls: 68% (86/126) versus 51% (19/37); odds ratio = 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.4). In this study, we found that the use of luteal start vaginal micronized P was associated with improved pregnancy success in a strictly defined cohort of women with RPL. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A 2-Micron Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Development For Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurements (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Reithmaier, Karl; Bai, Yingxin; Trieu, Bo C.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.


    A 2-micron pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  10. High Power Laser Diode Arrays for 2-Micron Solid State Coherent Lidars Applications (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra; Sudesh, Vikas; Baker, Nathaniel


    Laser diode arrays are critical components of any diode-pumped solid state laser systems, constraining their performance and reliability. Laser diode arrays (LDAs) are used as the pump source for energizing the solid state lasing media to generate an intense coherent laser beam with a high spatial and spectral quality. The solid state laser design and the characteristics of its lasing materials define the operating wavelength, pulse duration, and power of the laser diodes. The pump requirements for high pulse energy 2-micron solid state lasers are substantially different from those of more widely used 1-micron lasers and in many aspects more challenging [1]. Furthermore, the reliability and lifetime demanded by many coherent lidar applications, such as global wind profiling from space and long-range clear air turbulence detection from aircraft, are beyond the capability of currently available LDAs. In addition to the need for more reliable LDAs with longer lifetime, further improvement in the operational parameters of high power quasi-cw LDAs, such as electrical efficiency, brightness, and duty cycle, are also necessary for developing cost-effective 2-micron coherent lidar systems for applications that impose stringent size, heat dissipation, and power constraints. Global wind sounding from space is one of such applications, which is the main driver for this work as part of NASA s Laser Risk Reduction Program. This paper discusses the current state of the 792 nm LDA technology and the technology areas being pursued toward improving their performance. The design and development of a unique characterization facility for addressing the specific issues associated with the LDAs for pumping 2-micron coherent lidar transmitters and identifying areas of technological improvement will be described. Finally, the results of measurements to date on various standard laser diode packages, as well as custom-designed packages with potentially longer lifetime, will be reported.

  11. High energy 2-micron solid-state laser transmitter for NASA's airborne CO2 measurements (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin


    A 2-micron pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  12. Quantitative determination of micronization-induced changes in the solid state of lactose. (United States)

    Della Bella, A; Müller, M; Soldati, L; Elviri, L; Bettini, R


    Lactose, in particular α-lactose monohydrate, is the most used carrier for inhalation. Its surface and solid-state properties play a key role in determining Dry Powder Inhalers (DPIs) performance. Techniques such as X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), which are commonly used for the characterization of lactose, are not always capable of explaining the solid-state changes induced by processing, such as micronization. In the present work, the evaluation of the effect of the micronization process on the solid-state properties of lactose was carried out by XRPD and DSC and a satisfactory, although not unequivocal, interpretation of the thermal behaviour of lactose was obtained. Thus, a new gravimetric method correlating in a quantitative manner the weight change in specific sections of the Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS) profile and the amount of different forms of α-lactose (hygroscopic anhydrous, stable anhydrous and amorphous) simultaneously present in a given sample was developed and validated. The method is very simple and provides acceptable accuracy in phase quantitation (LOD=1.6, 2.4 and 2.7%, LOQ=5.4, 8.0 and 8.9% for hygroscopic anhydrous, stable anhydrous and amorphous α-lactose, respectively). The application of this method to a sample of micronized lactose led to results in agreement with those obtained by DSC and evidenced that hygroscopic anhydrous α-lactose, rather than amorphous lactose, can be generated in the micronization process. The proposed method may find a more general application for the quantification of polymorphs of compounds different than lactose, provided that the various solid phases afford different weight variations in specific regions of the DVS profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct simulation of open-channel flow in the fully rough regime: focus on fluid-roughness interaction (United States)

    Mazzuoli, Marco; Uhlmann, Markus


    The interaction between an incompressible open-channel flow at Reb = 6900 and rigid spheres of size k+ = 120 mounted in square arrangement on the bottom, has been investigated by means of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for the purpose of contributing to the knowledge of the basic mechanism of sediment transport. The shift generated by the roughness on mean velocity profile in the log-region is in the range of values characterizing the Fully-Rough Regime (FRR). First, average quantities (i.e. flow velocity, shear-stress distribution on the sphere surface, force and torque acting on the spheres) are analyzed exploiting the spatial periodicity of the arrangement of roughness elements. Then, spatial and temporal fluctuations of the quantities are studied. Results are compared with those obtained for a similar DNS at Reb = 2900, which is in the Transitionally-Rough Regime (TRR). Although the largest fluctuations of the velocity components are observed ~ 8 wall units below the crest of the spheres in the FRR, their effect on the drag and lift fluctuations acting on individual spheres is weaker than in the TRR. Nonetheless, the lift coefficient in the FRR case was found the 24% larger than in the TRR case. The characteristics of vortex structures in the vicinity of roughness elements are also investigated. Differences in the flow structure between the two simulations in the TRR and in the FRR reflect on the stress distribution on the surface of the spheres. Finally, the arrangement of the roughness elements might play a key role in the modulation of turbulence.

  14. Airborne 2-Micron Double-Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Column CO2 Measurement (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl


    Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 millijouls and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 microseconds and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micron IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  15. Influence of surface roughness on streptococcal adhesion forces to composite resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, Li; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Ren, Yijin

    OBJECTIVE: To determine streptococcal adhesion forces with composite resins with different surface roughness. METHODS: Polishing and grinding were applied to obtain smooth (roughness 20 nm), moderately rough (150 nm) and rough (350 nm) surfaces of two orthodontic, light-cured composites. Adhesion

  16. Influence of self-affine interface roughness on the charge capacitance between two dielectric media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.

    In this paper we investigate the influence of the interface roughness on the charge capacitance between two different dielectric media. Assuming the roughness fluctuations to be self-affine, it is shown that the roughness exponent H. which characterizes short wavelength roughness fluctuations, plays

  17. Thermal emission spectra of Mars (5.4-10.5 microns) - Evidence for sulfates, carbonates, and hydrates (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Roush, Ted; Witteborn, Fred; Bregman, Jesse; Wooden, Diane; Stoker, Carol; Toon, Owen B.


    Spectra of the Martian thermal emission in the 5.4-10.5 micron region are reported. Emission features at 7.8 and 9.7 microns are attributed to surface silicates, and an emission feature at 6.1 micron is attributed to a molecular water component of the surface material. An absorption band at 8.7 micron and a possible one at 9.8 microns is attributed to sulfate or bisulfate anions probably located at a distorted crystalline site, and an absorption band at 6.7 microns is attributed to carbonate or bicarbonate anions located in a distorted crystalline site. Spectral simulations indicate that the sulfate- and carbonate-bearing minerals are contained in the same particles of airborne dust as the dominant silicate minerals, that the dust optical depth is about 0.6 at a reference wavelength of 0.3 micron over the area of the observed spots, and that sulfates and carbonates constitute 10-15 percent and 1-3 percent by volume of the airborne dust, respectively.

  18. The Presentation of a New Method for Image Distinction with Robot by Using Rough Fuzzy Sets and Rough Fuzzy Neural Network Classifier


    Maryam Shahabi Lotfabadi


    Distinguishing different images by robots and classifying them in distinct groups is an important issue in robot vision. In this paper we want to propose a new method for distinguishing images by robot via using Rough fuzzy sets' decreases method and Rough fuzzy neural network classifier. In this method, the image features like color, texture and shape are excluded and the redundant features are decreased by Rough fuzzy sets method. Then the Rough fuzzy neural network classifier is educated b...

  19. Fine tuning the roughness of powder blasted surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Schlautmann, Stefan; Goedbloed, M.H.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    Powder blasting (abrasive jet machining) has recently been introduced as a bulk-micromachining technique for brittle materials. The surface roughness that is created with this technique is much higher (with a value of Ra between 1-2.5 μm) compared to general micromachining techniques. In this paper

  20. Dynamics of wetting on smooth and rough surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazabat, A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.


    The rate of spreading of non-volatile liquids on smooth and on rough surfaces was investigated. The radius of the wetted spot was found to agree with recently proposed scaling laws (t 1/10 for capillarity driven andt 1/8 for gravity driven spreading) when the surface was smooth. However, the

  1. Rough set based decision rule generation to find behavioural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rough sets help in finding significant attributes of large data sets and generating decision rules for classifying new instances. Though multiple regression analysis, discriminant analysis, log-it analysis and several other techniques can be used for predicting results, they consider insignificant information also for processing ...

  2. Modelling dune evolution and dynamic roughness in rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries


    Accurate river flow models are essential tools for water managers, but these hydraulic simulation models often lack a proper description of dynamic roughness due to hysteresis effects in dune evolution. To incorporate the effects of dune evolution directly into the resistance coefficients of

  3. Influence of roughness on capillary forces between hydrophilic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the plate-sphere setup between gold, borosilicate glass, GeSbTe, titanium, and UV-irradiated amorphous titanium-dioxide surfaces. The force measurements were performed as a function contact time and surface roughness in the range

  4. Development of roughness updating based on artificial neural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on dynamic wave theory using an implicit finite-difference method is developed with river roughness ... to provide early warning message in support of emer- ..... the river system. During a typhoon, when the computed river depths differ from the depths observed at gauge stations, the differences in water depths can be.

  5. Surface roughness and enamel loss with two microabrasion techniques. (United States)

    Meireles, Sonia Saeger; Andre, Darvi de Almeida; Leida, Ferdinan Luis; Bocangel, Jorge Saldivar; Demarco, Flavio Fernando


    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the surface roughness and enamel loss produced by two microabrasion techniques. Bovine teeth were selected and an area was delimited for microabrasion techniques. Surface roughness was determined before and after treatment using a digital profilometer. Specimens were randomized to one of two acid treatments (n = 10): 18% hydrochloric acid (HCl) and pumice or 37% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and pumice. Acid treatments were applied using a wooden spatula for 5 seconds for a total of ten applications. Then, specimens were sectioned through the center of the demineralization area to obtain 80 microm thick slices. The wear produced by the microabrasion techniques was evaluated using stereomicroscopy (40 x). The greatest depth (microm) and the total surface area (microm(2)) of demineralization were measured using the Image Tool software (University of Texas Health Science, San Antonio, TX, USA). In addition, three specimens of each group were subjected to SEM analysis at different magnifications. The mean surface roughness was statistically lower for HCl than for H3PO4 (p Microabrasion using H3PO4 produced greater surface roughness but less demineralization than the microabrasion technique using HCl. Both microabrasion techniques effectively remove the superficial enamel layer. However, the technique using H3PO4 was less aggressive, safer, and easier to perform.

  6. End depth in steeply sloping rough rectangular channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper presents a theoretical model to compute the end depth of a free overfall in steeply sloping rough rectangular channels. A momentum equation based on the Boussinesq approximation is applied to obtain the equation of the end depth. The effect ofstreamline curvature at the free surface is utilized to develop the ...

  7. Influence of Surface Roughness of Stainless steel on Microbial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, D.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Gram, L.


    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation is of growing interest in the food processing industry where bacteria can survive on surfaces and resist cleaning and disinfection. The condition of the surfaces (eg lack of cracks) and their general roughness is assumed to be important for the hygienic...

  8. An investigation on surface roughness of granite machined by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The philosophy of the Taguchi design is followed in the experimental study. Effects of the control (process) factors on the surface roughness are presented in terms of the mean of means responses. Additionally, the data obtained are evaluated statistically using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant ...

  9. Photonic wires sidewall roughness measures using AFM capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn


    Within the last years, interest in photonic wires and photonic crystals grew due to their demonstrated ability of controlling light propagation and characteristics. One of the limitations of such devices is due to the induced roughness during the fabrication process. Generally, an increase in rou...... be quantified and thus actions in decreasing it can be taken improving the device's performance....

  10. Ultrasound wave propagation through rough interfaces: Iterative methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Thijssen, J.M.; van den Berg, P.M.

    Two iterative methods for the calculation of acoustic transmission through a rough interface between two media are compared. The methods employ a continuous version of the conjugate gradient technique. One method is based on plane-wave expansions and the other on boundary integral equations and

  11. Benchmarking performance measurement and lean manufacturing in the rough mill (United States)

    Dan Cumbo; D. Earl Kline; Matthew S. Bumgardner


    Lean manufacturing represents a set of tools and a stepwise strategy for achieving smooth, predictable product flow, maximum product flexibility, and minimum system waste. While lean manufacturing principles have been successfully applied to some components of the secondary wood products value stream (e.g., moulding, turning, assembly, and finishing), the rough mill is...

  12. Fuzzy and Rough Set Approaches for Uncertainty in Spatial Data (United States)


    MBRs Modeling for Reasoning about Vague Regions. PhD thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Tulane Univer- sity, New...Sensing, vol. XXXII, Commission II, pp. 503–510 (2002) [57] Wang, S., Yuan, H., Chen, G., Li, D., Shi, W.: Rough Spatial Interpretation. In: Tsu- moto

  13. Detection of a periodic structure embedded in surface roughness, for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper deals with surface profilometry, where we try to detect a periodic structure, hidden in randomness using the matched filter method of analysing the intensity of light, scattered from the surface. From the direct problem of light scattering from a composite rough surface of the above type, we find that the ...

  14. Mask roughness induced LER: geometric model at long correlation lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClinton, Brittany M.; Naulleau, Patrick P.


    Collective understanding of how both the resist and line-edge roughness (LER) on the mask affect the final printed LER has made significant advances. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which mask surface roughness couples to image plane LER as a function of illumination conditions, NA, and defocus. Recently, progress has been made in formulating a simplified solution for mask roughness induced LER. Here, we investigate the LER behavior at long correlation lengths of surface roughness on the mask. We find that for correlation lengths greater than 3/NA in wafer dimensions and CDs greater than approximately 0.75/NA, the previously described simplified model, which remains based on physical optics, converges to a 'geometric regime' which is based on ray optics and is independent of partial coherence. In this 'geometric regime', the LER is proportional to the mask slope error as it propagates through focus, and provides a faster alternative to calculating LER in contrast to either full 2D aerial image simulation modeling or the newly proposed physical optics model. Data is presented for both an NA = 0.32 and an NA = 0.5 imaging system for CDs of 22-nm and 50-nm horizontal-line-dense structures.

  15. Peptostreptococcus micros smooth and rough genotypes in periodontitis and gingivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, BHA; Loos, BG; van der Velden, U; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Craandijk, J; Bulthuis, HM; Hutter, J; Varoufaki, AS; van Steenbergen, TJM

    Background: Two genotypes can be distinguished within the species Peptostreptococcus micros: a smooth (Sm) and a rough (Rg) type. To date no systematic study has been performed on the prevalence and proportion of both types in untreated periodontitis patients and subjects without destructive

  16. Estimation of aerodynamic roughness at various spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Ritchie, J.C.; Humes, K.S.; Parry, R.; Pachepsky, Y.; Gimenez, D.; Leguizamon, S.


    Laser measurements done with an airborne profiler were applied to determine geometric parameters of the land surface and to estimate the aerodynamic roughness length at increasing length scales. Geostatistical methods were used to obtain a measure of length scales. Long laser profiles (8 km at a

  17. Data fusion for accurate microscopic rough surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuhang, E-mail:


    Data fusion for rough surface measurement and evaluation was analyzed on simulated datasets, one with higher density (HD) but lower accuracy and the other with lower density (LD) but higher accuracy. Experimental verifications were then performed on laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations of surface areal roughness artifacts. The results demonstrated that the fusion based on Gaussian process models is effective and robust under different measurement biases and noise strengths. All the amplitude, height distribution, and spatial characteristics of the original sample structure can be precisely recovered, with better metrological performance than any individual measurements. As for the influencing factors, the HD noise has a relatively weaker effect as compared with the LD noise. Furthermore, to enable an accurate fusion, the ratio of LD sampling interval to surface autocorrelation length should be smaller than a critical threshold. In general, data fusion is capable of enhancing the nanometrology of rough surfaces by combining efficient LSM measurement and down-sampled fast AFM scan. The accuracy, resolution, spatial coverage and efficiency can all be significantly improved. It is thus expected to have potential applications in development of hybrid microscopy and in surface metrology. - Highlights: • Data fusion for rough surface nanometrology has been investigated. • Gaussian process based fusion is robust under different biases and noise strengths. • Sampling interval should be smaller than a threshold to enable accurate fusion. • Measurement accuracy, resolution, and efficiency can all be significantly improved. • Data fusion is expected to have potential applications in hybrid microscopy.

  18. 3D float tracking: in situ floodplain roughness estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsma, M.W.


    This paper presents a novel technique to quantify in situ hydrodynamic roughness of submerged floodplain vegetation: 3D float tracking. This method uses a custom-built floating tripod that is released on the inundated floodplain and tracked from shore by a robotic total station. Simultaneously, an

  19. Influence of roughness parameters on coefficient of friction under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Menezes et al 2006a–e; Lakshmipathy & Sagar 1992; Määttä et al 2001; Hu & Dean 2000;. Staph et al 1973; Koura 1980; Malayappan & Narayanasamy 2004; Gadelmawla et al 2002;. Lundberg 1995). Staph et al 1973 studied the effect of surface texture and surface roughness on scuffing using 'caterpillar disc tester'.

  20. Consideration of pavement roughness effects on vehicle-pavement interaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present some of the results of the vehicle-pavement interaction project, mainly in terms of the expected effects of pavement roughness on the moving dynamic effects in pavement analysis and design. Background is provided...

  1. Surface roughness of orthodontic band cements with different compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Hélène van de Sande


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated comparatively the surface roughness of four orthodontic band cements after storage in various solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight standardized cylinders were made from 4 materials: zinc phosphate cement (ZP, compomer (C, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC and resin cement (RC. Specimens were stored for 24 h in deionized water and immersed in saline (pH 7.0 or 0.1 M lactic acid solution (pH 4.0 for 15 days. Surface roughness readings were taken with a profilometer (Surfcorder SE1200 before and after the storage period. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (comparison among cements and storage solutions or paired t-test (comparison before and after the storage period at 5% significance level. RESULTS: The values for average surface roughness were statistically different (pRMGIC>C>R (p0.05. Compared to the current threshold (0.2 µm related to biofilm accumulation, both RC and C remained below the threshold, even after acidic challenge by immersion in lactic acid solution. CONCLUSIONS: Storage time and immersion in lactic acid solution increased the surface roughness of the majority of the tested cements. RC presented the smoothest surface and it was not influenced by storage conditions.

  2. Surface roughness control by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation (United States)

    Ahad, Inam Ul; Obeidi, Muhannad Ahmed; Budner, Bogusław; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Brabazon, Dermot


    Surface roughness control of polymeric materials is often desirable in various biomedical engineering applications related to biocompatibility control, separation science and surface wettability control. In this study, Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer films were irradiated with Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in nitrogen environment and investigations were performed on surface roughness modification via EUV exposure. The samples were irradiated at 3 mm and 4 mm distance from the focal spot to investigate the effect of EUV fluence on topography. The topography of the EUV treated PET samples were studied by AFM. The detailed scanning was also performed on the sample irradiated at 3 mm. It was observed that the average surface roughness of PET samples was increased from 9 nm (pristine sample) to 280 nm and 253 nm for EUV irradiated samples. Detailed AFM studies confirmed the presence of 1.8 mm wide period U-shaped channels in EUV exposed PET samples. The walls of the channels were having FWHM of about 0.4 mm. The channels were created due to translatory movements of the sample in horizontal and transverse directions during the EUV exposure. The increased surface roughness is useful for many applications. The nanoscale channels fabricated by EUV exposure could be interesting for microfluidic applications based on lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices.

  3. Calibrating the Truax Rough Rider seed drill for restoration plantings (United States)

    Loren St. John; Brent Cornforth; Boyd Simonson; Dan Ogle; Derek Tilley


    The purpose of this technical note is to provide a step-by-step approach to calibrating the Truax Rough Rider range drill, a relatively new, state-of-the-art rangeland drill. To achieve the desired outcome of a seeding project, an important step following proper weed control and seedbed preparation is the calibration of the seeding equipment to ensure the recommended...

  4. RMS slope of exponentially correlated surface roughness for radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang


    In radar signature analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface slope is utilized to assess the relative contribution of multiple scattering effects. For an exponentially correlated surface, an effective RMS slope can be determined by truncating the high frequency tail of the roughness spectrum...

  5. Surface shape analysis of rough lumber for wane detection (United States)

    Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt


    The initial breakdown of hardwood logs into lumber produces boards with rough surfaces. These boards contain wane (missing wood that emanates from the log exterior, often containing residual bark) that is removed by edge and trim cuts prior to sale. Because hardwood lumber value is determined based on board size and quality, knowledge of wane position and defects is...

  6. Surface roughness and morphologic changes of zirconia: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface roughness and morphologic changes of pre.sintered ZrO2 after sandblasting and erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser application of different intensities. Material and Methods: Eighty pre-sintered ZrO2 cylinders (7 mm ...

  7. Modeling and analysis for surface roughness and material removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted based on the established Taguchi's technique L18 orthogonal array on a lathe machine. The cutting parameters considered were tool nose radius, tool rake angle, feed rate, cutting speed, depth of cut and cutting environment (dry, wet and cooled) on the surface roughness and material removal ...

  8. Response of neutral boundary-layers to changes of roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mortensen, Niels Gylling


    When air blows across a change in surface roughness, an internal boundary layer (IBL) develops within which the wind adapts to the new surface. This process is well described for short fetches, > 1 km. However, few data exist for large fetches on how the IBL grows to become a new equilibrium boun...

  9. Estimates of roughness parameters for arrays of obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, N.J.


    Some methods are evaluated and extended to estimate roughness length and zero plane displacement height for atmospheric flow over arrays of obstacles, typically buildings. It appears that the method proposed by Bottema, with an extension to account for low density obstacle arrays, performs best. ...

  10. Determining the surface roughness coefficient by 3D Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Fifer Bizjak


    Full Text Available Currently, several test methods can be used in the laboratory to determine the roughness of rock joint surfaces.However, true roughness can be distorted and underestimated by the differences in the sampling interval of themeasurement methods. Thus, these measurement methods produce a dead zone and distorted roughness profiles.In this paper a new rock joint surface roughness measurement method is presented, with the use of a camera-typethree-dimensional (3D scanner as an alternative to current methods. For this study, the surfaces of ten samples oftuff were digitized by means of a 3D scanner, and the results were compared with the corresponding Rock JointCoefficient (JRC values. Up until now such 3D scanner have been mostly used in the automotive industry, whereastheir use for comparison with obtained JRC coefficient values in rock mechanics is presented here for the first time.The proposed new method is a faster, more precise and more accurate than other existing test methods, and is apromising technique for use in this area of study in the future.

  11. Sustainability of road roughness measurements in countries with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainability of road roughness measurements in countries with low income economies. ... Botswana Journal of Technology ... Out of many devices in use today, a vehicle mounted bump integrator (VMBI) was selected for the reasons that: a) the equipment is available in most developing countries and it has been in use for ...

  12. Droplet impact on hydrophobic surfaces with hierarchical roughness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raza, M.A.; van Swigchem, J.; Jansen, H.P.; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene; Kooij, Ernst S.


    We investigate the dynamic properties of microliter droplets impacting with velocities up to $0.4\\:{\\rm{m}}\\:{{\\rm{s}}^{ - 1}}$ on hydrophobic surfaces with hierarchical roughness. The substrates consist of multiple layers of silica microspheres, which are decorated with gold nanoparticles; the

  13. Simulation of synthetic gecko arrays shearing on rough surfaces. (United States)

    Gillies, Andrew G; Fearing, Ronald S


    To better understand the role of surface roughness and tip geometry in the adhesion of gecko synthetic adhesives, a model is developed that attempts to uncover the relationship between surface feature size and the adhesive terminal feature shape. This model is the first to predict the adhesive behaviour of a plurality of hairs acting in shear on simulated rough surfaces using analytically derived contact models. The models showed that the nanoscale geometry of the tip shape alters the macroscale adhesion of the array of fibres by nearly an order of magnitude, and that on sinusoidal surfaces with amplitudes much larger than the nanoscale features, spatula-shaped features can increase adhesive forces by 2.5 times on smooth surfaces and 10 times on rough surfaces. Interestingly, the summation of the fibres acting in concert shows behaviour much more complex that what could be predicted with the pull-off model of a single fibre. Both the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts and Kendall peel models can explain the experimentally observed frictional adhesion effect previously described in the literature. Similar to experimental results recently reported on the macroscale features of the gecko adhesive system, adhesion drops dramatically when surface roughness exceeds the size and spacing of the adhesive fibrillar features.

  14. A Study of Rough Set Approach in Gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sahiner


    Full Text Available We try to determine the type of abdominal pain of the patients who have several symptoms. Via the rough set theory, we obtain information table and discernibility matrix and put forward the status decision information. Thus, we obtain certain results and test these operations by the Rosetta program.

  15. Navajo Evaluators Look at Rough Rock Demonstration School. (United States)

    Begaye, John Y.; And Others

    Four prominent Navajo leaders evaluated Rough Rock Demonstration School by invitation of the school board. Inquiry was directed toward ascertaining the type of education Navajos desire for their children, the extent Indian culture should be included in the curriculum, and how Navajos want their schools operated. It was concluded that the student…

  16. Optimization of surface roughness in CNC end milling using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiments were conducted using Taguchi's L50 orthogonal array in the design of experiments (DOE) by considering the machining parameters such as Nose radius (R), Cutting speed (V), feed (f), axial depth of cut (d) and radial depth of cut(rd). A predictive response surface model for surface roughness is developed ...

  17. Evaluation of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) as rootstock for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 30, 2013 ... In vitro approach was adopted to study the effect of salinity on survival and growth of rough lemon. (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) seeds. North-West (Punjab) part of India has been facing a major problem of soil salinity for citrus orchards. Therefore, it is logical to study the salinity tolerance of common citrus.

  18. Wind profiles, momentum fluxes and roughness lengths at Cabauw revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, J.W.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    We describe the results of an experiment focusing on wind speed and momentum fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer up to 200 m. The measurements were conducted in 1996 at the Cabauw site in the Netherlands. Momentum fluxes are measured using the K-Gill Propeller Vane. Estimates of the roughness

  19. Study of the relationship between non-dimensional roughness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... groups according to the directional wave spectrum distribution. In case 1 only swell and wind waves exist and in case 2 there exist wave components from several directions. It is shown that the case of multiple- directional component waves (case 2) may affect the non-dimensional roughness length and friction velocity.

  20. A Map of Kilometer-Scale Topographic Roughness of Mercury (United States)

    Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W., III; Kokhanov, A. A.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Kozlova, N. A.


    We present a new map of the multiscale topographic roughness of the northern circumpolar area of Mercury. The map utilizes high internal vertical precision surface ranging by the laser altimeter MLA onboard MESSENGER mission to Mercury. This map is analogous to global roughness maps that had been created by M.A.K. with collaborators for Mars (MOLA data) and the Moon (LOLA data). As measures of roughness, we used the interquartile range of along-track profile curvature at three baselines: 0.7 km, 2.8 km, and 11 km. Unlike in the cases of LOLA data for the Moon, and MOLA data for Mars, the MLA data allow high-quality roughness mapping only for a small part of the surface of the planet: the map covers 65N - 84N latitude zone, where the density of MLA data is the highest. The map captures the regional variations of the typical background topographic texture of the surface. The map shows the clear dichotomy between smooth northern plains and rougher cratered terrains. The lowered contrast of this dichotomy at the shortest (0.7 km) baseline indicates that regolith on Mercury is thicker and/or gardening processes are more intensive in comparison to the Moon, approximately by a factor of three. The map reveals sharp roughness contrasts within northern plains of Mercury that we interpret as geologic boundaries of volcanic plains of different age. In particular, the map suggests a younger volcanic plains unit inside Goethe basin and inside another unnamed stealth basin. -- Acknowledgement: Work on data processing was carried out at MIIGAiK by MAK, AAK, NAK and supported by Russian Science Foundation project 14-22-00197.

  1. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl


    Many observed spatial point patterns contain points placed roughly on line segments. Point patterns exhibiting such structures can be found for example in archaeology (locations of bronze age graves in Denmark) and geography (locations of mountain tops). We consider a particular class of point...... processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...

  2. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    Many observed spatial point patterns contain points placed roughly on line segments. Point patterns exhibiting such structures can be found for example in archaeology (locations of bronze age graves in Denmark) and geography (locations of mountain tops). We consider a particular class of point...... processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...

  3. Direct reading of charge multipliers with a self-triggering CMOS analog chip with 105k pixels at 50 micron pitch

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, R; Minuti, M; Baldini, L; Brez, A; Cavalca, F; Latronico, L; Omodei, N; Massai, M M; Sgro, C; Costa, E; Krummenacher, P S F; De Oliveira, R


    We report on a large active area (15x15mm2), high channel density (470 pixels/mm2), self-triggering CMOS analog chip that we have developed as pixelized charge collecting electrode of a Micropattern Gas Detector. This device, which represents a big step forward both in terms of size and performance, is the last version of three generations of custom ASICs of increasing complexity. The CMOS pixel array has the top metal layer patterned in a matrix of 105600 hexagonal pixels at 50 micron pitch. Each pixel is directly connected to the underneath full electronics chain which has been realized in the remaining five metal and two poly-silicon layers of a 0.18 micron VLSI technology. The chip has customizable self-triggering capability and includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. In this way it is possible to reduce significantly the readout time and the data volume by limiting the signal output only to those pixels belonging to the region of interest. The ve...

  4. Sub-micron and nanoscale feature depth modulates alignment of stromal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells in serum-rich and serum-free media. (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah A; Ting, Yuk-Hong; Mallon, Kelly S; Wendt, Amy E; Murphy, Christopher J; Nealey, Paul F


    Topographic features are generally accepted as being capable of modulating cell alignment. Of particular interest is the potential that topographic feature geometry induces cell alignment indirectly through impacting adsorbed proteins from the cell culture medium on the surface of the substrate. However, it has also been reported that micron-scale feature depth significantly impacts the level of alignment of cellular populations on topography, despite being orders of magnitude larger than the average adsorbed protein layer (nm). In order to better determine the impact of biomimetic length scale topography and adsorbed protein interaction on cellular morphology we have systematically investigated the effect of combinations of sub-micron to nanoscale feature depth and lateral pitch on corneal epithelial cell alignment. In addition we have used the unique properties of a serum-free media alternative in direct comparison to serum-rich medium to investigate the role of culture medium protein composition on cellular alignment to topographically patterned surfaces. Our observation that increasing groove depth elicited larger populations of corneal epithelial cells to align regardless of culture medium composition and of cell orientation with respect to the topography, suggests that these cells can sense changes in topographic feature depths independent of adsorbed proteins localized along ridge edges and tops. However, our data also suggests a strong combinatory effect of topography with culture medium composition, and also a cell type dependency in determining the level of cell elongation and alignment to nanoscale topographic features.

  5. Sub-micron and nanoscale feature depth modulates alignment of stromal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells in serum-rich and serum-free media (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah A.; Ting, Yuk-Hong; Mallon, Kelly S.; Wendt, Amy E.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Nealey, Paul F.


    Topographic features are generally accepted as being capable of modulating cell alignment. Of particular interest is the potential that topographic feature geometry induces cell alignment indirectly through impacting adsorbed proteins from the cell culture medium on the surface of the substrate. However, it has also been reported that micron-scale feature depth significantly impacts the level of alignment of cellular populations on topography, despite being orders of magnitude larger than the average adsorbed protein layer (nm). In order to better determine the impact of biomimetic length scale topography and adsorbed protein interaction on cellular morphology we have systematically investigated the effect of combinations of sub-micron to nanoscale feature depth and lateral pitch on corneal epithelial cell alignment. In addition we have used the unique properties of a serum-free media alternative in direct comparison to serum-rich medium to investigate the role of culture medium protein composition on cellular alignment to topographically patterned surfaces. Our observation that increasing groove depth elicited larger populations of corneal epithelial cells to align regardless of culture medium composition and of cell orientation with respect to the topography, suggests that these cells can sense changes in topographic feature depths independent of adsorbed proteins localized along ridge edges and tops. However, our data also suggests a strong combinatory effect of topography with culture medium composition, and also a cell type dependency in determining the level of cell elongation and alignment to nanoscale topographic features. PMID:18041718

  6. On the stability of von Kármán rotating-disk boundary layers with radial anisotropic surface roughness (United States)

    Garrett, S. J.; Cooper, A. J.; Harris, J. H.; Özkan, M.; Segalini, A.; Thomas, P. J.


    We summarise results of a theoretical study investigating the distinct convective instability properties of steady boundary-layer flow over rough rotating disks. A generic roughness pattern of concentric circles with sinusoidal surface undulations in the radial direction is considered. The goal is to compare predictions obtained by means of two alternative, and fundamentally different, modelling approaches for surface roughness for the first time. The motivating rationale is to identify commonalities and isolate results that might potentially represent artefacts associated with the particular methodologies underlying one of the two modelling approaches. The most significant result of practical relevance obtained is that both approaches predict overall stabilising effects on type I instability mode of rotating disk flow. This mode leads to transition of the rotating-disk boundary layer and, more generally, the transition of boundary-layers with a cross-flow profile. Stabilisation of the type 1 mode means that it may be possible to exploit surface roughness for laminar-flow control in boundary layers with a cross-flow component. However, we also find differences between the two sets of model predictions, some subtle and some substantial. These will represent criteria for establishing which of the two alternative approaches is more suitable to correctly describe experimental data when these become available.

  7. Ulcerative dermatosis of the Shetland sheepdog and rough collie dog may represent a novel vesicular variant of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Jackson, H A; Olivry, T


    A syndrome of ulcerative dermatitis (UDSSC) previously has been described as unique to the Shetland sheepdog and rough collie dog. The pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood and it has been suggested that it may be a variant of canine dermatomyositis (DM) which is also seen in these breeds. Information on the clinical presentation and previous medical history was collected from five Shetland sheepdogs and three rough collie dogs previously diagnosed with UDSSC. Characteristic features of the disease were adult onset in the summer months with annular, polycyclic and serpiginous ulcerations distributed over sparsely haired areas of the body. Skin biopsies taken from active lesions were compared in a blinded fashion with histological sections from seven Shetland sheepdogs and one rough collie with DM. Dermatomyositis was characterized histologically as a cell poor interface dermatitis associated with follicular atrophy. In contrast, the lesional pattern of UDSSC is that of a lymphocyte-rich interface dermatitis and folliculitis with vesiculation at the dermal-epidermal junction. The authors conclude that these represent two distinct diseases and that UDSSC may be a vesicular form of cutaneous lupus erythematosus seen in the adult rough collie dog and Shetland sheepdog.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of open channel flow over smooth-to-rough and rough-to-smooth step changes (United States)

    Rouhi, Amirreza; Chung, Daniel; Hutchins, Nicholas


    Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are reported for open channel flow over streamwise-alternating patches of smooth and fully rough walls. Owing to the streamwise periodicity, the flow configuration is composed of a step change from smooth to rough, and a step change from rough to smooth. The friction Reynolds number varies from 443 over the smooth patch to 715 over the rough patch. The flow is thoroughly studied by mean and fluctuation profiles, and spectrograms. The detailed flow from DNS reveals discrepancies of up to 50% among the various definitions of the internal-layer thickness, with apparent power-law exponents differing by up to 60%. The definition based on the logarithmic slope of the velocity profile, as proposed by Chamorro et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol., vol. 130, 2009, pp. 29-41), is most consistent with the physical notion of the internal layer; this is supported by the defect similarity based on this internal-layer thickness, and the streamwise homogeneity of the dissipation length-scale within this internal layer. The statistics inside this internal-layer, and the growth of the internal layer itself, are minimally affected by the streamwise periodicity when the patch length is at least six times the channel height.

  9. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S814 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    Horizontal-axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the design of new rotor airfoils. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can also be used to validate analytical computer codes. An S814 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 X 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 X 5) under steady flow with both stationary model conditions and pitch oscillations. To study the extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. While the model underwent pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions {+-}5.5{degrees} and {+-}10{degrees}, were used; at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation.

  10. An OPO-Based Lidar System for Differential Absorption Measurements of Methane in the 3 micron region (United States)

    Lee, S. W.; Zenker, T.; Chyba, T. H.


    A ground-based lidar system in the wavelength region of 1.45-4 microns for the remote measurement of methane is described. The laser transmitter consists of an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser which pumps an OPO (optical parametric oscillator). The OPO output is tunable from 1.45-4 microns, with a bandwidth less than 500 MHz, and a pulse energy of 1 to 3 mJ at 3.29 microns. The receiver is cart-mounted and consists of a 14" telescope with 1.57 and 3.29 micron detector channels. A fast oscilloscope is used for data acquisition. The system performance will be tested through measurements of sources of atmospheric methane.

  11. Three-dimensional micro-roughness of a pseudotachylyte-bearing fault surface (United States)

    Resor, P. G.; Griffith, W.; Di Toro, G.


    Dynamic friction experiments in granitoid or gabbroic rocks that achieve earthquake slip velocities reveal significant weakening by melt-lubrication of the sliding surfaces. Extrapolation of these experimental results to seismic source depths (> 7 km) suggests that the slip weakening distance (Dw) over which this transition occurs is analysis of three-dimensional (3D) fault surface microtopography and its causes on a pseudotachylyte-bearing fault. The solidification of frictional melt soon after seismic slip ceases "freezes in" earthquake source geometries, however it also precludes the development of extensive fault surface exposures that have enabled direct studies of fault surface roughness. We have overcome this difficulty by imaging the intact 3D geometry of the fault using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT). Samples (2 cm diameter cores) from a wavy fault segment cutting tonalites of the Gole Larghe fault zone, Italy were scanned at the University of Texas High Resolution X-ray CT Facility, using an Xradia MicroCT scanner with a 70 kV X-ray source. Individual voxels (3D pixels) are ~32 μm across. Fault geometry is thus imaged over ~4 orders of magnitude from the micron scale up to Dw. The pseudotachylyte-bearing fault surface is imaged as a tabular body of intermediate X-ray attenuation crosscutting high attenuation biotite and low attenuation quartz and feldspar of the surrounding tonalite. We extract the fault surfaces (contact between the pseudotachylyte bearing fault zone and the wall rock) using integrated manual mapping, automated edge detection, and statistical evaluation. This approach results in a digital elevation model over > 90% of the fault surface for a sample from an extensional bend along the fault. Fourier spectral analysis of this surface reveals that roughness in both slip-parallel and slip-perpendicular directions exhibit approximate power-law scaling, however best-fit linear slopes are significantly less than 3, consistent

  12. Thriving rough sets 10th anniversary : honoring professor Zdzisław Pawlak's life and legacy & 35 years of rough sets

    CERN Document Server

    Skowron, Andrzej; Yao, Yiyu; Ślęzak, Dominik; Polkowski, Lech


    This special book is dedicated to the memory of Professor Zdzisław Pawlak, the father of rough set theory, in order to commemorate both the 10th anniversary of his passing and 35 years of rough set theory. The book consists of 20 chapters distributed into four sections, which focus in turn on a historical review of Professor Zdzisław Pawlak and rough set theory; a review of the theory of rough sets; the state of the art of rough set theory; and major developments in rough set based data mining approaches. Apart from Professor Pawlak’s contributions to rough set theory, other areas he was interested in are also included. Moreover, recent theoretical studies and advances in applications are also presented. The book will offer a useful guide for researchers in Knowledge Engineering and Data Mining by suggesting new approaches to solving the problems they encounter.

  13. Localization of mammalian orthoreovirus proteins to cytoplasmic factory-like structures via nonoverlapping regions of microNS. (United States)

    Miller, Cathy L; Arnold, Michelle M; Broering, Teresa J; Hastings, Craig E; Nibert, Max L


    Virally induced structures called viral factories form throughout the cytoplasm of cells infected with mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRV). When expressed alone in cells, MRV nonstructural protein microNS forms factory-like structures very similar in appearance to viral factories, suggesting that it is involved in forming the structural matrix of these structures. microNS also associates with MRV core particles; the core proteins mu2, lambda1, lambda2, lambda3, and sigma2; and the RNA-binding nonstructural protein sigmaNS. These multiple associations result in the recruitment or retention of these viral proteins or particles at factory-like structures. In this study, we identified the regions of microNS necessary and sufficient for these associations and additionally examined the localization of viral RNA synthesis in infected cells. We found that short regions within the amino-terminal 220 residues of microNS are necessary for associations with core particles and necessary and sufficient for associations with the proteins mu2, lambda1, lambda2, sigma2, and sigmaNS. We also found that only the lambda3 protein associates with the carboxyl-terminal one-third of microNS and that viral RNA is synthesized within viral factories. These results suggest that microNS may act as a cytoplasmic scaffolding protein involved in localizing and coordinating viral replication or assembly intermediates for the efficient production of progeny core particles during MRV infection.

  14. Generation of nano roughness on fibrous materials by atmospheric plasma (United States)

    Kulyk, I.; Scapinello, M.; Stefan, M.


    Atmospheric plasma technology finds novel applications in textile industry. It eliminates the usage of water and of hazard liquid chemicals, making production much more eco-friendly and economically convenient. Due to chemical effects of atmospheric plasma, it permits to optimize dyeing and laminating affinity of fabrics, as well as anti-microbial treatments. Other important applications such as increase of mechanical resistance of fiber sleeves and of yarns, anti-pilling properties of fabrics and anti-shrinking property of wool fabrics were studied in this work. These results could be attributed to the generation of nano roughness on fibers surface by atmospheric plasma. Nano roughness generation is extensively studied at different conditions. Alternative explanations for the important practical results on textile materials and discussed.

  15. Fuzzy and rough formal concept analysis: a survey (United States)

    Poelmans, Jonas; Ignatov, Dmitry I.; Kuznetsov, Sergei O.; Dedene, Guido


    Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is a mathematical technique that has been extensively applied to Boolean data in knowledge discovery, information retrieval, web mining, etc. applications. During the past years, the research on extending FCA theory to cope with imprecise and incomplete information made significant progress. In this paper, we give a systematic overview of the more than 120 papers published between 2003 and 2011 on FCA with fuzzy attributes and rough FCA. We applied traditional FCA as a text-mining instrument to 1072 papers mentioning FCA in the abstract. These papers were formatted in pdf files and using a thesaurus with terms referring to research topics, we transformed them into concept lattices. These lattices were used to analyze and explore the most prominent research topics within the FCA with fuzzy attributes and rough FCA research communities. FCA turned out to be an ideal metatechnique for representing large volumes of unstructured texts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven


    Full Text Available Relatively weak interfaces between aggregate grains and the cementitious matrix initiate the damage evolution process leading to fracture. Coalescence between nearby interface cracks is promoted by the small nearest neighbour distances in a dense random packing of the aggregate. The fracture surface is therefore modelled as a dividing plane from which particles protrude. Assuming spherical aggregate, roughness is obtained as the global geometrical-statistical expression for the increase in fracture surface area due to a multitude of dome-like caps of various sizes. Transport phenomena in concrete are equally influenced by the aggregate, because traversing water-born molecules or ions have to go around the dense grains. This route is additionally promoted by the relatively high porosity in the interfacial transition zone. The planar and linear concepts of tortuosity in the transport path are analogous to those of roughness.

  17. Nonuniversality of roughness exponent of quasistatic fracture surfaces. (United States)

    Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Allaei, S Mehdi Vaez; Sahimi, Muhammad


    Numerous experiments have indicated that the fracture front (in three dimensions) and crack lines (in two dimensions) in disordered solids and rocklike materials is rough. It has been argued that the roughness exponent ζ is universal. Using extensive simulations of a two-dimensional model, we provide strong evidence that if extended correlations and anisotropy-two features that are prevalent in many materials-are incorporated in the models that are used in the numerical simulation of crack propagation, then ζ will vary considerably with the extent of the correlations and anisotropy. The results are consistent with recent experiments that also indicate deviations of ζ from its supposedly universal value, as well as with the data from rock samples. © 2012 American Physical Society

  18. Investigation on Surface Roughness of Inconel 718 in Photochemical Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin D. Misal


    Full Text Available The present work is focused on estimating the optimal machining parameters required for photochemical machining (PCM of an Inconel 718 and effects of these parameters on surface topology. An experimental analysis was carried out to identify optimal values of parameters using ferric chloride (FeCl3 as an etchant. The parameters considered in this analysis are concentration of etchant, etching time, and etchant temperature. The experimental analysis shows that etching performance as well as surface topology improved by appropriate selection of etching process parameters. Temperature of the etchant found to be dominant parameter in the PCM of Inconel 718 for surface roughness. At optimal etching conditions, surface roughness was found to be 0.201 μm.

  19. Film Thickness and Friction Relationship in Grease Lubricated Rough Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonçalves


    Full Text Available The relationship between the film generation and the coefficient of friction in grease lubricated contacts was investigated. Ball-on-disc tests were performed under different operating conditions: entrainment speed, lubricant temperature and surface roughness. The tests were performed with fully formulated greases and their base oils. The greases were formulated with different thickener types and also different base oils natures and viscosities. Film thickness measurements were performed in ball-on-glass disc tests, and Stribeck curves were measured in ball-on-steel disc tests with discs of different roughness. The role of the thickener and the base oil nature/viscosity on the film thickness and coefficient of friction was addressed and the greases’ performance was compared based on their formulation.

  20. Energetics of protein nucleation on rough polymeric surfaces. (United States)

    Curcio, Efrem; Curcio, Valerio; Di Profio, Gianluca; Fontananova, Enrica; Drioli, Enrico


    Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm of the two-dimensional Ising model is used to study the heterogeneous nucleation of protein crystals on rough polymeric surfaces. The theoretical findings are compared to those obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT), and to experimental data from protein model hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) crystallized on poly(vinylidene fluoride) or PVDF, poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS and Hyflon homemade membranes. The reduction of the activation energy for the nucleation process on polymeric membranes, predicted to occur at increasing surface roughness, results in a nucleation kinetics that is many orders of magnitude faster than in homogeneous phase. In general, MC stochastic dynamics offers the unique opportunity to investigate the effects of collective molecular aggregation at site level on the nucleation rate and, consequently, allows to identify optimal morphological and structural properties of polymeric membranes for a fine control of the crystallization kinetics.