Influence of vane sweep on rotor-stator interaction noise
Envia, Edmane; Kerschen, Edward J.
1990-01-01
The influence of vane sweep in rotor-stator interaction noise is investigated. In an analytical approach, the interaction of a convected gust representing the rotor viscous wake, with a cascade of cascade of finite span swept airfoils, representing the stator, is analyzed. The analysis is based on the solution of the exact linearized equations of motion. High frequency convected gusts for which noise generation is concentrated near the leading edge of airfoils is considered. In a preliminary study, the problem of an isolated finite span swept airfoil interacting with a convected gust is analyzed. Results indicate that sweep can substantially reduce the farfield noise levels for a single airfoil. Using the single airfoil model, an approximate solution to the problem of noise radiation from a cascade of finite span swept airfoils interacting with a convected gust is derived. A parametric study of noise generated by gust cascade interaction is carried out to assess the effectiveness of vane sweep in reducing rotor-stator interaction noise. The results show that sweep is beneficial in reducing noise levels. Rotor wake twist or circumferential lean substantially influences the effectiveness of vane sweep. The orientation of vane sweep must be chosen to enhance the natural phase lag caused by wake lean, in which case rather small sweep angles substantially reduce the noise levels.
Numerical Simulation of Rotor-stator Interactions in a Transonic Compressor Stage
无
2000-01-01
A numerical method is developed for the simulation of rotor-stator interactions in a compessor or turbine stage. This method solves quasi-three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations by an implicit high-resolution finite volume approach.A fully conservative method is designed to compute the inviscid and viscous fluxes at the interface of rotor and stator grids. Numerical results of rotor-stator interactions in a transonic compressor stage are presented. The mechanism of rotor-stator interactions in this compressor stage is discussed in terms of the computational results.
Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Noise Prediction Code Technical Documentation and User's Manual
Topol, David A.; Mathews, Douglas C.
2010-01-01
This report documents the improvements and enhancements made by Pratt & Whitney to two NASA programs which together will calculate noise from a rotor wake/stator interaction. The code is a combination of subroutines from two NASA programs with many new features added by Pratt & Whitney. To do a calculation V072 first uses a semi-empirical wake prediction to calculate the rotor wake characteristics at the stator leading edge. Results from the wake model are then automatically input into a rotor wake/stator interaction analytical noise prediction routine which calculates inlet aft sound power levels for the blade-passage-frequency tones and their harmonics, along with the complex radial mode amplitudes. The code allows for a noise calculation to be performed for a compressor rotor wake/stator interaction, a fan wake/FEGV interaction, or a fan wake/core stator interaction. This report is split into two parts, the first part discusses the technical documentation of the program as improved by Pratt & Whitney. The second part is a user's manual which describes how input files are created and how the code is run.
Numerical study of rotor-stator interactions in a hydraulic turbine with Foam-extend
Romain, Cappato; Guibault, François; Devals, Christophe; Nennemann, Bernd
2016-11-01
In the development of high head hydraulic turbines, vibrations are one of the critical problems. In Francis turbines, pressure fluctuations occur at the interface between the blades of the runner and guide vanes. This rotor-stator interaction can be responsible for fatigue failures and cracks. Although the flow inside the turbomachinery is complex, and the unsteadiness makes it difficult to model, the choice of an appropriate setup enables the study of this phenomenon. This study validates a numerical setup of the Foam-extend open source software for rotor-stator simulations. Pressure fluctuations results show a good correspondence with data from experiments.
Hydroacoustic simulation of rotor-stator interaction in resonance conditions in Francis pump-turbine
Nicolet, C [Power Vision Engineering sarl, Ch. des Champs-Courbes 1, CH-1024 Ecublens (Switzerland); Ruchonnet, N; Alligne, S; Avellan, F [EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines, Av. de Cour 33bis, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Koutnik, J, E-mail: christophe.nicolet@powervision-eng.c [Voith Hydro Holding GmbH and Co. KG, Alexanderstr. 11, 89522 Heidenheim (Germany)
2010-08-15
Combined effect of rotating pressure field related to runner blade and wakes of wicket gates leads to rotor stator interactions, RSI, in Francis pump-turbines. These interactions induce pressures waves propagating in the entire hydraulic machine. Superposition of those pressure waves may result in standing wave in the spiral casing and rotating diametrical mode in the guide vanes and can cause strong pressure fluctuations and vibrations. This paper presents the modeling, simulation and analysis of Rotor-Stator Interaction of a scale model of a Francis pump-turbine and related test rig using a one-dimensional approach. The hydroacoustic modeling of the Francis pump-turbine takes into account the spiral casing, the 20 guide vanes, the 9 rotating runner vanes. The connection between stationary and rotating parts is ensured by a valve network driven according to the unsteady flow distribution between guide vanes and runner vanes. Time domain simulations are performed for 2 different runner rotational speeds in turbine mode. The simulation results are analyzed in frequency domain and highlights hydroacoustic resonance between RSI excitations and the spiral case. Rotating diametrical mode in the vaneless gap and standing wave in the spiral case are identified. The influence of the resonance on phase and amplitude of pressure fluctuations obtained for both the spiral case and the vaneless gap is analyzed. The mode shape and frequencies are confirmed using eigenvalues analysis.
Analysis of Pressure Pulsation Induced by Rotor-Stator Interaction in Nuclear Reactor Coolant Pump
Xu Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The internal flow of reactor coolant pump (RCP is much more complex than the flow of a general mixed-flow pump due to high temperature, high pressure, and large flow rate. The pressure pulsation that is induced by rotor-stator interaction (RSI has significant effects on the performance of pump; therefore, it is necessary to figure out the distribution and propagation characteristics of pressure pulsation in the pump. The study uses CFD method to calculate the behavior of the flow. Results show that the amplitudes of pressure pulsation get the maximum between the rotor and stator, and the dissipation rate of pressure pulsation in impellers passage is larger than that in guide vanes passage. The behavior is associated with the frequency of pressure wave in different regions. The flow rate distribution is influenced by the operating conditions. The study finds that, at nominal flow, the flow rate distribution in guide vanes is relatively uniform and the pressure pulsation amplitude is the smallest. Besides, the vortex shedding or backflow from the impeller blade exit has the same frequency as pressure pulsation but there are phase differences, and it has been confirmed that the absolute value of phase differences reflects the vorticity intensity.
Frequencies in the Vibration Induced by the Rotor Stator Interaction in a Centrifugal Pump Turbine
Rodriguez, Cristian; Egusquiza, Eduard; Santos, Ilmar
2007-01-01
of the analysis and after it is carried out in one of the units, the vibration levels are reduced The vibration induced by the RSI is predicted considering the sequence of interaction and different amplitudes in the interactions between the same moving blade and different stationary blades, giving a different......The highest vibration levels in large pump turbines are, in general, originated in the rotor stator interaction (RSI). This vibration has specific characteristics that can be clearly observed in the frequency domain: harmonics of the moving blade passing frequency and a particular relationship...... among their amplitudes. It is valuable for the design and condition monitoring to count on these characteristics. A CFD model is an appropriate tool to determine the force and its characteristics. However it is time consuming and needs highly qualified human resources while usually these results...
Østby, Petter T. K.; Tore Billdal, Jan; Haugen, Bjørn; Dahlhaug, Ole Gunnar
2017-01-01
High head Francis runners are subject to pressure pulsations caused by rotor stator interaction. To ensure safe operation of such turbines, it is important to be able to predict these pulsations. For turbine manufacturers it is often a dilemma whether to perform very advanced and time consuming CFD calculations or to rely on simpler calculations to save development time. This paper tries to evaluate simplifications of the CFD model while still capturing the RSI phenomena and ensuring that the calculation does not underpredict the pressure amplitudes. The effects which turbulence modeling, wall friction, viscosity and mesh have on the pressure amplitudes will be investigated along with time savings with each simplification. The hypothesis is that rotor stator interaction is manly driven by inviscid flow and can therefore be modeled by the Euler equations.
Numerical Simulation of Sand Erosion Phenomena in Rotor/Stator Interaction of Compressor
Masaya Suzuki; Kazuaki Inaba; Makoto Yamamoto
2008-01-01
Sand erosion is a phenomenon where solid particles impinging to a wall cause serious mechanical damages to the wall surface. This phenomenon is a typical gas-particle two-phase turbulent flow and a multi-physics problem where the flow field, particle trajectory and wall deformation interact with each other. On the other hand, aircraft engines operating in a particulate environment are subjected to the performance and lifetime deterioration due to sand erosion. Especially, the compressor of the aircraft engines is severely damaged. The flow fields of the compressor have strongly three dimensional and unsteady natures. In order to estimate the deterioration due to sand erosion, the sand erosion simulation for a compressor is required under the consideration of the rotor-stator interaction. In the present study, we apply our three dimensional sand erosion prediction code to a single stage axial flow compressor. We numerically investigate the change of the flow field, the particle trajectories, and the eroded wall shape in the compressor, to clarify the effects of sand erosion in the compressor.
Alexandre Presas
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, PZT actuators are used to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk structure due to rotor-stator interaction excitation. The disk is studied with two different surrounding fluids—air and water. The study has been performed analytically and validated experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes of the rotating disk in air and water are obtained with the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory coupled with the interaction with the surrounding fluid. A model for the Rotor Stator Interaction that occurs in many rotating disk-like parts of turbomachinery such as compressors, hydraulic runners or alternators is presented. The dynamic behavior of the rotating disk due to this excitation is deduced. For the experimental analysis a test rig has been developed. It consists of a stainless steel disk (r = 198 mm and h = 8 mm connected to a variable speed motor. Excitation and response are measured from the rotating system. For the rotating excitation four piezoelectric patches have been used. Calibrating the piezoelectric patches in amplitude and phase, different rotating excitation patterns are applied on the rotating disk in air and in water. Results show the feasibility of using PZT to control the response of the disk due to a rotor-stator interaction.
Presas, Alexandre; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme; Valentin, David; Seidel, Ulrich
2014-07-07
In this paper, PZT actuators are used to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk structure due to rotor-stator interaction excitation. The disk is studied with two different surrounding fluids-air and water. The study has been performed analytically and validated experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes of the rotating disk in air and water are obtained with the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory coupled with the interaction with the surrounding fluid. A model for the Rotor Stator Interaction that occurs in many rotating disk-like parts of turbomachinery such as compressors, hydraulic runners or alternators is presented. The dynamic behavior of the rotating disk due to this excitation is deduced. For the experimental analysis a test rig has been developed. It consists of a stainless steel disk (r = 198 mm and h = 8 mm) connected to a variable speed motor. Excitation and response are measured from the rotating system. For the rotating excitation four piezoelectric patches have been used. Calibrating the piezoelectric patches in amplitude and phase, different rotating excitation patterns are applied on the rotating disk in air and in water. Results show the feasibility of using PZT to control the response of the disk due to a rotor-stator interaction.
Compressible simulation of rotor-stator interaction in pump-turbines
Yan, J; Koutnik, J; Seidel, U; Huebner, B, E-mail: jianping.yan@voith.co [Voith Hydro Holding GmbH and Co. KG Alexanderstr. 11, 89522 Heidenheim (Germany)
2010-08-15
This work investigates the influence of water compressibility on pressure pulsations induced by rotor-stator interaction (RSI) in hydraulic machinery, using the commercial CFD solver ANSYS-CFX. A pipe flow example with harmonic velocity excitation at the inlet plane is simulated using different grid densities and time step sizes. Results are compared with a validated code for hydraulic networks (SIMSEN). Subsequently, the solution procedure is applied to a simplified 2.5-dimensional pump-turbine configuration in model scale with an adapted speed of sound. Pressure fluctuations are compared with numerical and experimental data based on prototype scale. The good agreement indicates that the scaling of acoustic effects with an adapted speed of sound works well. Finally, the procedure is applied to a 3-dimensional pump configuration in model scale. Pressure fluctuations are compared with results from prototype measurements. Compared to incompressible computations, compressible simulations provide similar pressure fluctuations in vaneless space, but pressure fluctuations in spiral case and penstock may be much higher. With respect to pressure fluctuation amplitudes along the centerline of runner channels, incompressible solutions exhibit a linear decrease while compressible solutions exhibit sinusoidal distributions with maximum values at half the channel length, coinciding with analytical solutions of one-dimensional acoustics.
I. TREBINJAC; N. ROCHUON; G. BILLONNET
2006-01-01
The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition method is applied to the instantaneous velocity field within the rotor-stator inter-row region of a high-speed high-pressure centrifugal compressor. The processed data come from experiments and numerical simulations. In comparison with a Fourier transform, the POD gives the best modal approximation for both initial fields, in terms of the energy expressed on any given number of modes to be taken into account: to reach 98% of the total energy of the velocity field, the required number of POD modes is around nine times smaller than the number of Fourier harmonics. The individual POD modes are given and show that the unsteady rotor-stator interaction is already present in the very first modes.
Transonic Axial Splittered Rotor Tandem Stator Stage
2016-12-01
compressor rotor was designed incorporating a splitter vane between the principal blades . Historical experiments conducted by Dr. Arthur J...conventional rotor design . The stage is composed of the rotor and stator. The flow of the air passing through the rotor is turned, and the flow is required...derived results achieved the best blade geometry for design continuation. The best circumferential and axial placement for the splitter blade was
Forces exciting generation roll at rotor vibrations when rotor-to-stator rubbing
Shatokhin, V. F.
2017-07-01
The consequences of emergencies of turbosets for different application are revealed, the cause of forced shutdown and even catastrophic destructions of which many researchers consider the rotor-to-stator rubbing and development—to a greater or lesser extent—of the phenomena of the rotor generation roll over the stator. The synchronous or asynchronous generation roll is determined by the rotor precession direction, coinciding or not coinciding with the self-rotation direction of the rotor. Asynchronous generation roll is the most dangerous form of the rotor-stator contact interaction with the vibrations with rubbing. The basic equations of rotor vibrations are presented: symmetric rotor fixed on two supports and that fixed on several supports after abrupt imbalance with and without rotor coming in contact with a flexible stator. The vibration process is considered as the rotor motion in a backlash with subsequent contact with the stator, loss of contact, or development of generation roll. The latter essentially depends on the properties of the "rotor-support-stator" dynamic system. The stator stiffness characteristic is specified in "force-deformation" coordinates that make it possible to take into account damping in the supports and power loss in the stator. The diagram of elastic-damping device was presented, which makes it possible to ensure a certain level of power loss at the stator displacements. The exciting forces promoting development of self-exciting vibrations of the rotor in the form of asynchronous generation roll were compared with the exciting forces of oil film of sliding bearings and forces of aerodynamic excitation in the turbine flow path and sealings. For the rotor systems of high and medium pressure of a 300 MW capacity turboset, the simulation results of the process of development of asynchronous generation roll at the vibrations with rubbing were revealed, and the basic characteristics of development of generation roll in a span between
Rusanov, A.V.; Yershov, S.V. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kharkov (Ukraine)
1997-12-31
The numerical method is suggested for the calculation of the 3D periodically unsteady viscous cascade flow evoked by the aerodynamics interaction of blade rows. Such flow is described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent effects are simulated with the modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The problem statement allows to consider an unsteady flow through either a single turbo-machine stage or a multi stage turbomachine. The sliding mesh techniques and the time-space non-oscillatory square interpolation are used in axial spacings to calculate the flow in a computational domain that contains the reciprocally moving elements. The gasdynamical equations are integrated numerically with the implicit quasi-monotonous Godunov`s type ENO scheme of the second or third order of accuracy. The suggested numerical method is incorporated in the FlowER code developed by authors for calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows through multi stage turbomachines. The numerical results are presented for unsteady turbine stage throughflows. The method suggested is shown to simulate qualitatively properly the main unsteady cascade effects in particular the periodically blade loadings, the propagation of stator wakes through rotor blade passage and the unsteady temperature flowfields for stages with cooled stator blades. (author) 21 refs.
Unsteady Rotor-Stator Interaction in High Speed Compressor and Turbine Stages
I.Trébinjac; D.Charbonnier; F.Leboeuf
2005-01-01
The blade row interaction can alter the time-mean flow and therefore be of interest for aerodynamic design analysis. Whereas results within low subsonic turbomachines are quite numerous in the literature, there have been far fewer works which give results of blade row interaction within high speed cases. Two cases are related in this paper. First, the effects of an incoming wake on the rotor flow field of a transonic compressor are analyzed. The blade row interaction proved to be positive regarding the total pressure ratio, but negative regarding the losses.The second case concerns a transonic turbine. Particular emphasis is placed on the assessment of the deterministic correlations included in the Averaged Passage Equation System.
Cristian G. Rodriguez; Borja Mateos-Prieto; Eduard Egusquiza
2014-01-01
Current trends in design of pump-turbines have led into higher rotor-stator interaction (RSI) loads over impeller-runner. These dynamic loads are of special interest having produced catastrophic failures in pump-turbines. Determining RSI characteristics facilitates the proposal of actions that will prevent these failures. Pressure measurements all around the perimeter of the impeller-runner are appropriate to monitor and detect RSI characteristics. Unfortunately most installed pump-turbines a...
Nonlinear Vibration of Rotor Rubbing Stator Caused by Initial Perturbation
张小章; 隆锦胜; 李正光
2001-01-01
The vibration of a rotor rubbing a stator caused by an initial perturbation was studied analytically.The analytical model consists of a simple disc shaft rotor and a fixed stator. The perturbation is aninstantaneous change of the radial velocity when the rotor is operating in its normal steady state. The analysisshowed that the rotor may continue rubbing the stator for small clearance, even if the initial perturbation nolonger exists. For the interest of engineering applications, we investigated various rotating speeds,perturbation amplitudes and clearances between the rotor and the stator. Various friction coefficients on thecontact surface were also considered. The graphical results can be used for the design of rotating machines.``
Callot, St.
2002-01-15
Unsteady phenomena produced by the relative motion between fixed and moving rows in turbomachinery is characterized by different scales in space and time. From the numerical point of view, taking into account those effects requires new models. The purpose of this work is a better understanding of the unsteady mechanisms in a multistage turbomachinery. In order to cast of any restricting hypothesis over the spatial periodicities, numerical simulations are operated over the whole circumference of each row. In the single stage case, it is shown that the unsteady flow presents a phase-lagged periodic condition which may be described by the double Fourier decomposition proposed by Tyler and Sofrin. The spatial modes precise the interaction between rows and a comparison is made with the Adamczyk's decomposition. The numerical simulation of a one and a half stage brings an extension of the analysis of the interactions in a multistage machine. (author)
Thermal modeling of a mini rotor-stator system
Dikmen, Emre; Hoogt, van der Peter; Boer, de André; Aarts, Ronald; Jonker, Ben
2009-01-01
In this study the temperature increase and heat dissipation in the air gap of a cylindrical mini rotor stator system has been analyzed. A simple thermal model based on lumped parameter thermal networks has been developed. With this model the temperature dependent air properties for the fluid-rotor i
Finstad, Paal Henrik Enger
2012-07-01
Hydropower, and especially Francis turbines, for electricity production has a history of more than 100 years and has proved to be one of the most efficient ways of utilizing renewable energy for electricity production. Yet, there are several problems to be solved regarding producing and running cost effective, high efficient and durable turbines. Secondary flow fields are all unwanted flow patterns present in the turbine. The major fluctuating flow fields in Francis turbines are caused by rotor-stator interaction when the runner vane passes the guide vane wake and the swirling flow in the draft tube at off-design operation. Such flow fields have a negative effect in terms of causing losses, vibrations, noise or damage to the turbine structure. The flow through a Francis turbine, especially at off-design operation is not optimal, and is characterized by a dynamic and fluctuating flow pattern. It is difficult, but important to understand the behavior of the dynamics to better predict the negative effects of the fluctuating flows, and also in order to minimize or remove the unwanted effects by e.g. geometry modifying or flow control.This work aims to introduce new methods helping to obtain a deeper understanding on the dynamics present in wake flow and in rotor-stator interaction. It is investigated whether vortex generators, VGs, can have a positive effect on the wake with respect to rotor-stator interaction. Experimental TRPIV (Transient Particle Image Velocimetry) wake data recorded at 10 000 Samples/sec from a cylinder in a stream at 1-6 m/s and hydrofoils in a stream at 9 m/s are studied. Both plain hydrofoils, and hydrofoils where Vortex Generators, VGs, are mounted are used in the study. The Reynolds number is in the range of 1.2x104, 7.3x105. The velocity fields from both the cylinder and the hydrofoils are used as inlet boundary condition in a 2D CFD-case simulating rotor-stator interaction. The characteristic frequencies of the system are the vortex shedding
Dynamic Model of Contact Interface between Stator and Rotor
Zhao, Zenghui; Wang, Yuping; Yuan, YiKun; Zhao, Xiangdong
2013-01-01
Based on the equivalent principle, a linear spring contact model was established for the friction layer between stator and rotor. Different contact conditions were described by a distance index δ. Detailed analysis of the nonlinear contact behavior especially the static and dynamic slipping was carried on using a space-time equation. A contact deflection angle was proposed to quantitatively express the influence of friction force on the output performance. A more precision simulation model wa...
Stoichiometry and Turnover of the Stator and Rotor.
Morimoto, Yusuke V; Minamino, Tohru
2017-01-01
Fluorescence imaging techniques using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and related fluorescent proteins are utilized to monitor and analyze a wide range of biological processes in living cells. Stepwise photobleaching experiments can determine the stoichiometry of protein complexes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments can reveal in vivo dynamics of biomolecules. In this chapter, we describe methods to detect the subcellular localization, stoichiometry, and turnovers of stator and rotor components of the Salmonella flagellar motor.
Impulsive Control of the Rotor-Stator Rub Based on Phase Characteristic
Jieqiong Xu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An impulsive control method is proposed to eliminate the rotor-stator rubbing based on the phase characteristic. The relation between the vibration energy and the phase difference suggests the starting point for controlling the rotor-stator rubbing by implementing impulse. When the contact between the rotor and the stator occurs, the impulse is implemented in x-direction and y-direction several times to avoid the rotor-stator rubbing. The practical feasibility of this approach is investigated by numerical simulations.
Loss of the Statical Stabity of Electrical Machine Rotor Under Influence of Stator Magnetic Field
Shekyan H.G.
2007-06-01
Full Text Available It is assumed, that magnetic forces, acting on to the rotor by the stator field, are varied proportional with displacements. The criteria of rotor statical stability, depending on rigid characteristics and boundary conditions are obtained.
Rotor Speed and Stator Resistance Identification Scheme for Sensorless Induction Motor Drives
Xinzhi Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a rotor speed identification method for sensorless induction motor drives based on a model reference adaptive system (MRAS. In this scheme, the error between estimated stator current and real stator current is regarded as the system error to estimate the rotor speed. Adaptive full-order flux observers for estimating the rotor speed are developed using Lyapunov’s stability theory. The stator resistance identification algorithm is developed with rotor speed estimating method in a systematic manner. Because of the stator resistance varies with inner temperature of the motor, the influence of motor speed estimation due to stator resistance identification error is analyzed. The error compensation method for stator resistance estimation is also proposed. Simulation and experimental results show the good performance for the proposed scheme in speed and robustness for sensorless induction motor drives.
Dynamic Model of Contact Interface between Stator and Rotor
ZengHui Zhao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the equivalent principle, a linear spring contact model was established for the friction layer between stator and rotor. Different contact conditions were described by a distance index δ. Detailed analysis of the nonlinear contact behavior especially the static and dynamic slipping was carried on using a space-time equation. A contact deflection angle was proposed to quantitatively express the influence of friction force on the output performance. A more precision simulation model was established based on the theoretical analysis, and influences of different preload pressures and elastic modulus Em of friction layer on output performance were analyzed. The results showed the simulation results had very good consistency with experimental results, and the model could well reflect the output characteristics of contact interface.
Abbasian Mohammadali
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM is a novel switched reluctance machine with limited information about its heat distribution and dissipation. This paper presents a two dimensional (2-D thermal analysis of Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM to observe actual heat distribution in the parts of the machine, using Finite Element Method (FEM. Two topologies for the rotor of DSSRM are considered, Non-Squirrel Cage Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (NSC-DSSRM and Squirrel Cage Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (SC-DSSRM. The heat distribution of these two topologies is analyzed, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Finally the results are presented and compared.
Safety Analysis of Flow Parameters in a Rotor-stator Cavity
ZHANG Gong; DING Shuiting
2012-01-01
In order to ensure the safety of engine life limited parts (ELLP) according to airworthiness regulations,a numerical approach integrating one-way fluid structure interaction (FSI) and probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is developed,by which the variation of flow parameters in a rotor-stator cavity on the safety of gas turbine disks is investigated.The results indicate that the flow parameters affect the probability of fracture of a gas turbine disk since they can change the distribution of stress and temperature of the disk.The failure probability of the disk rises with increasing rotation Reynolds number and Chebyshev number,but descends with increasing inlet Reynolds number.In addition,a sampling based sensitivity analysis with finite difference method is conducted to determine the sensitivities of the safety with respect to the flow parameters.The sensitivity estimates show that the rotation Reynolds number is the dominant variable in safety analysis ofa rotor-stator cavity among the flow parameters.
Bauer, C.
2001-07-01
The objective of this study is the development of an algorithm enabling coupling of nonmatching computational grids to carry out calculations of an unsteady flow through a hydraulic axial turbine with reference to interaction between stator and rotor. The algorithm should offer the possibility to operate the computational grids in a fixed position relative to each other as well as in relative movement. Furthermore, the calculation should be feasible with separate grids in parallel and different frames of reference. Employing selected examples this method is investigated in detail the results are compared with performed measurements. The unsteady numerical examination of the coupling process is carried out with different examples; especially the interaction effects between stator, rotor and draft tube of a hydraulic axial turbine are observed. In addition, the effect of tip clearance of the mean flow is described. Extensive model tests using the axial turbine have been performed at the Institute for Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery, IHS. Flow time dependent velocities have been measured with a Laser Doppler Velocimeter placed at midspan of the blading. Periodical changes in static pressure have been recorded at different locations near the wall of the turbine casing. These measurements serve as reference for the comparison with results derived from the unsteady calculations. The confrontation of the time-dependent fluctuations of the flow quantities and the calculation of the efficiency of the turbine resulting from the simulation results allow a comparison in absolute terms. (orig.) [German] Fuer die instationaere Berechnung einer hydraulischen Axialturbine unter Beruecksichtigung der Interaktion zwischen Leit- und Laufrad wird ein Algorithmus zum Koppeln von nichtpassenden Berechnungsnetzen entwickelt. Diese Berechnungsnetze sollen zueinander ortsfest sein oder auch eine Relativbewegung zueinander haben koennen. Sie sollen ausserdem und in unterschiedlichen
Control Methods Using Cross-Coupling Effects for Suppression of Rotor/Stator Rubbing System
Shang Zhiyong
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigated the influence of cross-coupling effects on the rubbing-related dynamics of rotor/stator systems, The stability analysis on the synchronous full annular rub solution of a rotor/stator system, which includes both the dynamics of the stator and the deformation on the contact surface as well as the cross-coupling terms in velocities and displacements, is carried out. It is found that some cross-coupling effects will benefit the synchronous full annular rubs and some will not. Based on the finding, a control method by generating cross-coupling damping on the stator through the active auxiliary bearing is then proposed in order to suppress the contact severity and avoid the rubbing instability. Numerical simulation shows the validity of the mehtod.
Rotor speed estimation for indirect stator flux oriented induction motor drive based on MRAS scheme
Youssef Agrebi
2007-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a conventional indirect stator flux oriented controlled (ISFOC induction motor drive is presented. In order to eliminate the speed sensor, an adaptation algorithm for tuning the rotor speed is proposed. Based on the model reference adaptive system (MRAS scheme, the rotor speed is tuned to obtain an exact ISFOC induction motor drive. The reference and adjustable models, developed in stationary stator reference frame, are used in the MRAS scheme to estimate induction rotor peed from measured terminal voltages and currents. The IP gains speed controller and PI gains current controller are calculated and tuned at each sampling time according to the new estimated rotor speed. The proposed algorithm has been tested by numerical simulation, showing the capability of driving active load; and stability is preserved. Experimental results obtained with a general-purpose 1-kW induction machine are presented showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of dynamic performance.
Diagnostics of an induction-motor rotor by the spectral analysis of stator currents
Weinreb, K.
2013-12-01
A method for achieving more efficient revealing and more unambiguous evaluation of various kinds of defects in the induction-motor (IM) rotor, which is based on changes occurring in the characteristic signs of the spectrum of the stator current, is presented. The results and analysis of measurements performed for artificially specified cases of faults in the rotor of a small-capacity IM are presented.
Rotor-stator contact dynamics using a non-ideal drive—Theoretical and experimental aspects
Lahriri, Said; Weber, Hans I.; Santos, Ilmar F.; Hartmann, Henning
2012-09-01
The possible contact between rotor and stator is considered a serious malfunction that may lead to catastrophic failure. Rotor rub is seen as a secondary phenomenon caused by a primary source, i.e. sudden mass unbalance, instabilities generated by aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forces in seals and bearings among others. The contact event gives rise to normal and friction forces exerted on the rotor at impact events. The friction force plays a significant role by transferring some rotational energy of the rotor to lateral motion. A mathematical model has been developed to capture this for a conventional backup annular guide setup. It is reasonable to superpose an impact condition to the rub, where the rotor spin energy can be fully transformed into rotor lateral movements. Using a nonideal drive, i.e. an electric motor without any kind of velocity feedback control, it is even possible to stop the rotor spin under rubbing conditions. All the rotational energy will be transformed in a kind of "self-excited" rotor lateral vibration with repeated impacts against the housing. This paper studies the impact motion of a rotor impacting a conventional backup annular guide for the case of dry and lubricated inner surface of the guide. For the dry surface case, the experimental and numerical analysis shows that the rotational energy is fully transformed into lateral motion and the rotor spin is stopped. Based on this study this paper proposes a new unconventional backup bearing design in order to reduce the rub related severity in friction and center the rotor at impact events. The analysis shows that the rotor at impacts is forced to the center of the backup bearing and the lateral motion is mitigated. As a result of this, the rotor spin is kept constant.
Determination of defect in rotor of induction machine by spectral analysis of stator phase current
Myrteza Braneshi
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Induction motors are important part of safe and efficient running of any industrial plant. These motors are often used in industrial applications thanks to their usability and their robustness. Faults and failures of induction machine can lead to excessive downtimes processes; generate large losses in revenues and long term maintenance. Early detection of motor abnormalities would help avoiding costly breakdowns. In this paper a diagnostic technique of induction motor broken rotor bars is presented. The applied method is the so-called Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA which utilized the results of spectral analysis of the stator current. The broken rotor bars and rings will cause twice slip frequency side bands around the supplying frequency. The fault detection method consists in monitoring of stator phase current spectrum. Twice slip frequency side bands around the main frequency detected by spectral analysis is an indicator of the broken bars. The experimental results show the efficiency of the method.
Control of LP Turbine Rotor Blade Underloading Using Stator Blade Compound Lean at Root
PiotrLampart
2000-01-01
Due to a large gradient of reaction,LP rotor blades remain underloaded at the root over some range of volumetric flow rates.An interesting design to control the flow through the root passage of the overloaded stator and underloaded moving blade row is compound lean at the root of stator blades.The paper describes results of numerical investigations from a 3D NS solver FlowER conducted for several configurations of stator blade compund lean.The computations are carried out for a wide range of volumetric flow rates.accounting for the nominal operating regime as well as low and high load.It is found that compund lean induces additional blade force.streamwise curature and redistribution of flow parameters in the stage,including pressure and mass flow rate spanwise that can improve the flow conditions in both the stator and the rotor.The obtained efficiency improvements depend greatly on the flow regime,with the highest gains in the region of low load.
On the Flow Behavior in Rotor-Stator System with Superposed Flow
Roger Debuchy
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The flow between a rotor and a stator at high Reynolds number and small Ekman number is divided into three domains, two boundary layers adjacent to the discs separated by a central core. In the present work, a simple theoretical approach provides analytical solutions for the radial distribution of the core swirl ratio valid for a rotor-stator system with a superposed radial inflow rate. At first, the flow in the rotor boundary layer is assumed to behave as expressed by Owen and Rogers (1989 in the case of a turbulent flow on a rotating single disc. On the stator side, a necessary compensation flow rate must take place according to the conservation of mass. It is found that this compensation flow rate cannot be estimated with a good accuracy using the hypotheses of a stationary disc in a rotating fluid by Owen and Rogers (1989. Thus, two innovative weighting functions are tested, leading to new analytical laws relating the core swirl ratio K to the coefficient of flow rate Cqr introduced by Poncet et al. (2005. The adequacy between the theoretical solutions and numerous results of the literature is clearly improved and the discussion allows a better understanding of the flow behavior.
Modelling and Predictions of Isothermal Flow Inside the Closed Rotor-Stator System
Abdul Fattah Abbasi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the numerical predictions of isothermal closed rotor-stator flows. Steady-state finite-difference solutions are sought for two gap ratios and two rotational Reynolds number in the axisymmetric cylindrical polar coordinate frame of reference. Low Reynolds number models, low Reynolds number k-? and second moment closure models have been used to compute the necessary description of the flow inside the rotor-stator system without superpose flow. The most important dissimilarities among the computational calculations of both the turbulence models obtain at the lower radial locations, where k-? model predicted the premature transitional predictions from laminar to turbulent flow. The major feature of this computational work is the emergence of four regions of the flow i.e. source, sink and two boundary layers. Computed velocity components of both models are compared against the experimental measurements. Low Reynolds number second moment closure shows the improved level of matching with data, particularly on apex of the boundary layers and recirculating core in the middle of the rotor-stator cavity.
Investigation of Stator and Rotor Slits’ Effects to the Torque and Efficiency of an Induction Motor
Serdal ARSLAN
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Induction machines have a simple structure and are popular due to their wide range of use, however they have limited power factor and efficiency. Although the working principles of inductions machines have not changed for years, the materials and geometric structures used have undergone significant changes. In this study, slits were applied in the middle of the rotor teeth, rotor-stator teeth and stator teeth of a 7.5 kW induction motor. For these three situations, the torque ripple, iron losses, copper losses, inductance, phase current and voltage inducted in the windings and flux change were analyzed associated with the change in the slit width and slit height. Due to the fact that it is difficult to analytically calculate the slitted models created, they were analyzed by software which uses the finite elements method. The stator-rotor slitted structure determined as the optimum (the one with highest efficiency and the original motor were compared with 2D and 3D analyses. According to this comparison, a decrease in torque rupture and loss of copper is observed. The motor’s torque increased by 27%, and efficiency increased by 4%.
Routes to turbulence in the rotating disk boundary-layer of a rotor-stator cavity
Yim, Eunok; Serre, Eric; Martinand, Denis; Chomaz, Jean-Marc
2016-11-01
The rotating disk is an important classical problem, due to the similarities between the 3D boundary layers on a disk and a swept aircraft wing. It is nowadays admitted that a direct transition to turbulence may exist through a steep-fronted nonlinear global mode located at the boundary between the locally connectively and absolutely unstable regions (Pier 2003; Viaud et al. 2008, 2011; Imayama et al. 2014 and others). However, recent studies (Healey 2010; Harris et al. 2012; Imayama et al. 2013) suggest that there may be an alternative route starting at lower critical Reynolds number, based on convective travelling waves but this scenario is still not fully validated and proven. To better characterize such transition, direct numerical simulations are performed in a closed cylindrical rotor-stator cavity (without hub) up to Re = O (105) . All boundaries are no slip and for the stable region around the rotation axis prevents the disturbances coming from the very unstable stator boundary to disturb the rotor boundary layer. Different transition scenarii to turbulence are investigated when the rotor boundary layer is forced at different positions and forcing amplitude. The associated dynamics of coherent structures in various flow regions are also investigated when increasing Re .
Gu Yujiong; He Chengbing; Yang Kun; Zhang Jianqiang
2004-01-01
With the establishment of the nonlinear coupled lateral and torsion vibration equations of rub-impact Jeffcott rotor and through numerical simulations,the influences on lateral and torsion vibration behavior by rotor-to-stator clearance are analyzed,which prove that there is strong impact on coupled lateral and torsion vibration behavior.Smaller the clearance is,more complex the motion of rotor is.When the clearance is larger,the frequency spectrum of rub-impact rotor is mainly composed of 1/2X,1/3X and 1/4X components.With the decrease of clearance,quasi-periodic and chaotic motions will be present.Under different clearances,the bifurcation diagrams of lateral and torsion vibrations can be divided into rub-free zone,rub-light zone and three complex motion zones in which the motion trend of lateral vibration is similar to that of the torsion vibration.Compared with the lateral vibration,the torsion vibration is of more motion forms and more abundant frequency components in amplitude spectrum.
Asy'ari, Hasyim; Sarjito, Prasetio, Septian Heri
2017-04-01
The aim of the research work describe in this paper was to design and optimize a permanent magnet linear generator for renewable energy power plants. It is cover of first stage of designing stator and rotor permanent magnet linear generator. Stator design involves determining dimensions, number of slots, diameter of wire, and the number of winding in each slot. The design of the rotor includes rotor manufacture of PVC pipe material, 10 pieces of permanent magnet type ferrite 271 mikroweber, and resin. The second stage was to assemble the stator and rotor that has been done in the first stage to be a permanent magnet linear generator. The third stage was to install a permanent magnet linear generator with induction motors. Further stage was to test performance of a permanent magnet linear generator by utilizing of induction motor as a prime mover experimentally. In this study, permanent magnet linear generator with a rotor consists of five pairs of permanent magnets. The stator consists of 6 slots of the stator frame, each slot mounted stator coil of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 800 windings, and dimensions of wire used was 0.4 mm. The stator frame was made from acrylic. Results of the experiment that, permanent magnet linear generator when no load was able to generate a DC voltage of 14.5 volts at 300 rpm, and at the output of the linear generator when it is connected to the DC fan as a load only generated of 6.7 volts. It concludes that permanent magnet linear generator output can be used as an input device hybrid system. Data obtained from this experiment in laboratory scale can be developed in a larger scale by varying the type of magnet being used, the number of windings, and the speed used to generate more power.
无
2010-01-01
In this paper,the response characteristics of dry friction backward whirl of a general rotor/stator model,which accounts for both the dynamics of the rotor and the stator as well as the friction and the deformation at the contact surfaces,are investigated.The existence boundaries and the whirl frequencies of the dry friction backward whirl are determined analytically.It is found that there are two or three existence boundaries of the dry friction backward whirl that usually form two existence regions,either standing completely separately,or overlapping each other partly,or one containing the other completely,depending upon the system parameters.The whirl frequencies in the two existence regions are quite different and may jump between the lower and the higher values with the variation of the rotating speed.The results have been found to have good correspondence in the related rotor/stator rubbing experiments.
Modeling and Analysis of Double Stator Slotted Rotor Permanent Magnet Generator
Suhairi Rizuan Che Ahmad
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the modeling and analysis of three phase double stator slotted rotor permanent magnet generator (DSSR-PMG. The use of double stator topology through the double magnetic circuit helps to maximize the usage of flux linkage in the yoke structure of the single stator topology. The analytical computation is done using Permeance Analysis Method (PAM. Finite Element Analysis (FEA is used for numerical verifications and to verify the design structure a prototype laboratory is performed. The analysis is done with various loading conditions to derive the electromagnetic torque, output power and efficiency for the proposed structure. The analytical, numerical and experimental results from the analysis are found to be in good agreement. The maximum power developed by this generator at rated speed of 2000 rpm is of 1 kW with the operational efficiency of 75%. A rectifier bridge circuit is used to make the generated voltage a storage capable constant voltage to make it suitable for mobile applications (such as Direct Current DC generator. The proposed generator structure is highly recommended for applications such as micro-hydro and small renewable plants.
Morrison, Carlos R.; Siebert, Mark W.; Ho, Eric J.
2007-01-01
Analysis and experimental measurement of the electromagnet force loads on the hybrid rotor in a novel bearingless switched-reluctance motor (BSRM) have been performed. A BSRM has the combined characteristics of a switched-reluctance motor and a magnetic bearing. The BSRM has an eight-pole stator and a six-pole hybrid rotor, which is composed of circular and scalloped lamination segments. The hybrid rotor is levitated using only one set of stator poles. A second set of stator poles imparts torque to the scalloped portion of the rotor, which is driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by a processor. Analysis was done for nonrotating rotor poles that were oriented to achieve maximum and minimum radial force loads on the rotor. The objective is to assess whether simple one-dimensional magnetic circuit analysis is sufficient for preliminary evaluation of this machine, which may exhibit strong three-dimensional electromagnetic field behavior. Two magnetic circuit geometries, approximating the complex topology of the magnetic fields in and around the hybrid rotor, were employed in formulating the electromagnetic radial force equations. Reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions was obtained with typical magnetic bearing derating factors applied to the predictions.
Rotor/body aerodynamic interactions
Betzina, M. D.; Smith, C. A.; Shinoda, P.
1985-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in which independent, steady state aerodynamic forces and moments were measured on a 2.24 m diam. two bladed helicopter rotor and on several different bodies. The mutual interaction effects for variations in velocity, thrust, tip-path-plane angle of attack, body angle of attack, rotor/body position, and body geometry were determined. The results show that the body longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of a rotor and hub, and that the hub interference may be a major part of such interaction. The effects of the body on the rotor performance are presented.
Rotor speed estimation of induction machines by monitoring the stator voltages and currents
Ho, S.Y.S.; Langman, R.A. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)
1995-12-31
Accurate measurement of induction motor speed is routinely obtained by using a transducer coupled on the shaft. In many industrial situations, this is not acceptable as there may be no room for a suitable transducer, or else the motor environment may be too unpleasant. It is in theory possible to calculate the speed by monitoring the terminal voltages and currents (plus knowing the angular synchronous speed) and then applying these to the differential equations of motor. Two rotor speed algorithms were investigated. Unsatisfactory results were obtained with an algorithm based on the machine equations in a stationary reference frame because at some stage the algorithm divides zero by zero. To avoid these problems the time varying stator voltages and currents were further transformed into the synchronous reference frame so that they end up with dc electrical quantities. This algorithm of obtaining the tangent of the phase angle, for the determination of the rotor speed, was discussed and tested. The analysis presented in this paper points out that the speed of induction motor may be estimated at about +- 0.1 percent uncertainty from measurement of the stator voltage and current. (author). 5 figs., 5 refs.
Han, Ng Sook; Basri, Mahiran; Abd Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin; Abd Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Ismail, Zahariah
2012-01-01
Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions play an important key role in transporting bioactive compounds into a range of cosmeceutical products to the skin. Small droplet sizes have an inherent stability against creaming, sedimentation, flocculation, and coalescence. O/W emulsions varying in manufacturing process were prepared. The preparation and characterization of O/W nanoemulsions with average diameters of as low as 62.99 nm from palm oil esters were carried out. This was achieved using rotor-stator homogenizer and ultrasonic cavitation. Ultrasonic cell was utilized for the emulsification of palm oil esters and water in the presence of mixed surfactants, Tween 80 and Span 80 emulsions with a mean droplet size of 62.99 nm and zeta potential value at -37.8 mV. Results were comparable with emulsions prepared with rotor-stator homogenizer operated at 6000 rpm for 5 min. The stability of the emulsions was evaluated through rheology measurement properties. This included non-Newtonian viscosity, elastic modulus G', and loss modulus G″. A highly stable emulsion was prepared using ultrasonic cavitation comprising a very small particle size with higher zeta potential value and G' > G″ demonstrating gel-like behavior.
Batchelor versus Stewartson flow structures in a rotor-stator cavity with throughflow
Poncet, Sebastien; Chauve, Marie-Pierre; Schiestel, Roland
2005-07-01
The present work considers the turbulent flow inside a high-speed rotor-stator cavity with or without superimposed throughflow. New extensive measurements made at IRPHE by a two-component laser Doppler anemometer technique and by pressure transducers are compared to numerical predictions based on one-point statistical modeling using a low-Reynolds-number second-order full stress transport closure (Reynolds stress model). The advanced second-order model provides good predictions for the mean flow as well as for the turbulent field and so is the adequate level of closure to describe such complex flows. A better insight into the dynamics of such flows is also gained from this study. Indeed the transition between a Batchelor type of flow with two boundary layers separated by a central rotating core and a Stewartson type of flow with only one boundary layer on the rotating disk is characterized in the (r*,Ro) plane, where r* is the dimensionless radial location and Ro a modified Rossby number. The 5/7 power-law of Poncet et al. ["Turbulent rotating disk with inward throughflow," J. Fluid Mech. 522, 253 (2005)] describing the mean centripetal flow in a rotor-stator system is extended to different aspect ratios and to the case of centrifugal Batchelor type of flows.
肖若富; 陶然; 刘伟超
2014-01-01
The unstable head-discharge characteristic affects the stability and security of pump-turbine.In pump mode,the unstable phenomenon may occur when the pump-turbine is starting,shutting down or running at the maximum head condition.To investigate this phenomenon,numerical simulation with SST k-ωturbulence model was conducted.Both steady and transient analysis type were used to forecast the head-discharge characteristic.The whole flow passage was modeled with the adj ustable vane opening an-gle of 20 degrees.The Transient Rotor Stator (TRS)model which considering the transient interaction was set respectively at the “draft tube-runner”and “runner-adj ustable vane”interfaces.In this study, head-discharge curves were plotted and the head losses in the flow passages were calculated to reveal the mechanism of the unstable head variation.Results show that the unstable head-discharge performance is related to the vortex structure and accompanying loss.Compared with steady analysis,the result of tran-sient analysis is more coincident with experimental data and has a more realistic flow field variation in front and behind the rotor-stator interfaces.The transient analysis with considering rotor-stator interac-tions is more suitable for pump-turbine and other turbo-machinery especially under off-design condi-tions.So,this study will provide more valid guidance to improve the operating stability of pump-tur-bines.%针对水泵水轮机泵工况流量-扬程曲线的驼峰特性，采用 SST k-ω湍流模型对水泵水轮机进行模拟，并研究定常与非定常模拟对流量-扬程特性的预测准确性。建立活动导叶开度为20°的水泵水轮机全流道模型，对于非定常模拟，在尾水管(吸水室)-转轮与转轮-活动导叶两动静交接面处，分别设置考虑瞬态效应的 TRS(Transi-ent Rotor Stator )模型，模拟预测机组流量-扬程关系，分析各过流部件扬程损失并研究驼峰区产生机理。模拟结果表
A Method to Transit the Rotor-to-Stator Rubbing to Normal Motion Using the Phase Characteristic
Jieqiong Xu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A method is proposed to transit the rotor-to-stator rubbing to no-rub motion through active auxiliary bearing. The key point of this technique is to express the attractive domain of no-rub motion based on the phase characteristic and to represent the desired status. The feedback actuation is applied by an active auxiliary bearing to drive the rotor approaching the desired status. After that, the control actuation is turned off. Although the desired status is still in rubbing, it is in the attractive domain of no-rub motion, and the response of the rotor is automatically attracted to no-rub motion.
Numerical analysis of hydrodynamics in a rotor-stator reactor for biodiesel synthesis
Wen, Zhuqing; Petera, Jerzy
2016-06-01
A rotor-stator spinning disk reactor for intensified biodiesel synthesis is described and numerically simulated. The reactor consists of two flat disks, located coaxially and parallel to each other with a gap ranging from 0.1 mm to 0.2 mm between the disks. The upper disk is located on a rotating shaft while the lower disk is stationary. The feed liquids, triglycerides (TG) and methanol are introduced coaxially along the center line of rotating disk and stationary disk, respectively. Fluid hydrodynamics in the reactor for synthesis of biodiesel from TG and methanol in the presence of a sodium hydroxide catalyst are simulated, using convection-diffusion-reaction species transport model by the CFD software ANSYS©Fluent v. 13.0. The effects of upper disk's spinning speed, gap size and flow rates at inlets are evaluated.
Tunneling of electrons via rotor-stator molecular interfaces: combined ab initio and model study
Petreska, Irina; Pejov, Ljupco; Kocarev, Ljupco
2015-01-01
Tunneling of electrons through rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecular interfaces is studied with a combined ab initio and model approach. Molecular electronic structure calculated from first principles is utilized to model different shapes of tunneling barriers. Together with a rectangular barrier, we also consider a sinusoidal shape that captures the effects of the molecular internal structure more realistically. Quasiclassical approach with the Simmons' formula for current density is implemented. Special attention is paid on conformational dependence of the tunneling current. Our results confirm that the presence of the side aldehyde group enhances the interesting electronic properties of the pure anthracene molecule, making it a bistable system with geometry dependent transport properties. We also investigate the transition voltage and we show that confirmation dependent field emission could be observed in these molecular interfaces at realistically low voltages. The present study accompanies our previ...
FEM analysis of an single stator dual PM rotors axial synchronous machine
Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Popa, G. N.
2017-01-01
The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors. The proposed topologies, the magneto-motive force analysis and quasi 3D-FEM analysis are the core of the paper.
Numerical analysis of hydrodynamics in a rotor-stator reactor for biodiesel synthesis
Wen, Zhuqing; Petera, Jerzy [Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz (Poland)
2016-06-08
A rotor-stator spinning disk reactor for intensified biodiesel synthesis is described and numerically simulated. The reactor consists of two flat disks, located coaxially and parallel to each other with a gap ranging from 0.1 mm to 0.2 mm between the disks. The upper disk is located on a rotating shaft while the lower disk is stationary. The feed liquids, triglycerides (TG) and methanol are introduced coaxially along the center line of rotating disk and stationary disk, respectively. Fluid hydrodynamics in the reactor for synthesis of biodiesel from TG and methanol in the presence of a sodium hydroxide catalyst are simulated, using convection-diffusion-reaction species transport model by the CFD software ANSYS©Fluent v. 13.0. The effects of upper disk’s spinning speed, gap size and flow rates at inlets are evaluated.
Investigation of the fluid flow in an isolated rotor-stator system with a peripheral opening
Debuchy, Roger; Abdel Nour, Fadi; Naji, Hassane; Bois, Gérard
2013-04-01
This paper deals with an experimental, theoretical and numerical study of a turbulent flow with separated boundary layers between a rotor and a stator. The system is not subjected to any superimposed radial flow. The periphery of the cavity is opened to the atmosphere so that the solid body rotation for infinite discs is not always observed. Emphasis was placed on development of an asymptotic approach and a step-by-step method to compute the radial distribution of the core swirl ratio and the static pressure on the stator side. The theory also includes the radial and axial velocities in the core region. The numerical simulation has been conducted with the commercial CFD code Fluent 6.1. The k- ωSST turbulence model is used, with the assumption of 2D-axisymmetric and steady flow. CFD validations have been performed by comparison of the numerical results with the corresponding theoretical results. Numerical and experimental results are in good agreement with analytical solutions.
LIU Rui-fang; YAN Deng-jun; HU Min-qiang
2006-01-01
When designing a universal finite element software for analyzing a permanent magnet synchronous motor,the relative position of the stator and rotor remains unknown.However,determining the relative position is a precondition for electromagnetic field calculation.Through analyzing the basic relationship of variables in a synchronous machine,the characteristics of an air-gap-resultant electromotive force and an inner power angle under a special inner power factor angle are obtained.A method similar to inverse problem solving is proposed.A series of electromagnetic field calculation under different armature current initial phase angles are carried out,and through searching the field of a special inner power factor angle,the relative position of the rotor and the stator can be determined subsequently.
Wan Shuting; Li Heming; Li Yonggang; Tang Guiji
2005-01-01
Rotor vibration characteristics are first analyzed, which are that the rotor vibration of fundamental frequency will increase due to rotor winding inter-turn short circuit fault, air-gap dynamic eccentricity fault, or imbalance fault, and the vibration of the second frequency will increase when the air-gap static eccentricity fault occurs. Next, the characteristics of the stator winding parallel branches circulating current are analyzed, which are that the second harmonics circulating current will increase when the rotor winding inter-turn short circuit fault occurs, and the fundamental circulating current will increase when the air-gap eccentricity fault occurs, neither being strongly affected by the imbalance fault. Considering the differences of the rotor vibration and circulating current characteristics caused by different rotor faults, a method of generator vibration fault diagnosis, based on rotor vibration and circulating current characteristics, is developed. Finally, the rotor vibration and circulating current of a type SDF-9 generator is measured in the laboratory to verify the theoretical analysis presented above.
Simulink(Trademark) Controller for a Reluctance Motor With a Four-Pole Rotor and 36-Tooth Stator
Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.
2017-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a Simulink(Trademark) controller logic for driving a room temperature, 36-teeth stator, four-pole rotor reluctance motor. The Simulink logic was extracted from an existing C++ motor controller that was previously employed to achieve a rotor speed of 3000 rpm. The Simulink controller has additional logic refinements that were not available in past C++ controller, such as the per rev logic component and its frequency filter. The filter provides a more accurate reading of the rotor input signals. The controller is versatile, and with slight modifications, can be used to drive other reluctance motor types incorporating dissimilar stator rotor pole combinations. The original C++ controller was designed with the goal (after appropriate modification) of controlling a future superconducting motor. This superconducting motor will be employed as a test bed for developing other superconducting aviation propulsion motors envisioned for future turbo-electric aircrafts. The Simulink results presented in this paper were generated from simulated rotor inputs. However, in an actual application, these simulated inputs are to be replaced by actual proximity probe signals emanating from D-Space hardware inputs.
Nili-Ahmadabadi M.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper will present the results of the experimental investigation of heat transfer in a non-annular channel between rotor and stator similar to a real generator. Numerous experiments and numerical studies have examined flow and heat transfer characteristics of a fluid in an annulus with a rotating inner cylinder. In the current study, turbulent flow region and heat transfer characteristics have been studied in the air gap between the rotor and stator of a generator. The test rig has been built in a way which shows a very good agreement with the geometry of a real generator. The boundary condition supplies a non-homogenous heat flux through the passing air channel. The experimental devices and data acquisition method are carefully described in the paper. Surface-mounted thermocouples are located on the both stator and rotor surfaces and one slip ring transfers the collected temperature from rotor to the instrument display. The rotational speed of rotor is fixed at three under: 300rpm, 900 rpm and 1500 rpm. Based on these speeds and hydraulic diameter of the air gap, the Reynolds number has been considered in the range: 4000
Large scale dynamics in a turbulent compressible rotor/stator cavity flow at high Reynolds number
Lachize, C.; Verhille, G.; Le Gal, P.
2016-08-01
This paper reports an experimental investigation of a turbulent flow confined within a rotor/stator cavity of aspect ratio close to unity at high Reynolds number. The experiments have been driven by changing both the rotation rate of the disk and the thermodynamical properties of the working fluid. This fluid is sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) whose physical properties are adjusted by imposing the operating temperature and the absolute pressure in a pressurized vessel, especially near the critical point of SF6 reached for T c = 45.58 ◦C, P c = 37.55 bar. This original set-up allows to obtain Reynolds numbers as high as 2 × 107 together with compressibility effects as the Mach number can reach 0.5. Pressure measurements reveal that the resulting fully turbulent flow shows both a direct and an inverse cascade as observed in rotating turbulence and in accordance with Kraichnan conjecture for 2D-turbulence. The spectra are however dominated by low-frequency peaks, which are subharmonics of the rotating disk frequency, involving large scale structures at small azimuthal wavenumbers. These modes appear for a Reynolds number around 105 and experience a transition at a critical Reynolds number Re c ≈ 106. Moreover they show an unexpected nonlinear behavior that we understand with the help of a low dimensional amplitude equations.
Treatment of wastewater containing o-phenylenediamine by ozone in a rotor-stator reactor.
Arowo, Moses; Li, Yingwen; Chu, Guangwen; Sun, Baochang; Chen, Jianfeng; Shao, Lei
2016-01-01
This work employed a novel rotor-stator reactor (RSR) to intensify the degradation process of o-phenylenediamine (o-PDA) by ozone. The effects of different operating parameters including initial pH, temperature, rotation speed, liquid volumetric flow rate and inlet ozone concentration on the removal efficiency of o-PDA were investigated in an attempt to establish the optimum conditions. The removal efficiency was evaluated in terms of degradation ratio and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction ratio of the o-PDA wastewater. Results indicate that the removal efficiency decreased with increasing liquid volumetric flow rate but increased with an increase in pH and inlet ozone concentration. Also, the removal efficiency increased up to a certain level with an increase in rotation speed and temperature. Additionally, a comparison experiment was carried out in a stirred tank reactor (STR), and the results show that the degradation and COD reduction ratios reached a maximum of 94.6% and 61.2% in the RSR as compared to 45.3% and 28.6% in the STR, respectively. This work demonstrates that ozone oxidation carried out in RSR may be a promising alternative for pre-treatment of o-PDA wastewater.
Tunneling of electrons via rotor-stator molecular interfaces: Combined ab initio and model study
Petreska, Irina; Ohanesjan, Vladimir; Pejov, Ljupčo; Kocarev, Ljupčo
2016-07-01
Tunneling of electrons through rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecular interfaces is studied with a combined ab initio and model approach. Molecular electronic structure calculated from first principles is utilized to model different shapes of tunneling barriers. Together with a rectangular barrier, we also consider a sinusoidal shape that captures the effects of the molecular internal structure more realistically. Quasiclassical approach with the Simmons' formula for current density is implemented. Special attention is paid on conformational dependence of the tunneling current. Our results confirm that the presence of the side aldehyde group enhances the interesting electronic properties of the pure anthracene molecule, making it a bistable system with geometry dependent transport properties. We also investigate the transition voltage and we show that conformation-dependent field emission could be observed in these molecular interfaces at realistically low voltages. The present study accompanies our previous work where we investigated the coherent transport via strongly coupled delocalized orbital by application of Non-equilibrium Green's Function Formalism.
Loss measurement and analysis for the prototype generator with HTS stator and permanent magnet rotor
Song, Peng, E-mail: songp10@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qu, Timing, E-mail: tmqu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Xiaoyu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Longnian; Gu, Chen [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Xiaohang [Innova Superconductor Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Dewen; Hu, Boping [Beijing Zhong Ke San Huan Hi-Tech Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Duxing [Department Fis, University Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona 08193 (Spain); Han, Zhenghe [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2013-11-15
Highlights: •A novel prototype HTS generator with HTS armature windings was developed. •No-load loss and the iron loss at low temperature were measured. •The total loss at low temperature is much larger than the room temperature case. •The reason for no-load loss increment at low temperature is discussed. -- Abstract: A prototype HTS synchronous generator with a permanent magnet rotor and HTS armature windings was developed. The rated armature frequency is 10 Hz. The cryogenic Dewar is tightly surrounded outside the iron core. Both HTS coils and the iron core were cooled by using conduction cooling method. During the process of no-load running, the no-load loss power data were obtained through the torque measurement. The temperature evolution characteristics of the stator was measured by PT-100 temperature sensors. These results show that the no-load loss power at around 77 K are much larger than that at room temperature. The possible reason for the no-load loss increment is discussed. The ac loss power of one individual HTS coil used in this generator was also tested. Compared with the iron loss power, the ac loss power is rather small and could be neglected.
Crudo, Daniele; Bosco, Valentina; Cavaglià, Giuliano; Grillo, Giorgio; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo
2016-11-01
Triglyceride transesterification for biodiesel production is a model reaction which is used to compare the conversion efficiency, yield, reaction time, energy consumption, scalability and cost estimation of different reactor technology and energy source. This work describes an efficient, fast and cost-effective procedure for biodiesel preparation using a rotating generator of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC). The base-catalyzed transesterification (methanol/sodium hydroxide) has been carried out using refined and bleached palm oil and waste vegetable cooking oil. The novel HC unit is a continuous rotor-stator type reactor in which reagents are directly fed into the controlled cavitation chamber. The high-speed rotation of the reactor creates micron-sized droplets of the immiscible reacting mixture leading to outstanding mass and heat transfer and enhancing the kinetics of the transesterification reaction which completes much more quickly than traditional methods. All the biodiesel samples obtained respect the ASTM standard and present fatty acid methyl ester contents of >99% m/m in both feedstocks. The electrical energy consumption of the HC reactor is 0.030kWh per L of produced crude biodiesel, making this innovative technology really quite competitive. The reactor can be easily scaled-up, from producing a few hundred to thousands of liters of biodiesel per hour while avoiding the risk of orifices clogging with oil impurities, which may occur in conventional HC reactors. Furthermore it requires minimal installation space due to its compact design, which enhances overall security.
Barut, Murat; Bogosyan, Seta [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Gokasan, Metin [Istanbul Technical University, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Faculty, 34390 Istanbul (Turkey)
2007-12-15
High performance speed sensorless control of induction motors (IMs) calls for estimation and control schemes that offer solutions to parameter uncertainties as well as to difficulties involved with accurate flux/velocity estimation at very low and zero speed. In this study, a new EKF based estimation algorithm is proposed for the solution of both problems and is applied in combination with speed sensorless direct vector control (DVC). The technique is based on the consecutive execution of two EKF algorithms, by switching from one algorithm to another at every n sampling periods. The number of sampling periods, n, is determined based on the desired system performance. The switching EKF approach, thus applied, provides an accurate estimation of an increased number of parameters than would be possible with a single EKF algorithm. The simultaneous and accurate estimation of rotor, R{sub r}{sup '} and stator, R{sub s} resistances, both in the transient and steady state, is an important challenge in speed sensorless IM control and reported studies achieving satisfactory results are few, if any. With the proposed technique in this study, the sensorless estimation of R{sub r}{sup '} and R{sub s} is achieved in transient and steady state and in both high and low speed operation while also estimating the unknown load torque, velocity, flux and current components. The performance demonstrated by the simulation results at zero speed, as well as at low and high speed operation is very promising when compared with individual EKF algorithms performing either R{sub r}{sup '} or R{sub s} estimation or with the few other approaches taken in past studies, which require either signal injection and/or a change of algorithms based on the speed range. The results also motivate utilization of the technique for multiple parameter estimation in a variety of control methods. (author)
Rotor/Wing Interactions in Hover
Young, Larry A.; Derby, Michael R.
2002-01-01
Hover predictions of tiltrotor aircraft are hampered by the lack of accurate and computationally efficient models for rotor/wing interactional aerodynamics. This paper summarizes the development of an approximate, potential flow solution for the rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This analysis is based on actuator disk and vortex theory and the method of images. The analysis is applicable for out-of-ground-effect predictions. The analysis is particularly suited for aircraft preliminary design studies. Flow field predictions from this simple analytical model are validated against experimental data from previous studies. The paper concludes with an analytical assessment of the influence of rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This assessment examines the effect of rotor-to-wing offset distance, wing sweep, wing span, and flaperon incidence angle on tiltrotor inflow and performance.
Reduction of Wake-Stator Interaction Noise Using Passive Porosity
Tinetti, Ana F.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Bauer, Steven X. S.
2002-01-01
The present study was conducted to assess the potential of Passive Porosity Technology as a mechanism to reduce interaction noise in turbomachinery by reducing the fluctuating forces acting on the vane surfaces. To do so, a typical fan stator airfoil was subjected to the effects of a transversely moving wake; time histories of the primitive aerodynamic variables, obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions, were then input into an acoustic prediction code. This procedure was performed on the solid airfoil to obtain a baseline, and on a series of porous configurations in order to isolate those that yield maximum noise reductions without compromising the aerodynamic performance of the stator. It was found that communication between regions of high pressure differential - made possible by the use of passive porosity - is necessary to significantly alter the noise radiation pattern of the stator airfoil. In general, noise reductions were obtained for those configurations incorporating passive porosity in the region between x/c is approximately 0.15 on the suction side of the airfoil and x/c is approximately 0.20 on the pressure side. Reductions in overall radiated noise of approximately 1.0 dB were obtained. The noise benefit increased to about 2.5 dB when the effects of loading noise alone were considered.
Laiho, Antti; Holopainen, Timo P.; Klinge, Paul; Arkkio, Antero
2007-05-01
In this work the effects of the electromechanical interaction on rotordynamics and vibration characteristics of cage rotor electrical machines were considered. An eccentric rotor motion distorts the electromagnetic field in the air-gap between the stator and rotor inducing a total force, the unbalanced magnetic pull, exerted on the rotor. In this paper a low-order parametric model for the unbalanced magnetic pull is coupled with a three-dimensional finite element structural model of the electrical machine. The main contribution of the work is to present a computationally efficient electromechanical model for vibration analysis of cage rotor machines. In this model, the interaction between the mechanical and electromagnetic systems is distributed over the air gap of the machine. This enables the inclusion of rotor and stator deflections into the analysis and, thus, yields more realistic prediction for the effects of electromechanical interaction. The model was tested by implementing it for two electrical machines with nominal speeds close to one of the rotor bending critical speeds. Rated machine data was used in order to predict the effects of the electromechanical interaction on vibration characteristics of the example machines.
Turbulence characteristics of the B\\"{o}dewadt layer in a large shrouded rotor-stator system
Poncet, S; Randriamampianina, Anthony
2006-01-01
A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (3D DNS) is performed to describe the turbulent flow in an enclosed rotor-stator cavity characterized by a large aspect ratio $G=(b-a)/h=18.32$ and a small radius ratio $a/b=0.15$ ($a$ and $b$ the inner and outer radii of the rotating disk and $h$ the interdisk spacing). Recent comparisons with velocity measurements have shown that, for the rotational Reynolds number $Re=\\Omega b^2/\
Turbulence characteristics of the B\\"{o}dewadt layer in a large enclosed rotor-stator system
Randriamampianina, A; Randriamampianina, Anthony
2006-01-01
A three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulation is combined with a laboratory study to describe the turbulent flow in an enclosed annular rotor-stator cavity characterized by a large aspect ratio G=(b-a)/h=18.32 and a small radius ratio a/b=0.152, where a and b are the inner and outer radii of the rotating disk and h is the interdisk spacing. The rotation rate Omega under consideration is equivalent to the rotational Reynolds number Re=Omegab2/nu=9.5 x 104, where nu is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. This corresponds to a value at which an experiment carried out at the laboratory has shown that the stator boundary layer is turbulent, whereas the rotor boundary layer is still laminar. Comparisons of the 3D computed solution with velocity measurements have given good agreement for the mean and turbulent fields. The results enhance evidence of weak turbulence at this Reynolds number, by comparing the turbulence properties with available data in the literature. An approximately self-similar boundary la...
Richardson, Robin A; Papachristos, Konstantinos; Read, Daniel J; Harlen, Oliver G; Harrison, Michael; Paci, Emanuele; Muench, Stephen P; Harris, Sarah A
2014-12-01
Advances in structural biology, such as cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have allowed for a number of sophisticated protein complexes to be characterized. However, often only a static snapshot of a protein complex is visualized despite the fact that conformational change is frequently inherent to biological function, as is the case for molecular motors. Computer simulations provide valuable insights into the different conformations available to a particular system that are not accessible using conventional structural techniques. For larger proteins and protein complexes, where a fully atomistic description would be computationally prohibitive, coarse-grained simulation techniques such as Elastic Network Modeling (ENM) are often employed, whereby each atom or group of atoms is linked by a set of springs whose properties can be customized according to the system of interest. Here we compare ENM with a recently proposed continuum model known as Fluctuating Finite Element Analysis (FFEA), which represents the biomolecule as a viscoelastic solid subject to thermal fluctuations. These two complementary computational techniques are used to answer a critical question in the rotary ATPase family; implicit within these motors is the need for a rotor axle and proton pump to rotate freely of the motor domain and stator structures. However, current single particle cryo-EM reconstructions have shown an apparent connection between the stators and rotor axle or pump region, hindering rotation. Both modeling approaches show a possible role for this connection and how it would significantly constrain the mobility of the rotary ATPase family. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bridel-Bertomeu, Thibault; Gicquel, L. Y. M.; Staffelbach, G.
2017-06-01
Rotating cavity flows are essential components of industrial applications but their dynamics are still not fully understood when it comes to the relation between the fluid organization and monitored pressure fluctuations. From computer hard-drives to turbo-pumps of space launchers, designed devices often produce flow oscillations that can either destroy the component prematurely or produce too much noise. In such a context, large scale dynamics of high Reynolds number rotor/stator cavities need better understanding especially at the flow limit-cycle or associated statistically stationary state. In particular, the influence of curvature as well as cavity aspect ratio on the large scale organization and flow stability at a fixed rotating disc Reynolds number is fundamental. To probe such flows, wall-resolved large eddy simulation is applied to two different rotor/stator cylindrical cavities and one annular cavity. Validation of the predictions proves the method to be suited and to capture the disc boundary layer patterns reported in the literature. It is then shown that in complement to these disc boundary layer analyses, at the limit-cycle the rotating flows exhibit characteristic patterns at mid-height in the homogeneous core pointing the importance of large scale features. Indeed, dynamic modal decomposition reveals that the entire flow dynamics are driven by only a handful of atomic modes whose combination links the oscillatory patterns observed in the boundary layers as well as in the core of the cavity. These fluctuations form macro-structures, born in the unstable stator boundary layer and extending through the homogeneous inviscid core to the rotating disc boundary layer, causing its instability under some conditions. More importantly, the macro-structures significantly differ depending on the configuration pointing the need for deeper understanding of the influence of geometrical parameters as well as operating conditions.
Radek ČADA
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Paper concerns innovation of production of rotor and stator plates of inductive position sensors which are used at automatization of production processes. Authors analyse possibility of efficiency improvement of production of these devices in joint-stock company TES VSETÍN and suggest concrete solving of new production technology. Composition of production line for blanking and roll bending of rotor and stator plates of inductive position sensor from individual technological devices was suggested: decoiler, straightening device, actuating belt feeder, pneumatic shears with inclined tools, belt conveyer and four cylinders bending rolls. Construction of production line was projected in order to its operation can be secured by one production workman, which controls and chooses operation of CNC programme, takes separate roll bended rotor and stator plates of inductive position sensor from bending rolls and according to required technological procedure he composes them to rotor and stator complexes. Construction of production line was projected so that it is possible to move it by crane without necessity to dismantle and subsequently to put together and adjust the line.
Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.
2014-03-01
The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.
Kasim, Muhammad; Irasari, Pudji; Hikmawan, M. Fathul; Widiyanto, Puji; Wirtayasa, Ketut
2017-02-01
The axial flux permanent magnet generator (AFPMG) has been widely used especially for electricity generation. The effect of the air gap variation on the characteristic and performances of single rotor - single stator AFPMG has been described in this paper. Effect of air gap length on the magnetic flux distribution, starting torque and MMF has been investigated. The two dimensional finite element magnetic method has been deployed to model and simulated the characteristics of the machine which is based on the Maxwell equation. The analysis has been done for two different air gap lengths which were 2 mm and 4 mm using 2D FEMM 4.2 software at no load condition. The increasing of air gap length reduces the air-gap flux density. For air gap 2 mm, the maximum value of the flux density was 1.04 T while 0.73 T occured for air gap 4 mm.. Based on the experiment result, the increasing air gap also reduced the starting torque of the machine with 39.2 Nm for air gap 2 mm and this value decreased into 34.2 Nm when the air gap increased to 4 mm. Meanwhile, the MMF that was generated by AFPMG decreased around 22% at 50 Hz due to the reduction of magnetic flux induced on stator windings. Overall, the research result showed that the variation of air gap has significant effect on the machine characteristics.
Stabilité et analyse non-linéaire du contact rotor-stator
Lesaffre, Nicolas
2007-01-01
Nowadays, more than ever, turbomachinery designers seek for increase the efficiency of their machines what could result in a loss of weight and a decrease in fuel consumption. The efficiency of jet engines depends strongly on the clearance between the rotating and stationary parts : the wider the clearance, the less efficient the machine. Hence it is desirable to reduce the clearance by as much as possible. However, reduced clearances increase the possibility of violent contacts between rotor...
Harley, K. G.; Odegard, P. A.; Burdsall, E. A.
1972-01-01
A single stage fan with a rotor tip speed of 1000 ft/sec(304.8 m/sec) and a hub-to-tip ratio of 0.392 was retested with a redesigned stator. Tests were conducted with uniform inlet, tip-radial, hub-radial, and circumferential inlet distortions. With uniform inlet flow, stall margin was improved 12 percentage points above that with the original stator. The fan demonstrated an efficiency of 0.883 and a stall margin of 15 percent at a pressure ratio of 1.488 and a specific flow of 41.17 lb/sec/sq ft. Tests were also made with a redesigned casing treatment consisting of skewed slots over the rotor blade tips. This casing treatment gave a 7 percentage point improvement in stall margin when tested with tip radial distortion (when the rotor tip initiated stall). Noise measurements at the fan inlet and exit indicate no effect from closing the stator 10 degrees, nor were there measurable effects from adding skewed slots over the blade tips.
Dynamic Analysis of a Hybrid Squeeze Film Damper Mounted Rub-Impact Rotor-Stator System
Cai-Wan Chang-Jian
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An investigation is carried out on the systematic analysis of the dynamic behavior of the hybrid squeeze-film damper (HSFD mounted a rotor-bearing system with strongly nonlinear oil-film force and nonlinear rub-impact force in the present study. The dynamic orbits of the system are observed using bifurcation diagrams plotted using the dimensionless rotating speed ratio as control parameters. The onset of chaotic motion is identified from the phase diagrams, power spectra, Poincaré maps, bifurcation diagrams, maximum Lyapunov exponents, and fractal dimension of the rotor-bearing system. The dynamic behaviors are unlike the usual ways into chaos (1⇒2⇒4⇒8⇒16⇒32⋯⇒ chaos or periodic ⇒ quasi-periodic ⇒ chaotic, it suddenly gets in chaos from the periodic motion without any transition. The results presented in this study provide some useful insights into the design and development of a rotor-bearing system for rotating machinery that operates in highly rotating speed and highly nonlinear regimes.
Interactions of a propeller with a stator-induced circumferentially varying flow
Farnsworth, John [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Mechanical Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Troy, NY (United States); US Air Force Academy, Department of Aeronautics, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Amitay, Michael [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Mechanical Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Troy, NY (United States); Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Center for Flow Physics and Control (CeFPaC), Troy, NY (United States); Beal, David; Huyer, Stephen A. [Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division, Vehicle Dynamics and Signature Control, Newport, RI (United States)
2012-02-15
The interactions of a circumferentially varying stator cascade and a downstream fixed pitch propeller were investigated experimentally. The global performance of the components and the coupled system were systematically investigated through force and moment measurements on the propulsor model in a water tunnel. In addition, the wake of the cyclic stator cascade with and without the propeller was investigated downstream from a propulsor model using the Stereoscopic PIV technique. A cyclic distribution of the stators' deflections resulted in non-axisymmetric distributions of the flow field downstream of the stator array. The stator distribution alone produced a significant side force that increased linearly with stator pitch amplitude. When a propeller was incorporated downstream from the cyclic cascade, the side force from the stator cascade was reduced, but a small normal force and pitching moment were created. The generation of these secondary forces and moments can be related to the redistribution of the tangential flow from the cyclic cascade into the axial direction by the retreating and advancing blade states of the fixed pitch propeller. (orig.)
伍旺贤; 纪跃波; 陈美谦; 王涛
2016-01-01
为了避免超声电机工作时，转子也发生振动，以双定子单转子行波型旋转超声电机为研究对象，建立了该电机转子的参数化有限元模型，运用灵敏度分析的方法，分析了转子的模态频率对各个结构参数的灵敏程度。在此基础上，运用有限元软件ANSYS的结构优化分析工具，对转子进行了优化设计。优化后的转子的模态频率远离了电机定子的工作频率。%In observation of investigating the vibration of the rotor resulted from the running of an ultra⁃sonic motor, an ultrasonic motor with double stators and single rotor was taken as a reference. A parametric finite element model of the rotor of traveling wave ultrasonic motor with double stators and single rotor was built. The sensitivity of rotor�s modal frequency to the rotor�s structural parameters was calculated based on sensitivity analysis method. ANSYS was further employed for optimization design of the rotor in terms of sensi⁃tivity analysis. Results demonstrate that optimization design of the rotor is effective in keeping the modal fre⁃quency of rotor out of the working frequency of ultrasonic motor.
Fourmaux, A.
2001-07-01
This paper presents a numerical study of the flow in a transonic turbine two-dimensional section (stator-rotor- stator configuration). It specially addresses the clocking effect of the second stator with respect to the first one. The numerical simulation is based on the unsteady Navier-Stokes equation resolution. The results show that, depending on the operating point examined, the second stator azimuthal location may have an influence on the rotor performances, while no effect is observed upstream of this rotor. (author)
Qu, Timing; Song, Peng; Yu, Xiaoyu; Gu, Chen; Li, Longnian; Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Dewen; Hu, Boping; Chen, Duxing; Zeng, Pan; Han, Zhenghe
2014-04-01
High temperature superconducting (HTS) armature windings have the potential for increasing the electric loading of a synchronous generator due to their high current transport capacity, which could increase the power density of an HTS rotating machine. In this work, a novel synchronous generator prototype with an HTS stator and permanent magnet rotor has been developed. It has a basic structure of four poles and six slots. The armature winding was constructed from six double-pancake race-track coils with 44 turns each. It was designed to deliver 2.5 kW at 300 rpm. A concentrated winding configuration was proposed, to prevent interference at the ends of adjacent HTS coils. The HTS stator was pressure mounted into a hollow Dewar cooled with liquid nitrogen. The whole stator could be cooled down to around 82 K by conduction cooling. In the preliminary testing, the machine worked properly and could deliver 1.8 kW power when the armature current was 14.4 A. Ic for the HTS coils was found to be suppressed due to the influence of the temperature and the leakage field.
Computational Study of Flow Interactions in Coaxial Rotors
Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
account for multiple real-world constraints up front in design nor possible to know what performance is possible with a given design. Since unmanned vehicles are sized and optimized for the particular mission, a modern low-fidelity conceptual design and sizing tool that has been used for the design of large helicopters can be used for design of small coaxial rotorcraft. However, unlike most helicopters with single main rotor, the interactions between the upper and lower rotors emerge as an important factor to consider in design because an increase in performance of a multi-rotor system is not proportional to the number of rotors. Interference losses and differences in thrusts between the upper and lower rotors were investigated by theoretical methods as well as a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In this work, hybrid turbulence models are used to investigate the physics of interactions between coaxial rotors and a fuselage that are not well understood. Present study covers not only small-scale drones but also large-scale coaxial rotors for heavy-lifting missions. Considering the recently proposed FAA drone rules that require the flight only in visual line-of-sight, a large multirotor might be used as an airborne carrier for launch and recovery of unmanned aircraft systems with a human operator onboard. For applications to civil operations, their aerodynamic performance and noise levels need to be assessed. Noise is one of the largest limiting factors to rotorcraft operations in urban area. Since the high-frequency noise of multi-rotors may increase the annoyance, noise may turn out to be a key issue that must be addressed for market acceptability. One of the objectives of the present work is to study the effects of inter-rotor spacing and collectives on the performance, efficiency, and acoustics of coaxial rotor systems.
Wen Zhuqing
2017-06-01
Full Text Available A rotor-stator spinning disk reactor for intensified biodiesel synthesis is described and numerically simulated in the present research. The reactor consists of two flat disks, located coaxially and parallel to each other with a gap ranging from 0.1 mm to 0.2 mm between the disks. The upper disk is located on a rotating shaft while the lower disk is stationary. The feed liquids, triglycerides (TG and methanol are injected into the reactor from centres of rotating disk and stationary disk, respectively. Fluid hydrodynamics in the reactor for synthesis of biodiesel from TG and methanol in the presence of a sodium hydroxide catalyst are simulated, using convection-diffusion-reaction multicomponent transport model with the CFD software ANSYS©Fluent v. 13.0. Effect of operating conditions on TG conversion is particularly investigated. Simulation results indicate that there is occurrence of back flow close to the stator at the outlet zone. Small gap size and fast rotational speed generally help to intensify mixing among reagents, and consequently enhance TG conversion. However, increasing rotational speed of spinning disk leads to more backflow, which decreases TG conversion. Large flow rate of TG at inlet is not recommended as well because of the short mean residence time of reactants inside the reactor.
Le Moal, P.; Minotti, P.; Ferreira, A.; Duffaud, J.
1996-10-01
This second paper, out of three, devoted to the theoretical modeling of traveling wave type ultrasonic motors, focuses especially on the stator/rotor contact problem. The first part gives a short description of the specific test bench, which has been developed by our laboratory, in order to perform the acquisition of the stator/rotor interface geometry. Then an analytical approach is shown, based on the general solution of the bidimensional elastic problem in terms of Fourier integrals. This approach allows to figure the influence of the interface mechanical and geometric parameters. After a long calculation, the contact area and the pressure distribution are obtained. The good correlation between numerical simulations (performed on ANSYS finite element code with calculation time of about one hour) and our analytical modeling is then pointed out. Finally, a new software named C.U.B.I.C. (Contact Unilatéral entre Bicouches et Indenteurs Continus) and based on the previous theoretical contact model is presented. It allows both the contact area, and the pressure distribution to be obtained as well as a visualization of the geometric configuration of the stator/rotor interface with respect to the axial preload. By using the calculations performed by C.U.B.I.C. as input parameters of C.A.S.I.M.M.I.R.E. software (Conception Assistée par la SImulation Mécanique des MIcromoteurs REsonnants), previously developed by our laboratory, a rotative piezomotor can be characterized and optimized in a few seconds. Dans ce second article, consacré à la modélisation théorique des moteurs piézo-électriques à onde progressive, on s'intéresse plus particulièrement au mécanisme de contact à l'interface stator/rotor. La première partie présente une rapide description de la plateforme d'essais, développée par notre laboratoire afin de définir précisement la géometrie de l'interface stator/rotor. Ensuite, nous développons le modèle analytique du contact, basé sur la
王少杰; 卜文绍; 翟利利; 祖从林
2012-01-01
The key problem of rotor field oriented control of bearingless induction motor was to estimate the rotor flux accurately. Aiming at the problem that the accuracy of traditional flux estimation was impacted by the variation of stator or rotor resistance. A new rotor flux estimation based on the stator current vector orientation was proposed, which contained neither stator nor rotor resistance. Therefore, the influences on flux estimation accuracy, caused by resistance parameter variation, and were avoided. And the author did system simulation and analysis by Matlab/Simulink in this paper. Results show the effectiveness of algorithm of the new rotor flux estimation.%无轴承异步电机转子磁场定向控制的关键问题在于精确地估计转子磁链.针对传统模型转子磁链估计精度受到定转子电阻变化影响的问题,在定子电流矢量定向的基础上提出了一种新型的转子磁链估计器.该转子磁链估计算法不含定转子电阻,因而可以避免定转子电阻参数变化对磁链估计精度的影响.通过Matlab/Simulink对估计器进行了系统仿真分析,仿真结果表明了所给转子磁链估计器算法的有效性.
Donges, G.L.
1993-07-13
A composite fan stator assembly is described for a gas turbine engine having at least two fan rotor stages, the composite stator assembly comprising: an annular composite fan case assembly including an access port, the fan case assembly circumferentially disposed around first and second fan rotor stage locations, a composite fan stator stage supported by and extending radially inward of the fan case assembly and axially disposed between the two fan rotor stage locations, the fan stator stage includes at least one removable vane segment accessible for removal through the access port for assembly and reassembly, the composite fan case assembly including a separable composite forward fan case assembly and a separable composite aft fan case assembly spaced axially aft of the forward fan case assembly, the forward fan case assembly being bolted to the aft fan case assembly, wherein the composite fan stator stage is axially and radially trapped and supported by the forward and aft fan case assemblies. A composite stator vane assembly comprising: a composite inner shroud, a composite outer shroud disposed radially outward of the inner shroud, a plurality of vanes disposed between the shrouds, the vanes including a suction side and a pressure side and radially inner and outer roots, the roots extending through platforms of corresponding ones of the inner and outer shrouds, four box-type attachment elements corresponding to curved suction and pressure sides of the inner and outer roots, the box-type attachment elements having two connected legs angled with respect to each other, a first one of the legs extending along, conforming to the curve of, and bonded to a corresponding one of the airfoil root sides, and a second one of the legs extending along and bonded to a composite shroud surface.
Numerical Simulation of Tower Rotor Interaction for Downwind Wind Turbine
Isam Janajreh
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Downwind wind turbines have lower upwind rotor misalignment, and thus lower turning moment and self-steered advantage over the upwind configuration. In this paper, numerical simulation to the downwind turbine is conducted to investigate the interaction between the tower and the blade during the intrinsic passage of the rotor in the wake of the tower. The moving rotor has been accounted for via ALE formulation of the incompressible, unsteady, turbulent Navier-Stokes equations. The localized CP, CL, and CD are computed and compared to undisturbed flow evaluated by Panel method. The time history of the CP, aerodynamic forces (CL and CD, as well as moments were evaluated for three cross-sectional tower; asymmetrical airfoil (NACA0012 having four times the rotor's chord length, and two circular cross-sections having four and two chords lengths of the rotor's chord. 5%, 17%, and 57% reductions of the aerodynamic lift forces during the blade passage in the wake of the symmetrical airfoil tower, small circular cross-section tower and large circular cross-section tower were observed, respectively. The pronounced reduction, however, is confined to a short time/distance of three rotor chords. A net forward impulsive force is also observed on the tower due to the high speed rotor motion.
Rotor-rotor interaction for counter-rotating fans. Part 1: Three-dimensional flowfield measurements
Shin, Hyoun-Woo; Whitfield, Charlotte E.; Wisler, David C.
1994-11-01
The rotor wake/vortex flowfield generated in a scale model simulator of General Electric's counter-rotating unducted fan (UDF) engine was investigated using three-dimensional hot-wire anemometry. The purpose was to obtain a set of benchmark experimental aerodynamic data defining the rotor wake and vortex structure, particularly in the tip region, and to relate this observed flow structure to its acoustic signature. The tests were conducted in a large, freejet anechoic chamber. Measurements of the three components of velocity were made at axial stations upstream and downstream of each rotor for conditions that simulate takeoff, cutback, and approach power. Two different forward blade designs were evaluated. The tip vortices, the axial velocity defect in the vortex core, and differences in the interaction of the wakes and vortices generated by the forward and aft rotor are used to explain differences in noise generated by the two different rotor designs. Part 1 presents the three-dimensional flowfield measurements. Part 2 (aeroacoustic prediction and analysis), which will be presented later, will give an acoustic prediction using the measured data.
A Computational Model for Rotor-Fuselage Interactional Aerodynamics
Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Barnwell, Richard W.; Gorton, Susan Althoff
2000-01-01
A novel unsteady rotor-fuselage interactional aerodynamics model has been developed. This model loosely couples a Generalized Dynamic Wake Theory (GDWT) to a thin-layer Navier-Stokes solution procedure. This coupling is achieved using an unsteady pressure jump boundary condition in the Navier-Stokes model. The new unsteady pressure jump boundary condition models each rotor blade as a moving pressure jump which travels around the rotor azimuth and is applied between two adjacent planes in a cylindrical, non-rotating grid. Comparisons are made between measured and predicted time-averaged and time-accurate rotor inflow ratios. Additional comparisons are made between measured and predicted unsteady surface pressures on the top centerline and sides of the fuselage.
王凯; 黄葆华; 王松涛
2011-01-01
采用数值模拟方法对燃气轮机跨声速涡轮级内动静叶的非定常气动干扰进行了深入的研究,分析了静叶尾迹输运、尾缘激波和尾迹涡的变化以及下游动叶静压的非定常扰动的影响.结果表明:燃气轮机跨音速涡轮级中静叶的非定常特定区域集中在吸力面扩压段到尾缘区域；尾缘激波的压力面分支在吸力面的反射激波对有下游动叶的影响非常大；尾迹传播方向随着下游势流的变化而产生相应的变化.%Numerical method was carried out on the study of unsteady interference of transonic turbine stage' s stator and rotor. The transport of stator' s trailing wave,the change of trailing shock wave and the unsteady interrupt of rotor' s surface pressure were all analyzed in detail. The result shows that stator' s unsteady region concentrates from the diffusion section of the suction surface to the blade trailing; the reflect shock wave of trailing wave' s pressure surface brench effects the flow field of downstream rotor greatly; trailing wave' s propagation direction changes with the downstream potential flow.
马余洋
2015-01-01
A kind of high-efficiency DC brushless pumping motor together with its simple manufacturing pro-cess was introduced. The contents were included with the performance of 2-pole PM rotor, detailed stator construction and the manufacturing for the winding as well as relative control method.%介绍了一种效率高且制造工艺简单的无刷直流水泵电机。内容包括两极永磁体转子的性能、定子结构和绕组的制造及其控制方法。
Tsirkunov, Yu. M.; Romanyuk, D. A.
2016-07-01
A dusty gas flow through two, moving and immovable, cascades of airfoils (blades) is studied numerically. In the mathematical model of two-phase gas-particle flow, the carrier gas is treated as a continuum and it is described by the Navier-Stokes equations (pseudo-DNS (direct numerical simulation) approach) or the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations (unsteady RANS approach) with the Menter k-ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The governing equations in both cases are solved by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The dispersed phase is treated as a discrete set of solid particles, the behavior of which is described by the generalized kinetic Boltzmann equation. The effects of gas-particle interaction, interparticle collisions, and particle scattering in particle-blade collisions are taken into account. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used for computational simulation of the dispersed phase flow. The effects of interparticle collisions and particle scattering are discussed.
定子槽开口对感应电机转子涡流损耗的影响%Influence of stator slot openings on loaded rotor eddy current loss
鲍晓华; 梁娜; 方勇; 王汉丰
2015-01-01
In order to calculate the eddy current loss in rotor of induction motor precisely and investigate the influence of stator slotting on the loss, a small induction motor with aluminum casting rotor, which has 4 pole pairs and its rated power is 2. 2 kW, was analyzed in detail. The relationship between air gap harmonic magnetic field and stator slot opening was discussed by the theoretical analysis of harmonic mag-netic field in induction motor. Distributions of magnetic field density and eddy current in different posi-tion of rotor were also obtained by using two-dimensional finite element method. Finally, through establis-hing motor models with different stator slot opening, comparative analysis was carried out on the eddy cur-rent loss in rotor core and bars. Simulation result shows that, both the value of harmonic field in air gap and eddy current density in rotor surface increase with stator slot opening. And the eddy current loss of rotor core and bars also increase with it, which rising tendency plays out with a quadratic function expres-sion.%为了精确计算感应电机转子上的涡流损耗并探讨定子开槽对其产生的影响，对于额定功率为2．2 kW极对数为4的小型铸铝转子感应电机中转子涡流损耗情况进行了详细分析。通过建立不同定子槽开口的电机模型，结合电机内谐波磁场的理论分析与二维有限元的计算方法，研究了电机气隙谐波磁场与定子槽开口的关系，揭示了转子中不同位置的磁密与涡电流分布情况，并对比分析了不同槽开口模型中转子铁心与导条中涡流损耗的大小关系。仿真结果表明：气隙中的谐波磁场以及转子铁心表面的涡电流密度都随着定子槽开口增大而增大；转子铁心及导条中的涡流损耗随定子槽开口的增大呈二次函数的增长趋势。
Numerical Simulation of Combustion and Rotor-Stator Interaction in a Turbine Combustor
Dragos D. Isvoranu
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents the development of a numerical algorithm for the computation of flow and combustion in a turbine combustor. The flow and combustion are modeled by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the species-conservation equations. The chemistry model used herein is a two-step, global, finite-rate combustion model for methane and combustion gases. The governing equations are written in the strong conservation form and solved using a fully implicit, finite-difference approximation. The gas dynamics and chemistry equations are fully decoupled. A correction technique has been developed to enforce the conservation of mass fractions. The numerical algorithm developed herein has been used to investigate the flow and combustion in a one-stage turbine combustor.
Numerical Investigation of the Unsteady Flow in a Transonic Compressor with Curved Rotors
Mao Mingming; Song Yanping; Wang Zhongqi
2008-01-01
The unsteady 3D flow fields in a single-stage transonic compressor under designed conditions are simulated numerically to inves- tigate the effects of the curved rotors on the stage performance and the aerodynamic interaction between the blade rows. The results show that, compared to the compressor with un-curved rotors, the compressor under scrutiny acquires remarkable increases in efficiency with significantly reduced amplitudes of the time-dependent fluctuation. The amplitude of the pressure fluctuation around the stator leading edge decreases at both endwalls, but increases at the mid-span in the curved rotors. The pressure fluctuation near the stator lead- ing edge, therefore, becomes more uniform in the radial direction of this compressor. Except for the leading edge area, the pressure fluc- tuation amplitude declines remarkably in the tip region of stator surface downstream of the curved rotor, but hardly changes in the mid- dle and at the hub.
Rotation of artificial rotor axles in rotary molecular motors.
Baba, Mihori; Iwamoto, Kousuke; Iino, Ryota; Ueno, Hiroshi; Hara, Mayu; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Kishikawa, Jun-Ichi; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Ken
2016-10-04
F1- and V1-ATPase are rotary molecular motors that convert chemical energy released upon ATP hydrolysis into torque to rotate a central rotor axle against the surrounding catalytic stator cylinder with high efficiency. How conformational change occurring in the stator is coupled to the rotary motion of the axle is the key unknown in the mechanism of rotary motors. Here, we generated chimeric motor proteins by inserting an exogenous rod protein, FliJ, into the stator ring of F1 or of V1 and tested the rotation properties of these chimeric motors. Both motors showed unidirectional and continuous rotation, despite no obvious homology in amino acid sequence between FliJ and the intrinsic rotor subunit of F1 or V1 These results showed that any residue-specific interactions between the stator and rotor are not a prerequisite for unidirectional rotation of both F1 and V1 The torque of chimeric motors estimated from viscous friction of the rotation probe against medium revealed that whereas the F1-FliJ chimera generates only 10% of WT F1, the V1-FliJ chimera generates torque comparable to that of V1 with the native axle protein that is structurally more similar to FliJ than the native rotor of F1 This suggests that the gross structural mismatch hinders smooth rotation of FliJ accompanied with the stator ring of F1.
Brown, Geoffrey N; Müller, Christine; Theodosiou, Eirini; Franzreb, Matthias; Thomas, Owen R T
2013-06-01
Cerium (IV) initiated "graft-from" polymerization reactions were employed to convert M-PVA magnetic particles into polyacrylic acid-fimbriated magnetic cation exchange supports displaying ultra-high binding capacity for basic target proteins. The modifications, which were performed at 25 mg and 2.5 g scales, delivered maximum binding capacities (Qmax ) for hen egg white lysozyme in excess of 320 mg g(-1) , combined with sub-micromolar dissociation constants (0.45-0.69 µm) and "tightness of binding" values greater than 49 L g(-1) . Two batches of polyacrylic acid-fimbriated magnetic cation exchangers were combined to form a 5 g pooled batch exhibiting Qmax values for lysozyme, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase of 404, 585, and 685 mg g(-1) , respectively. These magnetic cation exchangers were subsequently employed together with a newly designed "rotor-stator" type HGMF rig, in five sequential cycles of recovery of lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase from 2 L batches of a crude sweet bovine whey feedstock. Lactoferrin purification performance was observed to remain relatively constant from one HGMF cycle to the next over the five operating cycles, with yields between 40% and 49% combined with purification and concentration factors of 37- to 46-fold and 1.3- to 1.6-fold, respectively. The far superior multi-cycle HGMF performance seen here compared to that observed in our earlier studies can be directly attributed to the combined use of improved high capacity adsorbents and superior particle resuspension afforded by the new "rotor-stator" HGMS design.
Computational Study of Savonius Wind Turbines with Stators
Alexander, Aaron; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind
2015-11-01
The dynamics of a stator assembly that directs incoming wind into an internal cylindrical trapped flow that exits vertically has been previously studied using particle image velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The present study uses the commercial CFD package Star-CCM + (CD-adapco) to investigate how a Savonius rotor is affected by the introduction of cylindrical flow trapped by a stator enclosure. The results are then compared with the flow field around an identical Savonius rotor without a stator assembly. The flow characteristics are investigated at Reynolds numbers on the order of one million to examine local flow effects around the rotor as well as downstream wake vorticity. Additionally, the minimum free stream wind velocity needed for rotor start-up and rotor output power will be compared with and without the use of a stator.
Minotti, P.; Le Moal, P.; Buchaillot, L.; Ferreira, A.
1996-10-01
The modeling of traveling wave type piezoelectric motors involves a large variety of mechanical and physical phenomena and therefore leads to numerous approaches and models. The latter, mainly based on phenomenological and numerical (based on Finite Element Method) analyses, are not suitable for current objectives oriented toward the development of efficient C.A.D. tools. As a result, an attempt is done to investigate analytical approaches, in order to theoretically model the mechanical energy conversion at the stator/rotor interface. This paper is the first in a serie of three articles devoted to the modeling of such rotative motors. After a short description of the operating principles specific to the piezomotors, the mechanical and tribological assumptions made for the driving mechanism of the rotor are briefly described. Then it is shown that the kinematic and dynamic modeling of the stator, combined with the static representation of the stator/rotor interface, gives an efficient way in order to perform the calculation of the loading characteristics of the driving shaft. Finally, the specifications of a new software named C.A.S.I.M.M.I.R.E., which has been recently developed on the basis of our earlier mechanical modeling, are described. In the last of these three papers, the theoretical simulations performed on SHINSEI Japanese motors will show to be close to the experimental data and that the results reported in this paper will lead to the structural optimization of future traveling wave ultrasonic motors. La modélisation des moteurs piézo-électriques à onde progressive implique une grande variété de phénomènes physiques et mécaniques. Cette variété conduit à des approches et modèles tout aussi nombreux et variés, qui reposent principalement sur des analyses phénoménologiques et numériques (Méthode Élements Finis), et ne permettent pas de répondre aux éxigences actuelles concernant le développement d'outils C.A.O. performants. Cette n
Investigation of implementation of stators on vertical axis wind turbines
Alexander, Aaron; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind
2014-11-01
Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) have historically suffered from an inability to self-start and, especially on Savonius rotors, low efficiencies due to drag on the returning blade. A few VAWT studies have examined the use of stators to direct the flow onto the power producing side of the rotor thus preventing drag on the returning side, yet all of the designs studied allow the air to exit on the downstream side of the entering flow. This study investigates an alternative stator design for extracting more wind energy by trapping the incoming flow into a rising vortex within the stator enclosure. The flow is then allowed to exit above the stator. The current study compared the performance of a generic Savonius rotor in a 7 m/s free stream flow with the same rotor in two different stator designs. The first stator design allows the flow to escape in the downstream direction. The second stator design utilizes the same stator shape, but forces the air to remain trapped until it can exit above the stators. The initial evaluation of the results was conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package Star-CCM + set up with an unsteady k- ɛ model at a Reynolds number of about 1,400,000. Experimental comparisons with scale models will be presented.
Off-design performance loss model for radial turbines with pivoting, variable-area stators
Meitner, P. L.; Glassman, A. J.
1980-01-01
An off-design performance loss model was developed for variable stator (pivoted vane), radial turbines through analytical modeling and experimental data analysis. Stator loss is determined by a viscous loss model; stator vane end-clearance leakage effects are determined by a clearance flow model. Rotor loss coefficient were obtained by analyzing the experimental data from a turbine rotor previously tested with six stators having throat areas from 20 to 144 percent of design area and were correlated with stator-to-rotor throat area ratio. An incidence loss model was selected to obtain best agreement with experimental results. Predicted turbine performance is compared with experimental results for the design rotor as well as with results for extended and cutback versions of the rotor. Sample calculations were made to show the effects of stator vane end-clearance leakage.
石一辉; 乔颖; 闵勇; 鲁宗相; 陈惠粉
2011-01-01
Given that the ability of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) to sustain power grid low voltage is mostly restricted by the overcurrent capacity of the converter at rotor side, appropriate control rules to avoid serious rotor overcurrent is key to keep DFIG connected with grid safely during voltage dip and voltage recovery. In order to improve the dynamic characteristics of rotor current, decoupling control strategy based on the 5th order model is proposed. It eliminates the adverse effects for rotor current dynamics by feedforward compensation considering transient stator flux. The corresponding control parameter design method is proposed as well. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can quickly track the rotor current reference and restrain overcurrent so as to enhance DFIG' s low voltage ride-through capability. The results also verify the validity and availability of decoupling control strategy. The proposed method can be used in the parametrical designing method of DFIG considering its dynamic characteristics.This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51077078), State Key Lab of Power System Special Funds (No. SKLD09M08) and State Grid Research Funds for Coordination of Generator and Power System.%转子侧变流器过载能力是制约双馈感应发电机(DFIG)低电压耐受能力的主要瓶颈,合理的转子电流控制策略是DFIG安全度过电压跌落与恢复期暂态过程的保障.为改善转子电流的动态特性,以DFIG的5阶模型为基础,研究了考虑定子侧磁链暂态的转子电流解耦控制模型,通过前馈补偿环节消除定子磁链暂态对转子电流动态的不利影响,提出了DFIG转子侧变流器控制参数的设计方法.仿真结果表明,提出的控制策略可使转子电流快速跟踪参考值的变化并抑制过电流,改善了DFIG对电网电压波动的耐受能力,验证了该解耦控制模型的正确性和有效性,为DFIG转子电流动态响应
Electrical machines and assemblies including a yokeless stator with modular lamination stacks
Qu, Ronghai; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya; Lopez, Fulton Jose
2010-04-06
An electrical machine includes a rotor with an inner rotor portion and an outer rotor portion, and a double-sided yokeless stator. The yokeless stator includes modular lamination stacks and is configured for radial magnetic flux flow. The double-sided yokeless stator is concentrically disposed between the inner rotor portion and the outer rotor portion of the electrical machine. Examples of particularly useful embodiments for the electrical machine include wind turbine generators, ship propulsion motors, switch reluctance machines and double-sided synchronous machines.
None of the Rotor Residues of F1-ATPase Are Essential for Torque Generation
Chiwata, Ryohei; Kohori, Ayako; Kawakami, Tomonari; Shiroguchi, Katsuyuki; Furuike, Shou; Adachi, Kengo; Sutoh, Kazuo; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko
2014-01-01
F1-ATPase is a powerful rotary molecular motor that can rotate an object several hundred times as large as the motor itself against the viscous friction of water. Forced reverse rotation has been shown to lead to ATP synthesis, implying that the mechanical work against the motor’s high torque can be converted into the chemical energy of ATP. The minimal composition of the motor protein is α3β3γ subunits, where the central rotor subunit γ turns inside a stator cylinder made of alternately arranged α3β3 subunits using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. The rotor consists of an axle, a coiled coil of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal α-helices of γ, which deeply penetrates the stator cylinder, and a globular protrusion that juts out from the stator. Previous work has shown that, for a thermophilic F1, significant portions of the axle can be truncated and the motor still rotates a submicron sized bead duplex, indicating generation of up to half the wild-type (WT) torque. Here, we inquire if any specific interactions between the stator and the rest of the rotor are needed for the generation of a sizable torque. We truncated the protruding portion of the rotor and replaced part of the remaining axle residues such that every residue of the rotor has been deleted or replaced in this or previous truncation mutants. This protrusionless construct showed an unloaded rotary speed about a quarter of the WT, and generated one-third to one-half of the WT torque. No residue-specific interactions are needed for this much performance. F1 is so designed that the basic rotor-stator interactions for torque generation and control of catalysis rely solely upon the shape and size of the rotor at very low resolution. Additional tailored interactions augment the torque to allow ATP synthesis under physiological conditions. PMID:24853745
Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.
1994-01-01
An electrical stator of an electromagnetic pump includes first and second spaced apart coils each having input and output terminals for carrying electrical current. An elongate electrical connector extends between the first and second coils and has first and second opposite ends. The connector ends include respective slots receiving therein respective ones of the coil terminals to define respective first and second joints. Each of the joints includes a braze filler fixedly joining the connector ends to the respective coil terminals for carrying electrical current therethrough.
Ultrafast Light-Driven Nanomotors Based on an Acridane Stator
Kulago, Artem A.; Mes, Emile M.; Klok, Martin; Meetsma, Auke; Brouwer, A.M.; Feringa, Ben L.
2010-01-01
A series Of Molecular motors featuring a symmetrical acridane stator is reported. Photochemical and thermal isomerization experiments confirm that this stator, in combination with a thiopyran rotor, results in molecular rotary motion in which the rate-determining thermal helix inversion proceeds eff
Ultrafast light-driven nanomotors based on an acridane stator
Kulago, A.A.; Mes, E.M.; Klok, M.; Meetsma, A.; Brouwer, A.M.; Feringa, B.L.
2010-01-01
A series of molecular motors featuring a symmetrical acridane stator is reported. Photochemical and thermal isomerization experiments confirm that this stator, in combination with a thiopyran rotor, results in molecular rotary motion in which the rate-determining thermal helix inversion proceeds eff
Mach number scaling of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction noise
Leighton, Kenneth P.; Harris, Wesley L.
1985-01-01
A parametric study of model helicopter rotor blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) was conducted in a 5 by 7.5-foot anechoic wind tunnel using model helicopter rotors with two, three, and four blades. The results were compared with a previously developed Mach number scaling theory. Three- and four-bladed rotor configurations were found to show very good agreement with the Mach number to the sixth power law for all conditions tested. A reduction of conditions for which BVI blade slap is detected was observed for three-bladed rotors when compared to the two-bladed baseline. The advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotor exhibited an angular dependence not present for the two-bladed configuration. The upper limits for the advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotors increased with increasing rotational speed.
屈文涛; 郭彪; 张小荣; 刘思瀛; 邹伟
2016-01-01
The contact conditions between stators and rotors of the single screw pumps are the key factors that affect the sealing performance and service life of the single screw pumps.In this paper, nonlinear calculation onthe contact stress of stators and rotors is conducted by utilizing the ANSYS, thus the pattern of heterogeneous internalpressure and deformation law are ob-tained,and then the influence rules of differential pressures, Poisson's ratios and interference on the contact performance are analyzed.The results show that the differential pressure is positively correlated with the maximum normal displacement,while it is negatively correlated with the maximum shear strain and the maximum contact stress;the Poisson'sratio is negatively cor-related withthe maximum normal displacement, and positively correlated with the maximum shear strain and the maximum contact stress; the magnitude of interference is negatively proportional to the maximum normal displacement, and positively proportional to the maximum shear strain and the maximumcontact stress.The conclusions of this paper provide theoretical ba-sis for the optimal design of the pump structure, as well as improvement of the pump performance.%定转子接触状况是单螺杆泵密封性能和使用寿命的关键影响因素，采用ANSYS对定转子接触应力进行了非线性计算，得到了非均匀内压受力和变形规律，并分析了泵压差、泊松比和过盈量对接触性能的影响规律，结果表明压差与最大法向位移呈正相关，与最大剪切应变和最大接触压力呈负相关；泊松比与最大法向位移呈负相关，而与最大剪切应变和最大接触压力呈正相关；过盈量与最大法向位移呈负相关，而与最大剪切应变和最大接触压力呈正相关。研究结果可以为泵结构的优化设计和工作性能的提高提供了理论依据。
Stator Blade Laser Window Research
Lugas, Grant A.
2004-01-01
All turbofan engines used in modern aviation contain a series of fan blades and compressor blades which are all connected to one drive shaft. Inside the jet engine between each set of blades are stator blades, which are pitched opposite of the fan and compressor blades, the stator blades are both rotational and axial fixed in place. The project that I was assigned to involves the QAT 22 fan test rig; which is currently under final design review and very soon will be fabricated. The purpose of this research facility is to better understand the effects of stator blades. Stator blades are used to straiten the air in a turbine. The researcher's primary aim is to determine what the airflow is like at both the leading edge and the trailing edge of a stator blade. My work focused on designing the windows usable for both a compressor rig and a test fan rig. The difference between the two is the test fan application will be looking into a stator blade array rather than just looking at the rotor. My discussion will include a detailed explanation of how the PIV laser window system functions fiom start to finish. I will also discuss how the information is gathered and organized. Further more I plan to talk about the purpose of this kind of research and the advantages to using this technology to determine the airflow characteristics of blade designs. Finally I will discuss the researcher s conclusion on the relationship between aerodynamics of a blade and how noise is produced. NASA's main goal with this particular facility is find ways to quiet engine noise by reducing the amount of cavitations that occurs around the blades of a turbofan engine. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.
Stator Blade Laser Window Research
Lugas, Grant A.
2004-01-01
All turbofan engines used in modern aviation contain a series of fan blades and compressor blades which are all connected to one drive shaft. Inside the jet engine between each set of blades are stator blades, which are pitched opposite of the fan and compressor blades, the stator blades are both rotational and axial fixed in place. The project that I was assigned to involves the QAT 22 fan test rig; which is currently under final design review and very soon will be fabricated. The purpose of this research facility is to better understand the effects of stator blades. Stator blades are used to straiten the air in a turbine. The researcher's primary aim is to determine what the airflow is like at both the leading edge and the trailing edge of a stator blade. My work focused on designing the windows usable for both a compressor rig and a test fan rig. The difference between the two is the test fan application will be looking into a stator blade array rather than just looking at the rotor. My discussion will include a detailed explanation of how the PIV laser window system functions fiom start to finish. I will also discuss how the information is gathered and organized. Further more I plan to talk about the purpose of this kind of research and the advantages to using this technology to determine the airflow characteristics of blade designs. Finally I will discuss the researcher s conclusion on the relationship between aerodynamics of a blade and how noise is produced. NASA's main goal with this particular facility is find ways to quiet engine noise by reducing the amount of cavitations that occurs around the blades of a turbofan engine. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.
Zhu, Rongwu; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Xiaojie
2015-01-01
For the grid-connected doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbine, because of the stator connected to the grid directly, the stator flux easily suffers from the effects of grid voltage variations, such as grid disturbances and grid faults. Moreover, since the magnetic field is excited...... by the rotor current, stator flux is also affected by the rotor current. Therefore this study systematically studies the dynamic performances of stator flux under consecutive grid voltage variations and varying rotor currents, and its influence on the performances of the DFIG during grid faults. The analyses...... reveal that the stator flux can be accumulated by the consecutive variations of the stator voltage, and the instants of grid voltage variations can lead to different amplitudes of the stator flux. In addition, the conventional vector control strategy and the active damping strategy are compared...
Study of controlled diffusion stator blading. 1. Aerodynamic and mechanical design report
Canal, E.; Chisholm, B. C.; Lee, D.; Spear, D. A.
1981-01-01
Pratt & Whitney Aircraft is conducting a test program for NASA in order to demonstrate that a controlled-diffusion stator provides low losses at high loadings and Mach numbers. The technology has shown great promise in wind tunnel tests. Details of the design of the controlled diffusion stator vanes and the multiple-circular-arc rotor blades are presented. The stage, including stator and rotor, was designed to be suitable for the first-stage of an advanced multistage, high-pressure compressor.
Power Properties of Two Interacting Wind Turbine Rotors
Okulov, Valery; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2016-01-01
In the current experiments, two identical wind turbine models were placed in uniform flow conditions in a water flume. The initial flow in the flume was subject to a very low turbulence level, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent wake instability. Both...... rotors are threebladed and designed using blade element/lifting line (BE/LL) optimum theory at a tip speed ratio, λ, of 5 with a constant design lift coefficient along the span, CL= 0.8. Measurements of the rotor characteristics were conducted by strain sensors installed in the rotor mounting...
Power Properties of Two Interacting Wind Turbine Rotors
Okulov, Valery; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2017-01-01
In the current experiments, two identical wind turbine models were placed in uniform flow conditions in a water flume. The initial flow in the flume was subject to a very low turbulence level, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent wake instability. Both...... rotors are three-bladed and designed using blade element/lifting line (BE/LL) optimum theory at a tip-speed ratio, λ, of 5 with a constant design lift coefficient along the span, CL = 0.8. Measurements of the rotor characteristics were conducted by strain sensors installed in the rotor mounting...
Numerical simulation of aerodynamic interaction for a tilt rotor aircraft in helicopter mode
Ye Liang; Zhang Ying; Yang Shuo; Zhu Xinglin; Dong Jun
2016-01-01
A rotor CFD solver is developed for simulating the aerodynamic interaction phe-nomenon among rotor, wing and fuselage of a tilt rotor aircraft in its helicopter mode. The unsteady Navier–Stokes equations are discretized in inertial frame and embedded grid system is adopted for describing the relative motion among blades and nacelle/wing/fuselage. A combination of multi-layer embedded grid and‘‘extended hole fringe”technique is complemented in original grid system to tackle grid assembly difficulties arising from the narrow space among different aerody-namic components, and to improve the interpolation precision by decreasing the cell volume dis-crepancy among different grid blocks. An overall donor cell searching and automatic hole cutting technique is used for grid assembly, and the solution processes are speeded up by introduc-tion of OpenMP parallel method. Based on this solver, flow fields and aerodynamics of a tilt rotor aircraft in hover are simulated with several rotor collective angles, and the corresponding states of an isolated rotor and rotor/wing/fuselage model are also computed to obtain reference solution. Aerodynamic interference influences among the rotor and wing/fuselage/nacelle are analyzed, and some meaningful conclusions are drawn.
无
2002-01-01
The nonlinear dynamic behavior of a rubbing rotor system was studied with a mathematical model established with the eccentricity and interaction between bending and torsional vibrations taken into consideration.The nonlinear vibrational response of a rubbing rotor was analyzed using numerical integral,spectroscopic analysis and Poince mapping method,which made it possible to have better understanding of the vibrational characteristics of partial rubbing and complete circular rubbing rotors.The numerical results reveal the response of torsional vibration mainly takes a form of suporchronous motion,and its frequency decreases as the rotational speed increases when partial rubbing occurs,and the response of torsional vibration is synchronous when complete circular rubbing occurs.The comparison of the dynamics of rubbing rotors with and without the interaction between bending and torsional vibrations shows the interaction between bending and torsional vibrations advances the rotational speed,at which the response of bending vibration changes from a synchronous motion into a quasi-periodic motion,and the interaction between bending and torsional vibrations reduces stability of the rubbing rotor.
Im, Hyungbin; Yoo, Hong Hee; Chung, Jintai
2011-04-01
In this study, the dynamic behaviors of a BLDC motor are analyzed, when the motor undergoes mechanical and electromagnetic interaction due to an air gap variation between the stator and rotor. When considering the air gap variation caused by the translational motion of the rotor relative to the stator, the kinetic and potential energies, Rayleigh dissipation function, and the magnetic coenergy are expressed in terms of the rotor displacements and stator currents. With these energies and function, new equations of motion are derived using Lagrange's equation. The equations for the proposed model are nonlinear equations in which the displacements and currents are coupled. The time responses for the displacements and currents are computed for the proposed and previous models. Furthermore, the effects of rotor eccentricity are also investigated. It is found that, when the air gap varies with time, the time responses for the proposed and previous models have small differences in the stator currents, electromagnetic torques, and rotating speeds. However, the time responses have large differences in the rotor displacements. Therefore, this paper claims that the proposed model describes the dynamic behaviors of the motor more accurately than the previous model. It is also shown that rotor eccentricity increases the stator current period and the electromagnetic torque, while it decreases the rotating speed of the rotor.
A comparison of model helicopter rotor Primary and Secondary blade/vortex interaction blade slap
Hubbard, J. E., Jr.; Leighton, K. P.
1983-01-01
A study of the relative importance of blade/vortex interactions which occur on the retreating side of a model helicopter rotor disk is described. Some of the salient characteristics of this phenomenon are presented and discussed. It is shown that the resulting Secondary blade slap may be of equal or greater intensity than the advancing side (Primary) blade slap. Instrumented model helicopter rotor data is presented which reveals the nature of the retreating blade/vortex interaction. The importance of Secondary blade slap as it applies to predictive techniques or approaches is discussed. When Secondary blade slap occurs it acts to enlarge the window of operating conditions for which blade slap exists.
Balch, D. T.; Lombardi, J.
1985-01-01
A model scale hover test was conducted in the Sikorsky Aircraft Model Rotor hover Facility to identify and quantify the impact of the tail rotor on the demonstrated advantages of advanced geometry tip configurations. The existence of mutual interference between hovering main rotor and a tail rotor was acknowledged in the test. The test was conducted using the Basic Model Test Rig and two scaled main rotor systems, one representing a 1/5.727 scale UH-60A BLACK HAWK and the others a 1/4.71 scale S-76. Eight alternate rotor tip configurations were tested, 3 on the BLACK HAWK rotor and 6 on the S-76 rotor. Four of these tips were then selected for testing in close proximity to an operating tail rotor (operating in both tractor and pusher modes) to determine if the performance advantages that could be obtained from the use of advanced geometry tips in a main rotor only environment would still exist in the more complex flow field involving a tail rotor. This volume contains the test run log and tabulated data.
1992-04-01
quantity V - Viscous X~PYz - First derivative with respect to x, y or z3 xx, YY, zz - Second derivative with respect to x, y or z to - wan I - Wt quntit 2...Einlt quantity 2 - Eit quntit Chapter 1 Introduction This document presents the results of a computational study in which the primary focus has been
Wahl, Markus; Stoehr, Meike; Spillmann, Hannes; Jung, Thomas A.; Gade, Lutz H.
2007-01-01
Fourfold symmetric zinc-octaethylporphyrin (OEP) has been incorporated in the holes of the hexagonal molecular network generated by thermal dehydrogenation of 4,9-diaminoperylenequinone3,10- diimine (DPDI) on a Cu(111) surface and displayed hindered rotation; the reorganization between the potential
The Theoretical Research for the Rotor/Fuselage Unsteady Aerodynamic Interaction Problem
Liu Dawei
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Based on coupled unsteady panel/free-wake method, a universal analysis model was established, which provides a good prediction for the rotor/fuselage unsteady aerodynamic interaction. Considering the deficiencies of the traditional time-marching rotor free-wake algorithms, notably on stability and efficiency, the CB3D algorithm with 3rd-order accuracy is proposed. For solving the problem that part of the wake vortices may penetrate the fuselage, a “material line” rectification method with 3rd-order accuracy is proposed. An analysis for the model accuracy was then conducted to validate the accuracy of the new model, and a comparison against the available experimental data is performed. The simulated results show a good agreement with these experimental data. With the new model, several simulations are conducted for the typical rotor/fuselage aerodynamic interaction, and the results are analyzed.
Balch, D. T.; Lombardi, J.
1985-01-01
A model scale hover test was conducted in the Sikorsky Aircraft Model rotor hover Facility to identify and quantify the impact of the tail rotor on the demonstrated advantages of advanced geometry tip configurations. The test was conducted using the Basic Model Test Rig and two scaled main rotor systems, one representing a 1/5.727 scale UH-60A BLACK HAWK and the others a 1/4.71 scale S-76. Eight alternate rotor tip configurations were tested, 3 on the BLACK HAWK rotor and 6 on the S-76 rotor. Four of these tips were then selected for testing in close proximity to an operating tail rotor (operating in both tractor and pusher modes) to determine if the performance advantages that could be obtained from the use of advanced geometry tips in a main rotor only environment would still exist in the more complex flow field involving a tail rotor. The test showed that overall the tail rotor effects on the advanced tip configurations tested are not substantially different from the effects on conventional tips.
Unsteady flows in a single-stage transonic axial-flow fan stator row
Hathaway, Michael Dale
Detailed measurements of the unsteady velocity field within the stator flow of a transonic axial-flow fan were acquired using a laser anemometer. They were obtained on axisymmetric surfaces located at 10 and 50 percent span from the shroud, with the fan operating at maximum efficiency at design speed. The ensemble-average and variance of the measured velocities are used to identify rotor-wake-generated (deterministic) unsteadiness and turbulence, respectively. Correlations of both deterministic and turbulent velocity fluctuations provide information on the characteristics of unsteady interactions within the stator row. These correlations are derived from the Navier-Stokes equation in a manner similar to deriving the Reynolds stress terms, whereby various averaging operators are used to average the aperiodic, deterministic, and turbulent velocity fluctuations known to be present in multistage turbomachines. The correlations of deterministic and turbulent velocity fluctuations throughout the axial fan stator row are presented. In particular, amplification and attenuation of both types of unsteadiness are shown to occur within the stator blade passage.
Rotor dynamic analysis of main coolant pump
Lee, Chong Won; Seo, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Choong Hwan; Shin, Jae Chul; Wang, Lei Tian [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)
1999-03-01
A rotor dynamic analysis program DARBS/MCP, for the main coolant pump of the integral reactor, has been developed. The dynamic analysis model of the main coolant pump includes a vertical shaft, three grooved radial journal bearings and gaps that represent the structure-fluid interaction effects between the rotor and the lubricant fluid. The electromagnetic force from the motor and the hydro-dynamic force induced by impeller are the major sources of vibration that may affect the rotor system stability. DARBS/MCP is a software that is developed to effectively analyze the dynamics of MCP rotor systems effectively by applying powerful numerical algorithms such as FEM with modal truncation and {lambda}-matrix method for harmonic analysis. Main design control parameters, that have much influence to the dynamic stability, have been found by Taguchi's sensitivity analysis method. Design suggestions to improve the stability of MCP rotor system have been documented. The dynamic bearing parameters of the journal bearings used for main coolant pump have been determined by directly solving the Reynolds equation using FDM method. Fluid-structure interaction effect that occurs at the small gaps between the rotor and the stator were modeled as equivalent seals, the electromagnetic force effect was regarded as a linear negative radial spring and the impeller was modeled as a rigid disk with hydrodynamic and static radial force. Although there exist critical speeds in the range of operational speeds for type I and II rotor systems, the amplitude of vibration appears to be less than the vibration limit set by the API standards. Further more, it has been verified that the main design parameters such as the clearance and length of journal bearings, and the static radial force of impeller should be properly adjusted, in order to the improve dynamic stability of the rotor system. (author). 39 refs., 81 figs., 17 tabs.
Wind Turbine Rotor-Tower Interaction Using an Incompressible Overset Grid Method
Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe
2009-01-01
, combined with the interaction with the shed vortices, which causes a strongly time-varying response. Finally, the results show that the rotor has a strong effect on the tower shedding frequency, causing under certain flow conditions vortex lock-in to take place on the upper part of the tower. Copyright...... © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Bettschart, N.
1998-07-01
This paper presents the recent developments made at ONERA for the prediction of helicopter rotor-fuselage aerodynamic interactions. An actuator disk model has been implemented in the FLU3M code. Applications on isolated rotors as well as complete helicopter are performed using the Euler option of the code. The numerical results are compared with theoretical and experimental results. (author)
Bettschart, N.
1998-07-01
This paper presents the recent developments made at ONERA for the prediction of helicopter rotor-fuselage aerodynamic interactions. An actuator disk model has been implemented in the FLU3M code. Applications on isolated rotors as well as complete helicopter are performed using the Euler option of the code. The numerical results are compared with theoretical and experimental results. (author)
Vu Xuan, H.; Lahaye, D.; Polinder, H.; Ferreira, J.A.
2012-01-01
The use of slotted stator permanent-magnet machines with concentrated windings is increasing in industry. In this paper, the effect of the slot opening on flux linkage, internal voltage, mean torque, rotor eddy current loss and stator iron losses is evaluated. This gives new insight into the influe
Li Qingxi; Wang Yangang; G. Eitelberg
2016-01-01
A numerical study was performed to explore the unsteady interaction between the upstream propeller and the downstream swirl recovery vane (SRV) by transient simulations. Much larger fluctuations of thrust coefficient were observed on the vane, which indicates that the varia-tions of the total efficiency depend mainly on the working performance of the stator. The harmonic loads of the decomposed unsteady blade-surface pressures show that the stator experiences about ten times higher of unsteadiness compared with the rotor. Notable changes appear at the vane lead-ing edge due to the potential disturbance as well as the sweeping effects from the wake of the upstream propeller, whereas more significant unsteadiness occurs at the stator tip region as a result of the interaction between the rotor/stator tip vortices. The visualization of vortex structures addresses that the rotor tip vortex has a dominant effect on the stator tip vortex since the latter one starts right at the impingement location on the vane top in this configuration. Furthermore, a longer and a shorter SRV were investigated based on the original case to explore different inter-action patterns for the rotor/stator tip vortices. Weaker effects have been observed as expected.
Li Qingxi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available A numerical study was performed to explore the unsteady interaction between the upstream propeller and the downstream swirl recovery vane (SRV by transient simulations. Much larger fluctuations of thrust coefficient were observed on the vane, which indicates that the variations of the total efficiency depend mainly on the working performance of the stator. The harmonic loads of the decomposed unsteady blade-surface pressures show that the stator experiences about ten times higher of unsteadiness compared with the rotor. Notable changes appear at the vane leading edge due to the potential disturbance as well as the sweeping effects from the wake of the upstream propeller, whereas more significant unsteadiness occurs at the stator tip region as a result of the interaction between the rotor/stator tip vortices. The visualization of vortex structures addresses that the rotor tip vortex has a dominant effect on the stator tip vortex since the latter one starts right at the impingement location on the vane top in this configuration. Furthermore, a longer and a shorter SRV were investigated based on the original case to explore different interaction patterns for the rotor/stator tip vortices. Weaker effects have been observed as expected.
B. V. Marathe
1995-01-01
the shell suction surface inside the stator blade passage. The unsteadiness in the flow properties upstream of the stator is high. The rms value of the unsteady total velocity is approx. 20% of the steady state value. Periodic and aperiodic unsteadiness were also found significant.
Meitner, P. L.; Glassman, A. J.
1980-01-01
An off-design performance loss model for a radial turbine with pivoting, variable-area stators is developed through a combination of analytical modeling and experimental data analysis. A viscous loss model is used for the variation in stator loss with setting angle, and stator vane end-clearance leakage effects are predicted by a clearance flow model. The variation of rotor loss coefficient with stator setting angle is obtained by means of an analytical matching of experimental data for a rotor that was tested with six stators, having throat areas from 20 to 144% of the design area. An incidence loss model is selected to obtain best agreement with experimental data. The stator vane end-clearance leakage model predicts increasing mass flow and decreasing efficiency as a result of end-clearances, with changes becoming significantly larger with decreasing stator area.
Meitner, P. L.; Glassman, A. J.
1980-01-01
An off-design performance loss model for a radial turbine with pivoting, variable-area stators is developed through a combination of analytical modeling and experimental data analysis. A viscous loss model is used for the variation in stator loss with setting angle, and stator vane end-clearance leakage effects are predicted by a clearance flow model. The variation of rotor loss coefficient with stator setting angle is obtained by means of an analytical matching of experimental data for a rotor that was tested with six stators, having throat areas from 20 to 144% of the design area. An incidence loss model is selected to obtain best agreement with experimental data. The stator vane end-clearance leakage model predicts increasing mass flow and decreasing efficiency as a result of end-clearances, with changes becoming significantly larger with decreasing stator area.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AERODYNAMIC INTERACTION EFFECT OF ROTOR WAKE ON FUSELAGE OF HELICOPTER
无
2000-01-01
The interaction effect of rotor wake on fuselage of helicopter was investigated with experimental method. The results from experiment have proved that for the drag of fuselage the effect of rotor airflow is closely in connection with both the flight speed and the collective pitch of blades, while for the thrust and pitch moment of fuselage the collective pitch angle of blades plays more important role. A simple and effective computing method about aerodynamic interaction can be derived from the measured data. In order to implement the experiment, a fuselage model, a special sensor, the measurement and data acquisition and processing system were designed and manufactured according to the special requirements of this research project, thereby a good base was built up for carrying out experiments successfully with high quality.
Equivalence Between Squirrel Cage and Sheet Rotor Induction Motor
Dwivedi, Ankita; Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, R. K.
2016-06-01
Due to topological changes in dual stator induction motor and high cost of its fabrication, it is convenient to replace the squirrel cage rotor with a composite sheet rotor. For an experimental machine, the inner and outer stator stampings are normally available whereas the procurement of rotor stampings is quite cumbersome and is not always cost effective. In this paper, the equivalence between sheet/solid rotor induction motor and squirrel cage induction motor has been investigated using layer theory of electrical machines, so as to enable one to utilize sheet/solid rotor in dual port experimental machines.
Wing-vortex interaction: unraveling the flowfield of a hovering rotor
Bhagwat, Mahendra J.; Caradonna, Francis X.; Ramasamy, Manikandan
2015-01-01
This paper focuses on one of the most prominent flow features of the hovering rotor wake, the close interaction of the tip vortex with a following blade. Such vortex interactions are fundamental determinants of rotor performance, loads, and noise. Yet, they are not completely understood, largely due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive experimental data. The present study aims to perform such comprehensive measurements, not on hovering helicopter rotors (which hugely magnifies test complexity) but using fixed-wing models in controlled wind tunnel tests. The experiments were designed to measure, in considerable detail, the aerodynamic loading resulting from a vortex interacting with a semi-span wing, as well as the wake resulting from that interaction. The goal of the present study is to answer fundamental questions such as (a) the influence of a vortex passing below a wing on the lift, drag, tip vortex, and the wake of that wing and (b) the strength of the forming tip vortex and its relation to the wing loading and/or the tip loading. This paper presents detailed wing surface pressure measurements that result from the interaction of the wing with an interacting vortex trailing from an upstream wing. The data show large lift distribution changes for a range of wing-vortex interactions including the effects of close encounter with the vortex core. Significant asymmetry in the vortex-induced lift loading was observed, with the increase in wing sectional lift outboard of the interacting vortex (closer to the tip) being much smaller than the corresponding decrease inboard of the vortex.
A Viscous-Inviscid Interaction Model for Rotor Aerodynamics
Filippone, Antonino; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
1994-01-01
A numerical model for the viscous-inviscid interactive computations ofrotor flows is presented. The basic methodology for deriving the outer inviscid solution is a fully three-dimensional boundary element method.The inner viscous domain, i.e. the boundary layer, is described by the two-dimensiona...
Ma, Ruolong
The unsteady behavior of a tip leakage flow downstream of a simulated axial compressor rotor has been studied. The Virginia Tech low speed linear cascade wind tunnel was adapted to model the unsteady tip leakage flow produced by a rotor operating in the vortical wakes of a set of stator vanes. The cascade, consisting of 8 GE rotor B blades, has adjustable tip gap, inlet angle of 65.1°, turning angle of 11.8° and solidity of 1.076. The cascade Reynolds number, based on blade chord, was 393,000. A moving end wall was used to simulate the relative motion between rotor and casing, and vortex generators attached to the moving end wall were used to produce an idealized periodic unsteady vortical inflow similar to that shed by the junction of a row of inlet guide vanes. Measurements of the vortical inflow to the cascade produced by the generators and of the mean blade loading at the mid span are presented. The periodic and aperiodic behavior of the tip leakage flow downstream of the cascade, produced by this vortical disturbance, is also presented using phase and time averaged 3-component turbulence and pressure fluctuation measurements. These measurements are made for tip gap from 0.83% to 3.3% chord and streamwise locations from 0.772% to 1.117% blade spacing axially downstream of the cascade. The phase averaged inflow measurements reveal that the inflow produced by the vortex generators consists of a pair asymmetric counter-rotating vortices embedded in a thin (4.6% chord) endwall boundary layer. The vortices extend some 7.4% chord from the end wall. Their strength is about two orders smaller than the typical circulation of the tip leakage vortices produced by the cascade. Phase averaged single point three component hot-wire measurements downstream of the cascade reveal that the vortical inflow is, however, capable of producing significant large scale fluctuations in the size, strength, structure and position of the tip leakage vortex. These effects increase in
Rotor–stator contact dynamics using a non-ideal drive
Lahriri, Said; Weber, H.I.Hans I.; Santos, I.F.Ilmar F.
2012-01-01
The possible contact between rotor and stator is considered a serious malfunction that may lead to catastrophic failure. Rotor rub is seen as a secondary phenomenon caused by a primary source, i.e. sudden mass unbalance, instabilities generated by aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forces in seals and ...
An electrostatic lower stator axial-gap polysilicon wobble motor part I: design and modeling
Legtenberg, Rob; Berenschot, Erwin; Baar, van John; Elwenspoek, Miko
1998-01-01
This paper presents design issues and a theoretical model of electrostatically driven axial-gap polysilicon wobble motors. The motor design benefits from large axial rotor-to-stator overlap and large gear ratios, and motor designs with rotor radii of 50 and 100 ¿m are capable of generating torques i
Partitioned Fluid-Structure Interaction for Full Rotor Computations Using CFD
Heinz, Joachim Christian
) based aerodynamic model which is computationally cheap but includes several limitations and corrections in order to account for three-dimensional and unsteady eects. The present work discusses the development of an aero-elastic simulation tool where high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD......In the design of modern wind turbines with long and slender rotor blades it becomes increasingly important to model and understand the evolving aero-elastic eects in more details. Standard stateof-the-art aero-elastic simulation tools for wind turbines usually employ a blade element momentum (BEM......) is used to model the aerodynamics of the flexible wind turbine rotor. Respective CFD computations are computationally expensive but do not show the limitations of the BEM-based models. It is one of the first times that high-fidelity fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations are used to model the aero...
Generalized theory of mixed pole machines with a general rotor configuration
Ayman S. Abdel-khalik
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a generalized theory for the operation of mixed pole machines (MPMs. The MPM has two stator windings, namely the main winding with pole pairs P1 and the control winding with pole pairs P2. The MPM has shown promise in the field of adjustable speed drives for large machines and in the field of wind energy electrical generation. The operation of MPM relies on the interaction between the two fields produced by the two stator windings through the intermediate action of a specially designed rotor (nested-cage or reluctance rotor. The machine theory is described from a physical aspect rather than mathematical derivations. A simple representation is also presented, from which the machine d–q model can be readily deduced. The effect of mechanical loading on the relative positions of the machine fields is also presented.
Nicolas Denis; Yoshiyuki Kato; Masaharu Ieki; Keisuke Fujisaki
2016-01-01
In this paper, an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) with a stator core made of amorphous magnetic material (AMM) is presented. The IPMSM is driven by a voltage source three-phase inverter with classical pulse width modulation (PWM) control. The core losses under no-load condition are measured by experiment and compared to an equivalent IPMSM with a stator core made of NO steel. Under these conditions, the core losses are influenced by the stator, rotor and magnet shapes but ...
Influence of Closed Stator Slots on Cogging Torque
Ion, Trifu; Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen
2013-01-01
Cogging torque results due interaction of magnetic field of magnets and stator slots, and have negative effects on permanent magnet machines such as vibrations, noise, torque ripples and problems during turbine start-up and cut-in. In order to reduce cogging torque this paper presents a study...... of influence of closed stator slots on cogging torque using magnetic slot wedges....
Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andreasen, Jens H.; Pijanowski, J. M.
2001-01-01
This paper presents a powerful new design aspect to reduce acoustic noise and vibration of electro-magnetic origin for electrical machines, by introducing improved slot wedges referred to as "Structural Stator Spacers". These spacers, by using a very stiff dielectric and non magnetic material...... drawbacks usually associated with other noise reduction methods or interdict other noise control methods. Design models and practical prototypes are detailed which are used to verify the effectiveness of the spacers......., a modified shape and small modifications to the stator laminations not only secure the windings and reduce windage losses but also make it possible to increase the stiffness of the stator structure significantly thereby reducing the generation of audible noise. This new method does not incur the significant...
Rotation of artificial rotor axles in rotary molecular motors
Baba, Mihori; Iwamoto, Kousuke; Iino, Ryota; Ueno, Hiroshi; Hara, Mayu; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Kishikawa, Jun-ichi; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Ken
2016-01-01
[F.sub.1]- and [V.sub.1]-ATPase are rotary molecular motors that convert chemical energy released upon ATP hydrolysis into torque to rotate a central rotor axle against the surrounding catalytic stator cylinder with high efficiency...
Experimental investigation of unsteady fan flow interaction with downstream struts
Ng, W. F.; Obrien, W. F.; Olsen, T. L.
1986-07-01
In the present study of the unsteady pressure field produced on fan rotor blades by interaction with downstream struts, a single stage, low speed axial-flow fan was instrumented with blade-mounted high frequency pressure transducers. In addition, stationary pressure problems were used to map out the flowfield. Fluctuating pressure measurements are presented for blade midspan and 85-percent span on both the suction and pressure surfaces of the rotor blades at several positions of the downstream struts, and for two different flow coefficients. The strut is found to produce an effect on the unsteady pressure field on the rotor blades; this effect exceeds that due to the stator at design rotor-stator-strut spacing, but it rapidly declines as the struts are moved downstream.
Shen, Chen [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)
2014-04-01
The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.
Smith, Natalie Rochelle
While the gas turbine engine has existed for nearly 80 years, much of the complex aerodynamics which governs compressor performance is still not well understood. The unsteady flow field consists of periodic blade row interactions from the wakes and potential fields of each blade and vane. Vane clocking is the relative circumferential indexing of adjacent vane rows with the same vane count, and it is one method to change blade row interactions. Though the potential of performance benefits with vane clocking is known, the driving flow physics have yet to be identified. This research examines the effects of blade row interactions on embedded stator total pressure loss and boundary layer transition in the Purdue 3-stage axial compressor. The inlet guide vane, Stator 1, and Stator 2 all have 44 vanes which enable vane clocking of the embedded stage, while the rotors have different blade counts producing amplitude modulation of the unsteady interactions. A detailed investigation of corrected conditions is presented to establish repeatable, compressor performance year-round in a facility utilizing ambient inlet conditions. Without proper humidity accounting of compressor corrected conditions and an understanding of the potential for inlet temperature changes to affect clearances due to thermal growth, measurements of small performance changes in detailed research studies could be indiscernible. The methodology and implementation of a powder-paint flow visualization technique along with the illuminated flow physics are presented in detail. This method assists in understanding the loss development in the compressor by highlighting stator corner separations and endwall flow patterns. Effects of loading condition, rotor tip clearance height, and stator wake and rotor tip leakage interactions are shown with this technique. Vane clocking effects on compressor performance were quantified for nine loading conditions and six clocking configurations - the largest vane clocking
Stator Indexing in Multistage Compressors
Barankiewicz, Wendy S.
1997-01-01
The relative circumferential location of stator rows (stator indexing) is an aspect of multistage compressor design that has not yet been explored for its potential impact on compressor aerodynamic performance. Although the inlet stages of multistage compressors usually have differing stator blade counts, the aft stages of core compressors can often have stage blocks with equal stator blade counts in successive stages. The potential impact of stator indexing is likely greatest in these stages. To assess the performance impact of stator indexing, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center used the 4 ft diameter, four-stage NASA Low Speed Axial Compressor for detailed experiments. This compressor has geometrically identical stages that can circumferentially index stator rows relative to each other in a controlled manner; thus it is an ideal test rig for such investigations.
Sessarego, Matias; Ramos García, Néstor; Yang, Hua;
2016-01-01
In this paper a surrogate optimization methodology using a three-dimensional viscous-inviscid interaction code for the aerodynamic design of wind-turbine rotors is presented. The framework presents aunique approach because it does not require the commonly-used blade element momentum (BEM)method. ......In this paper a surrogate optimization methodology using a three-dimensional viscous-inviscid interaction code for the aerodynamic design of wind-turbine rotors is presented. The framework presents aunique approach because it does not require the commonly-used blade element momentum (BEM...... performance can be achieved using the new design method and that themethodology is effective for the aerodynamic design of wind-turbine rotors....
Dynamics of the interaction between the rotor and the induction zone
Mirzaei, Mahmood; Meyer Forsting, Alexander R.; Troldborg, Niels
2016-09-01
Traditionally met masts are used for power and load verifications. They are normally placed 2-4 rotor diameters ahead of the turbine. However in complex terrain this can lead to complex analysis of the effect of the terrain on the flow field. A nacelle mounted lidar can provide a better tool for wind field measurements in all terrains. Provided that the measurement is close enough to the rotor disc, the uncertainty in the flow field measurement can be reduced significantly. Therefore any complex terrain calibration and changes in the wind direction can be avoided. However, close distance lidar measurements are affected by the presence of the wind turbine, due to its induction zone. In this work, the dynamic coupling between changes in the wind turbine operating point and the velocities inside the induction zone is studied. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are used to investigate this interaction. Thereafter, system identification is used to fit first order dynamic models to the simulation results. The parameters of the model are given for the turbine induction zone. These results possibly reduce the uncertainty in lidar measurements, arising from wind turbine blockage.
Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.
1984-01-01
Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.
Gong, Jue; Yang, Mengjin; Ma, Xiangchao; Schaller, Richard D.; Liu, Gang; Kong, Lingping; Yang, Ye; Beard, Matthew C.; Lesslie, Michael; Dai, Ying; Huang, Baibiao; Zhu, Kai; Xu, Tao
2016-08-04
We report on the carrier-rotor coupling effect in perovskite organic-inorganic hybrid lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) compounds discovered by isotope effects. Deuterated organic-inorganic perovskite compounds including CH3ND3PbI3, CD3NH3PbI3, and CD3ND3PbI3 were synthesized. Devices made from regular CH3NH3PbI3 and deuterated CH3ND3PbI3 exhibit comparable performance in band gap, current-voltage, carrier mobility, and power conversion efficiency. However, a time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) study reveals that CH3NH3PbI3 exhibits notably longer carrier lifetime than that of CH3ND3PbI3, in both thin-film and single-crystal formats. Furthermore, the comparison in carrier lifetime between CD3NH3PbI3 and CH3ND3PbI3 single crystals suggests that vibrational modes in methylammonium (MA+) have little impact on carrier lifetime. In contrast, the fully deuterated compound CD3ND3PbI3 reconfirmed the trend of decreasing carrier lifetime upon the increasing moment of inertia of cationic MA+. Polaron model elucidates the electron-rotor interaction.
Hermatically sealed motor blower unit with stator inside hollow armature
Donelian, Khatchik O.
1976-01-20
13. A hermetically sealed motor blower unit comprising, in combination, a sealed housing having a thrust plate mounted therein and having a re-entrant wall forming a central cavity in said housing, a rotor within said housing, said rotor comprising an impeller, a hollow shaft embracing said cavity and a thrust collar adapted to cooperate with said thrust plate to support the axial thrust of said shaft, one or more journal bearings within said housing for supporting the radial load of said shaft and electric motor means for rotating said rotor, said motor means comprising a motor-stator located within said cavity and adapted to cooperate through a portion of said re-entrant wall with a motor-rotor mounted within said hollow shaft, the portion of said re-entrant wall located between said motor-stator and said motor-rotor being made relatively thin to reduce electrical losses, the bearing surfaces of said thrust plate, thrust collar and journal bearings being in communication with the discharge of said impeller, whereby fluid pumped by said impeller can flow directly to said bearing surfaces to lubricate them.
N. Billiard; G. Paniagua; R. Dénos
2008-01-01
This paper focuses on the experimental investigation of the time-averaged and time-accurate aero-thermodynamics of a second stator tested in a 1.5 stage high-pressure turbine. The effect of clocking on aerodynamic and heat transfer are investigated. Tests are performed under engine representative conditions in the VKI compression tube CT3. The test program includes four different clocking positions, i.e. relative pitch-wise positions between the first and the second stator. Probes located upstream and downstream of the second stator provide the thermodynamic conditions of the flow field. On the second stator airfoil, measurements are taken around the blade profile at 15, 50 and 85% span with pressure sensors and thin-film gauges. Both time-averaged and time-resolved aspects of the flow field are addressed. Regarding the time-averaged results, clocking effects are mainly observed within the leading edge region of the second stator, the largest effects being observed at 15% span. The surface static pressure distribution is changed locally, hence affecting the overall airfoil performance. For one clocking position,the thermal load of the airfoil is noticeably reduced. Pressure fluctuations are attributed to the passage of the upstream transonic rotor and its associated pressure gradients. The pattern of these fluctuations changes noticeably as a function of docking. The time-resolved variations of heat flux and static pressure are analyzed together showing that the major effect is due to a potential interaction. The time-resolved pressure distribution integrated along the second stator surface yields the unsteady forces on the vane. The magnitude of the unsteady force is very dependent on the clocking position.
He HAO; Wei-zhong FEI; Dong-min MIAO; Meng-jia JIN; Jian-xin SHEN
2016-01-01
In this study, we investigated the torque characteristics of large low-speed direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous generators with stator radial ventilating air ducts for offshore wind power applications. Magnet shape optimization was used fi rst to improve the torque characteristics using two-dimensional fi nite element analysis (FEA) in a permanent magnet synchronous generator with a common stator. The rotor step skewing technique was then employed to suppress the impacts of mechanical tolerances and defects, which further improved the torque quality of the machine. Comprehensive three-dimensional FEA was used to evaluate accurately the overall effects of stator radial ventilating air ducts and rotor step skewing on torque features. The infl uences of the radial ventilating ducts in the stator on torque characteristics, such as torque pulsation and average torque in the machine with and without rotor step skewing techniques, were comprehensively investigated using three-dimensional FEA. The results showed that stator radial ventilating air ducts could not only reduce the average torque but also increase the torque ripple in the machine. Furthermore, the torque ripple of the machine under certain load conditions may even be increased by rotor step skewing despite a reduction in cogging torque.
System and method for smoothing a salient rotor in electrical machines
Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Torrey, David A.
2016-12-13
An electrical machine exhibiting reduced friction and windage losses is disclosed. The electrical machine includes a stator and a rotor assembly configured to rotate relative to the stator, wherein the rotor assembly comprises a rotor core including a plurality of salient rotor poles that are spaced apart from one another around an inner hub such that an interpolar gap is formed between each adjacent pair of salient rotor poles, with an opening being defined by the rotor core in each interpolar gap. Electrically non-conductive and non-magnetic inserts are positioned in the gaps formed between the salient rotor poles, with each of the inserts including a mating feature formed an axially inner edge thereof that is configured to mate with a respective opening being defined by the rotor core, so as to secure the insert to the rotor core against centrifugal force experienced during rotation of the rotor assembly.
OPTIMAL DESIGN FOR STATOR OF THREE-DOF ULTRASONIC MOTOR
ZHAOChun-sheng; LIZhi-rong; HUANGWei-qing
2004-01-01
A 3-DOF ultrasonic motor with a cylindershaped stator and a spherical rotor is developed. The motor provides 3-DOF rotation around x, y. and z-axes implemented by two second order bending modes with orthogonality and one first order longitudinal mode of the stator, The three modes must satisfy some conditions. In our previous research, in order to satisfy these conditions, a parameter fitting design method is used. However, it is an experiential design method with low efficiency and costs much time, sometimes it even cannot find a desired solution, This paper puts forward an optimal design method for the stator. Based on the method, an optimization program is developed in MATLAB environment. Using the program, a new prototype of 3-DOF ultrasonic motor is designed. Its stator has diameter of 20 ram. height of 67 mm, and mass of 157 g. Experimental results show that the measured stators' modal frequencies and modal shapes are in good consistent agreement with the results obtained by the optimal design program.
Hathaway, Michael D.
1986-01-01
Measurements of the unsteady velocity field within the stator row of a transonic axial-flow fan were acquired using a laser anemometer. Measurements were obtained on axisymmetric surfaces located at 10 and 50 percent span from the shroud, with the fan operating at maximum efficiency at design speed. The ensemble-average and variance of the measured velocities are used to identify rotor-wake-generated (deterministic) unsteadiness and turbulence, respectively. Correlations of both deterministic and turbulent velocity fluctuations provide information on the characteristics of unsteady interactions within the stator row. These correlations are derived from the Navier-Stokes equation in a manner similar to deriving the Reynolds stress terms, whereby various averaging operators are used to average the aperiodic, deterministic, and turbulent velocity fluctuations which are known to be present in multistage turbomachines. The correlations of deterministic and turbulent velocity fluctuations throughout the axial fan stator row are presented. In particular, amplification and attenuation of both types of unsteadiness are shown to occur within the stator blade passage.
Badrinarayan Bansilal Pimple
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This study proposes a polar voltage control-based direct torque control method to reduce the effects of unbalanced grid voltage on doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind turbine system. Under unbalanced grid voltage, the stator flux has a negative sequence component which leads to second harmonic pulsation in torque, stator active power, stator reactive power, stator current and rotor current. In the control scheme, the negative sequence rotor voltage vector is controlled to compensate the negative sequence stator flux by negative sequence rotor flux. Simulation study is carried out on a 2 MW DFIG system using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Feasibility of the proposed control strategy is experimentally verified on a 1.5 kW DFIG system.
Fluid-structure interaction computations for geometrically resolved rotor simulations using CFD
Heinz, Joachim Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik
2016-01-01
This paper presents a newly developed high-fidelity fluid–structure interaction simulation tool for geometrically resolved rotor simulations of wind turbines. The tool consists of a partitioned coupling between the structural part of the aero-elastic solver HAWC2 and the finite volume computational...... fluid dynamics (CFD) solver EllipSys3D. The paper shows that the implemented loose coupling scheme, despite a non-conservative force transfer, maintains a sufficient numerical stability and a second-order time accuracy. The use of a strong coupling is found to be redundant. In a first test case......, the newly developed coupling between HAWC2 and EllipSys3D (HAWC2CFD) is utilized to compute the aero-elastic response of the NREL 5-MW reference wind turbine (RWT) under normal operational conditions. A comparison with the low-fidelity but state-of-the-art aero-elastic solver HAWC2 reveals a very good...
Young, L. A.; Lillie, D.; McCluer, M.; Yamauchi, G. K.; Derby, M. R.
2001-01-01
A recent experimental investigation into tiltrotor aerodynamics and acoustics has resulted in the acquisition of a set of data related to tiltrotor airframe aerodynamics and rotor and wing interactional aerodynamics. This work was conducted in the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex's (NFAC) 40-by-80 Foot Wind Tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, on the Full-Span Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The full-span TRAM wind tunnel test stand is nominally based on a quarter-scale representation of the V-22 aircraft. The data acquired will enable the refinement of analytical tools for the prediction of tiltrotor aeromechanics and aeroacoustics.
Dynamic response of a rub-impact rotor system under axial thrust
An, Xueli; Zhou, Jianzhong; Xiang, Xiuqiao; Li, Chaoshun; Luo, Zhimeng [Huazhong University of Science andTechnology, College of Hydroelectric and Digitalization Engineering, Wuhan, Hubei (China)
2009-11-15
A model of a rigid rotor system under axial thrust with rotor-to-stator is developed based on the classic impact theory and is analyzed by the Lagrangian dynamics. The rubbing condition is modeled using the elastic impact-contact idealization, which consists of normal and tangential forces at the rotor-to-stator contact point. Mass eccentricity and rotating speed are used as control parameters to simulate the response of rotor system. The motions of periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic are found in the rotor system response. Mass eccentricity plays an important role in creating chaotic phenomena. (orig.)
Validation of a three-dimensional viscous-inviscid interactive solver for wind turbine rotors
Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong
2014-01-01
measurements and/or CFD simulations for five wind turbine rotors, including three experimental model rotors [20-22], the 2.5 MW NM80 machine [23] and the NREL 5 MW virtual rotor [24]. Such a broad set of operational conditions and rotor sizes constitutes a very challenging validation matrix, with Reynolds......MIRAS is a newly developed computational model that predicts the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbine blades and wakes subject to unsteady motions and viscous effects. The model is based on a three-dimensional panel method using a surface distribution of quadrilateral singularities with a Neumann...
Induction Motor Speed Estimator Using Rotor Slot Harmonics
RATA, G.
2009-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for the estimation of induction machine rotor speed utilizing harmonic saliencies created by rotor and stator slotting. This solution purposes to add a carrier-signal voltage at the fundamental excitation. We obtain a carrier-signal current that contains the spatial information. The PWM reference voltage is calculated with DSP - ADMC401, from Analog Device.
Balancing of machinery with a flexible variable-speed rotor
Sève, F.; Andrianoely, M. A.; Berlioz, A.; Dufour, R.; Charreyron, M.
2003-07-01
The balancing procedure of machines composed of a flexible rotating part (rotor) and a non-rotating part (stator) mounted on suspensions is presented. The rotating part runs at a variable speed of rotation and is mounted on bearings with variable-speed-dependent characteristics. Assuming that the unbalance masses are relatively well defined, such as in the case of a crank-shaft, the procedure is based on a numerical approach using rotordynamics theory coupled with the Finite Element and Influence Coefficient Methods. An academic rotor/stator model illustrates the procedure. Moreover, the industrial application concerns a refrigerant rotary compressor whose experimental investigation permits validating the model. Assuming that the balancing planes are located on the rotor, it is shown that reducing the vibration level of both rotor and stator requires a balancing procedure using target planes on the rotor and on the stator. In the case of the rotary compressor, this avoids rotor-to-stator rubs and minimizes vibration transmission through pipes and grommets.
Tounzi, A.; Meibody-Tabar, F.; Sargos, F.
1997-01-01
This paper deals with the field-oriented control of a smooth stator, non excited salient rotor synchronous machine. First, a nonlinear modelling of the machine, taking into account both damping and saturation effects, is developed in PARK's rotor-bound frame. Then, a vector control strategy, which maintains a constant saturation level in the machine, is set-up. This strategy, wich consists in keeping the stator direct current at a high constant value, allows to linearize the model of the mach...
Kuchma, S L; Delalez, N J; Filkins, L M; Snavely, E A; Armitage, J P; O'Toole, G A
2015-02-01
The second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) plays a critical role in the regulation of motility. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, c-di-GMP inversely controls biofilm formation and surface swarming motility, with high levels of this dinucleotide signal stimulating biofilm formation and repressing swarming. P. aeruginosa encodes two stator complexes, MotAB and MotCD, that participate in the function of its single polar flagellum. Here we show that the repression of swarming motility requires a functional MotAB stator complex. Mutating the motAB genes restores swarming motility to a strain with artificially elevated levels of c-di-GMP as well as stimulates swarming in the wild-type strain, while overexpression of MotA from a plasmid represses swarming motility. Using point mutations in MotA and the FliG rotor protein of the motor supports the conclusion that MotA-FliG interactions are critical for c-di-GMP-mediated swarming inhibition. Finally, we show that high c-di-GMP levels affect the localization of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-MotD fusion, indicating a mechanism whereby this second messenger has an impact on MotCD function. We propose that when c-di-GMP level is high, the MotAB stator can displace MotCD from the motor, thereby affecting motor function. Our data suggest a newly identified means of c-di-GMP-mediated control of surface motility, perhaps conserved among Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, and other organisms that encode two stator systems.
Effects of a trailing edge flap on the aerodynamics and acoustics of rotor blade-vortex interactions
Charles, B. D.; Tadghighi, H.; Hassan, A. A.
1992-01-01
The use of a trailing edge flap on a helicopter rotor has been numerically simulated to determine if such a device can mitigate the acoustics of blade vortex interactions (BVI). The numerical procedure employs CAMRAD/JA, a lifting-line helicopter rotor trim code, in conjunction with RFS2, an unsteady transonic full-potential flow solver, and WOPWOP, an acoustic model based on Farassat's formulation 1A. The codes were modified to simulate trailing edge flap effects. The CAMRAD/JA code was used to compute the far wake inflow effects and the vortex wake trajectories and strengths which are utilized by RFS2 to predict the blade surface pressure variations. These pressures were then analyzed using WOPWOP to determine the high frequency acoustic response at several fixed observer locations below the rotor disk. Comparisons were made with different flap deflection amplitudes and rates to assess flap effects on BVI. Numerical experiments were carried out using a one-seventh scale AH-1G rotor system for flight conditions simulating BVI encountered during low speed descending flight with and without flaps. Predicted blade surface pressures and acoustic sound pressure levels obtained have shown good agreement with the baseline no-flap test data obtained in the DNW wind tunnel. Numerical results indicate that the use of flaps is beneficial in reducing BVI noise.
Sinervo, A.
2013-06-01
This thesis is about the radial magnetic forces between the rotor and stator in twopole induction machines. The magnetic forces arise from rotor eccentricity. The asymmetric air-gap makes the flux density on one side of the rotor stronger than on the opposite side. This produces magnetic pull. The magnetic flux density distribution in the air-gap can be expressed with spatial harmonics, i.e. flux densities with different pole-pair numbers. In two-pole machines, the main part of the magnetic force is produced by the interaction of two- and fourpole flux unless the four-pole flux is damped by parallel paths in the stator winding or an extra four-pole stator winding. The rest of the force comes from the interaction of two-pole and unipolar flux and from the higher harmonics of the air-gap flux of which the slot harmonics are a major part. The force caused by the higher harmonics and the unipolar flux is studied in the case where a four-pole stator winding is used to reduce the four-pole flux. The higher harmonics are found to produce, in addition to the traditional unbalanced magnetic pull, a force similar to the effect of the unipolar flux and the two can be distinguished only by measuring the unipolar flux. In measurements at various operation points, the higher harmonics are found to produce much more force than the unipolar flux and two-pole flux but the unipolar flux is still significant. The four-pole winding also is used to actively control the four-pole flux and the magnetic forces. Designing the controller requires a low order model of the system. Such a model is derived and the effect of the slot harmonics and the unipolar flux are included in the model. Different measurements techniques and methods are presented to identify and validate the control model. The operation point dependence of the system dynamics is studied via measurements. All results are obtained from a 30 kW test motor. The rotor of the test machine has a long flexible shaft on external
A Design Study of Dual-Stator Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor
Yanliang Xu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Dual-stator permanent magnet brushless DC Motor (DSBLDC features high efficiency and torque-density. As DSBLDC could operate in various states according to different winding connection modes, it is fully qualified for electric vehicle (EV drive. Unfortunately, due to the particular dual-stator structure, this kind of motor is difficult to be designed by available design methods. However, this paper demonstrates that a DSBLDC with series magnetic circuit structure can be regarded as being consisted of two independent BLDCs, i.e. an inner-rotor BLDC and an outer-rotor BLDC. Thus, the DSBLDC can be divided into two single-stator BLDCs. Based on this demonstration, the design method is verified by finite element analysis (FEA, and the basic design steps are given. Furthermore, experimental results of the prototype motor have verified the correction of the method, which also indicates that the motor with superior performance is adapted to EV drive.
An, Taeyang; Cha, Min-Chul
2013-03-01
We study the superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition in a disordered two-dimensional quantum rotor model with random on-site interactions in the presence of particle-hole symmetry. Via worm-algorithm Monte Carlo calculations of superfluid density and compressibility, we find the dynamical critical exponent z ~ 1 . 13 (2) and the correlation length critical exponent 1 / ν ~ 1 . 1 (1) . These exponents suggest that the insulating phase is a incompressible Mott glass rather than a Bose glass.
2016-05-19
1 Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor Carlos Malpica...radiation. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of BVI noise radiation to changes in the hub pitch moment trim state...calculations the aerodynamic loads on the blades were evaluated at azimuth intervals of 15 deg. The relatively large time (azimuth) step is
Interaction of Parametric and Forced Vibrations in High Speed Rotor-Bearing-Systems
Weyh, Bernhardt
1997-01-01
... and the manifold of inhomogeneous solutions are discussed. The application to a realisation of a high speed twin-disc rotor-bearing-system of a textile spinning turbine illustrates the resonance effects...
Application of AZ4903 to production of stator windings
Zhanshe GUO; Yihui WU; Yonggang MENG; Dezhi ZHENG
2008-01-01
To satisfy the needs of the high deep-width ratio and thickness of a planar micromotor's stator windings, a process method to produce an electromag-netic planar micromotor with AZ4903 is proposed. Optimum relationships, such as the desired rotation speed vs. thickness of the coating process, and the temperature vs. time of pre-baking, are obtained. The appropriate time of lithography and development are also achieved. The thickness of the produced windings is 40 μm with ideal perpendicularity. Finally, stators and rotors are fabricated. The rotation speed and pull-out torque of the micromotor are tested. The experiment proved that the micromotor worked with a steady speed and a low ripple of pull-out torque.
Bolborici, V; Dawson, F P; Pugh, M C
2014-03-01
Piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motors are motors that generate torque by using the friction force between a piezoelectric composite ring (or disk-shaped stator) and a metallic ring (or disk-shaped rotor) when a traveling wave is excited in the stator. The motor speed is proportional to the amplitude of the traveling wave and, in order to obtain large amplitudes, the stator is excited at frequencies close to its resonance frequency. This paper presents a non-empirical partial differential equations model for the stator, which is discretized using the finite volume method. The fundamental frequency of the discretized model is computed and compared to the experimentally-measured operating frequency of the stator of Shinsei USR60 piezoelectric motor.
A control strategy for stand-alone wound rotor induction machine
Forchetti, D.G.; Garcia, G.O. [Grupo de Electronica Aplicada (GEA), Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, X5804 BYA Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Solsona, J.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Electrica?Alfredo Desages?, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y de Computadoras, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Valla, M.I. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2007-02-15
A control strategy to regulate the frequency and voltage of a stand-alone wound rotor induction machine is presented. This strategy allows the machine to work as a generator in stand-alone systems (without grid connection) with variable rotor speed. A stator flux-oriented control is proposed using the rotor voltages as actuation variables. Two cascade control loops are used to regulate the stator flux and the rotor currents. A closed loop observer is designed to estimate the machine flux which is necessary to implement these control loops. The proposed control strategy is validated through simulations with satisfactory results. (author)
Improvements of Power Factor and Torque of a Synchronous Reluctance Motor with a Slit Rotor
Nashiki, Masayuki; Inoue, Yoshimitu; Kawai, Youichi; Yokochi, Takanori; Satake, Akiyoshi; Okuma, Shigeru
Power factor and torque of synchronous reluctance motors with a slit rotor are studied. In there stators, divided teeth made of powder magnetic core are adopted and windings are improved to get high space factor of stator windings and to shorten coil ends. In there rotors, stainless sheets are inserted among soft magnetic metal sheets with adhesive to strengthen the rotors and rotor structure is improved to enlarge the saliency ratio (Ld/Lq). As the result, the power factor 0.78 and 1.6 times torque at same motor size are attained.
Study of the Induction Motor with Arbitrary Stator Winding In Wye-Connection
Adriana Purece- Abrudan
2009-05-01
Full Text Available The anisotropy of a cage rotor is utilized to determine the angular position of the rotor in an induction machine. The switching transients generated by a pulsewidth controlled inverter serve as test signals. The response of the three inverter terminal currents is exploited to derive a quasi-instantaneous rotor position signal. The position is sensed at the inverter through the 3-phase motor cable by measuring the current derivatives. The method is applicable to induction motors having the stator windings connected either in wye or in delta.
Effects of Shrouded Stator Cavity Flows on Multistage Axial Compressor Aerodynamic Performance
Wellborn, Steven R.; Okiishi, Theodore H.
1996-01-01
Experiments were performed on a low-speed multistage axial-flow compressor to assess the effects of shrouded stator cavity flows on aerodynamic performance. Five configurations, which involved changes in seal-tooth leakage rates and/or elimination of the shrouded stator cavities, were tested. Data collected enabled differences in overall individual stage and the third stage blade element performance parameters to be compared. The results show conclusively that seal-tooth leakage ran have a large impact on compressor aerodynamic performance while the presence of the shrouded stator cavities alone seemed to have little influence. Overall performance data revealed that for every 1% increase in the seal-tooth clearance to blade-height ratio the pressure rise dropped up to 3% while efficiency was reduced by 1 to 1.5 points. These observed efficiency penalty slopes are comparable to those commonly reported for rotor and cantilevered stator tip clearance variations. Therefore, it appears that in order to correctly predict overall performance it is equally important to account for the effects of seal-tooth leakage as it is to include the influence of tip clearance flows. Third stage blade element performance data suggested that the performance degradation observed when leakage was increased was brought about in two distinct ways. First, increasing seal-tooth leakage directly spoiled the near hub performance of the stator row in which leakage occurred. Second, the altered stator exit now conditions caused by increased leakage impaired the performance of the next downstream stage by decreasing the work input of the downstream rotor and increasing total pressure loss of the downstream stator. These trends caused downstream stages to progressively perform worse. Other measurements were acquired to determine spatial and temporal flow field variations within the up-and-downstream shrouded stator cavities. Flow within the cavities involved low momentum fluid traveling primarily
Unsteady Interaction Between a Transonic Turbine Stage and Downstream Components
Davis Roger; Yao Jixian; Clark John; Stetson Gary; Alonso Juan; Jameson Antony; Haldeman Charles; Dunn Michael
2004-01-01
Results from a numerical simulation of the unsteady flow through one quarter of the circumference of a transonic high-pressure turbine stage, transition duct, and low-pressure turbine first vane are presented and compared with experimental data. Analysis of the unsteady pressure field resulting from the simulation shows the effects of not only the rotor/stator interaction of the high-pressure turbine stage but also new details of the interaction between the blade and the downstream transition...
The Model of Nonstationary Rotor Magnetic Field Observer in the Induction Motor
Burkov, Alexander; Krasilnikyants, Evgenii; Smirnov, Alexander
2011-01-01
This article is devoted to the questions, associated with observer construction for monitoring the values of rotor magnetic vector magnitude and angular deflection of induction motor oriented on bidimensional convolution on temporal and spatial actual parameters. The interrelation of induction motor breakdown torque and rotor characteristic time and transportation lag is shown. The system of rotor running stream observer on the basis of gage rotor position and stator current is put forward.
Stator Design and Air Gap Optimization of High Speed Drag-Cup Induction Motor using FEM
VUKOSAVIC, S. N.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available A huge number of modern applications nowadays require the use of high speed electrical machines which need to be highly optimized in order to achieve the best efficiency and the lowest mass and price. The low rotor inertia is also an important requirement in order to reduce rotor kinetic energy. The subject of this paper is high speed drag-cup induction motor (IM with low inertia which is designed for use as an auxiliary motor in automotive systems such as Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS in Formula 1. This work presents the procedure for stator design and optimization of the air gap length and rotor thickness of this kind of motor in order to achieve the highest efficiency in the speed range of interest. Simple procedure for stator dimensioning was developed and it was shown how the optimal number of stator conductors could be calculated. The effect of change in rotor thickness and air gap lengths on motor performance is demonstrated through some analytical considerations. The machine is then modeled in FEM software by means of which the optimization of the air gap and rotor thickness was performed. At the end, the simulation results were presented and analyzed and conclusions were drawn.
Zhang, Johan Xi; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, M.
2007-01-01
A novel stator interior permanent magnet generator (SIPMG) is presented. A modular stator design is used for convenience in manufacture and maintenance. The generator has the advantages of rugged rotor and concentrated winding design whereas the torque ripple is smaller than that produced...... by a doubly salient machine. Several low-speed multi-pole SIPMGs are designed for direct-drive wind turbines with ratings from 3 to 10 MW. Comparisons between the SIPMG and rotor-surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) show that the SIPMGs have about 120% torque density and 78% cost per...
Electromechanical interaction in rotordynamics of cage induction motors
Holopainen, Timo P.; Tenhunen, Asmo; Arkkio, Antero
2005-06-01
Eccentric rotor motion induces an unbalanced magnetic pull between the rotor and stator of cage induction motors. Recently, a linear parametric model of this eccentricity force due to the arbitrary rotor motion was presented. The purpose of this study is to combine this electromagnetic force model with a simple mechanical rotor model, and further, to demonstrate the rotordynamic response induced by this electromechanical interaction. An electromechanical rotor model is derived on the basis of the Jeffcott rotor with two additional variables for the harmonic currents of the rotor cage. Applying this model, the rotordynamic effects of electromechanical interaction were studied. Three induction motors were used in the numerical examples. The electromechanical parameters of these motors were estimated from the numerical simulations carried out separately. The results obtained show that the electromechanical interaction may decrease the natural frequencies of the rotor, induce additional damping or cause rotordynamic instability. These interaction effects are most significant in motors operating at or near the first bending critical speed. Excluding the potential rotordynamic instability, the numerical results indicate that the electromechanical interaction reduces effectively the unbalance response close to the first bending critical speed.
Study on spherical stator for multidegree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor
Nakajima, Shuta; Kajiwara, Hidekazu; Aoyagi, Manabu; Tamura, Hideki; Takano, Takehiro
2016-07-01
A multidegree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor (MDOF-USM) has excellent features such as high torque at a low speed and a self-holding force, compared with other types of MDOF motor. Therefore, the MDOF-USM has been considered for applications in robot joints, multidimensional systems, and spacecraft. In previous research, the MDOF-USM consisting of a spherical rotor and a stator vibrator of various shapes has been mainly studied. In contrast, the MDOF-USM consisting of a spherical stator and a rotor of various shapes is proposed in this paper. The excitation methods for vibration modes and mode rotation using piezoelectric plates and multilayered piezoelectric actuators were examined. Furthermore, a stator support method that does not significantly affect the vibration of the sphere was devised. From the results of experiments using the fabricated prototype stator, the generation of vibration mode and mode rotation were confirmed. Therefore, the possibility of the realization of the MDOF-USM using a spherical stator was indicated.
Suder, K. L.; Hathaway, M. D.; Okiishi, T. H.; Strazisar, A. J.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1987-01-01
This two-part paper presents laser anemometer measurements of the unsteady velocity field within the stator row of a transonic axial-flow fan. The objective is to provide additional insight into unsteady blade-row interactions within high speed compressors which affect stage efficiency, energy transfer, and other design considerations. Part 1 describes the measurement and analysis techniques used for resolving the unsteady flow field features. The ensemble-average and variance of the measured velocities are used to identify the rotor wake generated and unresolved unsteadiness, respectively. (Rotor wake generated unsteadiness refers to the unsteadiness generated by the rotor wake velocity deficit and the term unresolved unsteadiness refers to all remaining contributions to unsteadiness such as vortex shedding, turbulence, mass flow fluctuations, etc.). A procedure for calculating auto and cross correlations of the rotor wake generated and unresolved unsteady velocity fluctuations is described. These unsteady-velocity correlations have significance since they also result from a decomposition of the Navier-Stokes equations. This decomposition of the Navier-Stokes equations resulting in the velocity correlations used to describe the unsteady velocity field will also be outlined in this paper.
Suder, K. L.; Strazisar, A. J.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Hathaway, M. D.; Okiishi, T. H.
1987-01-01
This two-part paper presents laser anemometer measurements of the unsteady velocity field within the stator row of a transonic axial-flow fan. The objective is to provide additional insight into unsteady blade-row interactions within highspeed compressors which affect stage efficiency, energy transfer, and other design considerations. Part 1 describes the measurement and analysis techniques used for resolving the unsteady flow field features. The ensemble-average and variance of the measured velocities are used to identify the rotor wake generated and unresolved unsteadiness, respectively. (Rotor wake generated unsteadiness refers to the unsteadiness generated by the rotor wake velocity deficit and the term unresolved unsteadiness refers to all remaining contributions to unsteadiness such as vortex shedding, turbulence, mass flow fluctutions, etc.). A procedure for calculating auto and cross correlations of the rotor wake generated and unresolved unsteady velocity fluctuations is described. These unsteady-velocity correlations have significance since they also result from a decomposition of the Navier-Stokes equations. This decomposition of the Navier-Stokes equations resulting in the velocity correlations used to describe the unsteady velocity field will also be outlined in this paper.
A new visco-elastic contact model of traveling wave ultrasonic motor with stator frictional layer
无
2007-01-01
A new contact model of traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUSM) with a visco-elastic stator frictional layer was presented. In this model, the initial boundaries were revised, and the rotor revolution speed could be calculated iteratively. This model was compared with compliant slider and rigid stator model. The results of motor characteristics simulations showed that the motors based on this model would gain bigger stall torque. Then the friction and wear characteristics of two models were analyzed. The motors based on this model had lower coefficient of friction and better wear resistance.
Application of high-turning bowed compressor stator to redesign of highly loaded fan stage
Shaobin LI; Jiexian SU; Zhongqi WANG
2008-01-01
A redesign of a highly loaded fan stage by using high-turning bowed compressor stator was conducted. The original tandem stator was replaced by the highly loaded bowed stator which was applicable to highly sub-sonic flow conditions. 3D contouring technique and local modification of blade were applied to the design of the bowed blade in order to improve the aerodynamic per-formance and the matching of the rotor and stator blade rows. Performance curves at different rotating speeds and performances at different operating points for both the original fan stage and redesigned fan stage were obtained by numerical simulations. The results show that the highly loaded bowed stator can be used not only to improve the structure and the aerodynamic performances at various operating points of the compressor stage but also to pro-vide high performances at off-design conditions. It is believed that the highly loaded bowed stator can advance the design of high-performance compressor.
Rotor thermal stress monitoring in steam turbines
Antonín, Bouberle; Jan, Jakl; Jindřich, Liška
2015-11-01
One of the issues of steam turbines diagnostics is monitoring of rotor thermal stress that arises from nonuniform temperature field. The effort of steam turbine operator is to operate steam turbine in such conditions, that rotor thermal stress doesn't exceed the specified limits. If rotor thermal stress limits are exceeded for a long time during machine operation, the rotor fatigue life is shortened and this may lead to unexpected machine failure. Thermal stress plays important role during turbine cold startup, when occur the most significant differences of temperatures through rotor cross section. The temperature field can't be measured directly in the entire rotor cross section and standardly the temperature is measured by thermocouple mounted in stator part. From this reason method for numerical solution of partial differential equation of heat propagation through rotor cross section must be combined with method for calculation of temperature on rotor surface. In the first part of this article, the application of finite volume method for calculation of rotor thermal stress is described. The second part of article deals with optimal trend generation of thermal flux, that could be used for optimal machine loading.
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar
2014-01-01
Passive magnetic bearings are known due to the excellent characteristics in terms of friction and no requirement of additional energy sources to work. However, passive magnetic bearings do not provide damping, are not stable and, depending on their design, may also introduce magnetic eccentricity....... Such magnetic eccentricities are generated by discrepancies in magnet fabrication. In this framework the main focus of the work is the theoretical as well as experimental investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of a rotor-bearing system with strong emphasis on the magnetic eccentricities and non......-linear stiffness. In this investigation passive magnetic bearings using axially- aligned neodymium cylinder magnets are investigated. The cylinder magnets are axially magnetised for rotor as well as bearings. Compared to bearings with radial magnetisation, the magnetic stiffness of axially-aligned bearings...
A new hybrid piezoelectric ultrasonic motor with two stators
YI You-ping; Wolfgang Seemann; Rainer Gausmann; ZHONG Jue
2005-01-01
A new hybrid piezoelectric ultrasonic motor, which consists of one rotor and two stators, was proposed in this paper. In order to match the resonance frequencies of longitudinal vibration and torsional vibration excited in the stators, a symmetrical structure was adopted in design of the motor. A so-called mass matching method, namely adding two rings to the outside circumference of the two stators respe ctively, was used to adjust the resonance frequencies of these two vibrations. A finite element model was developed using ANSYS software for the purpose of analyzing the resonance frequencies of longitudinal vibration and torsional vibration as well as the function of the adjusting rings. The results show that the resonance frequency of torsional vibration varies with the position of the ring, but the resonance frequency of longitudinal vibration changes little. By means of adjusting the mass and the position of the rings, the first order resonance frequency of longitudinal vibration is coincided with that of torsional vibration and the value is 20.75 kHz. An experimental prototype motor was fabricated according to the analytical results and its performance is in agreement with the theoretical predictions. The speed of motor reaches the maximum 92 r/min at the working frequency 19.0 kHz.
N. Bulot; I. Trébinjac
2007-01-01
The present study is focused on the analysis of the deterministic fluctuations arising from the rotor-stator interaction within a transonic centrifugal compressor stage. A spectral analysis applied to the unsteady flow field leads to the values of the rotation speed of most energetic modes. From these values, the various structures are classified according to their direction of propagation which leads to a comprehensive description of the underlying mechanisms involved in the interaction.
Performance evaluation of a micro ultrasonic motor using a one-cubic-millimeter stator.
Mashimo, Tomoaki
2015-10-01
A piezoelectric ultrasonic motor has two significant advantages, high energy density and simple structure, and these advantages can help in the miniaturization of the motor. We build a prototype micro ultrasonic motor using a stator with a volume of approximately 1 cubic millimeter. To evaluate its representative performance values (torque, angular velocity, and energy efficiency), we built an experimental setup and operated the prototype motor by varying experimental conditions, such as the preload between the stator and rotor and the amplitude of voltages applied to motor. The performance values obtained at the millimeter to sub-millimeter scale are discussed analytically using the macro scale models of ultrasonic motors. Experimentally, the prototype motor has generated a torque of more than 10 μNm with a 1-cubic-millimeter stator. The motor described herein is now the smallest micro ultrasonic motor with a practical torque, although its efficiency is still low.
Enhanced control of DFIG wind turbine based on stator flux decay compensation
Zhu, Rongwu; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe;
2016-01-01
For the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)- based wind energy conversion system (WECS), the decaying flux and negative flux are the main reasons to cause the DFIG rotor overcurrent, during grid faults. The stator decaying flux characteristics versus the depth and instant of the stator voltage...... is significantly reduced during grid faults. The experimental results based on the 7.5 kW DFIG setup is carried to validate the correctness and feasibility of the proposed strategy. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) can be one of the applications. With the proposed strategy, the DVR only works in a half fundamental...... period and its output voltage amplitude is half of the stator voltage variation, during the grid voltage drop and recovery, respectively. As a consequence, the DVR can be rated for lower power saving cost. The simulation results based on Matlab/Simulink using a 2 MW DFIG and the experimental results...
Stator-Flux Oriented Continuous Control of Torque in Induction Motors%异步电机按定子磁链定向的转矩连续控制
谢鸿鸣; 阮毅; 陈伯时
2000-01-01
This paper analyzes dynamic equivalent circuit of induction motor and the relationship among inner fluxes, then presents a direct stator flux oriented continuous torque control (DSFOCTC) scheme of induction motor , which uses stator current vector control instead of voltage vector control. As a combination of direct torque control (DTC) and flux-oriented vector control, it achieves round stator flux and continuous dynamic torque control resulting in less torque ripple than that in DTC. It reduces the dependence on rotor parameters, and is especially insensitive to rotor resistance. Finally, an induction motor speed control system incorporating this novel scheme is given and checked by simulation.
Mohd Afaque Iqbal
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Single-phase induction motor (SPIM has very crucial role in industrial, domestic and commercial sectors. So, the efficient SPIM is a major requirement of today’s market. For efficient motors, many research methodologies and suggestions have been given by researchers in past. Various parameters like as stator/rotor slot variation, size and shape of stator/rotor slots, stator/rotor winding configuration, choice of core material etc. have significant impact on machine design. Rotor slot geometry influences the distribution of the magnetic field to a degree. Even a little difference of the magnetic field distribution can make big difference on the performance of the induction motor. The rotor slot geometry influences the skin effect and slot leakage flux in order to increase the torque and efficiency. In this paper, three types of rotor slot configurations are designed and simulated with different rotor slot configuration and rotor bars composition by changing the rotor slot configuration of base model. Aluminum and Copper are used simultaneously as rotor winding material. The rotor bar is a composite conductor which carries Aluminum as well as Copper sub-conductors running parallel in the same slot. Overall cross section area of rotor bar in each model kept same and work is carried out with difference proportion of Aluminum and Copper sub conductors. All models are investigated and simulated in FEMM and finally the simulated results are compared for optimal solution.
Leighton, K. P.; Harris, W. L.
1984-01-01
An investigation of blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) has been conducted. This investigation consisted of an examination of BVI blade slap for two, three, and four-bladed model rotors at tip Mach numbers ranging from 0.20 to 0.50. Blade slap contours have been obtained for each configuration tested. Differences in blade slap contours, peak sound pressure level, and directivity for each configuration tested are noted. Additional fundamental differences, such as multiple interaction BVI, are observed and occur for only specific rotor blade configurations. The effect of increasing the Mach number on the BVI blade slap for various rotor blade combinations has been quantified. A peak blade slap Mach number scaling law is proposed. Comparison of measured BVI blade slap with theory is made.
Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling
Envia, Edmane
2012-01-01
Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.
Model based methods for rotor position detection of doubly-fed induction generator
Zhu, Rongwu; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yunqian;
2014-01-01
Model based strategy to detect the initial position angle of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is proposed in this paper. As the stator windings are open-circuit when the wind speed is below the cut-in speed, the stator flux is determined by both rotor position and currents. Based...... on the characteristic, the initial position angle of the rotor is derived by rotor voltage injection (RVI) method and rotor current close loop injection (RCCLI) method, respectively. Further, the two methods are validated by a scaled-down 7.5kW DFIG setup, and the results clearly show that with the RCCLI, the rotor...... initial position of DFIG can be accurately and fast detected for a DFIG with rated parameters and rotor resistance deviations....
Bispectrum of stator phase current for fault detection of induction motor.
Treetrong, Juggrapong; Sinha, Jyoti K; Gu, Fengshu; Ball, Andrew
2009-07-01
A number of research studies has shown that faults in a stator or rotor generally show sideband frequencies around the mains frequency (50 Hz) and at higher harmonics in the spectrum of the Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA). However in the present experimental studies such observations have not been seen, but any fault either in the stator or the rotor may distort the sinusoidal response of the motor RPM and the mains frequency so the MCSA response may contain a number of harmonics of the motor RPM and the mains frequency. Hence the use of a higher order spectrum (HOS), namely the bispectrum of the MCSA has been proposed here because it relates both amplitude and phase of number of the harmonics in a signal. It has been observed that it not only detects early faults but also indicates the severity of the fault to some extent.
Sensorless Stator Field-Oriented Controlled IM Drive at Low Speed with Rr Estimator
Wen-Cheng Pu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper pertains to a technique of a sensorless indirect stator field-oriented induction motor control, which prevents the accumulative errors incurred by the integrator and the problem relating to the stability of the control system caused by the stator resistance susceptible to temperature variations while conducting the flux estimation directly and computing the synchronous rotary speed. The research adds an adaptive flux observer to estimate the speed of the rotor and uses the fixed trace algorithm (FTA to execute an online estimation of the slip difference, thereby improving the system of stability under the low rotary speed at regenerating mode and the influence of the rotor resistance on the slip angle. Finally, the paper conducts simulations by Simulink of MATLAB and practices to verify the correctness of the result the paper presents.
Effects of stator bending on pressure field and loss of transonic turbine stage
WANG Kai; ZHOU Xun; WANG Zhong-qi
2009-01-01
To study effects of the upstream flow field changing on the downstream flow field of transonic turbine, different three-dimensional bowed blades, which are the stator blades of transonic turbine stage, were designed in this paper. And then numerical calculations were carried out. The effects on downstream flow field were studied and analyzed in detail. Results show that, at the middle of stator blades, although the increasing Mach number causes the increase of shock-wave strength and friction, the middle flow field of downstream rotors is improved obviously. It is an important change in transonic condition. This causes the loss of the rotor's middie part decreased greatly. Correspondingly, efficiency of the whole transonic stage can be increased.
Analysis of a polyphase synchronous reluctance motor with two identical stator windings
Obe, E.S. [Laboratory of Power Devices, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Enugu State (Nigeria); Senjyu, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)
2006-04-15
This paper presents the performance analysis of a cageless two-stator-winding reluctance motor which is capable of developing reluctance torque at good power factors in the absence of inverter control. The machine stator has two separate identical polyphase windings whose pole numbers are the same as that of the cageless rotor. The machine performance is investigated using the traditional circle diagrams, and the d-q rotor reference frame equations derived in space-vector form by applying the concept of winding functions. Core loss and saturation are accounted for in the developed dynamic model. It is shown that if one winding is connected directly to the supply and the other fed with a balanced capacitor, the developed torque is superior to a brushless doubly-fed reluctance machine (BDFRM) of similar size. Other motor characteristics, its line-start behaviour and torque ripples are also presented and discussed. Experimental results corroborate the simulations. (author)
Hassan Farhan Rashag
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Various aspects related to controlling induction motor are investigated. Direct torque control is an original high performance control strategy in the field of AC drive. In this proposed method, the control system is based on Space Vector Modulation (SVM, amplitude of voltage in direct- quadrature reference frame (d-q reference and angle of stator flux. Amplitude of stator voltage is controlled by PI torque and PI flux controller. The stator flux angle is adjusted by rotor angular frequency and slip angular frequency. Then, the reference torque and the estimated torque is applied to the input of PI torque controller and the control quadrature axis voltage is determined. The control d-axis voltage is determined from the flux calculator. These q and d axis voltage are converted into amplitude voltage. By applying polar to Cartesian on amplitude voltage and stator flux angle, direct voltage and quadratures voltage are generated. The reference stator voltages in d-q are calculated based on forcing the stator voltage error to zero at next sampling period. By applying inverse park transformation on d-q voltages, the stator voltages in &alpha and &beta frame are generated and apply to SVM. From the output of SVM, the motor control signal is generated and the speed of the induction motor regulated toward the rated speed. The simulation Results have demonstrated exceptional performance in steady and transient states and shows that decrease of torque and flux ripples is achieved in a complete speed range.
An electrostatic lower stator axial-gap polysilicon wobble motor part I: design and modeling
Legtenberg, Rob; Berenschot, Erwin; Baar, van, J.J.; Elwenspoek, Miko
1998-01-01
This paper presents design issues and a theoretical model of electrostatically driven axial-gap polysilicon wobble motors. The motor design benefits from large axial rotor-to-stator overlap and large gear ratios, and motor designs with rotor radii of 50 and 100 ¿m are capable of generating torques in the nanoNewtonmeter range at high electrostatic fields. Because of the large gear ratio, smaller angular steps and lower rotational speed are obtained, compared to radial-gap motor designs. Aspec...
A study of EV induction motor controller based on rotor flux oriented control
Song Jianguo; Chen Quanshi
2006-01-01
Induction motor is a multi-parameter, non-linear and strong coupling system, which requires efficient control algorithms. In this paper, rotor flux oriented control (FOC) algorithm based on voltage source inverter-fed is deduced in detail, including stator voltage compensation, closed-loop PI parameters' calculation of torque and rotor flux. FOC's Simulink model is setup to simulate torque and rotor flux's response. At last, the experimental results are shown.
Fault detection in rotor bearing systems using time frequency techniques
Chandra, N. Harish; Sekhar, A. S.
2016-05-01
Faults such as misalignment, rotor cracks and rotor to stator rub can exist collectively in rotor bearing systems. It is an important task for rotor dynamic personnel to monitor and detect faults in rotating machinery. In this paper, the rotor startup vibrations are utilized to solve the fault identification problem using time frequency techniques. Numerical simulations are performed through finite element analysis of the rotor bearing system with individual and collective combinations of faults as mentioned above. Three signal processing tools namely Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) are compared to evaluate their detection performance. The effect of addition of Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) on three time frequency techniques is presented. The comparative study is focused towards detecting the least possible level of the fault induced and the computational time consumed. The computation time consumed by HHT is very less when compared to CWT based diagnosis. However, for noisy data CWT is more preferred over HHT. To identify fault characteristics using wavelets a procedure to adjust resolution of the mother wavelet is presented in detail. Experiments are conducted to obtain the run-up data of a rotor bearing setup for diagnosis of shaft misalignment and rotor stator rubbing faults.
Hathaway, M. D.; Suder, K. L.; Strazisar, A. J.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Okiishi, T. H.
1987-01-01
Unsteady velocity field measurements made within the stator row of a transonic axial-flow fan are presented. Measurements were obtained at midspan for two different stator blade rows using a laser anemometer. The first stator row consists of double circular-arc airfoils with a solidity of 1.68. The second features controlled-diffusion airfoils with a solidity of 0.85. Both were tested at design-speed peak efficiency conditions. In addition, the controlled-diffusion stator was also tested at near stall conditions. The procedures developed here are used to identify the rotor wake generated and unresolved unsteadiness from the velocity measurements (rotor wake generated unsteadiness refers to the unsteadiness generated by the rotor wake velocity deficit and unresolved unsteadiness refers to all remaining unsteadiness which contributes to the spread in the distribution of velocities such as vortex shedding, turbulence, etc.). Auto and cross correlations of these unsteady velocity fluctuations are presented to show their relative magnitude and spatial distributions. Amplification and attenuation of both rotor wake generated and unresolved unsteadiness are shown to occur within the stator blade passage.
Hathaway, M. D.; Suder, K. L.; Okiishi, T. H.; Strazisar, A. J.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1987-01-01
Unsteady velocity field measurements made within the stator row of a transonic axial-flow fan are presented. Measurements were obtained at midspan for two different stator blade rows using a laser anemometer. The first stator row consists of double circular-arc airfoils with a solidity of 1.68. The second features controlled-diffusion airfoils with a solidity of 0.85. Both were tested at design-speed peak efficiency conditions. In addition, the controlled-diffusion stator was also tested at near stall conditions. The procedures developed here are used to identify the rotor wake generated and unresolved unsteadiness from the velocity measurements (rotor wake generated unsteadiness refers to the unsteadiness generated by the rotor wake velocity deficit and unresolved unsteadiness refers to all remaining unsteadiness which contributes to the spread in the distribution of velocities such as vortex shedding, turbulence, etc.). Auto and cross correlations of these unsteady velocity fluctuations are presented to show their relative magnitude and spatial distributions. Amplification and attenuation of both rotor wake generated and unresolved unsteadiness are shown to occur within the stator blade passage.
Maximization of induction motor torque in the zone of high speed of rotor using a genetic algorithm
2013-01-01
Is studied the problem of quality improving of the vector-controlled induction motor drives. Using genetic algorithm obtained a law forming of the rotor flux linkage that maximizes the torque of an induction motor with constraints voltage and stator current. Numerical studies have shown that the proposed law can significantly increase the motor torque in the area of high speed of rotor.
Vibration sensing in smart machine rotors using internal MEMS accelerometers
Jiménez, Samuel; Cole, Matthew O. T.; Keogh, Patrick S.
2016-09-01
This paper presents a novel topology for enhanced vibration sensing in which wireless MEMS accelerometers embedded within a hollow rotor measure vibration in a synchronously rotating frame of reference. Theoretical relations between rotor-embedded accelerometer signals and the vibration of the rotor in an inertial reference frame are derived. It is thereby shown that functionality as a virtual stator-mounted displacement transducer can be achieved through appropriate signal processing. Experimental tests on a prototype rotor confirm that both magnitude and phase information of synchronous vibration can be measured directly without additional stator-mounted key-phasor sensors. Displacement amplitudes calculated from accelerometer signals will become erroneous at low rotational speeds due to accelerometer zero-g offsets, hence a corrective procedure is introduced. Impact tests are also undertaken to examine the ability of the internal accelerometers to measure transient vibration. A further capability is demonstrated, whereby the accelerometer signals are used to measure rotational speed of the rotor by analysing the signal component due to gravity. The study highlights the extended functionality afforded by internal accelerometers and demonstrates the feasibility of internal sensor topologies, which can provide improved observability of rotor vibration at externally inaccessible rotor locations.
Gayen, P K; Chatterjee, D; Goswami, S K
2016-05-01
In this paper, an enhanced low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) performance of a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has been presented with the usage of stator dynamic composite fault current limiter (SDCFCL). This protection circuit comprises of a suitable series resistor-inductor combination and parallel bidirectional semiconductor switch. The SDCFCL facilitates double benefits such as reduction of rotor induced open circuit voltage due to increased value of stator total inductance and concurrent increase of rotor impedance. Both effects will limit rotor circuit over current and over voltage situation more secured way in comparison to the conventional scheme like the dynamic rotor current limiter (RCL) during any type of fault situation. The proposed concept is validated through the simulation study of the grid integrated 2.0MW DFIG.
Electromechanical interaction in rotordynamics of cage induction motors
Holopainen, T.P. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland)
2004-08-01
Electromagnetic fields in the air gap of an electric machine produce electromagnetic forces between the rotor and stator. The total force exerted on the rotor due to the eccentric rotor position is called the unbalanced magnetic pull. This eccentricity force is directed roughly over the shortest air gap. At low frequencies, the vibration amplitudes of flexural modes may be large enough to couple the electromagnetic system to the mechanical one. This electromechanical inter-action changes the vibration behaviour of the system. The main purpose of this dissertation is to reveal the main rotordynamic consequences induced by the electromechanical interaction in cage induction motors. Another goal is to achieve this by deriving a simple and representative electro mechanical rotor model with physical variables and parameters. In this study, a new parametric model was derived for the unbalanced magnetic pull induced by an arbitrary rotor motion in transient operation. The parameters of this model can be determined analytically from the basis of the machine characteristics or estimated numerically as in this study. To estimate the parameters, an efficient numerical method was developed from the analysis of impulse response. The numerical results showed that the simple electromagnetic force model, together with the estimated parameters, predicts the unbalanced magnetic pull fairly accurately. An electromechanical rotor model was derived by combining the Jeffcott rotor model with the simple electromagnetic force model, including two additional variables for the harmonic currents of the rotor cage. Applying this model, the rotordynamic effects of electromechanical interaction were studied. Three induction motors were used in the numerical examples. The results obtained show that the electromechanical interaction may decrease the flexural frequencies of the rotor, induce additional damping or cause rotordynamic instability. These interaction effects are most significant in
祝效华; 石昌帅; 童华
2015-01-01
In order to meet the high temperature environment requirement of deep and superdeep well exploitation, a technology of large length-to-diameter ratio metal stator screw lining meshing with rotor is presented. Based on the elastic-plasticity theory, and under the consideration of the effect of tube size, material mechanical parameters, friction coefficient and loading paths, the external pressure plastic forming mechanical model of metal stator screw lining is established, to study the optimal loading path of metal stator lining tube hydroforming process. The results show that wall thickness reduction of the external pressure tube hydroforming (THF) is about 4%, and three evaluation criteria of metal stator screw lining forming quality are presented: fillet stick mold coefficient, thickness relative error and forming quality coefficient. The smaller the three criteria are, the better the forming quality is. Each indicator has a trend of increase with the loading rate reducing, and the adjustment laws of die arc transition zone equidistance profile curve are acquired for improving tube forming quality. Hence, the research results prove the feasibility of external pressure THF used for processing high-accuracy large length-to-diameter ratio metal stator screw lining, and provide theoretical basis for designing new kind of stator structure which has better performance and longer service life.
2006-10-31
Molecular Dipolar Rotors on Insulating Surfaces," Salamanca , Spain. Trends in Nanotechnology Conference. September 5-9, 2003 [86] Laura I. Clarke, Mary Beth...Horansky at the Trends in Nanotechnology Conference, Salamanca , Spain (September 5-9, 2003). [145] Michl, J. “Unusual Molecules: Artificial Surface...temperature and frequency for difluorophenylene rotor crystal. Figure JP6. Monte Carlo results for the local potential asymmetry at
Novel indices for broken rotor bars fault diagnosis in induction motors using wavelet transform
Ebrahimi, Bashir Mahdi; Faiz, Jawad; Lotfi-fard, S.; Pillay, P.
2012-07-01
This paper introduces novel indices for broken rotor bars diagnosis in three-phase induction motors based on wavelet coefficients of stator current in a specific frequency band. These indices enable to diagnose occurrence and determine number of broken bars in different loads precisely. Besides thanks to the suitability of wavelet transform in transient conditions, it is possible to detect the fault during the start-up of the motor. This is important in the case of start-up of large induction motors with long starting time and also motors with frequent start-up. Furthermore, broken rotor bars in induction motor are detected using spectra analysis of the stator current. It is also shown that rise of number of broken bars and load levels increases amplitude of the particular side-band components of the stator currents in the faulty case. An induction motor with 1, 2, 3 and 4 broken bars at the rated load and the motor with 4 broken bars at no-load, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% rated load are investigated. Time stepping finite element method is used for modeling broken rotor bars faults in induction motors. In this modeling, effects of the stator winding distribution, stator and rotor slots, geometrical and physical characteristics of different parts of the motor and non-linearity of the core materials are taken into account. The simulation results are are verified by the experimental results.
A new traveling wave ultrasonic motor using thick ring stator with nested PZT excitation.
Chen, Weishan; Shi, Shengjun; Liu, Yingxiang; Li, Pei
2010-05-01
To avoid the disadvantages of conventional traveling wave ultrasonic motors--lower efficiency PZT working mode of d(31), fragility of the PZT element under strong excitation, fatigue of the adhesive layer under harsh environmental conditions, and low volume of the PZT material in the stator--a new type of traveling wave ultrasonic motor is presented in this paper. Here we implement the stator by nesting 64 PZT stacks in 64 slots specifically cut in a thick metal ring and 64 block springs nested within another 64 slots to produce preloading on the PZT stacks. In this new design, the d33 mode of the PZT is used to excite the flexural vibrations of the stator, and fragility of the PZT ceramics and fatigue of the adhesive layer are no longer an issue. The working principle, FEM simulation, fabrication, and performance measurements of a prototype motor were demonstrated to validate the proposed ideas. Typical output of the prototype motor is no-load speed of 15 rpm and maximum torque of 7.96 N x m. Further improvement will potentially enhance its features by increasing the accuracy in fabrication and adopting appropriate frictional material into the interface between the stator and the rotor.
Nicolas Denis
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM with a stator core made of amorphous magnetic material (AMM is presented. The IPMSM is driven by a voltage source three-phase inverter with classical pulse width modulation (PWM control. The core losses under no-load condition are measured by experiment and compared to an equivalent IPMSM with a stator core made of NO steel. Under these conditions, the core losses are influenced by the stator, rotor and magnet shapes but also by the PWM carrier signal that implies a high frequency harmonic in the magnetic flux density. It is demonstrated that the AMM can reduce the core losses by about 56 %.
Calculation of a Helicopter Rotor in Hover by Viscous-Inviscid Interaction
Filippone, Antonino; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
1995-01-01
A viscous inviscid interaction model has been developed for the calculation of steady and unsteady aerodynamic flows. The model is validfor two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows alike. We use a fully three-dimensional boundary element method as inviscid flow model, and a two-dimensional or ...
William L. Murray
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Blade row interactions in turbomachinery can lead to blade vibrations and even high cycle fatigue. Forced response conditions occur when a forcing function (such as impingement of stator wakes occurs at a frequency that matches the natural frequency of a blade. The objective of this research is to develop the data processing techniques needed to detect rotor blade vibration in a forced response condition from stationary fast-response pressure transducers to allow for detection of rotor vibration from transient data and lead to techniques for vibration monitoring in gas turbines. This paper marks the first time in the open literature that engine-order resonant response of an embedded bladed disk in a 3-stage intermediate-speed axial compressor was detected using stationary pressure transducers. Experiments were performed in a stage axial research compressor focusing on the embedded rotor of blisk construction. Fourier waterfall graphs from a laser tip timing system were used to detect the vibrations after applying signal processing methods to uncover these pressure waves associated with blade vibration. Individual blade response was investigated using cross covariance to compare blade passage pressure signatures through resonance. Both methods agree with NSMS data that provide a measure of the exact compressor speeds at which individual blades enter resonance.
A New Sensorless MRAS Based on Active Power Calculations for Rotor Position Estimation of a DFIG
Gil Domingos Marques
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A sensorless method for the estimation of the rotor position of the wound-rotor induction machine is described in this paper. The method is based on the MRAS methodology and consists in the comparison of two models for the evaluation of the active power transferred across the air gap: the reference model and the adaptive model. The reference model obtains the power transferred across the air gap using directly available and measured stator variables. The adaptive model obtains the same quantity in function of electromotive forces and rotor currents that are measurable on the rotor position, which is under estimation. The method does not need any information about the stator or rotor flux and can be implemented in the rotor or in the stator reference frames with a hysteresis or with a PI controller. The stability analysis gives an unstable region on the rotor current dq plane. Simulation and experimental results show that the method is appropriate for the vector control of the doubly fed induction machine under the stability region.
Go YoungJin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The causes of faults of induction motors are largely categorized into bearing fault, which causes a mechanical fault, and stator fault and rotor fault, which cause an electrical fault. A stator fault among these faults, which causes an electrical fault, occurs due to the breakdown of insulation, meaning the stator is directly connected with the power supply, and the direct connection is a direct cause of a major accident. For this reason, many studies are being performed to detect the faults. This paper explained the effects of a negative sequence on phase angle change by analyzing the effects of the existing negative sequence on the d-q transform of Park’s vector approach. This paper suggested a new algorithm that identifies the causes of stator faults with the use of the change in the duty ratio of the half-period frequency of the frequency when a phase angle change occurs at that moment.
Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction
George, A. R.; Coffen, C. D.; Ringler, T. D.
The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the rotor. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and loading noise mechanisms in hover are examined by first modeling tilt rotor hover aerodynamics and then applying various noise prediction methods using the WOPWOP code. The analysis indicates that the partial ground plane created by the wing below the rotor results in a primary sound source for hover.
M. Sundaram
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: A good design of Submersible Induction Motor is required to maintain maximum efficiency level. This can be achieved in one way by optimum design of magnetic circuit. The magnetic circuit of an Induction Motor is formed by the combination of Stator core, Rotor core and air gap. In applications like Submersible Motor Pumps, the air gap cannot be minimized beyond 0.5 mm, because of the machining tolerance required, due to large core length. Now a day, the efficiency of such motor is improved by die-cast copper rotor. But the cost of such motor is more and sometimes the rotor core properties are getting changed due to high temperature during die- casting process. Approach: A new stator slot shape is proposed based on the results obtained from the iterations with Rotational Machine Expert (RMxprt software and the performance is compared with that of the existing stator slot shape, for a 3-phase, 5 hp, 380 V, 2-pole motor The motor with both the stator slot shapes have been analyzed with the Rotational Machine Expert (RMxprt software Results: The magnetizing current of new design is 3.25 A, compared to the existing design of 4.67 A. The overall efficiency of the Submersible Induction Motor pump set is 5% more than that of the existing one. The discharge of the pump set has increased by about 80 liters per minute. Conclusion: The proposed stator slot dimension is suitable for more efficiency, less magnetizing current and a good power factor. This design modification does not require much cost and needs no complex manufacturing process.
Shehu Salihu Mustafa
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel double-stator permanent-magnet machine integrated with a triple rotor magnetic gear structure, which is proposed to address problems of mechanical geared generators for low-speed applications. Torque transmission is based on three rotors consisting of prime permanent-magnet (PM poles in the middle rotor and field PM poles in the inner and outer rotors. The proposed machine combines the functions of magnetic gearing and electrical power generation. The operating principles of the magnetic gear and generator are discussed and the torque distribution characteristics of the integrated machine are analysed using the 2D finite-element method (2D FEM. Also the power, torque, and speed characteristics are reported. A prototype is fabricated and tested experimentally. The predicted and measured results validate the proposed machine design.
Dynamics of the interaction between the rotor and the induction zone
Mirzaei, Mahmood; Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul; Troldborg, Niels
2016-01-01
measurements are affected by the presence of the wind turbine, due to its induction zone. In this work, the dynamic coupling between changes in the wind turbine operating point and the velocities inside the induction zone is studied. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are used to investigate...... this interaction. Thereafter, system identification is used to fit first order dynamic models to the simulation results. The parameters of the model are given for the turbine induction zone. These results possibly reduce the uncertainty in lidar measurements, arising from wind turbine blockage....
Speed Estimators Using Stator Resistance Adaptation for Sensorless Induction Motor Drive
Hau Huu Vo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes speed estimators for a speed sensorless induction motor drive with the direct torque and flux control. However, the accuracy of the direct torque control depends on the correct information of the stator resistance, because its value varies with working conditions of the induction motor. Hence, a stator resistance adaptation is necessary. Two techniques were developed for solving this problem: model reference adaptive system based scheme and artificial neural network based scheme. At first, the sensorless control structures of the induction motor drive were implemented in Matlab-Simulink environment. Then, a comparison is done by evaluating the rotor speed difference. The simulation results confirm that speed estimators and adaptation techniques are simple to simulate and experiment. By comparison of both speed estimators and both adaptation techniques, the current based model reference adaptive system estimator with the artificial neural network based adaptation technique gives higher accuracy of the speed estimation.
S. Mohan Krishna
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time simulation study of Model Reference Adaptive System based rotor speed estimator with parallel stator resistance adaptation mechanism for speed sensorless induction motor drive. Both, the traditional Proportional Integral and Fuzzy logic based control mechanisms are utilised for stator resistance adaptation, while, the rotor speed is estimated parallely by means of Proportional Integral based mechanism. The estimator's response to dynamic changes in Load perturbation and doubling of the nominal value of the actual stator resistance of the motor is observed. The superiority of the fuzzy based stator resistance adaptation in the Model Reference Adaptive System estimator is proved through results validated in real-time. The purpose of employing a fairly new real-time platform is to reduce the test and prototype time. The model is initially built using Matlab/Simulink blocksets and the results are validated in real time using RT-Lab. The RT-lab blocksets are integrated into the Simulink model and then executed in real-time using the OP-4500 target developed by Opal-RT. The real-time simulation results are observed in the workstation.
Shaft MisalignmentDetectionusing Stator Current Monitoring
2013-01-01
This paper inspects the misaligned of shaft by usingdiagnostic medium such as current and vibration.Misalignments in machines can cause decrease inefficiency and in the long-run it may cause failurebecause of unnecessary vibration, stress on motor,bearings and short-circuiting in stator and rotorwindings.In this study, authors investigate the onsetof instability on a shaft mounted on journal bearings.Shaft displacement and stator current samples duringmachine run up under misaligned condition...
Advanced simulation model for IPM motor drive with considering phase voltage and stator inductance
Lee, Dong-Myung; Park, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Ju
2016-10-01
This paper proposes an advanced simulation model of driving system for Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) BrushLess Direct Current (BLDC) motors driven by 120-degree conduction method (two-phase conduction method, TPCM) that is widely used for sensorless control of BLDC motors. BLDC motors can be classified as SPM (Surface mounted Permanent Magnet) and IPM motors. Simulation model of driving system with SPM motors is simple due to the constant stator inductance regardless of the rotor position. Simulation models of SPM motor driving system have been proposed in many researches. On the other hand, simulation models for IPM driving system by graphic-based simulation tool such as Matlab/Simulink have not been proposed. Simulation study about driving system of IPMs with TPCM is complex because stator inductances of IPM vary with the rotor position, as permanent magnets are embedded in the rotor. To develop sensorless scheme or improve control performance, development of control algorithm through simulation study is essential, and the simulation model that accurately reflects the characteristic of IPM is required. Therefore, this paper presents the advanced simulation model of IPM driving system, which takes into account the unique characteristic of IPM due to the position-dependent inductances. The validity of the proposed simulation model is validated by comparison to experimental and simulation results using IPM with TPCM control scheme.
A novel method for estimating the initial rotor position of PM motors without the position sensor
Rostami, Alireza; Asaei, Behzad [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)
2009-08-15
Permanent magnet (PM) motors have been used widely in the industrial applications. However, a need of the position sensor is a drawback of their control system. The sensorless methods using the back-EMF (electromotive force) cannot detect the rotor position at a standstill; recently, a few methods proposed to detect the initial rotor position, but they have high estimation error which reduces starting torque of the motor. Therefore, in this paper, a novel method to detect the initial rotor position of the PM motors is proposed, first, by using a space vector model, response of the stator current space vector to the saturation of the stator core is analyzed; then a novel method based on the saturation effect is presented that estimates the initial rotor position and the maximum estimation error is less than 3.8. Simulation results confirm this method is effective and precise, and variation of the motor parameters does not affect its precision. (author)
Ludwinek Krzysztof
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of higher harmonics in induced phase voltages of a stator winding in the no-load state of a three-phase 5.5 kVA salient pole synchronous generator. The comparison is carried out for the synchronous generator with different salient pole rotor constructions: a non-skewed solid rotor, a non-skewed solid rotor with radial incisions, and a laminated electrotechnical steel rotor with skewed slots and damping bars. The calculations of higher harmonics are based on the magnetic field distributions in the air gap, which are carried out in a 2D model in a FEMM program and on the induced voltage waveforms in the stator windings registered during experimental investigations of the 5.5 kVA salient pole synchronous generator in the no-load state.
Dunca, G.; Muntean, S.; Isbasoiu, E. C.
2010-08-01
The paper presents the 3D numerical analysis of the flow into a hydraulic passage of the two stages and double entry storage pump. One of the reasons for choosing this machinery was that, even from the beginning of its operation, high levels of noise and vibration were recorded. According to the literature, these can be considered as effects of the impeller-stator phenomenon. After only 100 hours of operation, the pump' first stator blades was bend and the second stator blades was broken. As a rehabilitation solution, 100 mm of the chord were cut from the stator blades, near the leading edge. After the rehabilitation, a decrease of the noise and vibration levels during pump operation was observed. In order to analyse the pump behaviour, three measurements campaigns were conducted, after the rehabilitation. Yet, the experimental results were not very conclusive. A more detailed experimental analysis on a real turbo machine is very difficult and expensive. Thus, in order to obtain more detailed information regarding the impeller-stator phenomenon inside the analysed pump, a numerical analysis was realized. The impeller-stator (between the first impeller and first stator as well as between second impeller and second stator) and stator-impeller (between the first stator and second impeller) interactions are taken into account with mixing interface method. The hydrodynamic field from the inlet to the outlet is obtained. As a result, the pressure rise and hydraulic efficiency are computed at best efficiency point. These values are validated against experimental data measured into the storage pump. Comparing the numerical results obtained for the two geometries of the stators, it can be seen that they have different behaviour during the pump's operation. It can be considered that, although the same geometry modification was realized for both the stators, the effects on the flow parameters are different, only for the second stator being possible to observe a net
Uma Devi Kumaravelu; Sanavullah Mohamed Yakub
2012-01-01
A method of simulation and modeling outer rotor permanent magnet brushless DC (ORPMBLDC) motor under dynamic conditions using finite element method by FEMM 4.2 software package is presented. In the proposed simulation, the torque developed at various positions of the rotor, under a complete cycle of excitation of the stator, is analysed. A novel method of sinusoidal excitation is proposed to enhance the overall torque development of ORPMBLDC motor.
A New Sensorless MRAS Based on Active Power Calculations for Rotor Position Estimation of a DFIG
Gil Domingos Marques; Duarte Mesquita e Sousa
2011-01-01
A sensorless method for the estimation of the rotor position of the wound-rotor induction machine is described in this paper. The method is based on the MRAS methodology and consists in the comparison of two models for the evaluation of the active power transferred across the air gap: the reference model and the adaptive model. The reference model obtains the power transferred across the air gap using directly available and measured stator variables. The adaptive model obtains the same quanti...
Uma Devi Kumaravelu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A method of simulation and modeling outer rotor permanent magnet brushless DC (ORPMBLDC motor under dynamic conditions using finite element method by FEMM 4.2 software package is presented. In the proposed simulation, the torque developed at various positions of the rotor, under a complete cycle of excitation of the stator, is analysed. A novel method of sinusoidal excitation is proposed to enhance the overall torque development of ORPMBLDC motor.
Brandao, Jose Geraldo Trani; Tomazini, Jose Elias [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Mecanica]. E-mails: brandao@feg.unesp.br; tomazini@feg.unesp.br
2000-07-01
This work reports the static calibration of a device used for measurements of the hydraulic efforts resulting from the interaction between the flow and the turbomachinery rotor, simulating the various operation conditions. The device was developed by the Stuttgart University. A calibration process is described for allowing a real correspondence among real efforts acting on the rotor model and the the measured efforts. The used device consists of load three dimension piezoelectric sensors.
Stator Current Harmonic Control with Resonant Controller for Doubly Fed Induction Generator
Liu, Changjin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Wenjie;
2012-01-01
Voltage harmonics in the grid can introduce stator current harmonics in a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine system, which may potentially impact the generated power quality. Therefore, wind turbine current controllers need to be designed to eliminate the impact of grid voltage...... rotor current control loop for harmonic suppression. The overall control scheme is implemented in dq frame. Based on a mathematical model of the DFIG control system, the effects on system stability using the resonant controller, an analysis of the steady-state error, and the dynamic performance...
Measurement on stages with 3D bladings and different relative width of stator blades
Zitek Pavel
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Two variants of a stage with modern 3D bladings were tested on a single-stage air turbine to determine the influence of relative width of stator blades (nozzles. The first case means a high-density nozzle row with t/Bax = 0.61; the second one represents a low-density row with t/Bax = 1.12. The 3D shaping of both nozzle cases is based on the same design features. Rotor blades (buckets are kept the same (also 3D shaped. Comparisons of overall stage efficiency as well as measured flow fields data are presented in the paper.
Measurement on stages with 3D bladings and different relative width of stator blades
Milcak, Petr; Hoznedl, Michal; Zitek, Pavel
2012-04-01
Two variants of a stage with modern 3D bladings were tested on a single-stage air turbine to determine the influence of relative width of stator blades (nozzles). The first case means a high-density nozzle row with t/Bax = 0.61; the second one represents a low-density row with t/Bax = 1.12. The 3D shaping of both nozzle cases is based on the same design features. Rotor blades (buckets) are kept the same (also 3D shaped). Comparisons of overall stage efficiency as well as measured flow fields data are presented in the paper.
Measurement on stages with 3D bladings and different relative width of stator blades
Zitek Pavel; Hoznedl Michal; Milcak Petr
2012-01-01
Two variants of a stage with modern 3D bladings were tested on a single-stage air turbine to determine the influence of relative width of stator blades (nozzles). The first case means a high-density nozzle row with t/Bax = 0.61; the second one represents a low-density row with t/Bax = 1.12. The 3D shaping of both nozzle cases is based on the same design features. Rotor blades (buckets) are kept the same (also 3D shaped). Comparisons of overall stage efficiency as well as measured flow fields ...
A new diagnosis of broken rotor bar fault extent in three phase squirrel cage induction motor
Shi, Pu; Chen, Zheng; Vagapov, Yuriy; Zouaoui, Zoubir
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a new induction motor broken bar fault extent diagnostic approach under varying load conditions based on wavelet coefficients of stator current in a specific frequency band. In this paper, winding function approach (WFA) is used to develop a mathematical model to provide indication references for parameters under different load levels and different fault cases. It is shown that rise of number of broken bars and load levels increases amplitude of the particular side band components of the stator currents in faulty case. Stator current, rotor speed and torque are used to demonstrate the relationship between these parameters and broken rotor bar severity. An induction motor with 1, 2 and 3 broken bars and the motor with 3 broken bars in experiment at no-load, 50% and 100% load are investigated. A novel criterion is then developed to assess rotor fault severity based on the stator current and the rotor speed. Simulations and experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed approach.
Dynamic Thermal Analysis of DFIG Rotor-side Converter during Balanced Grid Fault
Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede
2014-01-01
and the rotor voltage during the balanced grid fault is firstly addressed. By using the traditional demagnetizing control, the damping of the stator flux and the safety operation area are theoretically evaluated with various amounts of demagnetizing current. It is observed that the higher demagnetizing current...
Effects of Low Reynolds Number on Wake-Generated Unsteady Flow of an Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor
Matsunuma Takayuki
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The unsteady flow field downstream of axial-flow turbine rotors at low Reynolds numbers was investigated experimentally using hot-wire probes. Reynolds number, based on rotor exit velocity and rotor chord length Re out,RT , was varied from 3.2× 10 4 to 12.8× 10 4 at intervals of 1.0× 10 4 by changing the flow velocity of the wind tunnel. The time-averaged and time-dependent distributions of velocity and turbulence intensity were analyzed to determine the effect of Reynolds number. The reduction of Reynolds number had a marked influence on the turbine flow field. The regions of high turbulence intensity due to the wake and the secondary vortices were increased dramatically with the decreasing Reynolds number. The periodic fluctuation of the flow due to rotor-stator interaction also increased with the decreasing Reynolds number. The energy-dissipation thickness of the rotor midspan wake at the low Reynolds number Re out,RT =3.2× 10 4 was 1.5 times larger than that at the high Reynolds number Re out,RT =12.8× 10 4 . The curve of the −0.2 power of the Reynolds number agreed with the measured energy-dissipation thickness at higher Reynolds numbers. However, the curve of the −0.4 power law fitted more closely than the curve of the −0.2 power law at lower Reynolds numbers below 6.4× 10 4 .
Shaft MisalignmentDetectionusing Stator Current Monitoring
Alok Kumar Verma, Somnath Sarangi and M.H. Kolekar
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This paper inspects the misaligned of shaft by usingdiagnostic medium such as current and vibration.Misalignments in machines can cause decrease inefficiency and in the long-run it may cause failurebecause of unnecessary vibration, stress on motor,bearings and short-circuiting in stator and rotorwindings.In this study, authors investigate the onsetof instability on a shaft mounted on journal bearings.Shaft displacement and stator current samples duringmachine run up under misaligned condition aremeasured, analyzed and presented here. Verificationof shaft alignment is done by precision laseralignment kit. Result shows that misalignment is theparameter that is more responsible for the cause ofinstability.
Rotor Position Estimation for Switched Reluctance Wind Generator Using Extreme Learning Machine
Wang, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe
2014-01-01
Reluctance Wind Generator (SRWG) based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) which could build a nonlinear mapping between flux linkage-current and rotor position. The learning data are derived from magnetization curves of the SRWG which are obtained from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of an SRG with 8/6 stator...... wind turbines are operating. Fast and accurate rotor position estimation is essential to promote the sensorless control as well as sensor fault tolerant operation of the SRG, which may improve the reliability of the system. This paper presents a rotor position sensorless estimation scheme for Switched...
Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles
Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.
1983-01-01
A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.
Permanent magnet motor drives with switched stator windings
Nipp, E.
1999-06-01
Permanent magnet (PM) motors are today regarded as an interesting solution for a wide range of inverter-fed variable-speed drives. The generally increased interest in these motors has led to many investigations on their feasibility for vehicle propulsion. Consequently, they are also of interest for traction applications which led to the research project that is presented in this thesis. The most important advantages that are expected in comparison to the state of the art asynchronous motors are lower losses and a higher torque density. Often the field weakening speed range is important, but difficult to obtain with PM machines because the inductance in the direction of the magnetization tends to be low. An alternative can be to switch different coils groups of the stator winding into different configurations. This is the central topic of this thesis. Various aspects of the design of PM motor drives are considered with special attention to the requirements for the application of the switched winding concept. The studies were thereby limited to the inner rotor, radial flux topology. It was found that two winding parts per phase, implying four different winding connections, is the only interesting solution. An advantage of switched windings is that the internal voltage of the machine will never exceed the maximum inverter output, which increases the operation safety. Furthermore the machine design can uncompromisingly be optimized for operation below base speed, which means low inductances implying a large air gap length and thick magnets. A problem with switched windings is that circulating currents can occur. To diminish them, a 2/3 magnet covering of the pole surface must be chosen in combination with a non-salient rotor. Moreover it was found that the eddy current losses in the magnets can reach non-negligible levels and must be considered when designing a drive system. The major drawback of switched stator windings is probably the occurrence of torque
On Stability of Open-Loop Operation without Rotor Information for Brushless DC Motors
Zhong Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Open-loop operation mode is often used to control the Brushless DC Motors (BLDCMs without rotor position sensors when the back electromotive force (EMF is too weak due to the very low rotor velocity. The rotor position information is not necessary in this mode and the stator windings are supplied with voltages under a certain ratio of the amplitude to the frequency. However, the rotor synchronization will be destroyed once if the commutation instant is inappropriate. In order to improve the reliability of the open-loop operation mode, a dynamic equation is established to represent the synchronization error between the rotor and the stator. Thereafter, the stability of the open-loop control mode is analyzed by using Lyapunov indirect method. Theoretical analysis indicates that the open-loop control mode is asymptotically stable only when the commutation instant of the stator current lags behind the ideal one suitably. Finally, theoretical analysis is verified through the experimental results of a certain BLDCM.
Presentation and Performance Evaluation of a Novel Stator-Permanent-Magnet Hybrid Stepping Motor
Binglin Lu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new type of hybrid stepping motor (HSM with permanent magnets (PMs embedded in the stator, namely the stator-permanent-magnet hybrid stepping motor (SHSM, is presented. It has the same operation principles as the traditional HSM, with a 2-D distributed magnetic field nature and superiorities such as simpler rotor structure, easier PM cooling, higher torque and power density, and higher power grade. Its structural topology and operation principles are initially presented. Then an investigation on the performance comparison between the HSM and the SHSM, in terms of PM flux density, PM torque, detent torque, positional holding accuracy, stator core saturation issue, PM flux leakage, and PM utilization rate is carried out theoretically to make an assessment of the performance superiorities of the SHSM. A prototype of a 2-phase 8-pole 50-rotor-tooth SHSM is fabricated and experimentally compared with the HSM by using finite element analysis (FEA to verify the motor’s operational feasibility and the theoretical analysis. The FEA and experimental results show that the proposed SHSM has performance advantages such as higher torque density, higher power grade, and higher pull-out torque, holding torque, and torque-speed property, although it has performance defects such as higher torque ripple and relatively lower positional holding accuracy in the open-loop operation than the conventional HSM. Consequently, this novel SHSM is more suitable for electromechanical energy conversion applications rather than positioning mechanisms, especially taking into account the open-loop control advantage.
Lewis, G. W., Jr.; Kovich, G.
1976-01-01
A 51-cm-diam model of a fan stage for short haul aircraft was tested in a single stage compressor research facility. The rotor blades were set 7 deg toward the axial direction (opened) from the design setting angle. Surveys of the air flow conditions ahead of the rotor, between the rotor and stator, and behind the stator were made over the stable operating range of the stage. At the design speed and a weight flow of 30.9 kg/sec, the stage pressure ratio and efficiency were 1.205 and 0.85, respectively. The design speed rotor peak efficiency of 0.90 occurred at a flow rate of 32.5 kg/sec.
K. Siva Kumar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The Rotor reactance control by inclusion of external capacitance in the rotor circuit has been in recent research for improving the performances of Wound Rotor Induction Motor (WRIM. The rotor capacitive reactance is adjusted such that for any desired load torque the efficiency of the WRIM is maximized. The rotor external capacitance can be controlled using a dynamic capacitor in which the duty ratio is varied for emulating the capacitance value. This study presents a novel technique for tracking maximum efficiency point in the entire operating range of WRIM using Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The data for ANN training were obtained on a three phase WRIM with dynamic capacitor control and rotor short circuit at different speed and load torque values. Approach: A novel neural network model based on the back-propagation algorithm has been developed and trained in determining the maximum efficiency of the motor with no prior knowledge of the machine parameters. The input variables to the ANN are stator current (Is, Speed (N and Torque (Tm and the output variable is the duty ratio (D. Results: The target is pre-set and the accuracy of the ANN model is measured using Mean Square Error (MSE and R2 parameters. The result of R2 value of the proposed ANN model is found to be 0.99980. Conclusion: The optimal duty ratio and corresponding optimal rotor capacitance for improving the performances of the motor are predicted for low, medium and full loads by using proposed ANN model.
J.D.Denton
1997-01-01
NASA rotor 37 was used as a blind test case for turbomachinery CFD by the Turbomachinery Committee of the IGTI.The rotor is a transonic compressor with a tip speed of 454 m/s(1500ft/s)and a relatively high pressure ratio of 2.1.It was tested in isolation with a circumferentially uniform inlet flow so that the flow through it should be steady apart from and effects of passage to passage geometry variation and mechanical vibration.As such it represents the simplest possible type of test for three-dimensional turbomachinery flow solvers.Howerver,the rotor still presents a real challenge to 3D viscous flow solvers because the shock wave-boudary layer interaction is strong and the effects of viscosity are dominant in determining the flow deviation and hence the pressure ration.Eleven blind solutions were submittewd and in addition a non-blind solution was used to prepare for the exercies.This paper reviews the flow in the test case and the comparisons of the CFD solutions with the test data.Lessons for both the Flow physics in transonic fans and for the application of CFD to such machines are pointed out.
Sivachandran Paulsamy
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In wind energy systems employing permanent magnet generator, there is an imperative need to reduce the cogging torque for smooth and reliable cut in operation. In a permanent magnet generator, cogging torque is produced due to interaction of the rotor magnets with slots and teeth of the stator. This paper is a result of an ongoing research work that deals with various methods to reduce cogging torque in dual rotor radial flux permanent magnet generator (DRFPMG for direct coupled stand alone wind energy systems (SAWES. Three methods were applied to reduce the cogging torque in DRFPMG. The methods were changing slot opening width, changing magnet pole arc width and shifting of slot openings. A combination of these three methods was applied to reduce the cogging torque to a level suitable for direct coupled SAWES. Both determination and reduction of cogging torque were carried out by finite element analysis (FEA using MagNet Software. The cogging torque of DRFPMG has been reduced without major change in induced emf. A prototype of 1 kW, 120 rpm DRFPMG was fabricated and tested to validate the simulation results. The test results have good agreement with the simulation predictions.
Paulsamy, Sivachandran
2014-01-01
In wind energy systems employing permanent magnet generator, there is an imperative need to reduce the cogging torque for smooth and reliable cut in operation. In a permanent magnet generator, cogging torque is produced due to interaction of the rotor magnets with slots and teeth of the stator. This paper is a result of an ongoing research work that deals with various methods to reduce cogging torque in dual rotor radial flux permanent magnet generator (DRFPMG) for direct coupled stand alone wind energy systems (SAWES). Three methods were applied to reduce the cogging torque in DRFPMG. The methods were changing slot opening width, changing magnet pole arc width and shifting of slot openings. A combination of these three methods was applied to reduce the cogging torque to a level suitable for direct coupled SAWES. Both determination and reduction of cogging torque were carried out by finite element analysis (FEA) using MagNet Software. The cogging torque of DRFPMG has been reduced without major change in induced emf. A prototype of 1 kW, 120 rpm DRFPMG was fabricated and tested to validate the simulation results. The test results have good agreement with the simulation predictions.
无
2010-01-01
Experimental investigations are performed in a three-stage low-speed axial compressor with variable inlet guide vanes(IGV) and adjustable stators.The characteristics of the compressor,especially the efficiency and stall margin,are analyzed in design and off-design operation conditions by adjusting stagger angles of IGV and stators as well as changing the rotational speed.The experimental results show that the off-design performance of the multistage axial compressor is improved by restaggering of IGV and stators related to rotational speed.Considering the background of engineering applications,digital signal processing(DSP) technique is used to realize online adjustment of stagger angles according to the corresponding relations between incidence angles of rotor and rotational speed.
Rotor Faults Detection in Induction Motor by Wavelet Analysis
Neelam Mehala
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Motor current signature analysis has been successfully used for fault diagnosis in induction motors. However, this method does not always achieve good results when the speed or the load torque is not constant, because this cause variation on the motor slip and fast Fourier transform problems appear due to non-stationary signal. This paper experimentally describes the effects of rotor broken bar fault in the stator current of induction motor operating under non-constant load conditions. To achieve this, broken rotor bar fault is eplicated in a laboratory and its effect on the motor current has been studied. To diagnose the broken rotor bar fault, a new approach based on wavelet transform is applied by using ‘Labview 8.2 software’ of National Instrument (NI. The diagnosis procedure was performed by using the virtual instruments. The theoretical basis of proposed method is proved by laboratory tests.
Synchronous motor with hybrid permanent magnets on the rotor.
Slusarek, Barbara; Kapelski, Dariusz; Antal, Ludwik; Zalas, Pawel; Gwoździewicz, Maciej
2014-07-10
Powder metallurgy allows designers of electric motors to implement new magnetic circuit structures. A relatively new concept is the use of a magnet system consisting of various types of magnets on one rotor, for example sintered and bonded magnets. This concept has been applied to the design and manufacture of the four-pole rotor of a synchronous motor with 400 W power and a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. In this motor, the stator of an asynchronous motor type Sh 71-4B is applied. The application of the new construction of the rotor resulted in an increase in motor efficiency and power factor compared to an asynchronous motor with the same volume.
Computational Analysis of Multi-Rotor Flows
Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
Interactional aerodynamics of multi-rotor flows has been studied for a quadcopter representing a generic quad tilt-rotor aircraft in hover. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of the separation distances between rotors, and also fuselage and wings on the performance and efficiency of multirotor systems. Three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a spatially 5th order accurate scheme, dual-time stepping, and the Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence model. The results show that the separation distances as well as the wings have significant effects on the vertical forces of quadroror systems in hover. Understanding interactions in multi-rotor flows would help improve the design of next generation multi-rotor drones.
Development of Motor Model of Rotor Slot Harmonics for Speed Sensorless Control of Induction Motor
Okubo, Tatsuya; Ishida, Muneaki; Doki, Shinji
This paper proposes a novel mathematical dynamic model to represent steady-state and transient-state characteristics of rotor slot harmonics of an induction motor for sensorless control. Although it is well known that the rotor slot harmonics originate from the mechanical structure of the induction motor, a mathematical model that describes the relationship between stator/rotor currents of the induction motor and the slot harmonics has not yet been proposed. Therefore, in this paper, a three-phase model of the induction motor that depicts the rotor slot harmonics is developed by taking into consideration the magnetomotive force harmonics and the change in the magnetic air gap caused by the rotor slots. Moreover, the validity of the proposed model is verified by comparing the experimental results and the calculated values.
Rotor Speed Estimation Method Used in Dynamic Control of the Induction Motor
CRĂCIUNAŞ Gabriela
2013-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper it is proposed an algorithm for rotor speed estimation calculated directly from the rotor flux. The flux required for speed computation is estimated using Gopinath reduced order robust adaptive observer. In order to determine the structure of the observer we started from the state equations of the induction motor using spatial vectors written in fixed coordinates towards stator and considering the rotor speed constant. Quality of speed and rotor fluxestimation was evaluated from the results obtained during different operation regimes. The proposed algorithm was then tested for its usability in the case of indirect field oriented control based on the rotor flux of the induction motor by the simulation inMATLAB/Simulink.
Inayat-Hussain, J I [School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 46150 Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)], E-mail: jawaid.inayat-hussain@eng.monash.edu.my
2008-02-15
Numerical results on the response of a flexible rotor supported by nonlinear active magnetic bearings are presented. Nonlinearity arising from the magnetic actuator forces that are nonlinear functions of the coil current and the air gap between the rotor and the stator, and from the geometric coupling of the magnetic actuators is incorporated into the mathematical model of the flexible rotor - active magnetic bearing system. For relatively large values of the geometric coupling parameter, the response of the rotor with the variation of the speed parameter within the range 0.05 {<=}{omega} {<=} 5.0 displayed a rich variety of nonlinear dynamical phenomena including sub-synchronous vibrations of periods -2, -3, -6, -9, and -17, quasi-periodicity and chaos. Numerical results also reveal the occurrence of bi-stable operation within certain ranges of the speed parameter where multiple attractors may co-exist at the same speed parameter value depending on the operating speed of the rotor.
Menke, Lorenz Harry, E-mail: lnz2004@mindspring.com [University of Pittsburgh (United States)
2012-05-15
This paper derives all 36 analytical solutions of the energy eigenvalues for nuclear electric quadrupole interaction Hamiltonian and equivalent rigid asymmetric rotor for polynomial degrees 1 through 4 using classical algebraic theory. By the use of double-parameterization the full general solution sets are illustrated in a compact, symmetric, structural, and usable form that is valid for asymmetry parameter {eta} is an element of (- {infinity}, + {infinity}). These results are useful for code developers in the area of Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC), Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) and rotational spectroscopy who want to offer exact solutions whenever possible, rather that resorting to numerical solutions. In addition, by using standard linear algebra methods, the characteristic equations of all integer and half-integer spins I from 0 to 15, inclusive are represented in a compact and naturally parameterized form that illustrates structure and symmetries. This extends Nielson's listing of characteristic equations for integer spins out to I = 15, inclusive.
Stator Fault Modelling of Induction Motors
Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg; Kallesøe, Carsten
2006-01-01
measurements from a specially designed induction motor. With this motor it is possible to simulate both terminal disconnections, inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits. The results show good agreement between the measurements and the simulated signals obtained from the model. In the tests focus......In this paper a model of an induction motor affected by stator faults is presented. Two different types of faults are considered, these are; disconnection of a supply phase, and inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits inside the stator. The output of the derived model is compared to real...... is on the phase currents and the star point voltage as these signals are often used for fault detection....
Reconstruction of the Switched Reluctance Motor Stator
El-Kharashi, Eyhab; Hassanien, Hany M.
2012-01-01
The paper re-designs the conventional 6/8 switched reluctance motor (SRM) by a particular way to minimize the losses. The flux loops are shortened by making each two stator teeth incorporated in one magnetic circuit only. Subsequently the flux does not cross in some iron parts of the stator core backs. These unused iron sections are taken off consequently the iron losses decreased. Now the stator consists of three separated sections and they are fixed inside non-magnetic cylinder. The copper losses also are decreased because less copper windings are used to produce the same amount of the output torque as the flux paths become short then the flux density increases. The analysis and comparison of the 6/8 SRM before and after the re-design process are presented. A m files Matlab software is used to simulate the dynamic performance. Then the paper proceeds to examine different control techniques to the new design. The hysteresis and PI controllers are used as classical method to control the SRM. Then the artificial neural network (ANN) is used to test the new control techniques.
HARP model rotor test at the DNW. [Hughes Advanced Rotor Program
Dawson, Seth; Jordan, David; Smith, Charles; Ekins, James; Silverthorn, Lou
1989-01-01
Data from a test of a dynamically scaled model of the Hughes Advanced Rotor Program (HARP) bearingless model main rotor and 369K tail rotor are reported. The history of the HARP program and its goals are reviewed, and the main and tail rotor models are described. The test facilities and instrumentation are described, and wind tunnel test data are presented on hover, forward flight performance, and blade-vortex interaction. Performance data, acoustic data, and dynamic data from near field/far field and shear layer studies are presented.
Model based defect detection for free stator of ultrasonic motor
Amini, Rouzbeh; Mojallali, Hamed; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh;
2007-01-01
In this paper, measurements of admittance magnitude and phase are used to identify the complex values of equivalent circuit model for free stator of an ultrasonic motor. The model is used to evaluate the changes in the admittance and relative changes in the values of equivalent circuit elements....... This method identifies the damages and categorizes them. The validity of the method is verified by using free stator measurements of defect free stators of a recently developed multilayer piezoelectric motor....
Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.
2016-01-01
The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.
Lewis, G. W., Jr.; Osborn, W. M.; Moore, R. D.
1976-01-01
A 51-cm-diam model of a fan stage for a short haul aircraft was tested in a single stage-compressor research facility. The rotor blades were set 5 deg toward the axial direction (opened) from design setting angle. Surveys of the air flow conditions ahead of the rotor, between the rotor and stator, and behind the stator were made over the stable operating range of the stage. At the design speed of 213.3 m/sec and a weight flow of 31.5 kg/sec, the stage pressure ratio and efficiency were 1.195 and 0.88, respectively. The design speed rotor peak efficiency of 0.91 occurred at the same flow rate.
Permanent magnetic toroidal drive with half stator
Lizhong Xu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A permanent magnetic toroidal drive with a half stator is proposed that avoids noise and mechanical vibrations. The effects of the system parameters on the output torque of the drive were investigated. A model machine was designed and produced. The output torque and speed fluctuation of the drive system were measured, and the calculated and measured output torque were compared. The tests demonstrated that the drive system could operate continuously without noise, and the system achieved a given speed ratio. The drive system had high load-carrying ability and a maximum output torque of 0.15 N m when certain parameter values were used.
Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane
Jones, Russell B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L
2014-04-01
A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.
Comparison of stator-mounted permanent-magnet machines based on a general power equation
Chen, Zhe; Hua, Wei; Cheng, Ming
2009-01-01
The stator-mounted permanent-magnet (SMPM) machines have some advantages compared with its counterparts, such as simple rotor, short winding terminals, and good thermal dissipation conditions for magnets. In this paper, a general power equation for three types of SMPM machine is introduced first......, and then, power equations considering the specific topologies are derived. Based on these power equations, theoretical comparisons are carried out between various types of the SMPM machines. In all, eight topologies have been presented and benchmarked. It reveals that the flux switching permanent......-magnet (PM) machine owns higher power density than the flux reversal PM machine and the doubly salient PM machine under same outer diameter. The comparison based on the power equation has established a foundation for optimizing the SMPM machines....
Rotor Field Oriented Control with adaptive Iron Loss Compensation
Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.
1999-01-01
It is well known from the literature that iron loses in an induction motor implies field angle estimation errors and hence detuning problems. In this paper a new method for estimating the iron loss resistor in an induction motor is presented. The method is based on a traditional dynamic model...... of the motor referenced to the rotor magnetizing current, and with the extension of an iron loss resistor added in parallel to the magnetizing inductance. The resistor estimator is based on the observation that the actual applied stator voltages deviates from the voltage estimated, when a motor is current...
Torque Characteristic Analysis of a Transverse Flux Motor Using a Combined-Type Stator Core
Xiaobao Yang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available An external rotor transverse flux motor using a combined-type stator core is proposed for a direct drive application in this paper. The stator core is combined by two kinds of components that can both be manufactured conveniently by generic laminated silicon steel used in traditional motors. The motor benefits from the predominance of low manufacturing cost and low iron loss by using a silicon-steel sheet. Firstly, the basic structure and operation principles of the proposed motor are introduced. Secondly, the expressions of the electromagnetic torque and the cogging torque are deduced by theoretical analysis. Thirdly, the basic characteristics such as permanent magnet flux linkage, no-load back electromotive force, cogging torque and electromagnetic torque are analyzed by a three-dimensional finite element method (3D FEM. Then, the influence of structure parameters on the torque density is investigated, which provides a useful foundation for optimum design of the novel motor. Finally, the torque density of the proposed motor is calculated and discussed, and the result shows that the proposed motor in this paper can provide considerable torque density by using few permanent magnets.
Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.
2012-11-13
A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.
A sensorless initial rotor position's estimation for permanent magnet synchronous machines
Krasnov, I.; Langraf, S.; Odnolopylov, I.; Koltun, V.
2015-10-01
Permanent magnet synchronous motors for the effective start require information about the initial position of a rotor. In this regard, most systems use position sensors, which substantially increase entirely a cost of an electrical drive [1-3]. The aim of this article is to develop a new method, allowing determining the absolute angular position of the permanent magnet synchronous motors’ rotor [4,5]. With a certain voltage pulses applied to the motor, its stator is magnetized by currents leakage in the windings. This allows using a special algorithm to calculate the absolute position of the rotor without using any motor parameters [6]. Simulation results prove the simplicity and efficiency of this method for determining an initial position of the permanent magnet synchronous motors’ rotor. Thus, this method can be widely used in the electrical industry.
Force effects on rotor of squeeze film damper using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid
Dominik, Šedivý; Petr, Ferfecki; Simona, Fialová
2017-09-01
This article presents the evaluation of force effects on rotor of squeeze film damper. Rotor is eccentric placed and its motion is translate-circular. The amplitude of rotor motion is smaller than its initial eccentricity. The force effects are calculated from pressure and viscous forces which were gained by using computational modeling. Two types of fluid were considered as filling of damper. First type of fluid is Newtonian (has constant viscosity) and second type is magnetorheological fluid (does not have constant viscosity). Viscosity of non-Newtonian fluid is given using Bingham rheology model. Yield stress is a function of magnetic induction which is described by many variables. The most important variables of magnetic induction are electric current and gap width which is between rotor and stator. Comparison of application two given types of fluids is shown in results.
CHEN Yiguang; PAN Wei; SHEN Yonghuan; TANG Renyuan
2006-01-01
Conventional permanent magnet synchronous machine(PMSM)has the problem of large stator copper loss and narrow speed range. To solve this problem, an interior composite-rotor controllable-flux PMSM adaptive to multi-polar is proposed. This machine has the characteristics of low stator copper loss and wide-speed operation. The half-radial-set and half-tangential-set permanent magnets(PMs)are NdFeB that has high remanent flux density and high coercive force. The tangential-set PMs are AlNiCo that has high remanent flux density and low coercive force. By applying the pulse of d-axis stator current id, the magnetized intensity and direction of AlNiCo can be controlled. The flux created by NdFeB is repelled to stator and air-gap PM-flux is intensified, or is partially bypassed by AlNiCo in the rotor, so the air-gap PM-flux is weakened. The internal magnetic field distribution in two ultra magnetized situations is analyzed by finite element method. The dimension of PMs and magnetic structure are demonstrated. Especially when the q-axis magnetic resistance is larger and the q-axis inductance is smaller, the result of flux-weakening is better and the influence of armature reaction on air-gap PM-flux is weakened.
Research on dual-stator winding multi-phase high-speed induction generator with rectifier load
2008-01-01
Based on analysis and calculation of the relation between current harmonics and MMF harmonics in the dual-stator winding multi-phase high-speed induction gen-erator with a rectifier load, a new idea, which divides the generator system into two sub-systems to be analyzed individually, is presented. For the sub-system of the 12-phase power winding with a rectifier load, the loop current method is used to establish network equation set in terms of the network graph theory. The numerical stability problem is solved by alternating use of fixed time-step and varied time-step, and the voltage and current with their fundamental components of the power winding are obtained. For the other sub-system of the induction generator with dual-stator winding and solid cage rotor, the electromagnetic field analysis method and the multi-variable optimization approach are combined to get the con-trol winding current and stator frequency. Calculated results well match experiment results, indicating that the new proposed method is of effectiveness and high ac-curacy.
Adaptive Backstepping design of an Observer for the Rotor Speed and Field of an Induction Motor
Rasmussen, Henrik
2001-01-01
is de-veloped. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the rotor field. The rotor speed and the stator resis-tance are estimated by adaptive backstepping. Assuming motor parameters known the design achieves stability with guaran-teed region of attraction. The adaptive......High performance operation of speed controlled AC drives without mechanical speed/position sensors rely on the dynamic models for estimation of flux and speed. Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a new approach for the design of observers for speed sensorless control...
Rotor Position Detection of Switched Reluctance Motors with a New Indirect Technique
Majid Asgar
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The aligned to unaligned phase inductance ratio and the number of stator and rotor poles strongly affect the resolution of indirect rotor position sensing methods for switched reluctance motor (SRM drives. This paper presents a new sensor-less rotor position detection for a three-phase single switch SR motor with regeneration capability at standstill mode.. The proposed method is based on the dependency of phase current waveform at turn off time to rotor position angle. It is shown that the combination of a motor with single switch per phase converter and a transient voltage suppressor (TVS circuit deﬁne a resonant circuit. In this method, the rotor position is achieved by inspecting of regeneration current results of applied high frequency and low level diagnostic pulses to the motor phases at the beginning step. Obtaining the rotor position of switched reluctance motors (SRMs will done by means of the overlap of rising voltage measurements. During this interval, rotor position is detected by exchanging energy between the phase and source repeatedly in one cycle of a phase current. The resulted current magnitudes are measured and compared to detect the rotor position. The prototype controller was simulated, fabricated, and tested in laboratory and experimental results of the proposed SRM drive system are presented. The new configuration enables the motor for self-starting without any other mechanism or starting device.
Experimental Investigation of High-Pressure Steam Induced Stall of a Transonic Rotor
2007-06-01
disturbance can occur anywhere in a turbomachine and may be present during typical operation in small areas. When localized disturbances expand, stall...describe the flow breakdown over a particular stage of a turbomachine . Stall, however, often leads to a more damaging phenomenon known as surge. 3...Surge The cyclic stalling of a stage in a turbomachine is referred to as surge. Surge occurs when both the rotor and stator in a certain stage
Flow in a model turbine stator
Buggeln, R. C.; Shamroth, S. J.; Briley, W. R.
1985-10-01
In view of the complex nature of the flowfield in the hot section of gas turbine engines, the need to predict heat transfer and flow losses, the possible appearance of separation and strong secondary flows, etc., the present effort is focusing upon a Navier-Stokes approach to the three dimensional turbine stator problem. The advantages of a full Navier-Stokes approach are clear since when combined with a suitable turbulence model these equations represent the flow and heat transfer physics. In particular, the Navier-Stokes equations accurately represent possible separated regions and regions of significant secondary flow. In addition, the Navier-Stokes approach allows representation of the entire flow field by a single set of equations, thus avoiding problems associated with representing different regions of the flow by different equations and then matching flow regions.
Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane
Jones, Russel B
2017-04-04
A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.
Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar
2013-01-01
This paper deals with the theoretical study of a horizontal shaft, partially levitated by a passive magnetic bearing, impacting its stator. Rigid body dynamics are utilised in order to describe the governing nonlinear equations of motion of the shaft interacting with a passive magnetic bearing an...
Ahmad Bashar Ataji
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the grid-connected variable speed doubly-fed induction generator, and proposes a new decoupled control to replace the conventional decoupled active and reactive powers (P-Q control. The proposed decoupled control is based on decoupling the stator active and reactive currents, in contrast with the conventional decoupled P-Q control, which is based on decoupling the stator active and reactive powers by forcing the stator d- or q-voltage to zero. The proposed decoupled control has all the advantages of the conventional decoupled P-Q control such as constant switching frequency and robustness against slip angle inaccuracy, and it has some additional advantages: The proposed control requires less machine parameters; for the controller design, it requires the stator-to-rotor turns ratio only; for the online calculation, it does not requires any machine parameter. The proposed decoupled control is more flexible and robust since the control is independent of the grid voltage orientation. It is robust against variation in the grid voltage amplitude. Several experiments are carried out using a 1.1 kW doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG, and the results support the proposed decoupled control and demonstrate some of its advantages.
A. S. Abdel-Khalik
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The performance of fault-tolerant modular permanent magnet machines depends on the proper selection of the pole and slot numbers which result in negligible coupling between phases. The preferred slot and pole number combinations eliminate the effect of low-order harmonics in the stator magnetomotive force and thereby the vibration and stray loss are reduced. In this paper, three external rotor machines with identical machine dimensions are designed with different slots per phase per pole ratios. A simulation study is carried out using finite element analysis to compare the performance of the three machines in terms of machine torque density, ripple torque, core loss, and machine efficiency. A mathematical model based on the conventional-phase-model approach is also used for the comparative study. The simulation study is extended to depict machine performance under fault conditions.
Performance evaluation of a five-phase modular external rotor PM machine with different rotor poles
A.S. Abdel-Khalik
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The performance of fault-tolerant modular permanent magnet (PM machines depends on the proper selection of the pole and slot numbers which result in negligible coupling between phases. The preferred slot and pole number combinations eliminate the effect of low order harmonics in the stator magneto motive force and thereby the vibration and stray loss are reduced. In this paper, three external rotor machines with identical machine dimensions are designed with different slots per phase per pole (SPP ratios. A simulation study is carried out using finite element analysis to compare the performance of the three machines in terms of machine torque density, ripple torque, core loss, and machine efficiency. A mathematical model based on the conventional phase model approach is also used for the comparative study. The simulation study is extended to depict machine performance under fault conditions.
Experimental Investigation of Stator Flow in Diagonal Flow Fan
Jie Wang; Yoichi Kinoue; Norimasa Shiomi; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Kenji Kaneko; Yingzi Jin
2008-01-01
perimental investigations were conducted for the internal flow of the stator of the diagonal flow fan. Comer separation near the hub surface and the suction surface of the stator blade are focused on. At the design flow rate, the values of the axial velocity and the total pressure at stator outlet decrease near the suction surface at around the hub surface by the influence of the comer wall. At low flow rate of 80-90 % of the design flow rate, the comer separation between the suction surface and the hub surface can be found, which become widely spread at 80 % of the design flow rate.
Experimental investigation of stator flow in diagonal flow fan
Wang, Jie; Kinoue, Yoichi; Shiomi, Norimasa; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Kenji; Jin, Yingzi
2008-12-01
Experimental investigations were conducted for the internal flow of the stator of the diagonal flow fan. Corner separation near the hub surface and the suction surface of the stator blade are focused on. At the design flow rate, the values of the axial velocity and the total pressure at stator outlet decrease near the suction surface at around the hub surface by the influence of the corner wall. At low flow rate of 80-90 % of the design flow rate, the corner separation between the suction surface and the hub surface can be found, which become widely spread at 80 % of the design flow rate.
Study of internal permanent magnet rotor made of 0.6C-13Cr-Fe dual state magnetic material
Mita, Masahiro; Masuzawa, Masahiro; Hirao, Noriyoshi; Kimura, Fumio
2003-05-01
We have successfully developed an internal permanent magnet (IPM) rotor using dual state bulk magnetic material to increase usable magnetic flux dramatically. The most significant benefit of the IPM rotor is its mechanical reliability, because permanent magnets are inserted in slots of soft magnetic material. On the other hand, there is significant leakage flux between adjoining permanent magnets in the soft magnetic rotor core, reducing the usable magnetic flux flowing into the stator core. To solve this problem, we used a dual state magnetic material, 0.6C-13Cr-Fe alloy. This soft magnetic material could locally be changed into nonmagnetic material by localized heat treatment. By changing the material at leakage flux path into nonmagnetic, we can reduce the leakage flux, while keeping the rotor mechanically sound. By applying the dual state magnetic material to an experimental eight pole IPM rotor, the useful flux flowing in the stator core differs by 8% when compared to an all soft magnetic rotor core.
Ping Zheng
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine (MFM-BDRM, composed of a stator, a modulating ring rotor, and a PM rotor, is a kind of power-split device for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. In this paper, a new MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring named Sinusoidal-Permeance-Modulating-Ring Brushless Double-Rotor Machine (SPMR-BDRM is proposed to solve the problem of poor mechanical strength and large iron loss. The structure and the operating principle of the MFM-BDRM are introduced. The design principle of the sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring is analyzed and derived. The main idea of that is to minimize the harmonic permeance of air gap, thereby the harmonic magnetic fields can be restrained. There are comparisons between a MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring and a same size MFM-BDRM with traditional modulating ring, including magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic performances. Most importantly, the iron losses are compared under six different conditions. The result indicates that the harmonic magnetic fields in the air gap are restrained; the electromagnetic torque and power factor are almost the same with same armature current; the torque ripples of the modulating ring rotor and the PM rotor are reduced; the stator loss is reduced by 13% at least and the PM loss is reduced by 20% at least compared with the same size traditional MFM-BDRM under the same operating conditions.
Spassov, Velin Z; Yan, Lisa; Flook, Paul K
2007-03-01
The basic differences between the 20 natural amino acid residues are due to differences in their side-chain structures. This characteristic design of protein building blocks implies that side-chain-side-chain interactions play an important, even dominant role in 3D-structural realization of amino acid codes. Here we present the results of a comparative analysis of the contributions of side-chain-side-chain (s-s) and side-chain-backbone (s-b) interactions to the stabilization of folded protein structures within the framework of the CHARMm molecular data model. Contrary to intuition, our results suggest that side-chain-backbone interactions play the major role in side-chain packing, in stabilizing the folded structures, and in differentiating the folded structures from the unfolded or misfolded structures, while the interactions between side chains have a secondary effect. An additional analysis of electrostatic energies suggests that combinatorial dominance of the interactions between opposite charges makes the electrostatic interactions act as an unspecific folding force that stabilizes not only native structure, but also compact random conformations. This observation is in agreement with experimental findings that, in the denatured state, the charge-charge interactions stabilize more compact conformations. Taking advantage of the dominant role of side-chain-backbone interactions in side-chain packing to reduce the combinatorial problem, we developed a new algorithm, ChiRotor, for rapid prediction of side-chain conformations. We present the results of a validation study of the method based on a set of high resolution X-ray structures.
RNN Based Rotor Flux and Speed Estimation of Induction Motor
Bambang Purwahyudi
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Speed control of induction motor can be obtained by closed loop system which require speed sensor. Speed sensor system is less effective for wide plant system, because the sensor location is too far from the main control system and measurement result is less accurate. This paper presents the development of speed sensorless field oriented control (FOC of induction motor by using the rotor flux and speed observers. The observers only required the stator voltage and current of induction motor to obtain the rotor flux and speed estimation. The observers based on recurrent neural network (RNN methods are implemented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by simulation. Simulation results show that RNN observer can produce well the rotor flux and speed estimation. MSE values of the rotor flux estimation are between 0.000087 and 0.000264, whereas MSE values of the speed estimation are between 43.0552 and 156.0798. Keywords: field oriented control, induction motor, observer, and recurrent neural network.
Stator Fault Detection in Induction Motors by Autoregressive Modeling
Francisco M. Garcia-Guevara
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This study introduces a novel methodology for early detection of stator short circuit faults in induction motors by using autoregressive (AR model. The proposed algorithm is based on instantaneous space phasor (ISP module of stator currents, which are mapped to α-β stator-fixed reference frame; then, the module is obtained, and the coefficients of the AR model for such module are estimated and evaluated by order selection criterion, which is used as fault signature. For comparative purposes, a spectral analysis of the ISP module by Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT is performed; a comparison of both methodologies is obtained. To demonstrate the suitability of the proposed methodology for detecting and quantifying incipient short circuit stator faults, an induction motor was altered to induce different-degree fault scenarios during experimentation.
STATOR FLUX OPTIMIZATION ON DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL WITH FUZZY LOGIC
Fatih Korkmaz
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The Direct Torque Control (DTC is well known as an effective control technique for high performance drives in a wide variety of industrial applications and conventional DTC technique uses two constant reference value: torque and stator flux. In this paper, fuzzy logic based stator flux optimization technique for DTC drives that has been proposed. The proposed fuzzy logic based stator flux optimizer self-regulates the stator flux reference using induction motor load situation without need of any motor parameters. Simulation studies have been carried out with Matlab/Simulink to compare the proposed system behaviors at vary load conditions. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed DTC technique has been improved and especially at low-load conditions torque ripple are greatly reduced with respect to the conventional DTC.
Advanced Model of Squirrel Cage Induction Machine for Broken Rotor Bars Fault Using Multi Indicators
Ilias Ouachtouk
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Squirrel cage induction machine are the most commonly used electrical drives, but like any other machine, they are vulnerable to faults. Among the widespread failures of the induction machine there are rotor faults. This paper focuses on the detection of broken rotor bars fault using multi-indicator. However, diagnostics of asynchronous machine rotor faults can be accomplished by analysing the anomalies of machine local variable such as torque, magnetic flux, stator current and neutral voltage signature analysis. The aim of this research is to summarize the existing models and to develop new models of squirrel cage induction motors with consideration of the neutral voltage and to study the effect of broken rotor bars on the different electrical quantities such as the park currents, torque, stator currents and neutral voltage. The performance of the model was assessed by comparing the simulation and experimental results. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the model, and allow detection and diagnosis of these defects.
Development and construction of an HTS rotor for ship propulsion application
Nick, W.; Frank, M.; Kummeth, P.; Rabbers, J. J.; Wilke, M.; Schleicher, K.
2010-06-01
A low-speed high-torque HTS machine is being developed at Siemens on the basis of previous steps (400kW demonstrator, 4MVA generator). The goal of the programme is to utilize the characteristic advantages offered by electrical machines with HTS-excited rotor, such as efficiency, compact size, and dynamic performance. To be able to address future markets, requirements from ship classification as well as potential customers have to be met. Electromagnetic design cannot be focused on nominal operation only, but has to deal with failure modes like short circuit too. Utilization of superconductor requires to consider margins taking into account that the windings have to operate reliably not only in "clean" laboratory conditions, but in rough environment with the stator connected to a power converter. Extensive quality control is needed to ensure homogenous performance (current capacity, electrical insulation, dimensions) for the large quantity of HTS (45 km). The next step was to set up and operate a small-scale "industrial" manufacturing process to produce HTS windings in a reproducible way, including tests at operating conditions. A HTS rotor includes many more components compared to a conventional one, so tough geometric tolerances must be met to ensure robust performance of the system. All this gives a challenging task, which will be concluded by cold testing of the rotor in a test facility. Then the rotor will be delivered for assembly to the stator. In following machine tests the performance of the innovative HTS drive system will be demonstrated.
Hoang, Emmanuel; Multon, Bernard; Vives Fos, Rafael; Geoffroy, Marc
1994-01-01
International audience; During the investigation of the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM), we became interested in two apparently secondary parameters which are: - the thickness of the stator yoke; - the shape of stator teeth. In keeping the other geometrical parameters, like the outer and air gap diameters, constant, we could study the impacts from varying these two parameters with respect to: - the curve of instantaneous single-phase torque; - the poly-phase ripple torque at low speed with a ...
Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flow Around Forward Flight Helicopter with Coaxial Rotors
XU Heyong; YE Zhengyin
2011-01-01
Three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations are numerically solved to simulate the unsteady flows around forward flight helicopter with coaxial rotors based on unstructured dynamic overset grids. The performances of the two coaxial rotors both become worse because of the aerodynamic interaction between them, and the influence of the top rotor on the bottom rotor is greater than that of the bottom rotor on the top rotor. The downwash velocity at the bottom rotor plane is much larger than that at the top rotor plane, and the downwash velocity at the top rotor plane is a little larger than that at an individual rotor plane. The downwash velocity and thrust coefficient both become larger when the collective angle of blades is added. When the spacing between the two coaxial rotors increases, the thrust coefficient of the top rotor increases, but the total thrust coefficient reduces a little,because the decrease of the bottom rotor thrust coefficient is larger than the increase of the top rotor thrust coefficient.
Detection of Broken Rotor Bars in Induction Motors Using Stator Current Measurements
1988-05-01
inverted. Since some of the elements in this matrix are time-dependent, the matrix must be inverted for each value of time . This inversion is always...for each value of time , the inductance matrix must 77 be inverted. Second, the resulting system of equations, namely equation 3-3 above, must be...subroutine is called for each value of time . It performs two functions; it calculates the elements of the voltage, inductance, and effective resistance
Detection of broken rotor bar faults in induction motor at low load using neural network.
Bessam, B; Menacer, A; Boumehraz, M; Cherif, H
2016-09-01
The knowledge of the broken rotor bars characteristic frequencies and amplitudes has a great importance for all related diagnostic methods. The monitoring of motor faults requires a high resolution spectrum to separate different frequency components. The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) has been widely used to achieve these requirements. However, at low slip this technique cannot give good results. As a solution for these problems, this paper proposes an efficient technique based on a neural network approach and Hilbert transform (HT) for broken rotor bar diagnosis in induction machines at low load. The Hilbert transform is used to extract the stator current envelope (SCE). Two features are selected from the (SCE) spectrum (the amplitude and frequency of the harmonic). These features will be used as input for neural network. The results obtained are astonishing and it is capable to detect the correct number of broken rotor bars under different load conditions.
Wake-induced unsteady flows: Their impact on rotor performance and wake rectification
Adamczyk, J.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Brook Park, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Celestina, M.L. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States). Dept. of Aeromechanics; Chen, J.P. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). NSF Engineering Research Center
1996-01-01
The impact of wake-induced unsteady flows on blade row performance and the wake rectification process is examined by means of numerical simulation. The passage of a stator wake through a downstream rotor is first simulated using a three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow code. The results from this simulation are used to define two steady-state inlet conditions for a three-dimensional viscous flow simulation of a rotor operating in isolation. The results obtained from these numerical simulations are then compared to those obtained form the unsteady simulation both to quantify the impact of the wake-induced unsteady flow field on rotor performance and to identify the flow processes which impact wake rectification. Finally, the results from this comparison study are related to an existing model, which attempts to account for the impact of wake-induced unsteady flows on the performance of multistage turbomachinery.
Enomoto, Yuji; Miyata, Kenji; Oonishi, Kazuo; Motegi, Yasuaki
The three-dimensional magnetic field analysis has clarified the effect of several structural and manufacturing factors on the properties of the outer rotor type stepping motors. (1) The number of rotor teeth, 128, can make a unit step angle under 0.5 degree and a cogging torque under 1mNm for the outer rotor type stepping motor with the outer diameter under 60mm and with the output torque above 0.4Nm. (2) The permanent magnet flux has an optimal value dependent on the thickness of the laminated core to maximize the motor torque. (3) The lamination stacking error of the small teeth of the rotor and stator has a large effect on the cogging torque of the stepping motor.
Seyed Abbas Taher
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, a new fault detection technique is proposed for squirrel cage induction motor (SCIM based on detection of rotor bar failure. This type of fault detection is commonly carried out, while motor continues to work at a steady-state regime. Recently, several methods have been presented for rotor bar failure detection based on evaluation of the start-up transient current. The proposed method here is capable of fault detection immediately after bar breakage, where a three-phase SCIM is modelled in finite element method (FEM using Maxwell2D software. Broken rotor bars are then modelled by the corresponding outer rotor impedance obtained by GA, thereby presenting an analogue model extracted from FEM to be simulated in a flexible environment such as MATLAB/SIMULINK. To improve the failure recognition, the stator current signal was analysed using discrete wavelet transform (DWT.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...
Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)
1997-12-31
The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.
Open Rotor Noise Shielding by Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft
Guo, Yueping; Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.
2015-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of open rotor noise shielding by Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft by using model scale test data acquired in the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF) with a legacy F7/A7 rotor model and a simplified BWB platform. The objective of the analysis is the understanding of the shielding features of the BWB and the method of application of the shielding data for noise studies of BWB aircraft with open rotor propulsion. By studying the directivity patterns of individual tones, it is shown that though the tonal energy distribution and the spectral content of the wind tunnel test model, and thus its total noise, may differ from those of more advanced rotor designs, the individual tones follow directivity patterns that characterize far field radiations of modern open rotors, ensuring the validity of the use of this shielding data. Thus, open rotor tonal noise shielding should be categorized into front rotor tones, aft rotor tones and interaction tones, not only because of the different directivities of the three groups of tones, but also due to the differences in their source locations and coherence features, which make the respective shielding characteristics of the three groups of tones distinctly different from each other. To reveal the parametric trends of the BWB shielding effects, results are presented with variations in frequency, far field emission angle, rotor operational condition, engine installation geometry, and local airframe features. These results prepare the way for the development of parametric models for the shielding effects in prediction tools.
Design and Performance Improvement of AC Machines Sharing a Common Stator
Guo, Lusu
With the increasing demand on electric motors in various industrial applications, especially electric powered vehicles (electric cars, more electric aircrafts and future electric ships and submarines), both synchronous reluctance machines (SynRMs) and interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines are recognized as good candidates for high performance variable speed applications. Developing a single stator design which can be used for both SynRM and IPM motors is a good way to reduce manufacturing and maintenance cost. SynRM can be used as a low cost solution for many electric driving applications and IPM machines can be used in power density crucial circumstances or work as generators to meet the increasing demand for electrical power on board. In this research, SynRM and IPM machines are designed sharing a common stator structure. The prototype motors are designed with the aid of finite element analysis (FEA). Machine performances with different stator slot and rotor pole numbers are compared by FEA. An 18-slot, 4-pole structure is selected based on the comparison for this prototype design. Sometimes, torque pulsation is the major drawback of permanent magnet synchronous machines. There are several sources of torque pulsations, such as back-EMF distortion, inductance variation and cogging torque due to presence of permanent magnets. To reduce torque pulsations in permanent magnet machines, all the efforts can be classified into two categories: one is from the design stage, the structure of permanent magnet machines can be optimized with the aid of finite element analysis. The other category of reducing torque pulsation is after the permanent magnet machine has been manufactured or the machine structure cannot be changed because of other reasons. The currents fed into the permanent magnet machine can be controlled to follow a certain profile which will make the machine generate a smoother torque waveform. Torque pulsation reduction methods in both categories will be
Tang, Jiqiang; Xiang, Biao; Wang, Chun'e
2015-09-01
A novel Vernier-gimballing magnetically suspended flywheel with conical magnetic bearing (conical MB) can generate great gyroscopic moment by tilting the high-speed rotor. To output the gyroscopic moment, the high-speed rotor must be suspended stably and can be tilted. But when the rotor tilts, the gap between the stator and rotor of conical MB changes nonlinearly, what will cause the magnetic force and current stiffness of this conical MB to be serious nonlinear. To solve these problems, one kind of adaptive controller based on Lyapunov stability theory is designed by regarding the current stiffness of this conical MB as uncertain parameter. The validity of this adaptive control method is verified on a Vernier-gimballing MSFW with 68 Nms angular momentum and 1.7° maximum tilting angle. All experimental results indicated that this adaptive control has better performances on controlling rotor's stable suspension than existing PID control when the rotor translates or tilts. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
FEM Analysis of a New Electromechanical Converter with Rolling Rotor and Axial Air-Gap
UNGUREANU, C.
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the modeling of a new type of electromechanical converter with rolling rotor (ECRR in order to obtain an optimisation at functional level. The ECRR prototype comprises a stator composed of twelve magnetic poles and a disk-shaped rolling rotor made of ferromagnetic material, without windings. Each magnetic pole is made of an E-shaped magnetic system and a winding placed on its central column. The electromechanical converter with rolling rotor is analyzed through a magnetic field study with Flux2D software in magnetostatic application. The field study examines the influence of the rotor thickness, axial air-gap size and current density on the magnetic attraction force that changes the position of the disk-shaped rolling rotor. Also, it is analyzed the variation of the magnetic attraction force for different inclination angles of the rolling rotor. The main advantage of the ECRR is represented by a low rotational speed without using mechanical gearboxes. The ECRR prototype can be used in photovoltaic panels tracking systems.
Magnetostatic analysis of a rotor system supported by radial active magnetic bearings
Ferfecki P.
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The development and the design of a radial active magnetic bearing (AMB reflects a complex process of the multidisciplinary rotor dynamics, electromagnetism and automatic control analysis. Modelling is performed by application of the physical laws from different areas, e.g. Newton's laws of motion and Maxwell's equations. The new approach in the numerical modelling of radial AMB and design methodology allowing automatic generation of primary dimensions of the radial AMB is proposed. Instead of the common way of computation of electromagnetic forces by linearizing at the centre position of the rotor with respect to rotor displacement and coil current, the finite element computation of electromagnetic forces is used. The heteropolar radial AMB consisting of eight pole shoes was designed by means of the built up algorithms for rotor system with two discs fixed on the cantilever shaft. A study of the influence of the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of a rotor and stator material on the equilibrium position of a rotor system is carried out. The performed numerical study shows that results obtained from the analytical nonlinear relation for electromagnetic forces can be considerably different from forces computed with magnetostatic finite element analysis.
Inlet Guide Vane Wakes Including Rotor Effects
Johnston, R. T.; Fleeter, S.
2001-02-01
Fundamental experiments are described directed at the investigation of forcing functions generated by an inlet guide vane (IGV) row, including interactions with the downstream rotor, for application to turbomachine forced response design systems. The experiments are performed in a high-speed research fan facility comprised of an IGV row upstream of a rotor. IGV-rotor axial spacing is variable, with the IGV row able to be indexed circumferentially, thereby allowing measurements to be made across several IGV wakes. With an IGV relative Mach number of 0.29, measurements include the IGV wake pressure and velocity fields for three IGV-rotor axial spacings. The decay characteristics of the IGV wakes are compared to the Majjigi and Gliebe empirical correlations. After Fourier decomposition, a vortical-potential gust splitting analysis is implemented to determine the vortical and potential harmonic wake gust forcing functions both upstream and downstream of the rotor. Higher harmonics of the vortical gust component of the IGV wakes are found to decay at a uniform rate due to viscous diffusion.
Welding fixture for joining bar-wound stator conductors
De Souza, Urban J.; Rhoads, Frederick W.; Hanson, Justin
2017-09-12
A fixture assembly for welding a plurality of stator wire end pairs may include an anvil, a movable clamp configured to translate between an unclamped state and a clamped state, a first grounding electrode, and a second grounding electrode. The movable clamp may be configured to urge the plurality of stator wire ends against the anvil when in the clamped state. The moveable clamp includes a separator feature that generally extends toward the anvil. Each of the first grounding electrode and second grounding electrodes may be configured to translate between a clamped state and an unclamped state. When in the clamped state, each of the first and second grounding electrodes is configured to urge a pair of the plurality of stator wire end pairs against the separator feature.
Computations of Torque-Balanced Coaxial Rotor Flows
Yoon, Seokkwan; Chan, William M.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2017-01-01
Interactional aerodynamics has been studied for counter-rotating coaxial rotors in hover. The effects of torque balancing on the performance of coaxial-rotor systems have been investigated. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on overset grids using high-order accurate schemes, dual-time stepping, and a hybrid turbulence model. Computational results for an experimental model are compared to available data. The results for a coaxial quadcopter vehicle with and without torque balancing are discussed. Understanding interactions in coaxial-rotor flows would help improve the design of next-generation autonomous drones.
王剑; 胡锡幸; 王班; 郭吉丰
2015-01-01
In order to promote the tolerance and controllability of the multi-degree-of-freedom (M-DOF) ultrasonic motor, a novel two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) spherical ultrasonic motor using three traveling-wave type annular stators was put forward. Firstly, the structure and working principle of this motor were introduced, especially a spiral spring as the preload applied component was designed for adaptive adjustment. Then, the friction drive model of 2-DOF spherical motor was built up from spatial geometric relation between three annular stators and the spherical rotor which was used to analyze the mechanical characteristics of the motor. The optimal control strategy for minimum norm solution of three stators’ angular velocity was proposed, using Moore-Penrose generalized inverse matrix. Finally, a 2-DOF prototype was fabricated and tested, which ran stably and controllably. The maximum no-load velocity and stall torque are 92 r/min and 90 mN·m, respectively. The 2-DOF spherical ultrasonic motor has compact structure, easy assembly, good performance and stable operation.
Cary, Charles M.
1987-01-01
The interaction of a free vortex and a rotor was recorded photographically using oil smoke and stroboscopic illumination. The incident vortex is normal to the plane of the rotor and crosses the rotor plane. This idealized aerodynamic experiment most nearly corresponds to helicopter flight conditions in which a tip vortex from the main rotor is incident upon the tail rotor while hovering. The high speed photographs reveal important features not observed using conventional photography where the image is the time average of varying instantaneous images. Most prominent is the strong interaction between the rotor tip vortex system and the incident vortex, resulting in the roll-up of the incident vortex around the (stronger) tip vortices and the resulting rapid destabilization of the deformed incident vortex. The viscous interaction is clearly shown also. Other forms of instabilities or wave-like behavior may be apparent from further analysis of the photographs.
ELECTROMAGNETIC VIBRATION DISTURBING FORCES AT THE ECCENTRICITY OF ROTOR OF TURBOGENERATOR
Yu.M. Vaskovskyi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic vibration disturbing forces in different variants of the rotor displacement from an axis of the stator bore is carried out. Investigation for ТG type ТGV-200-2 by finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics is carried out. The field mathematical model of static and dynamic eccentricity is described. The amplitude vibration disturbing forces are greatest, when a static eccentricity direction coincides with an axis of the stator winding phase is shown. The diagnostic features static and dynamic eccentricities are formulated. The most value of forces in the point with minimal air gap is shown. The diagnostic features static and dynamic eccentricities and the method of diagnostic eccentricity are formulated. Diagnostic feature of static eccentricity is to change the amplitude Maxwell stress tensor is established. The dynamic eccentricity diagnostic features are appearance in the spectrum of vibration disturbing forces rotating and multiple harmonics.
Rotor balancing apparatus and system
Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)
1976-01-01
Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.
Design of an anemometer to characterize the flow in the ducts of a hydrogenerator rotor rim
Venne, Kevin; Mydlarski, Laurent; Torriano, Federico; Charest-Fournier, Jean-Philippe; Hudon, Claude; Morissette, Jean-Francois
2016-11-01
Due to its complex geometry, the airflow within hydrogenerators is difficult to characterize. And although CFD can be a reliable engineering tool, its application to the field of hydrogenerators is very recent and has certain inherent limitations, which are due in part to geometrical and flow complexities, including the coexistence of moving (rotor) and stationary (stator) components. For this reason, experimental measurements are required to validate the CFD simulations of such complex flows. To this end, a 1:4 scale model of a hydrogenerator was constructed at the IREQ (Hydro-Québec Research Institute) to better understand the flow dynamics in the rotor and stator components, and to help benchmark its CFD simulations. However, new flow sensors must be developed to quantify the flow in the confined and harsh regions of hydrogenerators. Of particular interest is the flow within the rotor rim ducts, since it is directly responsible for cooling one of the most critical components, the poles. This rather complex task required the design of an anemometer that had to be accurate, durable, cost-effective, easy to install, and able to withstand the extreme conditions (temperatures of 50°C, centrifugal forces of 300g, etc.) found in hydrogenerators. This paper presents two preliminary designs of such sensors and a series of tests that were performed to calibrate and test them. Funding graciously provided by the NSERC and FRQNT.
刘厚根; 董诚诚; 李成佳
2014-01-01
为了研究流固耦合场对罗茨机械增压器转子强度的影响，文章以Fluent-Ansys为平台，对罗茨机械增压器内部流动进行三维数值模拟，将流场的计算结果作为初始边界条件加载，采用单向流固耦合方法对转子进行仿真计算，获得了不同工况下转子的等效应力及变形情况，分析了转子应力和变形影响因素。结果表明：离心力对转子强度影响较小，转子的应力和变形主要由温度载荷引起，最大等效应力出现在轴承与轴肩连接部位，最大总变形发生在转子排气口的叶轮端面位置；额定工况时，转子最大等效应力为287.22 M Pa ，远小于材料的疲劳极限，最大变形为0.0729 mm ，对转子啮合间隙影响较大。%In order to study the impact of fluid-structure coupling field on the strength of the Roots me-chanical supercharger rotors ,the three-dimensional flow field in Roots mechanical supercharger was numerically simulated based on Fluent-Ansys .The calculation results of the flow field were loaded as the initial boundary conditions and the rotors were simulated by the one-way fluid-structure interaction method .The equivalent stress and deformation values under different operating conditions were ob-tained ,and the factors affecting the stress and deformation of the rotors were analyzed .The research results show that the centrifugal force has little effect on the strength of the rotors ,and the stress and deformation of rotors are mainly caused by the thermal load .The maximum equivalent stress value oc-curs at the bearing and the shaft shoulder joints and the maximum total deformation occurs at the im-peller end face of the exhaust port .Under rated operating conditions ,the maximum equivalent stress value is 287.22 M Pa ,w hich is far less than the fatigue limit of the material .T he maximum deforma-tion is 0.072 9 mm ,w hich has great effect on the meshing clearance of the rotors .
Extension of Goldstein's circulation function for optimal rotors with hub
Okulov, V. L.; Sørensen, J. N.; Shen, W. Z.
2016-09-01
The aerodynamic interaction or interference between rotor blades and hub body is usually very complicated, but some useful simplifications can be made by considering the hub with an infinite cylinder. Various attempts to find the optimum distribution of circulation by the lifting vortex lines method have been previously proposed to describe the blade interaction with the hub modeled by the infinite cylinder. In this case, the ideal distribution of bound circulation on the rotor blades is such that the shed vortex system in the hub-area is a set of helicoidal vortex sheets moving uniformly as if rigid, exactly as in the case where there is no influence of the streamtube deformations by the central hub-body. In the present investigation, we consider a more specific problem of the rotor-hub interaction where the initial flow streamtubes and the rotor slipstream submitted strong deformations at the nose-area of the semi-infinite hub.
Detection of stator winding faults in induction motors using three-phase current monitoring.
Sharifi, Rasool; Ebrahimi, Mohammad
2011-01-01
The objective of this paper is to propose a new method for the detection of inter-turn short circuits in the stator windings of induction motors. In the previous reported methods, the supply voltage unbalance was the major difficulty, and this was solved mostly based on the sequence component impedance or current which are difficult to implement. Some other methods essentially are included in the offline methods. The proposed method is based on the motor current signature analysis and utilizes three phase current spectra to overcome the mentioned problem. Simulation results indicate that under healthy conditions, the rotor slot harmonics have the same magnitude in three phase currents, while under even 1 turn (0.3%) short circuit condition they differ from each other. Although the magnitude of these harmonics depends on the level of unbalanced voltage, they have the same magnitude in three phases in these conditions. Experiments performed under various load, fault, and supply voltage conditions validate the simulation results and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. It is shown that the detection of resistive slight short circuits, without sensitivity to supply voltage unbalance is possible.
SU (3) realization of the rigid asymmetric rotor within the IBM
Smirnova, N.A.; Van Isacker, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Smirnov, Y.F. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM (Mexico)
1999-07-01
It is shown that the spectrum of the asymmetric rotor can be realized quantum mechanically in terms of a system of interacting bosons. This is achieved in the SU(3) limit of the interacting boson model by considering higher-order interactions between the bosons. The spectrum corresponds to that of a rigid asymmetric rotor in the limit of infinite boson number. (author)
Design of Star-Shaped Flextensional Stator for Ultrasonic Motor
Lien-Kai Chang
2014-05-01
Full Text Available When a driving voltage opposite to the piezoelectric polarity is applied on the flextensional stator, it will generate the normal force, of which the operating voltage range of piezoelectric actuators will decrease. This paper presents a novel stator design for producing the normal force in which the driving voltage has the same piezoelectric polarity, which is based on the structure of two multilayer piezoelectric actuators clamped in a star-shaped shell. To obtain the two close resonance frequencies of flexural and translation modes, a genetic algorithm combined with the finite element analysis is employed to find the optimal dimensions for the geometry of the stator. The importance of each design parameter is evaluated through a proposed sensitivity analysis method. A prototype resulting from the optimal design was fabricated and the experimental results are given to show that the stator can generate, in practice, the required coupling resonance mode between 35.15 kHz and 36.49 kHz.
Tool deformation during the shape rolling of stator vanes
Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, J.
2002-01-01
Tool deformation is an important issue in the shape rolling of stator vanes as it directly influences the thickness of the rolled vane. This means that for the design of an accurate production process the deformation of the tools has to be accounted for. The shape rolling of symmetrical straight van
Free Stator Modeling of a Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor
Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Helbo, Jan; Mojallali, Hamed
2005-01-01
An equivalent circuit method describing the free stator of piezoelectric motor is presented in this paper, while the circuit elements have complex values. The mechanical, dielectric and piezoelectric losses associated with the vibrator are accounted for by the imaginary components of the circuit ...
Systematic modeling for free stators of rotary - Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors
Mojallali, Hamed; Amini, Rouzbeh; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh
2007-01-01
An equivalent circuit model with complex elements is presented in this paper to describe the free stator model of traveling wave piezoelectric motors. The mechanical, dielectric and piezoelectric losses associated with the vibrator are considered by introducing the imaginary part to the equivalent...
Song, P.; Qu, T.-M.; Lai, L.-F.; Wu, M.-S.; Yu, X.-Y.; Han, Z.
2016-05-01
Most present demonstrations of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motors/generators are partially superconducting, only installing HTS coils on the rotor as excitation windings. The possible applicability of HTS armature windings is an interesting research topic because these windings can certainly increase the power density attributed to a potentially high armature loading capacity. In this study, we analysed the thermal behaviours of a developed 2.5 kW-300 rpm synchronous generator prototype that consists of an HTS stator with Bi-2223-Ag armature windings on an iron core and a permanent magnet (PM) rotor. The entire HTS stator, including the iron core, is cooled with liquid nitrogen through conduction cooling. The rated frequency is set at 10 Hz to reduce AC loss. The properties of the HTS windings and the iron core are characterized, and the temperatures in the HTS stator under different operation conditions are measured. The estimated iron loss is 11.5 W under operation in 10 Hz at liquid nitrogen temperature. Conduction cooling through the silicon iron core is sufficient to cool the iron core and to compensate for the temperature increment caused by iron loss. The stable running capacity is limited to 1.6 kW when the armature current is 12.6 A (effective values) due to the increasing temperature in the slots as a result of the AC loss in the HTS coils. The thermal contact between the HTS coils and the cooling media should be improved in the future to take away the heat generated by AC loss.
380 kW synchronous machine with HTS rotor windings--development at Siemens and first test results
Nick, W.; Nerowski, G.; Neumüller, H.-W.; Frank, M.; van Hasselt, P.; Frauenhofer, J.; Steinmeyer, F.
2002-08-01
Applying HTS conductors in the rotor of synchronous machines allows the design of future motors or generators that are lighter, more compact and feature an improved coefficient of performance. To address these goals a project collaboration was installed within Siemens, including Automation & Drives, Large Drives as a leading supplier of electrical machines, Corporate Technology as a competence center for superconducting technology, and other partners. The main task of the project was to demonstrate the feasibility of basic concepts. The rotor was built from racetrack coils of Bi-2223 HTS tape conductor, these were assembled on a core and fixed by a bandage of glass-fibre composite. Rotor coil cooling is performed by thermal conduction, one end of the motor shaft is hollow to give access for the cooling system. Two cooling systems were designed and operated successfully: firstly an open circuit using cold gaseous helium from a storage vessel, but also a closed circuit system based on a cryogenerator. To take advantage of the increased rotor induction levels the stator winding was designed as an air gap winding. This was manufactured and fitted in a standard motor housing. After assembling of the whole system in a test facility with a DC machine load experiments have been started to prove the validity of our design, including operation with both cooling systems and driving the stator from the grid as well as by a power inverter.
Hekmati, Arsalan; Aliahmadi, Mehdi
2016-12-01
High temperature superconducting, HTS, synchronous machines benefit from a rotor magnetic shield in order to protect superconducting coils against asynchronous magnetic fields. This magnetic shield, however, suffers from exerted Lorentz forces generated in light of induced eddy currents during transient conditions, e.g. stator windings short-circuit fault. In addition, to the exerted electromagnetic forces, eddy current losses and the associated effects on the cryogenic system are the other consequences of shielding HTS coils. This study aims at investigating the Rotor Magnetic Shield, RMS, performance in HTS synchronous generators under stator winding short-circuit fault conditions. The induced eddy currents in different circumferential positions of the rotor magnetic shield along with associated Joule heating losses would be studied using 2-D time-stepping Finite Element Analysis, FEA. The investigation of Lorentz forces exerted on the magnetic shield during transient conditions has also been performed in this paper. The obtained results show that double line-to-ground fault is of the most importance among different types of short-circuit faults. It was revealed that when it comes to the design of the rotor magnetic shields, in addition to the eddy current distribution and the associated ohmic losses, two phase-to-ground fault should be taken into account since the produced electromagnetic forces in the time of fault conditions are more severe during double line-to-ground fault.
Modeling and Analysis of a Micromotor with an Electrostatically Levitated Rotor
HAN Fengtian; WU Qiuping; ZHANG Rong
2009-01-01
The modeling and evaluation of a prototype rotary micromotor where the annular rotor is supported electrostatically in five degrees of freedom is presented in order to study the behavior of this levitated micromotor and further optimize the device geometry. The analytical torque model is obtained based on the principle of a planar variable-capacitance electrostatic motor while the viscous damping caused by air film between the stator and rotor is derived using laminar Couette flow model.Simulation results of the closed-loop drive motor, based on the developed dynamic model after eliminating mechanical friction torque via electrostatic suspension, are presented. The effects of the high-voltage drive, required for rotation of the rotor, on overload capacity and suspension stiffness of the electrostatic bearing system are also analytically evaluated in an effort to determine allowable drive voltage and attainable rotor speed in operation. The analytical results show that maximum speed of the micromotor is limited mainly by viscous drag torque and stiffness of the bearing system. Therefore, it is expected to operate the device in vacuum so as to increase the rotor speed significantly, especially for those electrostatically levitated micromotors to be used as an angular rate micro-gyroscope.
Tounzi, A.; Meibody-Tabar, F.; Sargos, F. M.
1997-04-01
This paper deals with the field-oriented control of a smooth stator, non excited salient rotor synchronous machine. First, a nonlinear modelling of the machine, taking into account both damping and saturation effects, is developed in PARK's rotor-bound frame. Then, a vector control strategy, which maintains a constant saturation level in the machine, is set-up. This strategy, wich consists in keeping the stator direct current at a high constant value, allows to linearize the model of the machine and to control it in the same way as a DC machine. A numerical simulation of a VRM, fed by a PWM-VSI and controlled thanks to this control strategy, is built up and the computed results are given and commented. Cet article est consacré à la commande vectorielle d'une machine à réluctance variable à stator lisse et rotor massif. D'abord, une modélisation non linéaire de la machine a été effectuée dans le repère de Park. Cette dernière permet de prendre en compte l'effet d'amortissement dû au rotor massif, ainsi que celui de la saturation inhérent à ce genre de machine. Ensuite, une stratégie de contrôle vectoriel, qui maintient un niveau de saturation constant dans la machine, a été élaborée. Cette stratégie, qui consiste à maintenir le courant direct statorique à une valeur élevée, permet de linéariser le modèle de la machine et ainsi de pouvoir la contrôler comme une machine à courant continu. Une simulation numérique de la machine à réluctance variable, alimentée par un onduleur de tension à MLI et commandée par la stratégie mise au point, a été effectuée. Les résultats de cette simulation sont donnés et commentés à la fin de l'article.
Dynamical localization of coupled relativistic kicked rotors
Rozenbaum, Efim B.; Galitski, Victor
2017-02-01
A periodically driven rotor is a prototypical model that exhibits a transition to chaos in the classical regime and dynamical localization (related to Anderson localization) in the quantum regime. In a recent work [Phys. Rev. B 94, 085120 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.085120], A. C. Keser et al. considered a many-body generalization of coupled quantum kicked rotors, and showed that in the special integrable linear case, dynamical localization survives interactions. By analogy with many-body localization, the phenomenon was dubbed dynamical many-body localization. In the present work, we study nonintegrable models of single and coupled quantum relativistic kicked rotors (QRKRs) that bridge the gap between the conventional quadratic rotors and the integrable linear models. For a single QRKR, we supplement the recent analysis of the angular-momentum-space dynamics with a study of the spin dynamics. Our analysis of two and three coupled QRKRs along with the proved localization in the many-body linear model indicate that dynamical localization exists in few-body systems. Moreover, the relation between QRKR and linear rotor models implies that dynamical many-body localization can exist in generic, nonintegrable many-body systems. And localization can generally result from a complicated interplay between Anderson mechanism and limiting integrability, since the many-body linear model is a high-angular-momentum limit of many-body QRKRs. We also analyze the dynamics of two coupled QRKRs in the highly unusual superballistic regime and find that the resonance conditions are relaxed due to interactions. Finally, we propose experimental realizations of the QRKR model in cold atoms in optical lattices.
Abd-el-Malek, Mina; Abdelsalam, Ahmed K.; Hassan, Ola E.
2017-09-01
Robustness, low running cost and reduced maintenance lead Induction Motors (IMs) to pioneerly penetrate the industrial drive system fields. Broken rotor bars (BRBs) can be considered as an important fault that needs to be early assessed to minimize the maintenance cost and labor time. The majority of recent BRBs' fault diagnostic techniques focus on differentiating between healthy and faulty rotor cage. In this paper, a new technique is proposed for detecting the location of the broken bar in the rotor. The proposed technique relies on monitoring certain statistical parameters estimated from the analysis of the start-up stator current envelope. The envelope of the signal is obtained using Hilbert Transformation (HT). The proposed technique offers non-invasive, fast computational and accurate location diagnostic process. Various simulation scenarios are presented that validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor
2015-01-01
The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....
刘国荣; 钟庭欢
2015-01-01
The key problem of direct torque control technology is how to acquire the stator flux linkage accurately when the stator resistance is uncertain. In this paper, taking the method of rotor flux orientation, and deducing the expression of slip, this expression contains the information of the stator resistance. As the stator resistance is changing, the slip of the calculation and the actual slip is not equal. The fuzzy neural network is constructed based on this idea, and the gradient descent method is used to train network parameters. It implements the online identification of the stator resistance. For the mentioned methods in this paper, a simulation is done in matlab/simulink. The results are that this method can accurately and quickly follow the change of the stator resistance under the condition of the stator resistance interference. Therefore, it realizes stator resistance real-time adjustment and improves motor’s low speed performance.%直接转矩控制技术的关键问题是如何在定子电阻不确定的情况下，准确辨识定子磁链。通过转子磁链定向的方法，推导出转差的表达式，此表达式中包含定子电阻的信息，当定子电阻发生变化时，计算出来的转差与实际的转差不相等，基于这种思想构建了模糊神经网络，采用梯度下降法训练网络的参数，实现对定子电阻的在线辨识。针对所提出的方法，在matlab/simulink中搭建模型进行仿真，结果表明在定子电阻受干扰的情况下，此方法能准确、迅速地跟随定子电阻的变化，实现实时调整，感应电机的低速性能得到改善。
Mclallin, K. L.; Kofskey, M. G.; Wong, R. Y.
1982-01-01
An experimental evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of the axial flow, variable area stator power turbine stage for the Department of Energy upgraded automotive gas turbine engine was conducted in cold air. The interstage transition duct, the variable area stator, the rotor, and the exit diffuser were included in the evaluation of the turbine stage. The measured total blading efficiency was 0.096 less than the design value of 0.85. Large radial gradients in flow conditions were found at the exit of the interstage duct that adversely affected power turbine performance. Although power turbine efficiency was less than design, the turbine operating line corresponding to the steady state road load power curve was within 0.02 of the maximum available stage efficiency at any given speed.
Torque analysis for double-stator permanent-magnet motor
柴凤; 程树康; 崔淑梅
2002-01-01
In addition to the characteristics of a conventional motor, a novel direct-drive double-stator perma-nent-magnet brushless motor proposed can operate in the state of either a generator or a motor as appropriate.Through numerical calculation and analysis, the output torque of double-stator permanent-magnet brushless motor of the same volume as the traditional machine is discussed, and the reduction of torque ripple by using the structure features of this motor is investigated. The results indicate that lower torque ripple under the condition of ideal effective torque can be obtained by the rational design of motor. The prototype motors tested show that this kind of motor structure has a higher power density.
Norimasa Shiomi
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.
Vibrational diagnostic of turbogenerator stator; Diagnostyka wibracyjna stojana turbogeneratora
Bytnar, A. [Instytut Energetyki, Warsaw (Poland)
1996-06-01
The vibrational diagnostic method of technical state assessment of the turbogenerator stator worked-out in the Power Engineering Institute in Warsaw is presented. It enables to detect developing faults, to determine a level of their expansion and a menace for machine operation, to foresee terms of inspections, overhauls and their scope as well as to formulate operational guidelines. A test scope, measuring equipment and some results are also presented. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs.
Effect of the Rotor Crank System on Cycling Performance
Jobson, Simon A.; Hopker, James; Galbraith, Andrew; Coleman, Damian A.; Nevill, Alan M.
2009-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a novel crank system on laboratory time-trial cycling performance. The Rotor system makes each pedal independent from the other so that the cranks are no longer fixed at 180°. Twelve male competitive but non-elite cyclists (mean ± s: 35 ± 7 yr, Wmax = 363 ± 38 W, VO2peak = 4.5 ± 0.3 L·min-1) completed 6-weeks of their normal training using either a conventional (CON) or the novel Rotor (ROT) pedal system. All participants then completed two 40.23-km time-trials on an air-braked ergometer, one using CON and one using ROT. Mean performance speeds were not different between trials (CON = 41.7 km·h-1 vs. ROT = 41.6 km·h-1, P > 0.05). Indeed, the pedal system used during the time-trials had no impact on any of the measured variables (power output, cadence, heart rate, VO2, RER, gross efficiency). Furthermore, the ANOVA identified no significant interaction effect between main effects (Time-trial crank system*Training crank system, P > 0.05). To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effects of the Rotor system on endurance performance rather than endurance capacity. These results suggest that the Rotor system has no measurable impact on time-trial performance. However, further studies should examine the importance of the Rotor ‘regulation point’ and the suggestion that the Rotor system has acute ergogenic effects if used infrequently. Key points The Rotor crank system does not improve gross efficiency in well-trained cyclists. The Rotor crank system has no measurable impact on laboratory 40.23-km time-trial performance. A 6-week period of familiarisation does not increase the effectiveness of the Rotor crank system. PMID:24150012
Development and construction of an HTS rotor for ship propulsion application
Nick, W; Frank, M; Kummeth, P; Rabbers, J J; Wilke, M; Schleicher, K, E-mail: wolfgang.nick@siemens.co [Siemens AG, CT PS 3, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, D-91050 Erlangen (Germany)
2010-06-01
A low-speed high-torque HTS machine is being developed at Siemens on the basis of previous steps (400kW demonstrator, 4MVA generator). The goal of the programme is to utilize the characteristic advantages offered by electrical machines with HTS-excited rotor, such as efficiency, compact size, and dynamic performance. To be able to address future markets, requirements from ship classification as well as potential customers have to be met. Electromagnetic design cannot be focused on nominal operation only, but has to deal with failure modes like short circuit too. Utilization of superconductor requires to consider margins taking into account that the windings have to operate reliably not only in 'clean' laboratory conditions, but in rough environment with the stator connected to a power converter. Extensive quality control is needed to ensure homogenous performance (current capacity, electrical insulation, dimensions) for the large quantity of HTS (45 km). The next step was to set up and operate a small-scale 'industrial' manufacturing process to produce HTS windings in a reproducible way, including tests at operating conditions. A HTS rotor includes many more components compared to a conventional one, so tough geometric tolerances must be met to ensure robust performance of the system. All this gives a challenging task, which will be concluded by cold testing of the rotor in a test facility. Then the rotor will be delivered for assembly to the stator. In following machine tests the performance of the innovative HTS drive system will be demonstrated.
Homopolar motor with dual rotors
Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)
1998-01-01
A homopolar motor (10) has a field rotor (15) mounted on a frame (11) for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor (17) mounted for rotation on said frame (11) within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor (15). The two rotors (15, 17) are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism (19), so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed.
Homopolar motor with dual rotors
Hsu, J.S.
1998-12-01
A homopolar motor has a field rotor mounted on a frame for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor mounted for rotation on said frame within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor. The two rotors are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism, so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed. 7 figs.
Variable Speed Rotor System Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Variable speed rotors will give helicopters several advantages: higher top speed, greater fuel efficiency, momentary emergency over-power, resonance detuning...
Conceptual Design of a Two Spool Compressor for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor Engine
Veres, Joseph P.; Thurman, Douglas R.
2010-01-01
This paper focuses on the conceptual design of a two spool compressor for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor engine, which has a design-point pressure ratio goal of 30:1 and an inlet weight flow of 30.0 lbm/sec. The compressor notional design requirements of pressure ratio and low-pressure compressor (LPC) and high pressure ratio compressor (HPC) work split were based on a previous engine system study to meet the mission requirements of the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Projects Large Civil Tilt Rotor vehicle concept. Three mean line compressor design and flow analysis codes were utilized for the conceptual design of a two-spool compressor configuration. This study assesses the technical challenges of design for various compressor configuration options to meet the given engine cycle results. In the process of sizing, the technical challenges of the compressor became apparent as the aerodynamics were taken into consideration. Mechanical constraints were considered in the study such as maximum rotor tip speeds and conceptual sizing of rotor disks and shafts. The rotor clearance-to-span ratio in the last stage of the LPC is 1.5% and in the last stage of the HPC is 2.8%. Four different configurations to meet the HPC requirements were studied, ranging from a single stage centrifugal, two axi-centrifugals, and all axial stages. Challenges of the HPC design include the high temperature (1,560deg R) at the exit which could limit the maximum allowable peripheral tip speed for centrifugals, and is dependent on material selection. The mean line design also resulted in the definition of the flow path geometry of the axial and centrifugal compressor stages, rotor and stator vane angles, velocity components, and flow conditions at the leading and trailing edges of each blade row at the hub, mean and tip. A mean line compressor analysis code was used to estimate the compressor performance maps at off-design speeds and to determine the required variable geometry reset schedules of the
9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics
2015-01-01
This book presents the proceedings of the 9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics. This conference is a premier global event that brings together specialists from the university and industry sectors worldwide in order to promote the exchange of knowledge, ideas, and information on the latest developments and applied technologies in the dynamics of rotating machinery. The coverage is wide ranging, including, for example, new ideas and trends in various aspects of bearing technologies, issues in the analysis of blade dynamic behavior, condition monitoring of different rotating machines, vibration control, electromechanical and fluid-structure interactions in rotating machinery, rotor dynamics of micro, nano, and cryogenic machines, and applications of rotor dynamics in transportation engineering. Since its inception 32 years ago, the IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics has become an irreplaceable point of reference for those working in the field, and this book reflects the high qua...
Spectral Analysis of Two Coupled Diatomic Rotor Molecules
Horace T. Crogman
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In a previous article the theory of frame transformation relation between Body Oriented Angular (BOA states and Lab Weakly Coupled states (LWC was developed to investigate simple rotor–rotor interactions. By analyzing the quantum spectrum for two coupled diatomic molecules and comparing it with spectrum and probability distribution of simple models, evidence was found that, as we move from a LWC state to a strongly coupled state, a single rotor emerges in the strong limit. In the low coupling, the spectrum was quadratic which indicates the degree of floppiness in the rotor–rotor system. However in the high coupling behavior it was found that the spectrum was linear which corresponds to a rotor deep in a well.
An Improved Stator Flux Observation Method of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Guangjing Su; Hongmei Li; Ying Dai; Zheng Li
2016-01-01
The stator flux and electromagnetic torque observation is the basis of direct torque controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor ( PMSM) drive system. However, the traditional stator flux observer based on voltage model is affected by integral initial values and integral drift, that based on current model is affected by the parameters of PMSM, so a new stator flux observation method is proposed based on an improved second⁃order generalized integrator ( SOGI) . Compared to the stator flux observation method based on the conventional SOGI, the proposed method can not only overcome the influence of integral initial values and integral drift, but also completely eliminate the DC offset’ s influence. Therefore, the observation accuracy of stator flux is further improved. The simulation and experimental results both show that the proposed method has a higher stator flux and electromagnetic torque observation precision.
The Modeling and Simulation of Thermal Analysis at Hydro Generator Stator Winding Insulation
Mihaela Raduca
2006-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling and simulation of thermal analysis at hydro generator stator winding. The winding stator is supplied at high voltage of 11 kV for high power hydro generator. To present the thermal analysis for stator winding is presented at supply of coil by 11 kV, when coil is heat and thermal transfer in insulation at ambient temperature.
Kang L. Wang
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P^{+} Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 10^{4}, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 10^{4} s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR associated with the device. The analysis of the device
Half a state, half an operator: a general formulation of stators
Zohar, Erez
2017-02-01
Stators, which may be intuitively defined as ‘half states, half operators’ are mathematical objects which act on two Hilbert spaces and utilize entanglement to create remote operations and exchange information between two physical systems. In particular, they allow to induce effective dynamics on one physical system by acting on the other one, given they have properly been connected with the right stator. In this work, the concept of stators is generalized and formalized in a way that allows the utilization of stators for some physical problems based on symmetry groups, and in particular digital quantum simulation.
Kunckel, S.; Klaus, G.; Liese, M.
2003-04-01
This paper deals with a calculation method of eddy current losses and temperature rises at the stator end teeth of hydro generators. It can be used for analysing and evaluating different design variants when optimising the stator core end portion. The calculation method simulates the three-dimensional local core end field, but uses only a two-dimensional calculation model. Amongst all the stator teeth it treats the tooth with the highest axial and radial magnetic flux impact. The paper presents a collection of calculation algorithms of the method and provides some results gained for two different stator core end designs. (Author)
Detection of broken rotor bars in induction motors using nonlinear Kalman filters.
Karami, Farzaneh; Poshtan, Javad; Poshtan, Majid
2010-04-01
This paper presents a model-based fault detection approach for induction motors. A new filtering technique using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is utilized as a state estimation tool for on-line detection of broken bars in induction motors based on rotor parameter value estimation from stator current and voltage processing. The hypothesis on which the detection is based is that the failure events are detected by jumps in the estimated parameter values of the model. Both UKF and EKF are used to estimate the value of rotor resistance. Upon breaking a bar the estimated rotor resistance is increased instantly, thus providing two values of resistance after and before bar breakage. In order to compare the estimation performance of the EKF and UKF, both observers are designed for the same motor model and run with the same covariance matrices under the same conditions. Computer simulations are carried out for a squirrel cage induction motor. The results show the superiority of UKF over EKF in nonlinear system (such as induction motors) as it provides better estimates for rotor fault detection.
Induction motor rotor fault diagnosis method based on double PQ transformation
HUANG Jin; NIU Faliang; YANG Jiaqiang
2007-01-01
This Paper presents a new rotor fault diagnosis method for induction motors which is based on the double PQ transformation.We construct the PQ transformation matrix with the positive sequence fundamental voltage components and their Hilbert transformation as elements.The active power P and the reactive power Q are obtained through the PO transformation of the stator currents.As both P and Q are constant for a healthy motor,they are represented by a dot on the PQ plane.Whereas the P and Q for a rotor broken bar motor are represented by an ellipse because they comprise an additional frequency component 2sfs (s is the slip and js is the supply frequency).Thus,by distinguishing these two different patterns.the rotor broken bar fault is detected.We use the major radius of the ellipse as the fault indicator and the distance between the point of no-load condition and the center of the ellipse on the PQ plane as its normalization value.We thus arrive at the fault severity factor which is fairly independent of the load level and the inertia value of the induction motors.Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method is effective in identifying the rotor-broken-bars fault and at determining the severity of the fault.
Several rotor noise sources and treatments
Tangler, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)
1997-12-31
Noise has been a design consideration in the development of advanced blades and turbines at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. During atmospheric testing associated with these efforts various types of aeroacoustic noise have been encountered. This presentation discusses several of these noise sources and treatments used to mitigate or eliminate the noise. Tonal noise resulting from tip-vortex/trailing-edge interaction and laminar separation bubbles was found to be easily eliminated. Impulsive noise resulting from blade/vortex interaction for rotors that furl and that due to tower shadow can be mitigated by various means. (au)
Dynamic Characteristics of Flow Induced Vibration in a Rotor-Seal System
Nan Zhang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Flow induced vibration is an important factor affecting the performance of the rotor-seal system. From the point of view of flow induced vibration, the nonlinear models of the rotor-seal system are presented for the analysis of the fluid force, which is induced by the interaction between the unstable fluid flow in the seal and the vibrating rotor. The nonlinear characteristics of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system are analyzed, and the nonlinear phenomena in the unbalanced rotor-seal system are investigated using the nonlinear models. Various nonlinear phenomena of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system, such as synchronization phenomenon and amplitude mutation, are reproduced.
Numerical Study of Stratified Charge Combustion in Wave Rotors
Nalim, M. Razi
1997-01-01
A wave rotor may be used as a pressure-gain combustor effecting non-steady flow, and intermittent, confined combustion to enhance gas turbine engine performance. It will be more compact and probably lighter than an equivalent pressure-exchange wave rotor, yet will have similar thermodynamic and mechanical characteristics. Because the allowable turbine blade temperature limits overall fuel/air ratio to sub-flammable values, premixed stratification techniques are necessary to burn hydrocarbon fuels in small engines with compressor discharge temperature well below autoignition conditions. One-dimensional, unsteady numerical simulations of stratified-charge combustion are performed using an eddy-diffusivity turbulence model and a simple reaction model incorporating a flammability limit temperature. For good combustion efficiency, a stratification strategy is developed which concentrates fuel at the leading and trailing edges of the inlet port. Rotor and exhaust temperature profiles and performance predictions are presented at three representative operating conditions of the engine: full design load, 40% load, and idle. The results indicate that peak local gas temperatures will result in excessive temperatures within the rotor housing unless additional cooling methods are used. The rotor itself will have acceptable temperatures, but the pattern factor presented to the turbine may be of concern, depending on exhaust duct design and duct-rotor interaction.
Stator insulation systems for medium voltage PWM drives fed motors
Gao, G.; Chen, W. [TECO-Westinghouse Motor Co., Round Rock, TX (United States)
2005-07-01
Adjustable speed drives (ASD) are commonly used in power electronics and control systems. It is estimated that more than 15 per cent of medium voltage motors are currently fed by such drives worldwide. A research project was conducted to examine the influence of medium voltage pulse width modulated (PWM) ASD on motor stator insulation systems. The findings, based on accelerated laboratory tests, have helped designers to improve the capabilities of the insulation system used for ASD-fed motors. Repetitive, high magnitude voltage spikes with fast rise time create significant stress on insulation systems. Gradual deterioration and premature failure of the motor insulation can result from surge voltages which generate surface discharges between phase windings/end windings, or partial discharges between stator turns. However, there is no industrial standard to evaluate motor insulation life under ASD-cable-motor conditions. Several material manufacturers have developed their own version of corona resistant material. However, the insulation life of ASD-fed motors does not depend solely on the raw materials. Rather, it depends on the complete insulation system, including the stator manufacturing process. In order to address this problem, TECO-Westinghouse Motor Company has developed special design criteria and manufacturing practices in order to reduce winding insulation temperature and to compensate for the additional heat generated by high frequency contents in the PWM voltage waveform. A patent pending new cooling system should reduce winding temperature by 15 to 20 degrees C. This paper presented design considerations for turn insulation, groundwall insulation, and a voltage stress grading system. A new thermal class H insulation system was also described. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.
Industrial stator vane with sequential impingement cooling inserts
Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A; Goebel, Gloria E; Krueger, Judson J; Rawlings, Christopher K; Memmen, Robert L
2013-08-06
A turbine stator vane for an industrial engine, the vane having two impingement cooling inserts that produce a series of impingement cooling from the pressure side to the suction side of the vane walls. Each insert includes a spar with a row of alternating impingement cooling channels and return air channels extending in a radial direction. Impingement cooling plates cover the two sides of the insert and having rows of impingement cooling holes aligned with the impingement cooling channels and return air openings aligned with the return air channel.
Novel stator design of fan motors using soft magnetic composites
Hsu, Yu-Sheng; Tsai, Mi-Ching; Hsieh, Min-Fu
2008-04-01
Cooling fans are an important device needed in consumer electronic products. To enhance the performance of cooling fans, this paper presents a novel brushless dc motor with a three dimensional stator structure using soft magnetic composite to reduce the hub size and allow more airflow. Four models are designed and their output characteristics are compared using finite element simulation. From the results, one of them is selected for prototyping whose performance appears to meet the requirement. The prototype has a 10% smaller diameter than that of conventional types. Moreover, the operation test shows that the required performance is achieved.
Stochastic Behaviour of Mistuned Stator Vane Sectors: An Industrial Application
A.C. Sall
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Stator vanes which are found in axial compressors are subject to vibratory fatigue. Their division into monoblock sectors makes the prediction of their vibratory behaviour difficult by deterministic methods due to the loss of the cyclic symmetry properties and also to a high sensitivity to mistuning. The purpose is to present a robust calculation strategy based on a stochastic modelisation of the structure. The methodology has been developed first on a simplified model and then applied to an industrial case. Polynomial chaos based results are in good agreement with reference Monte Carlo simulations.
Modelling and Analysis of Dual-Stator Induction Motors
Razik, Hubert; Rezzoug, Abderrezak; Hadiouche, Djafar
In this paper, the analysis and the modelling of a Dual-Stator Induction Motor (DSIM) are presented. In particular, the effects of the shift angle between its three-phase windings are studied. A complex steady state model is first established in order to analyse its harmonic behavior when it is supplied by a non-sinusoidal voltage source. Then, a new transformation matrix is proposed to develop a suitable dynamic model. In both cases, the study is made using an arbitrary shift angle. Simulation results of its PWM control are also presented and compared in order to confirm our theoretical observations.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor speed. 27.1509 Section 27.1509... Rotor speed. (a) Maximum power-off (autorotation). The maximum power-off rotor speed must be established... minimum power-off rotor speed must be established so that it is not less than 105 percent of the...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor speed. 29.1509 Section 29.1509....1509 Rotor speed. (a) Maximum power-off (autorotation). The maximum power-off rotor speed must be... minimum power-off rotor speed must be established so that it is not less than 105 percent of the...
Performance tests on helical Savonius rotors
Kamoji, M.A.; Kedare, S.B. [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India); Prabhu, S.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)
2009-03-15
Conventional Savonius rotors have high coefficient of static torque at certain rotor angles and a negative coefficient of static torque from 135 to 165 and from 315 to 345 in one cycle of 360 . In order to decrease this variation in static torque from 0 to 360 , a helical Savonius rotor with a twist of 90 is proposed. In this study, tests on helical Savonius rotors are conducted in an open jet wind tunnel. Coefficient of static torque, coefficient of torque and coefficient of power for each helical Savonius rotor are measured. The performance of helical rotor with shaft between the end plates and helical rotor without shaft between the end plates at different overlap ratios namely 0.0, 0.1 and 0.16 is compared. Helical Savonius rotor without shaft is also compared with the performance of the conventional Savonius rotor. The results indicate that all the helical Savonius rotors have positive coefficient of static torque at all the rotor angles. The helical rotors with shaft have lower coefficient of power than the helical rotors without shaft. Helical rotor without shaft at an overlap ratio of 0.0 and an aspect ratio of 0.88 is found to have almost the same coefficient of power when compared with the conventional Savonius rotor. Correlation for coefficient of torque and power is developed for helical Savonius rotor for a range of Reynolds numbers studied. (author)
Extension of Goldstein's circulation function for optimal rotors with hub
Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong
2016-01-01
The aerodynamic interaction or interference between rotor blades and hub body is usually very complicated, but some useful simplifications can be made by considering the hub with an infinite cylinder. Various attempts to find the optimum distribution of circulation by the lifting vortex lines...... method have been previously proposed to describe the blade interaction with the hub modeled by the infinite cylinder. In this case, the ideal distribution of bound circulation on the rotor blades is such that the shed vortex system in the hub-area is a set of helicoidal vortex sheets moving uniformly...... at the nose-area of the semi-infinite hub....
IDENTIFICATION OF CRACKED ROTOR BY WAVELET TRANSFORM
邹剑; 陈进; 蒲亚鹏
2002-01-01
The dynamic equation of cracked rotor in rotational frame was modelled, the numerical simulation solutions of the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor were obtained. By the wavelet transform, the time-frequency properties of the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor were discussed, the difference of the time-frequency properties between the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor was compared. A new detection algorithm using wavelet transform to identify crack was proposed. The experiments verify the availability and validity of the wavelet transform in identification of crack.
Welch, Gerard E.
2011-01-01
The main rotors of the NASA Large Civil Tilt-Rotor notional vehicle operate over a wide speed-range, from 100% at take-off to 54% at cruise. The variable-speed power turbine offers one approach by which to effect this speed variation. Key aero-challenges include high work factors at cruise and wide (40 to 60 deg.) incidence variations in blade and vane rows over the speed range. The turbine design approach must optimize cruise efficiency and minimize off-design penalties at take-off. The accuracy of the off-design incidence loss model is therefore critical to the turbine design. In this effort, 3-D computational analyses are used to assess the variation of turbine efficiency with speed change. The conceptual design of a 4-stage variable-speed power turbine for the Large Civil Tilt-Rotor application is first established at the meanline level. The design of 2-D airfoil sections and resulting 3-D blade and vane rows is documented. Three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computations are used to assess the design and off-design performance of an embedded 1.5-stage portion-Rotor 1, Stator 2, and Rotor 2-of the turbine. The 3-D computational results yield the same efficiency versus speed trends predicted by meanline analyses, supporting the design choice to execute the turbine design at the cruise operating speed.
Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.
1981-01-01
The aerodynamic performance of the inlet manifold and stator assembly of the compressor drive turbine was experimentally determined with cold air as the working fluid. The investigation included measurements of mass flow and stator-exit fluid torque as well as radial surveys of total pressure and flow angle at the stator inlet and annulus surveys of total pressure and flow angle at the stator exit. The stator-exit aftermixed flow conditions and overall stator efficiency were obtained and compared with their design values and the experimental results from three other stators. In addition, an analysis was made to determine the constituent aerodynamic losses that made up the stator kinetic energy loss.
Rotor blade assembly having internal loading features
Soloway, Daniel David
2017-05-16
Rotor blade assemblies and wind turbines are provided. A rotor blade assembly includes a rotor blade having exterior surfaces defining a pressure side, a suction side, a leading edge and a trailing edge each extending between a tip and a root, the rotor blade defining a span and a chord, the exterior surfaces defining an interior of the rotor blade. The rotor blade assembly further includes a loading assembly, the loading assembly including a weight disposed within the interior and movable generally along the span of the rotor blade, the weight connected to a rotor blade component such that movement of the weight towards the tip causes application of a force to the rotor blade component by the weight. Centrifugal force due to rotation of the rotor blade biases the weight towards the tip.
Study on the Vibration Displacement Distribution of a Circular Ultrasonic Motor Stator
Ri, Chol-Su; Kim, Chol-Su; Im, Song-Jin
2014-01-01
In this paper is presented a theoretical consideration on the stator's displacement distribution, which is one of the most important problems in defining the structure of the circular ultrasonic motor stator. The results are compared with results obtained utilizing holographic interferometer, laser vibrometer and a FEM (finite element method) simulation. They are in a good agreement with each other.
Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cheng, Ming
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a new approach to minimize the cogging torque of a stator interior permanent magnet (SIPM) machine. The optimization of stator slot gap and permanent magnet is carried out and the cogging torque ripple is analyzed by using finite element analysis. Experiments on a prototype...
Barrera, Pablo M. de la; Bossio, Guillermo R.; Garcia, Guillermo O. [Grupo de Electronica Aplicada (GEA), Facultad de Ingenieria, UNRC, Ruta Nacional 36 Km. 601, X5804BYA, Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Solsona, Jorge A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Electrica ' ' Alfredo Desages' ' , Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y de Computadoras, UNS, Av. Alem 1253 (8000) Bahia Blanca (Argentina)
2008-10-15
A rotor flux state observer considering iron loss, for an Induction Motor (IM), is proposed. The aim of this proposal is to avoid detuning caused by the IM iron loss on a field-oriented control (FOC). An adaptive scheme for the K{sub Fe}, a parameter that represents the IM iron loss, is also proposed. The main objective of this scheme is to improve the dynamic response of control by compensating the variations of iron losses due to possible variations in the stator core characteristics. Simulation results demonstrated that the observer and the adaptive scheme showed a good performance fulfilling then the objectives. (author)
Mohammad Jannati
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, Field-Oriented Control (FOC strategies broadly used as a vector based controller for Single-Phase Induction Motors (SPIMs. This paper is focused on Direct Rotor FOC (DRFOC of SPIM. In the proposed technique, transformation matrices are applied in order to control the motor by converting the unbalanced SPIM equations to the balanced equations (in this paper the SPIM with two different stator windings is considered. Besides this control technique, a method for speed estimation of SPIM based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF to achieve the higher performance of SPIM drive system is presented. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the high performance of the presented techniques.
Numerical Investigation: Effect of Stator Vanes on Turbocharger Turbine Performance
Ganesh Yadagiri Rapolu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available With reduced turbo lag and better transient response, the introduction of VTG stator guide vanes improved turbocharger performance at all the engine operating conditions. The VTG system accelerates and maneuvers exhaust gas flow to the turbine. Favorable flow conditions at turbine inlet created by vane shape improve turbine performance. At lower engine speed, it is observed that the pressure drop across vane system influences overall efficiency. Whereas at higher speed, the pressure drop and guide vane exit flow angle are found to determine the turbine efficiency. Successful practical operation of VTG system also depends on its ability to smoothly open and close the vanes at different gas loads. Stator vane shape greatly influences the smooth operability/controllability of vane system. In the present work, 3 symmetric vanes with different T/C ratios and 2 asymmetric vanes are analyzed. The effect of geometric changes is studied from overall turbine performance as well as VTG system performance perspective. It is observed that symmetric vanes cause higher pressure drop at lower speeds leading to lower efficiency irrespective of the vane width. It is also observed that the pressure drop characteristics and vane exit flow angle are better with the asymmetric vanes, whereas the controllability of symmetric vanes is found to be superior. Analysis methodology is presented for achieving the best compromise between performance and controllability by the modification of vane geometric parameters through CFD simulations.
Nakamura, T; Nagao, K; Nishimura, T; Ogama, Y; Kawamoto, M [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, 1 Kyoto-Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-Ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Okazaki, T; Ayai, N; Oyama, H [Electric Power and Energy Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd, 1-1-3, Shimaya, Konohaya-Ku, Osaka 554-0024 (Japan)], E-mail: tk_naka@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2008-08-15
We report on the direct relationship between output power and the current carrying capability of a squirrel-cage HTS induction/synchronous motor based on experiment. The secondary windings are fabricated by use of so-called DI-BSCCO tapes, and the conventional (normal conducting) stator, three-phase and four-pole, is utilized. The tests are carried out in liquid nitrogen for two kinds of HTS windings, in which the number of HTS rotor bars is varied. It is directly shown that the output power is proportional to the rotor bars' critical current at 77 K. In other words, the torque can be enlarged by increasing the critical current of the HTS rotor bars.
Feedback Control of Rotor Overspeed
Churchill, G. B.
1984-01-01
Feedback system for automatically governing helicopter rotor speed promises to lessen pilot's workload, enhance maneuverability, and protect airframe. With suitable modifications, concept applied to control speed of electrical generators, automotive engines and other machinery.
Design of composite flywheel rotor
Yue BAI; Qingjia GAO; Haiwen LI; Yihui WU; Ming XUAN
2008-01-01
A design method for a flywheel rotor com-posed of a composite rim and a metal hub is proposed by studying the connection between the rotor and the driving machine. The influence of some factors such as the rotor material, configuration, connection, and frac-ture techniques on energy density is analyzed. The results show that the ratio of the inner radius to outer radius of the rim is the key factor, and is determined by the rim material. Optimizing the hub can further efficiently improve energy density. The composite flywheel rotor is produced and its rotation stress has been tested at the speed of 20 krpm. The emulation results are consistent with testing results, which proves that the introduced design method is useful.
Avolio, Edwin
1992-03-01
A thermal-electric mathematical model for a squirrel cage induction motors which permits to specify the best motor for specific drive, under thermal and electric aspects based, only on manufacturer technical bulletins and technical information is presented. Changes of rotor parameters due Skin Effect and changes of winding resistances (both stator and rotor) with the temperature are considered. The accuracy of this model is appraised using experimental results. The thermal behavior and electric performance for some motors are obtained for continuos and intermittent duties with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal voltages. (author)
On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics
Santiago Pindado; Sergio Avila-Sanchez; Javier Pérez
2012-01-01
The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups’ front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer’s performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a lin...
System and method for heating ferrite magnet motors for low temperatures
Reddy, Patel Bhageerath; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Huh, Kum-Kang
2017-07-04
A system and method for heating ferrite permanent magnets in an electrical machine is disclosed. The permanent magnet machine includes a stator assembly and a rotor assembly, with a plurality of ferrite permanent magnets disposed within the stator assembly or the rotor assembly to generate a magnetic field that interacts with a stator magnetic field to produce a torque. A controller of the electrical machine is programmed to cause a primary field current to be applied to the stator windings to generate the stator magnetic field, so as to cause the rotor assembly to rotate relative to the stator assembly. The controller is further programmed to cause a secondary current to be applied to the stator windings to selectively generate a secondary magnetic field, the secondary magnetic field inducing eddy currents in at least one of the stator assembly and the rotor assembly to heat the ferrite permanent magnets.
Effect of fluid damping on vibration response of immersed rotors
Mahmud Rasheed Ismail, Mustafa Asaad Hussein
2016-01-01
Full Text Available As immersed rotors vibrate in a viscous media such as fluid, a considerable amount of damping may be generated due to the interaction phenomena between the rotor components and the fluid media.Such damping is depending on many factors such as; fluid drag,fluid friction,turbulence, vortex and so on. Immersed rotors find their application in many engineering fields such as Marines machines, gear box, turbine and pumps.In the presentwork, a mathematical modelis attempted to investigate the dynamical behaviorimmersed rotor.The model takes into account the effects of the most rotordynamic parameters, namely; fluid drag,damping and stiffness of bearing,unbalance and gyroscopic effects of the attacheddisc, and elastic bending and internal damping of rotor shaft.Four types of fluid are employed as a fluid immersing media which are; Air, Water, SAE 20 andSAE 40oils.The experimental apparatus includes a sample rotor with single disc and plastic fluid container.Two proximate sensors are employed for measuring the unbalance response and orbits shapes under different rotor speeds, and discs size and locations.Modal analysis is employed for solving the governing equation of vibration motion. To check the validity of the mathematical model the theoretical results are compared with the experimental results. It is found that; the theoretical results are in a good agreement with the experimental ones, where the maximum error is not exceeded (6.8 %, and that;the fluid damping can highly reduce the peak amplitude of the unbalance response (up to 60 % however, it has slight effect on the critical speeds which are highly affected by the size and location of the attached disc.
Liang Hu
2016-10-01
Full Text Available A nonlinear coupled dynamic model of a rod fastening rotor under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection was developed in this paper. The governing motion equation was derived by the D’Alembert principle considering the contact characteristic between disks, nonlinear oil-film force, rub-impact force, unbalance mass, etc. The contact effects between disks was modeled as a flexural spring with cubical nonlinear stiffness. The coupled nonlinear dynamic phenomena of the rub-impact rod fastening rotor bearing system with initial permanent deflection were investigated by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Bifurcation diagram, vibration waveform, frequency spectrum, shaft orbit and Poincaré map are used to illustrate the rich diversity of the system response with complicated dynamics. The studies indicate that the coupled dynamic responses of the rod fastening rotor bearing system under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection exhibit a rich nonlinear dynamic diversity, synchronous periodic-1 motion, multiple periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion and chaotic motion can be observed under certain conditions. Larger radial stiffness of the stator will simplify the system motion and make the oil whirl weaker or even disappear at a certain rotating speed. With the increase of initial permanent deflection length, the instability speed of the system gradually rises, and the chaotic motion region gets smaller and smaller. The corresponding results can provide guidance for the fault diagnosis of a rub-impact rod fastening rotor with initial permanent deflection and contribute to the further understanding of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the rod fastening rotor bearing system.
Jacques, R.; Le Quere, P.; Daube, O. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Orsay (France)
1997-12-31
Turbulent flows between a fixed disc and a rotating disc are encountered in various applications like turbo-machineries or torque converters of automatic gear boxes. These flows are characterised by particular physical phenomena mainly due to the effects of rotation (Coriolis and inertia forces) and thus, classical k-{epsilon}-type modeling gives approximative results. The aim of this work is to study these flows using direct numerical simulation in order to provide precise information about the statistical turbulent quantities and to improve the k-{epsilon} modeling in the industrial MATHILDA code of the ONERA and used by SNECMA company (aerospace industry). The results presented are restricted to the comparison between results obtained with direct simulation and results obtained with the MATHILDA code in the same configuration. (J.S.) 8 refs.
Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yu; Zi, Yanyang; Li, Bing; He, Zhengjia
2015-10-01
A novel reduced-order modeling method is presented in this paper for dynamics analysis of rotating impeller-shaft-bearing assembly with cracked impellers. Based on three-dimensional finite element model, the complex component mode synthesis (CMS) method is employed to generate an efficient reduced-order model (ROM) for studying the effects of crack on the global vibration of the rotating assembly. First, a modeling framework for impeller-shaft-bearing systems in rotating frame is presented. Rotational effects, including Coriolis matrix and centrifugal softening, have been taken into account. Then, the governing equation of motion of the damped gyroscopic system is reduced by the complex CMS method. Finally, the obtained ROM is employed to study the effects of crack on assembly's vibration. During the steady-state response analysis, external excitations on the impeller due to rotor-stator interactions have been taken into account, which was however neglected in previous investigations on rotordynamics. Numerical results show that the lower-order eigenvalues and the unbalance response of the assembly are not sensitive to the local crack on impeller. Nevertheless, the flexible coupling between impeller and shaft becomes more complex when the air flow-induced excitations are considered. Under EO1 traveling wave excitations, a crack leads to slight changes in the assembly's response. In contrast, the effect of crack becomes significant when the assembly is excited by EO2 and higher EO excitations. Moreover, the nonlinear crack breathing effects affect the assembly's response obviously. Finally, a potential technique for detecting the crack on impeller during operation is discussed.
Saulescu, R.; Neagoe, M.; Munteanu, O.; Cretescu, N.
2016-08-01
The paper presents a study on the kinematic and static performances of a new type of 1DOF (Degree Of Freedom) planetary speed increaser to be implemented in wind turbines, a transmission with three operating cases: a) one input and one output, b) one input and two outputs, in which the speed of the secondary output is equal to the input speed, and c) with one input and two outputs, where the secondary output speed is higher than the input speed. The proposed speed increaser contains two sun gears and a double satellite, allowing operation with an output connected to the fixed stator of a classic generator (case I) or with two counterrotating outputs that drive a counter-rotating generator (with a mobile stator). A new variant of planetary transmission capable of providing the speed increase of the generator stator and, thus, the increase of the relative speed between the generator rotor and stator is obtained by the parallel connection of the speed increaser with a planetary gear. The three conceptual variants of planetary transmission are analytically modelled and comparatively analysed based on a set of kinematic and static parameters. The proposed transmission has higher performances compared to the same transmission with one input and one output, the increase of the kinematic amplification ratio and efficiency being achieved simultaneously.
Rotor-Router Aggregation on the Comb
Huss, Wilfried; Sava, Ecaterina
2011-01-01
We prove a shape theorem for rotor-router aggregation on the comb, for a specific initial rotor configuration and clockwise rotor sequence for all vertices. Furthermore, as an application of rotor-router walks, we describe the harmonic measure of the rotor-router aggregate and related shapes, which is useful in the study of other growth models on the comb. We also identify the shape for which the harmonic measure is uniform. This gives the first known example where the rotor-router cluster ha...
Nonlinear Vibration Induced by the Water-film Whirl and Whip in a Sliding Bearing Rotor System
ZHAI Liming; LUO Yongyao; WANG Zhengwei; KITAUCHI Seishiro; MIYAGAWA Kazuyoshi
2016-01-01
Many industrial applications and experiments have shown that sliding bearings often experience fluid film whip due to nonlinear fluid film forces which can cause rotor-stator rub-impact failures. The oil-film whips have attracted many studies while the water-film whips in the water lubricated sliding bearing have been little researched with the mechanism still an open problem. The dynamic fluid film forces in a water sliding bearing are investigated numerically with rotational, whirling and squeezing motions of the journal using a nonlinear model to identify the relationships between the three motions. Rotor speed-up and slow-down experiments are then conducted with the rotor system supported by a water lubricated sliding bearing to induce the water-film whirl/whip and verify the relationship. The experimental results show that the vibrations of the journal alternated between increasing and decreasing rather than continuously increasing as the rotational speed increased to twice the first critical speed, which can be explained well by the nonlinear model. The radial growth rate of the whirl motion greatly affects the whirl frequency of the journal and is responsible for the frequency lock in the water-film whip. Further analysis shows that increasing the lubricating water flow rate changes the water-film whirl/whip characteristics, reduces the first critical speed, advances the time when significant water-film whirling motion occurs, and also increases the vibration amplitude at the bearing center which may lead to the rotor-stator rub-impact. The study gives the insight into the water-film whirl and whip in the water lubricated sliding bearing.
Nonlinear vibration induced by the water-film whirl and whip in a sliding bearing rotor system
Zhai, Liming; Luo, Yongyao; Wang, Zhengwei; Kitauchi, Seishiro; Miyagawa, Kazuyoshi
2016-03-01
Many industrial applications and experiments have shown that sliding bearings often experience fluid film whip due to nonlinear fluid film forces which can cause rotor-stator rub-impact failures. The oil-film whips have attracted many studies while the water-film whips in the water lubricated sliding bearing have been little researched with the mechanism still an open problem. The dynamic fluid film forces in a water sliding bearing are investigated numerically with rotational, whirling and squeezing motions of the journal using a nonlinear model to identify the relationships between the three motions. Rotor speed-up and slow-down experiments are then conducted with the rotor system supported by a water lubricated sliding bearing to induce the water-film whirl/whip and verify the relationship. The experimental results show that the vibrations of the journal alternated between increasing and decreasing rather than continuously increasing as the rotational speed increased to twice the first critical speed, which can be explained well by the nonlinear model. The radial growth rate of the whirl motion greatly affects the whirl frequency of the journal and is responsible for the frequency lock in the water-film whip. Further analysis shows that increasing the lubricating water flow rate changes the water-film whirl/whip characteristics, reduces the first critical speed, advances the time when significant water-film whirling motion occurs, and also increases the vibration amplitude at the bearing center which may lead to the rotor-stator rub-impact. The study gives the insight into the water-film whirl and whip in the water lubricated sliding bearing.
Study of a stator of a piezoelectric rotary ultrasonic motor
Rebollo Sancho, Gonzalo
2015-01-01
En este estudio es presentado un modelo matemático y los resultados de simulación numérica que son parte del estudio acerca de la dinámica del estator de un motor ultrasónico de onda viajera. El estator está dividido principalmente en tres partes; Un anillo de material piezoeléctrico, un adhesivo y un anillo metálico que transmite las ondas vibratorias al rotor. El momento giratorio es producido por la excitación del estator con una onda de flexión transmitida al rotor a través de la fricción...
Improving the reliability of stator insulation system in rotating machines
Gupta, G.K.; Sedding, H.G.; Culbert, I.M. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON, (Canada)
1997-07-01
Reliable performance of rotating machines, especially generators and primary heat transport pump motors, is critical to the efficient operation on nuclear stations. A significant number of premature machine failures have been attributed to the stator insulation problems. Ontario Hydro has attempted to assure the long term reliability of the insulation system in critical rotating machines through proper specifications and quality assurance tests for new machines and periodic on-line and off-line diagnostic tests on machines in service. The experience gained over the last twenty years is presented in this paper. Functional specifications have been developed for the insulation system in critical rotating machines based on engineering considerations and our past experience. These specifications include insulation stress, insulation resistance and polarization index, partial discharge levels, dissipation factor and tip up, AC and DC hipot tests. Voltage endurance tests are specified for groundwall insulation system of full size production coils and bars. For machines with multi-turn coils, turn insulation strength for fast fronted surges in specified and verified through tests on all coils in the factory and on samples of finished coils in the laboratory. Periodic on-line and off-line diagnostic tests were performed to assess the condition of the stator insulation system in machines in service. Partial discharges are measured on-line using several techniques to detect any excessive degradation of the insulation system in critical machines. Novel sensors have been developed and installed in several machines to facilitate measurements of partial discharges on operating machines. Several off-line tests are performed either to confirm the problems indicated by the on-line test or to assess the insulation system in machines which cannot be easily tested on-line. Experience with these tests, including their capabilities and limitations, are presented. (author)
Liquid Self-Balancing Device Effects on Flexible Rotor Stability
Leonardo Urbiola-Soto
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Nearly a century ago, the liquid self-balancing device was first introduced by M. LeBlanc for passive balancing of turbine rotors. Although of common use in many types or rotating machines nowadays, little information is available on the unbalance response and stability characteristics of this device. Experimental fluid flow visualization evidences that radial and traverse circulatory waves arise due to the interaction of the fluid backward rotation and the baffle boards within the self-balancer annular cavity. The otherwise destabilizing force induced by trapped fluids in hollow rotors, becomes a stabilizing mechanism when the cavity is equipped with adequate baffle boards. Further experiments using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV enable to assess the active fluid mass fraction to be one-third of the total fluid mass. An analytical model is introduced to study the effects of the active fluid mass fraction on a flexible rotor supported by flexible supports excited by bwo different destabilizing mechanisms; rotor internal friction damping and aerodynamic cross-coupling. It is found that the fluid radial and traverse forces contribute to the balancing action and to improve the rotor stability, respectively.
Post, Richard F.
2010-11-16
A sub-module consists of a set of two outer sets of stationary fan-blade-shaped sectors. These outer sectors include conductive material and are maintained at ground potential in several examples. Located midway between them is a set of stationary sector plates with each plate being electrically insulated from the others. An example provides that the inner sector plates are connected together alternately, forming two groups of parallel-connected condensers that are then separately connected, through high charging circuit resistances, to a source of DC potential with respect to ground, with an additional connecting lead being provided for each group to connect their output as an AC output to a load. These same leads can he used, when connected to a driver circuit, to produce motor action.
Egholm, Runi Ditlev; Fischer, Peter; Feigl, Kathleen;
2008-01-01
The deformation behaviour of single drops suspended in a second immiscible liquid undergoing a complex laminar flow is analysed both experimentally and numerically. The flow is generated in a channel formed by two rotating concentric cylinders with teethed walls as a model for extruding flow...... data analysis we define a geometry-based apparent shear rate which we compare to time-averaged drop deformations. Results indicate that for small deformations the relation between the time-averaged drop deformation and time-averaged apparent shear rate can be described by Taylor's small deformation...
FEM-based Analysis of a Hybrid Synchronous Generator with Skewed Stator Slots
MUNTEANU, A.
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a simulation study of a hybrid synchronous generator (dual excitation system - permanent magnets and electromagnets with skewed stator slots. The main goal is to establish if the skewing of the slots brings a significant improvement of the air-gap flux density and of the induced stator voltage. The skewness angle is the parameter in discussion. The study is based on finite element method analysis. Due to the particular geometry of the stator slots, a multilayer approach is employed.
Thrust Reduction of Magnetic Levitation Vehicle Driven by Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor
Wan-Tsun Tseng
2013-01-01
The propulsion technology of long stator linear synchronous motors is used to drive high-speed maglev trains. The linear synchronous motor stator is divided into sections placed on guideway. The electric power supplies to stator sections in which the train just passes in change-step mode for long-distance operation. However, a thrust drop will be caused by change-step machinery for driving magnetic vehicle. According to the train speed and vehicle data, the change-step mode has three types of...
Pre-Swirl Stator and Propeller Design for Varying Operating Conditions
Saettone, Simone; Regener, Pelle Bo; Andersen, Poul
2016-01-01
blades ahead of the propeller.This paper describes the hydrodynamic design of apre-swirl stator with radially variable pitch, paired with aconventional propeller. The aim is to achieve the highest possible effciency in various operating conditions, and to avoid effciency penalties in off-design operation.......To investigate the propeller and stator designs and configurations in different operating conditions, the computationally inexpensive vortex-lattice method is used a sa first step to optimize the geometry in an initial parameter study. Then the flow over hull, stator and propelleris simulated in a CFD...
Porphyrin and bodipy molecular rotors as microviscometers
Kimball, Joseph Daniel, III
Viscosity, a fluid's internal resistance to flow and resist molecular diffusion, is a fundamental property of fluid media. Determining the bulk viscosity of a fluid has been easy to relatively simple to accomplish for many years, yet in the recent decade there has been a focus on techniques to measure a fluid's microviscosity. Microviscosity differs from bulk viscosity such that microviscosity is the friction experienced by a single particle interacting with its micron-sized local environment. Macroscopic methods to evaluate the viscosity are well established, but methods to determine viscosity on the microscale level remains unclear. This work determines the viability of three molecular rotors designed as probes for microviscosity in organic media, ionic liquids, and in the cellular microenvironment. Understanding microviscosity is important because it one of the main properties of any fluid and thus has an effect on any diffusion related processes. A variety of mass and signal transport phenomena as well as intermolecular interactions are often governed by viscosity. Molecular rotors are a subclass of intramolecular charge transfer fluorophores which form a lower energy twisted state. This results in a charge separated species which is highly sensitive to its surrounding microenviroment's viscosity as high viscosity limits its ability to form this twisted state. Once excited, there are deactivation routes which the excited fluorophore can undergo: radiative and non-radiative. Both were studied in this work. In the case of a radiative decay, as seen in porphyrin dimer, the energy is released in the form of a photon and is seen as a shifted band in the emission structure. The conformation of the porphyrin dimer was found to be influenced differently by ionic liquids as compared to molecular solvents, indicating the microheterogenous nature of ionic liquids play a role in the conformation. For non-radiative decays, BODIPY dyads and triads were investigated. The
Bharadwaj, Sudarsh; Dullin, Holger R; Leung, Karen; Tong, William
2015-01-01
We present and analyse a simple model for the twisting somersault. The model is a rigid body with a rotor attached which can be switched on and off. This makes it simple enough to devise explicit analytical formulas whilst still maintaining sufficient complexity to preserve the shape-changing dynamics essential for twisting somersaults in springboard and platform diving. With `rotor on' and with `rotor off' the corresponding Euler-type equations can be solved, and the essential quantities characterising the dynamics, such as the periods and rotation numbers, can be computed in terms of complete elliptic integrals. Thus we arrive at explicit formulas for how to achieve a dive with m somersaults and n twists in a given total time. This can be thought of as a special case of a geometric phase formula due to Cabrera 2007.
On cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics.
Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio
2012-01-01
The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup.
Selami KESLER
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The power flow of the rotor circuit is controlled by different methods in induction machines used for producing high torque in applications involved great power and constant output power with constant frequency in wind turbines. The voltage with slip frequency can be applied on rotor windings to produce controlled high torque and obtain optimal power factor and speed control. In this study, firstly, the dynamic effects of the voltage applying on rotor windings through the rings in slip-ring induction machines are researched and undesirable aspects of the method are exposed with simulations supported by experiments. Afterwards, a fuzzy logic based inverter model on rotor side is proposed with a view to improving the dynamic effects, controlling high torque producing and adjusting machine speed in instantaneous forced conditions. For the simulation model of the system in which the stator side is directly connected to the grid in steady state operation, a C/C++ algorithm is developed and the results obtained for different load conditions are discussed.
Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal
2015-05-01
In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.
Jusoh, L. I.; Sulaiman, E.; Bahrim, F. S.; Kumar, R.
2017-08-01
Recent advancements have led to the development of flux switching machines (FSMs) with flux sources within the stators. The advantage of being a single-piece machine with a robust rotor structure makes FSM an excellent choice for speed applications. There are three categories of FSM, namely, the permanent magnet (PM) FSM, the field excitation (FE) FSM, and the hybrid excitation (HE) FSM. The PMFSM and the FEFSM have their respective PM and field excitation coil (FEC) as their key flux sources. Meanwhile, as the name suggests, the HEFSM has a combination of PM and FECs as the flux sources. The PMFSM is a simple and cheap machine, and it has the ability to control variable flux, which would be suitable for an electric bicycle. Thus, this paper will present a design comparison between an inner rotor and an outer rotor for a single-phase permanent magnet flux switching machine with 8S-10P, designed specifically for an electric bicycle. The performance of this machine was validated using the 2D- FEA. As conclusion, the outer-rotor has much higher torque approximately at 54.2% of an innerrotor PMFSM. From the comprehensive analysis of both designs it can be conclude that output performance is lower than the SRM and IPMSM design machine. But, it shows that the possibility to increase the design performance by using “deterministic optimization method”.
Panel/full-span free-wake coupled method for unsteady aerodynamics of helicopter rotor blade
Tan Jianfeng; Wang Haowen
2013-01-01
A full-span free-wake method is coupled with an unsteady panel method to accurately predict the unsteady aerodynamics of helicopter rotor blades in hover and forward flight.The unsteady potential-based panel method is used to consider aerodynamics of finite thickness multi-bladed rotors,and the full-span free-wake method is applied to simulating dynamics of rotor wake.These methods are tightly coupled through trailing-edge Kutta condition and by converting doublet-wake panels to full-span vortex filaments.A velocity-field integration technique is also adopted to overcome singularity problem during the interaction between the rotor wake and blades.Helicopter rotors including Caradonna-Tung,UH-60A,and AH-1G rotors,are simulated in hover and forward flight to validate the accuracy of this approach.The predicted aerodynamic loads of rotor blades agree well with available measured data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results,and the unsteady dynamics of rotor wake is also well simulated.Compared to CFD,the present method obtains accurate results more efficiently and is suitable to rotorcraft aeroelastic analysis.
Structural Considerations of a 20MW Multi-Rotor Wind Energy System
Jamieson, P.; Branney, M.
2014-12-01
The drive to upscale offshore wind turbines relates especially to possiblereductions in O&M and electrical interconnection costs per MW of installed capacity.Even with best current technologies, designs with rated capacity above about 3 MW are less cost effective exfactory per rated MW(turbine system costs) than smaller machines.Very large offshore wind turbines are thereforejustifiedprimarily by overall offshore project economics. Furthermore, continuing progress in materials and structures has been essential to avoid severe penalties in the power/mass ratio of large multi-MW machines.The multi-rotor concept employs many small rotors to maximise energy capture area withminimum systemvolume. Previous work has indicated that this can enablea very large reduction in the total weight and cost of rotors and drive trains compared to an equivalent large single rotor system.Thus the multi rotor concept may enable rated capacities of 20 MW or more at a single maintenancesite. Establishing the cost benefit of a multi rotor system requires examination of solutions for the support structure and yawing, ensuring aerodynamic losses from rotor interaction are not significant and that overall logistics, with much increased part count (more reliable components) and less consequence of single failuresare favourable. This paper addresses the viability of a support structure in respect of structural concept and likely weight as one necessary step in exploring the potential of the multi rotor concept.
Ha, K.P. [Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Kauh, S.K. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)
1999-04-01
Stator winding and endwinding are hot spots of a induction motor, and their temperature are heavily affected by the thermal conductivity of stator winding, endwinding and iron core. Hence, thermal conductivity evaluation of those materials is very important and the present study proposed prediction schemes for directional thermal conductivity of stator winding, endwinding, and iron core of a small induction motor. Longitudinal thermal conductivity of stator winding is evaluated by serial model, and transversal thermal conductivity is by Lewis and Nielson's model. Thermal conductivity of endwinding can be obtained by rotational transform of thermal conductivity tensor. And thermal conductivity of iron core is evaluated by serial model and parallel model. In the evaluation of the thermal conductivity of iron core, it was assumed that the contact resistance between the core plates plays 80% role in total resistance. This requires more detailed analysis. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Multi-mode sliding mode control for precision linear stage based on fixed or floating stator.
Fang, Jiwen; Long, Zhili; Wang, Michael Yu; Zhang, Lufan; Dai, Xufei
2016-02-01
This paper presents the control performance of a linear motion stage driven by Voice Coil Motor (VCM). Unlike the conventional VCM, the stator of this VCM is regulated, which means it can be adjusted as a floating-stator or fixed-stator. A Multi-Mode Sliding Mode Control (MMSMC), including a conventional Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and an Integral Sliding Mode Control (ISMC), is designed to control the linear motion stage. The control is switched between SMC and IMSC based on the error threshold. To eliminate the chattering, a smooth function is adopted instead of a signum function. The experimental results with the floating stator show that the positioning accuracy and tracking performance of the linear motion stage are improved with the MMSMC approach.
Research on resonance and antiresonance states of free stator of traveling wave ultrasonic motors
ZU Jiakui; ZHAO Chunsheng
2004-01-01
Under the condition of high-power drive, the experimental phenomena of free stator of traveling wave ultrasonic motor takes on strong nonlinear effects. Firstly, its corresponding theories are established to analyze and compare the stator's performances at the resonance and antiresonance states. At the same time, some important parameters, such as resonance/antiresonance frequency, mechanical quality, electro-mechanic coupling, and the relative vibration effect, are selected elaborately to evaluate the vibrational performances of free stator. Then, some experimental schemes based on the laser vibration measurement are designed respectively. Under the different drives conditions, the experimental characterizations of free stator at the resonance and antiresonance states are analyzed systematically. Finally, The investigative results show that the performance at the antiresonance state is much better than that at the resonance state. Some conclusions of this paper can provide novel idea and guidance for the choosing of the operating states and driving modes of traveling wave ultrasonic motor.
Zdeněk NOVÁK
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The first part of this paper deals with the measuring of hysteresis loop of the toroidal shape core. LabVIEW software is used to automate this process. The results are compared with the data from the manufacturer and used in the FEMM software for setting parameters of the stator core of Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM. Then, in the second part of this paper, the Lua scripting engine in FEMM software is used to optimize stator tooth width. Program code is written in the Matlab environment and after starting the run process, Matlab uses inter-process communication via ActiveX to connect with FEMM. In this process program tries several options for the stator tooth width. Based on the results, user can evaluate all the data about the overall progress and choose the optimal stator tooth width.
Xiangdong Liu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A novel modular arc-linear flux-switching permanent-magnet motor (MAL-FSPM used for scanning system instead of reduction gearboxes and kinematic mechanisms is proposed and researched in this paper by the finite element method (FEM. The MAL-FSPM combines characteristics of flux-switching permanent-magnet motor and linear motor and can realize the direct driving and limited angular movement. Structure and operation principle of the MAL-FSPM are analyzed. Cogging torque model of the MAL-FSPM is established. The characteristics of cogging torque and torque ripple are investigated for: (1 distance (dend between left end of rotor and left end of stator is more than two rotor tooth pitch (τp; and (2 dend is less than two rotor tooth pitch. Cogging torque is an important component of torque ripple and the period ratio of the cogging torque to the back electromotive force (EMF equals one for the MAL-FSPM before optimization. In order to reduce the torque ripple as much as possible and affect the back EMF as little as possible, influence of period ratio of cogging torque to back EMF on rotor step skewing is investigated. Rotor tooth width and stator slot open width are optimized to increase the period ratio of cogging torque to back EMF. After the optimization, torque ripple is decreased by 79.8% for dend > τp and torque ripple is decreased by 49.7% for dend < τp. Finally, 3D FEM model is established to verify the 2D results.
Buethe, H.; Le Dren, S.; Steinbrink, D.; Zamzow, P.E. [Nexans Industries GmbH and Co KG (Germany)
2003-07-01
The long stator winding of the Transrapid represents the most innovative high speed MAGLEV technology application for a special rubber MV cable with formerly unequaled mechanical and electrical requirements. For the first time, we are able to provide details about this special MV cable solution, using high quality rubber compounds for conductor insulation and semiconductive outer sheath with gliding coating for the long stator winding of the Transrapid Shanghai propulsion system, and to report that the high demands and specifications of the whole system were fulfilled. (authors)
Assessment of Geometry and In-Flow Effects on Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Broadband Noise Predictions
Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Nark, Douglas M.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.
2015-01-01
Application of previously formulated semi-analytical models for the prediction of broadband noise due to turbulent rotor wake interactions and rotor blade trailing edges is performed on the historical baseline F31/A31 contra-rotating open rotor configuration. Simplified two-dimensional blade element analysis is performed on cambered NACA 4-digit airfoil profiles, which are meant to serve as substitutes for the actual rotor blade sectional geometries. Rotor in-flow effects such as induced axial and tangential velocities are incorporated into the noise prediction models based on supporting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results and simplified in-flow velocity models. Emphasis is placed on the development of simplified rotor in-flow models for the purpose of performing accurate noise predictions independent of CFD information. The broadband predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental acoustic results.
EFFECT OF THE ROTOR CRANK SYSTEM ON CYCLING PERFORMANCE
Simon A. Jobson
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a novel crank system on laboratory time-trial cycling performance. The Rotor system makes each pedal independent from the other so that the cranks are no longer fixed at 180°. Twelve male competitive but non-elite cyclists (mean ± s: 35 ± 7 yr, Wmax = 363 ± 38 W, VO2peak = 4.5 ± 0.3 L·min-1 completed 6-weeks of their normal training using either a conventional (CON or the novel Rotor (ROT pedal system. All participants then completed two 40.23-km time-trials on an air-braked ergometer, one using CON and one using ROT. Mean performance speeds were not different between trials (CON = 41.7 km·h-1 vs. ROT = 41.6 km·h-1, P > 0.05. Indeed, the pedal system used during the time-trials had no impact on any of the measured variables (power output, cadence, heart rate, VO2, RER, gross efficiency. Furthermore, the ANOVA identified no significant interaction effect between main effects (Time-trial crank system*Training crank system, P > 0.05. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effects of the Rotor system on endurance performance rather than endurance capacity. These results suggest that the Rotor system has no measurable impact on time-trial performance. However, further studies should examine the importance of the Rotor 'regulation point' and the suggestion that the Rotor system has acute ergogenic effects if used infrequently
Blade tip vortex measurements on actively twisted rotor blades
Bauknecht, André; Ewers, Benjamin; Schneider, Oliver; Raffel, Markus
2017-05-01
Active rotor control concepts, such as active twist actuation, have the potential to effectively reduce the noise and vibrations of helicopter rotors. The present study focuses on the experimental investigation of active twist for the reduction of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) effects on a model rotor. Results of a large-scale smart-twisting active rotor test under hover conditions are described. This test investigated the effects of individual blade twist control on the blade tip vortices. The rotor blades were actuated with peak torsion amplitudes of up to 2° and harmonic frequencies of 1-5/rev with different phase angles. Time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was carried out to study the effects of active twist on the strength and trajectories of the tip vortices between ψ _ {v}= 3.6° and 45.7° of vortex age. The analysis of the vortex trajectories revealed that the 1/rev active twist actuation mainly caused a vertical deflection of the blade tip and the corresponding vortex trajectories of up to 1.3% of the rotor radius R above and -1%R below the unactuated condition. An actuation with frequencies of 2 and 3/rev significantly affected the shapes of the vortex trajectories and caused negative vertical displacements of the vortices relative to the unactuated case of up to 2%R within the first 35° of wake age. The 2 and 3/rev actuation also had the most significant effects on the vortex strength and altered the initial peak swirl velocity by up to -34 and +31% relative to the unactuated value. The present aerodynamic investigation reveals a high control authority of the active twist actuation on the strength and trajectories of the trailing blade tip vortices. The magnitude of the evoked changes indicates that the active twist actuation constitutes an effective measure for the mitigation of BVI-induced noise on helicopters.
A Fault Diagnosis Approach for Broken Rotor Bars Based on EMD and Envelope Analysis
ZHANG Jian-wen; ZHU Ning-hui; YANG Li; YAO Qi; LU Qing
2007-01-01
Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) used to deal with non-linear and non-stable signals, is a time-frequency analytical method that has been developed recently. In this paper the EMD method is used to filter the noise from the stator current signal that arises when rotor bars break. Then a Hilbert Transform is used to extract the envelope from the filtered signal. With the EMD method again, the frequency band containing the fault characteristic-frequency components, 2sf, can be extracted from the signal's envelope. The last step is to use a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method to extract the fault characteristic frequency. This frequency can be detected in actual data from a faulty motor, as shown by example. Compared to the Extend Park Vector method this method is proved to be more sensitive under light motor load.
Initial rotor position estimation and sliding preventing for elevators with surface-mounted PMSMs
Liu, Feng; Shen, Anwen; Tang, Qipeng; Xu, Jinbang
2016-03-01
Improved methods of initial rotor position estimation and sliding prevention are presented in this paper for elevators with surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines (SPMSMs). In contrast to most of the existing literature, in this paper, estimation errors caused by stator resistance and dead time are analysed in detail. The improved estimation method can reduce the errors greatly without dead-time compensations and knowledge of motor parameters. Besides, an observer-based feedforward compensation of load torque is introduced to elevator applications to prevent sliding during the starting process. Since the torque observer is widely used in other motor applications, we focus on the impact caused by the change in inertia. Finally, a series of experiments are performed on a testing system with two 13.4 kW SPMSMs and drivers to illustrate the effectiveness and improvement of the method.
Genetics Home Reference: Rotor syndrome
... of these proteins. Without the function of either transport protein, bilirubin is less efficiently taken up by the ... Schinkel AH. Complete OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 deficiency causes human Rotor syndrome by interrupting conjugated bilirubin reuptake into ...
Rotor damage detection by using piezoelectric impedance
Qin, Y.; Tao, Y.; Mao, Y. F.
2016-04-01
Rotor is a core component of rotary machinery. Once the rotor has the damage, it may lead to a major accident. Thus the quantitative rotor damage detection method based on piezoelectric impedance is studied in this paper. With the governing equation of piezoelectric transducer (PZT) in a cylindrical coordinate, the displacement along the radius direction is derived. The charge of PZT is calculated by the electric displacement. Then, by the use of the obtained displacement and charge, an analytic piezoelectric impedance model of the rotor is built. Given the circular boundary condition of a rotor, annular elements are used as the analyzed objects and spectral element method is used to set up the damage detection model. The Electro-Mechanical (E/M) coupled impedance expression of an undamaged rotor is deduced with the application of a low-cost impedance test circuit. A Taylor expansion method is used to obtain the approximate E/M coupled impedance expression for the damaged rotor. After obtaining the difference between the undamaged and damaged rotor impedance, a rotor damage detection method is proposed. This method can directly calculate the change of bending stiffness of the structural elements, it follows that the rotor damage can be effectively detected. Finally, a preset damage configuration is used for the numerical simulation. The result shows that the quantitative damage detection algorithm based on spectral element method and piezoelectric impedance proposed in this paper can identify the location and the severity of the damaged rotor accurately.
Design of the Active Elevon Rotor for Low Vibration
Fulton, Mark V.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Helicopter fuselages vibrate more than desired, and traditional solutions have limited effectiveness and can impose an appreciable weight penalty. Alternative methods of combating high vibration, including Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) via harmonic swashplate motion and Individual Blade Control (IBC) via active pitch links, have been studied for several decades. HHC via an on-blade control surface was tested in 1977 on a full scale rotor using a secondary active swashplate and a mechanical control system. Recent smart material advances have prompted new research into the use of on-blade control concepts. Recent analytical studies have indicated that the use of on-blade control surfaces produces vibration reduction comparable to swashplate-based HHC but for less power. Furthermore, smart materials (such as piezoceramics) have been shown to provide sufficient control authority for preliminary rotor experiments. These experiments were initially performed at small scale for reduced tip speeds. More recent experiments have been conducted at or near full tip speeds, and a full-scale active rotor is under development by Boeing with Eurocopter et al. pursuing a similarly advanced full-scale implementation. The US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate has undertaken a new research program called the Active Elevon Rotor (AER) Focus Demo. This program includes the design, fabrication, and wind. tunnel testing of a four-bladed, 12.96 ft diameter rotor with one or two on-blade elevons per blade. The rotor, which will be Mach scaled, will use 2-5/rev elevon motion for closed-loop control and :will be tested in late 2001. The primary goal of the AER Focus Demo is the reduction of vibratory hub loads by 80% and the reduction of vibratory blade structural loads. A secondary goal is the reduction of rotor power. The third priority is the measurement and possible reduction of Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. The present study is focused on elevon effectiveness, that is, the elevon
Finite Element Harmonic Solution of the Coupled Rotor-bearing System
无
2002-01-01
Fluid-solid interaction problems have been studied q uite extensively in the past years. Rotor-bearing system is a typical example. Fluid field is changed under the exciting of rotor vibration. On the same ti me, a net force caused by fluid pressure exerts on rotor, which will change roto r vibration. So, the fluid-solid coupled analysis method must be used. Traditionally, numerical difference method was used to solve fluid problems. The coupled fluid-solid equation could not be set up based on the me...
Morse, Geoffrey E; Farrell, Brian D
2005-06-01
Ehrlich and Raven's (1964) hypothesis on coevolution has stimulated numerous phylogenetic studies that focus on the effects of plant defensive chemistry as the main ecological axis of phytophagous insect diversification. However, other ecological features affect host use and diet breadth and they may have very different consequences for insect evolution. In this paper, we present a phylogenetic study based on DNA sequences from mitochondrial and protein-coding genes of species in the seed beetle genus Stator, which collectively show considerable interspecific variation in host affiliation, diet breadth, and the dispersal stage of the seeds that they attack. We used comparative analyses to examine transitions in these three axes of resource use. We argue that these analyses show that diet breadth evolution is dependent upon colonizing novel hosts that are closely or distantly related to the ancestral host, and that oviposition substrate affects the evolution of host-plant affiliation, the evolution of dietary specialization, and the degree to which host plants are shared between species. The results of this study show that diversification is structured by interactions between different selective pressures and along multiple ecological axes.
A study on the interference effects for tidal current power rotors
Chul-Hee; JO; Kang-Hee; LEE; Jin-Young; YIM
2010-01-01
Due to global warming, the need to secure an alternative resource has become more important nationally. With the high tidal range of up to 9.7 m on the west coast of Korea, numerous tidal current projects are being planned and constructed. To extract a significant quantity of power, a tidal current farm with a multi-arrangement is necessary in the ocean. The rotor, which initially converts the energy, is a very important component because it affects the efficiency of the entire system, and its performance is determined by various design variables. The power generation is strongly dependent on the size of the rotor and the incoming flow velocity. However, the interactions between devices also contribute significantly to the total power capacity. Therefore, rotor performance considering the interaction problems needs to be investigated for generating maximum power in a specific field. This paper documents a performance study of devices considering the interference between rotating rotors with axial, transverse and diagonal arrangements.
Aeromechanical Analysis of a Smart Helicopter Rotor in Forward Flight
Jacopo Serafini
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a smart system integrated into a helicopter blade aimed at giving an anhedral shape to the blade tip region to alleviate the blade-vortex interaction phenomenon that may cause reduced helicopter performance in terms of noise and vibrations. The blade tip morphing is obtained through the joint action of a magneto-rheological fluid (MRF device, a shape-memory alloy ribbons- based (SMA device and a set of concentrated masses properly distributed spanwise. The presence of this smart actuator (particularly the concentrated masses inside the blades modifies the aeromechanical behaviour of the rotor and may be detrimental in terms of hub vibratory loads, pitch control effectiveness and aeroelastic stability. Following a previous literature work concerning with the effectiveness of the smart actuated rotor in hovering conditions, the present paper focuses on the aeromechanical effects due to the inclusion of the smart device in a four-bladed helicopter rotor in forward flight where blade morphing is not needed. Aim of this work is to investigate on the compatibility of the smart system with the required aeromechanical performance of the rotor, highlighting the feasibility of its application on helicopters.
Investigation of UH-60A Rotor Structural Loads from Flight and Wind Tunnel Tests
2016-05-19
focuses on the advance ratio of 0.3 cases (C8424 and R47P21) and presents the detailed analyses and comparisons with the test data. 3 DESCRIPTION OF...from the test , including non-dimensional rotor thrust, and hub rolling and pitching moments. In addition, rotor blade tip Mach num- ber, advance ...high-frequency oscillations in the test data in the first quadrant resulting from the wake interaction are also cap- tured in the coupled solution
A Survey of Theoretical and Experimental Coaxial Rotor Aerodynamic Research
Coleman, Colin P.
1997-01-01
The recent appearance of the Kamov Ka-50 helicopter and the application of coaxial rotors to unmanned aerial vehicles have renewed international interest in the coaxial rotor configuration. This report addresses the aerodynamic issues peculiar to coaxial rotors by surveying American, Russian, Japanese, British, and German research. (Herein, 'coaxial rotors' refers to helicopter, not propeller, rotors. The intermeshing rotor system was not investigated.) Issues addressed are separation distance, load sharing between rotors, wake structure, solidity effects, swirl recovery, and the effects of having no tail rotor. A general summary of the coaxial rotor configuration explores the configuration's advantages and applications.
Computation of Gust-Cascade Interaction Using the CE/SE Method
Wang, X.-Y.; Himansu, A.; Chang, S.-C.; Jorgenson, P. C. E.
2004-01-01
The problem 2 in Category 3 of the 4th Computational Aeroacoustic(CAA) Workshop is solved using the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. This problem models rotor-stator interaction in a 2D cascade. It involves complex geometries and flow physics including vortex shedding and acoustic radiation. The parallel version of the 2D nonlinear Euler solver is used with an unstructured triangular mesh to solve this problem. The Giles approach is incorporated with the CE/SE method to handle non-equal pitches of the rotor and stator. Validation on the Giles approach is performed using Problem 3.1 in the 2nd CAA Workshop. The space-time CE/SE method is a finite volume method with second-order accuracy in both space and time. The flux conservation is enforced in both space and time instead of space only. It has low numerical dissipation and dispersion errors. It uses simple non-reflecting boundary conditions and is compatible with unstructured meshes. It is simple, flexible, and generate reasonably accurate solutions. The CE/SE method has been successfully applied to solve numerous practical problems, especially aeroacoustic problems. Some preliminary numerical results of the benchmark problem 3.2 of the 4th CAA Workshop are shown. The steady-state pressure contour is plotted. The mean pressure distribution on the blade surface is compared with Turbo solution showing a good agreement. The sound pressure level versus the rotor harmonic n at the six designated positions on the blade surface, three locations at inlet plane, and three locations at the outlet plane are plotted. It can be seen that the acoustic response exists only at the excitation frequencies (n = 1,2,3). On the blade surface, the acoustic wave at n = 1 is dominant, while at the inlet and outlet planes, the sound pressure level at n = 2 becomes the largest, which is similar to the results presented. The distribution of sound pressure level at different spatial modes along the z
Initial rotor position estimation of three-stage brushless synchronous motors%三级式无刷同步电机转子初始位置估算方法
毛帅; 刘卫国; 马鹏; 彭纪昌
2016-01-01
提出一种三级式无刷同步电机在无位置传感器并且静止的情况下转子初始位置的估算方法。该方法首先利用三级式无刷同步电机主发电机定子铁心的饱和特性，通过给主发电机定子施加特定方向的电压空间矢量，检测并比较相应的定子电流来预估1个转子的初始位置。然后，利用预估的转子初始位置对主发电机定子电流进行造型，通过高斯曲线拟合估算转子初始位置。实验结果表明：转子初始位置的估算精度在0.5°电角度以内。%A method of estimating the initial rotor position of a three-stage brushless synchronous motor at standstill without any position sensors was presented. Based on the magnetic saturation characteristics of the stator core, the preliminary initial rotor position of the machine was estimated by applying specified voltage vectors to the main generator and comparing the stator current values. Then, the stator current values were modeled using the preliminary initial rotor position information and Gaussian curve fitting was performed. The results show that the standstill rotor position is within 0.5° in electrical angle.
On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics
Santiago Pindado
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups’ front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer’s performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal, tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups’ center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor’s cup.
WAKE GEOMETRY CALCULATIONS FOR TILT-ROTOR USING VISCOUS VORTEX METHOD
魏鹏; 史勇杰; 徐国华
2013-01-01
A tilt-rotor unsteady flow analytical method has been developed based upon viscous vortex-particle meth-od .In this method ,the vorticity field is divided into small assembled vortex particles .Vortex motion and diffusion are obtained by solving the velocity-vorticity-formed incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using a grid-free La-grangian simulation method .Generation of the newly vortex particles is calculated by using the Weissinger-L lifting surface model .Furthermore ,in order to significantly improve computational efficiency ,a fast multiple method (FMM) is introduced into the calculation of induced velocity and its gradient .Finally ,the joint vertical experimen-tal (JVX) tilt-rotor is taken as numerical examples to analyze .The wake geometry and downwash are investigated for both hover and airplane modes .The proposed method for tilt-rotor flow analysis is verified by comparing its re-sults with those available measured data .Comparison indicates that the current method can accurately capture the complicated tilt-rotor wake variation and be suitable for aerodynamic interaction simulation in complex environ-ments .Additionally ,the aerodynamic interactional characteristics of dual-rotor wake are discussed in different ro-tor distance .Results show that there are significant differences on interactional characteristics between hover mode and airplane mode .
Siraj Ahmed T
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper an experiment has been conducted to determine the online stator winding resistance of an induction motor, in industries as well as domestic purpose induction motors is largely utilized, as it has both applications of variable and constant torque operation nature. The major requirement of an electric drive system is its independent control of torque and speed; this is achieved in DC motor Drive but has more disadvantages. With the help of fast acting switching devices it is possible to independently control an induction motor. To control an induction motor drive various methods are available, direct torque control of induction motor is one of the best method of control compared to other, the only disadvantage is the torque ripple. Stator resistance is one of the parameter for the cause; hence its determination is essential. An experiment is conducted at various loads on an induction motor and then the temperature in the stator winding is noted at different instants using microcontroller, from the tabulated readings stator winding resistance is calculated and compared with the direct measurement by Volt-Ampere method. Further it is suggested that by implementing the actual online value of stator resistance of an induction motor dive torque ripple can be minimized.
Rotor Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires
K. Gupta
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In the present analysis, the fundamental natural frequency of a Jeffcott and a two-mass rotor with fibre reinforced composite shaft embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires is evaluated by Rayleigh's procedure. The flexibility of rotor supports is taken into account. The effect of three factors, either singly or in combination with each other, on rotor critical speed is studied. The three factors are: (i increase in Young's modulus of SMA (NITINOL wires when activated, (ii tension in wires because of phase recovery stresses, and (iii variation of support stiffness by three times because of activation of SMA in rotor supports. It is shown by numerical examples that substantial variation in rotor critical speeds can be achieved by a combination of these factors which can be effectively used to avoid resonance during rotor coast up/down.
Design of plywood and paper flywheel rotors
Hagen, D. L.
Technical and economic design factors of cellulosic rotors are compared with conventional materials for stationary flywheel energy storage systems. Wood species, operation in a vacuum, assembly and costs of plywood rotors are evaluated. Wound kraft paper, twine and veneer rotors are examined. Two bulb attachments are designed. Support stiffness is shown to be constrained by the material strength, rotor configuration and speed ratio. Plywood moisture equilibrium during manufacture and assembly is critical. Disk shaping and rotor assembly are described. Potential self-centering dynamic balancing methods and equipment are described. Detailed measurements of the distribution of strengths, densities and specific energy of conventional Finnish Birch plywood and of custom made hexagonal Birch plywood are detailed. High resolution tensile tests were performed while monitoring the acoustic emissions with micoprocessor controlled data acquisition. Preliminary duration of load tests were performed on vacuum dried hexagonal birch plywood. Economics of cellulosic and conventional rotors were examined.
Helicopter rotor loads using a matched asymptotic expansion technique
Pierce, G. A.; Vaidyanathan, A. R.
1981-01-01
The theoretical basis and computational feasibility of the Van Holten method, and its performance and range of validity by comparison with experiment and other approximate methods was examined. It is found that within the restrictions of incompressible, potential flow and the assumption of small disturbances, the method does lead to a valid description of the flow. However, the method begins to break down under conditions favoring nonlinear effects such as wake distortion and blade/rotor interaction.
Flywheel Rotor Safe-Life Technology
Ratner, J. K. H.; Chang, J. B.; Christopher, D. A.; McLallin, Kerry L. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Since the 1960s, research has been conducted into the use of flywheels as energy storage systems. The-proposed applications include energy storage for hybrid and electric automobiles, attitude control and energy storage for satellites, and uninterruptible power supplies for hospitals and computer centers. For many years, however, the use of flywheels for space applications was restricted by the total weight of a system employing a metal rotor. With recent technological advances in the manufacturing of composite materials, however, lightweight composite rotors have begun to be proposed for such applications. Flywheels with composite rotors provide much higher power and energy storage capabilities than conventional chemical batteries. However, the failure of a high speed flywheel rotor could be a catastrophic event. For this reason, flywheel rotors are classified by the NASA Fracture Control Requirements Standard as fracture critical parts. Currently, there is no industry standard to certify a composite rotor for safe and reliable operation forth( required lifetime of the flywheel. Technical problems hindering the development of this standard include composite manufacturing inconsistencies, insufficient nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting defects and/or impact damage, lack of standard material test methods for characterizing composite rotor design allowables, and no unified proof (over-spin) test for flight rotors. As part of a flywheel rotor safe-life certification pro-ram funded b the government, a review of the state of the art in composite rotors is in progress. The goal of the review is to provide a clear picture of composite flywheel rotor technologies. The literature review has concentrated on the following topics concerning composites and composite rotors: durability (fatigue) and damage tolerance (safe-life) analysis/test methods, in-service NDE and health monitoring techniques, spin test methods/ procedures, and containment options
Optimization of wind turbine rotors
Nygaard, Tor Anders
1999-07-01
The Constrained Steepest Descent method has been applied to the optimization of wind turbine rotors through the development of a numerical model. The model consists of an optimization kernel, an aerodynamic model, a structural dynamic model of a rotating beam, and a cost model for the wind turbine. The cost of energy is minimized directly by varying the blade design, the rotational speed and the resulting design of the drive-train and tower. The aerodynamic model is a combination of a fast engineering model based on strip-theory and two and three-dimensional Euler solvers. The two-dimensional Euler solver is used for generation of pre-stall airfoil data. Comparisons with experimental data verify that the engineering model effectively approximates non-stalled flow, except at the blade tip. The three-dimensional Euler solver is in good agreement with the experimental data at the tip, and is therefore a useful supplement for corrections of the tip-loss model, and evaluation of an optimized design. The structural dynamic model evaluates stresses and deformations for the blade. It is based on constitutive relations for a slender beam that are solved with the equations of motions using a finite-difference method. The cost model evaluates the design change of the wind turbine and the resulting costs that occur when a change in blade design modifies the blade mass and the overall forces. The cost model is based on engineering design rules for the drive-train and tower. The model was applied using a Danish 600 kW wind turbine as a reference. Two rotors were optimized using traditional NACA airfoils and a new low-lift airfoil family developed specifically for wind turbine purposes. The cost of energy decreased four percent for the NACA rotor, and seven percent for the low-lift rotor. Optimizations with a high number of degrees of freedom show that a designer has considerable flexibility in choosing some primary parameters such as rated power and rotor diameter, if the rest
Energy from Swastika-Shaped Rotors
McCulloch M. E.
2015-04-01
Full Text Available It is suggested here that a swastika-shaped rotor exposed to waves will rotate in the di- rection its arms are pointing (towards the arm-tips due to a sheltering effect. A formula is derived to predict the motion obtainable from swastika rotors of different sizes given the ocean wave height and phase speed and it is suggested that the rotor could provide a new, simpler method of wave energy generation. It is also proposed that the swastika rotor could generate energy on a smaller scale from sound waves and Brownian motion, and potentially the zero point field.
Flow performance of highly loaded axial fan with bowed rotor blades
Chen, L.; Liu, X. J.; Yang, A. L.; Dai, R.
2013-12-01
In this paper, a partial bowed rotor blade was proposed for a newly designed high loaded axial fan. The blade was positively bowed 30 degrees from hub to 30 percent spanwise position. Flows of radial blade and bowed blade fans were numerically compared for various operation conditions. Results show that the fan's performance is improved. At the designed condition with flow coefficient of 0.52, the efficiency of the bowed blade fan is increased 1.44% and the static pressure rise is increased 11%. Comparing the flow structures, it can be found that the separated flow in the bowed fan is reduced and confined within 20 percent span, which is less than the 35 percent in the radial fan. It means that the bowed blade generates negative blade force and counteracts partial centrifugal force. It is alleviates the radial movements of boundary layers in fan's hub region. Flow losses due to 3D mixing are reduced in the rotor. Inlet flow to downstream stator is also improved.
Optimization Design and Performance Analysis of a PM Brushless Rotor Claw Pole Motor with FEM
Zhenyang Zhang
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A new type of permanent magnet (PM brushless claw pole motor (CPM with soft magnetic composite (SMC core is designed and analyzed in this paper. The PMs are mounted on the claw pole surface, and the three-phase stator windings are fed by variable-frequency three-phase AC currents. The advantages of the proposed CPM are that the slip rings on the rotor are cast off and it can achieve the efficiency improvement and higher power density. The effects of the claw-pole structure parameters, the air-gap length, and the PM thinner parameter of the proposed CPM on the output torque are investigated by using three-dimensional time-stepping finite element method (3D TS-FEM. The optimal rotor structure of the proposed CPM is obtained by using the response surface methodology (RSM and the particle swarm optimization (PSO method and the comparison of full-load performances of the proposed CPM with different material cores (SMC and silicon steel is analyzed.
Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network
Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.
2013-01-01
The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for
Diagnosis of stator faults in induction motor based on zero sequence voltage after switch-off
无
2008-01-01
To improve the accuracy of the stator winding fault diagnosis in induction motor, a new diagnostic method based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was proposed. The ratio of fundamental zero sequence voltage to positive sequence voltage after switch-offwas selected as the stator fault characteristic, which could effectively avoid the influence of the supply unbalance and the load fluctuation, and directly represent the asymmetry in the stator. Using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) based on HHT, the zero sequence voltage after switch-off was decomposed and the fundamental component was extracted. Then, the fault characteristic can be acquired. Experimental results on a 4-kW induction motor demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.
Study on the Effects of End-bend Cantilevered Stator in a 2-stage Axial Compressor
Songtao WANG; Xin DU; Zhongqi WANG
2009-01-01
Leading edge recambering is applied to the cantilevered stator vanes in a 2-stage compressor in this paper. Dif-ferent curving effects are produced when the end-bend stator vanes are stacked in different ways. Stacking on the leading edge induces a positive curving effect near the casing.When it is stacked on the centre of gravity, a nega-tive curving effect takes place. The numerical investigation shows that the flow field is redistributed when the end-bend stators with leading edge stacking are applied. The variations in the stage matching for the mainstream and near the hub have an impact on the performance of the 2-stage compressor. The isentropic efficiency and the total pressure ratio of the compressor are increased near the design condition. The compressor total pressure ratio is decreased near choke and near stall. The maximum flow rate is reduced and the stall margin is decreased.
M. Zaky
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Recently, speed sensorless control of induction motor drives received great attention to avoid the different problems associated with direct speed sensors. However, low speed operation with robustness against parameter variations remains an area of research for sensorless systems. Stator resistance is of greatest importance for good operation of speed sensorless systems in low speed region. In this paper, a sliding mode current observer for an induction motor is presented. An estimation algorithm based on this observer in conjunction with Popov's hyper-stability theory is proposed to calculate the speed and stator resistance independently. The proposed speed observer with parallel stator resistance identification is firstly verified by simulation. Experimental results are included as well to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed observer and estimation algorithms at low speed.
Study of predicting breakdown voltage of stator insulation in generator based on BP neural network
Jiang Yuao; Zhang Aide; Liu Libing; Du Yu; Gao Naikui; Peng Zongren
2007-01-01
The breakdown voltage plays an important role in evaluating residual life of stator insulation in generator. In this paper, we discussed BP neural network that was used to predict the breakdown voltage of stator insulation in generator of 300 MW/18 kV. At first the neural network has been trained by the samples that include the varieties of dielectric loss factor tanδ, the partial discharge parameters and breakdown voltage. Then we tried to predict the breakdown voltage of samples and stator insulations subjected to multi-stress aging by the trained neural network. We found that it's feasible and accurate to predict the voltage. This method can be applied to predict breakdown voltage of other generators which have the same insulation structure and material.
Control of a Dual-Stator Flux-Modulated Motor for Electric Vehicles
Xinhua Guo
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the control strategies for a novel dual-stator flux-modulated (DSFM motor for application in electric vehicles (EVs. The DSFM motor can be applied to EVs because of its simple winding structure, high reliability, and its use of two stators and rotating modulation steels in the air gap. Moreover, it outperforms conventional brushless doubly-fed machines in terms of control performance. Two stator-current-oriented vector controls with different excitation in the primary winding, direct and alternating current excitation, are designed, simulated, and evaluated on a custom-made DSFM prototype allowing the decoupled control of torque. The stable speed response and available current characteristics strongly validate the feasibility of the two control methods. Furthermore, the proposed control methods can be employed in other applications of flux-modulated motors.
Thrust Reduction of Magnetic Levitation Vehicle Driven by Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor
Wan-Tsun Tseng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The propulsion technology of long stator linear synchronous motors is used to drive high-speed maglev trains. The linear synchronous motor stator is divided into sections placed on guideway. The electric power supplies to stator sections in which the train just passes in change-step mode for long-distance operation. However, a thrust drop will be caused by change-step machinery for driving magnetic vehicle. According to the train speed and vehicle data, the change-step mode has three types of operation, namely premature commutation, simultaneous commutation, and late commutation. Each type of operation has a different thrust drop which can be affected by several parameters such as jerk, running speed, motor section length, and vehicle data. This paper focuses on determining the thrust drop of the change-step mode. The study results of this paper can be used to improve the operation system of high-speed maglev trains.
Open-Phase Fault Tolerance Techniques of Five-Phase Dual-Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Jing Zhao
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Multi-phase motors are gaining more attention due to the advantages of good fault tolerance capability and high power density, etc. By applying dual-rotor technology to multi-phase machines, a five-phase dual-rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor (DRPMSM is researched in this paper to further promote their torque density and fault tolerance capability. It has two rotors and two sets of stator windings, and it can adopt a series drive mode or parallel drive mode. The fault-tolerance capability of the five-phase DRPMSM is researched. All open circuit fault types and corresponding fault tolerance techniques in different drive modes are analyzed. A fault-tolerance control strategy of injecting currents containing a certain third harmonic component is proposed for five-phase DRPMSM to ensure performance after faults in the motor or drive circuit. For adjacent double-phase faults in the motor, based on where the additional degrees of freedom are used, two different fault-tolerance current calculation schemes are adopted and the torque results are compared. Decoupling of the inner motor and outer motor is investigated under fault-tolerant conditions in parallel drive mode. The finite element analysis (FMA results and co-simulation results based on Simulink-Simplorer-Maxwell verify the effectiveness of the techniques.
异步电动机定子铁心3D等效热路模型研究%Research of Asychronous Motor Stator Core 3 D Thermal Circuit Model
田井呈; 邓自清; 王飞宇; 卓克琼; 赵朝会
2016-01-01
According to asynchronous motor stator core asymmetry flux density distribution and material heat conduction characteristic,drawed a eight heat resources 3D thermal circuit model for a 7. 5 kW forced air cooling squirrel-cage rotor asynchronous motor, and then use this model calculated stator core temperature distribution based on motor thermal circuit software motor-CAD. The result agreement well with finite element method. This model have a certain reference value for motor thermal analysis and study.%根据异步电动机定子铁心磁密分布不均匀的情况和铁心材料的导热特点,以一台7. 5 kW强迫风冷异步电动机为例,基于3D热路法绘制了定子铁心的8热源等效热路模型,并利用Motor-CAD电机热路计算软件计算了定子铁心的温度分布. 计算结果与采用有限元法相近,证明了该模型的合理性和可行性,对电机温度场的分析和研究具有一定的参考价值.
Numerical Investigation on the Separated Flow of Axial Flow Stator in Diagonal Flow Fan
Kinoue, Yoichi; Shiomi, Norimasa; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Kenji; Jin, Yingzi
2010-06-01
Experimental and numerical investigations were conducted for the internal flow of the stator of the diagonal flow fan. Corner separation near the hub surface and the suction surface of the stator blade are focused on. At low flow rate of 80% of the design flow rate, the corner separation between the suction surface and the hub surface can be found in both experimental and numerical results. Separation vortices are found in the computed oil flow on both suction and hub surfaces at 80% of the design flow rate in the three-dimensional numerical simulation.
Laser Velocimeter Measurements in the Stator of an Automotive Torque Converter
Steven B. Ainley
2000-01-01
0.065 a strong secondary flow in the inlet from suction surface to pressure surface was seen. However, at the high speed ratio a moderate secondary flow in the inlet from pressure surface to suction surface was observed. Mass flow rates at the different planes are within the experimental uncertainty and also within the uncertainty of pump and turbine mass flow rates. The flow in the stator inlet plane are significantly influenced by the turbine relative blade position. The turbine influence on the mid-plane data is significantly less than on the inlet plane data. The influence of the pump blade position on the stator exit plane is small.
A New-style Permanent-magnet Motor with Double-stator Structure
无
2003-01-01
A new-style direct drive motor with double-stator structure is proposed. The structure and principle of the permanent-magnet (PM) brushless motor are discussed. On the basis of numerical calculation, the cogging torque waveforms of the prototype motor when staggering two stators are analyzed. The method that can reduce torque ripple making use of the structure features of this motor is investigated. The results of numerical calculation and experiment indicate that designing motor with this kind of structure is a good scheme for increasing the power density.
Oumaamar, Mohamed El Kamel; Maouche, Yassine; Boucherma, Mohamed; Khezzar, Abdelmalek
2017-02-01
The mixed eccentricity fault detection in a squirrel cage induction motor has been thoroughly investigated. However, a few papers have been related to pure static eccentricity fault and the authors focused on the RSH harmonics presented in stator current. The main objective of this paper is to present an alternative method based on the analysis of line neutral voltage taking place between the supply and the stator neutrals in order to detect air-gap static eccentricity, and to highlight the classification of all RSH harmonics in line neutral voltage. The model of squirrel cage induction machine relies on the rotor geometry and winding layout. Such developed model is used to analyze the impact of the pure static air-gap eccentricity by predicting the related frequencies in the line neutral voltage spectrum. The results show that the line neutral voltage spectrum are more sensitive to the air-gap static eccentricity fault compared to stator current one. The theoretical analysis and simulated results are confirmed by experiments.
Open Rotor Tone Shielding Methods for System Noise Assessments Using Multiple Databases
Bahr, Christopher J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Van Zante, Dale E.
2014-01-01
Advanced aircraft designs such as the hybrid wing body, in conjunction with open rotor engines, may allow for significant improvements in the environmental impact of aviation. System noise assessments allow for the prediction of the aircraft noise of such designs while they are still in the conceptual phase. Due to significant requirements of computational methods, these predictions still rely on experimental data to account for the interaction of the open rotor tones with the hybrid wing body airframe. Recently, multiple aircraft system noise assessments have been conducted for hybrid wing body designs with open rotor engines. These assessments utilized measured benchmark data from a Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic interaction effects test. The measured data demonstrated airframe shielding of open rotor tonal and broadband noise with legacy F7/A7 open rotor blades. Two methods are proposed for improving the use of these data on general open rotor designs in a system noise assessment. The first, direct difference, is a simple octave band subtraction which does not account for tone distribution within the rotor acoustic signal. The second, tone matching, is a higher-fidelity process incorporating additional physical aspects of the problem, where isolated rotor tones are matched by their directivity to determine tone-by-tone shielding. A case study is conducted with the two methods to assess how well each reproduces the measured data and identify the merits of each. Both methods perform similarly for system level results and successfully approach the experimental data for the case study. The tone matching method provides additional tools for assessing the quality of the match to the data set. Additionally, a potential path to improve the tone matching method is provided.
Performance tests of a Benesh wind turbine rotor and a Savonius rotor
Moutsoglou, A.; Yan Weng [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1995-12-31
A study was conducted to compare the performance of a Benesh rotor against a Savonius rotor as a wind power generating device. Rotors of similar dimensions were tested at the exit of a 1.22 m x 0.91 wind tunnel, at two different shaft heights above the ground. In all the tests, the maximum power coefficient for the Benesh rotor was considerably greater than for the Savonius and occurred at a lower tip speed ratio. The Benesh rotor also displayed better starting characteristics throughout. Finally, the present data compared very favourably with the experimental data of Backwell et al. (Author)
Lu, Bin; Luebke, Charles John; Habetler, Thomas G.; Zhang, Pinjia; Becker, Scott K.
2011-12-27
A system and method for measuring and controlling stator winding temperature in an AC motor while idling is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of a multi-phase AC motor. The circuit further includes a plurality of switching devices to control current flow and terminal voltages in the multi-phase AC motor and a controller connected to the circuit. The controller is configured to activate the plurality of switching devices to create a DC signal in an output of the motor control device corresponding to an input to the multi-phase AC motor, determine or estimate a stator winding resistance of the multi-phase AC motor based on the DC signal, and estimate a stator temperature from the stator winding resistance. Temperature can then be controlled and regulated by DC injection into the stator windings.
程明; 张淦; 花为
2014-01-01
定子永磁型无刷电机是一类永磁体和电枢绕组均位于定子的新型永磁无刷电机，可方便地对永磁体和电枢绕直接冷却以控制其温度，并易于通过“永磁+电励磁”实现对电机气隙磁场的直接控制，从而获得无刷电机的宽范围调速；凸极转子既无永磁体也无绕组，结构简单可靠，适合高速运行；该电机兼具功率密度高、效率高、容错性能好、控制灵活等特点。该文介绍了定子永磁型无刷电机的基本结构与工作原理，总结了它们的共性规律和个性差别，对其分析设计方法、控制策略等关键技术进行综述，讨论了多种磁通调节方案和容错控制策略，分析了该电机系统在电动汽车、飞轮储能、轨道交通等领域应用的可行性和潜力，最后对该电机系统的主要研究方向进行了展望。%As a topology of novel brushless permanent magnet (PM) machines, stator-PM brushless machines having magnets and armature windings in stator (the so-called stator-PM machines), exhibit the merit of convenient heat dissipations. The compact and robust rotor structure also makes stator-PM machines potential candidates for high speed applications. Meantime, the air-gap flux regulations can be realized by hybrid excitations of PMs and field windings, which consequently expands the speed adjustment regions. Overall, the stator-PM machine features the definite advantages of robust structure, high power density and efficiency, high fault-tolerant capability and being applicable of various control strategies. In this paper, a comprehensive and systematical overview on the stator-PM brushless machine systems and their key technologies is conducted, with particular emphasis on machine topologies, operation principles, design and analysis features, and control strategies. Furthermore, the flux-regulation strategies and fault-tolerant control strategies are presented. Some potentials of feasible
Innovative multi rotor wind turbine designs
Kale, S.A.; Sapali, S.N. [College of Engineering. Mechanical Engineering Dept, Pune (India)
2012-07-01
Among the renewable energy sources, today wind energy is the most recognized and cost effective. Developers and researchers in this sector are optimistic and continuously working innovatively to improve the technology. The wind power obtained is proportional to the swept area of wind turbine. The swept area is increased by using a single rotor of large diameter or multi rotors in array. The rotor size is growing continuously with mature technology. Multi rotor technology has a long history and the multi rotor concept persists in a variety of modern innovative systems but the concept has fallen out of consideration in mainstream design from the perception that is complex and unnecessary as very large single rotor units are now technically feasible. This work addresses the evaluation of different multi rotor wind turbine systems. These innovative wind turbines are evaluated on the basis of feasibility, technological advantages, security of expected power performance, cost, reliability, impact of innovative system, comparison with existing wind turbine design. The findings of this work will provide guidelines for the practical and economical ways for further research on the multi rotor wind turbines. (Author)
Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories
van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.
2015-01-01
This paper is the first of two papers on the history of rotor aerodynamics with special emphasis on the role of Joukowsky. The present one focuses on the development of the momentum theory while the second one surveys the development of vortex theory for rotors. Joukowsky has played a major role ...
Pneumatic boot for helicopter rotor deicing
Blaha, B. J.; Evanich, P. L.
1981-01-01
Pneumatic deicer boots for helicopter rotor blades were tested. The tests were conducted in the 6 by 9 ft icing research tunnel on a stationary section of a UH-IH helicopter main rotor blade. The boots were effective in removing ice and in reducing aerodynamic drag due to ice.
Open Rotor - Analysis of Diagnostic Data
Envia, Edmane
2011-01-01
NASA is researching open rotor propulsion as part of its technology research and development plan for addressing the subsonic transport aircraft noise, emission and fuel burn goals. The low-speed wind tunnel test for investigating the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a benchmark blade set at the approach and takeoff conditions has recently concluded. A high-speed wind tunnel diagnostic test campaign has begun to investigate the performance of this benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Databases from both speed regimes will comprise a comprehensive collection of benchmark open rotor data for use in assessing/validating aerodynamic and noise prediction tools (component & system level) as well as providing insights into the physics of open rotors to help guide the development of quieter open rotors.
Rotors stress analysis and design
Vullo, Vincenzo
2013-01-01
Stress and strain analysis of rotors subjected to surface and body loads, as well as to thermal loads deriving from temperature variation along the radius, constitutes a classic subject of machine design. Nevertheless attention is limited to rotor profiles for which governing equations are solvable in closed form. Furthermore very few actual engineering issues may relate to structures for which stress and strain analysis in the linear elastic field and, even more, under non-linear conditions (i.e. plastic or viscoelastic conditions) produces equations to be solved in closed form. Moreover, when a product is still in its design stage, an analytical formulation with closed-form solution is of course simpler and more versatile than numerical methods, and it allows to quickly define a general configuration, which may then be fine-tuned using such numerical methods. In this view, all subjects are based on analytical-methodological approach, and some new solutions in closed form are presented. The analytical formul...
Simulation of Lightning Overvoltage Distribution on Stator Windings of Wind Turbine Generators
LIU Rong; LIU Xue-zhong; WANG Ying; LI Dan-dan
2011-01-01
This paper analyzes lightning surge on the stator windings of wind turbine generators. The path of lightning in the wind turbines was analyzed. An equivalent circuit model for megawatt direct-driven wind turbine system was developed, in which high-frequency distributed parameters of the blade conducts, tower, power cables and stator windings of generator were calculated based on finite element method, and the models of converter, grounding, loads, surge protection devices and power grid were established. The voltage distribution along stator windings, when struck by lightning with 10/350 ~ts wave form and different amplitude current between 50 kA and 200 kA, was simulated u- sing electro-magnetic transient analysis method. The simulated results show that the highest coil-to-core voltage peak appears on the last coil or near the neutral of stator windings, and the voltage distribution along the windings is non- uniform initially. The voltage drops of each coil fall from first to last coil, and the highest voltage drop appears on the first coil. The insulation damage may occur on the windings under lightning overvoltage. The surge arresters can re- strain the lightning surge in effect and protect the insulation. The coil-to-core voltage in the end of windings is nearly 19.5 kV under the 200 kA lightning current without surge arresters on the terminal of generator, but is only 2.7 kV with arresters.
Detection of Stator Winding Fault in Induction Motor Using Fuzzy Logic with Optimal Rules
Hamid Fekri Azgomi
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Induction motors are critical components in many industrial processes. Therefore, swift, precise and reliable monitoring and fault detection systems are required to prevent any further damages. The online monitoring of induction motors has been becoming increasingly important. The main difficulty in this task is the lack of an accurate analytical model to describe a faulty motor. A fuzzy logic approach may help to diagnose traction motor faults. This paper presents a simple method for the detection of stator winding faults (which make up 38% of induction motor failures based on monitoring the line/terminal current amplitudes. In this method, fuzzy logic is used to make decisions about the stator motor condition. In fact, fuzzy logic is reminiscent of human thinking processes and natural language enabling decisions to be made based on vague information. The motor condition is described using linguistic variables. Fuzzy subsets and the corresponding membership functions describe stator current amplitudes. A knowledge base, comprising rule and data bases, is built to support the fuzzy inference. Simulation results are presented to verify the accuracy of motor’s fault detection and knowledge extraction feasibility. The preliminary results show that the proposed fuzzy approach can be used for accurate stator fault diagnosis.
Sun, Dongming; Wang, Sheng; Sakurai, Junpei; Choi, Kee-Bong; Shimokohbe, Akira; Hata, Seiichi
2010-04-01
A piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor is proposed, with a cylindrical stator and slider structure. The length and diameter of the motor are about 10 and 1.5 mm, respectively. The stator consists of two piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) tubes connected by a thin film metallic glass (TFMG) pipe. The stator is designed based on theoretical analyses and finite element method (FEM) simulation. The traveling wave propagation is obtained in the FEM simulation under the proper geometrical sizes, suitable boundary conditions and driving voltage signals. The trajectories of particles on the TFMG pipe are elliptical motion. In the experiment, a 25 µm thick TFMG pipe is fabricated using the rotating magnetron sputtering technique and the vibration characteristics of the stator are measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) system. Bidirectional motion of the slider is observed around 600 kHz, the maximum velocity is near to 40 mm s - 1 at 50 Vp-p for the loose slider and the maximum output force is 6 mN at 70 Vp-p for the tight slider.
Novel modeling technique for the stator of traveling wave ultrasonic motors.
Pons, José L; Rodríguez, Humberto; Ceres, Ramón; Calderón, Leopoldo
2003-11-01
Traveling wave ultrasonic motors (TWUM) are a promising type of piezoelectric transducers, which are based on the friction transmission of mechanical propagating waves. These waves are excited on the stator by using high Q piezoelectric ceramics. This article presents a modeling strategy, which allows for a quick and precise modal and forced analysis of the stator of TWUM. First-order shear deformation laminated plate theory is applied to annular subdomains (super-elements) of the stator. In addition to shear deformations, the model takes into account the effect of rotary inertia, the stiffness contribution of the teeth, and the linear varying thickness of the stator. Moreover, the formulation considers a more realistic function for the electric field inside the piezoelectric ceramic, i.e., a linear function, instead of the generally assumed constant electric field. The Ritz method is used to find an approximated solution for the dynamic equations. Finally, the modal response is obtained and compared against the results from classical simplified models and the finite element method. Thus, the high accuracy and short computation times of the novel strategy were demonstrated.
Estimation of Stator Winding Faults in Induction Motors using an Adaptive Observer Scheme
Kallesøe, C. S.; Vadstrup, P.; Rasmussen, Henrik
2004-01-01
This paper addresses the subject of inter-turn short circuit estimation in the stator of an induction motor. In the paper an adaptive observer scheme is proposed. The proposed observer is capable of simultaneously estimating the speed of the motor, the amount turns involved in the short circuit a...
Modeling of a Switched Reluctance Motor under Stator Winding Fault Condition
Chen, Hao; Han, G.; Yan, Wei
2016-01-01
A new method for modeling stator winding fault with one shorted coil in a switched reluctance motor (SRM) is presented in this paper. The method is based on artificial neural network (ANN), incorporated with a simple analytical model in electromagnetic analysis to estimate the flux...
3D FEM simulations of the rolling of stator vanes, including tool deformation
Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, J.
2002-01-01
Tool deformation is an important issue in the shape rolling of stator vanes as it directly influences the thickness of the rolled vane. This means that for the design of an accurate production process the deformation of the tools has to be accounted for. The shape rolling of symmetrical straight van
Calculation and analysis of generator limiting regimes with respect to stator end core heating
Kostić Miloje
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new simplified procedure for defining the limiting operating regimes on the generator capability curve, with respect to stator end core heating, is proposed and described in this paper. First of all, a simplified analysis of axial flux leakage that penetrates into the end plates of the stator is carried out and the corresponding power losses are calculated. Then the analysis of measured point temperature increases over the stator end core, and a qualitative and quantitative overview of the effects, are presented. A simplified procedure for defining the limiting regime with regard to the heating stator end core, which is illustrated for the case of an operating diagram for a given generator of apparent power of 727 MVA (B2 is also described. The given limiting line constructed using this method is similar to the appropriate line constructed on the basis of complex and lengthy factory and on-site tests performed by the manufacturer and the user. According to the results and the check, the proposed method has been proved and the application of the simplified procedure can be recommended for use along with other procedures, at least when it comes to similar synchronous generators in Serbia's Electric Power Industry.
The effect of blade pitch in the rotor hydrodynamics of a cross-flow turbine
Somoano, Miguel; Huera-Huarte, Francisco
2016-11-01
In this work we will show how the hydrodynamics of the rotor of a straight-bladed Cross-Flow Turbine (CFT) are affected by the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR), and the blade pitch angle imposed to the rotor. The CFT model used in experiments consists of a three-bladed (NACA-0015) vertical axis turbine with a chord (c) to rotor diameter (D) ratio of 0.16. Planar Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) was used, with the laser sheet aiming at the mid-span of the blades, illuminating the inner part of the rotor and the near wake of the turbine. Tests were made by forcing the rotation of the turbine with a DC motor, which provided precise control of the TSR, while being towed in a still-water tank at a constant Reynolds number of 61000. A range of TSRs from 0.7 to 2.3 were covered for different blade pitches, ranging from 8° toe-in to 16° toe-out. The interaction between the blades in the rotor will be discussed by examining dimensionless phase-averaged vorticity fields in the inner part of the rotor and mean velocity fields in the near wake of the turbine. Supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, Grant BES-2013-065366 and project DPI2015-71645-P.
Characterization of component interactions in two-stage axial turbine
Adel Ghenaiet
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This study concerns the characterization of both the steady and unsteady flows and the analysis of stator/rotor interactions of a two-stage axial turbine. The predicted aerodynamic performances show noticeable differences when simulating the turbine stages simultaneously or separately. By considering the multi-blade per row and the scaling technique, the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD produced better results concerning the effect of pitchwise positions between vanes and blades. The recorded pressure fluctuations exhibit a high unsteadiness characterized by a space–time periodicity described by a double Fourier decomposition. The Fast Fourier Transform FFT analysis of the static pressure fluctuations recorded at different interfaces reveals the existence of principal harmonics and their multiples, and each lobed structure of pressure wave corresponds to the number of vane/blade count. The potential effect is seen to propagate both upstream and downstream of each blade row and becomes accentuated at low mass flow rates. Between vanes and blades, the potential effect is seen to dominate the quasi totality of blade span, while downstream the blades this effect seems to dominate from hub to mid span. Near the shroud the prevailing effect is rather linked to the blade tip flow structure.
Characterization of component interactions in two-stage axial turbine
Adel Ghenaiet; Kaddour Touil
2016-01-01
This study concerns the characterization of both the steady and unsteady flows and the analysis of stator/rotor interactions of a two-stage axial turbine. The predicted aerodynamic perfor-mances show noticeable differences when simulating the turbine stages simultaneously or sepa-rately. By considering the multi-blade per row and the scaling technique, the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produced better results concerning the effect of pitchwise positions between vanes and blades. The recorded pressure fluctuations exhibit a high unsteadiness characterized by a space–time periodicity described by a double Fourier decomposition. The Fast Fourier Transform FFT analysis of the static pressure fluctuations recorded at different interfaces reveals the existence of principal harmonics and their multiples, and each lobed structure of pressure wave corresponds to the number of vane/blade count. The potential effect is seen to propagate both upstream and downstream of each blade row and becomes accentuated at low mass flow rates. Between vanes and blades, the potential effect is seen to dominate the quasi totality of blade span, while down-stream the blades this effect seems to dominate from hub to mid span. Near the shroud the prevail-ing effect is rather linked to the blade tip flow structure.
Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Munoz Quezada, Rodolfo; Franco Nava, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1993-01-01
At the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), the experimental modal tests were initiated in order to validate the numerical models used by computer programs for the study of the rotor dynamic behavior. In order to contribute to the application of the rotor balancing methods based in the calculation of their modal forms, currently the capacity to determine these modal forms and the natural frequencies of turbogenerator rotors, is being developed, through experimental modal tests. In this paper a short description is made of the technique and the results of its application in an experimental rotor and in one of the rotors of a turbogenerator, are presented. [Espanol] En el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), las pruebas modales experimentales se iniciaron con la finalidad de validar los modelos numericos empleados por programas de computo para el estudio del comportamiento dinamico de rotores. Con objeto de contribuir a la aplicacion de los metodos de balanceo de rotores basados en el calculo de sus formas modales, actualmente esta desarrollandose la capacidad para determinar esas formas modales y las frecuencias naturales de rotores de turbogeneradores, a traves de las pruebas modales experimentales. En este trabajo se describe brevemente la tecnica y se presentan los resultados de su aplicacion en un rotor experimental y en uno de los tres rotores de un turbogenerador.
Naderi, Peyman
2016-09-01
The inter-turn short fault for the Cage-Rotor-Induction-Machine (CRIM) is studied in this paper and its local saturation is taken into account. However, in order to observe the exact behavior of machine, the Magnetic-Equivalent-Circuit (MEC) and nonlinear B-H curve are proposed to provide an insight into the machine model and saturation effect respectively. The electrical machines are generally operated near to their saturation zone due to some design necessities. Hence, when the machine is exposed to a fault such as short circuit or eccentricities, it is operated within its saturation zone and thus, time and space harmonics are integrated and as a result, current and torque harmonics are generated which the phenomenon cannot be explored when saturation is dismissed. Nonetheless, inter-turn short circuit may lead to local saturation and this occurrence is studied in this paper using MEC model. In order to achieve the mentioned objectives, two and also four-pole machines are modeled as two samples and the machines performances are analyzed in healthy and faulty cases with and without saturation effect. A novel strategy is proposed to precisely detect inter-turn short circuit fault according to the stator׳s lines current signatures and the accuracy of the proposed method is verified by experimental results.
Yumeng Li
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM, which contains dual rotors and a single stator, equivalent to two five-phase motors working together. Thus, this kind of motor has the potential of good fault tolerant capability and high torque density, which makes it appropriate for use in electric vehicles. In view of the different connection types, the inside and outside stator windings can be driven in series or parallel, which results in the different performances of the magnetomotive force (MMF and torque under open-circuit fault conditions. By decomposing the MMF, the reason that torque ripple increases after open-circuit faults is explained, and the relationship between MMF and torque is revealed. Then, the current control strategy is applied to adjust the open-circuit faults, and the electromagnetic analysis and MMF harmonics analysis are performed to interpret the phenomenon that the torque ripple is still larger than in the normal situation. The investigations are verified by finite element analysis results.
BELMADANI, B.
2009-06-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes the design and implementation of a novel direct torque controlled induction machine drive system. The control system enjoys the advantages of stator vector control and conventional direct torque control and avoids some of the implementation difficulties of either of the two control methods. The stator vector control principal is used to keep constant the amplitude of stator flux vector at rated value, and to develop the relationship between the machine torque and the rotating speed of the stator flux vector. Thus, the machine torque can be regulated to generate the stator angular speed, which becomes a command signal and permits to overcome the problem of its estimation. Furthermore, with the combined control methods, the reference stator voltage vector can be generated and proportional-integral controllers and space vector modulation technique can be used to obtain fixed switching frequency and low torque ripple. Simulation experiments results indicate that, with the proposed scheme, a precise control of the stator flux and machine torque can be achieved. Compared to conventional direct torque control, presented method is easily implemented, and the steady performances of ripples of both torque and flux are considerably improved.
李俊卿; 戴斌
2016-01-01
针对电网电压不平衡且同时含有5次、7次谐波的复杂电网环境对双馈风力发电机组( DFIG)定子输出功率的不良影响,在两相静止α、β坐标系中对DFIG适应复杂电网环境的定子输出有功和无功功率波动抑制控制策略进行了研究. 分析了复杂电网环境下DFIG在两相静止α、β坐标系中的定子输出有功、无功功率波动成分,计算出能抑制DFIG定子输出有功、无功功率中2倍频和6倍频波动成分的转子电流参考指令. 通过MATLAB/Simulink仿真验证了所提控制策略的有效性.%At the view of the harmful effects on DFIG stator output power caused by unbalanced grid voltage which also contains fifth order harmonic and seventh order harmonic, the DFIG stator output active and reactive power fluctuation suppressing control strategy was studied in the α、β reference frame. The rotor current reference instructions that suppressed the 2-doubling and 6-doubling fluctuant components of DFIG stator output active and reactive power was calculated in the α、β reference frame based on analysis of DFIG stator output active and reactive power fluctuant components. The effectiveness of the control strategy proposed was proved through MATLAB/Simulink simulation.
14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...
14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...
14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...
Wind rotor with vertical axis. Vindrotor med vertikal axel
Colling, J.; Sjoenell, B.
1987-06-15
This rotor is of dual type i.e. a paddle wheel shaped rotor close to the vertical axis and a second rotor consisting of vertical blades with wing profile and attached to radial spokes which are fixed to the axis together with the paddle wheel rotor. (L.F.).
On the torque mechanism of Savonius rotors
Fujisawa, N. (Dept. of Mechanical Univ., Kiryu (Japan))
1992-07-01
The aerodynamic performance and the flow fields of Savonius rotors at various overlap ratios have been investigated by measuring the pressure distributions on the blades and by visualizing the flow fields in and around the rotors with and without rotation. Experiments have been performed on four rotors having two semicircular blades but with different overlap ratios ranging 0 to 0.5. The static torque performance is improved by increasing the overlap ratio especially on the returning blade, which is due to the pressure recovery effect by the flow through the overlap. On the other hand, the torque and the power performance of the rotating rotor reaches a maximum at an overlap of 0.15. This effect is largely created by the Coanda-like flow on the convex side of the advancing blade, which is strengthened by the flow through the overlap at this small overlap ratio. However, this phenomena is weakened as the overlap ratio is further increased, suggesting a deteriorated performance of the rotor. Observations of the flow inside the rotor indicate an increased recirculation region at such large overlap ratios, which also suggests a reduced aerodynamic efficiency for rotors with large overlap. 11 figs., 16 refs.
L. Vergara
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Se presenta el desarrollo de un programa computacional para simular y determinar las características dinámicas de rotores. Estos juegan un rol importante tanto en el diseño, como en la producción, la operación y el mantenimiento de maquinaria rotativa. El modelado y análisis de una maquinaria con componentes rotativos requieren la determinación de las características dinámicas del sistema, representadas por frecuencias naturales, modos de vibración, velocidades críticas y respuesta armónica del sistema. El modelo es analizado de manera automática con la ayuda de un programa comercial de elementos finitos, y los resultados son tomados y presentados al usuario de forma conveniente. Con el fin de validar el programa, se comparan sus resultados con los obtenidos experimentalmente y con otros disponibles en la literatura.A computer program to simulate and to determine the dynamic characteristics of rotors is presented. These characteristics play an important role in the design, production, operation and maintenance of rotating machinery. The modeling and analysis of machinery with rotating components require the determination of the dynamic characteristics of the system, represented by natural frequencies, vibration modes, critical speeds and harmonic response of the system. The model is analyzed in an automatic way, with the help of a commercial program of finite elements, and the results are taken and presented to the user in a convenient way. To validate the program, the results are compared with those obtained experimentally and with others reported in the literature.
Wang, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe
2014-01-01
Incipient stator winding fault in permanent magnet synchronous wind generators (PMSWGs) is very difficult to be detected as the fault generated variations in terminal electrical parameters are very weak and chaotic. This paper simulates the incipient stator winding faults at different degree...... of insulation degradation of one turn in the winding of a PMSWG. Cosimulation method by combining finite element model and external circuits is used. Hilbert–Huang transformation is applied to detect the very early stage fault in interturn insulation by analyzing the stator current. Detection results show...
Discrete analog computing with rotor-routers.
Propp, James
2010-09-01
Rotor-routing is a procedure for routing tokens through a network that can implement certain kinds of computation. These computations are inherently asynchronous (the order in which tokens are routed makes no difference) and distributed (information is spread throughout the system). It is also possible to efficiently check that a computation has been carried out correctly in less time than the computation itself required, provided one has a certificate that can itself be computed by the rotor-router network. Rotor-router networks can be viewed as both discrete analogs of continuous linear systems and deterministic analogs of stochastic processes.
Cyclic Control Optimization for a Smart Rotor
Bergami, Leonardo; Henriksen, Lars Christian
2012-01-01
The paper presents a method to determine cyclic control trajectories for a smart rotor undergoing periodic-deterministic load variations. The control trajectories result from a constrained optimization problem, where the cost function to minimize is given by the variation of the blade root flapwise...... bending moment within a rotor revolution. The method is applied to a rotor equipped with trailing edge flaps, and capable of individual blade pitching. Results show that the optimized cyclic control significantly alleviates the load variations from periodic disturbances; the combination of both cyclic...
Multiple piece turbine rotor blade
Kimmel, Keith D.; Plank, William L.
2016-07-19
A spar and shell turbine rotor blade with a spar and a tip cap formed as a single piece, the spar includes a bottom end with dovetail or fir tree slots that engage with slots on a top end of a root section, and a platform includes an opening on a top surface for insertion of the spar in which a shell made from an exotic high temperature resistant material is secured between the tip cap and the platform. The spar is tapered to form thinner walls at the tip end to further reduce the weight and therefore a pulling force due to blade rotation. The spar and tip cap piece is made from a NiAL material to further reduce the weight and the pulling force.
Study on wave rotor refrigerators
Yuqiang DAI; Dapeng HU; Meixia DING
2009-01-01
As a novel generation of a rotational gas wave machine, the wave rotor refrigerator (WRR) is an unsteady flow device used for refrigeration, in whose passages pressured streams directly contact and exchange energy due to the movement of pressure waves. In this paper, the working mechanism and refrigeration principle are inves-tigated based on the one-dimensional unsteady flow theory.A basic limitation on main structural parameters and operating parameters is deduced and the wave diagram of WRR to guide designing is sketched. The main influential factors are studied through an experiment. In the DUT Gas Wave Refrigeration Studying and Development Center (GWRSDC) lab, the isentropic efficiency can now reach about 65%. The results show that the WRR is a feasible and promising technology in pressured gas refrigeration cases.
Predesign study for a modern 4-bladed rotor for the NASA rotor systems research aircraft
Bishop, H. E.; Burkam, J. E.; Heminway, R. C.; Keys, C. N.; Smith, K. E.; Smith, J. H.; Staley, J. A.
1981-01-01
Trade-off study results and the rationale for the final selection of an existing modern four-bladed rotor system that can be adapted for installation on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) are reported. The results of the detailed integration studies, parameter change studies, and instrumentation studies and the recommended plan for development and qualification of the rotor system is also given. Its parameter variants, integration on the RSRA, and support of ground and flight test programs are also discussed.
Epoxy Adhesives for Stator Magnet Assembly in Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRG)
Cater, George M.
2004-01-01
As NASA seeks to fulfill its goals of exploration and understanding through missions planned to visit the moons of Saturn and beyond, a number of challenges arise from the idea of deep space flight. One of the first problems associated with deep space travel is electrical power production for systems on the spacecraft. Conventional methods such as solar power are not practical because efficiency decreases substantially as the craft moves away from the Sun. The criterion for power generation during deep space missions are very specific, the main points requiring high reliability, low mass, minimal vibration and a long lifespan. A Stirling generator, although fairly old in concept, is considered to be a potential solution for electrical power generation for deep space flight. A Stirling generator works on the same electromagnetic principles of a standard generator, using the linear motion of the alternator through the stationary stator which produces electric induction. The motion of the alternator, however, is produced by the heating and cooling dynamics of pressurized gases. Essentially heating one end and cooling another of a contained gas will cause a periodic expansion and compression of the gas from one side to the other, which a displacer translates into linear mechanical motion. NASA needs to confirm that the materials used in the generator will be able to withstand the rigors of space and the life expectancy of the mission. I am working on the verification of the epoxy adhesives used to bond magnets to the steel lamination stack to complete the stator; in terms of in-service performance and durability under various space environments. Understanding the proper curing conditions, high temperature properties, and degassing problems as well as production difficulties are crucial to the long term success of the generator. system and steel substrate used in the stator. To optimize the curing conditions of the epoxies, modulated differential scanning calorimetry
The Savonius rotor. A construction guide. 11. ed.; Der Savonius-Rotor. Eine Bauanleitung
Schulz, Heinz
2009-07-01
The Savonius rotor is particularly suited for medium and low wind velocities and low capacities (up to 500 W). It can be constructed of commercial components and using simple techniques. It requires little wind to start, and the useful energy is transmitted via a shaft. In this lavishly illustrated book, the author describes the construction and operation of a robust Savonius rotor. He also shows how this rotor can be developed into a flow-through rotor for bigger plants, and he presents recommendations for appropriate machinery like pumps and slow generators.